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Sample records for mild stress-induced depressive-like

  1. A novel isoquinoline compound abolishes chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Pesarico, Ana Paula; Sartori, Gláubia; Brüning, César A; Mantovani, Anderson C; Duarte, Thiago; Zeni, Gilson; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2016-07-01

    Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) elicits aspects of cognitive and behavioral alterations that can be used to model comparable aspects of depression in humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidepressant-like potential of 7-fluoro-1,3-diphenylisoquinoline-1-amine (FDPI), a novel isoquinoline compound, in CUMS, a model that meets face, construct and predictive criteria for validity. Swiss mice were subjected to different stress paradigms daily for a period of 35 days to induce the depressive-like behavior. The animals received concomitant FDPI (0.1 and 1mg/kg, intragastric) or paroxetine (8mg/kg, intraperitoneal) and CUMS. The behavioral tests (splash test, tail suspension test, modified forced swimming test and locomotor activity) were performed. The levels of cytokines, corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) hormones were determined in the mouse prefrontal cortex and serum. The synaptosomal [(3)H] serotonin (5-HT) uptake, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, tyrosine kinase receptor (TrkB) and pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were determined in the mouse prefrontal cortex. CUMS induced a depressive-like behavior in mice, which was demonstrated in the modified forced swimming, tail suspension and splash tests. FDPI at both doses prevented depressive-like behavior induced by CUMS, without altering the locomotor activity of mice. FDPI at the highest dose prevented the increase in the levels of NF-kB, pro-inflammatory cytokines, corticosterone and ACTH and modulated [(3)H]5-HT uptake and the proBDNF/TrkB signaling pathway altered by CUMS. The present findings demonstrated that FDPI elicited an antidepressant-like effect in a model of stress-induced depression. PMID:27036647

  2. Prenatal chronic mild stress induces depression-like behavior and sex-specific changes in regional glutamate receptor expression patterns in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Ma, Y; Hu, J; Cheng, W; Jiang, H; Zhang, X; Li, M; Ren, J; Li, X

    2015-08-20

    Chronic stress during critical periods of human fetal brain development is associated with cognitive, behavioral, and mood disorders in later life. Altered glutamate receptor (GluR) expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of stress-dependent disorders. To test whether prenatal chronic mild stress (PCMS) enhances offspring's vulnerability to stress-induced behavioral and neurobiological abnormalities and if this enhanced vulnerability is sex-dependent, we measured depression-like behavior in the forced swimming test (FST) and regional changes in GluR subunit expression in PCMS-exposed adult male and female rats. Both male and female PCMS-exposed rats exhibited stronger depression-like behavior than controls. Males and females exhibited unique regional changes in GluR expression in response to PCMS alone, FST alone (CON-FST), and PCMS with FST (PCMS-FST). In females, PCMS alone did not alter N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) or metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) expression, while in PCMS males, higher mGluR2/3, mGluR5, and NR1 expression levels were observed in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, PCMS altered the change in GluR expression induced by acute stress (the FST test), and this too was sex-specific. Male PCMS-FST rats expressed significantly lower mGluR5 levels in the hippocampus, lower mGluR5, NR1, postsynaptic density protein (PSD)95, and higher mGluR2/3 in the prefrontal cortex, and higher mGluR5 and PSD95 in the amygdala than male CON-FST rats. Female PCMS-FST rats expressed lower NR1 in the hippocampus, lower NR2B and PSD95 in the prefrontal cortex, lower mGluR2/3 in the amygdala, and higher PSD95 in the amygdala than female CON-FST rats. PCMS may increase the offspring's vulnerability to depression by altering sex-specific stress-induced changes in glutamatergic signaling. PMID:26071959

  3. Not only serotonergic system, but also dopaminergic system involved in albiflorin against chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Jingjing; Hou, Xintong; Hu, Xinyu; Lu, Chengyu; Liu, Chungang; Wang, Juan; Liu, Wei; Teng, Lirong; Wang, Di

    2015-12-01

    Albiflorin (AF), separated from the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, possesses neuro-protective and anti-inflammatory activities. Based on previous results, our present research aims to investigate the antidepressant-like activity of AF in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced rat model of depression. Eight weeks of CUMS process successfully established depression-like rat model, as evidenced by the enhanced immobility time in forced swimming test and the reduced sucrose preference, which were reversed to near normal by AF (20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (3 mg/kg; positive drug) treated. Compared to non-treated depression-like rats, the increased levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HTAA) in serum and hypothalamus, and the reduced expressions of 5-HT1A receptor and 5-HT2A receptor in hypothalamus were observed after AF and fluoxetine oral administration indicating that AF-mediated antidepressant-like effect may be related to the normalization of serotonergic system. Additionally, four-week AF treated rats significantly showed improvement in the reduced dopamine and noradrenalin concentration in serum and hypothalamus as observed on depression-like rats. Altered levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine D2 receptor and dopamine transporter in hypothalamus reverted to the normal level after treatment with both AF and fluoxetine. All these data demonstrate that not only serotonergic system, but also dopaminergic system is involved in AF-mediated antidepressant-like effect in CUMS-induced rat model of depression. PMID:26475043

  4. Cytisine, a Partial Agonist of α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, Reduced Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Depression-Like Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jing; Wang, Dong-sheng; Liu, Shui-bing; Zhao, Ming-gao

    2016-01-01

    Cytisine (CYT), a partial agonist of α4β2-nicotinic receptors, has been used for antidepressant efficacy in several tests. Nicotinic receptors have been shown to be closely associated with depression. However, little is known about the effects of CYT on the depression. In the present study, a mouse model of depression, the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS), was used to evaluate the activities of CYT. UCMS caused significant depression-like behaviors, as shown by the decrease of total distances in open field test, and the prolonged duration of immobility in tail suspension test and forced swimming test. Treatment with CYT for two weeks notably relieved the depression-like behaviors in the UCMS mice. Next, proteins related to depressive disorder in the brain region of hippocampus and amygdala were analyzed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of CYT. CYT significantly reversed the decreases of 5-HT1A, BDNF, and mTOR levels in the hippocampus and amygdala. These results imply that CYT may act as a potential anti-depressant in the animals under chronic stress. PMID:27098858

  5. Cytisine, a Partial Agonist of α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, Reduced Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Depression-Like Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Liu, Shui-Bing; Zhao, Ming-Gao

    2016-05-01

    Cytisine (CYT), a partial agonist of α4β2-nicotinic receptors, has been used for antidepressant efficacy in several tests. Nicotinic receptors have been shown to be closely associated with depression. However, little is known about the effects of CYT on the depression. In the present study, a mouse model of depression, the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS), was used to evaluate the activities of CYT. UCMS caused significant depression-like behaviors, as shown by the decrease of total distances in open field test, and the prolonged duration of immobility in tail suspension test and forced swimming test. Treatment with CYT for two weeks notably relieved the depression-like behaviors in the UCMS mice. Next, proteins related to depressive disorder in the brain region of hippocampus and amygdala were analyzed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of CYT. CYT significantly reversed the decreases of 5-HT1A, BDNF, and mTOR levels in the hippocampus and amygdala. These results imply that CYT may act as a potential anti-depressant in the animals under chronic stress. PMID:27098858

  6. Incoordination among Subcellular Compartments Is Associated with Depression-Like Behavior Induced by Chronic Mild Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Aiping; Cui, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Major depressive disorder is characterized as persistent low mood. A chronically stressful life in genetically susceptible individuals is presumably the major etiology that leads to dysfunctions of monoamine and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. These pathogenic factors cause neuron atrophy in the limbic system for major depressive disorder. Cell-specific pathophysiology is unclear, so we investigated prelimbic cortical GABAergic neurons and their interaction with glutamatergic neurons in depression-like mice. Methods: Mice were treated with chronic unpredictable mild stress for 3 weeks until they expressed depression-like behaviors confirmed by sucrose preference, Y-maze, and forced swimming tests. The structures and functions of GABAergic and glutamatergic units in prelimbic cortices were studied by cell imaging and electrophysiology in chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression mice vs controls. Results: In depression-like mice, prelimbic cortical GABAergic neurons show incoordination among the subcellular compartments, such as decreased excitability and synaptic outputs as well as increased reception from excitatory inputs. GABAergic synapses on glutamatergic cells demonstrate decreased presynaptic innervation and increased postsynaptic responsiveness. Conclusions: Chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced incoordination in prelimbic cortical GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons dysregulates their target neurons, which may be the pathological basis for depressive mood. The rebalance of compatibility among subcellular compartments would be an ideal strategy to treat neural disorders. PMID:26506857

  7. Liquiritigenin reverses depression-like behavior in unpredictable chronic mild stress-induced mice by regulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR mediated BDNF/TrkB pathway.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weiwei; Dong, Yu; Su, Qiang; Wang, Hanqing; Chen, Yanyan; Xue, Wenda; Chen, Chang; Xia, Baomei; Duan, Jinao; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-15

    Major depression is a common long-lasting or recurrent psychiatric disease with high lifetime prevalence and high incidence of suicide. The main purpose of the current study was to verify whether liquiritigenin conferred an antidepressant-like effect on the depressive mouse model established by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) and explore its possible mechanism. The results of depression-related behaviors including sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test (OFT), forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) indicated that both liquiritigenin (7.5mg/kg, 15mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20mg/kg) dramatically improved the depression symptoms. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that treatment with liquiritigenin significantly reduced the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in serum and hippocampus. Compared with the UCMS group, the administrations of liquiritigenin, increased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and decreased Malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Meanwhile, glucocorticoids (GC) content was reduced in the liquiritigenin group, which suggested that liquiritigenin exhibiting the ameliorative effect on activated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stimulated with UCMS. Mice treated with liquiritigenin showed restored levels of neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT). Western blot analysis displayed up-regulated expressions of p-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), p-Akt, p- mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p-tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, it was supposed that liquiritigenin might be useful for the treatment of chronic depression possibly through PI3K/Akt/mTOR mediated BDNF/TrkB pathway. PMID:27113683

  8. The antidepressant roles of Wnt2 and Wnt3 in stress-induced depression-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, W-J; Xu, N; Kong, L; Sun, S-C; Xu, X-F; Jia, M-Z; Wang, Y; Chen, Z-Y

    2016-01-01

    Wnts-related signaling pathways have been reported to play roles in the pathogenesis of stress-induced depression-like behaviors. However, there is relatively few direct evidence to indicate the effect of Wnt ligands on this process. Here, we investigated the role of Wnts in mediating chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced depression-like behaviors. We found that CRS induced a significant decrease in the expression of Wnt2 and Wnt3 in the ventral hippocampus (VH) but not in the dorsal hippocampus. Knocking down Wnt2 or Wnt3 in the VH led to impaired Wnt/β-catenin signaling, neurogenesis deficits and depression-like behaviors. In contrast, overexpression of Wnt2 or Wnt3 reversed CRS-induced depression-like behaviors. Moreover, Wnt2 and Wnt3 activated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and there was CREB-dependent positive feedback between Wnt2 and Wnt3. Finally, fluoxetine treatment increased Wnt2 and Wnt3 levels in the VH and knocking down Wnt2 or Wnt3 abolished the antidepressant effect of fluoxetine. Taken together, our study indicates essential roles for Wnt2 and Wnt3 in CRS-induced depression-like behaviors and antidepressant. PMID:27622936

  9. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xixia; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  10. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  11. Repeated fluvoxamine treatment recovers juvenile stress-induced morphological changes and depressive-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Lyttle, Kerise; Ohmura, Yu; Konno, Kohtarou; Yoshida, Takayuki; Izumi, Takeshi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Human studies have suggested that early life stress such as child abuse could enhance susceptibility to depressive disorders. Moreover, the abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex have been associated with depression. Although clinical studies have implied the negative effects of early life stress on brain development, the causality and the detailed morphogenetic changes has not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we determined the effect of juvenile stress exposure on the presentation of depressive-like behavior and the neural mechanisms involved using a rodent model. Rat pups were exposed to footshock stress during postnatal days 21-25 followed by repeated oral administration of fluvoxamine (0 or 10mg/kg/d × 14 days), which is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. At the postadolescent stage forced swim test assessment of depressive-like behavior and Golgi-Cox staining of medial prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons followed by morphological analyses were carried out. Post-adolescent behavioral and morphological studies identified the presentation of increased depressive-like behaviors and reduced spine densities and dendritic lengths of layer II/III pyramidal neuron in the infralimbic cortex, but not in the prelimbic cortex of rats exposed to juvenile stress. Repeated fluvoxamine treatment recovered the increased depressive-like behavior and reduced spine densities/dendritic lengths observed in rats exposed to footshock stress. Cortical thicknesses in the infralimbic cortex and prelimbic cortex were also reduced by juvenile stress, but these reductions were not recovered by fluvoxamine treatment. The results demonstrate cortical sensitivities to stress exposures during the juvenile stage which mediate behavioral impairments, and provide a clue to find therapeutics for early life stress-induced emotional dysfunctions. PMID:25960352

  12. Gastrodin reversed the traumatic stress-induced depressed-like symptoms in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bombi; Sur, Bongjun; Yeom, Mijung; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to severe stress can lead to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in at-risk individuals. Gastrodin (GAS), a primary constituent of an Oriental herbal medicine, has been shown to effectively treat various mood disorders. Thus, the present study aimed to determine whether GAS would ameliorate stress-associated depression-like behaviors in a rat model of single prolonged stress (SPS)-induced PTSD. Following the SPS procedure, rats received intraperitoneal administration of GAS (20, 50, or 100 mg/kg) once daily for 2 weeks. Subsequently, the rats performed the forced swimming test, and norepinephrine (NE) levels in the hippocampus were measured. Daily GAS (100 mg/kg) significantly reversed depression-like behaviors and restored SPS-induced increases in hippocampal NE concentrations as well as tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the locus coeruleus. Furthermore, the administration of GAS attenuated SPS-induced decreases in the hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y and the hippocampal mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. These findings indicate that GAS possesses antidepressant effects in the PTSD and may be an effective herbal preparation for the treatment of PTSD. PMID:27417451

  13. Vulnerability to chronic subordination stress-induced depression-like disorders in adult 129SvEv male mice.

    PubMed

    Dadomo, Harold; Sanghez, Valentina; Di Cristo, Luisana; Lori, Andrea; Ceresini, Graziano; Malinge, Isabelle; Parmigiani, Stefano; Palanza, Paola; Sheardown, Malcolm; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to stressful life events is intimately linked with vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression. Pre-clinical animal models offer an effective tool to disentangle the underlying molecular mechanisms. In particular, the 129SvEv strain is often used to develop transgenic mouse models but poorly characterized as far as behavior and neuroendocrine functions are concerned. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of 129SvEv male mice's vulnerability to social stress-induced depression-like disorders and physiological comorbidities. We employed a well characterized mouse model of chronic social stress based on social defeat and subordination. Subordinate 129SvEv mice showed body weight gain, hyperphagia, increased adipose fat pads weight and basal plasma corticosterone. Home cage phenotyping revealed a suppression of spontaneous locomotor activity and transient hyperthermia. Subordinate 129SvEv mice also showed marked fearfulness, anhedonic-like response toward a novel but palatable food, increased anxiety in the elevated plus maze and social avoidance of an unfamiliar male mouse. A direct measured effect of the stressfulness of the living environment, i.e. the amount of daily aggression received, predicted the degree of corticosterone level and locomotor activity but not of the other parameters. This is the first study validating a chronic subordination stress paradigm in 129SvEv male mice. Results demonstrated remarkable stress vulnerability and establish the validity to use this mouse strain as a model for depression-like disorders. PMID:21093519

  14. Orbitofrontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor mediates chronic stress-induced depressive-like behaviors and alterations of spine density and Kalirin7.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chang; Ma, Xin-Ming; Chen, Hui-Bin; Zhou, Meng-He; Qiao, Hui; An, Shu-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Neuroimaging studies show that patients with major depression have reduced volume of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Although the serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor, which is abundant in the OFC, has been implicated in depression, the underlying mechanisms in the development of stress-induced depression remain unclear. Kalirin-7 (Kal7) is an essential component of mature excitatory synapses for maintaining dendritic spines density, size and synaptic functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of orbitofrontal 5-HT and 5-HT2A receptors in depressive-like behaviors and their associations with Kal7 and dendritic spines using chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), an established animal model of depression. CUMS had no effect on the levels of 5-HT or the 5-HT2A receptor in the OFC. However, CUMS or microinjection of the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist (±)-1-(2, 5-Dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)- 2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI, 5 μg/0.5 μL) into the OFC induced depressive-like behaviors, including anhedonia in the sucrose preference test and behavioral despair in the tail suspension test, a significant reduction in body weight gain and locomotor activity in the open field test, which were accompanied by decreased expression of Kal7 and PSD95 as well as decreased density of dendritic spines in the OFC. These alterations induced by CUMS were reversed by pretreatment with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist Ketanserin (Ket, 5 μg/0.5 μL into the OFC). These results suggest that CUMS alters structural plasticity through activation of the orbital 5-HT2A receptor and is associated with decreased expression of Kal7, thereby resulting in depressive-like behaviors in rats, suggesting an important role of Kal7 in the OFC in depression. PMID:26921771

  15. Stress-induced neuroinflammation is mediated by GSK3-dependent TLR4 signaling that promotes susceptibility to depression-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuyan; Pardo, Marta; Armini, Rubia de Souza; Martinez, Ana; Mouhsine, Hadley; Zagury, Jean-Francois; Jope, Richard S; Beurel, Eleonore

    2016-03-01

    Most psychiatric and neurological diseases are exacerbated by stress. Because this may partially result from stress-induced inflammation, we examined factors involved in this stress response. After a paradigm of inescapable foot shock stress that causes learned helplessness depression-like behavior, eighteen cytokines and chemokines increased in mouse hippocampus, peaking 6-12h after stress. A 24h prior pre-conditioning stress accelerated the rate of stress-induced hippocampal cytokine and chemokine increases, with most reaching peak levels after 1-3h, often without altering the maximal levels. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was involved in this response because most stress-induced hippocampal cytokines and chemokines were attenuated in TLR4 knockout mice. Stress activated glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) in wild-type mouse hippocampus, but not in TLR4 knockout mice. Administration of the antidepressant fluoxetine or the GSK3 inhibitor TDZD-8 reduced the stress-induced increases of most hippocampal cytokines and chemokines. Stress increased hippocampal levels of the danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) protein high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), activated the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB, and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Knockdown of HMGB1 blocked the acceleration of cytokine and chemokine increases in the hippocampus caused by two successive stresses. Fluoxetine treatment blocked stress-induced up-regulation of HMGB1 and subsequent NF-κB activation, whereas TDZD-8 administration attenuated NF-κB activation downstream of HMGB1. To test if stress-induced cytokines and chemokines contribute to depression-like behavior, the learned helplessness model was assessed. Antagonism of TNFα modestly reduced susceptibility to learned helplessness induction, whereas TLR4 knockout mice were resistant to learned helplessness. Thus, stress-induces a broad inflammatory response in mouse hippocampus that involves TLR4, GSK3, and downstream inflammatory signaling, and

  16. Piperine potentiates the effects of trans-resveratrol on stress-induced depressive-like behavior: involvement of monoaminergic system and cAMP-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Zhang, Chong; Wu, Feiyan; Xu, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Gang; Lin, Mengmeng; Yu, Yingcong; An, Yiran; Pan, Jianchun

    2016-08-01

    Stress can act as a precipitation factor in the onset of emotional disorders, particularly depression. Trans-resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound enriched in polygonum cuspidatum and has been found to exert antidepressant-like effects in our previous studies. In present study, we assessed the effects of trans-resveratrol used in combination with piperine, commonly known as a bioavailability enhancer, on chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive-like behaviors and relevant molecular targets. Trans-resveratrol used alone reduced the immobility time of rats in the forced swimming test, with the maximal effects of trans-resveratrol around 60 % inhibition at the highest dose tested, 40 mg/kg. However, when a subthreshold dose of piperine, 2.5 mg/kg was used in combination with trans-resveratrol, the minimum effective dose of trans-resveratrol in reducing the immobility time was reduced to 20 mg/kg. Further evidence from neurochemical (monoamines in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus), biochemical (monoamine oxidase, MAO activities) and molecular biological (cAMP, PKA, CREB and BDNF) assays supported the findings in the behavioral studies. These results suggest that the co-treatment strategy with trans-resveratrol and piperine might be an alternative therapy that provides efficacious protection against chronic stress. PMID:26946512

  17. Possible Involvement of µ Opioid Receptor in the Antidepressant-Like Effect of Shuyu Formula in Restraint Stress-Induced Depression-Like Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fu-rong; Qiao, Ming-qi; Xue, Ling; Wei, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Recently μ opioid receptor (MOR) has been shown to be closely associated with depression. Here we investigated the action of Shuyu, a Chinese herbal prescription, on repeated restraint stress induced depression-like rats, with specific attention to the role of MOR and the related signal cascade. Our results showed that repeated restraint stress caused significant depressive-like behaviors, as evidenced by reduced body weight gain, prolonged duration of immobility in forced swimming test, and decreased number of square-crossings and rearings in open field test. The stress-induced depression-like behaviors were relieved by Shuyu, which was accompanied by decreased expression of MOR in hippocampus. Furthermore, Shuyu upregulated BDNF protein expression, restored the activity of CREB, and stimulated MEK and ERK phosphorylation in hippocampus of stressed rats. More importantly, MOR is involved in the effects of Shuyu on these depression-related signals, as they can be strengthened by MOR antagonist CTAP. Collectively, these data indicated that the antidepressant-like properties of Shuyu are associated with MOR and the corresponding CREB, BDNF, MEK, and ERK signal pathway. Our study supports clinical use of Shuyu as an effective treatment of depression and also suggests that MOR might be a target for treatment of depression and developing novel antidepressants. PMID:25821488

  18. Altered microglia morphology and higher resilience to stress-induced depression-like behavior in CX3CR1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Sabine; Brioschi, Simone; Dieni, Sandra; Frings, Lars; Masuch, Annette; Blank, Thomas; Biber, Knut

    2016-07-01

    Microglia are suggested to be involved in several neuropsychiatric diseases. Indeed changes in microglia morphology have been reported in different mouse models of depression. A crucial regulatory system for microglia function is the well-defined CX3C axis. Thus, we aimed to clarify the role of microglia and CX3CR1 in depressive behavior by subjecting CX3CR1-deficient mice to a particular chronic despair model (CDM) paradigm known to exhibit face validity to major depressive disorder. In wild-type mice we observed the development of chronic depressive-like behavior after 5days of repetitive swim stress. 3D-reconstructions of Iba-1-labeled microglia in the dentate molecular layer revealed that behavioral effects were associated with changes in microglia morphology towards a state of hyper-ramification. Chronic treatment with the anti-depressant venlafaxine ameliorated depression-like behavior and restored microglia morphology. In contrast, CX3CR1 deficient mice showed a clear resistance to either (i) stress-induced depressive-like behavior, (ii) changes in microglia morphology and (iii) antidepressant treatment. Our data point towards a role of hyper-ramified microglia in the etiology of chronic depression. The lack of effects in CX3CR1 deficient mice suggests that microglia hyper-ramification is controlled by neuron-microglia signaling via the CX3C axis. However, it remains to be elucidated how hyper-ramified microglia contribute to depressive-like behavior. PMID:26576722

  19. Deletion of TRIM32 protects mice from anxiety- and depression-like behaviors under mild stress.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Chun-Sheng; Wang, Shu-Fen; Shen, Yan-Jun; Guo, Yi; Yang, Chun-Rui; Zhou, Fiona H; Tan, Li-Tao; Zhou, Li; Liu, Jian-Jun; Wang, Wen-Yue; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng; Zhou, Xin-Fu

    2014-08-01

    Chronic stress causes a variety of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression, but its mechanism is not well understood. Tripartite motif-containing protein 32 (TRIM32) was strongly associated with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder based on a study of copy number variation, and deletion of TRIM32 increased neural proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Here, we propose that TRIM32 is involved in chronic stress-induced affective behaviors. Using a chronic unpredictable mild stress mouse depression model, we studied expression of TRIM32 in brain tissue samples and observed behavioral changes in Trim32 knockout mice. The results showed that TRIM32 protein but not its mRNA was significantly reduced in hippocampus in a time-dependent manner within 8 weeks of chronic stress. These stress-induced affective behaviors and reduction of TRIM32 protein expression were significantly reversed by antidepressant fluoxetine treatment. In addition, Trim32 knockout mice showed reduced anxiety and depressive behaviors and hyperactivities compared with Trim32 wild-type mice under normal and mild stress conditions. We conclude that TRIM32 plays important roles in regulation of hyperactivities and positively regulates the development of anxiety and depression disorders induced by chronic stress. PMID:24839933

  20. Gestational stress induces depressive-like and anxiety-like phenotypes through epigenetic regulation of BDNF expression in offspring hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Fan, Weidong; Zhang, Xianquan; Dong, Erbo

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy exerts profound effects on neurodevelopment and increases the risk for several neurodevelopmental disorders including major depression. The mechanisms underlying the consequences of gestational stress are complex and remain to be elucidated. This study investigated the effects of gestational stress on depressive-like behavior and epigenetic modifications in young adult offspring. Gestational stress was induced by a combination of restraint and 24-hour light disturbance to pregnant dams throughout gestation. Depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviors of young adult offspring were examined. The expression and promoter methylation of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured using RT-qPCR, Western blot, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). In addition, the expressions of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and acetylated histone H3 lysine 14 (AcH3K14) were also analyzed. Our results show that offspring from gestational stress dams exhibited depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviors. Biochemically, stress-offspring showed decreased expression of BDNF, increased expression of DNMT1, HDAC1, and HDAC2, and decreased expression of AcH3K14 in the hippocampus as compared to non-stress offspring. Data from MeDIP and ChIP assays revealed an increased methylation as well as decreased binding of AcH3K14 on specific BDNF promoters. Pearson analyses indicated that epigenetic changes induced by gestational stress were correlated with depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviors. These data suggest that gestational stress may be a suitable model for understanding the behavioral and molecular epigenetic changes observed in patients with depression. PMID:26890656

  1. The role of hepcidin in chronic mild stress-induced depression.

    PubMed

    Farajdokht, Fereshteh; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Mehrpouya, Sara; Barati, Mahmood; Nahavandi, Arezo

    2015-02-19

    Depression is one of the most prevalent challenges of mental conditions. Yet its exact etiology has not been clear. Chronic stress increases the production of cytokines, which can lead to depression. Hepcidin, an iron modulator, is involved in the inflammation process as well as iron homeostasis. This study was designed to investigate the role of hepcidin, on stress-induced depression. 60 male wistar rats were entered the experiment. We used a chronic unpredictable mild stress (for 28 days) as a rat model of depression. In stressed group, three subgroups were treated with three different doses of dalteparin (a hepcidin inhibitor): 70IU/kg, 100IU/kg and 140IU/kg daily, for 4 weeks. The animals in the stressed group had more depressive-like behavior than the control group. Moreover, chronic mild stress produced an increased serum interleukin-6 levels. These effects were accompanied by an obvious increase in hepcidin mRNA level and iron content in the hippocampus. These changes were blocked by the injection of dalteparin. In conclusion, inhibition of hepcidin may reduce many pathological changes seen in stress-induced depressive disorders. PMID:25576700

  2. Beneficial effects of benzodiazepine diazepam on chronic stress-induced impairment of hippocampal structural plasticity and depression-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunan; Wang, Zhongli; Dai, Jianguo; Chen, Lin; Huang, Yufang; Zhan, Zhen

    2012-03-17

    Whether benzodiazepines (BZDs) have beneficial effects on the progress of chronic stress-induced impairment of hippocampal structural plasticity and major depression is uncertain. The present study designed four preclinical experiments to determine the effects of BZDs using chronic unpredictable stress model. In Experiment 1, several time course studies on behavior and hippocampus response to stress were conducted using the forced swim and tail suspension tests (FST and TST) as well as hippocampal structural plasticity markers. Chronic stress induced depression-like behavior in the FST and TST as well as decreased hippocampal structural plasticity that returned to normal within 3 wk. In Experiment 2, mice received p.o. administration of three diazepam dosages prior to each variate stress session for 4 wk. This treatment significantly antagonized the elevation of stress-induced corticosterone levels. Only low- (0.5mg/kg) and medium-dose (1mg/kg) diazepam blocked the detrimental effects of chronic stress. In Experiment 3, after 7 wk of stress sessions, daily p.o. diazepam administration during 1 wk recovery phase dose-dependently accelerated the recovery of stressed mice. In Experiment 4, 1 wk diazepam administration to control mice enhanced significantly hippocampal structural plasticity and induced an antidepressant-like behavioral effect, whereas 4 wk diazepam administration produced opposite effects. Hence, diazepam can slow the progress of chronic stress-induced detrimental consequences by normalizing glucocorticoid hormones. Considering the adverse effect of long-term diazepam administration on hippocampal plasticity, the preventive effects of diazepam may depend on the proper dose. Short-term diazepam treatment enhances hippocampal structural plasticity and is beneficial to recovery following chronic stress. PMID:22198054

  3. Stress-induced increases in depression-like and cocaine place-conditioned behaviors are reversed by disruption of memories during reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Hymel, Kristen A; Eans, Shainnel O; L Sitchenko, Kaitlin; Gomes, Stacey M; Lukowsky, Alison L; Medina, Jessica M; Sypek, Elizabeth I; Carey, Amanda N; McLaughlin, Jay P

    2014-09-01

    Maladaptive behavioral responses characteristic of post-traumatic stress disorders are notably resistant to treatment. We hypothesized that the pharmacological disruption of memories activated during reconsolidation might reverse established stress-induced increases in depression-like behaviors and cocaine reward. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to repeated social defeat stress (SDS), and examined for time spent immobile in a subsequent forced swim test (FST). An additional set of SDS-exposed mice were place-conditioned with cocaine, and tested for cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP). All stress-exposed mice were then subjected to a single additional trial of SDS while under the influence of propranolol or cycloheximide to disrupt memory reconsolidation, then given one additional FST or CPP test the next day. Mice subjected to repeated SDS subsequently demonstrated increases in time spent immobile in the FST or in the cocaine-paired chamber. Vehicle-treatment followed by additional SDS exposure did not alter these behaviors, but propranolol or cycloheximide treatment reversed each of the potentiated responses in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, these results demonstrate that while repeated exposure to a social defeat stressor subsequently increased depression-like behavior and cocaine-CPP, disruption of traumatic memories made labile by re-exposure to SDS during reconsolidation may have therapeutic value in the treatment of established post-traumatic stress disorder-related behaviors. PMID:25083575

  4. Social Isolation Stress Induces Anxious-Depressive-Like Behavior and Alterations of Neuroplasticity-Related Genes in Adult Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ieraci, Alessandro; Mallei, Alessandra; Popoli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a major risk factor in the onset of several neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. Although several studies have shown that social isolation stress during postweaning period induces behavioral and brain molecular changes, the effects of social isolation on behavior during adulthood have been less characterized. Aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the behavioral alterations and brain molecular changes induced by chronic social isolation stress in adult male mice. Plasma corticosterone levels and adrenal glands weight were also analyzed. Socially isolated (SI) mice showed higher locomotor activity, spent less time in the open field center, and displayed higher immobility time in the tail suspension test compared to group-housed (GH) mice. SI mice exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced difference between right and left adrenal glands. SI showed lower mRNA levels of the BDNF-7 splice variant, c-Fos, Arc, and Egr-1 in both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex compared to GH mice. Finally, SI mice exhibited selectively reduced mGluR1 and mGluR2 levels in the prefrontal cortex. Altogether, these results suggest that anxious- and depressive-like behavior induced by social isolation stress correlates with reduction of several neuroplasticity-related genes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of adult male mice. PMID:26881124

  5. The effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on chronic stress induced depression-like behaviors, BDNF expression and the phosphorylation of PKA and CREB in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Qi, Y; Cheng, Z; Zhu, X; Fan, C; Yu, S Y

    2016-05-13

    Depression is a common neuropsychiatric disorder which has been associated with a wide range of structural and functional changes within specific brain regions. Ginsenoside Rg1 has been shown to exert a number of neuroprotective effects as demonstrated in various in vivo and in vitro studies. However, little information is available regarding the site and mechanisms of ginsenoside Rg1 in promoting antidepressant effects. The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective and ameliorating effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on depression-like behavior as induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The results showed that CUMS was effective in producing depression-like behaviors in rats as indicated by decreased responses in sucrose preference and forced swim tests which were associated with ultrastructural changes in neurons within the amygdala. Moreover, levels of PKA and CREB phosphorylation and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were decreased in the amygdala of CUMS rats. Remarkably, chronic ginsenoside Rg1 (40mg/kg, i.p., 5weeks) treatment significantly ameliorated these behavioral and biochemical alterations associated with CUMS-induced depression. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that ginsenoside Rg1 exhibits antidepressant-like effects against CUMS-induced depression. This amelioration of depression-like behaviors by ginsenoside Rg1 appears to be mediated, at least in part, by a CREB-regulated increase of BDNF expression in the amygdala of rats. Therefore, these findings reveal the therapeutic potential of ginsenoside Rg1 for use in clinical trials in the treatment of depression. PMID:26926964

  6. Stress-Induced Anxiety- and Depressive-Like Phenotype Associated with Transient Reduction in Neurogenesis in Adult Nestin-CreERT2/Diphtheria Toxin Fragment A Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sanghee; Donovan, Michael H.; Ross, Michele N.; Richardson, Devon R.; Reister, Robin; Farnbauch, Laure A.; Fischer, Stephanie J.; Riethmacher, Dieter; Gershenfeld, Howard K.; Lagace, Diane C.; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2016-01-01

    Depression and anxiety involve hippocampal dysfunction, but the specific relationship between these mood disorders and adult hippocampal dentate gyrus neurogenesis remains unclear. In both humans with MDD and rodent models of depression, administration of antidepressants increases DG progenitor and granule cell number, yet rodents with induced ablation of DG neurogenesis typically do not demonstrate depressive- or anxiety-like behaviors. The conflicting data may be explained by the varied duration and degree to which adult neurogenesis is reduced in different rodent neurogenesis ablation models. In order to test this hypothesis we examined how a transient–rather than permanent–inducible reduction in neurogenesis would alter depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Transgenic Nestin-CreERT2/floxed diphtheria toxin fragment A (DTA) mice (Cre+DTA+) and littermates (Cre+DTA-; control) were given tamoxifen (TAM) to induce recombination and decrease nestin-expressing stem cells and their progeny. The decreased neurogenesis was transient: 12 days post-TAM Cre+DTA+ mice had fewer DG proliferating Ki67+ cells and fewer DCX+ neuroblasts/immature neurons relative to control, but 30 days post-TAM Cre+DTA+ mice had the same DCX+ cell number as control. This ability of DG neurogenesis to recover after partial ablation also correlated with changes in behavior. Relative to control, Cre+DTA+ mice tested between 12–30 days post-TAM displayed indices of a stress-induced anxiety phenotype–longer latency to consume highly palatable food in the unfamiliar cage in the novelty-induced hypophagia test, and a depression phenotype–longer time of immobility in the tail suspension test, but Cre+DTA+ mice tested after 30 days post-TAM did not. These findings suggest a functional association between adult neurogenesis and stress induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, where induced reduction in DCX+ cells at the time of behavioral testing is coupled with stress-induced anxiety

  7. Stress-Induced Anxiety- and Depressive-Like Phenotype Associated with Transient Reduction in Neurogenesis in Adult Nestin-CreERT2/Diphtheria Toxin Fragment A Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sanghee; Donovan, Michael H; Ross, Michele N; Richardson, Devon R; Reister, Robin; Farnbauch, Laure A; Fischer, Stephanie J; Riethmacher, Dieter; Gershenfeld, Howard K; Lagace, Diane C; Eisch, Amelia J

    2016-01-01

    Depression and anxiety involve hippocampal dysfunction, but the specific relationship between these mood disorders and adult hippocampal dentate gyrus neurogenesis remains unclear. In both humans with MDD and rodent models of depression, administration of antidepressants increases DG progenitor and granule cell number, yet rodents with induced ablation of DG neurogenesis typically do not demonstrate depressive- or anxiety-like behaviors. The conflicting data may be explained by the varied duration and degree to which adult neurogenesis is reduced in different rodent neurogenesis ablation models. In order to test this hypothesis we examined how a transient-rather than permanent-inducible reduction in neurogenesis would alter depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Transgenic Nestin-CreERT2/floxed diphtheria toxin fragment A (DTA) mice (Cre+DTA+) and littermates (Cre+DTA-; control) were given tamoxifen (TAM) to induce recombination and decrease nestin-expressing stem cells and their progeny. The decreased neurogenesis was transient: 12 days post-TAM Cre+DTA+ mice had fewer DG proliferating Ki67+ cells and fewer DCX+ neuroblasts/immature neurons relative to control, but 30 days post-TAM Cre+DTA+ mice had the same DCX+ cell number as control. This ability of DG neurogenesis to recover after partial ablation also correlated with changes in behavior. Relative to control, Cre+DTA+ mice tested between 12-30 days post-TAM displayed indices of a stress-induced anxiety phenotype-longer latency to consume highly palatable food in the unfamiliar cage in the novelty-induced hypophagia test, and a depression phenotype-longer time of immobility in the tail suspension test, but Cre+DTA+ mice tested after 30 days post-TAM did not. These findings suggest a functional association between adult neurogenesis and stress induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, where induced reduction in DCX+ cells at the time of behavioral testing is coupled with stress-induced anxiety and a

  8. Mild Concussion, but Not Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury, Is Associated with Long-Term Depression-Like Phenotype in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Nikita M; Halavi, Shina; Hamer, Mary; Semple, Bridgette D; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J; Baghchechi, Mohsen; Hiroto, Alex; Hartman, Richard E; Obenaus, André

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injuries can lead to long-lasting cognitive and motor deficits, increasing the risk of future behavioral, neurological, and affective disorders. Our study focused on long-term behavioral deficits after repeated injury in which mice received either a single mild CHI (mCHI), a repeated mild CHI (rmCHI) consisting of one impact to each hemisphere separated by 3 days, or a moderate controlled cortical impact injury (CCI). Shams received only anesthesia. Behavioral tests were administered at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 90 days post-injury (dpi). CCI animals showed significant motor and sensory deficits in the early (1-7 dpi) and long-term (90 dpi) stages of testing. Interestingly, sensory and subtle motor deficits in rmCHI animals were found at 90 dpi. Most importantly, depression-like behaviors and social passiveness were observed in rmCHI animals at 90 dpi. These data suggest that mild concussive injuries lead to motor and sensory deficits and affective disorders that are not observed after moderate TBI. PMID:26796696

  9. Mild Concussion, but Not Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury, Is Associated with Long-Term Depression-Like Phenotype in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mary; Semple, Bridgette D.; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.; Baghchechi, Mohsen; Hiroto, Alex; Hartman, Richard E.; Obenaus, André

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injuries can lead to long-lasting cognitive and motor deficits, increasing the risk of future behavioral, neurological, and affective disorders. Our study focused on long-term behavioral deficits after repeated injury in which mice received either a single mild CHI (mCHI), a repeated mild CHI (rmCHI) consisting of one impact to each hemisphere separated by 3 days, or a moderate controlled cortical impact injury (CCI). Shams received only anesthesia. Behavioral tests were administered at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 90 days post-injury (dpi). CCI animals showed significant motor and sensory deficits in the early (1–7 dpi) and long-term (90 dpi) stages of testing. Interestingly, sensory and subtle motor deficits in rmCHI animals were found at 90 dpi. Most importantly, depression-like behaviors and social passiveness were observed in rmCHI animals at 90 dpi. These data suggest that mild concussive injuries lead to motor and sensory deficits and affective disorders that are not observed after moderate TBI. PMID:26796696

  10. Bilobalide alleviates depression-like behavior and cognitive deficit induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruiyong; Shui, Li; Wang, Siyang; Song, Zhenzhen; Tai, Fadao

    2016-10-01

    Bilobalide (BB), a unique constituent of Ginkgo biloba, has powerful neuroprotection and stress-alleviating properties. However, whether BB exerts a positive effect on depression and cognitive deficit induced by chronic stress is not known. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of BB on depression and cognitive impairments induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in mice. During daily exposure to stressors for 5 consecutive weeks, mice were administered BB at the doses of 0, 3, or 6 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally. We replicated the finding that CUMS induced depression-like behavior and cognitive deficits as the CUMS+vehicle (VEH) group showed a significant increase in immobility in the tail suspension test, a decrease in the discrimination index of the novel object recognition task, and increased latency to platform and decreased number of platform crossings in the Morris water maze compared with the control+VEH group. Chronic administration of BB effectively reversed these alterations. In addition, the CUMS+VEH group showed significantly higher levels of baseline serum corticosterone than those of the control+VEH group and BB dose-dependently inhibited this effect. Our results suggest that BB may be useful for inhibition of depression-like behavior and cognitive deficits, and this protective effect was possibly exerted partly through an action on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:27509313

  11. Resveratrol reverses chronic restraint stress-induced depression-like behaviour: Involvement of BDNF level, ERK phosphorylation and expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueer; Xie, Yunkai; Zhang, Tiantian; Bo, Shishi; Bai, Xuemei; Liu, Hansen; Li, Tong; Liu, Song; Zhou, Yaru; Cong, Xiang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Dexiang

    2016-07-01

    Chronic stress occurs in everyday life and induces depression-like behaviors, associated with proteins alterations and apoptosis in brain. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol enriched in polygonum cuspidatum and has diverse biological activities, including potent antidepressant-like effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether resveratrol administration influences chronic restraint stress (CRS) - induced depression-like behaviors and explores underlying mechanisms. Male Wistar rats were subjected to CRS protocol for a period of 3 weeks to induce depressive-like behavior. The results showed that resveratrol (80mg/kg/i.p) administrated for 3 weeks significantly reversed the CRS-induced behavioral abnormalities (reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time) in stressed rats. CRS exposure significantly decreased BDNF levels and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC), accompanied by decreased Bcl-2 mRNA expression and increased Bax mRNA expression, while resveratrol treatment normalized these levels. All of these effects of resveratrol were essentially identical to that observed with fluoxetine. In conclusion, our studies showed that resveratrol exerted antidepressant-like effects in CRS rats, mediated in part by the apoptotic machinery and up-regulating BDNF and pERK levels in the brain region. PMID:27346276

  12. Two weeks of predatory stress induces anxiety-like behavior with co-morbid depressive-like behavior in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Burgado, Jillybeth; Harrell, Constance S; Eacret, Darrell; Reddy, Renuka; Barnum, Christopher J; Tansey, Malú G; Miller, Andrew H; Wang, Huichen; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2014-12-15

    Psychological stress can have devastating and lasting effects on a variety of behaviors, especially those associated with mental illnesses such as anxiety and depression. Animal models of chronic stress are frequently used to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the relationship between stress and mental health disorders and to develop improved treatment options. The current study expands upon a novel chronic stress paradigm for mice: predatory stress. The predatory stress model incorporates the natural predator-prey relationship that exists among rats and mice and allows for greater interaction between the animals, in turn increasing the extent of the stressful experience. In this study, we evaluated the behavioral effects of exposure to 15 days of predatory stress on an array of behavioral indices. Up to 2 weeks after the end of stress, adult male mice showed an increase of anxiety-like behaviors as measured by the open field and social interaction tests. Animals also expressed an increase in depressive-like behavior in the sucrose preference test. Notably, performance on the novel object recognition task, a memory test, improved after predatory stress. Taken as a whole, our results indicate that 15 exposures to this innovative predatory stress paradigm are sufficient to elicit robust anxiety-like behaviors with evidence of co-morbid depressive-like behavior, as well as changes in cognitive behavior in male mice. PMID:25200517

  13. Genetic and Stress-Induced Loss of NG2 Glia Triggers Emergence of Depressive-like Behaviors through Reduced Secretion of FGF2.

    PubMed

    Birey, Fikri; Kloc, Michelle; Chavali, Manideep; Hussein, Israa; Wilson, Michael; Christoffel, Daniel J; Chen, Tony; Frohman, Michael A; Robinson, John K; Russo, Scott J; Maffei, Arianna; Aguirre, Adan

    2015-12-01

    NG2-expressing glia (NG2 glia) are a uniformly distributed and mitotically active pool of cells in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition to serving as progenitors of myelinating oligodendrocytes, NG2 glia might also fulfill physiological roles in CNS homeostasis, although the mechanistic nature of such roles remains unclear. Here, we report that ablation of NG2 glia in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the adult brain causes deficits in excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission and astrocytic extracellular glutamate uptake and induces depressive-like behaviors in mice. We show in parallel that chronic social stress causes NG2 glia density to decrease in areas critical to Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) pathophysiology at the time of symptom emergence in stress-susceptible mice. Finally, we demonstrate that loss of NG2 glial secretion of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) suffices to induce the same behavioral deficits. Our findings outline a pathway and role for NG2 glia in CNS homeostasis and mood disorders. PMID:26606998

  14. Phosphodiesterase-4D Knock-down in the Prefrontal Cortex Alleviates Chronic Unpredictable Stress-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors and Memory Deficits in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Yang, Wei-Xing; Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Nan; Zhang, You-Zhi; Liu, Yan-Qin; Xu, Ying; Wilson, Steven P.; O'Donnell, James M.; Zhang, Han-Ting; Li, Yun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) has four isoforms (PDE4A-D) with at least 25 splice variants. PDE4 subtype nonselective inhibitors produce potent antidepressant-like and cognition-enhancing effects via increased intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling in the brain. Our previous data have demonstrated that long-form PDE4Ds appear to be involved in these pharmacological properties of PDE4 inhibitors in the normal animals. However, it is not clear whether long-form PDE4Ds are critical for the behaviors and related cellular signaling/neuronal plasticity/neuroendocrine alterations in the depressed animals. In the present study, animals exposed to the chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), a rodent model of depression, exhibited elevated corticosterone, depressive-like behavior, memory deficits, accompanied with decreased cAMP-PKA-CREB and cAMP-ERK1/2-CREB signaling and neuroplasticity. These alterations induced by CUS were reversed by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated prefrontal cortex long-form PDE4Ds (especially PDE4D4 and PDE4D5) knock-down, similar to the effects of the PDE4 subtype nonselective inhibitor rolipram. Furthermore, these effects of RNAi were not enhanced by rolipram. These data indicate a predominant role of long-form PDE4Ds in the pharmacotherapies of PDE4 inhibitors for depression and concomitant memory deficits. Long-form PDE4Ds, especially PDE4D4 and PDE4D5, appear to be the promising targets for the development of antidepressants with high therapeutic indices. PMID:26161529

  15. Unpredictable chronic mild stress not chronic restraint stress induces depressive behaviours in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shenghua; Shi, Ruoyang; Wang, Junhui; Wang, Jun-Feng; Li, Xin-Min

    2014-10-01

    The chronic stress model was developed on the basis of the stress-diathesis hypothesis of depression. However, these behavioural responses associated with different stress paradigms are quite complex. This study examined the effects of two chronic stress regimens on anxiety-like and depressive behaviours. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress or to chronic restraint stress for 4 weeks. Subsequently, both anxiety-like behaviours (open field, elevated plus maze and novelty suppressed feeding) and depression-like behaviours (tail suspension, forced swim and sucrose preference) were evaluated. Both chronic stress models generated anxiety-like behaviours, whereas only unpredictable chronic mild stress could induce depressive behaviours such as increased immobility and decreased sucrose consumption. These results of the present study provide additional evidence on how chronic stress affects behavioural responses and point to the importance of the validity of animal models of chronic stress in studying depression. PMID:25089805

  16. Neuroprotective Role of Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia in Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress Induced Depression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kushwah, Neetu; Jain, Vishal; Deep, Satayanarayan; Prasad, Dipti; Singh, Shashi Bala; Khan, Nilofar

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic exposure results in several pathophysiological conditions associated with nervous system, these include acute and chronic mountain sickness, loss of memory, and high altitude cerebral edema. Previous reports have also suggested the role of hypoxia in pathogenesis of depression and related psychological conditions. On the other hand, sub lethal intermittent hypoxic exposure induces protection against future lethal hypoxia and may have beneficial effect. Therefore, the present study was designed to explore the neuroprotective role of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) in Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress (UCMS) induced depression like behaviour in rats. The IHH refers to the periodic exposures to hypoxic conditions interrupted by the normoxic or lesser hypoxic conditions. The current study examines the effect of IHH against UCMS induced depression, using elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), force swim test (FST), as behavioural paradigm and related histological and molecular approaches. The data indicated the UCMS induced depression like behaviour as evident from decreased exploration activity in OFT with increased anxiety levels in EPM, and increased immobility time in the FST; whereas on providing the IHH (5000m altitude, 4hrs/day for two weeks) these behavioural changes were ameliorated. The morphological and molecular studies also validated the neuroprotective effect of IHH against UCMS induced neuronal loss and decreased neurogenesis. Here, we also explored the role of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in anticipatory action of IHH against detrimental effect of UCMS as upon blocking of BDNF-TrkB signalling the beneficial effect of IHH was nullified. Taken together, the findings of our study demonstrate that the intermittent hypoxia has a therapeutic potential similar to an antidepressant in animal model of depression and could be developed as a preventive therapeutic option against this pathophysiological state. PMID:26901349

  17. Neuroprotective Role of Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia in Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress Induced Depression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Satayanarayan; Prasad, Dipti; Singh, Shashi Bala; Khan, Nilofar

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic exposure results in several pathophysiological conditions associated with nervous system, these include acute and chronic mountain sickness, loss of memory, and high altitude cerebral edema. Previous reports have also suggested the role of hypoxia in pathogenesis of depression and related psychological conditions. On the other hand, sub lethal intermittent hypoxic exposure induces protection against future lethal hypoxia and may have beneficial effect. Therefore, the present study was designed to explore the neuroprotective role of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) in Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress (UCMS) induced depression like behaviour in rats. The IHH refers to the periodic exposures to hypoxic conditions interrupted by the normoxic or lesser hypoxic conditions. The current study examines the effect of IHH against UCMS induced depression, using elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), force swim test (FST), as behavioural paradigm and related histological and molecular approaches. The data indicated the UCMS induced depression like behaviour as evident from decreased exploration activity in OFT with increased anxiety levels in EPM, and increased immobility time in the FST; whereas on providing the IHH (5000m altitude, 4hrs/day for two weeks) these behavioural changes were ameliorated. The morphological and molecular studies also validated the neuroprotective effect of IHH against UCMS induced neuronal loss and decreased neurogenesis. Here, we also explored the role of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in anticipatory action of IHH against detrimental effect of UCMS as upon blocking of BDNF-TrkB signalling the beneficial effect of IHH was nullified. Taken together, the findings of our study demonstrate that the intermittent hypoxia has a therapeutic potential similar to an antidepressant in animal model of depression and could be developed as a preventive therapeutic option against this pathophysiological state. PMID:26901349

  18. MDMA pretreatment leads to mild chronic unpredictable stress-induced impairments in spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Jacobi I; Raudensky, Jamie; Tonkiss, John; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2009-10-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a drug of abuse worldwide and a selective serotonin (5-HT) neurotoxin. An important factor in the risk of drug abuse and relapse is stress. Although multiple parallels exist between MDMA abuse and stress, including effects on 5-HTergic neurotransmission, few studies have investigated the consequences of combined exposure to MDMA and chronic stress. Therefore, rats were pretreated with MDMA and exposed 7 days later to 10 days of mild chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). MDMA pretreatment was hypothesized to enhance the effects of CUS leading to enhanced 5-HT transporter (SERT) depletion in the hippocampus and increased anxiety and cognitive impairment. Whereas MDMA alone increased anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze, CUS alone or in combination with MDMA pretreatment did not increase anxiety-like behavior. In contrast, MDMA pretreatment led to CUS-induced learning impairment in the Morris water maze but not an enhanced depletion of hippocampal SERT protein. These results show that prior exposure to MDMA leads to stress-induced impairments in learning behavior that is not otherwise observed with stress alone and appear unrelated to an enhanced depletion of SERT. PMID:19824774

  19. Young-Adult Male Rats' Vulnerability to Chronic Mild Stress Is Reflected by Anxious-Like instead of Depressive-Like Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    José Jaime, Herrera-Pérez; Venus, Benítez-Coronel; Graciela, Jiménez-Rubio; Tania, Hernández-Hernández Olivia

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm did not induce anhedonia in young-adult male rats but it reduced their body weight gain. These contrasting results encouraged us to explore other indicators of animal's vulnerability to stress such as anxious-like behaviors, since stress is an etiologic factor also for anxiety. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of these animals to CMS using behavioral tests of depression or anxiety and measuring serum corticosterone. Male Wistar rats were exposed to four weeks of CMS; the animals' body weight and sucrose preference (indicator of anhedonia) were assessed after three weeks, and, after the fourth week, some animals were evaluated in a behavioral battery (elevated plus maze, defensive burying behavior, and forced swimming tests); meanwhile, others were used to measure serum corticosterone. We found that CMS (1) did not affect sucrose preference, immobility behavior in the forced swimming test, or serum corticosterone; (2) decreased body weight gain; and (3) increased the rat's entries into closed arms of the plus maze and the cumulative burying behavior. These data indicate that young male rats' vulnerability to CMS is reflected as poor body weight gain and anxious-like instead of depressive-like behaviors. PMID:27433469

  20. Young-Adult Male Rats' Vulnerability to Chronic Mild Stress Is Reflected by Anxious-Like instead of Depressive-Like Behaviors.

    PubMed

    José Jaime, Herrera-Pérez; Venus, Benítez-Coronel; Graciela, Jiménez-Rubio; Tania, Hernández-Hernández Olivia; Lucía, Martínez-Mota

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm did not induce anhedonia in young-adult male rats but it reduced their body weight gain. These contrasting results encouraged us to explore other indicators of animal's vulnerability to stress such as anxious-like behaviors, since stress is an etiologic factor also for anxiety. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of these animals to CMS using behavioral tests of depression or anxiety and measuring serum corticosterone. Male Wistar rats were exposed to four weeks of CMS; the animals' body weight and sucrose preference (indicator of anhedonia) were assessed after three weeks, and, after the fourth week, some animals were evaluated in a behavioral battery (elevated plus maze, defensive burying behavior, and forced swimming tests); meanwhile, others were used to measure serum corticosterone. We found that CMS (1) did not affect sucrose preference, immobility behavior in the forced swimming test, or serum corticosterone; (2) decreased body weight gain; and (3) increased the rat's entries into closed arms of the plus maze and the cumulative burying behavior. These data indicate that young male rats' vulnerability to CMS is reflected as poor body weight gain and anxious-like instead of depressive-like behaviors. PMID:27433469

  1. Magnolol treatment reversed the glial pathology in an unpredictable chronic mild stress-induced rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu-Fan; Yang, Jie; Ma, Shi-Ping; Qu, Rong

    2013-07-01

    Growing evidence indicates that glia atrophy contributes to the pathophysiology and the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder. Magnolol is the main constituent identified in the bark of Magnolia officinalis, which has been used for the treatment of mental disorders, including depression, in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the antidepressant-like effect and the possible mechanisms of magnolol in rats subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS). The ameliorative effect of magnolol on depression symptoms was investigated through behavior tests, including sucrose preference test, open-field test and forced-swimming test. In addition, the levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an astrocyte marker, in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were determined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Exposure to UCMS resulted in a decrease of behavioral activity, whereas magnolol (20, 40 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20mg/kg) administration significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors (P<0.05).Moreover, treatment with magnolol effectively increased GFAP mRNA and protein levels in UCMS rats. These results confirmed the antidepressant-like effect of magnolol, which maybe primarily mediated by reversing the glial atrophy in the UCMS rat brain. PMID:23632393

  2. Antidepressant-like activity of 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic Acid, a unique unsaturated Fatty Acid of royal jelly, in stress-inducible depression-like mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ito, Satoru; Nitta, Yuji; Fukumitsu, Hidefumi; Soumiya, Hitomi; Ikeno, Kumiko; Nakamura, Tadashi; Furukawa, Shoei

    2012-01-01

    Symptoms of depression and anxiety appeared in mice after they had been subjected to a combination of forced swimming for 15 min followed by being kept in cages that were sequentially subjected to leaning, drenching, and rotation within 1-2 days for a total of 3 weeks. The animals were then evaluated by the tail-suspension test, elevated plus-maze test, and open-field test at 1 day after the end of stress exposure. Using these experimental systems, we found that 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid (HDEA), an unsaturated fatty acid unique to royal jelly (RJ), protected against the depression and anxiety when intraperitoneally administered once a day for 3 weeks simultaneously with the stress loading. Intraperitoneally administered RJ, a rich source of HDEA, was also protective against the depression, but RJ given by the oral route was less effective. Our present results demonstrate that HDEA and RJ, a natural source of it, were effective in ameliorating the stress-inducible symptoms of depression and anxiety. PMID:21799699

  3. Umbelliferone attenuates unpredictable chronic mild stress induced-insulin resistance in rats.

    PubMed

    Su, Qiang; Tao, Weiwei; Wang, Hanqing; Chen, Yanyan; Huang, Huang; Chen, Gang

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether umbelliferone (Umb) could attenuate insulin resistance in unpredictable chronic mild stress (CUMS)-induced rats. Behavioral changes were evaluated through sucrose preference test (SPT), open-field test, forced swimming test, and tail suspension test (TST), suggesting that Umb (20 and 40 mg/kg) could effectively improve depression symptoms. Oral glucose tolerance test and serum insulin indicated that Umb attributed to the control of blood glucose levels. The phosphorylation of insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, glycogen synthase kinase-3β, PI3K, and Akt was increased in Umb (20 and 40 mg/kg) treatment according to Western blot analysis. Taken together, the current results suggested the ameliorative effect of Umb against insulin resistance in the CUMS-induced rats. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(5):403-409, 2016. PMID:27027512

  4. Treadmill exercise alleviates chronic mild stress-induced depression in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taeck-Hyun; Kim, Kijeong; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Lim, Baek-Vin

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a major cause of disability and one of the most common public health problems. In the present study, antidepressive effect of treadmill exercise on chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depression in rats was investigated. For this, sucrose intake test, immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining, and Western blot analysis for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were conducted. Following adaptation to the animal vivarium and two baseline fluid intake tests, the animals were divided into four groups: the control group, the CMS-induced depression group, the CMS-induced depression and exercise group, and the CMS-induced depression and fluoxetine-treated group. The animals in the CMS groups were exposed to the CMS conditions for 8 weeks and those in the control group were exposed to the control conditions for 8 weeks. After 4 weeks of CMS, the rats in the CMS-induced depression and exercise group were made to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day for 4 weeks. In the present results, treadmill exercise alleviated CMS-induced depressive symptoms. Treadmill exercise restored sucrose consumption, increased cell proliferation, and decreased apoptotic cell death. The present results suggest the possibility that exercise may improve symptoms of depression. PMID:26730380

  5. Treadmill exercise alleviates chronic mild stress-induced depression in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taeck-Hyun; Kim, Kijeong; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Lim, Baek-Vin

    2015-12-01

    Depression is a major cause of disability and one of the most common public health problems. In the present study, antidepressive effect of treadmill exercise on chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depression in rats was investigated. For this, sucrose intake test, immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining, and Western blot analysis for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were conducted. Following adaptation to the animal vivarium and two baseline fluid intake tests, the animals were divided into four groups: the control group, the CMS-induced depression group, the CMS-induced depression and exercise group, and the CMS-induced depression and fluoxetine-treated group. The animals in the CMS groups were exposed to the CMS conditions for 8 weeks and those in the control group were exposed to the control conditions for 8 weeks. After 4 weeks of CMS, the rats in the CMS-induced depression and exercise group were made to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day for 4 weeks. In the present results, treadmill exercise alleviated CMS-induced depressive symptoms. Treadmill exercise restored sucrose consumption, increased cell proliferation, and decreased apoptotic cell death. The present results suggest the possibility that exercise may improve symptoms of depression. PMID:26730380

  6. Behavioural and neurochemical evaluation of Perment an herbal formulation in chronic unpredictable mild stress induced depressive model.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, M; Balaji, B; Justin, A

    2011-04-01

    Perment, a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation that contains equal parts of Clitoria ternatea Linn., Withania somnifera Dun., Asparagus racemosus Linn., Bacopa monniera Linn., is used clinically as mood elevators. The aim of the present study was to explore the behavioural effects and to understand possible mode of action of Perment in stress induced depressive model. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) was used to induce depression in rats. Open field exploratory behaviour, elevated plus maze, social interaction and behavioural despair tests were used to assess behaviour. Using standard protocols plasma noradrenaline, serotonin, corticosterone and brain/adrenal corticosterone levels were measured to support the behavioural effects of Perment. Exposure to CUMS for 21 days caused anxiety and depression in rats, as indicated by significant decrease in locomotor activity in the open field exploratory behaviour test and increased immobility period in the behavioural despair test. Perment predominantly exhibited antidepressant action than anxiolytic activity. Further Perment increased the plasma noradrenaline and serotonin levels in stressed rats. No significant alteration in the brain corticosterone level in stressed rats was observed with Perment treatment. However the adrenal corticosterone level is decreased with Perment. It can be concluded that the Perment formulation exhibited synergistic activity, has a significant antidepressant and anxiolytic activity, which may be mediated through adrenergic and serotonergic system activation. Currently the formulation is clinically used as anxiolytic but the present results suggest that the formulation can also be indicated in patients affected with depression. PMID:21614890

  7. Chronic mild stress facilitates melanoma tumor growth in mouse lines selected for high and low stress-induced analgesia.

    PubMed

    Ragan, Agnieszka R; Lesniak, Anna; Bochynska-Czyz, Marta; Kosson, Anna; Szymanska, Hanna; Pysniak, Kazimiera; Gajewska, Marta; Lipkowski, Andrzej W; Sacharczuk, Mariusz

    2013-09-01

    Both chronic stress conditions and hyperergic reaction to environmental stress are known to enhance cancer susceptibility. We described two mouse lines that displayed high (HA) and low (LA) swim stress-induced analgesia (SSIA) to investigate the relationship between inherited differences in sensitivity to stress and proneness to an increased growth rate of subcutaneously inoculated melanoma. These lines display several genetic and physiological differences, among which distinct sensitivity to mutagens and susceptibility to cancer are especially noticeable. High analgesic mice display high proneness both to stress and a rapid local spread of B16F0 melanoma. However, stress-resistant LA mice do not develop melanoma tumors after inoculation, or if so, tumors regress spontaneously. We found that the chronic mild stress (CMS) procedure leads to enhanced interlinear differences in melanoma susceptibility. Tumors developed faster in stress conditions in both lines. However, LA mice still displayed a tendency for spontaneous regression, and 50% of LA mice did not develop a tumor, even under stressed conditions. Moreover, we showed that chronic stress, but not tumor progression, induces depressive behavior, which may be an important clue in cancer therapy. Our results clearly indicate how the interaction between genetic susceptibility to stress and environmental stress determine the risk and progression of melanoma. To our knowledge, HA/LA mouse lines are the first animal models of distinct melanoma progression mediated by inherited differences in stress reactivity. PMID:23688070

  8. Cannabinoid modulation of chronic mild stress-induced selective enhancement of trace fear conditioning in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Reich, Christian G; Iskander, Anthony N; Weiss, Michael S

    2013-10-01

    History of stress is considered a major risk factor for the development of major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms of Pavlovian fear conditioning may provide insight into the etiology of PTSD. In the current study, adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 3 weeks of a chronic-mild-unpredictable stress (CMS) protocol. Immediately following the CMS, the animals were subjected to hippocampal-dependent (trace and contextual) and hippocampal-independent (delay) fear conditioning. CMS exposure enhanced trace freezing behavior compared to non-stress controls. This effect was not observed in contextual or delay conditioned animals. Given that the endocannabinoid system is negatively affected by CMS procedures, separate groups of stressed rats were administered the CB1 receptor agonist, ACEA (0.1 mg/kg), prior to trace fear conditioning or a memory-recall test. Regardless of administration time, ACEA significantly reduced freezing behavior in stressed animals. Furthermore, when administered during the first memory recall test, ACEA enhanced long-term extinction in both stress and non-stress groups. The results demonstrate that chronic unpredictable stress selectively enhances hippocampal-dependent episodic fear memories. Pathologies of the episodic memory and fear response may increase the susceptibility of developing PTSD. Reduction in fear responses via exogenous activation of the CB1 receptor suggests that a deficiency in the endocannabinoid system contributes to this pathology. PMID:23926242

  9. Chronic unpredicted mild stress-induced depression alter saxagliptin pharmacokinetics and CYP450 activity in GK rats.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhengchao; Wei, Hongyan; Duan, Jingjing; Zhou, Ting; Yang, Zhen; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study was to explore the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin (Sax) in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats complicated with depression induced by chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS). The comorbidity of diabetic patients with depression is becoming more and more epidemic. Whether depression mental disorder alters the pharmacokinetics of hypoglycemic drugs in diabetes patients is not clear. Methods. Five-week-old male GK rats were kept in the cage for 7 weeks in a specific pathogen free (SPF)-grade lab until the emergence of diabetes and were then divided into two groups: control group and depression model group. Rats in the CUMS-induced depression group were exposed to a series of stressors for 8 weeks. Plasma serotonin and dopamine levels and behavior of open-field test were used to confirm the establishment of the depression model. All rats were given 0.5 mg/kg Sax orally after 8 weeks and blood samples were collected at different time points. The Sax concentration was assayed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The CYP450 activity of the liver microsomes was determined by using cocktails of probe drugs in which the activities of CYP enzymes were assessed through the determination of the production of the probe drugs. Results. Statistically significant differences in Sax pharmacokinetics were observed for area under curve, clearance, peak concentration, peak time and mean residence time between the depression rats and the control rats, while no statistical differences were observed for half-time and distribution volume by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The CYP450 activity had different changes in the depression group. Conclusions. These results indicated that CUMS-induced depression alters the drug metabolic process of Sax and CYP450 activity of the liver microsomal enzymes in GK rats. PMID:26819853

  10. Chronic unpredicted mild stress-induced depression alter saxagliptin pharmacokinetics and CYP450 activity in GK rats

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zhengchao; Wei, Hongyan; Duan, Jingjing; Zhou, Ting; Yang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study was to explore the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin (Sax) in Goto–Kakizaki (GK) rats complicated with depression induced by chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS). The comorbidity of diabetic patients with depression is becoming more and more epidemic. Whether depression mental disorder alters the pharmacokinetics of hypoglycemic drugs in diabetes patients is not clear. Methods. Five-week-old male GK rats were kept in the cage for 7 weeks in a specific pathogen free (SPF)-grade lab until the emergence of diabetes and were then divided into two groups: control group and depression model group. Rats in the CUMS-induced depression group were exposed to a series of stressors for 8 weeks. Plasma serotonin and dopamine levels and behavior of open-field test were used to confirm the establishment of the depression model. All rats were given 0.5 mg/kg Sax orally after 8 weeks and blood samples were collected at different time points. The Sax concentration was assayed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The CYP450 activity of the liver microsomes was determined by using cocktails of probe drugs in which the activities of CYP enzymes were assessed through the determination of the production of the probe drugs. Results. Statistically significant differences in Sax pharmacokinetics were observed for area under curve, clearance, peak concentration, peak time and mean residence time between the depression rats and the control rats, while no statistical differences were observed for half-time and distribution volume by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The CYP450 activity had different changes in the depression group. Conclusions. These results indicated that CUMS-induced depression alters the drug metabolic process of Sax and CYP450 activity of the liver microsomal enzymes in GK rats. PMID:26819853

  11. Hypothalamic Proteomic Analysis Reveals Dysregulation of Glutamate Balance and Energy Metabolism in a Mouse Model of Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Depression.

    PubMed

    Rao, Chenglong; Shi, Haiyang; Zhou, Chanjuan; Zhu, Dan; Zhao, Mingjun; Wang, Ziye; Yang, Yongtao; Chen, Jin; Liao, Li; Tang, Jianyong; Wu, You; Zhou, Jian; Cheng, Ke; Xie, Peng

    2016-09-01

    Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity is observed in many patients suffering from depression. However, the mechanism underlying the dysfunction of the HPA axis is not well understood. Moreover, dysfunction of the hypothalamus, the key brain region of the HPA axis, has not been well-explored. The aim of our study was to examine possible alterations in hypothalamus protein expression in a model of depression using proteomic analysis. In order to achieve this aim, mice were exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), as the paradigm results in hyperactivity of the HPA axis. Differential protein expression between the hypothalamic proteomes of CUMS and control mice was then assessed through two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry. Thirty-seven proteins with a threshold of a 1.5-fold change and a p value ≤0.05 were identified as being differentially expressed between CUMS and control mice, and were quantified for bioinformatics analysis. Glycometabolism, citrate cycle (TCA cycle) and oxidation respiratory chain were found to have changed significantly. Glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase were further validated by Western Blot. Our results demonstrated that CUMS mice exhibited a dramatic protein change both in glutamate metabolism and energy mobilization, which may shed some light on the role of the hypothalamus in the pathology of stress-induced depression. PMID:27230881

  12. Antidepressant-like effect of essential oil of Perilla frutescens in a chronic, unpredictable, mild stress-induced depression model mice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei-Wei; Li, Rui-Peng; Li, Meng; Wang, Shu-Yuan; Zhang, Xian; Niu, Xing-Xing; Li, Wei; Yan, Lu; Wang, Yang; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Shi-Ping

    2014-10-01

    Perilla frutescens (Perilla leaf), a garnishing vegetable in East Asian countries, as well as a plant-based medicine, has been used for centuries to treat various conditions, including depression. Several studies have demonstrated that the essential oil of P. frutescens (EOPF) attenuated the depressive-like behavior in mice. The present study was designed to test the anti-depressant effects of EOPF and the possible mechanisms in an chronic, unpredictable, mild stress (CUMS)-induced mouse model. With the exposure to stressor once daily for five consecutive weeks, EOPF (3, 6, and 9 mg·kg(-1)) and a positive control drug fluoxetine (20 mg·kg(-1)) were administered through gastric intubation to mice once daily for three consecutive weeks from the 3(rd) week. Open-field test, sucrose consumption test, tail suspension test (TST), and forced swimming test (FST) were used to evaluate the behavioral activity. The contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), in mouse hippocampus were determined by HPLC-ECD. Serum interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that CUMS significantly decreased the levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the hippocampus, with an increase in plasma IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α levels. CUMS also reduced open-field activity, sucrose consumption, as well as increased immobility duration in FST and TST. EOPF administration could effectively reverse the alterations in the concentrations of 5-HT and 5-HIAA; reduce the IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α levels. Moreover, EOPF could effectively reverse alterations in immobility duration, sucrose consumption, and open-field activity. However, the effect was not dose-dependent. In conclusion, EOPF administration exhibited significant antidepressant-like effects in mice with CUMS-induced depression. The antidepressant activity of EOPF might be related to the relation between

  13. Mice deficient for wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 display elevated anxiety- and depression-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ruan, C S; Zhou, F H; He, Z Y; Wang, S F; Yang, C R; Shen, Y J; Guo, Y; Zhao, H B; Chen, L; Liu, D; Liu, J; Baune, B T; Xiao, Z C; Zhou, X F

    2015-05-01

    Mood disorders are a severe health burden but molecular mechanisms underlying mood dysfunction remain poorly understood. Here, we show that wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) negatively responds to the stress-induced negative mood-related behaviors. Specifically, we show that Wip1 protein but not its mRNA level was downregulated in the hippocampus but not in the neocortex after 4 weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in mice. Moreover, the CUMS-responsive WIP1 downregulation in the hippocampus was restored by chronic treatment of fluoxetine (i.p. 20 mg/kg) along with the CUMS procedure. In addition, Wip1 knockout mice displayed decreased exploratory behaviors as well as increased anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in mice without impaired motor activities under the non-CUMS condition. Furthermore, the Wip1 deficiency-responsive anxiety-like but not depression-like behaviors were further elevated in mice under CUMS. Although limitations like male-alone sampling and multiply behavioral testing exist, the present study suggests a potential protective function of Wip1 in mood stabilization. PMID:25732137

  14. Mechanism of heat stress-induced cellular senescence elucidates the exclusive vulnerability of early S-phase cells to mild genotoxic stress

    PubMed Central

    Velichko, Artem K.; Petrova, Nadezhda V.; Razin, Sergey V.; Kantidze, Omar L.

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the best-studied cellular stress factors; however, little is known about its delayed effects. Here, we demonstrate that heat stress induces p21-dependent cellular senescence-like cell cycle arrest. Notably, only early S-phase cells undergo such an arrest in response to heat stress. The encounter of DNA replication forks with topoisomerase I-generated single-stranded DNA breaks resulted in the generation of persistent double-stranded DNA breaks was found to be a primary cause of heat stress-induced cellular senescence in these cells. This investigation of heat stress-induced cellular senescence elucidates the mechanisms underlying the exclusive sensitivity of early S-phase cells to ultra-low doses of agents that induce single-stranded DNA breaks. PMID:26032771

  15. Early adversity contributes to chronic stress induced depression-like behavior in adolescent male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Mao, Yu; Feng, Xiao-Li; Zheng, Na; Lü, Long-Bao; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Qin, Dong-Dong; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stress is an important cause for depression. However, not everyone who is exposed to chronic stress will develop depression. Our previous studies demonstrated that early adversity can cause lasting changes in adolescent rhesus monkeys, but depressive symptoms have not been observed. Compared to adults, it is still unknown that whether adolescent rhesus monkeys experiencing early adversity are more likely to develop depressive symptoms. In this study, we investigated the long term relationship between early adversity, chronic stress and adolescent depression for the first time. Eight male rhesus monkeys were reared in maternal separation (MS) or mother-reared (MR) conditions. All of them went through unpredictable chronic stress for two months at their age four. The stressors included space restriction, intimidation, long illumination and fasting. Behavioral and physiological data were collected during the experiment. The results showed that, compared with the MR group, the locomotor activity of MS group was significantly decreased after one month of chronic stress while huddling up and stereotypical behaviors were significantly increased. Moreover, this trend continued and even worsened at the second month. Significantly higher hair cortisol levels and lower body weight were observed in MS group after two months of stress. These results indicate that early adversity is one of the environmental factors which can increase the susceptibility of depression when experiencing chronic stress in the later life. This will further clarify the important roles of early environmental factors in the development of adolescent depression and children rearing conditions should receive more attention. PMID:27025444

  16. Alteration of Behavioral Changes and Hippocampus Galanin Expression in Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Depression Rats and Effect of Electroacupuncture Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Yuping; Yao, Haijiang; Song, Hongtao; Wang, Xin; Chen, Wanshun; Abulizi, Jiawula; Xu, Anping; Tang, Yinshan; Han, Xiangbo; Li, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    To explore new noninvasive treatment options for depression, this study investigated the effects of electric acupuncture (EA) for depression rat models. Depression in rats was induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) combined with isolation for 21 days. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into three groups: control, model, and EA groups. Rats were treated by EA once daily for 21 days. The results showed that body weight and sucrose consumption were significantly increased in EA group than in the model group. The crossing numbers and rearing numbers in the open field test significantly decreased in the model group but not in the EA group. And EA treatments upregulated levels of hippocampus galanin (Gal) in UCMS rats back to relative normal levels. The present study suggested that EA had antidepressant effects on UCMS model rats. The potential antidepressant effect may be related to upregulating Gal expression in hippocampus. PMID:25530777

  17. Metabonomic Evaluation of Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Changes in Rats by Intervention of Fluoxetine by HILIC-UHPLC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Longshan; Xiong, Zhili; Lu, Xiumei; Zheng, Shuning; Wang, Fang; Ge, Lin; Su, Guangyue; Yang, Jingyu; Wu, Chunfu

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophilic interaction-ultra high performance liquid chromatography (HILIC-UHPLC) allows the analysis of highly polar metabolites, providing complementary information to reversed-phase (RP) chromatography. By optimization of the preparation and analytical conditions in HILIC mode, HILIC-UHPLC/MS was applied for the global metabolic profiling of rat plasma samples generated in an experimental model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and the concomitant investigation of the protective effect of fluoxetine was also evaluated. Identification of plasma metabolic profiles indicated that significant changes in specific metabolites occurred after fluoxetine exposure, including increased phenylalanine, serine, acetyl-L-carnitine, carnitine and decreased creatine, betaine, proline, tryptophan, tyrosine, C16:0 LPC. Some novel biomarkers from this HILIC-UHPLC/MS approach were betaine, proline, tyrosine creatine and serine compared with the results of RP-UHPLC/MS. The complementary nature of this technique is confirmed and is on agreement with previously published studies. PMID:26080063

  18. Possible involvement of corticosterone and serotonin in antidepressant and antianxiety effects of chromium picolinate in chronic unpredictable mild stress induced depression and anxiety in rats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Vivek Kumar; Ansari, Faraha; Vohora, Divya; Khanam, Razia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of chromium picolinate (CrP) on behavioural and biochemical parameters in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depression and anxiety in rats. The normal and stressed male Swiss albino rats were administered CrP (8 and 16μg/mL in drinking water), they received stressors for seven days (each day one stressor) and this cycle was repeated three times for 21 days. On 22nd day, behaviour assessments followed by biochemical estimations were conducted. The results showed that treatment of CrP produced significant antidepressant effect, which has been evidenced by decrease in immobility time in modified forced swimming test (FST) in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depression in rats. In elevated plus maze (EPM), CrP (16μg/mL) showed significant reduction in time spent in open arm. CrP (8μg/mL and 16μg/mL) also showed significant decrease in number of entries in open arm that shows antianxiety effect of CrP in CUMS rats. It was also found that CrP (8 and 16μg/mL) significantly increased 5-HT concentration in the discrete regions of brain (cortex and cerebellum). On the other hand, the plasma corticosterone level was significantly decreased with CrP (16μg/mL). The results suggested that increase in the concentration of 5-HT and decrease in plasma corticosterone levels could be responsible for improvement in symptoms of depression and anxiety in CUMS induced depression and anxiety in rats. PMID:25037773

  19. Hydrogen Sulfide Protects against Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Hippocampus by Upregulation of BDNF-TrkB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Wei; Wang, Chun-Yan; Tan, Hui-Ying; Zeng, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Ping; Gu, Hong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induces hippocampal oxidative stress. H2S functions as a neuroprotectant against oxidative stress in brain. We have previously shown the upregulatory effect of H2S on BDNF protein expression in the hippocampus of rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that H2S prevents CUMS-generated oxidative stress by upregulation of BDNF-TrkB pathway. We showed that NaHS (0.03 or 0.1 mmol/kg/day) ameliorates the level of hippocampal oxidative stress, including reduced levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (4-HNE), as well as increased level of glutathione (GSH) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hippocampus of CUMS-treated rats. We also found that H2S upregulated the level of BDNF and p-TrkB protein in the hippocampus of CUMS rats. Furthermore, inhibition of BDNF signaling by K252a, an inhibitor of the BDNF receptor TrkB, blocked the antioxidant effects of H2S on CUMS-induced hippocampal oxidative stress. These results reveal the inhibitory role of H2S in CUMS-induced hippocampal oxidative stress, which is through upregulation of BDNF/TrkB pathway. PMID:27525050

  20. Metabonomic identification of the effects of the Zhimu-Baihe saponins on a chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongli; Wang, Keqing; Su, Li; Zhao, Hongxia; Gao, Songyan; Lin, Qishan; Ma, Xiaofang; Zhu, Baokang; Dong, Xin; Lou, Ziyang

    2016-09-01

    The herbal pair Zhimu-Baihe (Zhimu: Anemarrhena asphodeloides; Baihe: Lilium brownii var. viridulum) is a traditional Chinese medicament used for the treatment of depression. However, the relevant mechanisms of action has not been clarified. This study investigated the anti-depressant activity of the total saponins from Zhimu and Baihe and the mechanisms underlying using a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced rat model of depression. High performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) was applied to determine the levels of three monoamine neurotransmitters, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), noradrenaline (NE) and dopamine (DA), in the rat hippocampus. Optimized pretreatment of samples and mass spectrometry conditions were used to analyse the metabonomic profile of the hippocampus. The 5-HT and NE levels in the CUMS group were reduced compared with the control group, whereas all groups had similar DA levels. The metabonomic profile of the hippocampus revealed 32 differential metabolites between the CUMS and control group, among which 18 metabolites were significantly recovered in the Anemarrhena saponins and Lilium saponins (AL) combination intervention group. These results suggested an anti-depressant effect of AL. Moreover, 24 metabolites in AL group were better recovered compared with the Anemarrhena saponins (AS) or Lilium saponins (LS) intervention groups, suggesting a synergetic effect of AS and LS in the treatment of depression. The anti-depressant effect might be related to the regulation of several metabolic pathways, including monoamine neurotransmitter synthesis (especially 5-HT and NE), and amino acid, fatty acid, and phospholipid metabolism in rats. PMID:27371920

  1. Effect of fluoxetine and resveratrol on testicular functions and oxidative stress in a rat model of chronic mild stress-induced depression.

    PubMed

    Sakr, H F; Abbas, A M; Elsamanoudy, A Z; Ghoneim, F M

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to investigate the effects of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) with or without selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine) and anti-oxidant (resveratrol) on testicular functions and oxidative stress in rats. Fifty male rats were divided into 2 groups; control and CUMS. CUMS group was further subdivided into 4 subgroups administered water, fluoxetine, resveratrol and both. Sucrose intake, body weight gain, serum corticosterone, serotonin and testosterone levels, sperm count and motility, testicular malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione (GSH), and gene expression of steroidogenic acute-regulatory (StAR) protein and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme were evaluated. CUMS decreased sucrose intake, weight gain, anti-oxidants (SOD, catalase, GSH), testosterone, serotonin, StAR and cytochrome P450scc gene expression, sperm count and motility and increased malondialdehyde and corticosterone. Fluoxetine increased malondialdehyde, sucrose intake, weight gain, serotonin and decreased anti-oxidants, StAR and cytochrome P450scc gene expression, sperm count and motility, testosterone, corticosterone in stressed rats. Administration of resveratrol increased anti-oxidants, sucrose intake, weight gain, serotonin, StAR and cytochrome P450scc gene expression, testosterone, sperm count and motility, and decreased malondialdehyde and corticosterone in stressed rats with or without fluoxetine. In conclusion, CUMS induces testicular dysfunctions and oxidative stress. While treatment of CUMS rats with fluoxetine decreases the depressive behavior, it causes further worsening of testicular dysfunctions and oxidative stress. Administration of resveratrol improves testicular dysfunctions and oxidative stress that are caused by CUMS and further worsened by fluoxetine treatment. PMID:26348076

  2. Antidepressant-like effect of geniposide on chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive rats by regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Li; Li, Rong; Tang, Wen-jian; Meng, Gang; Hu, Xiang-yang; Wu, Ting-ni

    2015-08-01

    Geniposide as the major active component of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis has neuroprotective activity. This study elucidated the potential antidepressant-like effect of geniposide and its related mechanisms using a depression rat model induced by 3 consecutive weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Sucrose preference test, open field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST) were applied to evaluate the antidepressant effect of geniposide. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) serum levels, adrenal gland index and hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression were measured to assess the activity of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) mRNA expression and GRα protein expression in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were also determined by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We found that geniposide (25, 50, 100mg/kg) treatment reversed the CUMS-induced behavioral abnormalities, as suggested by increased sucrose intake, improved crossing and rearing behavior in OFT, shortened immobility and prolonged swimming time in FST. Additionally, geniposide treatment normalized the CUMS-induced hyperactivity of HPA axis, as evidenced by reduced CORT serum level, adrenal gland index and hypothalamic CRH mRNA expression, with no significant effect on ACTH serum level. Moreover, geniposide treatment upregulated the hypothalamic GRα mRNA level and GRα protein expression in PVN, suggesting geniposide could recover the impaired GRα negative feedback on CRH expression and HPA axis. These aforementioned therapeutic effects of geniposide were essentially similar to fluoxetine. Our results indicated that geniposide possessed potent antidepressant-like properties that may be mediated by its effects on the HPA axis. PMID:25914157

  3. Exercise amelioration of depression-like behavior in OVX mice is associated with suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujun; Xu, Yongjun; Sheng, Hui; Ni, Xin; Lu, Jianqiang

    2016-07-01

    Exercise has benefit for perimenopause women in many ways, such as affective disorders. Our previous study has demonstrated that inflammation in hippocampus contributes to development of depression-like behavior in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Recently, oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been implicated to be involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and chronic stress-induced depression-like behavior in rodents. We sought to investigate whether ovariectomy-induced depression-like behavior is associated with NLRP3 inflammasome activation in brain and the effect of exercise on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in this model. The results showed that ovariectomy resulted in depression-like behavior in mice and an increase in levels of IL-1β and IL-18 in hippocampus. Exercise ameliorated the depression-like behavior and decreased levels of IL-1β and IL-18 in hippocampus. The level of IL-1β and IL-18 in hippocampus correlated to depression-like behavior in OVX mice. The levels of NLRP3, cleaved caspase-1 P10 and CD11b in hippocampus were increased in OVX mice compared with control group. Exercise could reduce the levels of NLRP3, cleaved caspase-1 P10 and CD11b in OVX mice. Our study suggests that NLRP3 inflammasome activation contribute to inflammation in hippocampus upon to deprivation of ovary. Exercise amelioration of depression-like behavior is associated with suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in hippocampus of this model. PMID:27036651

  4. Electroconvulsive stimulation reverses anhedonia and cognitive impairments in rats exposed to chronic mild stress.

    PubMed

    Henningsen, K; Woldbye, D P D; Wiborg, O

    2013-12-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy remains the most effective treatment for depression including a fast onset of action. However, this therapeutic approach suffers from some potential drawbacks. In the acute phase this includes amnesia. Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) has previously been shown to reverse a depression-like state in the chronic mild stress model of depression (CMS), but the effect of ECS on cognition has not previously been investigated. In this study the CMS model was used to induce a depressive-like condition in rats. The study was designed to investigate the acute effect of ECS treatment on working memory and the chronic effect of repeated ECS treatments on depression-like behavior and working memory. The results indicated that, in the acute phase, ECS treatment induced a working memory deficit in healthy controls unexposed to stress, while repeated treatments reversed stress-induced decline in working memory, as well as recovering rats submitted to the CMS paradigm from the anhedonic-like state. Like in the clinical setting, a single ECS exposure was ineffective in inducing remission from a depression-like state. PMID:23597878

  5. Inflammasome signaling affects anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and gut microbiome composition

    PubMed Central

    Wong, M-L; Inserra, A; Lewis, M D; Mastronardi, C A; Leong, L; Choo, J; Kentish, S; Xie, P; Morrison, M; Wesselingh, S L; Rogers, G B; Licinio, J

    2016-01-01

    The inflammasome is hypothesized to be a key mediator of the response to physiological and psychological stressors, and its dysregulation may be implicated in major depressive disorder. Inflammasome activation causes the maturation of caspase-1 and activation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, two proinflammatory cytokines involved in neuroimmunomodulation, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In this study, C57BL/6 mice with genetic deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1 were screened for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and locomotion at baseline and after chronic stress. We found that genetic deficiency of caspase-1 decreased depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and conversely increased locomotor activity and skills. Caspase-1 deficiency also prevented the exacerbation of depressive-like behaviors following chronic stress. Furthermore, pharmacological caspase-1 antagonism with minocycline ameliorated stress-induced depressive-like behavior in wild-type mice. Interestingly, chronic stress or pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1 per se altered the fecal microbiome in a very similar manner. When stressed mice were treated with minocycline, the observed gut microbiota changes included increase in relative abundance of Akkermansia spp. and Blautia spp., which are compatible with beneficial effects of attenuated inflammation and rebalance of gut microbiota, respectively, and the increment in Lachnospiracea abundance was consistent with microbiota changes of caspase-1 deficiency. Our results suggest that the protective effect of caspase-1 inhibition involves the modulation of the relationship between stress and gut microbiota composition, and establishes the basis for a gut microbiota–inflammasome–brain axis, whereby the gut microbiota via inflammasome signaling modulate pathways that will alter brain function, and affect depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Our data also suggest that further elucidation of the gut microbiota

  6. Inflammasome signaling affects anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and gut microbiome composition.

    PubMed

    Wong, M-L; Inserra, A; Lewis, M D; Mastronardi, C A; Leong, L; Choo, J; Kentish, S; Xie, P; Morrison, M; Wesselingh, S L; Rogers, G B; Licinio, J

    2016-06-01

    The inflammasome is hypothesized to be a key mediator of the response to physiological and psychological stressors, and its dysregulation may be implicated in major depressive disorder. Inflammasome activation causes the maturation of caspase-1 and activation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, two proinflammatory cytokines involved in neuroimmunomodulation, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In this study, C57BL/6 mice with genetic deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1 were screened for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and locomotion at baseline and after chronic stress. We found that genetic deficiency of caspase-1 decreased depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and conversely increased locomotor activity and skills. Caspase-1 deficiency also prevented the exacerbation of depressive-like behaviors following chronic stress. Furthermore, pharmacological caspase-1 antagonism with minocycline ameliorated stress-induced depressive-like behavior in wild-type mice. Interestingly, chronic stress or pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1 per se altered the fecal microbiome in a very similar manner. When stressed mice were treated with minocycline, the observed gut microbiota changes included increase in relative abundance of Akkermansia spp. and Blautia spp., which are compatible with beneficial effects of attenuated inflammation and rebalance of gut microbiota, respectively, and the increment in Lachnospiracea abundance was consistent with microbiota changes of caspase-1 deficiency. Our results suggest that the protective effect of caspase-1 inhibition involves the modulation of the relationship between stress and gut microbiota composition, and establishes the basis for a gut microbiota-inflammasome-brain axis, whereby the gut microbiota via inflammasome signaling modulate pathways that will alter brain function, and affect depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Our data also suggest that further elucidation of the gut microbiota

  7. Effects of hydrogen-rich water on depressive-like behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Su, Wen-Jun; Chen, Ying; Wu, Teng-Yun; Gong, Hong; Shen, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Yun-Xia; Sun, Xue-Jun; Jiang, Chun-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that neuroinflammation and oxidative stress may be major contributors to major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients or animal models of depression show significant increase of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and oxidative stress biomarkers in the periphery or central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies show that hydrogen selectively reduces cytotoxic oxygen radicals, and hydrogen-rich saline potentially suppresses the production of several proinflammatory mediators. Since current depression medications are accompanied by a wide spectrum of side effects, novel preventative or therapeutic measures with fewer side effects might have a promising future. We investigated the effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on the depressive-like behavior in mice and its underlying mechanisms. Our study show that hydrogen-rich water treatment prevents chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depressive-like behavior. CUMS induced elevation in IL-1β protein levels in the hippocampus, and the cortex was significantly attenuated after 4 weeks of feeding the mice hydrogen-rich water. Over-expression of caspase-1 (the IL-1β converting enzyme) and excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) was successfully suppressed by hydrogen-rich water treatment. Our data suggest that the beneficial effects of hydrogen-rich water on depressive-like behavior may be mediated by suppression of the inflammasome activation resulting in attenuated protein IL-1β and ROS production. PMID:27026206

  8. Effects of hydrogen-rich water on depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Su, Wen-Jun; Chen, Ying; Wu, Teng-Yun; Gong, Hong; Shen, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Yun-Xia; Sun, Xue-Jun; Jiang, Chun-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that neuroinflammation and oxidative stress may be major contributors to major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients or animal models of depression show significant increase of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and oxidative stress biomarkers in the periphery or central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies show that hydrogen selectively reduces cytotoxic oxygen radicals, and hydrogen-rich saline potentially suppresses the production of several proinflammatory mediators. Since current depression medications are accompanied by a wide spectrum of side effects, novel preventative or therapeutic measures with fewer side effects might have a promising future. We investigated the effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on the depressive-like behavior in mice and its underlying mechanisms. Our study show that hydrogen-rich water treatment prevents chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depressive-like behavior. CUMS induced elevation in IL-1β protein levels in the hippocampus, and the cortex was significantly attenuated after 4 weeks of feeding the mice hydrogen-rich water. Over-expression of caspase-1 (the IL-1β converting enzyme) and excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) was successfully suppressed by hydrogen-rich water treatment. Our data suggest that the beneficial effects of hydrogen-rich water on depressive-like behavior may be mediated by suppression of the inflammasome activation resulting in attenuated protein IL-1β and ROS production. PMID:27026206

  9. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Fractions Prepared from Danzhi-Xiaoyao-San Decoction in Rats with Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress: Effects on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Arginine Vasopressin, and Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Li; Liu, Yan; Pan, Yi; Su, Jun-Fang; Wu, Wei-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of two fractions, including petroleum ether soluble fraction (Fraction A, FA) and water-EtOH soluble fraction (Fraction B, FB) prepared from the Danzhi-xiaoyao-san (DZXYS) by using chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive rat model. The results indicated that DZXYS could ameliorate the depression-like behavior in chronic stress model of rats. The inhibition of hyperactivity of HPA axis and the modulation of monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters in the hippocampus may be the important mechanisms underlying the action of DZXYS antidepressant-like effect in chronically stressed rats. PMID:27413389

  10. Early Life Stress Increases Metabolic Risk, HPA Axis Reactivity, and Depressive-Like Behavior When Combined with Postweaning Social Isolation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Javier; Junco, Mariana; Gomez, Carlos; Lajud, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Early-life stress is associated with depression and metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Such associations could be due to increased glucocorticoid levels. Periodic maternal separation in the neonate and rearing in social isolation are potent stressors that increase hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Moreover, social isolation promotes feed intake and body weight gain in rats subjected to periodic maternal separation; however, its effects on metabolic risks have not been described. In the present study, we evaluated whether periodic maternal separation, social isolation rearing, and a combination of these two stressors (periodic maternal separation + social isolation rearing) impair glucose homeostasis and its relation to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and depressive-like behavior. Periodic maternal separation increased basal corticosterone levels, induced a passive coping strategy in the forced swimming test, and was associated with a mild (24%) increase in fasting glucose, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Rearing in social isolation increased stress reactivity in comparison to both controls and in combination with periodic maternal separation, without affecting the coping strategy associated with the forced swimming test. However, social isolation also increased body weight gain, fasting glucose (120%), and insulin levels in rats subjected to periodic maternal separation. Correlation analyses showed that stress-induced effects on coping strategy on the forced swimming test (but not on metabolic risk markers) are associated with basal corticosterone levels. These findings suggest that maternal separation and postweaning social isolation affect stress and metabolic vulnerability differentially and that early-life stress-related effects on metabolism are not directly dependent on glucocorticoid levels. In conclusion, our study supports the cumulative stress hypothesis, which suggests that

  11. Neuroprotective Role of L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) against Chronic Hypobaric Hypoxia with Crowding Stress (CHC) Induced Depression-Like Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Satya Narayan; Baitharu, Iswar; Sharma, Apurva; Gurjar, Anoop Kishor Singh; Prasad, Dipti; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2016-01-01

    Improper neuroimmune responses following chronic stress exposure have been reported to cause neuronal dysfunctions leading to memory impairment, anxiety and depression like behaviours. Though several factors affecting microglial activation and consequent alteration in neuro-inflammatory responses have been well studied, role of NO and its association with microglia in stress induced depression model is yet to be explored. In the present study, we validated combination of chronic hypobaric hypoxia and crowding (CHC) as a stress model for depression and investigated the role of chronic stress induced elevated nitric oxide (NO) level in microglia activation and its effect on neuro-inflammatory responses in brain. Further, we evaluated the ameliorative effect of L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) to reverse the stress induced depressive mood state. Four groups of male Sprague Dawley rat were taken and divided into control and CHC stress exposed group with and without treatment of L-NAME. Depression like behaviour and anhedonia in rats were assessed by Forced Swim Test (FST) and Sucrose Preference Test (SPT). Microglial activation was evaluated using Iba-1 immunohistochemistry and proinflammatory cytokines were assessed in the hippocampal region. Our result showed that exposure to CHC stress increased the number of active microglia with corresponding increase in inflammatory cytokines and altered behavioural responses. The inhibition of NO synthesis by L-NAME during CHC exposure decreased the number of active microglia in hippocampus as evident from decreased Iba-1 positive cells. Further, L-NAME administration decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines in hippocampus and improved behaviour of rats. Our study demonstrate that stress induced elevation of NO plays pivotal role in altered microglial activation and consequent neurodegenerative processes leading to depression like behaviour in rat. PMID:27082990

  12. Neuroprotective Role of L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) against Chronic Hypobaric Hypoxia with Crowding Stress (CHC) Induced Depression-Like Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Deep, Satya Narayan; Baitharu, Iswar; Sharma, Apurva; Gurjar, Anoop Kishor Singh; Prasad, Dipti; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2016-01-01

    Improper neuroimmune responses following chronic stress exposure have been reported to cause neuronal dysfunctions leading to memory impairment, anxiety and depression like behaviours. Though several factors affecting microglial activation and consequent alteration in neuro-inflammatory responses have been well studied, role of NO and its association with microglia in stress induced depression model is yet to be explored. In the present study, we validated combination of chronic hypobaric hypoxia and crowding (CHC) as a stress model for depression and investigated the role of chronic stress induced elevated nitric oxide (NO) level in microglia activation and its effect on neuro-inflammatory responses in brain. Further, we evaluated the ameliorative effect of L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) to reverse the stress induced depressive mood state. Four groups of male Sprague Dawley rat were taken and divided into control and CHC stress exposed group with and without treatment of L-NAME. Depression like behaviour and anhedonia in rats were assessed by Forced Swim Test (FST) and Sucrose Preference Test (SPT). Microglial activation was evaluated using Iba-1 immunohistochemistry and proinflammatory cytokines were assessed in the hippocampal region. Our result showed that exposure to CHC stress increased the number of active microglia with corresponding increase in inflammatory cytokines and altered behavioural responses. The inhibition of NO synthesis by L-NAME during CHC exposure decreased the number of active microglia in hippocampus as evident from decreased Iba-1 positive cells. Further, L-NAME administration decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines in hippocampus and improved behaviour of rats. Our study demonstrate that stress induced elevation of NO plays pivotal role in altered microglial activation and consequent neurodegenerative processes leading to depression like behaviour in rat. PMID:27082990

  13. Inflammatory factors mediate vulnerability to a social stress-induced depressive-like phenotype in passive coping rats

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Susan K.; Wood, Christopher S.; Lombard, Calliandra M.; Lee, Catherine S.; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Finnell, Julie E.; Valentino, Rita J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Coping strategy impacts susceptibility to psychosocial stress. The locus coeruleus (LC) and dorsal raphe (DR) are monoamine nuclei that are implicated in stress-related disorders. This study was designed to identify genes in these nuclei that distinguish active and passive coping strategies in response to social stress. Methods Rats were exposed to repeated resident-intruder stress and coping strategy determined. Gene and protein expression in the LC and DR were determined by PCR array, ELISA, and compared between active and passive stress coping and unstressed rats. The effect of daily IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, ICV) prior to stress on anhedonia was also determined. Results Rats exhibited passive or active coping strategies based on a short (SL) or longer latency (LL) to assume a defeat posture, respectively. Stress differentially regulated 19 and 26 genes in the LC and DR of SL and LL rats, respectively, many of which encoded for inflammatory factors. Notably, IL1β was increased in SL and decreased in LL rats in both the LC and DR. Protein changes were generally consistent with a proinflammatory response to stress in SL rats selectively. Stress produced anhedonia selectively in SL rats and this was prevented by IL-1ra, consistent with a role for IL1β in stress vulnerability. Conclusions This study highlighted distinctions in gene expression related to coping strategy in response to social stress. Passive coping was associated with a bias towards pro-inflammatory processes, particularly IL1β, whereas active coping and resistance to stress-related pathology was associated with suppression of inflammatory processes. PMID:25676490

  14. Myricetin Attenuates Depressant-Like Behavior in Mice Subjected to Repeated Restraint Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zegang; Wang, Guilin; Cui, Lin; Wang, Qimin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that oxidative stress may be implicated in chronic stress-induced depression. Several flavonoids with anti-oxidative effects have been proved to be anti-depressive. Myricetin is a well-defined flavonoid with the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and neuroprotective properties. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible effects of chronic administration of myricetin on depressant-like behaviors in mice subjected to repeated restraint (4 h/day) for 21 days. Our results showed that myricetin administration specifically reduced the immobility time in mice exposed to chronic stress, as tested in both forced swimming test and tail suspension test. Myricetin treatment improved activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in the hippocampus of stressed mice. In addition, myricetin treatment decreased plasma corticosterone levels of those mice subjected to repeated restraint stress. The effects of myricetin on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in hippocampus were also investigated. The results revealed that myricetin normalized the decreased BDNF levels in mice subjected to repeated restraint stress. These findings provided more evidence that chronic administration of myricetin improves helpless behaviors. The protective effects of myricetin might be partially mediated by an influence on BDNF levels and might be attributed to myricetin-mediated anti-oxidative stress in the hippocampus. PMID:26633366

  15. Tualang honey improves memory performance and decreases depressive-like behavior in rats exposed to loud noise stress

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Khairunnuur Fairuz; Zakaria, Rahimah; AbdAziz, CheBadariah; Othman, Zahiruddin; Al-Rahbi, Badriya

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has exhibited dietary influence on the manifestation of different types of behavior induced by stressor tasks. The present study examined the effects of Tualang honey supplement administered with the goal of preventing or attenuating the occurrence of stress-related behaviors in male rats subjected to noise stress. Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: i) nonstressed with vehicle, ii) nonstressed with Tualang honey, iii) stressed with vehicle, and iv) stressed with honey. The supplement was given once daily via oral gavage at 0.2 g/kg body weight. Two types of behavioral tests were performed, namely, the novel object recognition test to evaluate working memory and the forced swimming test to evaluate depressive-like behavior. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using IBM SPSS 18.0. It was observed that the rats subjected to noise stress expressed higher levels of depressive-like behavior and lower memory functions compared to the unexposed control rats. In addition, our results indicated that the supplementation regimen successfully counteracted the effects of noise stress. The forced swimming test indicated that climbing and swimming times were significantly increased and immobility times significantly decreased in honey-supplemented rats, thereby demonstrating an antidepressant-like effect. Furthermore, cognitive function was shown to be intensely affected by noise stress, but the effects were counteracted by the honey supplement. These findings suggest that subchronic exposure to noise stress induces depressive-like behavior and reduces cognitive functions, and that these effects can be attenuated by Tualang honey supplementation. This warrants further studies to examine the role of Tulang honey in mediating such effects. PMID:25774610

  16. Zinc deficiency induces depression-like symptoms in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Tassabehji, Nadine M; Corniola, Rikki S; Alshingiti, Almamoun; Levenson, Cathy W

    2008-10-20

    There is mounting evidence suggesting a link between serum zinc levels and clinical depression. Not only is serum zinc negatively correlated with the severity of symptoms, but zinc levels appear to be lowest in patients who do not respond to antidepressant drug therapy. It is not known if reduced zinc levels are contributing to depression, or the result of dietary or other factors associated with major depression. Thus, we designed this study to test the hypothesis that dietary zinc deficiency would induce depression-like behaviors in rats. Two-month-old male rats were fed zinc adequate (ZA, 30 ppm), deficient (ZD, 1 ppm), or supplemented (ZS, 180 ppm) diets for 3 weeks. Consistent with the development of depression, ZD rats displayed anorexia (p<0.001), anhedonia (reduced saccharin:water intake, p< 0.001), and increased anxiety-like behaviors in a light-dark box test (p<0.05). Furthermore, the antidepressant drug fluoxetine (10 mg/kg body wt) reduced behavioral despair, as measured by the forced swim test, in rats fed the ZA and ZS rats (p<0.05), but was ineffective in ZD rats. Together these studies suggest that zinc deficiency leads to the development of depression-like behaviors that may be refractory to antidepressant treatment. PMID:18655800

  17. Does stress induce bowel dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Ming; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Kao, John Y

    2014-08-01

    Psychological stress is known to induce somatic symptoms. Classically, many gut physiological responses to stress are mediated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. There is, however, a growing body of evidence of stress-induced corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) release causing bowel dysfunction through multiple pathways, either through the HPA axis, the autonomic nervous systems, or directly on the bowel itself. In addition, recent findings of CRF influencing the composition of gut microbiota lend support for the use of probiotics, antibiotics, and other microbiota-altering agents as potential therapeutic measures in stress-induced bowel dysfunction. PMID:24881644

  18. Sub-chronic exposure to noise affects locomotor activity and produces anxiogenic and depressive like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Fizza; Haider, Saida; Batool, Zehra; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2012-01-01

    Noise is defined as a displeasing and unwanted sound. It is one of the most encountered stressor to which mankind is exposed. Frustration, poor reading, impaired hearing and difficulty in problem solving activities are the common consequences of noise stress. It has been reported to produce atrophy of dendrites and alterations in neurotransmitter levels. Long term exposure to inescapable noise stress induces exhaustion, defeat, annoyance followed by decreased muscle movement, social contacts and mood changes. The present study was aimed to investigate the detrimental effects of noise exposure on behavior of rats and its association with altered neurochemistry. Changes in neurotransmitter levels in different brain regions including hippocampus have been reported following noise exposure and these changes in neurotransmitters levels have also been associated with altered behavior. In the present study, locomotor activity in rats was assessed by open field test (OFT) while anxiety and depressive behavior was monitored by elevated plus maze (EPM) and tail suspension (TST) tests. The results showed that 15 days sub-chronic exposure to noise stress induced anxiety and depression like behavior in male rats. These behavioral deficits observed in the present study suggest that an altered brain serotonergic and dopaminergic activity may be involved in the various psychological disorders following exposure to noise stress. PMID:22580521

  19. Stress-induced cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Braem, M; Lambrechts, P; Vanherle, G

    1992-05-01

    The increasing occurrence of dental lesions at the cervical surfaces requires more knowledge of the causes of the process. Acidic and abrasive mechanisms have clearly been documented as causes but the stress theory by Lee and Eakle is still controversial. This report describes several incidences of possible stress-induced lesions according to the characteristics described by Lee and Eakle. The occurrences of subgingival lesions lend credence to the stress-induction theory by exclusion of other superimposing etiologic factors. With the current concepts, a perceptive approach to the treatment of cervical lesions can be executed. PMID:1527763

  20. Depression-like behavior in rat: Involvement of galanin receptor subtype 1 in the ventral periaqueductal gray.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Li, Hui; Barde, Swapnali; Zhang, Ming-Dong; Sun, Jing; Wang, Tong; Zhang, Pan; Luo, Hanjiang; Wang, Yongjun; Yang, Yutao; Wang, Chuanyue; Svenningsson, Per; Theodorsson, Elvar; Hökfelt, Tomas G M; Xu, Zhi-Qing David

    2016-08-01

    The neuropeptide galanin coexists in rat brain with serotonin in the dorsal raphe nucleus and with noradrenaline in the locus coeruleus (LC), and it has been suggested to be involved in depression. We studied rats exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS), a rodent model of depression. As expected, these rats showed several endophenotypes relevant to depression-like behavior compared with controls. All these endophenotypes were normalized after administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The transcripts for galanin and two of its receptors, galanin receptor 1 (GALR1) and GALR2, were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR using laser capture microdissection in the following brain regions: the hippocampal formation, LC, and ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG). Only Galr1 mRNA levels were significantly increased, and only in the latter region. After knocking down Galr1 in the vPAG with an siRNA technique, all parameters of the depressive behavioral phenotype were similar to controls. Thus, the depression-like behavior in rats exposed to CMS is likely related to an elevated expression of Galr1 in the vPAG, suggesting that a GALR1 antagonist could have antidepressant effects. PMID:27457954

  1. Mice Genetically Depleted of Brain Serotonin do not Display a Depression-like Behavioral Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Kane, Michael J.; Briggs, Denise I.; Herrera-Mundo, Nieves; Sykes, Catherine E.; Francescutti, Dina M.; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    Reductions in function within the serotonin (5HT) neuronal system have long been proposed as etiological factors in depression. Serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most common treatment for depression and their therapeutic effect is generally attributed to their ability to increase the synaptic levels of 5HT. Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of 5HT in the CNS and losses in its catalytic activity lead to reductions in 5HT production and release. The time differential between the onset of 5HT reuptake inhibition by SSRIs (minutes) and onset of their anti-depressant efficacy (weeks to months), when considered with their overall poor therapeutic effectiveness, has cast some doubt on the role of 5HT in depression. Mice lacking the gene for TPH2 are genetically depleted of brain 5HT and were tested for a depression-like behavioral phenotype using a battery of valid tests for affective-like disorders in animals. The behavior of TPH2−/− mice on the sucrose preference test, tail suspension test and forced swim test and their responses in the unpredictable chronic mild stress and learned helplessness paradigms was the same as wild-type controls. While TPH2−/− mice as a group were not responsive to SSRIs, a subset responded to treatment with SSRIs in the same manner as wild-type controls with significant reductions in immobility time on the tail suspension test, indicative of antidepressant drug effects. The behavioral phenotype of the TPH2−/− mouse questions the role of 5HT in depression. Furthermore, the TPH2−/− mouse may serve as a useful model in the search for new medications that have therapeutic targets for depression that are outside of the 5HT neuronal system. PMID:25089765

  2. Chronic mild stress and antidepressant treatment alter 5-HT1A receptor expression by modifying DNA methylation of a conserved Sp4 site

    PubMed Central

    Le François, Brice; Soo, Jeremy; Millar, Anne M.; Daigle, Mireille; Le Guisquet, Anne-Marie; Leman, Samuel; Minier, Frédéric; Belzung, Catherine; Albert, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A), a critical regulator of the brain serotonergic tone, is implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD) where it is often found to be dys-regulated. However, the extent to which stress and antidepressant treatment impact 5-HT1A expression in adults remains unclear. To address this issue, we subjected adult male BALB/c mice to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) to induce a depression-like phenotype that was reversed by chronic treatment with the antidepressant imipramine. In prefrontal cortex (PFC) and midbrain tissue, UCMS increased 5-HT1A RNA and protein levels, changes that are expected to decrease the brain serotonergic activity. The stress-induced increase in 5-HT1A expression was paralleled by a specific increase in DNA methylation of the conserved -681 CpG promoter site, located within a Sp1-like element. We show that the -681 CpG site is recognized and repressed by Sp4, the predominant neuronal Sp1-like factor and that Sp4-induced repression is attenuated by DNA methylation, despite a stress-induced increase in PFC Sp4 levels. These results indicate that adult life stress induces DNA methylation of the conserved promoter site, antagonizing Sp4 repression to increase 5-HT1A expression. Chronic imipramine treatment fully reversed the UCMS-induced increase in methylation of the -681 CpG site in the PFC but not midbrain of stressed animals and also increased 5-HT1A expression in the PFC of control animals. Incomplete reversal by imipramine of stress-induced changes in 5-HT1A methylation and expression indicates a persistence of stress vulnerability, and that sustained reversal of behavioral impairments may require additional pathways. PMID:26188176

  3. Chronic mild stress and antidepressant treatment alter 5-HT1A receptor expression by modifying DNA methylation of a conserved Sp4 site.

    PubMed

    Le François, Brice; Soo, Jeremy; Millar, Anne M; Daigle, Mireille; Le Guisquet, Anne-Marie; Leman, Samuel; Minier, Frédéric; Belzung, Catherine; Albert, Paul R

    2015-10-01

    The serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A), a critical regulator of the brain serotonergic tone, is implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD) where it is often found to be dys-regulated. However, the extent to which stress and antidepressant treatment impact 5-HT1A expression in adults remains unclear. To address this issue, we subjected adult male BALB/c mice to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) to induce a depression-like phenotype that was reversed by chronic treatment with the antidepressant imipramine. In prefrontal cortex (PFC) and midbrain tissue, UCMS increased 5-HT1A RNA and protein levels, changes that are expected to decrease the brain serotonergic activity. The stress-induced increase in 5-HT1A expression was paralleled by a specific increase in DNA methylation of the conserved -681 CpG promoter site, located within a Sp1-like element. We show that the -681 CpG site is recognized and repressed by Sp4, the predominant neuronal Sp1-like factor and that Sp4-induced repression is attenuated by DNA methylation, despite a stress-induced increase in PFC Sp4 levels. These results indicate that adult life stress induces DNA methylation of a conserved promoter site, antagonizing Sp4 repression to increase 5-HT1A expression. Chronic imipramine treatment fully reversed the UCMS-induced increase in methylation of the -681 CpG site in the PFC but not midbrain of stressed animals and also increased 5-HT1A expression in the PFC of control animals. Incomplete reversal by imipramine of stress-induced changes in 5-HT1A methylation and expression indicates a persistence of stress vulnerability, and that sustained reversal of behavioral impairments may require additional pathways. PMID:26188176

  4. [D2-type dopaminergic receptors and anxiety-depression-like behavior in female rats].

    PubMed

    Fedotova, Iu O

    2012-01-01

    Results of a comparative study of the effects of chronic administration of the D2-receptor agonist quinperole (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) and the D2-receptor antagonist sulpiride (10.0 mg/kg, i.p.) for 14 days on anxiety- and depressive-like behavior in key phases of the ovarian cycle in adult female rats are presented. The model of depression in rats was implemented in Porsolt test, while the anxiety level was assessed in the elevated plus maze test. It is established that the chronic administration of quinperole produced an anxiolytic action in female rats during diesrous, estrous and proestrous phases, but failed to modify depression-like behavior during the entire ovarian cycle. Sulpiride administration resulted in anxiogenic effect in all phases of the ovarian cycle. It was also found that sulpiride produced some modulation of depression-like behavior in connection to ovarian cycle phases, which was a prodepressive action at a moderate level of estrogens and an antidepressant effect at a reduced/enhanced level of estrogen. It is suggested that the extent of involvement of D2-receptors in the mechanisms of anxiety-depressive-like behavior can vary depending on alterations of the hormonal balance during the ovarian cycle. The data obtained are indicative of a close interaction between ovarian hormonal and dopaminergic systems of the brain involved in the mechanisms of anxiety and depression. PMID:22550850

  5. Superoxide dismutase overexpression protects against glucocorticoid-induced depressive-like behavioral phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Uchihara, Yuki; Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Asano, Teita; Tamura, Fumiya; Mizushima, Tohru

    2016-01-22

    In the stress response, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and particularly the release of glucocorticoids, plays a critical role. However, dysregulation of this system and sustained high plasma levels of glucocorticoids can result in depression. Recent studies have suggested the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion, in depression. However, direct evidence for a role of ROS in the pathogenesis of this disorder is lacking. In this study, using transgenic mice expressing human Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), an enzyme that catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide anions, we examined the effect of SOD1 overexpression on depressive-like behavioral phenotypes in mice. Depressive-like behaviors were induced by daily subcutaneous administration of the glucocorticoid corticosterone for 4 weeks, and was monitored with the social interaction test, the sucrose preference test and the forced swim test. These tests revealed that transgenic mice overexpressing SOD1 are more resistant to glucocorticoid-induced depressive-like behavioral disorders than wild-type animals. Furthermore, compared with wild-type mice, transgenic mice showed a reduction in the number of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (a marker of oxidative stress)-positive cells in the hippocampal CA3 region following corticosterone administration. These results suggest that overexpression of SOD1 protects mice against glucocorticoid-induced depressive-like behaviors by decreasing cellular ROS levels. PMID:26721432

  6. Fish oil improves anxiety-like, depressive-like and cognitive behaviors in olfactory bulbectomised rats.

    PubMed

    Pudell, Claudia; Vicente, Bianca A; Delattre, Ana M; Carabelli, Bruno; Mori, Marco A; Suchecki, Deborah; Machado, Ricardo B; Zanata, Sílvio M; Visentainer, Jesuí V; de Oliveira Santos Junior, Oscar; Lima, Marcelo M S; Ferraz, Anete C

    2014-01-01

    Depression is increasingly present in the population, and its pathophysiology and treatment have been investigated with several animal models, including olfactory bulbectomy (Obx). Fish oil (FO) supplementation during the prenatal and postnatal periods decreases depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors. The present study evaluated the effect of FO supplementation on Obx-induced depressive-like behavior and cognitive impairment. Female rats received supplementation with FO during habituation, mating, gestation, and lactation, and their pups were subjected to Obx in adulthood; after the recovery period, the adult offspring were subjected to behavioral tests, and the hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin (5-HT) and the metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic (5-HIAA) were determined. Obx led to increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, and impairment in the object location task. All behavioral changes were reversed by FO supplementation. Obx caused reductions in the levels of hippocampal BDNF and 5-HT, whereas FO supplementation restored these levels to normal values. In control rats, FO increased the hippocampal level of 5-HT and reduced that of 5-HIAA, indicating low 5-HT metabolism in this brain region. The present results indicate that FO supplementation during critical periods of brain development attenuated anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors and cognitive dysfunction induced by Obx. These results may be explained by increased levels of hippocampal BDNF and 5-HT, two major regulators of neuronal survival and long-term plasticity in this brain structure. PMID:24191918

  7. Changes in brain protein expression are linked to magnesium restriction-induced depression-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Nigel; Li, Lin; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Yang, Jae-Won; Sartori, Simone B; Lubec, Gert; Singewald, Nicolas

    2011-04-01

    There is evidence to suggest that low levels of magnesium (Mg) are associated with affective disorders, however, causality and central neurobiological mechanisms of this link are largely unproven. We have recently shown that mice fed a low Mg-containing diet (10% of daily requirement) display enhanced depression-like behavior sensitive to chronic antidepressant treatment. The aim of the present study was to utilize this model to gain insight into underlying mechanisms by quantifying amygdala/hypothalamus protein expression using gel-based proteomics and correlating changes in protein expression with changes in depression-like behavior. Mice fed Mg-restricted diet displayed reduced brain Mg tissue levels and altered expression of four proteins, N(G),N(G)-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1), manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) and voltage-dependent anion channel 1. The observed alterations in protein expression may indicate increased nitric oxide production, increased anti-oxidant response to increased oxidative stress and potential alteration in energy metabolism. Aberrant expressions of DDAH1, MnSOD and GDH1 were normalized by chronic paroxetine treatment which also normalized the enhanced depression-like behavior, strengthening the link between the changes in these proteins and depression-like behavior. Collectively, these findings provide first evidence of low magnesium-induced alteration in brain protein levels and biochemical pathways, contributing to central dysregulation in affective disorders. PMID:21312047

  8. Depression-Like Responses Induced by Daytime Light Deficiency in the Diurnal Grass Rat (Arvicanthis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Greg; Adidharma, Widya; Yan, Lily

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is one of the most common mood disorders with depressive symptoms recurring in winter when there is less sunlight. The fact that light is the most salient factor entraining circadian rhythms leads to the phase-shifting hypothesis, which suggests that the depressive episodes of SAD are caused by misalignments between the circadian rhythms and the habitual sleep times. However, how changes in environmental lighting conditions lead to the fluctuations in mood is largely unknown. The objective of this study is to develop an animal model for some of the features/symptoms of SAD using the diurnal grass rats Arvichantis niloticus and to explore the neural mechanisms underlying the light associated mood changes. Animals were housed in either a 12∶12 hr bright light∶dark (1000lux, BLD) or dim light∶dark (50lux, DLD) condition. The depression-like behaviors were assessed by sweet-taste Saccharin solution preference (SSP) and forced swimming test (FST). Animals in the DLD group showed higher levels of depression-like behaviors compared to those in BLD. The anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in open field and light/dark box test, however no significant differences were observed between the two groups. The involvement of the circadian system on depression-like behaviors was investigated as well. Analysis of locomotor activity revealed no major differences in daily rhythms that could possibly contribute to the depression-like behaviors. To explore the neural substrates associated with the depression-like behaviors, the brain tissues from these animals were analyzed using immunocytochemistry. Attenuated indices of 5-HT signaling were observed in DLD compared to the BLD group. The results lay the groundwork for establishing a novel animal model and a novel experimental paradigm for SAD. The results also provide insights into the neural mechanisms underlying light-dependent mood changes. PMID:23437327

  9. The bidirectional effects of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dafu; Zhou, Heng; Yang, Yuan; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Tianchao; Lv, Liang; Zhou, Qixin; Yang, Yuexiong; Dong, Xuexian; He, Jianfeng; Huang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jijun; Wu, Kunhua; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rongrong

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid hormone disorders have long been linked to depression, but the causal relationship between them remains controversial. To address this question, we established rat models of hypothyroidism using (131)iodine ((131)I) and hyperthyroidism using levothyroxine (LT4). Serum free thyroxine (FT4) and triiodothyronine (FT3) significantly decreased in the hypothyroid of rats with single injections of (131)I (5mCi/kg). These rats exhibited decreased depression-like behaviors in forced swimming test and sucrose preference tests, as well as decreased anxiety-like behaviors in an elevated plus maze. Diminished levels of brain serotonin (5-HT) and increased levels of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were found in the hypothyroid rats compared to the control saline-vehicle administered rats. LT4 treatment reversed the decrease in thyroid hormones and depression-like behaviors. In contrast, hyperthyroidism induced by weekly injections of LT4 (15μg/kg) caused a greater than 10-fold increase in serum FT4 and FT3 levels. The hyperthyroid rats exhibited higher anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, higher brain 5-HT level, and lower hippocampal BDNF levels than the controls. Treatment with the antidepressant imipramine (15mg/kg) diminished serum FT4 levels as well as anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in the hyperthyroid rats but led to a further increase in brain 5-HT levels, compared with the controls or the hypothyroid rats. Together, our results suggest that hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism have bidirectional effects on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats, possibly by modulating hippocampal BDNF levels. PMID:25623236

  10. Depressive-like behavioral response of adult male rhesus monkeys during routine animal husbandry procedure.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael B; McCowan, Brenda; Jiang, Jing; Capitanio, John P

    2014-01-01

    Social isolation is a major risk factor for the development of depressive illness; yet, no practical nonhuman primate model is available for studying processes involved in this effect. In a first study, we noted that adult male rhesus monkeys housed individually indoors occasionally exhibited a hunched, depressive-like posture. Therefore, Study 2 investigated the occurrence of a hunched posture by adult males brought from outdoor social groups to indoor individual housing. We also scored two other behaviors-lying on the substrate and day time sleeping-that convey an impression of depression. During the first week of observation following individual housing, 18 of 26 adult males exhibited the hunched posture and 21 of 26 displayed at least one depressive-like behavior. Over 2 weeks, 23 of 26 males showed depressive-like behavior during a total of only 20 min observation. Further, the behavior during the first week was positively related to the level of initial response to a maternal separation procedure experienced in infancy. In Study 3, more than half of 23 adult males of a new sample displayed depressive-like behavior during 10 min of observation each of Weeks 7-14 of individual housing. The surprisingly high frequency of depressive-like behavior in Studies 2 and 3 may have been due to recording behavior via camera with no human in the room to elicit competing responses. These results suggest that a common animal husbandry procedure might provide a practical means for examining effects of social isolation on depression-related endpoints in a nonhuman primate. The findings also suggest that trait-like differences in emotional responsiveness during separation in infancy may predict differences in responsiveness during social isolation in adulthood. PMID:25249954

  11. Depression-like responses induced by daytime light deficiency in the diurnal grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Leach, Greg; Adidharma, Widya; Yan, Lily

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is one of the most common mood disorders with depressive symptoms recurring in winter when there is less sunlight. The fact that light is the most salient factor entraining circadian rhythms leads to the phase-shifting hypothesis, which suggests that the depressive episodes of SAD are caused by misalignments between the circadian rhythms and the habitual sleep times. However, how changes in environmental lighting conditions lead to the fluctuations in mood is largely unknown. The objective of this study is to develop an animal model for some of the features/symptoms of SAD using the diurnal grass rats Arvichantis niloticus and to explore the neural mechanisms underlying the light associated mood changes. Animals were housed in either a 12∶12 hr bright light∶dark (1000lux, BLD) or dim light∶dark (50lux, DLD) condition. The depression-like behaviors were assessed by sweet-taste Saccharin solution preference (SSP) and forced swimming test (FST). Animals in the DLD group showed higher levels of depression-like behaviors compared to those in BLD. The anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in open field and light/dark box test, however no significant differences were observed between the two groups. The involvement of the circadian system on depression-like behaviors was investigated as well. Analysis of locomotor activity revealed no major differences in daily rhythms that could possibly contribute to the depression-like behaviors. To explore the neural substrates associated with the depression-like behaviors, the brain tissues from these animals were analyzed using immunocytochemistry. Attenuated indices of 5-HT signaling were observed in DLD compared to the BLD group. The results lay the groundwork for establishing a novel animal model and a novel experimental paradigm for SAD. The results also provide insights into the neural mechanisms underlying light-dependent mood changes. PMID:23437327

  12. G9a-Mediated Regulation of OXT and AVP Expression in the Basolateral Amygdala Mediates Stress-Induced Lasting Behavioral Depression and Its Reversal by Exercise.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Kyung; Lee, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Jin-Young; Choi, Juli; Kim, Hannah; Lee, Eun-Hwa; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2016-07-01

    Chronic stress produces behavioral depression. Conversely, physical exercise is held to be beneficial in the treatment of depression. Although genomic mechanisms are likely involved in these behavioral changes, underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether stress effects and their reversal by exercise occur via genomic mechanisms in the amygdala, a core part of the limbic system important for regulating mood states. Mice treated with chronic restraint showed lasting depression-like behaviors, which were counteracted by treatment with scheduled forceful exercise. Microarray analysis identified a number of genes whose expression in the amygdala was either upregulated or downregulated after repeated stress, and these changes were reversed by exercise. Of these genes, the neuropeptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) were selected as representative stress-induced and exercise-responded genes in the BLA. Stereotaxic injection of OXT or AVP receptor agonists within the BLA in normal mice produced depression-like behaviors, whereas small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated suppression of the OXT or AVP transcripts in the BLA was sufficient to block stress-induced depressive behaviors. Stress-induced depression-like behaviors were accompanied by a global reduction of G9a histone methyltransferase and H3K9me2 at the OXT and AVP promoters. Conversely, repeated exercise increased the levels of G9a and H3K9me2 at the OXT and AVP promoters in the BLA, which was associated with the suppression of OXT and AVP expressions. These results identify G9a-induced histone methylation at the OXT and AVP promoters in the BLA as a mechanism for mediating stress-induced lasting behavioral depression and its reversal by exercise. PMID:25863961

  13. A high-fat diet exacerbates depressive-like behavior in the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rat, a genetic model of depression.

    PubMed

    Abildgaard, Anders; Solskov, Lasse; Volke, Vallo; Harvey, Brian H; Lund, Sten; Wegener, Gregers

    2011-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and diabetes mellitus type II (T2DM) are two of the major health challenges of our time. It has been shown that MDD and T2DM are highly co-morbid, and recent work has proposed a bi-directional connection between the diseases. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) on behavior and metabolism in a genetic rat model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive and Resistant Line (FSL/FRL) rats. Age and weight matched rats were fed a HFD or control diet for 10 weeks and subjected to behavioral testing and metabolic assessment. We found that HFD exacerbated the depressive-like behavior of the FSL rat in the Forced Swim Test (FST), a depression screening tool, although it did not affect the non-depressed FRL rat despite a higher caloric intake. Moreover, the depressive-like phenotype was associated with reduced anxiety and impairment in novel object recognition memory, while HFD consumption led to diminished object recognition memory as well. In both strains HFD increased insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test, although fasting blood glucose levels were only significantly increased by HFD in the FSL rat, suggesting a greater metabolic susceptibility in this rat strain. We conclude that compared with the FRL rat, the FSL rat is more susceptible to developing aberrant behaviors related to depression following metabolic stress induced by HFD. Further studies with a mechanistic focus could potentially lead to a better understanding of a possible pathophysiological link between T2DM and MDD. PMID:20888697

  14. Maternal neglect with reduced depressive-like behavior and blunted c-fos activation in Brattleboro mothers, the role of central vasopressin.

    PubMed

    Fodor, Anna; Klausz, Barbara; Pintér, Ottó; Daviu, Nuria; Rabasa, Cristina; Rotllant, David; Balazsfi, Diana; Kovacs, Krisztina B; Nadal, Roser; Zelena, Dóra

    2012-09-01

    Early mother-infant relationships exert important long-term effects in offspring and are disturbed by factors such as postpartum depression. We aimed to clarify if lack of vasopressin influences maternal behavior paralleled by the development of a depressive-like phenotype. We compared vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro mothers with heterozygous and homozygous normal ones. The following parameters were measured: maternal behavior (undisturbed and separation-induced); anxiety by the elevated plus maze; sucrose and saccharin preference and forced swim behavior. Underlying brain areas were examined by c-fos immunocytochemistry among rest and after swim-stress. In another group of rats, vasopressin 2 receptor agonist was used peripherally to exclude secondary changes due to diabetes insipidus. Results showed that vasopressin-deficient rats spend less time licking-grooming their pups through a centrally driven mechanism. There was no difference between genotypes during the pup retrieval test. Vasopressin-deficient mothers tended to explore more the open arms of the plus maze, showed more preference for sucrose and saccharin and struggled more in the forced swim test, suggesting that they act as less depressive. Under basal conditions, vasopressin-deficient mothers had more c-fos expression in the medial preoptic area, shell of nucleus accumbens, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and amygdala, but not in other structures. In these areas the swim-stress-induced activation was smaller. In conclusion, vasopressin-deficiency resulted in maternal neglect due to a central effect and was protective against depressive-like behavior probably as a consequence of reduced activation of some stress-related brain structures. The conflicting behavioral data underscores the need for more sex specific studies. PMID:23006866

  15. Antagonism of κ opioid receptor in the nucleus accumbens prevents the depressive-like behaviors following prolonged morphine abstinence.

    PubMed

    Zan, Gui-Ying; Wang, Qian; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Yao; Hang, Ai; Shu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Jing-Gen

    2015-09-15

    The association between morphine withdrawal and depressive-like symptoms is well documented, however, the role of dynorphin/κ opioid receptor system and the underlying neural substrates have not been fully understood. In the present study, we found that four weeks morphine abstinence after a chronic escalating morphine regimen significantly induced depressive-like behaviors in mice. Prodynorphin mRNA and protein levels were increased in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) after four weeks of morphine withdrawal. Local injection of κ opioid receptor antagonist nor-Binaltorphimine (norBNI) in the NAc significantly blocked the expression of depressive-like behaviors without influencing general locomotor activity. Thus, the present study extends previous findings by showing that prolonged morphine withdrawal-induced depressive-like behaviors are regulated by dynorphin/κ opioid receptor system, and shed light on the κ opioid receptor antagonists as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of depressive-like behaviors induced by opiate withdrawal. PMID:26049060

  16. Long-Term Corticosterone Exposure Decreases Insulin Sensitivity and Induces Depressive-Like Behaviour in the C57BL/6NCrl Mouse

    PubMed Central

    van Donkelaar, Eva L.; Vaessen, Koen R. D.; Pawluski, Jodi L.; Sierksma, Annerieke S.; Blokland, Arjan; Cañete, Ramón; Steinbusch, Harry W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress or long-term administration of glucocorticoids disrupts the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system leading to continuous high levels of glucocorticoids and insulin resistance (IR). This pre-diabetic state can eventually develop into type 2 diabetes mellitus and has been associated with a higher risk to develop depressive disorders. The mechanisms underlying the link between chronic stress, IR and depression remains unclear. The present study aimed to establish a stress-depression model in mice to further study the effects of stress-induced changes upon insulin sensitivity and behavioural consequences. A pilot study was conducted to establish the optimal administration route and a pragmatic measurement of IR. Subsequently, 6-month-old C57BL/6NCrl mice were exposed to long-term oral corticosterone treatment via the drinking water. To evaluate insulin sensitivity changes, blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were measured at different time-points throughout treatment and mice were behaviourally assessed in the elevated zero maze (EZM), forced swimming test (FST) and open field test to reveal behavioural changes. Long-term corticosterone treatment increased body weight and decreased insulin sensitivity. The latter was revealed by a higher IR index and increased insulin in the plasma, whereas blood glucose levels remained unchanged. Corticosterone treatment induced longer immobility times in the FST, reflecting depressive-like behaviour. No effects were observed upon anxiety as measured in the EZM. The effect of the higher body weight of the CORT treated animals at time of testing did not influence behaviour in the EZM or FST, as no differences were found in general locomotor activity. Long-term corticosterone treatment via the drinking water reduces insulin sensitivity and induces depressive-like behaviour in the C57BL/6 mouse. This mouse model could thus be used to further explore the underlying mechanisms of chronic stress-induced T2DM and its

  17. Long-term corticosterone exposure decreases insulin sensitivity and induces depressive-like behaviour in the C57BL/6NCrl mouse.

    PubMed

    van Donkelaar, Eva L; Vaessen, Koen R D; Pawluski, Jodi L; Sierksma, Annerieke S; Blokland, Arjan; Cañete, Ramón; Steinbusch, Harry W M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress or long-term administration of glucocorticoids disrupts the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system leading to continuous high levels of glucocorticoids and insulin resistance (IR). This pre-diabetic state can eventually develop into type 2 diabetes mellitus and has been associated with a higher risk to develop depressive disorders. The mechanisms underlying the link between chronic stress, IR and depression remains unclear. The present study aimed to establish a stress-depression model in mice to further study the effects of stress-induced changes upon insulin sensitivity and behavioural consequences. A pilot study was conducted to establish the optimal administration route and a pragmatic measurement of IR. Subsequently, 6-month-old C57BL/6NCrl mice were exposed to long-term oral corticosterone treatment via the drinking water. To evaluate insulin sensitivity changes, blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were measured at different time-points throughout treatment and mice were behaviourally assessed in the elevated zero maze (EZM), forced swimming test (FST) and open field test to reveal behavioural changes. Long-term corticosterone treatment increased body weight and decreased insulin sensitivity. The latter was revealed by a higher IR index and increased insulin in the plasma, whereas blood glucose levels remained unchanged. Corticosterone treatment induced longer immobility times in the FST, reflecting depressive-like behaviour. No effects were observed upon anxiety as measured in the EZM. The effect of the higher body weight of the CORT treated animals at time of testing did not influence behaviour in the EZM or FST, as no differences were found in general locomotor activity. Long-term corticosterone treatment via the drinking water reduces insulin sensitivity and induces depressive-like behaviour in the C57BL/6 mouse. This mouse model could thus be used to further explore the underlying mechanisms of chronic stress-induced T2DM and its

  18. Repeated Long Separations from Pups Produces Depression-like Behavior in Rat Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Boccia, Maria L.; Razzoli, Maria; Vadlamudi, Sivaram Prasad; Trumbull, Whit; Caleffie, Christopher; Pedersen, Cort A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Long (LMS) versus brief (BMS) daily separations of rat pups from their mothers have contrasting effects on their adult stress responses and maternal behavior by respectively decreasing and increasing licking received from their mothers. We hypothesized that LMS decreases pup licking in mothers by inducing learned helplessness, creating a depression-like state. We subjected postpartum rats to LMS (3 h), BMS (15 min) or no separation (NMS) on postpartum days 2–14. After weaning, mothers were given a forced swim test (FST). LMS mothers exhibited more immobility and fewer escape attempts than BMS or NMS mothers. These results suggest that LMS induces a depression-like state, which may account for the reductions in maternal behavior seen in LMS mothers. Immobility in the FST is recognized as an animal model of depression. Therefore, LMS may be a model of maternal depression. PMID:17118566

  19. Pycnogenol ameliorates depression-like behavior in repeated corticosterone-induced depression mice model.

    PubMed

    Mei, Lin; Mochizuki, Miyako; Hasegawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be a mechanism of major depression. Pycnogenol (PYC) is a natural plant extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster Aiton and has potent antioxidant activities. We studied the ameliorative effect of PYC on depression-like behavior in chronic corticosterone- (CORT-) treated mice for 20 days. After the end of the CORT treatment period, PYC (0.2 mg/mL) was orally administered in normal drinking water. Depression-like behavior was investigated by the forced swimming test. Immobility time was significantly longer by CORT exposure. When the CORT-treated mice were supplemented with PYC, immobility time was significantly shortened. Our results indicate that orally administered PYC may serve to reduce CORT-induced stress by radical scavenging activity. PMID:24901001

  20. Effect of Antidepressants on Immunological Reactivity in ASC Mice with Genetically Determined Depression-Like State.

    PubMed

    Gevorgyan, M M; Idova, G V; Al'perina, E L; Tikhonova, M A; Kulikov, A V

    2016-06-01

    The effect of chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) and imipramine (25 mg/kg) on the number of antibody-producing cells and the main T cell subpopulations in ASC mice characterized by genetic predisposition to depression-like states was studied at the peak of the SE-induced immune response (5×10(8)). Fluoxetine produced an immunostimulatory effect manifested in an increase in the relative and absolute number of IgM antibody-producing cells in the spleen and index of immunoreactivity (CD4/CD8). Administration of fl uoxetine to parental mouse strains without depression (CBA and AKR) had no effect (CBA) or reduced the immune response. The CD4/CD8 ratio did not increase under these conditions. Imipramine was ineffective in the correction of immune reactions in a depression-like state. PMID:27383160

  1. The Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH) System in an Animal Model of Depression-Like Behavior

    PubMed Central

    García-Fuster, M.J.; Parks, G.S.; Clinton, S.M.; Watson, S.J.; Akil, H.; Civelli, O.

    2011-01-01

    Selective breeding for divergence in locomotion in a novel environment (bHR, bred High-Responder; bLR, bred Low-Responder) correlates with stress-reactivity, spontaneous anxiety-like behaviors and predicts vulnerability in a rodent model of depression. Identifying genetic factors that may account for such vulnerability are key determinants not only for the illness outcome but also for the development of better-tailored treatment options. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide that exhibits some of the hallmarks of a regulator of affective states. The aim of this study was to ascertain the role of the MCH system in depression-like behaviors in bHR vs. bLR rats. bLR rats showed a 44% increase in hypothalamic pMCH mRNA and a 14% decrease in hippocampal CA1 MCH1R mRNA when compared to bHR rats. Interestingly, the amount of time that rats spent immobile in the FST (depressive-like behavior) correlated positively with the amount of hypothalamic pMCH mRNA and negatively with that of hippocampal CA1 MCH1R. The results indicate that the bLR-bHR is a useful rat model to investigate individual basal genetic differences that participate in the monitoring of emotional responsiveness (i.e., depression- and anxiety-like behaviors). They also point to the MCH system (i.e., chronically higher pMCH expression and consequently receptor down-regulation) as a candidate biomarker for the severity of depressive-like behavior. The data indicate that MCH1R participates in the modulation of depression-like behavior through a process that involves the CA1 region of the hippocampus, supporting the possible use of MCH1R antagonists in the treatment of depression. PMID:22209364

  2. Microglia activation is associated with IFN-α induced depressive-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Wachholz, Simone; Eßlinger, Manuela; Plümper, Jennifer; Manitz, Marie-Pierre; Juckel, Georg; Friebe, Astrid

    2016-07-01

    Inflammatory immune activation has been frequently associated with the development of major depression. This association was confirmed in patients receiving long-term treatment with pro-inflammatory interferon-α (IFN-α). Microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, might serve as an important interface in this immune system-to-brain communication. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of microglia in an IFN-α mouse model of immune-mediated depression. Male BALB/c mice were treated with daily injections of IFN-α for two weeks. Depressive-like behavior was analyzed in the forced swim and tail suspension test. Activation of microglia was measured by flow cytometry. Pro-inflammatory M1 type (MHC-II, CD40, CD54, CD80, CD86, CCR7), anti-inflammatory M2 type (CD206, CD200R), and maturation markers (CD11c, CCR7) were tested, as well as the chemokine receptor CCR2. IFN-α led to a significant increase in depressive-like behavior and expression of the pro-inflammatory surface markers MHC-II, CD86, and CD54, indicating M1 polarization. Because IFN-α-treated mice showed great individual variance in the behavioral response to IFN-α, they were further divided into vulnerable and non-vulnerable subgroups. Only IFN-α vulnerable mice (characterized by their development of depressive-like behavior in response to IFN-α) showed an increased expression of MHC-II and CD86, while CD54 was similarly enhanced in both subgroups. Thus, IFN-α-induced activation of microglia was specifically associated with depressive-like behavior. PMID:26408795

  3. TCM Formula Xiaoyaosan Decoction Improves Depressive-Like Behaviors in Rats with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Liu, Qun; Li, Xiao-Juan; Bai, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Yue-Yun; Zhao, Hong-Bo; Jin, Zhong-Ye; Jing, Yu-Xia; Yan, Zhi-Yi; Chen, Jia-Xu

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of depression with type 2 diabetes remains elusive, requiring further study. Objective. To evaluate the effect of TCM formula Xiaoyaosan on depressive-like behaviors in rats with type 2 diabetes. Methods. Rats were divided into 5 groups and drugs were administered during the model period of 21 days. The model of depressive-like behaviors in rats with type 2 diabetes was induced by a high fat diet, low doses of STZ injection, and chronic restraint stress for 21 days. The body weight, fasting blood glucose, ITT, OGTT, 5-HT, DA, depression behaviors, and morphological changes of formation were measured and observed. Results. After modeling, marked changes were found in model rats; behavioral analyses of rats indicated that this modeling method negatively impacts locomotor function. In the H&E staining, changes were found predominately in the CA1 and DG subregions of the hippocampus. After 21 days of treatment by fluoxetine and Xiaoyaosan, rats' body weights, behaviors and fasting blood glucose, and hippocampal formation were modified. Conclusions. A new model of depressive-like behaviors in rats with type 2 diabetes was successfully created. Xiaoyaosan and fluoxetine in this study independently contribute to exacerbate the disease progression. PMID:26508978

  4. Glial dysfunction in the mouse habenula causes depressive-like behaviors and sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wanpeng; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Yanagisawa, Michiko; Aida, Tomomi; Nomura, Masatoshi; Isomura, Yoshikazu; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Ozawa, Keiya; Tanaka, Kohichi; Aizawa, Hidenori

    2014-12-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) regulates the activity of monoaminergic neurons in the brainstem. This area has recently attracted a surge of interest in psychiatry because studies have reported the pathological activation of the habenula in patients with major depression and in animal models. The LHb plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of depression; however, how habenular neurons are activated to cause various depression symptoms, such as reduced motivation and sleep disturbance, remain unclear. We hypothesized that dysfunctional astrocytes may cause LHb hyperactivity due to the defective uptake activity of extracellular glutamate, which induces depressive-like behaviors. We examined the activity of neurons in habenular pathways and performed behavioral and sleep analyses in mice with pharmacological and genetic inhibition of the activity of the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1 in the LHb. The habenula-specific inhibition of GLT-1 increased the neuronal firing rate and the level of c-Fos expression in the LHb. Mice with reduced GLT-1 activity in the habenula exhibited a depressive-like phenotype in the tail suspension and novelty-suppressed feeding tests. These animals also displayed increased susceptibility to chronic stress, displaying more frequent avoidant behavior without affecting locomotor activity in the open-field test. Intriguingly, the mice showed disinhibition of rapid eye movement sleep, which is a characteristic sleep pattern in patients with depression. These results provide evidence that disrupting glutamate clearance in habenular astrocytes increases neuronal excitability and depressive-like phenotypes in behaviors and sleep. PMID:25471567

  5. Hippocampal neurogenesis dysfunction linked to depressive-like behaviors in a neuroinflammation induced model of depression.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ming-Ming; Lin, Wen-Juan; Pan, Yu-Qin; Guan, Xi-Ting; Li, Ying-Cong

    2016-07-01

    Our previous work found that triple central lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration could induce depressive-like behaviors and increased central pro-inflammatory cytokines mRNA, hippocampal cytokine mRNA in particular. Since several neuroinflammation-associated conditions have been reported to impair neurogenesis, in this study, we further investigated whether the neuroinflammation induced depression would be associated with hippocampal neurogenesis dysfunction. An animal model of depression induced by triple central lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration was used. In the hippocampus, the neuroinflammatory state evoked by LPS was marked by an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. It was found that rats in the neuroinflammatory state exhibited depressive-like behaviors, including reduced saccharin preference and locomotor activity as well as increased immobility time in the tail suspension test and latency to feed in the novelty suppressed feeding test. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was concomitantly inhibited, including decreased cell proliferation and newborn cell survival. We also demonstrated that the decreased hippocampal neurogenesis in cell proliferation was significantly correlated with the depressive-like phenotypes of decreased saccharine preference and distance travelled, the core and characteristic symptoms of depression, under neuro inflammation state. These findings provide the first evidence that hippocampal neurogenesis dysfunction is correlated with neuroinflammation-induced depression, which suggests that hippocampal neurogenesis might be one of biological mechanisms underlying depression induced by neruoinflammation. PMID:27106565

  6. Increased depression-like behaviors with dysfunctions in the stress axis and the reward center by free access to highly palatable food.

    PubMed

    Park, E; Kim, J Y; Lee, J-H; Jahng, J W

    2014-03-14

    This study was conducted to examine the behavioral consequences of unlimited consumption of highly palatable food (HPF) and investigate its underlying neural mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats had free access to chocolate cookie rich in fat (HPF) in addition to ad libitum chow and the control group received chow only. Rats were subjected to behavioral tests during the 2nd week of food condition; i.e. ambulatory activity test on the 8th, elevated plus maze test (EPM) on the 10th and forced swim test (FST) on the 14th day of food condition. After 8 days of food condition, another group of rats were placed in a restraint box and tail bloods were collected at 0, 20, 60, and 120 time points during 2h of restraint period, used for the plasma corticosterone assay. At the end of restraint session, rats were sacrificed and the tissue sections of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) were processed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry. Ambulatory activities and the scores of EPM were not significantly affected by unlimited cookie consumption. However, immobility duration during FST was increased, and swim decreased, in the rats received free cookie access compared with control rats. Stress-induced corticosterone increase was exaggerated in cookie-fed rats, while the stress-induced c-Fos expression in the NAc was blunted, compared to control rats. Results suggest that free access to HPF may lead to the development of depression-like behaviors in rats, likely in relation with dysfunctions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the reward center. PMID:24406442

  7. Linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA ameliorates stress-induced depression-related behavior by promoting cell surface 5-HT1A receptor translocation, stimulating serotonin release, and inactivating GSK-3β.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Takeshi; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2015-04-01

    Impairment of serotonergic neurotransmission is the major factor responsible for depression and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) participates in serotonergic transmission-mediated signaling networks relevant to mental illnesses. In the forced-swim test to assess depression-like behavior, the immobility time for mice with restraint stress was significantly longer than that for nonstressed control mice. Postsynaptic cell surface localization of 5-HT1A receptor, but not 5-HT2A receptor, in the hypothalamus for mice with restraint stress was significantly reduced as compared with that for control mice, which highly correlated to prolonged immobility time, i.e., depression-like behavior. The linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) restored restraint stress-induced reduction of cell surface 5-HT1A receptor and improved depression-like behavior in mice with restraint stress. Moreover, DCP-LA stimulated serotonin release from hypothalamic slices and cancelled restraint stress-induced reduction of GSK-3β phosphorylation at Ser9. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that DCP-LA could ameliorate depression-like behavior by promoting translocation of 5-HT1A receptor to the plasma membrane on postsynaptic cells, stimulating serotonin release, and inactivating GSK-3β. PMID:24788685

  8. Chronic oral treatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin) or all-trans-retinoic acid does not alter depression-like behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sherry A; Cisneros, F Javier; Gough, B; Hanig, Joseph P; Berry, Kimberly J

    2005-10-01

    Oral treatment with the anti-acne drug Accutane (isotretinoin, 13-cis-retinoic acid) has been associated with suicide ideation and depression. Here, depression-like behaviors (i.e., behavioral despair and anhedonia) were quantified in adult Sprague-Dawley rats gavaged daily beginning at postnatal day (PND) 82 with 13-cis-RA (7.5 or 22.5 mg/kg) or all-trans-retinoic acid (10 or 15 mg/kg ). Tested at PND 130-131 in the Forced Swim Test, 7.5 mg/kg 13-cis-RA marginally decreased immobility and slightly increased climb/struggle durations whereas neither all-trans-retinoic acid group differed from controls. Voluntary saccharin solution (0.03%) intake at PND 102-104 and PND 151-153 was not different from controls in any treated group, although all RA-treated groups had lower intakes. Swim speed in a water maze at PND 180 was similar across groups, indicating no RA-induced differences in physical ability. Open field activity was mildly decreased at PND 91 in 7.5 mg/kg-treated males only, but it was within the control range at PND 119, 147, and 175. Thus, at serum levels similar to those in humans receiving the drug, chronic 13-cis-RA treatment did not severely affect depression-like behaviors in rats. These data do not substantiate the hypothesis of 13-cis-RA-induced depression. PMID:16033993

  9. GAD65 haplodeficiency conveys resilience in animal models of stress-induced psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Iris; Obata, Kunihiko; Richter-Levin, Gal; Stork, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    GABAergic mechanisms are critically involved in the control of fear and anxiety, but their role in the development of stress-induced psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mood disorders is not sufficiently understood. We studied these functions in two established mouse models of risk factors for stress-induced psychopathologies employing variable juvenile stress and/or social isolation. A battery of emotional tests in adulthood revealed the induction of contextually generalized fear, anxiety, hyperarousal and depression-like symptoms in these paradigms. These reflect the multitude and complexity of stress effects in human PTSD patients. With factor analysis we were able to identify parameters that reflect these different behavioral domains in stressed animals and thus provide a basis for an integrated scoring of affectedness more closely resembling the clinical situation than isolated parameters. To test the applicability of these models to genetic approaches we further tested the role of GABA using heterozygous mice with targeted mutation of the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD65 [GAD65(+/−) mice], which show a delayed postnatal increase in tissue GABA content in limbic and cortical brain areas. Unexpectedly, GAD65(+/−) mice did not show changes in exploratory activity regardless of the stressor type and were after the variable juvenile stress procedure protected from the development of contextual generalization in an auditory fear conditioning experiment. Our data demonstrate the complex nature of behavioral alterations in rodent models of stress-related psychopathologies and suggest that GAD65 haplodeficiency, likely through its effect on the postnatal maturation of GABAergic transmission, conveys resilience to some of these stress-induced effects. PMID:25147515

  10. Stress-Induced Cardiomyopathy Presenting as Shock

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae Kyung; Lee, Jong-Young; Oh, Sam Sae; Song, Young Seok; Lee, Seung Jae; Ko, Kyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Stress-induced cardiomyopathy has become a more recognized and reported entity. It can be caused by emotional or physical stress, which causes excessive catecholamine release. Typically, the clinical course is benign with conservative treatment being effective. However, stress-induced cardiomyopathy can be fatal. A 41-year-old female presented with cardiogenic shock followed by sudden back pain. Initial echocardiographic finding showed severely decreased ejection fraction with akinesia at all mid-to-apical walls with relatively preserved basal wall contractility. The coronary artery was intact on coronary angiography. Cardiac resuscitation and extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation was needed to manage the cardiogenic shock. Recovery was complete after 2 weeks. PMID:27081451

  11. Alcohol Induced Depressive-Like Behavior is Associated with a Reduction in Hippocampal BDNF

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Getachew, Bruk; Taylor, Robert E.; Tizabi, Yousef

    2011-01-01

    Strong positive correlation between depression and alcoholism is evident in epidemiological reports. However, a causal relationship for this co-morbidity has not been established. We have observed that chronic daily exposure to a relatively high dose of alcohol can induce depressive-like behavior in rats and that pretreatment with nomifensine or imipramine can block the “depressogenic” effects of alcohol. Since brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is considered to play an important role in depressive-like behaviors and its elevation, particularly in the hippocampus, appears to be critical for the action of many antidepressants, we hypothesized that: 1. WKY rats, a putative animal model of depression, will show a lower hippocampal BDNF compared to their control Wistar rats, 2. Alcohol-induced depressive like behavior will be associated with a significant decrease in hippocampal BDNF and 3. Treatments with antidepressants will normalize hippocampal BDNF. These postulates were verified by measuring hippocampal BDNF in Wistar and WKY rats at baseline, following chronic (10 day) treatment with alcohol and combination of alcohol with nomifensine or imipramine. Alcohol was administered via inhalation chamber (3 hr/day) such that a blood alcohol level of approximately 150 mg% was achieved. Nomifensine (10 mg/kg) or impiramine (10 mg/kg) were administered i.p daily immediately after alcohol exposure. BDNF was measured by standard Elisa kit. The results support a role for central BDNF in depressogenic effects of alcohol and antidepressant effects of nomifensine and imipramine. Moreover, depression per se as manifested in WKY rats may be associated with a reduction in hippocampal BDNF. PMID:21930150

  12. Stimulation of Sigma-1 Receptor Ameliorates Depressive-like Behaviors in CaMKIV Null Mice.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Shigeki; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Yabuki, Yasushi; Sasaki, Yuzuru; Izumi, Hisanao; Zhang, Chen; Han, Feng; Fukunaga, Kohji

    2015-12-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is a molecular chaperone regulating calcium efflux from the neuronal endoplasmic reticulum to the mitochondria. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) null mice exhibit depressive-like behaviors and impaired neurogenesis as assessed by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation into newborn cells of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Here, we demonstrate that chronic stimulation of Sig-1R by treatment with the agonist SA4503 or the SSRI fluvoxamine for 14 days improves depressive-like behaviors in CaMKIV null mice. By contrast, treatment with paroxetine, which lacks affinity for Sig-1R, did not alter these behaviors. Reduced numbers of BrdU-positive cells and decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression and protein kinase B (Akt; Ser-473) phosphorylation seen in the DG of CaMKIV null mice were significantly rescued by chronic Sig-1R stimulation. Interestingly, reduced ATP production observed in the DG of CaMKIV null mice was improved by chronic Sig-1R stimulation. Such stimulation also improved hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) induction and maintenance, which are impaired in the DG of CaMKIV null mice. LTP rescue was closely associated with both increases in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) autophosphorylation and GluA1 (Ser-831) phosphorylation. Taken together, Sig-1R stimulation by SA4503 or fluvoxamine treatment increased hippocampal neurogenesis, which is closely associated with amelioration of depressive-like behaviors in CaMKIV null mice. PMID:25316382

  13. Depression-like behavior in subclinical hypothyroidism rat induced by hemi-thyroid electrocauterization.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin-Fang; Peng, Yun-Yun; Qi, Cong-Cong; Chen, Fang-Han; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the depression-like behavior performances of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) rat. SCH rat model was induced by hemi-thyroid electrocauterization, and the behavior performances were measured by sucrose preference test, force swimming test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST). SCH rat model was established successfully by hemi-thyroid electrocauterization. In the behavior tasks, SCH rats displayed depression-like behavior were indicated as a significant elevation of immobility time in both the TST and FST, though the sucrose preference was not significantly decreased. The index of left adrenal cortex in both SCH and clinical hypothyroidism (CH) group significantly increased, and many large lipid vacuoles were observed in the zona fasciculata cells. The serum corticosterone concentration and hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA expression 2 h after behavior test was markedly up-regulated in CH rats, but not SCH rats, indicated that SCH induced a less impairment of HPA axis than CH did. The important finding of this study was that the concentration of hippocampal T3 was lower in SCH group than that of the sham group. Furthermore, the results of Pearson correlation test showed that the immobility behaviors in TST and FST were both negatively correlated with hippocampal T3 concentration. Taking together, our results indicated that SCH could result in depression-like behavior, accompanied with subtle hyperactivity of HPA axis. The reduced hippocampal T3 prior to the reduction of thyroid hormone in serum might be taken as an early sign of hippocampus impairment in the progression from SCH to CH. PMID:23794115

  14. Vmat2 Heterozygous Mutant Mice Display a Depressive-Like Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Masato; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Zhou, Jiechun; Jiang, Sara X.; Phillips, Lindsey E.; Caron, Marc G.; Wetsel, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is localized primarily within the CNS and is responsible for transporting monoamines from the cytoplasm into secretory vesicles. Because reserpine (a VMAT inhibitor) can precipitate depressive-like symptoms in humans, we investigated whether Vmat2 heterozygous (HET) mice present with depressive-like behaviors. The mutants showed locomotor and rearing retardation in the open field and appeared anhedonic to 1 and 1.5% sucrose solutions. Immobility times for Vmat2 heterozygotes were prolonged in forced swim and imipramine normalized this behavior. HET animals also showed enhanced immobility in tail suspension and this response was alleviated by fluoxetine, reboxetine, and bupropion. Stimulated GTPγS binding indicated that α2-adrenergic receptors in HET hippocampus were more sensitive to UK 14,304 (5-bromo-N-(4,5-dihydro-1-H-imidazol-2-yl)-6-quinoxalinamine) stimulation than in wild type (WT) mice. In learned helplessness, mice were exposed to a shuttle box for 4 d or were given inescapable foot-shocks for the same time period. On day 5, all animals were tested in shock escape. Failure rates and the latency to escape were similar for WT and HET mice that were only pre-exposed to the test apparatus. In foot-shock groups, learned helplessness was more robust in heterozygotes than in WT controls. Basal secretion of serum corticosterone was not distinguished by genotype; however, corticosterone levels in mutants were more responsive to stress. Anxiety-like responses of WT and HET animals in the open field, light-dark exploration, zero maze, and novelty-suppressed feeding tests were indistinguishable. Collectively, these findings suggest that Vmat2 heterozygotes display a depressive-like phenotype that is devoid of anxiety-like behavior. PMID:17898223

  15. Mouse Models for Studying Depression-Like States and Antidepressant Drugs.

    PubMed

    Bergner, Carisa L; Smolinsky, Amanda N; Hart, Peter C; Dufour, Brett D; Egan, Rupert J; LaPorte, Justin L; Kalueff, Allan V

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common psychiatric disorder, with diverse symptoms and high comorbidity with other brain dysfunctions. Due to this complexity, little is known about the neural and genetic mechanisms involved in depression pathogenesis. In a large proportion of patients, current antidepressant treatments are often ineffective and/or have undesirable side effects, fueling the search for more effective drugs. Animal models mimicking various symptoms of depression are indispensable in studying the biological mechanisms of this disease. Here, we summarize several popular methods for assessing depression-like symptoms in mice, and their utility in screening antidepressant drugs. PMID:27150095

  16. A neuroendocrine mechanism of co-morbidity of depression-like behavior and myocardial injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Xinxing, Wang; Wei, Liu; Lei, Wu; Rui, Zhan; Baoying, Jin; Lingjia, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Depression is generally a recurrent psychiatric disorder. Evidence shows that depression and cardiovascular diseases are common comorbid conditions, but the specific pathological mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) on myocardial injury and to further elucidate the biological mechanism of depression. Rats were used as a model. The CUMS procedure lasted for a total of 8 weeks. After 4 weeks of CUMS, treated rats exhibited a reduced sucrose preference and changes in scores on an open field test, body weight and content of 5-HT in the brain as compared with the values of these variables in controls. These changes indicated depression-like changes in CUMS rats and demonstrated the feasibility of the depression model. In addition, pathological changes in the myocardium and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis demonstrated that myocardial injury had occurred after 6 weeks of CUMS and had increased significantly by the end of 8 weeks of CUMS. Plasma serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E), all depression-related neuroendocrine factors, were measured by HPLC-ECD techniques, and the content of plasma corticosterone (GC) was evaluated by an I(125)-cortisol radioactivity immunoassay in control and CUMS rats. The results indicated that 5-HT had decreased, whereas NE, E and GC had increased in CUMS rats, and these factors might be associated with depression-induced myocardial injury. The effects of 5-HT, NE and GC on the survival rate of cultured cardiomyocytes were determined using an orthogonal design. The results showed that 5-HT was a more important factor affecting cell survival than GC or NE. The results suggested that normal blood levels of 5-HT had a cytoprotective effect. The neuroendocrine disorders characterized by decreased 5-HT combined with increased GC and NE mediated the occurrence of depression-induced myocardial injury. PMID:24551098

  17. A Neuroendocrine Mechanism of Co-Morbidity of Depression-Like Behavior and Myocardial Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wu; Rui, Zhan; Baoying, Jin; Lingjia, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Depression is generally a recurrent psychiatric disorder. Evidence shows that depression and cardiovascular diseases are common comorbid conditions, but the specific pathological mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) on myocardial injury and to further elucidate the biological mechanism of depression. Rats were used as a model. The CUMS procedure lasted for a total of 8 weeks. After 4 weeks of CUMS, treated rats exhibited a reduced sucrose preference and changes in scores on an open field test, body weight and content of 5-HT in the brain as compared with the values of these variables in controls. These changes indicated depression-like changes in CUMS rats and demonstrated the feasibility of the depression model. In addition, pathological changes in the myocardium and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis demonstrated that myocardial injury had occurred after 6 weeks of CUMS and had increased significantly by the end of 8 weeks of CUMS. Plasma serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E), all depression-related neuroendocrine factors, were measured by HPLC-ECD techniques, and the content of plasma corticosterone (GC) was evaluated by an I125–cortisol radioactivity immunoassay in control and CUMS rats. The results indicated that 5-HT had decreased, whereas NE, E and GC had increased in CUMS rats, and these factors might be associated with depression-induced myocardial injury. The effects of 5-HT, NE and GC on the survival rate of cultured cardiomyocytes were determined using an orthogonal design. The results showed that 5-HT was a more important factor affecting cell survival than GC or NE. The results suggested that normal blood levels of 5-HT had a cytoprotective effect. The neuroendocrine disorders characterized by decreased 5-HT combined with increased GC and NE mediated the occurrence of depression-induced myocardial injury. PMID:24551098

  18. Gut microbiome remodeling induces depressive-like behaviors through a pathway mediated by the host's metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zheng, P; Zeng, B; Zhou, C; Liu, M; Fang, Z; Xu, X; Zeng, L; Chen, J; Fan, S; Du, X; Zhang, X; Yang, D; Yang, Y; Meng, H; Li, W; Melgiri, N D; Licinio, J; Wei, H; Xie, P

    2016-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the result of complex gene-environment interactions. According to the World Health Organization, MDD is the leading cause of disability worldwide, and it is a major contributor to the overall global burden of disease. However, the definitive environmental mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of MDD remain elusive. The gut microbiome is an increasingly recognized environmental factor that can shape the brain through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. We show here that the absence of gut microbiota in germ-free (GF) mice resulted in decreased immobility time in the forced swimming test relative to conventionally raised healthy control mice. Moreover, from clinical sampling, the gut microbiotic compositions of MDD patients and healthy controls were significantly different with MDD patients characterized by significant changes in the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Fecal microbiota transplantation of GF mice with 'depression microbiota' derived from MDD patients resulted in depression-like behaviors compared with colonization with 'healthy microbiota' derived from healthy control individuals. Mice harboring 'depression microbiota' primarily exhibited disturbances of microbial genes and host metabolites involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. This study demonstrates that dysbiosis of the gut microbiome may have a causal role in the development of depressive-like behaviors, in a pathway that is mediated through the host's metabolism. PMID:27067014

  19. Chronic retinoic acid treatment suppresses adult hippocampal neurogenesis, in close correlation with depressive-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pu; Wang, Yu; Liu, Ji; Meng, Fan-Tao; Qi, Xin-Rui; Chen, Lin; van Dam, Anne-Marie; Joëls, Marian; Lucassen, Paul J; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2016-07-01

    Clinical studies have highlighted an association between retinoid treatment and depressive symptoms. As we had shown before that chronic application of all-trans retinoic acid (RA) potently activated the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis, we here questioned whether RA also induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a form of structural plasticity sensitive to stress and implicated in aspects of depression and hippocampal function. RA was applied intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) to adult rats for 19 days after which animals were subjected to tests for depressive-like behavior (sucrose preference) and spatial learning and memory (water maze) performance. On day 27, adult hippocampal neurogenesis and astrogliosis was quantified using BrdU (newborn cell survival), PCNA (proliferation), doublecortin (DCX; neuronal differentiation), and GFAP (astrocytes) as markers. RA was found to increase retinoic acid receptor-α (RAR-α) protein expression in the hippocampus, suggesting an activation of RA-induced signaling mechanisms. RA further potently suppressed cell proliferation, newborn cell survival as well as neurogenesis, but not astrogliosis. These structural plasticity changes were significantly correlated with scores for anhedonia, a core symptom of depression, but not with water maze performance. Our results suggest that RA-induced impairments in hippocampal neurogenesis correlate with depression-like symptoms but not with spatial learning and memory in this design. Thus, manipulations aimed to enhance neurogenesis may help ameliorate emotional aspects of RA-associated mood disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26860546

  20. Depression-like behavior and reduced plasma testosterone levels in the senescence-accelerated mouse.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Nobuaki; Koushi, Emi; Okuno, Ryoko; Shirakawa, Atsunori; Mishima, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Oishi, Ryozo; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2010-05-01

    During aging, levels of testosterone gradually decline in men and low levels of testosterone in aged men are accompanied by increased incidence of depressive disorders. The senescence-accelerated-prone mouse 10 (SAMP10) is well known as an animal model of aging. The purpose of this study was to investigate the motor function, anxiety levels, depression-related emotional responses, attentional function and plasma levels of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in SAMP10. SAMP10 exhibited a significant prolongation of immobility time compared to that of the aged-matched control senescence-accelerated-resistant mouse 1 (SAMR1) in the tail suspension test for measuring depression. Moreover, significant low levels of plasma testosterone but not DHEA were found in SAMP10, and the testosterone levels were inversely correlated with the depression-like behavior. By contrast, we did not observe any significant differences between SAMP10 and SAMR1 in the open-field, rota-rod, elevated plus-maze, marble-burying behavior, or prepulse inhibition test. The results of the present study indicate that testosterone may play an important role in the depression-like behavior in SAMP10. PMID:20117148

  1. Sex-Dependent Depression-Like Behavior Induced by Respiratory Administration of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Xu, Yan; Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Chengcheng; Meng, Qingtao; Wu, Shenshen; Wang, Shizhi; Ding, Zhen; Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaobo; Chen, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafine aluminum oxide, which are abundant in ambient and involved occupational environments, are associated with neurobehavioral alterations. However, few studies have focused on the effect of sex differences following exposure to environmental Al2O3 ultrafine particles. In the present study, male and female mice were exposed to Al2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) through a respiratory route. Only the female mice showed depression-like behavior. Although no obvious pathological changes were observed in mice brain tissues, the neurotransmitter and voltage-gated ion channel related gene expression, as well as the small molecule metabolites in the cerebral cortex, were differentially modulated between male and female mice. Both mental disorder-involved gene expression levels and metabolomics analysis results strongly suggested that glutamate pathways were implicated in sex differentiation induced by Al2O3 NPs. Results demonstrated the potential mechanism of environmental ultrafine particle-induced depression-like behavior and the importance of sex dimorphism in the toxic research of environmental chemicals. PMID:26690197

  2. Environmental enrichment ameliorates depressive-like symptoms in young rats bred for learned helplessness.

    PubMed

    Richter, S Helene; Zeuch, Benjamin; Riva, Marco A; Gass, Peter; Vollmayr, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of major depression is known to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. In the current study, we therefore set out to investigate depressive-like behavior and its modification by environmental enrichment using rats bred for 'learned helplessness'. 45 males of congenitally helpless (cLH, n=22) and non-helpless (cNLH, n=23) rats of two different generations were used to systematically investigate differential effects of environmental enrichment on learned helpless behavior, anhedonic-like behavior (sweetened condensed milk consumption) and spontaneous behavior in the home cage. While enrichment was found to reduce learned helpless behavior in 14 weeks old, but not 28 weeks old cLH rats, it did not affect the consumption of sweetened condensed milk. Regarding the home cage behavior, no consistent changes between rats of different strains, housing conditions, and ages were observed. We could thus demonstrate that a genetic predisposition for learned helplessness may interact with environmental conditions in mediating some, but not all depressive-like symptoms in congenitally learned helpless rats. However, future efforts are needed to isolate the differential benefits of environmental factors in mediating the different depression-related symptoms. PMID:23791932

  3. Social isolation differentially affects anxiety and depressive-like responses of bulbectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Linge, Raquel; Pazos, Ángel; Díaz, Álvaro

    2013-05-15

    Social isolation in rodents may interfere in their behavioural responses on paradigms used to test anxiety- and depressive-like states. Herein we study the influence of social isolation upon the behavioural responses of olfactory bulbectomized mice (OBX). In the open-field test (OFT), social isolation enhanced OBX-induced hyperactivity and exploratory behaviour. However, OBX-induced anxiety in the OFT (central activity) was less apparent after isolation, due to the increased level of anxiety showed by the sham-isolated counterparts. In the novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF), isolation derived in an increased latency to feeding of both OBX and sham mice. The isolation did not affect the response of OBX mice and sham mice in the forced-swimming test (FST). Interestingly, OBX animals exhibited an increased immobility time during the FST, though a dramatic decrease in the climbing scores. Finally, OBX-induced anhedonia in the sucrose intake test was not affected by housing conditions. Our findings demonstrate that social isolation influences the performance of OBX mice in some behavioural paradigms, thus facilitating the characterization of depressive-like states, and by contrast, hindering anxiety-related behaviours. This fact should be taken into account in order to minimize economical and time-consuming efforts when assessing potential antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs. PMID:23416113

  4. Sex-Dependent Depression-Like Behavior Induced by Respiratory Administration of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Xu, Yan; Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Chengcheng; Meng, Qingtao; Wu, Shenshen; Wang, Shizhi; Ding, Zhen; Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaobo; Chen, Rui

    2015-12-01

    Ultrafine aluminum oxide, which are abundant in ambient and involved occupational environments, are associated with neurobehavioral alterations. However, few studies have focused on the effect of sex differences following exposure to environmental Al₂O₃ ultrafine particles. In the present study, male and female mice were exposed to Al₂O₃ nanoparticles (NPs) through a respiratory route. Only the female mice showed depression-like behavior. Although no obvious pathological changes were observed in mice brain tissues, the neurotransmitter and voltage-gated ion channel related gene expression, as well as the small molecule metabolites in the cerebral cortex, were differentially modulated between male and female mice. Both mental disorder-involved gene expression levels and metabolomics analysis results strongly suggested that glutamate pathways were implicated in sex differentiation induced by Al₂O₃ NPs. Results demonstrated the potential mechanism of environmental ultrafine particle-induced depression-like behavior and the importance of sex dimorphism in the toxic research of environmental chemicals. PMID:26690197

  5. Imipramine reverses depressive-like parameters in pneumococcal meningitis survivor rats.

    PubMed

    Barichello, Tatiana; Milioli, Graziele; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Cipriano, Andreza L; Costa, Caroline S; Moreira, Ana Paula; Vilela, Márcia Carvalho; Comim, Clarissa M; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio; Quevedo, João

    2012-06-01

    Pneumococcal meningitis is a severe infectious disease of the central nervous system, associated with acute inflammation and might cause damage to the host, such as deafness, blindness, seizure, and learning deficits. However, infectious diseases can play a significant role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disturbances. In this context, we evaluated depressive-like parameters; corticosterone and ACTH levels in pneumococcal meningitis surviving rats. Wistar rats underwent a magna cistern tap receiving either 10 μL sterile saline or a Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension at the concentration of 5 × 10(9) cfu/mL. After 3 days of meningitis induction procedure, the animals were treated with imipramine at 10 mg/kg or saline for 14 days (3rd-17th day). The consumption of sweet food was measured for 7 days (10th-17th day). The meningitis group decreased the sucrose intake and increased the levels of corticosterone and ACTH levels in the serum and TNF-α in the cortex; however, the treatment with imipramine reverted the reduction of sweet food consumption, normalized hormonal levels and TNF-α in the cortex. Our results supported the hypothesis that the pneumococcal meningitis surviving rats showed depressive-like behavior and alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:22160551

  6. Prenatal exposure to nanoparticulate titanium dioxide enhances depressive-like behaviors in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yonghua; Chen, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Zhu; Lei, Yu; Ma, Mengnan; Cao, Renjing; Sun, Tianjin; Xu, Jialei; Huo, Mingyue; Cao, Renjing; Wen, Chenghong; Che, Yi

    2014-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have the potential to produce reactive oxygen species and can be transferred from the mother to the fetal brain. The central nervous system exhibits remarkable plasticity in early life and can be altered significantly by environmental stressors encountered during fetal period. Additionally, prenatal stressors are involved with emotional problems in adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate whether prenatal exposure to TiO2 NPs could induce oxidative damage in the offspring brain and eventually affect the emotional behaviors in adulthood. The results showed that prenatal exposure to TiO2 NPs impaired the antioxidant status, caused a significant oxidative damage to nucleic acids and lipids in the brain of newborn pups, and enhanced the depressive-like behaviors during adulthood in the force swimming test and the sucrose preference test. These results suggest that the stress during fetal life induced by prenatal exposure to TiO2 NPs could be implicated in depressive-like behaviors in adulthood. PMID:23972732

  7. Influence of light at night on murine anxiety- and depressive-like responses.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Finy, M Sima; Walton, James C; Weil, Zachary M; Workman, Joanna L; Ross, Jessica; Nelson, Randy J

    2009-12-28

    Individuals are increasingly exposed to light at night. Exposure to constant light (LL) disrupts circadian rhythms of locomotor activity, body temperature, hormones, and the sleep-wake cycle in animals. Other behavioural responses to LL have been reported, but are inconsistent. The present experiment sought to determine whether LL produces changes in affective responses and whether behavioural changes are mediated by alterations in glucocorticoid concentrations. Relative to conspecifics maintained in a light/dark cycle (LD, 16:8 light/dark), male Swiss-Webster mice exposed to LL for three weeks increased depressive-like behavioural responses as evaluated by the forced swim test and sucrose anhedonia. Furthermore, providing a light escape tube reversed the effects of LL in the forced swim test. LL mice displayed reduced anxiety as evaluated by the open field and elevated-plus maze. Glucocorticoid concentrations were reduced in the LL group suggesting that the affective behavioural responses to LL are not the result of elevated corticosterone. Additionally, mice housed in LD with a clear tube displayed increased paired testes mass as compared to LL mice. Taken together, these data provide evidence that exposure to unnatural lighting can induce significant changes in affect, increasing depressive-like and decreasing anxiety-like responses. PMID:19591880

  8. [Neurochemical mechanisms of depression-like behavior in WAG/Rij rats].

    PubMed

    Sarkisova, K Iu; Kulikov, M A; Kudrin, V S; Narkevich, V B; Midzianovskaia, I S; Biriukova, L M; Folomkina, A A; Basian, A S

    2013-01-01

    Behavior in the light-dark choice, open-field, sucrose consumption/preference and forced swimming tests, monoamines and their metabolites level in 6 brain structures (prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, striatum, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala), and density of D2-like dopamine receptors in 21 brain regions were studied in WAG/Rij and Wistar rats. WAG/Rij rats exhibited symptoms of depression-like behavior such as increased immobility in the forced swim test and decreased sucrose consumption/preference (anhedonia). Substantial changes in behavior indicating increased anxiety in WAG/Rij rats were not revealed. Neurochemical abnormalities suggesting hypofunction of the mesolimbic dopaminergic brain system were found in "depressive" WAG/Rij rats compared with "normal" Wistar rats: decreased levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine in the nucleus accumbens, and increased density of D2-like dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. Reduced levels of dopamine were also observed in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. No substantial changes in the content of monoamines and their metabolites have been revealed in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and amygdala as well as in the content ofserotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid in all studied brain structures with the exception of increased level ofserotonin in the amygdala. Results suggest that hypofunction of the mesolimbic dopaminergic brain system (nucleus accumbens) is a neurochemical mechanism of depression-like behavior in WAG/Rij rats. PMID:24450162

  9. Heat Stress-Induced DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kantidze, O.L.; Velichko, A.K.; Luzhin, A.V.; Razin, S.V.

    2016-01-01

    Although the heat-stress response has been extensively studied for decades, very little is known about its effects on nucleic acids and nucleic acid-associated processes. This is due to the fact that the research has focused on the study of heat shock proteins and factors (HSPs and HSFs), their involvement in the regulation of transcription, protein homeostasis, etc. Recently, there has been some progress in the study of heat stress effects on DNA integrity. In this review, we summarize and discuss well-known and potential mechanisms of formation of various heat stress-induced DNA damage. PMID:27437141

  10. Ketamine-mediated alleviation of electroconvulsive shock-induced memory impairment is associated with the regulation of neuroinflammation and soluble amyloid-beta peptide in depressive-like rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xianlin; Li, Ping; Hao, Xuechao; Wei, Ke; Min, Su; Luo, Jie; Xie, Fei; Jin, Juying

    2015-07-10

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression, but can result in memory deficits. This study aimed to determine whether ketamine could alleviate electroconvulsive shock (ECS, an analog of ECT in animals)-induced memory impairment and the potential molecular mechanism. Chronic unpredictable mild stress was used to generate animal models of depressive-like symptoms. Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following five groups: control group (group C); depressive-like model group (group D); ECS group (group DE); ketamine+ECS group (group DKE); and ketamine group (group DK). The sucrose preference test and Morris water maze were used to assess behavioral changes. The expression levels of Iba-1, IL-1β and TNF-α were measured by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to detect the levels of soluble Aβ. We found that ECS up-regulated the expression of Iba-1, promoted the release of IL-1β and TNF-α, increased the levels of Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 in the hippocampus, and aggravated memory impairment of the depressive-like rats. However, ketamine reversed these ECS-induced molecular changes and effectively attenuated ECS-induced memory impairment. This cognitive protective effect of ketamine may be attributed to its suppression of ECS-induced neuroinflammation and reduction of the levels of soluble Aβ. PMID:25980993

  11. [Selection for the predisposition to catalepsy enhances depressive-like traits in mice].

    PubMed

    Bazovkina, D V; Kulikova, A V; Kondaurova, E M; Popova, N K

    2005-09-01

    Immobility reaction or catalepsy is a natural passive defensive (lurking) behavioral response to the appearance of a predator. Selection for high predisposition to catalepsy has been performed in a population of (CBA x (CBA x AKR)) backcrosses of the crossing between mouse lines sensitive and resistant to catalepsy (VBA and AKR, respectively). A rapid increase in the number of animals with catalepsy has been observed: from 23% in backcrosses to 71% in the S3 generation. Selection for catalepsy does not affect mouse anxiety in the open field and plus-maze tests. However, S8 and S9 mice are characterized by a decreased motor activity in the open-field test and an increased immobility in the forced swim and tail suspension tests, which is interpreted as an increase in "depressiveness." The results indicate that genetically determined catalepsy is related to depressive-like characteristics of defensive behavior. PMID:16240633

  12. Hypobaric hypoxia induces depression-like behavior in female Sprague-Dawley rats, but not in males.

    PubMed

    Kanekar, Shami; Bogdanova, Olena V; Olson, Paul R; Sung, Young-Hoon; D'Anci, Kristen E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2015-03-01

    Rates of depression and suicide are higher in people living at altitude, and in those with chronic hypoxic disorders like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), and smoking. Living at altitude exposes people to hypobaric hypoxia, which can lower rat brain serotonin levels, and impair brain bioenergetics in both humans and rats. We therefore examined the effect of hypobaric hypoxia on depression-like behavior in rats. After a week of housing at simulated altitudes of 20,000 ft, 10,000 ft, or sea level, or at local conditions of 4500 ft (Salt Lake City, UT), Sprague Dawley rats were tested for depression-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST). Time spent swimming, climbing, or immobile, and latency to immobility were measured. Female rats housed at altitude display more depression-like behavior in the FST, with significantly more immobility, less swimming, and lower latency to immobility than those at sea level. In contrast, males in all four altitude groups were similar in their FST behavior. Locomotor behavior in the open field test did not change with altitude, thus validating immobility in the FST as depression-like behavior. Hypobaric hypoxia exposure therefore induces depression-like behavior in female rats, but not in males. PMID:25803141

  13. Depression-like behaviors and heme oxygenase-1 are regulated by Lycopene in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Fu, Yanyan; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Pan, Wei; Shi, Yue; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Xunbao; Qi, Dashi; Li, Lei; Ma, Kai; Tang, Renxian; Zheng, Kuiyang; Song, Yuanjian

    2016-09-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that lycopene possesses anti-inflammatory properties in the central nervous system. However, the potential role and the molecular mechanisms of lycopene in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenge inflammation and depression-like behaviors has not been clearly investigated. The present study aimed to assess the effects and the potential mechanisms of lycopene on LPS-induced depression-like behaviors. Lycopene was orally administered (60mg/kg) every day for seven days followed by intraperitoneal LPS injection (1mg/kg). The Forced swim test and tail suspension test were used to detect changes in the depression-like behaviors. ELISA was used to measure the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in the plasma. Immunoblotting was performed to measure the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the hippocampus. The results showed that pretreatment with lycopene could ameliorate depression-like behaviors. Moreover, lycopene relieved neuronal cell injury in hippocampal CA1 regions. Furthermore, lycopene decreased LPS-induced expression of IL-1β and HO-1 in the hippocampus together with decreasing level of IL-6 and TNF-α in the plasma. Taken together, these results suggest that lycopene can attenuate LPS-induced inflammation and depression-like behaviors, which may be involved in regulating HO-1 in the hippocampus. PMID:27609268

  14. Treating Depression and Depression-Like Behavior with Physical Activity: An Immune Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, Harris A.; Papps, Evan; Baune, Bernhard T.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing burden of major depressive disorder makes the search for an extended understanding of etiology, and for the development of additional treatments highly significant. Biological factors may be useful biomarkers for treatment with physical activity (PA), and neurobiological effects of PA may herald new therapeutic development in the future. This paper provides a thorough and up-to-date review of studies examining the neuroimmunomodulatory effects of PA on the brain in depression and depression-like behaviors. From a neuroimmune perspective, evidence suggests PA does enhance the beneficial and reduce the detrimental effects of the neuroimmune system. PA appears to increase the following factors: interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6 (acutely), macrophage migration inhibitory factor, central nervous system-specific autoreactive CD4+ T cells, M2 microglia, quiescent astrocytes, CX3CL1, and insulin-like growth factor-1. On the other hand, PA appears to reduce detrimental neuroimmune factors such as: Th1/Th2 balance, pro-inflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein, M1 microglia, and reactive astrocytes. The effect of other mechanisms is unknown, such as: CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (T regs), CD200, chemokines, miRNA, M2-type blood-derived macrophages, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α [via receptor 2 (R2)]. The beneficial effects of PA are likely to occur centrally and peripherally (e.g., in visceral fat reduction). The investigation of the neuroimmune effects of PA on depression and depression-like behavior is a rapidly developing and important field. PMID:23382717

  15. Norbin ablation results in defective adult hippocampal neurogenesis and depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Warner-Schmidt, Jennifer; Varela, Santiago; Enikolopov, Grigori; Greengard, Paul; Flajolet, Marc

    2015-08-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus subgranular zone is associated with the etiology and treatment efficiency of depression. Factors that affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been shown to contribute to the neuropathology of depression. Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter, plays a critical role in different aspects of neurogenesis. Of the eight metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), mGluR5 is the most highly expressed in neural stem cells. We previously identified Norbin as a positive regulator of mGluR5 and showed that its expression promotes neurite outgrowth. In this study, we investigated the role of Norbin in adult neurogenesis and depressive-like behaviors using Norbin-deficient mice. We found that Norbin deletion significantly reduced hippocampal neurogenesis; specifically, the loss of Norbin impaired the proliferation and maturation of newborn neurons without affecting cell-fate specification of neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs). Norbin is highly expressed in the granular neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, but it is undetectable in NSCs/NPCs or immature neurons, suggesting that the effect of Norbin on neurogenesis is likely caused by a nonautonomous niche effect. In support of this hypothesis, we found that the expression of a cell-cell contact gene, Desmoplakin, is greatly reduced in Norbin-deletion mice. Moreover, Norbin-KO mice show an increased immobility in the forced-swim test and the tail-suspension test and reduced sucrose preference compared with wild-type controls. Taken together, these results show that Norbin is a regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that its deletion causes depressive-like behaviors. PMID:26195764

  16. Attenuated orexinergic signaling underlies depression-like responses induced by daytime light deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Deats, Sean P.; Adidharma, Widya; Lonstein, Joseph S.; Yan, Lily

    2014-01-01

    Light has profound effects on mood, as exemplified by seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and the beneficial effects of bright light therapy. However, the underlying neural pathways through which light regulates mood are not well understood. Our previous work has developed the diurnal grass rat, Arvicanthis niloticus, as an animal model of SAD (Leach et al., 2013a, Leach et al., 2013b). By utilizing a 12:12hr Dim Light:Dark (DLD) paradigm that simulates the lower light intensity of winter, we showed that the animals housed in DLD exhibited increased depression-like behaviors in the forced swim test (FST) and sweet solution preference (SSP) compared to animals housed in bright light during the day (BLD). The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that light affects mood by acting on the brain orexinergic system in the diurnal grass rat model of SAD. First, orexinA immunoreactivity (OXA-ir) was examined in DLD and BLD grass rats. The results revealed a reduction in the number of OXA-ir neurons in the hypothalamus and attenuated OXA-ir fiber density in the dorsal raphe nucleus of animals in the DLD compared to those in the BLD group. Then, the animals in BLD were treated systemically with SB-334867, a selective orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) antagonist, which led to a depressive phenotype characterized by increased immobility in the FST and a decrease in SSP compared to vehicle-treated controls. The results suggest that attenuated orexinergic signaling is associated with increased depression-like behaviors in grass rats, and support the hypothesis that the orexinergic system mediates the effects of light on mood. PMID:24813431

  17. Norbin ablation results in defective adult hippocampal neurogenesis and depressive-like behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Warner-Schmidt, Jennifer; Varela, Santiago; Enikolopov, Grigori; Greengard, Paul; Flajolet, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus subgranular zone is associated with the etiology and treatment efficiency of depression. Factors that affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been shown to contribute to the neuropathology of depression. Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter, plays a critical role in different aspects of neurogenesis. Of the eight metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), mGluR5 is the most highly expressed in neural stem cells. We previously identified Norbin as a positive regulator of mGluR5 and showed that its expression promotes neurite outgrowth. In this study, we investigated the role of Norbin in adult neurogenesis and depressive-like behaviors using Norbin-deficient mice. We found that Norbin deletion significantly reduced hippocampal neurogenesis; specifically, the loss of Norbin impaired the proliferation and maturation of newborn neurons without affecting cell-fate specification of neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs). Norbin is highly expressed in the granular neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, but it is undetectable in NSCs/NPCs or immature neurons, suggesting that the effect of Norbin on neurogenesis is likely caused by a nonautonomous niche effect. In support of this hypothesis, we found that the expression of a cell–cell contact gene, Desmoplakin, is greatly reduced in Norbin-deletion mice. Moreover, Norbin-KO mice show an increased immobility in the forced-swim test and the tail-suspension test and reduced sucrose preference compared with wild-type controls. Taken together, these results show that Norbin is a regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that its deletion causes depressive-like behaviors. PMID:26195764

  18. Homer1a-dependent recovery from depression-like behavior by photic stimulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Furong; Chen, Rui; Yamamoto, Ryo; Kato, Nobuo

    2015-08-01

    A significant number of depressed people are resistant to drug therapy. Promising alternative therapy may be brain stimulation achievable by diverse methods. In a mouse model of depression, we previously investigated the mechanisms by which repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) reverses depression-like behavior, and found an essential involvement of the immediate early gene product Homer1a. Home1a is known to be expressed not just by rTMS but also by photic stimulation (PS) via activation of the retino-geniculo-cortical pathway, suggesting that PS may have an antidepressant effect. This was tested by using a two-phase version of forced swimming (FS), in which the first phase consists of a 10-min swimming for 5 consecutive days and the second phase takes place at a 4-week interval for testing behavior. During the 4-week period, PS was applied everyday (300lx, 2Hz for 6h daily). After the last swimming, the brains were removed and subjected to quantitative RT-PCR and electrophysiological analysis. The 4-week-long PS alleviated depression-like behavior to the extent comparable to that obtained with rTMS previously. Homer1a expression was drastically reduced by FS and recovered by PS. Consistently with our previous studies, activity of the large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel was facilitated by PS in a Homer1a-dependent manner. PS may thus have a potential utility for depression therapy. Furthermore, given that Homer1a is implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders, brain stimulations that induce Homer1a expression, such as rTMS or PS, may have a wider applicability than currently thought. PMID:25982087

  19. Perinatal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohong; Yang, Yanling; Wang, Ran; Wang, Yu; Ruan, Qin; Lu, Yang

    2015-04-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is an environmental endocrine disrupter. The present study investigated the effect of DEHP on emotional behavior of mice following perinatal exposure (10, 50, and 200 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) from gestation day 7 through postnatal day 21. The results showed that, in pubertal males (6-w-old), DEHP decreased the time spent in the open arms and the number of entries into them in elevated plus maze and decreased the time in the mirrored chamber and in the light-box; in pubertal females, DEHP decreased the time spent in the open arms and the number of entries into them, suggesting that DEHP exposure made a anxiogenic effect in pubertal offspring regardless of sex. While DEHP effect on anxiety of adult (12-w-old) displayed sex differences, with decreased time spent in the open arms in the adult females. Perinatal exposure to DEPH significantly extended the time of immobility in forced swim task of pubertal offspring and adulthood regardless of sex. Furthermore, DEHP down-regulated the expressions of androgen receptor (AR) in pubertal male hippocampus and of estrogen receptor (ER) β in pubertal female and adult hippocampus of both sexes and inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 of hippocampus in pubertal mice and adult males. These results suggest that exposure to DEHP early in life affected the anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors of pubertal offspring and even adult. The disruption of gonadal hormones' modulation of behaviors due to down-regulation of AR or ERβ in the hippocampus may be associated with the aggravated anxiety- and depression-like status induced by DEHP. PMID:25441928

  20. Irisin ameliorates depressive-like behaviors in rats by regulating energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sisi; Pan, Jiyang

    2016-05-20

    Depression is a common psychiatric disorder that affects millions of people around the world, however, little is known about the pathophysiology of depression and the therapeutic strategy for anti-depression. In this study, we investigated the role of irisin, a regulator of energy metabolism, in the modulation of depressive-like behaviors in chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) exposed rats. ELISA showed that irisin was aberrantly regulated by CUS in the prefrontal cortex tissues and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of rats. CUS-induced behavioral deficits in rats were reversed by injection treatment with recombinant irisin in a dose dependent manner. Treatment with irisin at concentrations of 100 ng/ml or higher significantly increased the sucrose preference and reduced the immobility time in CUS rats. Additionally, irisin treatment also increased the activities of mitochondrial complexes I, II and IV as well as creatine kinase, which were inhibited by CUS in the prefrontal cortex of rats. We then confirmed that irisin significantly increased the levels of glucose transport and phosphorylation, as reflected by the increased type I and type II hexokinase (Hx-1 and Hx-2) and GLUT-4 as well as the ATP level in vivo and vitro. Further studies indicated that AMPK pathway was involved in the regulation of irisin on depressive-like behaviors in CUS rats. In conclusion, we demonstrated that irisin has a crucial role in inducing antidepressant-like effects in CUS rats by regulating energy metabolism in the prefrontal cortex of brain, which may provide a new insight into the biological mechanism of depression. PMID:27079240

  1. Electrical stimulation alleviates depressive-like behaviors of rats: investigation of brain targets and potential mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lim, L W; Prickaerts, J; Huguet, G; Kadar, E; Hartung, H; Sharp, T; Temel, Y

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising therapy for patients with refractory depression. However, key questions remain with regard to which brain target(s) should be used for stimulation, and which mechanisms underlie the therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of DBS, with low- and high-frequency stimulation (LFS, HFS), in different brain regions (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, vmPFC; cingulate cortex, Cg; nucleus accumbens (NAc) core or shell; lateral habenula, LHb; and ventral tegmental area) on a variety of depressive-like behaviors using rat models. In the naive animal study, we found that HFS of the Cg, vmPFC, NAc core and LHb reduced anxiety levels and increased motivation for food. In the chronic unpredictable stress model, there was a robust depressive-like behavioral phenotype. Moreover, vmPFC HFS, in a comparison of all stimulated targets, produced the most profound antidepressant effects with enhanced hedonia, reduced anxiety and decreased forced-swim immobility. In the following set of electrophysiological and histochemical experiments designed to unravel some of the underlying mechanisms, we found that vmPFC HFS evoked a specific modulation of the serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), which have long been linked to mood. Finally, using a neuronal mapping approach by means of c-Fos expression, we found that vmPFC HFS modulated a brain circuit linked to the DRN and known to be involved in affect. In conclusion, HFS of the vmPFC produced the most potent antidepressant effects in naive rats and rats subjected to stress by mechanisms also including the DRN. PMID:25826110

  2. Alteration by p11 of mGluR5 localization regulates depression-like behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ko-Woon; Westin, Linda; Kim, Jeongjin; Chang, Jerry C.; Oh, Yong-Seok; Amreen, Bushra; Gresack, Jodi; Flajolet, Marc; Kim, Daesoo; Aperia, Anita; Kim, Yong; Greengard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Mood disorders and antidepressant therapy involve alterations of monoaminergic and glutamatergic transmission. The protein S100A10 (p11) was identified as a regulator of serotonin receptors, and has been implicated in the etiology of depression and in mediating the antidepressant actions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Here we report that p11 can also regulate depression-like behaviors via regulation of a glutamatergic receptor in mice. p11 directly binds to the cytoplasmic tail of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). p11 and mGluR5 mutually facilitate their accumulation at the plasma membranes, and p11 increases cell surface availability of the receptor. While p11 overexpression potentiates mGluR5 agonist-induced calcium responses, overexpression of mGluR5 mutant, which does not interact with p11, diminishes the calcium responses in cultured cells. Knockout of mGluR5 or p11 specifically in glutamatergic neurons in mice causes depression-like behaviors. Conversely, knockout of mGluR5 or p11 in GABAergic neurons causes antidepressant-like behaviors. Inhibition of mGluR5 with an antagonist, MPEP, induces antidepressant-like behaviors in a p11-dependent manner. Notably, the antidepressant-like action of MPEP is mediated by parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons, resulting in a decrease of inhibitory neuronal firing with a resultant increase of excitatory neuronal firing. These results identify a molecular and cellular basis by which mGluR5 antagonism achieves its antidepressant-like activity. PMID:26370144

  3. Electrical stimulation alleviates depressive-like behaviors of rats: investigation of brain targets and potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lim, L W; Prickaerts, J; Huguet, G; Kadar, E; Hartung, H; Sharp, T; Temel, Y

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising therapy for patients with refractory depression. However, key questions remain with regard to which brain target(s) should be used for stimulation, and which mechanisms underlie the therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of DBS, with low- and high-frequency stimulation (LFS, HFS), in different brain regions (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, vmPFC; cingulate cortex, Cg; nucleus accumbens (NAc) core or shell; lateral habenula, LHb; and ventral tegmental area) on a variety of depressive-like behaviors using rat models. In the naive animal study, we found that HFS of the Cg, vmPFC, NAc core and LHb reduced anxiety levels and increased motivation for food. In the chronic unpredictable stress model, there was a robust depressive-like behavioral phenotype. Moreover, vmPFC HFS, in a comparison of all stimulated targets, produced the most profound antidepressant effects with enhanced hedonia, reduced anxiety and decreased forced-swim immobility. In the following set of electrophysiological and histochemical experiments designed to unravel some of the underlying mechanisms, we found that vmPFC HFS evoked a specific modulation of the serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), which have long been linked to mood. Finally, using a neuronal mapping approach by means of c-Fos expression, we found that vmPFC HFS modulated a brain circuit linked to the DRN and known to be involved in affect. In conclusion, HFS of the vmPFC produced the most potent antidepressant effects in naive rats and rats subjected to stress by mechanisms also including the DRN. PMID:25826110

  4. Gap junction dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex induces depressive-like behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Dong; Liu, Yan; Yuan, Yu-He; Li, Jing; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2012-04-01

    Growing evidence has implicated glial anomalies in the pathophysiology of major depression disorder (MDD). Gap junctional communication is a main determinant of astrocytic function. However, it is unclear whether gap junction dysfunction is involved in MDD development. This study investigates changes in the function of astrocyte gap junction occurring in the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) after chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), a rodent model of depression. Animals exposed to CUS and showing behavioral deficits in sucrose preference test (SPT) and novelty suppressed feeding test (NSFT) exhibited significant decreases in diffusion of gap junction channel-permeable dye and expression of connexin 43 (Cx43), a major component of astrocyte gap junction, and abnormal gap junctional ultrastructure in the PFC. Furthermore, we analyzed the effects of typical antidepressants fluoxetine and duloxetine and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist mifepristone on CUS-induced gap junctional dysfunction and depressive-like behaviors. The cellular and behavioral alterations induced by CUS were reversed and/or blocked by treatment with typical antidepressants or mifepristone, indicating that the mechanism of their antidepressant action may involve the amelioration of gap junction dysfunction and the cellular changes may be related to GR activation. We then investigated the effects of pharmacological gap junction blockade in the PFC on depressive-like behaviors. The results demonstrate that carbenoxolone (CBX) infusions induced anhedonia in SPT, and anxiety in NSFT, and Cx43 mimetic peptides Gap27 and Gap26 also induced anhedonia, a core symptom of depression. Together, this study supports the hypothesis that gap junction dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of depression. PMID:22189291

  5. Neonatal glucocorticoid treatment increased depression-like behaviour in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ko, Meng-Chang; Hung, Yu-Hui; Ho, Pei-Yin; Yang, Yi-Ling; Lu, Kwok-Tung

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) is frequently used as a therapeutic agent to lessen the morbidity of chronic lung disease in premature infants. Previous studies suggested that neonatal DEX treatment altered brain development and cognitive function. It has been recognized that the amygdala is involved in emotional processes and also a critical site of neuronal plasticity for fear conditioning. Little is known about the possible long-term adverse effect of neonatal DEX treatment on amygdala function. The present study was aimed to evaluate the possible effect of neonatal DEX treatment on the synaptic function of amygdala in adult rats. Newborn Wistar rats were subjected to subcutaneous tapering-dose injections of DEX (0.5, 0.3 and 0.1 mg/kg) from post-natal day one to three, PN1-PN3. Animals were then subjected to a forced swimming test (FST) and electrophysiological recording aged eight weeks. The results of the FST showed neonatal DEX treatment increased depression-like behaviour in adulthood. After acute stress evoking, the percentage of time spent free floating is significantly increased in the DEX treated group compared with the control animals. Furthermore, neonatal DEX treatment elevated long-term potentiation (LTP) response and the phosphorylation level of MAPK in the lateral nucleus of amygdala (LA). Intracerebroventricular infusion of the MAPK inhibitor, PD98059, showed significant rescue effects including reduced depression-like behaviour and restoration of LTP to within normal range. In conclusion, our results suggested that MAPK signalling cascade in the LA plays an important role in the adverse effect of neonatal DEX treatment on amygdala function, which may result in adverse consequences in adult age, such as the enhancement of susceptibility for a depressive disorder in later life. PMID:24945924

  6. Effects of acute treadmill running at different intensities on activities of serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor neurons, and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Tomomi; Nishii, Ayu; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kubota, Natsuko; Nishijima, Takeshi; Kita, Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise can reduce and prevent the incidence of stress-related psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety. Activation of serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is implicated in antidepressant/anxiolytic properties. In addition, the incidence and symptoms of these disorders may involve dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that is initiated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Thus, it is possible that physical exercise produces its antidepressant/anxiolytic effects by affecting these neuronal activities. However, the effects of acute physical exercise at different intensities on these neuronal activation and behavioral changes are still unclear. Here, we examined the activities of 5-HT neurons in the DRN and CRF neurons in the PVN during 30 min of treadmill running at different speeds (high speed, 25 m/min; low speed, 15m/min; control, only sitting on the treadmill) in male Wistar rats, using c-Fos/5-HT or CRF immunohistochemistry. We also performed the elevated plus maze test and the forced swim test to assess anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, respectively. Acute treadmill running at low speed, but not high speed, significantly increased c-Fos expression in 5-HT neurons in the DRN compared to the control, whereas high-speed running significantly enhanced c-Fos expression in CRF neurons in the PVN compared with the control and low-speed running. Furthermore, low-speed running resulted in decreased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors compared with high-speed running. These results suggest that acute physical exercise with mild and low stress can efficiently induce optimal neuronal activation that is involved in the antidepressant/anxiolytic effects. PMID:26542811

  7. The effects of EGb761 on lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behaviour in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuehan; Zhang, Yongdong

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence for the involvement of inflammation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in depression. Ginkgo extract EGb761 possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-arteriosclerosis, and neuroprotective activities. But the effect of EGb761 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depressive-like behaviours has not been investigated. The present study mainly aimed to examine the antidepressant-like activities of Ginkgo extract EGb761 in mice after lipopolysaccharide administration. C57BL/6J male mice were pretreated with EGb761 or vehicle for 10 days. Then, a single dose of lipopolysaccharide was intraperitoneally administrated to mice to induce depressive-like behaviour. Forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), and sucrose preference test were performed to evaluate the depressive-like behaviours of the mice. Locomotor activity was examined by open field test. Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, and IL-10 in hippocampus tissue homogenate were measured using ELISA kits. We found that LPS administration induced significant depressive-like behaviours, higher levels of tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, and IL-17A, but lower levels of BDNF and IL-10 in hippocampus tissue homogenate of the mice from the vehicle group compared to the control mice. Pretreatment with middle dose (100 mg/kg/day) and high dose (150 mg/kg/day) of EGb761 significantly attenuated depressive-like behaviours without affecting spontaneous locomotor activity, and inhibited the changes of hippocampal cytokines and BDNF induced by LPS administration. We conclude that EGb761 has antidepressant-like activities in mice with LPS-induced depressive-like behaviours. PMID:26155178

  8. Hypobaric Hypoxia Induces Depression-like Behavior in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats, but not in Males

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanova, Olena V.; Olson, Paul R.; Sung, Young-Hoon; D'Anci, Kristen E.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Kanekar, Shami, Olena V. Bogdanova, Paul R. Olson, Young-Hoon Sung, Kristen E. D'Anci, and Perry F. Renshaw. Hypobaric hypoxia induces depression-like behavior in female Sprague-Dawley rats, but not males. High Alt Med Biol 16:52–60, 2015—Rates of depression and suicide are higher in people living at altitude, and in those with chronic hypoxic disorders like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), and smoking. Living at altitude exposes people to hypobaric hypoxia, which can lower rat brain serotonin levels, and impair brain bioenergetics in both humans and rats. We therefore examined the effect of hypobaric hypoxia on depression-like behavior in rats. After a week of housing at simulated altitudes of 20,000 ft, 10,000 ft, or sea level, or at local conditions of 4500 ft (Salt Lake City, UT), Sprague Dawley rats were tested for depression-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST). Time spent swimming, climbing, or immobile, and latency to immobility were measured. Female rats housed at altitude display more depression-like behavior in the FST, with significantly more immobility, less swimming, and lower latency to immobility than those at sea level. In contrast, males in all four altitude groups were similar in their FST behavior. Locomotor behavior in the open field test did not change with altitude, thus validating immobility in the FST as depression-like behavior. Hypobaric hypoxia exposure therefore induces depression-like behavior in female rats, but not in males. PMID:25803141

  9. Mice heterozygous for cathepsin D deficiency exhibit mania-related behavior and stress-induced depression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Lu, Yi; Han, Yong; Li, Xia; Lou, Huifang; Zhu, Liya; Zhen, Xuechu; Duan, Shumin

    2015-12-01

    Mutations in cathepsin D (CTSD), an aspartic protease in the endosomal-lysosomal system, underlie congenital neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (cNCL, also known as CLN10), a devastating neurodegenerative disease. CLN10 patients die within the first few days of life, and in the few patients who live into adulthood psychopathological symptoms have not been reported. Extensive neuropathology and altered neurotransmission have been reported in CTSD-deficient mice; however signs of neuropsychiatric behavior in these mice are not well characterized due to the severe movement disorder and premature death of the animal. In the present study, we show that heterozygous CTSD-deficient (CTSD HET) mice display an overall behavioral profile that is similar to human mania, including hyperlocomotion, d-amphetamine-induced hyperactivity, sleep-disturbance, and reduced anxiety-like behavior. However, under stressful conditions CTSD HET mice manifest depressive-like behavior, including anhedonia, behavioral despair, and enhanced learned helplessness. Chronic administration of lithium chloride or valproic acid, two clinically effective mood stabilizers, reverses the majority of these behavioral abnormalities. In addition, CTSD HET mice display stress-induced hypersecretion of corticosterone. These findings suggest an important role for CTSD in the regulation of mood stabilization. PMID:26092248

  10. DESIPRAMINE BLOCKS ALCOHOL-INDUCED ANXIETY- AND DEPRESSIVE-LIKE BEHAVIORS IN TWO RAT STRAINS

    PubMed Central

    GETACHEW, BRUK; HAUSER, SHEKETHA R.; TAYLOR, ROBERT E.; TIZABI, YOUSEF

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate significant co-morbid expression of alcoholism, anxiety, and depression. These symptoms are often under-diagnosed and under-treated and can worsen prognostic and treatment outcome for alcoholism. Nonetheless, a causal relationship between alcoholism and these conditions is yet to be established. In this study we sought to determine the effects of daily alcohol administration on the indices of anxiety and depression in two rat strains, one of which exhibits inherent depressive-like characteristics. Moreover, it was of relevance to examine the effects of a clinically useful antidepressant on alcohol-induced behavioral changes. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats derived from Wistar stock show low levels of locomotor activity in an open field and high levels of immobility in the forced swim test (FST) which is considered a measure of their helplessness and hence are considered a putative animal model of depression. Adult female WKY and Wistar rats were exposed for 3 hrs daily to 95% ethanol vapor to achieve a mean blood alcohol level (BAL) of approximately 150 mg/dL. Controls were exposed to air in similar inhalation chambers. Sixteen to 18 hrs following 7 or 14 days of exposure to alcohol, locomotor activity (LCA) in open field, duration of time spent in the open arm of the elevated plus-maze (EPM), reflective of anxiety-like behavior and immobility in FST were evaluated. Alcohol exposure for 7 or 14 days reduced LCA only in Wistar rats but enhanced FST immobility in both strains at both time points. Only 14 day alcohol exposure reduced EPM open arm time in both WKY and Wistar rats. Daily treatment with desipramine (8 mg/kg) blocked all the changes induced by alcohol in both strains. Thus, subchronic (7 day) exposure to alcohol induces depressive-like characteristics in Wistar rats and exacerbates that of WKY rats. Chronic (14 day) exposure, however, also induces an anxiety-like effect in both strains. The depressive-and anxiety-like behaviors

  11. Melatonin treatment during early life interacts with restraint to alter neuronal morphology and provoke depressive-like responses

    PubMed Central

    Aubrecht, Taryn G.; Weil, Zachary M.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2014-01-01

    Stressors during early life induce anxiety- and depressive-like responses in adult rodents. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) exposed to short days post-weaning also increase adult anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. To test the hypothesis that melatonin and exposure to stressors early in life interact to alter adult affective responses, we administered melatonin either during the perinatal (gestational day 7 to postnatal day 14) or postnatal (day 15–56) periods and also exposed a subset of dams to restraint during gestation (1 h–2×/day for 4 days). During the final week of injections, depressive-like behaviors were assessed using the sucrose anhedonia and forced swim tests. Hamsters exposed to prenatal restraint and treated with melatonin only during the postnatal period increased depressive-like responses in the forced swim test relative to all other groups. Offspring from restrained dams increased the number of fecal boli produced during the forced swim test, an anxiety-like response. In the present study, prenatal restraint reduced CA1 dendritic branching overall and perinatal melatonin protected hamsters from this restraint-induced reduction. These results suggest that the photoperiodic conditions coincident with birth and early life stressors are important in the development of adult affective responses. PMID:24486255

  12. Depression-like behaviors in tree shrews and comparison of the effects of treatment with fluoxetine and carbetocin.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiaolu; Shen, Fang; Li, Chunlu; Li, Yonghui; Wang, Xuewei

    2016-06-01

    Tree shrews, a species phylogenetically close to primates, are regarded as a suitable and naturalistic animal model for depression studies. However, psychological symptoms that are essential for depression diagnosis and treatment, such as helplessness and social withdrawal, have not been studied in this model. Therefore, in this study, we first investigated learned helplessness, social interaction and sucrose preference induced by two chronic stress paradigms: uncontrollable foot shocks (1-week foot shocks) and multiple unpredictable stimuli (1-week foot shocks and 3-week unpredictable stressors) in tree shrews. Our results showed that uncontrollable foot shocks could only induce learned helplessness in animals; whereas animals treated with multiple unpredictable stimuli exhibited more depression-like behaviors including social withdrawal, anhedonia and learned helplessness. These findings suggested that multiple unpredictable stimuli could effectively induce various depression-like behaviors in tree shrews. More importantly, we compared the antidepressant effects of fluoxetine and carbetocin, a long-acting oxytocin analog, on specific depression-like behaviors. Our present data displayed that, compared with fluoxetine, carbetocin was also effective in reversing learned helplessness, elevating sucrose preference and improving social interaction behaviors in depression-like animals. Therefore, carbetocin might be a potential antidepressant with applications in humans. PMID:26987370

  13. Melatonin treatment during early life interacts with restraint to alter neuronal morphology and provoke depressive-like responses.

    PubMed

    Aubrecht, Taryn G; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-04-15

    Stressors during early life induce anxiety- and depressive-like responses in adult rodents. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) exposed to short days post-weaning also increase adult anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. To test the hypothesis that melatonin and exposure to stressors early in life interact to alter adult affective responses, we administered melatonin either during the perinatal (gestational day 7 to postnatal day 14) or postnatal (day 15-56) periods and also exposed a subset of dams to restraint during gestation (1 h-2×/day for 4 days). During the final week of injections, depressive-like behaviors were assessed using the sucrose anhedonia and forced swim tests. Hamsters exposed to prenatal restraint and treated with melatonin only during the postnatal period increased depressive-like responses in the forced swim test relative to all other groups. Offspring from restrained dams increased the number of fecal boli produced during the forced swim test, an anxiety-like response. In the present study, prenatal restraint reduced CA1 dendritic branching overall and perinatal melatonin protected hamsters from this restraint-induced reduction. These results suggest that the photoperiodic conditions coincident with birth and early life stressors are important in the development of adult affective responses. PMID:24486255

  14. Prenatal Exposure to Silver Nanoparticles Causes Depression Like Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, S. R. F.; Moshrefi, M.; Askaripour, M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing studies on silver nanoparticles, their mechanism of action is not so clear, especially their probable toxicity on reproduction procedure, developmental process and offspring behavior. Therefore in the present study the effect of silver nanoparticles exposure during gestational period on offspring's depression behavior was assessed. Thirty virgin female mice were divided into three groups (n=10 for each group) including: one control and two experimental groups, which received an equal volume (0.2 ml) of suspension containing 0, 0.2 and 2 mg/kg of silver nanoparticles, respectively. After mating, the suspension was injected and repeated every 3 days till accouchement. Depression behaviors were assessed by tail suspension test and forced swimming test, in 45-day-old male and female progenies (6 groups, n=10). In males, both dose of silver nanoparticles (0.2 and 2 mg/kg) decreased mobility and increased immobility time in forced swimming test (P<0.05), but in female no effects were observed in mobility and immobility time. In tail suspension test, 2 mg/kg of silver nanoparticles lead to decrease of mobility time (P<0.05) and increase of immobility time (P<0.05) in female offspring but in males no significant effect was observed on mobility and immobility time. We may concluded that the prenatal exposure to silver nanoparticles probably cause gender-specific depression like behaviors in offspring, possibly through neurotoxic effect during neuronal development. PMID:26997695

  15. Effects of Npas4 deficiency on anxiety, depression-like, cognition and sociability behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jaehne, Emily J; Klarić, Thomas S; Koblar, Simon A; Baune, Bernhard T; Lewis, Martin D

    2015-03-15

    The transcription factor neuronal PAS domain-containing protein 4 (Npas4), which regulates the formation of inhibitory synapses on excitatory neurons, has been suggested as a candidate gene for neurological and psychiatric conditions such as bipolar depression, autism spectrum and cognitive disorders. A mouse model of Npas4 deficiency has been developed to investigate any role in these disorders. Behavioural characterisation of Npas4(-/-), Npas4(+/-) and Npas4(+/+) mice has been conducted using the open field, elevated zero maze (EZM), Y-maze, sociability test and forced swim test (FST) to investigate a range of behaviours. Npas4(-/-) mice spent more time in the open arm of the EZM than other genotypes, suggesting decreased anxiety-like behaviour. Npas4(+/-) mice, however, were more immobile in the FST than other genotypes, suggesting increased depression-like behaviour, and also showed impaired spatial recognition memory in the Y-maze. There were no differences between genotype in social behaviour. These results suggest that differential levels of Npas4 expression in the brain may regulate anxiety, depression and cognition related disorders. PMID:25549857

  16. Paeonol attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weiwei; Wang, Hanqing; Su, Qiang; Chen, Yanyan; Xue, Wenda; Xia, Baomei; Duan, Jinao; Chen, Gang

    2016-04-30

    The present study was designed to detect the anti-depressant effects of paeonol and the possible mechanisms in the lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior. Open-field test(OFT), tail suspension test(TST) and forced swimming test(FST) were used to evaluate the behavioral activity. The contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) in mice hippocampus were determined by HPLC-ECD. Serum interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that LPS significantly decreased the levels of 5-HT and NE in the hippocampus. LPS also reduced open-field activity, as well as increased immobility duration in FST and TST. Paeonol administration could effectively reverse the alterations in the concentrations of 5-HT, NE and reduce the IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Moreover, paeonol effectively downregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in hippocampal. In conclusion, paeonol administration exhibited significant antidepressant-like effects in mice with LPS-induced depression. PMID:27086220

  17. Investigating attentional processes in depressive-like domestic horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Rochais, C; Henry, S; Fureix, C; Hausberger, M

    2016-03-01

    Some captive/domestic animals respond to confinement by becoming inactive and unresponsive to external stimuli. Human inactivity is one of the behavioural markers of clinical depression, a mental disorder diagnosed by the co-occurrence of symptoms including deficit in selective attention. Some riding horses display 'withdrawn' states of inactivity and low responsiveness to stimuli that resemble the reduced engagement with their environment of some depressed patients. We hypothesized that 'withdrawn' horses experience a depressive-like state and evaluated their level of attention by confronting them with auditory stimuli. Five novel auditory stimuli were broadcasted to 27 horses, including 12 'withdrawn' horses, for 5 days. The horses' reactions and durations of attention were recorded. Non-withdrawn horses reacted more and their attention lasted longer than that of withdrawn horses on the first day, but their durations of attention decreased over days, but those of withdrawn horses remained stable. These results suggest that the withdrawn horses' selective attention is altered, adding to already evidenced common features between this horses' state and human depression. PMID:26739514

  18. Prion Protein Modulates Monoaminergic Systems and Depressive-like Behavior in Mice.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Danielle; Santos, Luis E; Americo, Tatiana A; Ledo, Jose H; de Mello, Fernando G; Linden, Rafael

    2015-08-14

    We sought to examine interactions of the prion protein (PrP(C)) with monoaminergic systems due to: the role of PrP(C) in both Prion and Alzheimer diseases, which include clinical depression among their symptoms, the implication of monoamines in depression, and the hypothesis that PrP(C) serves as a scaffold for signaling systems. To that effect we compared both behavior and monoaminergic markers in wild type (WT) and PrP(C)-null (PrP(-/-)) mice. PrP(-/-) mice performed poorly when compared with WT in forced swimming, tail suspension, and novelty suppressed feeding tests, typical of depressive-like behavior, but not in the control open field nor rotarod motor tests; cyclic AMP responses to stimulation of D1 receptors by dopamine was selectively impaired in PrP(-/-) mice, and responses to serotonin, but not to norepinephrine, also differed between genotypes. Contents of dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase, and the 5-HT5A serotonin receptor were increased in the cerebral cortex of PrP(-/-), as compared with WT mice. Microscopic colocalization, as well as binding in overlay assays were found of PrP(C) with both the 5HT5A and D1, but not D4 receptors. The data are consistent with the scaffolding of monoaminergic signaling modules by PrP(C), and may help understand the pathogenesis of clinical depression and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26152722

  19. Low dose dexamethasone reverses depressive-like parameters and memory impairment in rats submitted to sepsis.

    PubMed

    Cassol-Jr, Omar J; Comim, Clarissa M; Petronilho, Fabricia; Constantino, Larissa S; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2010-04-01

    Sepsis is characterized by a systemic inflammatory response of the immune system against an infection, presenting with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction, behavior alterations, and high mortality. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of dexamethasone on mortality, anhedonia, circulating corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) levels, body and adrenal gland weight, and aversive memory in sepsis survivor rats. Male Wistar rats underwent sham operation or cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) procedure. Rats subjected to CLP were treated with "basic support" and dexamethasone (at 0.2 and 2mg/kg daily for 7 days after CLP, intraperitonially) or saline. After 10 days of sepsis procedure, it was evaluated aversive memory, sweet food consumption, and body and adrenal gland weight. Serum and plasma were also obtained. It was observed that low dose dexamethasone reverted anhedonia, normalized adrenal gland and body weight, corticosterone and ACTH levels, and decreased mortality and avoidance memory impairment, demonstrating that low doses of dexamethasone for moderate periods may be beneficial for sepsis treatment and its sequelae-depressive-like parameters and memory impairment. PMID:20184944

  20. Depression-like episodes in mice harboring mtDNA deletions in paraventricular thalamus.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, T; Takata, A; Kato, T M; Kubota-Sakashita, M; Sawada, T; Kakita, A; Mizukami, H; Kaneda, D; Ozawa, K; Kato, T

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common debilitating human disease whose etiology has defied decades of research. A critical bottleneck is the difficulty in modeling depressive episodes in animals. Here, we show that a transgenic mouse with chronic forebrain expression of a dominant negative mutant of Polg1, a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase, exhibits lethargic behavioral changes, which are associated with emotional, vegetative and psychomotor disturbances, and response to antidepression drug treatment. The results suggested a symptomatic similarity between the lethargic behavioral change that was recurrently and spontaneously experienced by the mutant mice and major depressive episode as defined by DSM-5. A comprehensive screen of mutant brain revealed a hotspot for mtDNA deletions and mitochondrial dysfunction in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) with similar defects observed in postmortem brains of patients with mitochondrial disease with mood symptoms. Remarkably, the genetic inhibition of PVT synaptic output by Cre-loxP-dependent expression of tetanus toxin triggered de novo depression-like episodes. These findings identify a novel preclinical mouse model and brain area for major depressive episodes with mitochondrial dysfunction as its cellular mechanism. PMID:26481320

  1. Electroacupuncture Alleviates Depressive-Like Symptoms and Modulates BDNF Signaling in 6-Hydroxydopamine Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Min; Wang, Ke; Yu, Yan; Su, Wen-Ting; Jiang, Xin-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have identified the beneficial effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on motor behaviors in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the role and potential mechanisms of EA in PD-associated depression remain unclear. In the present study, a rat model of PD with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions in the medial forebrain bundle was treated using EA for 4 weeks. We found that 100 Hz EA improved several motor phenotypes. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical analysis showed that EA had a minimal impact on the TH-positive profiles of the ipsilateral ventral tegmental area. Compared with the 6-OHDA group, long-term EA stimulation significantly increased sucrose solution consumption and decreased immobility time in the forced swim test. EA treatment did not alter dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin levels in the striatum and hippocampus. Noticeably, EA treatment reversed the 6-OHDA-induced abnormal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) in the midbrain and hippocampus. These results demonstrate that EA at 100-Hz possesses the ability to improve depressive-like symptoms in PD rats, which is, at least in part, due to the distinct effect of EA on the mesostriatal and mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathways. Moreover, BDNF seems to participate in the effect of EA in PD. PMID:27525025

  2. Zinc and imipramine reverse the depression-like behavior in mice induced by chronic restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qin; Li, Hongxia; Tian, Xue; Shen, Zhilei; Wang, Xiaoli; Mo, Fengfeng; Huang, Junlong; Shen, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a common psychopathological disorders. Studies of depression have indicated that zinc play a role in the depression pathophysiology and treatment. In present study, we examined the effects of zinc and imipramine supplement alone or combination of zinc and imipramine in mice induced by chronic restraint stress (CRS). Moreover, the possible roles of zinc receptor (G protein-coupled receptor 39, GPR39)-related pathway was investigated. Decreased weight and increased corticosterone (CORT) were observed after 3 weeks CRS exposure. It was shown that CRS induced lower serum zinc, higher hippocampal zinc, increased immobility time in tail suspension test and decreased movement distance in spontaneous activity test, which could be normalized by zinc (30mg/kg) and imipramine (20mg/kg) supplement alone and combination of zinc (15mg/kg) and imipramine (5mg/kg) for 3 weeks after CRS exposure. Moreover, the changes in mRNA expressions of GPR39, cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and n-methytl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) could be reversed by the same treatment mentioned above. These results suggested that zinc dyshomeostasis in serum and hippocampus and depression-like behavior in CRS exposure animals observed in present study could be normalized by zinc and imipramine. The combination of zinc and imipramine in low dose has synergetic effects. The possible mechanism might be correlated to GPR39 receptor-related pathway. PMID:26985741

  3. Protective effect of liquiritigenin on depressive-like behavior in mice after lipopolysaccharide administration.

    PubMed

    Su, Qiang; Tao, Weiwei; Huang, Huang; Du, Yan; Chu, Xing; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-30

    Liquiritigenin (Liq), the main active ingredient of traditional Chinese medicine licorice, possesses anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. The current investigation was designed to explore whether liquiritigenin could relieve lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression-like behavior in mice and the underlying mechanism. Liquiritigenin (7.5mg/kg, 15mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20mg/kg) were pretreated intragastrically once daily for 7 consecutive days. LPS (0.5mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously to establish the depression model 30min after pretreatment on day 7. Interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in serum and hippocampus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Behavioral assessment was conduct 24h post LPS injection. The expressions of p65NF-κB, IκBα, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) in hippocampus were determined by western blot. The obtained results showed that liquiritigenin effectively reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the expressions of p-p65NF-κB and p-IκBα. Furthermore, liquiritigenin preconditioning could down-regulate the immobility time in tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and up-regulate BDNF and TrkB contents in hippocampus. Thus, it is assumed that the antidepressant activity of liquiritigenin might be attributed to its anti-inflammatory property and BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway. PMID:27107388

  4. Palatable cafeteria diet ameliorates anxiety and depression-like symptoms following an adverse early environment.

    PubMed

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-06-01

    Early trauma contributes to psychosocial disorders later in life. An adverse early environment induced by maternal separation (MS) is known to alter behavioural and stress responses in rats. Palatable food dampens stress responses. We investigated the influence of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD) on behavioural responses following MS or non-handling (NH), versus 15min brief separation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to short separation, S15 (15min), prolonged separation, S180 (180min) daily from postnatal days 2 to 14 or were non-handled. Pups were assigned to HFD or chow at weaning. We assessed depression and anxiety-like behaviour with sucrose preference test (SPT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) respectively, and measured hypothalamic CRH and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. S180 rats showed increased anxiety-and depression-like behaviours, with increased plasma corticosterone, hypothalamic CRH, and reduced hippocampal GR expression versus S15 rats. Similar effects were observed across gender. These were normalized by provision of HFD, with greater beneficial effects in males. S15 showed no benefit of HFD. NH female rats had less adverse impacts; HFD had beneficial impact on behaviour in NH males. Thus behavioural deficits and gene expression changes induced by early life stress were ameliorated by HFD. These results highlight the important place of palatable food in reducing central stress responses supporting the therapeutic value of 'comfort food'. PMID:19939573

  5. Inflammatory mechanisms contribute to microembolism-induced anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Christina L; Miller, Andrew H; Tansey, Malú G; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2016-04-15

    Poor vascular health, atherosclerosis, or cardiac procedures in the elderly result in clinically silent microvascular infarcts that increase susceptibility to larger ischemic episodes and can precipitate changes in mood and cognition. Although the mechanisms that underlie ischemia-induced behavioral changes have not been fully elucidated, chronic inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis. Independent of brain injury, elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines can lead to sickness behaviors and symptoms of depression. Furthermore, in the presence of brain injury, inflammatory activation may serve as the linchpin that precipitates dysregulation of biological systems leading to changes to behavior. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that cerebral inflammation caused by diffuse ischemia is necessary for the expression of post-injury anxiety- and depressive- like behavior. Using a microsphere embolism (ME) rodent model, we demonstrate prolonged elevations in expression of inflammatory genes in the hippocampus ipsilateral to the injury which are reflected in the contralateral hemisphere by two weeks following injury. Prophylactic administration of meloxicam, a preferential inhibitor of COX-2 activity, prevented both central inflammation and deficits in affective-like behaviors. Furthermore, meloxicam was more efficacious than the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine in prevention of microembolism-induced changes in inflammation and behavior. These data demonstrate that inflammatory activation is necessary for microembolism-induced behavioral changes and suggest that anti-inflammatory treatments may be an effective therapeutic strategy in patients with risk factors for vascular depression or prior to invasive cardiac procedures. PMID:26826540

  6. Glucagon orchestrates stress-induced hyperglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Harp, J B; Yancopoulos, G D; Gromada, J

    2016-07-01

    Hyperglycaemia is commonly observed on admission and during hospitalization for medical illness, traumatic injury, burn and surgical intervention. This transient hyperglycaemia is referred to as stress-induced hyperglycaemia (SIH) and frequently occurs in individuals without a history of diabetes. SIH has many of the same underlying hormonal disturbances as diabetes mellitus, specifically absolute or relative insulin deficiency and glucagon excess. SIH has the added features of elevated blood levels of catecholamines and cortisol, which are not typically present in people with diabetes who are not acutely ill. The seriousness of SIH is highlighted by its greater morbidity and mortality rates compared with those of hospitalized patients with normal glucose levels, and this increased risk is particularly high in those without pre-existing diabetes. Insulin is the treatment standard for SIH, but new therapies that reduce glucose variability and hypoglycaemia are desired. In the present review, we focus on the key role of glucagon in SIH and discuss the potential use of glucagon receptor blockers and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in SIH to achieve target glucose control. PMID:27027662

  7. Cotinine halts the advance of Alzheimer's disease-like pathology and associated depressive-like behavior in Tg6799 mice

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sagar; Grizzell, J. Alex; Holmes, Rosalee; Zeitlin, Ross; Solomon, Rosalynn; Sutton, Thomas L.; Rohani, Adeeb; Charry, Laura C.; Iarkov, Alexandre; Mori, Takashi; Echeverria Moran, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms for which there are currently no effective therapies. We have previously reported that cotinine, a natural product obtained from tobacco leaves, prevented memory loss and diminished amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque pathology in transgenic 6799 mice (Tg6799 mice) when treated prior to the development of the pathology. We have also shown that cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed C57BL/6 mice. Here, we extend our previous studies by investigating the effects of cotinine on the progression of AD-like pathology, depressive-like behavior, and the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects in Tg6799 mice when left untreated until after a more advanced stage of the disease's development. The results show that vehicle-treated Tg6799 mice displayed an accentuated loss of working memory and an abundant Aβ plaque pathology that were accompanied by higher levels of depressive-like behavior as compared to control littermates. By contrast, prolonged daily cotinine treatment to Tg6799 mice, withheld until after a mid-level progression of AD-like pathology, reduced Aβ levels/plaques and depressive-like behavior. Moreover, this treatment paradigm dramatically improved working memory as compared to control littermates. The beneficial effects of cotinine were accompanied by an increase in the expression of the active form of protein kinase B and the postsynaptic density protein 95 in the hippocampi and frontal cortices of Tg6799 mice. This suggests that cotinine halts the progression of AD-like pathology while reducing depressive-like behavior by stimulating signaling pathways supporting synaptic plasticity in Tg6799 mice. The potential use of cotinine to treat cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of AD is discussed. PMID:25100990

  8. NEUROPATHIC PAIN-INDUCED DEPRESSIVE-LIKE BEHAVIOR AND HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS AND PLASTICITY ARE DEPENDENT ON TNFR1 SIGNALING

    PubMed Central

    Anna, Dellarole; Paul, Morton; Roberta, Brambilla; Winston, Walters; Spencer, Summer; Danielle, Bernardes; Mariagrazia, Grilli; R, Bethea John

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from neuropathic pain have a higher incidence of mood disorders such as depression. Increased expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been reported in neuropathic pain and depressive-like conditions and most of the pro-inflammatory effects of TNF are mediated by the TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1). Here we sought to investigate: 1) the occurrence of depressive-like behavior in chronic neuropathic pain and the associated forms of hippocampal plasticity, and 2) the involvement of TNFR1-mediated TNF signaling as a possible regulator of such events. Neuropathic pain was induced by chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in wild-type and TNFR1−/− mice. Anhedonia, weight loss and physical state were measured as symptoms of depression. Hippocampal neurogenesis, neuroplasticity, myelin remodeling and TNF/TNFRs expression were analyzed by immunohistochemical analysis and western blot assay. We found that neuropathic pain resulted in the development of depressive symptoms in a time dependent manner and was associated with profound hippocampal alterations such as impaired neurogenesis, reduced expression of neuroplasticity markers and myelin proteins. The onset of depressive-like behavior also coincided with increased hippocampal levels of TNF, and decreased expression of TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2), which were all fully restored after mice spontaneously recovered from pain. Notably, TNFR1−/− mice did not develop depressive-like symptoms after injury, nor were there changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and plasticity. Our data show that neuropathic pain induces a cluster of depressive-like symptoms and profound hippocampal plasticity that are dependent on TNF signaling through TNFR1. PMID:24938671

  9. MicroRNA-155 deletion reduces anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Gaudet, Andrew D; Gaier, Kristopher R; Nelson, Randy J; Popovich, Phillip G

    2016-01-01

    Depressive disorders have complex and multi-faceted underlying mechanisms, rendering these disorders difficult to treat consistently and effectively. One under-explored therapeutic strategy for alleviating mood disorders is the targeting of microRNAs (miRs). miRs are small non-coding RNAs that cause sequestration/degradation of specific mRNAs, thereby preventing protein translation and downstream functions. miR-155 has validated and predicted neurotrophic factor and inflammatory mRNA targets, which led to our hypothesis that miR-155 deletion would modulate affective behaviors. To evaluate anxiety-like behavior, wildtype (wt) and miR-155 knockout (ko) mice (littermates; both male and female) were assessed in the open field and on an elevated plus maze. In both tests, miR-155 ko mice spent more time in open areas, suggesting they had reduced anxiety-like behavior. Depressive-like behaviors were assessed using the forced swim test. Compared to wt mice, miR-155 ko mice exhibited reduced float duration and increased latency to float. Further, although all mice exhibited a strong preference for a sucrose solution over water, this preference was enhanced in miR-155 ko mice. miR-155 ko mice had no deficiencies in learning and memory (Barnes maze) or social preference/novelty suggesting that changes in mood were specific. Finally, compared to wt hippocampi, miR-155 ko hippocampi had a reduced inflammatory signature (e.g., decreased IL-6, TNF-a) and female miR-155 ko mice increased ciliary neurotrophic factor expression. Together, these data highlight the importance of studying microRNAs in the context of anxiety and depression and identify miR-155 as a novel potential therapeutic target for improving mood disorders. PMID:26555429

  10. Type 2 Deiodinase Disruption in Astrocytes Results in Anxiety-Depressive-Like Behavior in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Bocco, Barbara M L C; Werneck-de-Castro, João Pedro; Oliveira, Kelen C; Fernandes, Gustavo W; Fonseca, Tatiana L; Nascimento, Bruna P P; McAninch, Elizabeth A; Ricci, Esther; Kvárta-Papp, Zsuzsanna; Fekete, Csaba; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Gereben, Balázs; Bianco, Antonio C; Ribeiro, Miriam O

    2016-09-01

    Millions of levothyroxine-treated hypothyroid patients complain of impaired cognition despite normal TSH serum levels. This could reflect abnormalities in the type 2 deiodinase (D2)-mediated T4-to-T3 conversion, given their much greater dependence on the D2 pathway for T3 production. T3 normally reaches the brain directly from the circulation or is produced locally by D2 in astrocytes. Here we report that mice with astrocyte-specific Dio2 inactivation (Astro-D2KO) have normal serum T3 but exhibit anxiety-depression-like behavior as found in open field and elevated plus maze studies and when tested for depression using the tail-suspension and the forced-swimming tests. Remarkably, 4 weeks of daily treadmill exercise sessions eliminated this phenotype. Microarray gene expression profiling of the Astro-D2KO hippocampi identified an enrichment of three gene sets related to inflammation and impoverishment of three gene sets related to mitochondrial function and response to oxidative stress. Despite normal neurogenesis, the Astro-D2KO hippocampi exhibited decreased expression of four of six known to be positively regulated genes by T3, ie, Mbp (∼43%), Mag (∼34%), Hr (∼49%), and Aldh1a1 (∼61%) and increased expression of 3 of 12 genes negatively regulated by T3, ie, Dgkg (∼17%), Syce2 (∼26%), and Col6a1 (∼3-fold) by quantitative real-time PCR. Notably, in Astro-D2KO animals, there was also a reduction in mRNA levels of genes known to be affected in classical animal models of depression, ie, Bdnf (∼18%), Ntf3 (∼43%), Nmdar (∼26%), and GR (∼20%), which were also normalized by daily exercise sessions. These findings suggest that defects in Dio2 expression in the brain could result in mood and behavioral disorders. PMID:27501182

  11. Antidepressants reduce extinction-induced withdrawal and biting behaviors: a model for depressive-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Huston, J P; van den Brink, J; Komorowski, M; Huq, Y; Topic, B

    2012-05-17

    The withholding of expected rewards results in extinction of behavior and, hypothetically, to depression-like symptoms. In a test of this hypothesis, we examined the effects of extinction of food-reinforced lever-pressing on collateral behaviors that might be indices of depression. Operant extinction is known to be aversive to the organism and results in avoidance behavior. We hypothesized that avoidance of, or withdrawal from, the former source of reward may serve as a marker for "despair." Adult male Wistar rats (n=6-7 animals per group) were exposed to a Skinner box attached to a second compartment of the same size, providing opportunity for the animals to leave the operant chamber and to enter the "withdrawal" compartment. The animals spent a portion of the time during the extinction trials in this second chamber. To assess the predictive validity of this behavior as a potential marker of "despair," we tested the effects of chronic administration of two common antidepressant drugs on this measure. The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (20 mg/kg) as well as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram (20 mg/kg) reduced the number of entries and time spent in the withdrawal compartment. We propose that entries into and time spent in the withdrawal compartment may operationalize "avoidance," a core symptom of major depression. Rearing as well as biting behaviors during the extinction trials were also attenuated by the antidepressant treatment. These results lend support to the hypothesis that extinction of positively reinforced operants evokes behaviors that reflect elements of "despair/depression" because these behaviors are modulated by antidepressant treatment. The avoidance of the operant chamber as a consequence of extinction, together with rearing and biting behaviors, may serve as useful measures for the testing of antidepressant treatments. PMID:22410342

  12. Minocycline treatment ameliorates interferon-alpha- induced neurogenic defects and depression-like behaviors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lian-Shun; Kaneko, Naoko; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2015-01-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is widely used for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis and malignancy, because of its immune-activating, antiviral, and antiproliferative properties. However, long-term IFN-α treatment frequently causes depression, which limits its clinical utility. The precise molecular and cellular mechanisms of IFN-α-induced depression are not currently understood. Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the hippocampus continuously generate new neurons, and some evidence suggests that decreased neurogenesis plays a role in the neuropathology of depression. We previously reported that IFN-α treatment suppressed hippocampal neurogenesis and induced depression-like behaviors via its receptors in the brain in adult mice. However, it is unclear how systemic IFN-α administration induces IFN-α signaling in the hippocampus. In this study, we analyzed the role of microglia, immune cells in the brain, in mediating the IFN-α-induced neurogenic defects and depressive behaviors. In vitro studies demonstrated that IFN-α treatment induced the secretion of endogenous IFN-α from microglia, which suppressed NSC proliferation. In vivo treatment of adult mice with IFN-α for 5 weeks increased the production of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-α, and reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Both effects were prevented by simultaneous treatment with minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation. Furthermore, minocycline treatment significantly suppressed IFN-α-induced depressive behaviors in mice. These results suggest that microglial activation plays a critical role in the development of IFN-α-induced depression, and that minocycline is a promising drug for the treatment of IFN-α-induced depression in patients, especially those who are low responders to conventional antidepressant treatments. PMID:25674053

  13. Environmental manipulation affects depressive-like behaviours in female Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Mileva, Guergana R; Bielajew, Catherine

    2015-10-15

    While the efficacy of pharmacological interventions to treat depression has been well-studied in animal models, much less work has been done to shed light on how changes in the immediate environment can impact behaviour. Furthermore, most studies have focused on male rodents despite the prevalence of mood disorders in women. In this study, 36 Wistar Kyoto (validated animal model of depression) and 36 Wistar (control) female rats were used to examine the effects of environmental manipulation on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours. Animals were assigned to one of three groups: standard (3 rats/cage), enriched (6 rats/cage plus physical enrichment), and isolation (1 rat/cage) housing. The elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST) were conducted prior to, and four weeks after environmental assignment to measure anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviours, respectively. Sucrose preference assessed anhedonia both before and after environmental assignment. Weight was measured every week to monitor weight-gain over time. Post-environment sucrose preference was significantly increased in animals in enriched housing as compared to those in isolated housing in both strains. While there were significant differences between strains in measures of open arm duration in the EPM and immobility in the FST, there appeared to be no differences between environmental groups. The results of this study highlight the importance of environmental factors in the expression of anhedonia. Enrichment appears to reduce anhedonia while isolation increases anhedonia. These effects should be studied further to assess whether longer periods of social and physical enrichment alleviate other symptoms of depression. PMID:26215574

  14. Esculetin attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammatory processes and depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lingpeng; Nang, Chen; Luo, Fen; Pan, Hong; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Jingyan; Zhou, Rui; Gao, Jin; Chang, Xiayun; He, He; Qiu, Yue; Wang, Jinglei; Long, Hongyan; Liu, Yu; Yan, Tianhua

    2016-09-01

    Esculetin is one of the major bioactive compounds of Cichorium intybus L. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects and possible underlying mechanism of esculetin (Esc) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammatory processes and depressive-like behavior in mice. Mice were pretreatment with esculetin (Esc, 20, 40mg/kg, intragastric administration) and a positive control drug fluoxetine (Flu, 20mg/kg, intragastric administration) once daily for 7 consecutive days. At the 7th day, LPS (0.83mg/kg) was intraperitoneal injection 30min after drug administration. Higher dose (40mg/kg) of esculetin and fluoxetine significantly decreased immobility time in TST and FST. There was no significant effect on locomotor activity in mice by the drugs. Esculetin significantly reduced LPS-induced elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum and hippocampus. Esculetin attenuated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway in hippocampus. In addition, neuroprotection of esculetin was attributed to the upregulations of Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated tyrosine kinase B (p-TrkB) protein expression in hippocampus. The obtained results demonstrated that esculetin exhibited antidepressant-like effects which might be related to the inhibition of NF-κB pathway and the activation of BDNF/TrkB signaling. PMID:27133730

  15. Neuropeptide Trefoil Factor 3 Reverses Depressive-Like Behaviors by Activation of BDNF-ERK-CREB Signaling in Olfactory Bulbectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiali; Luo, Yixiao; Zhang, Ruoxi; Shi, Haishui; Zhu, Weili; Shi, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The trefoil factors (TFFs) are a family of three polypeptides, among which TFF1 and TFF3 are widely distributed in the central nervous system. Our previous study indicated that TFF3 was a potential rapid-onset antidepressant as it reversed the depressive-like behaviors induced by acute or chronic mild stress. In order to further identify the antidepressant-like effect of TFF3, we applied an olfactory bulbectomy (OB), a classic animal model of depression, in the present study. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the antidepressant-like activity of TFF3, we tested the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)-cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) signaling in the hippocampus in the process. Chronic systemic administration of TFF3 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) for seven days not only produced a significant antidepressant-like efficacy in the OB paradigm, but also restored the expression of BDNF, pERK, and pCREB in the hippocampal CA3. Inhibition of BDNF or extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling in CA3 blocked the antidepressant-like activity of TFF3 in OB rats. Our findings further confirmed the therapeutic effect of TFF3 against depression and suggested that the normalization of the BDNF-ERK-CREB pathway was involved in the behavioral response of TFF3 for the treatment of depression. PMID:26633367

  16. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity accounts for anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats perinatally exposed to bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Zhou, Libin; Bai, Yinyang; Zhou, Rong; Chen, Ling

    2015-05-01

    Accumulating studies have proved that perinatal exposure to environmental dose causes long-term potentiation in anxiety/depression-related behaviors in rats. Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the most consistent biological findings in anxiety- and depression-related disorders. The HPA axis is reported to be susceptible to developmental reprogramming. The present study focused on HPA reactivity in postnatal day (PND) 80 male rats exposed perinatally to environmental-dose BPA. When female breeders were orally administered 2 μg/(kg.day) BPA from gestation day 10 to lactation day 7, their offspring (PND 80 BPA-exposed rats) showed obvious anxiety/depression-like behaviors. Notably, significant increase in serum corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin, and corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA were detected in BPA-exposed rats before or after the mild stressor. Additionally, the level of glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the hippocampus, but not the hypothalamus, was decreased in BPA-exposed rats. The levels of hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA, neuronal nitric oxide synthase and phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein were increased in BPA-exposed rats. In addition, the testosterone level was in BPA-exposed rats. The results indicate that reprogramming-induced hyperactivity of the HPA axis is an important link between perinatal BPA exposure and persistent potentiation in anxiety and depression. PMID:26060449

  17. Repeated Three-Hour Maternal Separation Induces Depression-Like Behavior and Affects the Expression of Hippocampal Plasticity-Related Proteins in C57BL/6N Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Yaoyao; Yang, Lili; Wang, Zhongli; Wang, Qing; Zeng, Li; Xu, Guihua

    2015-01-01

    Adverse early life experiences can negatively affect behaviors later in life. Maternal separation (MS) has been extensively investigated in animal models in the adult phase of MS. The study aimed to explore the mechanism by which MS negatively affects C57BL/6N mice, especially the effects caused by MS in the early phase. Early life adversity especially can alter plasticity functions. To determine whether adverse early life experiences induce changes in plasticity in the brain hippocampus, we established an MS paradigm. In this research, the mice were treated with mild (15 min, MS15) or prolonged (180 min, MS180) maternal separation from postnatal day 2 to postnatal day 21. The mice underwent a forced swimming test, a tail suspension test, and an open field test, respectively. Afterward, the mice were sacrificed on postnatal day 31 to determine the effects of MS on early life stages. Results implied that MS induces depression-like behavior and the effects may be mediated partly by interfering with the hippocampal GSK-3β-CREB signaling pathway and by reducing the levels of some plasticity-related proteins. PMID:26798520

  18. Female rats exposed to stress and alcohol show impaired memory and increased depressive-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gomez, J L; Luine, V N

    2014-01-17

    Exposure to daily life stressors is associated with increases in anxiety, depression, and overall negative affect. Alcohol or other psychoactive drugs are often used to alleviate stress effects. While females are more than twice as likely to develop mood disorders and are more susceptible to dependency than males, they are infrequently examined. In this study, female rats received no stress/no alcohol control (CON), alcohol alone (ALC), stress alone (STR), or stress plus alcohol (STR+ALC). Stress consisted of restraint for 6h/day/7days, and alcohol was administered immediately following restraint via gastric gavage at a dose of 2.0g/kg. Dependent measures included tests utilizing object recognition (OR), Y-maze, elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim (FST), blood alcohol content, corticosterone levels, and body weights. ALC, STR+ALC, but not stress alone, impaired memory on OR. All treatments impaired spatial memory on the Y-maze. Anxiety was not affected on the EPM, but rats treated with alcohol or in combination with stress showed increased immobility on the FST, suggestive of alcohol-induced depression. Previously, we found alcohol reversed deleterious effects of stress on memory and mood in males, but current results show that females reacted negatively when the two treatments were combined. Thus, responses to alcohol, stress and their combination suggest that sex specific treatments are needed for stress-induced behavioral changes and that self-medicating with alcohol to cope with stress maybe deleterious in females. PMID:24096191

  19. Female Rats Exposed to Stress and Alcohol Show Impaired Memory and Increased Depressive-like Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, J.L.; Luine, V.N.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to daily life stressors is associated with increases in anxiety, depression, and overall negative affect. Alcohol or other psychoactive drugs are often used to alleviate stress effects. While females are more than twice as likely to develop mood disorders and are more susceptible to dependency than males, they are infrequently examined. In this study, female rats received no stress/no alcohol control (CON), alcohol alone (ALC), stress alone (STR), or stress plus alcohol (STR+ALC). Stress consisted of restraint for 6hr/day/7days, and alcohol was administered immediately following restraint via gastric gavage at a dose of 2.0 g/kg. Dependent measures included tests utilizing object recognition (OR), Y-maze, elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim (FST), blood alcohol content, corticosterone levels, and body weights. ALC, STR+ALC, but not stress alone, impaired memory on OR. All treatments impaired spatial memory on the Y-maze. Anxiety was not affected on the EPM, but rats treated with alcohol or in combination with stress showed increased immobility on the FST, suggestive of alcohol-induced depression. Previously, we found alcohol reversed deleterious effects of stress on memory and mood in males, but current results show females reacted negatively when the two treatments were combined. Thus, responses to alcohol, stress and their combination suggest that sex specific treatments are needed for stress-induced behavioral changes and that self-medicating with alcohol to cope with stress maybe deleterious in females. PMID:24096191

  20. Prenatal stress produces sex-specific changes in depression-like behavior in rats: implications for increased vulnerability in females.

    PubMed

    Sickmann, H M; Arentzen, T S; Dyrby, T B; Plath, N; Kristensen, M P

    2015-10-01

    Stress during rat gestation can elicit depression-like physiological and behavioral responses in the offspring. However, human clinical depression is more prevalent among females than males. Accordingly, we examined how repeated variable prenatal stress (PS) alters rat anxiety- and depression-like behavior as well as circadian patterning of motor activity in both male and female offspring. For this purpose, we exposed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to multiple stressors during gestational days 13-21. Subsequently, we monitored locomotor and rearing/climbing activities in home-like cages for 24 h and measured anxiety- (elevated plus maze, EPM) and depression-like (forced swim test, FST) behaviors in the offspring at a young adult age. As a stressful event later in life (in addition to PS) may be needed to actually trigger an episode of clinical depression, half of the animals were exposed to an acute stressor (elevated platform) before EPM testing. Dams exposed to the stressor battery had increased plasma corticosterone levels compared with controls. Male PS offspring displayed changes in locomotor and rearing/climbing activity relative to controls. Additionally, anxiety measures in the EPM were affected in control animals after acute stressor exposure, however, this response was blunted in PS offspring. Moreover, FST immobility, as an indicator of depressive-like behavior, was increased in female but not male PS rats. Altogether, our results identify both sex- and circadian phase-specific effects of PS. These findings indicate that the PS rat model reflects multiple clinical depression characteristics, including elevated female vulnerability. PMID:26152908

  1. An investigation into the effects of antenatal stressors on the postpartum neuroimmune profile and depressive-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Posillico, Caitlin K; Schwarz, Jaclyn M

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression is a specific type of depression that affects approximately 10-15% of mothers [28]. While many have attributed the etiology of postpartum depression to the dramatic change in hormone levels that occurs immediately postpartum, the exact causes are not well-understood. It is well-known, however, that pregnancy induces a number of dramatic changes in the peripheral immune system that foster the development of the growing fetus. It is also well-known that changes in immune function, specifically within the brain, have been linked to several neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. Thus, we sought to determine whether pregnancy induces significant neuroimmune changes postpartum and whether stress or immune activation during pregnancy induce a unique neuroimmune profile that may be associated with depressive-like behaviors postpartum. We used late-gestation sub-chronic stress and late-gestation acute immune activation to examine the postpartum expression of depressive-like behaviors, microglial activation markers, and inflammatory cytokines within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus (HP). The expression of many immune molecules was significantly altered in the brain postpartum, and postpartum females also showed significant anhedonia, both independently of stress. Following late-gestation immune activation, we found a unique set of changes in neuroimmune gene expression immediately postpartum. Thus, our data indicate that even in the absence of additional stressors, postpartum females exhibit significant changes in the expression of cytokines within the brain that are associated with depressive-like behavior. Additionally, different forms of antenatal stress produce varying profiles of postpartum neuroimmune gene expression and associated depressive-like behaviors. PMID:26589802

  2. Serotonin7 receptors in the lateral habenular nucleus regulate depressive-like behaviors in the hemiparkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Ling Na; Zhang, Li; Sun, Yi Na; Du, Cheng Xue; Zhang, Yu Ming; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical studies indicate that serotonin7 (5-HT7) receptors may regulate depressive-like behaviors. Depression is a common symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD); however, its pathophysiology is unclear. Here we examined whether 5-HT7 receptors in the lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) involve in the regulation of PD-related depression. Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra pars compacta in rats induced depressive-like responses as measured by the sucrose preference and forced swim tests when compared to sham-operated rats. Intra-LHb injection of 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS19 (1, 2 and 4μg/rat) induced or increased the expression of depressive-like behaviors in sham-operated and the lesioned rats. Further, intra-LHb injection of 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB269970 (1.5, 3 and 6μg/rat) produced antidepressant effects in the two groups of rats. However, the doses producing these effects in the lesioned rats were higher than those in sham-operated rats. Neurochemical results showed that intra-LHb injection of AS19 (4μg/rat) decreased dopamine and 5-HT levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, habenula and hippocampus in sham-operated and the lesioned rats; whereas SB269970 (6μg/rat) increased dopamine and 5-HT levels in these structures. In addition, noradrenaline levels in these structures were not changed after intra-LHb injection of AS19 or SB269970 in the two groups of rats. These findings suggest that activation or blockade of 5-HT7 receptors in the LHb may change the activity of LHb glutamate neurons, and then decreases or increases dopamine and 5-HT levels in the limbic and limbic-related brain regions, which are involved in the regulation of depressive-like behaviors. PMID:27178363

  3. Increased Mesohippocampal Dopaminergic Activity and Improved Depression-Like Behaviors in Maternally Separated Rats Following Repeated Fasting/Refeeding Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Jahng, Jeong Won; Yoo, Sang Bae; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that rats that experienced 3 h of daily maternal separation during the first 2 weeks of birth (MS) showed binge-like eating behaviors with increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis when they were subjected to fasting/refeeding cycles repeatedly. In this study, we have examined the psychoemotional behaviors of MS rats on the fasting/refeeding cycles, together with their brain dopamine levels. Fasting/refeeding cycles normalized the ambulatory activity of MS rats, which was decreased by MS experience. Depression-like behaviors, but not anxiety, by MS experience were improved after fasting/refeeding cycles. Fasting/refeeding cycles did not significantly affect the behavioral scores of nonhandled (NH) control rats. Fasting/refeeding cycles increased dopamine levels not only in the hippocampus but also in the midbrain dopaminergic neurons in MS rats, but not in NH controls. Results demonstrate that fasting/refeeding cycles increase the mesohippocampal dopaminergic activity and improve depression-like behaviors in rats that experienced MS. Together with our previous paper, it is suggested that increased dopamine neurotransmission in the hippocampus may be implicated in the underlying mechanisms by which the fasting/refeeding cycles induce binge-like eating and improve depression-like behaviors in MS rats. PMID:22934157

  4. Resveratrol abrogates lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior, neuroinflammatory response, and CREB/BDNF signaling in mice.

    PubMed

    Ge, Li; Liu, Liwei; Liu, Hansen; Liu, Song; Xue, Hao; Wang, Xueer; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Dexiang

    2015-12-01

    Current evidence supports that depression is accompanied by the activation of the inflammatory-response system, and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines may play a role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. Resveratrol has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-depressant-like properties. Using an animal model of depression induced by a single administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the present study investigated the effects of resveratrol on LPS-induced depressive-like behavior and inflammatory-response in adult mice. Our results showed that pretreatment with resveratrol (80mg/kg, i.p.) for 7 consecutive days reversed LPS-increased the immobility time in the forced swimming test and tail suspension test, and LPS-reduced sucrose preference test. Moreover, the antidepressant action of resveratrol was paralleled by significantly reducing the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and up-regulating phosphorylated cAMP response-element-binding protein (pCREB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. In addition, resveratrol ameliorated LPS-induced NF-κB activation in the PFC and hippocampus. The results demonstrate that resveratrol may be an effective therapeutic agent for LPS-induced depressive-like behavior, partially due to its anti-inflammatory aptitude and by modulating pCREB and BDNF expression in the brain region of mice. PMID:26485503

  5. The effects of early-life predator stress on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu-jing; Shen, Bing-qing; Liu, Dan-dan; Li, Sheng-tian

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood. PMID:24839560

  6. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu-jing; Shen, Bing-qing; Liu, Dan-dan; Li, Sheng-tian

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood. PMID:24839560

  7. Rapid Amygdala Kindling Causes Motor Seizure and Comorbidity of Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shang-Der; Wang, Yu-Lin; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding. In the present study, 40 amygdala stimulations given within 2 days were applied in adult Wistar rats. Afterdischarge (AD) and seizure stage were recorded throughout the amygdala kindling. Anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by the elevated plus maze (EPM) test and open field (OF) test, whereas depression-like behaviors were assessed by the forced swim (FS) and sucrose consumption (SC) tests. A tonic-clonic convulsion was provoked in the kindle group. Rapid amygdala kindling resulted in a significantly lower frequency entering an open area of either open arms of the EPM or the central zone of an OF, lower sucrose intake, and longer immobility of the FS test in the kindle group. Our results suggest that rapid amygdala kindling elicited severe motor seizures comorbid with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. PMID:27445726

  8. The Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model of Azithromycin for Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Kun; Qi, Qu; Hao, Haiping; Wang, Guangji; Chen, Yuancheng; Liang, Yan; Xie, Lin

    2013-01-01

    A mechanism-based model was developed to describe the time course of lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior and azithromycin pharmacodynamics in mice. The lipopolysaccharide-induced disease progression was monitored by lipopolysaccharide, proinflammatory cytokines, and kynrenine concentration in plasma. The depressive-like behavior was investigated by forced swimming test and tail suspension test. Azithromycin was selected to inhibit the surge of proinflammatory cytokines induced by lipopolysaccharide. Disease progression model and azithromycin pharmacodynamics were constructed from transduction and indirect response models. A delay in the onset of increased proinflammatory cytokines, kynrenine, and behavior test compared to lipopolysaccharide was successfully characterized by series transduction models. The inhibition of azithromycin on proinflammatory cytokines was described by an indirect response model. After lipopolysaccharide challenging, the proinflammatory cytokines, kynrenine and behavior tests would peak approximately at 3, 12, and 24 h respectively, and then the time courses slowly declined toward a baseline state after peak response. During azithromycin administration, the peak levels of proinflammatory cytokines, kynrenine and behavior indexes decreased. Model parameters indicated that azithromycin significantly inhibited the proinflammatory cytokines level in plasma and improved the depressive-like behavior induced by inflammation. The integrated model for disease progression and drug intervention captures turnovers of proinflammatory cytokines, kynrenine and the behavior results in the different time phases and conditions. PMID:23358536

  9. Possible Biomarkers of Chronic Stress Induced Exhaustion - A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Wallensten, Johanna; Åsberg, Marie; Nygren, Åke; Szulkin, Robert; Wallén, Håkan; Mobarrez, Fariborz; Nager, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) have previously been suggested to be potential biomarkers for chronic stress induced exhaustion. The knowledge about VEGF has increased during the last decades and supports the contention that VEGF plays an important role in stress and depression. There is scarce knowledge on the possible relationship of EGF and MCP-1 in chronic stress and depression. This study further examines the role of VEGF, EGF and MCP-1 in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion and healthy women during a follow-up period of two years. Methods and Findings Blood samples were collected from 105 women with chronic stress induced exhaustion on at least 50% sick leave for at least three months, at inclusion (T0), after 12 months (T12) and after 24 months (T24). Blood samples were collected at inclusion (T0) in 116 physically and psychiatrically healthy women. The plasma levels of VEGF, EGF and MCP-1 were analyzed using Biochip Array Technology. Women with chronic stress induced exhaustion had significantly higher plasma levels of VEGF and EGF compared to healthy women at baseline, T12 and at T24. There was no significant difference in plasma levels of MCP-1. Plasma levels of VEGF and EGF decreased significantly in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion during the two years follow-up. Conclusions The replicated findings of elevated levels of VEGF and EGF in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion and decreasing plasma levels of VEGF and EGF during the two years follow-up add important knowledge to the pathophysiology of chronic stress induced exhaustion. PMID:27145079

  10. Depressive-like behavior observed with a minimal loss of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons following administration of 6-hydroxydopamine is associated with electrophysiological changes and reversed with precursors of norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Szot, Patricia; Franklin, Allyn; Miguelez, Cristina; Wang, Yangqing; Vidaurrazaga, Igor; Ugedo, Luisa; Sikkema, Carl; Wilkinson, Charles W; Raskind, Murray A

    2016-02-01

    Depression is a common co-morbid condition most often observed in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and during the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dysfunction of the central noradrenergic nervous system is an important component in depression. In AD, locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic neurons are significantly reduced pathologically and the reduction of LC neurons is hypothesized to begin very early in the progression of the disorder; however, it is not known if dysfunction of the noradrenergic system due to early LC neuronal loss is involved in mediating depression in early AD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine in an animal model if a loss of noradrenergic LC neurons results in depressive-like behavior. The LC noradrenergic neuronal population was reduced by the bilateral administration of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) directly into the LC. Forced swim test (FST) was performed three weeks after the administration of 6-OHDA (5, 10 and 14 μg/μl), animals administered the 5 μg/μl of 6-OHDA demonstrated a significant increase in immobility, indicating depressive-like behavior. This increase in immobility at the 5 μg/μl dose was observed with a minimal loss of LC noradrenergic neurons as compared to LC neuronal loss observed at 10 and 14 μg/μl dose. A significant positive correlation between the number of surviving LC neurons after 6-OHDA and FST immobile time was observed, suggesting that in animals with a minimal loss of LC neurons (or a greater number of surviving LC neurons) following 6-OHDA demonstrated depressive-like behavior. As the 6-OHDA-induced loss of LC neurons is increased, the time spent immobile is reduced. Depressive-like behavior was also observed with the 5 μg/μl dose of 6-OHDA with a second behavior test, sucrose consumption. FST increased immobility following 6-OHDA (5 μg/μl) was reversed by the administration of a single dose of L-1-3-4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) or l-threo-3

  11. A novel model of early experiences involving neonatal learning of a T-maze using maternal contact as a reward or its denial as an event of mild emotional adversity.

    PubMed

    Stamatakis, Antonios; Diamantopoulou, Anastasia; Panagiotaropoulos, Theofanis; Raftogianni, Androniki; Stylianopoulou, Fotini

    2014-12-01

    We developed a novel animal model of early life experiences in which rat pups are trained during postnatal days (PND) 10-13 in a T-maze with maternal contact as a reward (RER group) or its denial (DER group) as a mildly aversive event. Both groups of animals learn the T-maze, albeit the RER do so more efficiently. Training results in activation of the basal ganglia in the RER and of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in the DER. Moreover, on PND10 DER training leads to increased corticosterone levels and activation of the amygdala. In adulthood, male DER animals show better mnemonic abilities in the Morris water maze while the RER exhibit enhanced fear memory. Furthermore, DER animals have a hypofunctioning serotonergic system and express depressive-like behavior and increased aggression. However, they have increased hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors, indicative of efficient hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, and an adaptive pattern of stress-induced corticosterone response. The DER experience with its relatively negative emotional valence results in a complex behavioral phenotype, which cannot be considered simply as adaptive or maladaptive. PMID:25231083

  12. SCO2 Mediates Oxidative Stress-Induced Glycolysis to Oxidative Phosphorylation Switch in Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Wei; Amarachintha, Surya; Wilson, Andrew F; Pang, Qishen

    2016-04-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited bone marrow (BM) failure syndrome, presumably resulting from defects in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Normal HSCs depend more on glycolysis than on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for energy production. Here, we show that FA HSCs are more sensitive to the respiration inhibitor NaN3 treatment than to glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), indicating more dependence on OXPHOS. FA HSCs undergo glycolysis-to-OXPHOS switch in response to oxidative stress through a p53-dependent mechanism. Metabolic stresses induce upregulation of p53 metabolic targets in FA HSCs. Inactivation of p53 in FA HSCs prevents glycolysis-to-OXPHOS switch. Furthermore, p53-deficient FA HSCs are more sensitive to 2-DG-mediated metabolic stress. Finally, oxidative stress-induced glycolysis-to-OXPHOS switch is mediated by synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 2 (SCO2). These findings demonstrate p53-mediated OXPHOS function as a compensatory alteration in FA HSCs to ensure a functional but mildly impaired energy metabolism and suggest a cautious approach to manipulating p53 signaling in FA. Stem Cells 2016;34:960-971. PMID:26676373

  13. IL-13 Augments Compressive Stress-Induced Tissue Factor Expression in Human Airway Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Mitchel, Jennifer A; Antoniak, Silvio; Lee, Joo-Hyeon; Kim, Sae-Hoon; McGill, Maureen; Kasahara, David I; Randell, Scott H; Israel, Elliot; Shore, Stephanie A; Mackman, Nigel; Park, Jin-Ah

    2016-04-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is best known as a cellular initiator of coagulation, but it is also a multifunctional protein that has been implicated in multiple pathophysiologic conditions, including asthma. In the lung, airway epithelial cells express TF, but it is unknown how TF expression is regulated by asthma-associated mediators. We investigated the role of IL-13, a type 2 cytokine, alone and in combination with compressive stress, which mimics asthmatic bronchoconstriction, on TF expression and release of TF-positive extracellular vesicles from primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Well-differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells were treated with IL-13 and compressive stress, alone and in combination. TF mRNA, protein and activity were measured in the cells and conditioned media. TF was also measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of allergen-challenged mice and patients with asthma. IL-13 and compressive stress increased TF expression, but only compressive stress induced TF-positive extracellular vesicle release. Pretreatment with IL-13 augmented compressive stress-induced TF expression and release. TF protein and activity in BAL fluid were increased in allergen-sensitized and -challenged mice. TF was elevated in the BAL fluid of patients with mild asthma after an allergen challenge. Our in vitro and in vivo data indicate close cooperation between mechanical and inflammatory stimuli on TF expression and release of TF-positive extracellular vesicles in the lungs, which may contribute to pathophysiology of asthma. PMID:26407210

  14. DHEA administration modulates stress-induced analgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Cecconello, Ana Lúcia; Torres, Iraci L S; Oliveira, Carla; Zanini, Priscila; Niches, Gabriela; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques

    2016-04-01

    An important aspect of adaptive stress response is the pain response suppression that occurs during or following stress exposure, which is often referred to as acute stress-induced analgesia. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) participates in the modulation of adaptive stress response, changing the HPA axis activity. The effect of DHEA on the HPA axis activity is dependent on the state and uses the same systems that participate in the regulation of acute stress-induced analgesia. The impact of DHEA on nociception has been studied; however, the effect of DHEA on stress-induced analgesia is not known. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of DHEA on stress-induced analgesia and determine the best time for hormone administration in relation to exposure to stressor stimulus. The animals were stressed by restraint for 1h in a single exposure and received treatment with DHEA by a single injection before the stress or a single injection after the stress. Nociception was assessed with a tail-flick apparatus. Serum corticosterone levels were measured. DHEA administered before exposure to stress prolonged the acute stress-induced analgesia. This effect was not observed when the DHEA was administered after the stress. DHEA treatment in non-stressed rats did not alter the nociceptive threshold, suggesting that the DHEA effect on nociception is state-dependent. The injection of DHEA had the same effect as exposure to acute stress, with both increasing the levels of corticosterone. In conclusion, acute treatment with DHEA mimics the response to acute stress indexed by an increase in activity of the HPA axis. The treatment with DHEA before stress exposure may facilitate adaptive stress response, prolonging acute stress-induced analgesia, which may be a therapeutic strategy of interest to clinics. PMID:26852948

  15. Antioxidant treatment ameliorates experimental diabetes-induced depressive-like behaviour and reduces oxidative stress in brain and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Abelaira, Helena M; Titus, Stephanie E; Carlessi, Anelise S; Matias, Beatriz I; Bruchchen, Livia; Florentino, Drielly; Vieira, Andriele; Petronilho, Fabricia; Ceretta, Luciane B; Zugno, Alexandra I; Quevedo, João

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown a relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and the development of major depressive disorder. Alterations in oxidative stress are associated with the pathophysiology of both diabetes mellitus and major depressive disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine on behaviour and oxidative stress parameters in diabetic rats. To this aim, after induction of diabetes by a single dose of alloxan, Wistar rats were treated with N-acetylcysteine or deferoxamine for 14 days, and then depressive-like behaviour was evaluated. Oxidative stress parameters were assessed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas. Diabetic rats displayed depressive-like behaviour, and treatment with N-acetylcysteine reversed this alteration. Carbonyl protein levels were increased in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and pancreas of diabetic rats, and both N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine reversed these alterations. Lipid damage was increased in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and pancreas; however, treatment with N-acetylcysteine or deferoxamine reversed lipid damage only in the hippocampus and pancreas. Superoxide dismutase activity was decreased in the amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas of diabetic rats. In diabetic rats, there was a decrease in catalase enzyme activity in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas, but an increase in the hippocampus. Treatment with antioxidants did not have an effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, animal model of diabetes produced depressive-like behaviour and oxidative stress in the brain and periphery. Treatment with antioxidants could be a viable alternative to treat behavioural and biochemical alterations induced by diabetes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26432993

  16. Lack of seipin in neurons results in anxiety- and depression-like behaviors via down regulation of PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Libin; Yin, Jun; Wang, Conghui; Liao, Jiawei; Liu, George; Chen, Ling

    2014-08-01

    The Seipin gene was originally found to be responsible for type 2 congenital lipodystrophy and involved in lipid droplet formation. Seipin is highly expressed in the central nervous system as well. Seipin mutations have been identified in motor neuron diseases such as Silver syndrome and spastic paraplegia. In this study, we generated neuron-specific seipin knockout mice (seipin-nKO) to investigate the influence of seipin deficiency on locomotion and affective behaviors. In comparison with control mice, 8-week-old male seipin-nKO mice, but not female mice, displayed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors as assessed by open-field, elevated plus-maze, forced swim and tail suspension tests. However, neither male nor female seipin-nKO mice showed locomotion deficits in swimming tank and rotarod tests. Interestingly, the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in the hippocampus and cortex were lower in male seipin-nKO mice, but not female mice, than controls. In seipin-nKO mice, plasma levels of sex hormones including 17β-estradiol (E2) in females and testosterone in males as well as corticosterone were not altered compared with controls. The treatment of male seipin-nKO mice with E2 ameliorated the anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and remarkably increased PPARγ levels. The PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone alleviated affective disorders in male seipin-nKO mice. Notably, anxiety- and depression-like behaviors appeared in female seipin-nKO mice after ovariectomy, which was associated with low PPARγ expression. Collectively, these results indicate that neuronal seipin deficiency causing reduced PPARγ levels leads to affective disorders in male mice that are rescued by E2-increased PPARγ expression. PMID:24651066

  17. Minocycline Attenuates Depressive-Like Behaviour Induced by Rat Model of Testicular Torsion: Involvement of Nitric Oxide Pathway.

    PubMed

    Saravi, Seyed Soheil Saeedi; Mousavi, Seyyedeh Elaheh; Saravi, Seyed Sobhan Saeedi; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-04-01

    Testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D) can induce depression in pre- and post-pubertal patients. This study was conducted to investigate the psychological impact of testicular torsion and mechanism underlying its depressive-like behaviour, as well as antidepressant-like activity of minocycline and possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP pathway in this paradigm in male rats undergoing testicular T/D. Unilateral T/D was performed in 36 male adult Wistar rats, and different doses of minocycline were injected alone or combined with N(ω) -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), non-specific NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor; aminoguanidine (AG), specific inducible NOS inhibitor; l-arginine, an NO precursor; and selective PDE5I, sildenafil. After assessment of locomotor activity in open-field test, immobility times were recorded in the forced swimming test (FST). Moreover, 30 days after testicular T/D, testicular venous testosterone and serum nitrite concentrations were measured. A correlation was observed between either a decrease in plasma testosterone or an increase in serum nitrite concentrations with prolongation in immobility time in the testicular T/D-operated rats FST. Minocycline (160 mg/kg) exerted the highest significant antidepressant-like effect in the operated rats in the FST (p < 0.001). Furthermore, combination of subeffective doses of minocycline (80 mg/kg) and either l-NAME (10 mg/kg) or AG (50 mg/kg) demonstrated a significant robust antidepressant-like activity in T/D group (p < 0.01). Consequently, NO/cGMP pathway was involved in testicular T/D-induced depressive-like behaviour and antidepressant-like activity of minocycline in the animal model. Moreover, a contribution was observed between either decreased testosterone or elevated serum nitrite levels and depressive-like behaviour following testicular T/D. PMID:26381433

  18. Lipopolysaccharide induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in mice are prevented by chronic pre-treatment of esculetin.

    PubMed

    Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Keshavlal, Gohil Pratik; Bezbaruah, Babul B; Dwivedi, Shubham; Gurjar, Satendra Singh; Munde, Nitin; Jangra, Ashok; Lahkar, Mangala; Gogoi, Ranadeep

    2016-01-12

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression. Esculetin (ESC), a coumarin derived potent antioxidant, also possessing anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activity. This study investigated the effect of ESC in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in mice. ESC (25 and 50mg/kg, p.o.) was administered daily for 14 days, and challenged with saline or LPS (0.83mg/kg; i.p.) on the 15th day. Behavioural paradigms such as elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were employed to assess anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in mice post-LPS injection. Hippocampal cytokines, MDA and GSH level, and plasma corticosterone (CORT) were measured. ESC pre-treatment significantly (P<0.05) attenuated LPS-induced anxiety-like behaviour by modulating EPM and OFT parameters. Moreover, LPS-induced increase in immobility time in FST and TST were also prevented significantly (P<0.05) by ESC (50mg/kg). ESC pre-treatment ameliorated LPS-induced neuroinflammation by attenuating brain IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α level, and oxidative stress as well as plasma CORT level. In conclusion, the results suggest that ESC prevented LPS-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour which may be governed by inhibition of cytokine production, oxidative stress and plasma CORT level. The results support the potential usefulness of ESC in the treatment of psychiatric disorders associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:26620836

  19. Ketamine and MAG Lipase Inhibitor-Dependent Reversal of Evolving Depressive-Like Behavior During Forced Abstinence From Alcohol Drinking.

    PubMed

    Holleran, Katherine M; Wilson, Hadley H; Fetterly, Tracy L; Bluett, Rebecca J; Centanni, Samuel W; Gilfarb, Rachel A; Rocco, Lauren E R; Patel, Sachin; Winder, Danny G

    2016-07-01

    Although alcoholism and depression are highly comorbid, treatment options that take this into account are lacking, and mouse models of alcohol (ethanol (EtOH)) intake-induced depressive-like behavior have not been well established. Recent studies utilizing contingent EtOH administration through prolonged two-bottle choice access have demonstrated depression-like behavior following EtOH abstinence in singly housed female C57BL/6J mice. In the present study, we found that depression-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST) is revealed only after a protracted (2 weeks), but not acute (24 h), abstinence period. No effect on anxiety-like behavior in the EPM was observed. Further, we found that, once established, the affective disturbance is long-lasting, as we observed significantly enhanced latencies to approach food even 35 days after ethanol withdrawal in the novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSFT). We were able to reverse affective disturbances measured in the NSFT following EtOH abstinence utilizing the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist and antidepressant ketamine but not memantine, another NMDAR antagonist. Pretreatment with the monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipase inhibitor JZL-184 also reduced affective disturbances in the NSFT in ethanol withdrawn mice, and this effect was prevented by co-administration of the CB1 inverse agonist rimonabant. Endocannabinoid levels were decreased within the BLA during abstinence compared with during drinking. Finally, we demonstrate that the depressive behaviors observed do not require a sucrose fade and that this drinking paradigm may favor the development of habit-like EtOH consumption. These data could set the stage for developing novel treatment approaches for alcohol-withdrawal-induced mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:26751284

  20. Suppression of Oxidative Stress and 5-Lipoxygenase Activation by Edaravone Improves Depressive-Like Behavior after Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Hoshijima, Michihiro; Yawata, Toshio; Nobumoto, Atsuya; Tsuda, Masayuki; Shimizu, Takahiro; Saito, Motoaki; Ueba, Tetuya

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Brain concussions are a serious public concern and are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression. Patients with concussion who suffer from depression often experience distress. Nevertheless, few pre-clinical studies have examined concussion-induced depression, and there is little information regarding its pharmacological management. Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, can exert neuroprotective effects in several animal models of neurological disorders. However, the effectiveness of edaravone in animal models of concussion-induced depression remains unclear. In this study, we examined whether edaravone could prevent concussion-induced depression. Mice were subjected to a weight-drop injury and intravenously administered edaravone (3.0 mg/kg) or vehicle immediately after impact. Serial magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormalities of the cerebrum on diffusion T1- and T2-weighted images. We found that edaravone suppressed concussion-induced depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test, which was accompanied by inhibition of increased hippocampal and cortical oxidative stress (OS) and suppression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) translocation to the nuclear envelope in hippocampal astrocytes. Hippocampal OS in concussed mice was also prevented by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, and administration of BWB70C, a 5-LOX inhibitor, immediately and 24 h after injury prevented depressive-like behaviors in concussed mice. Further, antidepressant effects of edaravone were observed in mice receiving 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg of edaravone immediately after impact, but not at a lower dose of 0.1 mg/kg. This antidepressant effect persisted up to 1 h after impact, whereas edaravone treatment at 3 h after impact had no effect on concussion-induced depressive-like behavior. These results suggest that edaravone protects against concussion-induced depression, and this protection is mediated by suppression of

  1. Experimental heart failure causes depression-like behavior together with differential regulation of inflammatory and structural genes in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Anna; Popp, Sandy; Post, Antonia; Langer, Simon; Lehmann, Marc; Hofmann, Ulrich; Sirén, Anna-Leena; Hommers, Leif; Schmitt, Angelika; Strekalova, Tatyana; Ertl, Georg; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Frantz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Depression and anxiety are common and independent outcome predictors in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). However, it is unclear whether CHF causes depression. Thus, we investigated whether mice develop anxiety- and depression-like behavior after induction of ischemic CHF by myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and Results: In order to assess depression-like behavior, anhedonia was investigated by repeatedly testing sucrose preference for 8 weeks after coronary artery ligation or sham operation. Mice with large MI and increased left ventricular dimensions on echocardiography (termed CHF mice) showed reduced preference for sucrose, indicating depression-like behavior. 6 weeks after MI, mice were tested for exploratory activity, anxiety-like behavior and cognitive function using the elevated plus maze (EPM), light-dark box (LDB), open field (OF), and object recognition (OR) tests. In the EPM and OF, CHF mice exhibited diminished exploratory behavior and motivation despite similar movement capability. In the OR, CHF mice had reduced preference for novelty and impaired short-term memory. On histology, CHF mice had unaltered overall cerebral morphology. However, analysis of gene expression by RNA-sequencing in prefrontal cortical, hippocampal, and left ventricular tissue revealed changes in genes related to inflammation and cofactors of neuronal signal transduction in CHF mice, with Nr4a1 being dysregulated both in prefrontal cortex and myocardium after MI. Conclusions: After induction of ischemic CHF, mice exhibited anhedonic behavior, decreased exploratory activity and interest in novelty, and cognitive impairment. Thus, ischemic CHF leads to distinct behavioral changes in mice analogous to symptoms observed in humans with CHF and comorbid depression. PMID:25400562

  2. Involvement of the agmatinergic system in the depressive-like phenotype of the Crtc1 knockout mouse model of depression.

    PubMed

    Meylan, E M; Breuillaud, L; Seredenina, T; Magistretti, P J; Halfon, O; Luthi-Carter, R; Cardinaux, J-R

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies implicate the arginine-decarboxylation product agmatine in mood regulation. Agmatine has antidepressant properties in rodent models of depression, and agmatinase (Agmat), the agmatine-degrading enzyme, is upregulated in the brains of mood disorder patients. We have previously shown that mice lacking CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) associate behavioral and molecular depressive-like endophenotypes, as well as blunted responses to classical antidepressants. Here, the molecular basis of the behavioral phenotype of Crtc1(-/-) mice was further examined using microarray gene expression profiling that revealed an upregulation of Agmat in the cortex of Crtc1(-/-) mice. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses confirmed Agmat upregulation in the Crtc1(-/-) prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus, which were further demonstrated by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy to comprise an increased number of Agmat-expressing cells, notably parvalbumin- and somatostatin-positive interneurons. Acute agmatine and ketamine treatments comparably improved the depressive-like behavior of male and female Crtc1(-/-) mice in the forced swim test, suggesting that exogenous agmatine has a rapid antidepressant effect through the compensation of agmatine deficit because of upregulated Agmat. Agmatine rapidly increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels only in the PFC of wild-type (WT) females, and decreased eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) phosphorylation in the PFC of male and female WT mice, indicating that agmatine might be a fast-acting antidepressant with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist properties. Collectively, these findings implicate Agmat in the depressive-like phenotype of Crtc1(-/-) mice, refine current understanding of the agmatinergic system in the brain and highlight its putative role in major depression. PMID:27404284

  3. Depression-like behaviour in mice is associated with disrupted circadian rhythms in nucleus accumbens and periaqueductal grey.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, Dominic; Long, Jaimie E; Welsh, David K

    2016-05-01

    An association between circadian rhythms and mood regulation is well established, and disturbed circadian clocks are believed to contribute to the development of mood disorders, including major depressive disorder. The circadian system is coordinated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master pacemaker in the hypothalamus that receives light input from the retina and synchronizes circadian oscillators in other brain regions and peripheral tissues. Lacking the tight neuronal network that couples single-cell oscillators in the SCN, circadian clocks outside the SCN may be less stable and more susceptible to disturbances, for example by clock gene mutations or uncontrollable stress. However, non-SCN circadian clocks have not been studied extensively in rodent models of mood disorders. In the present study, it was hypothesized that disturbances of local circadian clocks in mood-regulating brain areas are associated with depression-like behaviour in mice. Using the learned helplessness procedure, depression-like behaviour was evoked in mice bearing the PER2::LUC circadian reporter, and then circadian rhythms of PER2 expression were examined in brain slices from these mice using luminometry and bioluminescence imaging. It was found that helplessness is associated with absence of circadian rhythms in the nucleus accumbens and the periaqueductal grey, two of the most critical brain regions within the reward circuit. The current study provides evidence that susceptibility of mice to depression-like behaviour is associated with disturbed local circadian clocks in a subset of mood-regulating brain areas, but the direction of causality remains to be determined. PMID:26414405

  4. Antidepressant Effects of TrkB Ligands on Depression-Like Behavior and Dendritic Changes in Mice After Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji-chun; Wu, Jin; Fujita, Yuko; Yao, Wei; Ren, Qian; Yang, Chun; Li, Su-xia; Shirayama, Yukihiko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), signaling represent potential therapeutic targets for major depressive disorder. The purpose of this study is to examine whether TrkB ligands show antidepressant effects in an inflammation-induced model of depression. Methods: In this study, we examined the effects of TrkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) and TrkB antagonist ANA-12 on depression-like behavior and morphological changes in mice previously exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Protein levels of BDNF, phospho-TrkB (p-TrkB), and TrkB in the brain regions were also examined. Results: LPS caused a reduction of BDNF in the CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC), whereas LPS increased BDNF in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Dexamethason suppression tests showed hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in LPS-treated mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 7,8-DHF showed antidepressant effects on LPS-induced depression-like behavior, and i.p. pretreatment with ANA-12 blocked its antidepressant effects. Surprisingly, ANA-12 alone showed antidepressant-like effects on LPS-induced depression-like behavior. Furthermore, bilateral infusion of ANA-12 into the NAc showed antidepressant effects. Moreover, LPS caused a reduction of spine density in the CA3, DG, and PFC, whereas LPS increased spine density in the NAc. Interestingly, 7,8-DHF significantly attenuated LPS-induced reduction of p-TrkB and spine densities in the CA3, DG, and PFC, whereas ANA-12 significantly attenuated LPS-induced increases of p-TrkB and spine density in the NAc. Conclusions: The results suggest that LPS-induced inflammation may cause depression-like behavior by altering BDNF and spine density in the CA3, DG, PFC, and NAc, which may be involved in the antidepressant effects of 7,8-DHF and ANA-12, respectively. PMID:25628381

  5. Effects of environmental stress on the depression-like behaviors and the diurnal rhythm of corticosterone and melatonin in male rats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming; Liu, Li-Jing; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Guo, Tian-You; Yue, Xiao-Dong; Li, Su-Xia

    2016-06-25

    Environmental stress (ES) is commonly used in producing chronic unpredictable mild stress to study pathogenesis of depression, including the regulatory role of circadian system on depression. However, the direct effect of ES on the circadian system has been rarely explored. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of ES on depression-like behaviors and diurnal rhythm of plasma hormone/peptide levels in male rats. Rats were allocated into control group (CON group), low frequency ES group (LF group) and high frequency ES group (HF group). Sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test (OFT), weight gain, food and water intake were conducted to assess depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. A total of 7 times of the tail venous blood was collected with an interval of 4 h during 24 h from other rats who subjected to the same procedures of ES but not the behavioral tests. The alterations of diurnal rhythm of peripheral plasma corticosterone (CORT) and melatonin, and changes of the cholecystokinin (CCK), neuropeptide Y and leptin levels at zeitgeber time (ZT) 0 were detected by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that ES led to a disturbance of diurnal rhythm of CORT and melatonin in the plasma. Besides, it also increased plasma leptin level and decreased body weight gain, but it did not produce depression- and anxiety-like behaviors compared with those rats in the control group. In short, our findings indicated that the ES could induce a disturbance of diurnal rhythm of plasma CORT and melatonin in male rats. PMID:27350193

  6. TSC2 mediates hyperosmotic stress-induced inactivation of mTORC1

    PubMed Central

    Plescher, Monika; Teleman, Aurelio A.; Demetriades, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) regulates cell growth and metabolism. mTORC1 activity is regulated via integration of positive growth-promoting stimuli and negative stress stimuli. One stress cells confront in physiological and pathophysiological contexts is hyperosmotic stress. The mechanism by which hyperosmotic stress regulates mTORC1 activity is not well understood. We show here that mild hyperosmotic stress induces a rapid and reversible inactivation of mTORC1 via a mechanism involving multiple upstream signaling pathways. We find that hyperosmotic stress causes dynamic changes in TSC2 phosphorylation by upstream kinases, such as Akt, thereby recruiting TSC2 from the cytoplasm to lysosomes where it acts on Rheb, the direct activator of mTORC1. This work puts together a signaling pathway whereby hyperosmotic stress inactivates mTORC1. PMID:26345496

  7. Methyl donor supplementation in rats reverses the deleterious effect of maternal separation on depression-like behaviour.

    PubMed

    Paternain, Laura; Martisova, Eva; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo; Ramírez, Maria J; Milagro, Fermin I

    2016-02-15

    Adverse early life events are associated with altered stress responsiveness and metabolic disturbances in the adult life. Dietary methyl donor supplementation could be able to reverse the negative effects of maternal separation by affecting DNA methylation in the brain. In this study, maternal separation during lactation reduced body weight gain in the female adult offspring without affecting food intake, and altered total and HDL-cholesterol levels. Also, maternal separation induced a cognitive deficit as measured by NORT and an increase in the immobility time in the Porsolt forced swimming test, consistent with increased depression-like behaviour. An 18-week dietary supplementation with methyl donors (choline, betaine, folate and vitamin B12) from postnatal day 60 also reduced body weight without affecting food intake. Some of the deleterious effects induced by maternal separation, such as the abnormal levels of total and HDL-cholesterol, but especially the depression-like behaviour as measured by the Porsolt test, were reversed by methyl donor supplementation. Also, the administration of methyl donors increased total DNA methylation (measured by immunohistochemistry) and affected the expression of insulin receptor in the hippocampus of the adult offspring. However, no changes were observed in the DNA methylation status of insulin receptor and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) promoter regions in the hypothalamus. In summary, methyl donor supplementation reversed some of the deleterious effects of an early life-induced model of depression in rats and altered the DNA methylation profile in the brain. PMID:26628207

  8. Diene Valepotriates from Valeriana glechomifolia Prevent Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Sickness and Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice.

    PubMed

    Müller, Liz G; Borsoi, Milene; Stolz, Eveline D; Herzfeldt, Vivian; Viana, Alice F; Ravazzolo, Ana Paula; Rates, Stela Maris K

    2015-01-01

    Valeriana glechomifolia, a native species from southern Brazil, presents antidepressant-like activity and diene valepotriates (VAL) contribute to the pharmacological properties of the genus. It is known that depression can develop on an inflammation background in vulnerable patients and antidepressants present anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the effects of VAL (10 mg/kg, p.o.) on sickness and depressive-like behaviors as well as proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and BDNF expression in the cortex of mice exposed to a 5 min swimming session (as a stressful stimulus) 30 min before the E. coli LPS injection (600 µg/kg, i.p.). The forced swim + LPS induced sickness and depressive-like behaviors, increased the cortical expression of IL-1β and TNF-α, and decreased BDNF expression. VAL was orally administered to mice 1 h before (pretreatment) or 5 h after (posttreatment) E. coli LPS injection. The pretreatment with VAL restored the behavioral alterations and the expression of cortical proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-injected animals but had no effects on BDNF expression, while the posttreatment rescued only behavioral alterations. Our results demonstrate for the first time the positive effects of VAL in an experimental model of depression associated with inflammation, providing new data on the range of action of these molecules. PMID:26170871

  9. [A pharmaco-ethological study of the GABA-ergic mechanisms regulating the depression-like behavior of mice].

    PubMed

    Belozertseva, I V; Andreev, B V

    1997-01-01

    It is known that repeated stress may result in depression-like alterations of behavior. This behavior is characterized by decreased social exploratory activity and increase in occurrence of defensive postures in a social interaction test in mice. The passive defensive behavior is effectively antagonized by antidepressant drugs thus providing a useful animal model of depression. Effects of several GABAergic drugs were studied in opponent test in individually housed male mice. For two weeks preceding the test, mice were repeatedly exposed to foot shock stimulation and/or social confrontation with an aggressive mouse. Muscimol, a selective agonist of GABA(A) receptors, decreased the frequency and duration of defensive postures and increased the duration of some forms of individual activity (grooming and eating), like the agonist of GABA(B) receptors baclofen. Muscimol was the only compound that facilitated exploratory activity towards an unfamiliar partner and did not suppress the locomotion. Effects of another agonist of GABA(B) receptors phenibut and inhibitor of GABA transaminase valproate Na were less specific and consisted in general suppression of behavior (prevalence of static forms of behavior). It can be thought that GABA(A) receptors are essential for regulation of depression-like behavior of mice. PMID:9472168

  10. Adolescent voluntary exercise attenuated hippocampal innate immunity responses and depressive-like behaviors following maternal separation stress in male rats.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mahsa; Peeri, Maghsoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal

    2016-09-01

    Early life stressful events have detrimental effects on the brain and behavior, which are associated with the development of depression. Immune-inflammatory responses have been reported to contribute in the pathophysiology of depression. Many studies have reported on the beneficial effects of exercise against stress. However, underlying mechanisms through which exercise exerts its effects were poorly studied. Therefore, it applied maternal separation (MS), as a valid animal model of early-life adversity, in rats from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 14 for 180min per day. At PND 28, male Wistar albino rats were subjected to 5 experimental groups; 1) controls 2) MS rats 3) MS rats treated with fluoxetine 5mg/kg to PND 60, 4) MS rats that were subjected to voluntary running wheel (RW) exercise and 5) MS rats that were subjected to mandatory treadmill (TM) exercise until adulthood. At PND 60, depressive-like behaviors were assessed by using forced swimming test (FST), splash test, and sucrose preference test (SPT). Our results revealed that depressive-like behaviors following MS stress were associated with an increase in expression of toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr-4) and its main signaling protein, Myd88, in the hippocampal formation. Also, we found that voluntary (and not mandatory) physical exercise during adolescence is protected against depressant effects of early-life stress at least partly through mitigating the innate immune responses in the hippocampus. PMID:27184238

  11. Maternal infection during late pregnancy increases anxiety- and depression-like behaviors with increasing age in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Enayati, Mohsen; Solati, Jalal; Hosseini, Mohammad-Hassan; Shahi, Hamid-Reza; Saki, Golshid; Salari, Ali-Akbar

    2012-02-10

    Scientific reports suggest that the exposure to long-term stressors throughout or during late gestation increase anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of offspring in their later life. Moreover, several studies concluded that increasing age correlates with increased anxiety behaviors in humans and rodents. In the present study, we assessed the effects of prenatally administration of equal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) doses in various points of late gestation (days 15, 16, and 17) period, on neuroendocrine and immunological responses of pregnant mice, and subsequent long-lasting consequences of anxiety and depression with increasing age in male offspring at postnatal days (PD) 40 and 80. Four hours after the LPS injection, levels of corticosterone (COR) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (PIC) in pregnant mice, as compared to the control dams, were increased significantly. Furthermore, maternal inflammation raised the levels of COR, anxiety- and depression-like behaviors with increasing age in male offspring in comparison with saline male offspring. These data support other studies demonstrating that maternal stress increases the levels of anxiety and depression in offspring. Additionally, our data confirm other findings indicating that increasing age correlates with increased anxiety or depression behaviors in humans and rodents. Findings of this study suggest that time course of an inflammation response or stressor application during various stages of gestation and ages of offspring are important factors for assessing neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:21893170

  12. Diene Valepotriates from Valeriana glechomifolia Prevent Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Sickness and Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Liz G.; Borsoi, Milene; Stolz, Eveline D.; Herzfeldt, Vivian; Viana, Alice F.; Ravazzolo, Ana Paula; Rates, Stela Maris K.

    2015-01-01

    Valeriana glechomifolia, a native species from southern Brazil, presents antidepressant-like activity and diene valepotriates (VAL) contribute to the pharmacological properties of the genus. It is known that depression can develop on an inflammation background in vulnerable patients and antidepressants present anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the effects of VAL (10 mg/kg, p.o.) on sickness and depressive-like behaviors as well as proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and BDNF expression in the cortex of mice exposed to a 5 min swimming session (as a stressful stimulus) 30 min before the E. coli LPS injection (600 µg/kg, i.p.). The forced swim + LPS induced sickness and depressive-like behaviors, increased the cortical expression of IL-1β and TNF-α, and decreased BDNF expression. VAL was orally administered to mice 1 h before (pretreatment) or 5 h after (posttreatment) E. coli LPS injection. The pretreatment with VAL restored the behavioral alterations and the expression of cortical proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-injected animals but had no effects on BDNF expression, while the posttreatment rescued only behavioral alterations. Our results demonstrate for the first time the positive effects of VAL in an experimental model of depression associated with inflammation, providing new data on the range of action of these molecules. PMID:26170871

  13. Salubrious effects of oxytocin on social stress-induced deficits

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam S.; Wang, Zuoxin

    2012-01-01

    Social relationships are a fundamental aspect of life, affecting social, psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. While social interactions can attenuate stress and promote health, disruption, confrontations, isolation, or neglect in the social environment can each be major stressors. Social stress can impair the basal function and stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, impairing function of multiple biological systems and posing a risk to mental and physical health. In contrast, social support can ameliorate stress-induced physiological and immunological deficits, reducing the risk of subsequent psychological distress and improving an individual's overall well-being. For better clinical treatment of these physiological and mental pathologies, it is necessary to understand the regulatory mechanisms of stress-induced pathologies as well as determine the underlying biological mechanisms that regulate social buffering of the stress system. A number of ethologically relevant animal models of social stress and species that form strong adult social bonds have been utilized to study the etiology, treatment, and prevention of stress-related disorders. While undoubtedly a number of biological pathways contribute to the social buffering of the stress response, the convergence of evidence denotes the regulatory effects of oxytocin in facilitating social bond-promoting behaviors and their effect on the stress response. Thus, oxytocin may be perceived as a common regulatory element of the social environment, stress response, and stress-induced risks on mental and physical health. PMID:22178036

  14. Bacterial translocation affects intracellular neuroinflammatory pathways in a depression-like model in rats.

    PubMed

    Martín-Hernández, David; Caso, Javier R; Bris, Álvaro G; Maus, Sandra R; Madrigal, José L M; García-Bueno, Borja; MacDowell, Karina S; Alou, Luis; Gómez-Lus, Maria Luisa; Leza, Juan C

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that depression is accompanied by an increased intestinal permeability which would be related to the inflammatory pathophysiology of the disease. This study aimed to evaluate whether experimental depression presents with bacterial translocation that in turn can lead to the TLR-4 in the brain affecting the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and antioxidant pathways. Male Wistar rats were exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) and the intestinal integrity, presence of bacteria in tissues and plasma lipopolysaccharide levels were analyzed. We also studied the expression in the prefrontal cortex of activated forms of MAPK and some of their activation controllers and the effects of CMS on the antioxidant Nrf2 pathway. Our results indicate that after exposure to a CMS protocol there is increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation. CMS also increases the expression of the activated form of the MAPK p38 while decreasing the expression of the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2. The actions of antibiotic administration to prevent bacterial translocation on elements of the MAPK and Nrf2 pathways indicate that the translocated bacteria are playing a role in these effects. In effect, our results propose a role of the translocated bacteria in the pathophysiology of depression through the p38 MAPK pathway which could aggravate the neuroinflammation and the oxidative/nitrosative damage present in this pathology. Moreover, our results reveal that the antioxidant factor Nrf2 and its activators may be involved in the consequences of the CMS on the brain. PMID:26686392

  15. Preventive effect of theanine intake on stress-induced impairments of hippocamapal long-term potentiation and recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Haruna; Fukura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Miki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Takeda, Atsushi

    2013-06-01

    Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. On the basis of the preventive effect of theanine intake after birth on mild stress-induced attenuation of hippocamapal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP), the present study evaluated the effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairments of LTP and recognition memory. Young rats were fed water containing 0.3% theanine for 3 weeks after weaning and subjected to water immersion stress for 30min, which was more severe than tail suspension stress for 30s used previously. Serum corticosterone levels were lower in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats even after exposure to stress. CA1 LTP induced by a 100-Hz tetanus for 1s was inhibited in the presence of 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV), an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, in hippocampal slices from the control rats and was attenuated by water immersion stress. In contrast, CA1 LTP was not significantly inhibited in the presence of APV in hippocampal slices from theanine-administered rats and was not attenuated by the stress. Furthermore, object recognition memory was impaired in the control rats, but not in theanine-administered rats. The present study indicates the preventive effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairments of hippocampal LTP and recognition memory. It is likely that the modification of corticosterone secretion after theanine intake is involved in the preventive effect. PMID:23458739

  16. Depressive-like phenotype induced by AAV-mediated overexpression of human α-synuclein in midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Caudal, D; Alvarsson, A; Björklund, A; Svenningsson, P

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and by the presence of aggregates containing α-synuclein called Lewy bodies. Viral vector-induced overexpression of α-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons represents a model of PD which recapitulates disease progression better than commonly used neurotoxin models. Previous studies using this model have reported motor and cognitive impairments, whereas depression, mood and anxiety phenotypes are less described. To investigate these psychiatric phenotypes, Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral injections of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector expressing human α-synuclein or GFP into the substantia nigra pars compacta. Behavior was assessed at two timepoints: 3 and 8 weeks post-injection. We report that nigral α-synuclein overexpression led to a pronounced nigral dopaminergic cell loss accompanied by a smaller cell loss in the ventral tegmental area, and to a decreased striatal density of dopaminergic fibers. The AAV-α-synuclein group exhibited modest, but significant motor impairments 8 weeks after vector administration. The AAV-α-synuclein group displayed depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test after 3 weeks, and reduced sucrose preference at week 8. At both timepoints, overexpression of α-synuclein was linked to a hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation of corticosterone. The depressive-like phenotype was also correlated with decreased nigral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and spinophilin levels, and with decreased striatal levels of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein. This study demonstrates that AAV-mediated α-synuclein overexpression in dopamine neurons is not only useful to model motor impairments of PD, but also depression. This study also provides evidence that depression in experimental Parkinsonism is correlated to dysregulation of the HPA axis and to

  17. Altered metabolic activity in the developing brain of rats predisposed to high versus low depression-like behavior.

    PubMed

    McCoy, C R; Golf, S R; Melendez-Ferro, M; Perez-Costas, E; Glover, M E; Jackson, N L; Stringfellow, S A; Pugh, P C; Fant, A D; Clinton, S M

    2016-06-01

    Individual differences in human temperament can increase the risk of psychiatric disorders like depression and anxiety. Our laboratory utilized a rat model of temperamental differences to assess neurodevelopmental factors underlying emotional behavior differences. Rats selectively bred for low novelty exploration (Low Responders, LR) display high levels of anxiety- and depression-like behavior compared to High Novelty Responder (HR) rats. Using transcriptome profiling, the present study uncovered vast gene expression differences in the early postnatal HR versus LR limbic brain, including changes in genes involved in cellular metabolism. These data led us to hypothesize that rats prone to high (versus low) anxiety/depression-like behavior exhibit distinct patterns of brain metabolism during the first weeks of life, which may reflect disparate patterns of synaptogenesis and brain circuit development. Thus, in a second experiment we examined activity of cytochrome C oxidase (COX), an enzyme responsible for ATP production and a correlate of metabolic activity, to explore functional energetic differences in the HR/LR early postnatal brain. We found that HR rats display higher COX activity in the amygdala and specific hippocampal subregions compared to LRs during the first 2 weeks of life. Correlational analysis examining COX levels across several brain regions and multiple early postnatal time points suggested desynchronization in the developmental timeline of the limbic HR versus LR brain during the first two postnatal weeks. These early divergent COX activity levels may reflect altered circuitry or synaptic activity in the early postnatal HR/LR brain, which could contribute to the emergence of their distinct behavioral phenotypes. PMID:26979051

  18. Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid treatment over mechanical allodynia and depressive-like behavior associated with experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Redivo, Daiany D B; Schreiber, Anne K; Adami, Eliana R; Ribeiro, Deidiane E; Joca, Samia R L; Zanoveli, Janaína M; Cunha, Joice M

    2016-02-01

    Neuropathic pain and depression are very common comorbidities in diabetic patients. As the pathophysiological mechanisms are very complex and multifactorial, current treatments are only symptomatic and often worsen the glucose control. Thus, the search for more effective treatments are extremely urgent. In this way, we aimed to investigate the effect of chronic treatment with fish oil (FO), a source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, over the mechanical allodynia and in depressive-like behaviors in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. It was observed that the diabetic (DBT) animals, when compared to normoglycemic (NGL) animals, developed a significant mechanical allodynia since the second week after diabetes induction, peaking at fourth week which is completely prevented by FO treatment (0.5, 1 or 3g/kg). Moreover, DBT animals showed an increase of immobility frequency and a decrease of swimming and climbing frequencies in modified forced swimming test (MFST) since the second week after diabetes injection, lasting up at the 4th week. FO treatment (only at a dose of 3g/kg) significantly decreased the immobility frequency and increased the swimming frequency, but did not induce significant changes in the climbing frequency in DBT rats. Moreover, it was observed that DBT animals had significantly lower levels of BDNF in both hippocampus and pre frontal cortex when compared to NGL rats, which is completely prevented by FO treatment. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that FO treatment was able to prevent the mechanical allodynia and the depressive-like behaviors in DBT rats, which seems to be related to its capacity of BDNF level restoration. PMID:26546881

  19. Fluoxetine prevents the development of depressive-like behavior in a mouse model of cancer related fatigue.

    PubMed

    Norden, Diana M; Devine, Raymond; Bicer, Sabahattin; Jing, Runfeng; Reiser, Peter J; Wold, Loren E; Godbout, Jonathan P; McCarthy, Donna O

    2015-03-01

    Cancer patients frequently suffer from fatigue, a complex syndrome associated with tiredness and depressed mood. Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) can be present at the time of diagnosis, escalates during treatment, and can persist for years after treatment. CRF negatively influences quality of life, limits functional independence, and is associated with decreased survival in patients with incurable disease. We have previously shown that increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the brain contributes to depressive- and fatigue-like behaviors in a mouse model of CRF. Inflammatory cytokines increase the activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), which competitively reduce serotonin synthesis. Reduced serotonin availability in the brain and increased production of alternative neuroactive metabolites of tryptophan are thought to contribute to the development of depression and fatigue. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), on brain cytokines and behavioral measures of fatigue and depression in tumor-bearing mice. Here we show that tumor growth increased brain expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and KMO. Treatment with fluoxetine had no effect on tumor growth, muscle wasting, fatigue behavior, or cytokine expression in the brain. Fluoxetine, however, reduced depressive-like behaviors in tumor bearing mice. In conclusion, our data confirm that increased brain expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines is associated with tumor-induced fatigue- and depressive-like behaviors. However, it is possible to separate the effects of tumor growth on mood and fatigue-like behaviors using SSRIs such as fluoxetine. PMID:25554480

  20. Female Flinders Sensitive Line rats show estrous cycle-independent depression-like behavior and altered tryptophan metabolism.

    PubMed

    Eskelund, Amanda; Budac, David P; Sanchez, Connie; Elfving, Betina; Wegener, Gregers

    2016-08-01

    Clinical studies suggest a link between depression and dysfunctional tryptophan (TRP) metabolism. Even though depression is twice as prevalent in women as men, the impact of the estrous cycle on TRP metabolism is not well-understood. Here we investigated 13 kynurenine and serotonin metabolites in female Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, a genetic rat model of depression. FSL rats and controls (Flinders Resistant Line rats), 12-20weeks old, were subject to the forced swim test (FST), a commonly used measure of depression-like behavior. Open field was used to evaluate locomotor ability and agoraphobia. Subsequently, plasma and hemispheres were collected and analyzed for their content of TRP metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Vaginal saline lavages were obtained daily for ⩾2 cycles. To estimate the effects of sex and FST we included plasma from unhandled, naïve male FSL and FRL rats. Female FSL rats showed a depression-like phenotype with increased immobility in the FST, not confounded by anxiety. In the brain, 3-hydroxykynurenine was increased whereas anthranilate and 5-hydroxytryptophan were decreased. In plasma, anthranilate and quinolinate levels were lower in FSL rats compared to the control line, independent of sex and FST. The estrous cycle neither impacted behavior nor TRP metabolite levels in the FSL rat. In conclusion, the female FSL rat is an interesting preclinical model of depression with altered TRP metabolism, independent of the estrous cycle. The status of the pathway in brain was not reflected in the plasma, which may indicate that an inherent local, cerebral regulation of TRP metabolism occurs. PMID:27210075

  1. Absence of system xc- in mice decreases anxiety and depressive-like behavior without affecting sensorimotor function or spatial vision.

    PubMed

    Bentea, Eduard; Demuyser, Thomas; Van Liefferinge, Joeri; Albertini, Giulia; Deneyer, Lauren; Nys, Julie; Merckx, Ellen; Michotte, Yvette; Sato, Hideyo; Arckens, Lutgarde; Massie, Ann; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-06-01

    There is considerable preclinical and clinical evidence indicating that abnormal changes in glutamatergic signaling underlie the development of mood disorders. Astrocytic glutamate dysfunction, in particular, has been recently linked with the pathogenesis and treatment of mood disorders, including anxiety and depression. System xc- is a glial cystine/glutamate antiporter that is responsible for nonvesicular glutamate release in various regions of the brain. Although system xc- is involved in glutamate signal transduction, its possible role in mediating anxiety or depressive-like behaviors is currently unknown. In the present study, we phenotyped adult and aged system xc- deficient mice in a battery of tests for anxiety and depressive-like behavior (open field, light/dark test, elevated plus maze, novelty suppressed feeding, forced swim test, tail suspension test). Concomitantly, we evaluated the sensorimotor function of system xc- deficient mice, using motor and sensorimotor based tests (rotarod, adhesive removal test, nest building test). Finally, due to the presence and potential functional relevance of system xc- in the eye, we investigated the visual acuity of system xc- deficient mice (optomotor test). Our results indicate that loss of system xc- does not affect motor or sensorimotor function, in either adult or aged mice, in any of the paradigms investigated. Similarly, loss of system xc- does not affect basic visual acuity, in either adult or aged mice. On the other hand, in the open field and light/dark tests, and forced swim and tail suspension tests respectively, we could observe significant anxiolytic and antidepressive-like effects in system xc- deficient mice that in certain cases (light/dark, forced swim) were age-dependent. These findings indicate that, under physiological conditions, nonvesicular glutamate release via system xc- mediates aspects of higher brain function related to anxiety and depression, but does not influence sensorimotor function

  2. Aging Exacerbates Depressive-like Behavior in Mice in Response to Activation of the Peripheral Innate Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Godbout, Jonathan P; Moreau, Maïté; Lestage, Jacques; Chen, Jing; Sparkman, Nathan L; O’Connor, Jason; Castanon, Nathalie; Kelley, Keith W; Dantzer, Robert; Johnson, Rodney W

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to peripheral infections may be permissive to cognitive and behavioral complications in the elderly. We have reported that peripheral stimulation of the innate immune system with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes an exaggerated neuroinflammatory response and prolonged sickness behavior in aged BALB/c mice. Because LPS also causes depressive behavior, the purpose of this study was to determine whether aging is associated with an exacerbated depressive-like response. We confirmed that LPS (0.33 mg/kg intraperitoneal) induced a protracted sickness response in aged mice with reductions in locomotor and feeding activities 24 and 48 h postinjection, when young adults had fully recovered. When submitted to the forced swim test 24 h post-LPS, both young adult and aged mice exhibited an increased duration of immobility. However, when submitted to either the forced swim test or the tail suspension test 72 h post-LPS, an increased duration of immobility was evident only in aged mice. This prolonged depressive-like behavior in aged LPS-treated mice was associated with a more pronounced induction of peripheral and brain indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and a markedly higher turnover rate of brain serotonin (as measured by the ratio of 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid over 5-hydroxyt-tryptamine) compared to young adult mice at 24 post-LPS injection. These results provide the first evidence that age-associated reactivity of the brain cytokine system could play a pathophysiological role in the increased prevalence of depression observed in the elderly. PMID:18075491

  3. Methylene Blue Attenuates Traumatic Brain Injury-Associated Neuroinflammation and Acute Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Ashley M.; Skendelas, John P.; Moussa, Daniel N.; Muccigrosso, Megan M.; Popovich, Phillip G.; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with cerebral edema, blood brain barrier breakdown, and neuroinflammation that contribute to the degree of injury severity and functional recovery. Unfortunately, there are no effective proactive treatments for limiting immediate or long-term consequences of TBI. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of methylene blue (MB), an antioxidant agent, in reducing inflammation and behavioral complications associated with a diffuse brain injury. Here we show that immediate MB infusion (intravenous; 15–30 minutes after TBI) reduced cerebral edema, attenuated microglial activation and reduced neuroinflammation, and improved behavioral recovery after midline fluid percussion injury in mice. Specifically, TBI-associated edema and inflammatory gene expression in the hippocampus were significantly reduced by MB at 1 d post injury. Moreover, MB intervention attenuated TBI-induced inflammatory gene expression (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumor necrosis factor α) in enriched microglia/macrophages 1 d post injury. Cell culture experiments with lipopolysaccharide-activated BV2 microglia confirmed that MB treatment directly reduced IL-1β and increased IL-10 messenger ribonucleic acid in microglia. Last, functional recovery and depressive-like behavior were assessed up to one week after TBI. MB intervention did not prevent TBI-induced reductions in body weight or motor coordination 1–7 d post injury. Nonetheless, MB attenuated the development of acute depressive-like behavior at 7 d post injury. Taken together, immediate intervention with MB was effective in reducing neuroinflammation and improving behavioral recovery after diffuse brain injury. Thus, MB intervention may reduce life-threatening complications of TBI, including edema and neuroinflammation, and protect against the development of neuropsychiatric complications. PMID:25070744

  4. Serotonin₆ receptors in the dorsal hippocampus regulate depressive-like behaviors in unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned Parkinson's rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun-Cheng; Li, Jun-Yi; Tan, Hui-Hui; Du, Cheng-Xue; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Yu-Ming; Ma, Wei-Lin; Zhang, Li

    2015-08-01

    Preclinical studies indicate both activation and blockade of serotonin6 (5-HT6) receptors may produce antidepressant-like effects. Depression is a common symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD); however, its pathophysiology is unclear. Here we examined whether 5-HT6 receptors in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) involve in the regulation of PD-associated depression. Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle in rats induced depressive-like responses as measured by the sucrose preference and forced swim tests when compared to sham-operated rats. In sham-operated rats, intra-DH injection of 5HT6 receptor agonist WAY208466 or antagonist SB258585 increased sucrose consumption and decreased immobility time, indicating the induction of antidepressant effects. In the lesioned rats, WAY208466 also produced antidepressant effects, whereas SB258585 decreased sucrose consumption and increased immobility time, indicating the induction of depressive-like behaviors. Neurochemical results showed that WAY208466 did not change dopamine (DA) levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), DH and habenula, and noradrenaline (NA) levels in the DH and habenula in sham-operated rats, and SB258585 increased DA and NA levels in these structures. Further, WAY208466 increased DA levels in the mPFC, DH and habenula, and NA level in the habenula in the lesioned rats, and SB258585 decreased DA levels in the mPFC and habenula. Additionally, the lesion did not change the density of neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1/5-HT6 receptor co-expressing neurons in the DH. Compared to sham-operated rats, these findings suggest that the effects of 5-HT6 receptors in PD-associated depression may be mediated through different neurochemical mechanisms, and the DH is an important site involved in these effects. PMID:25863121

  5. Social factors modulate restraint stress induced hyperthermia in mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-10-22

    Stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) was examined in three different social conditions in mice by thermographic measurement of the body surface temperature. Placing animals in cylindrical holders induced restraint stress. I examined the effect of the social factors in SIH using the thermograph (body surface temperature). Mice restrained in the holders alone showed SIH. Mice restrained in the holders at the same time as other similarly restrained cage mates (social equality condition) showed less hyperthermia. Interestingly, restrained mice with free moving cage mates (social inequality condition) showed the highest hyperthermia. These results are consistent with a previous experiment measuring the memory-enhancing effects of stress and the stress-induced elevation of corticosterone, and suggest that social inequality enhances stress. PMID:26232073

  6. Origin of yielding in metallic glass: Stress-induced flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. Y.; Chen, M. W.; Liu, C. T.; Yang, Y.

    2014-06-01

    Yielding in crystalline metals is well known to be governed by dislocation dynamics; however, the structural origin of yielding in metallic glasses (MGs) still remains as an issue of intense debate despite that substantial research efforts have been expended. In this Letter, based on well-designed cyclic microcompression tests, we provide compelling experimental evidence revealing that yielding of MGs is essentially a stress-induced viscous flow process, during which the measured viscosity ranges from 1014 Pa.s to 1011 Pa.s and decreases with the increase of applied stress, resembling the "shear-thinning" behavior of non-Newtonian liquids. This stress-induced non-Newtonian flow finally leads to shear instability, which manifests itself as the phenomenon of delayed yielding common to a variety of MGs.

  7. OGG1 is essential in oxidative stress induced DNA demethylation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaolong; Zhuang, Ziheng; Wang, Wentao; He, Lingfeng; Wu, Huan; Cao, Yan; Pan, Feiyan; Zhao, Jing; Hu, Zhigang; Sekhar, Chandra; Guo, Zhigang

    2016-09-01

    DNA demethylation is an essential cellular activity to regulate gene expression; however, the mechanism that triggers DNA demethylation remains unknown. Furthermore, DNA demethylation was recently demonstrated to be induced by oxidative stress without a clear molecular mechanism. In this manuscript, we demonstrated that 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (OGG1) is the essential protein involved in oxidative stress-induced DNA demethylation. Oxidative stress induced the formation of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). We found that OGG1, the 8-oxoG binding protein, promotes DNA demethylation by interacting and recruiting TET1 to the 8-oxoG lesion. Downregulation of OGG1 makes cells resistant to oxidative stress-induced DNA demethylation, while over-expression of OGG1 renders cells susceptible to DNA demethylation by oxidative stress. These data not only illustrate the importance of base excision repair (BER) in DNA demethylation but also reveal how the DNA demethylation signal is transferred to downstream DNA demethylation enzymes. PMID:27251462

  8. Stress induced telomere shortening: longer life with less mutations?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations accumulate as a result of DNA damage and imperfect DNA repair machinery. In higher eukaryotes the accumulation and spread of mutations is limited in two primary ways: through p53-mediated programmed cell death and cellular senescence mediated by telomeres. Telomeres shorten at every cell division and cell stops dividing once the shortest telomere reaches a critical length. It has been shown that the rate of telomere attrition is accelerated when cells are exposed to DNA damaging agents. However the implications of this mechanism are not fully understood. Results With the help of in silico model we investigate the effect of genotoxic stress on telomere attrition and apoptosis in a population of non-identical replicating cells. When comparing the populations of cells with constant vs. stress-induced rate of telomere shortening we find that stress induced telomere shortening (SITS) increases longevity while reducing mutation rate. Interestingly, however, the effect takes place only when genotoxic stresses (e.g. reactive oxygen species due to metabolic activity) are distributed non-equally among cells. Conclusions Our results for the first time show how non-equal distribution of metabolic load (and associated genotoxic stresses) combined with stress induced telomere shortening can delay aging and minimize mutations. PMID:24580844

  9. Environmental stress induces trinucleotide repeat mutagenesis in human cells.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nimrat; Lin, Yunfu; Santillan, Beatriz A; Yotnda, Patricia; Wilson, John H

    2015-03-24

    The dynamic mutability of microsatellite repeats is implicated in the modification of gene function and disease phenotype. Studies of the enhanced instability of long trinucleotide repeats (TNRs)-the cause of multiple human diseases-have revealed a remarkable complexity of mutagenic mechanisms. Here, we show that cold, heat, hypoxic, and oxidative stresses induce mutagenesis of a long CAG repeat tract in human cells. We show that stress-response factors mediate the stress-induced mutagenesis (SIM) of CAG repeats. We show further that SIM of CAG repeats does not involve mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, or transcription, processes that are known to promote TNR mutagenesis in other pathways of instability. Instead, we find that these stresses stimulate DNA rereplication, increasing the proportion of cells with >4 C-value (C) DNA content. Knockdown of the replication origin-licensing factor CDT1 eliminates both stress-induced rereplication and CAG repeat mutagenesis. In addition, direct induction of rereplication in the absence of stress also increases the proportion of cells with >4C DNA content and promotes repeat mutagenesis. Thus, environmental stress triggers a unique pathway for TNR mutagenesis that likely is mediated by DNA rereplication. This pathway may impact normal cells as they encounter stresses in their environment or during development or abnormal cells as they evolve metastatic potential. PMID:25775519

  10. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Faiza; Tian, Hui; Li, Wenqing; Hung, Helong; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98%) on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU) against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg−1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility. PMID:26763544

  11. Environmental stress induces trinucleotide repeat mutagenesis in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nimrat; Lin, Yunfu; Santillan, Beatriz A.; Yotnda, Patricia; Wilson, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic mutability of microsatellite repeats is implicated in the modification of gene function and disease phenotype. Studies of the enhanced instability of long trinucleotide repeats (TNRs)—the cause of multiple human diseases—have revealed a remarkable complexity of mutagenic mechanisms. Here, we show that cold, heat, hypoxic, and oxidative stresses induce mutagenesis of a long CAG repeat tract in human cells. We show that stress-response factors mediate the stress-induced mutagenesis (SIM) of CAG repeats. We show further that SIM of CAG repeats does not involve mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, or transcription, processes that are known to promote TNR mutagenesis in other pathways of instability. Instead, we find that these stresses stimulate DNA rereplication, increasing the proportion of cells with >4 C-value (C) DNA content. Knockdown of the replication origin-licensing factor CDT1 eliminates both stress-induced rereplication and CAG repeat mutagenesis. In addition, direct induction of rereplication in the absence of stress also increases the proportion of cells with >4C DNA content and promotes repeat mutagenesis. Thus, environmental stress triggers a unique pathway for TNR mutagenesis that likely is mediated by DNA rereplication. This pathway may impact normal cells as they encounter stresses in their environment or during development or abnormal cells as they evolve metastatic potential. PMID:25775519

  12. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage.

    PubMed

    Rao, Faiza; Tian, Hui; Li, Wenqing; Hung, Helong; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98%) on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU) against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg-1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility. PMID:26763544

  13. Mild balanoposthitis.

    PubMed Central

    Fornasa, C V; Calabrŏ, A; Miglietta, A; Tarantello, M; Biasinutto, C; Peserico, A

    1994-01-01

    AIM--To identify and study cases of mild balanoposthitis (MBP) with penile pathology among patients observed at a dermatology clinic over an 18-month period. MATERIALS--The study included 321 patients with penile pathology. The term MBP was used to describe balanoposthitis of a localised, inflammatory nature with few, non-specific symptoms and a tendency to become chronic or recur. Two hundred and seventy had diseases clearly identifiable by clinical examination or laboratory tests; 51 cases were diagnosed as MBP and these patients had blood tests (to evaluate immune status) and microbiological examination; when these proved negative, a series of patch tests was also used. RESULTS--Of the 51 patients diagnosed as having MBP, the cause was ascertained in 34 cases (infection, mechanical trauma, contact irritation, contact allergy, etc.), whereas no specific aetiological factor was detected to explain the symptoms in the remaining 17 cases. PMID:8001949

  14. Dysregulation of Neuregulin-1/ErbB signaling in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    PubMed

    Dang, Ruili; Cai, Hualin; Zhang, Ling; Liang, Donglou; Lv, Chuanfeng; Guo, Yujin; Yang, Ranyao; Zhu, Yungui; Jiang, Pei

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to chronic stress increases the likelihood of developing depression, but the underlying mechanisms remain equivocal. While recent evidence has indicated that Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) and its ErbB receptors play an essential role in neural development and function, and NRG1 has emerged as a novel modulator involved in the response of brain to stress, there is limited evidence concerning the effects of chronic stress exposure on NRG1/ErbB signaling. To fill this critical gap, we examined the protein expression of NRG1 and ErbB receptors in the brain of rats following chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) exposure. After 6weeks of CUMS procedures, the rats were induced to a depression-like state. The stressed rats displayed elevated expression of NRG1 and phosphorylated ErbB4 (pErbB4) in the prefrontal cortex, whereas ErbB2 and pErbB2 were inhibited. In the hippocampus, CUMS also attenuated activation of the both ErbB receptors and suppressed the downstream Akt and ERK phosphorylation. Meanwhile, administration of sertraline enhanced NRG1/ErbB signaling and partly normalized the stress-induced behavioral changes and the disturbances of NRG1/ErbB system in CUMS rats. Combined, our data firstly showed the aberrant changes of NRG1/ErbB system in the brain of the animal model of depression, providing new evidence for the involvement of NRG1/ErbB pathway in the development and treatment of depression. PMID:26626816

  15. The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats

    PubMed Central

    Neamati, Ali; Chaman, Fariba; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized) were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50), (Sent - Ext 100) and (Sent - Ext 200) were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01) while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V. officinalis

  16. ER Stress-induced Aberrant Neuronal Maturation and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Koichi; Iekumo, Takaaki; Kaneko, Masayuki; Nomura, Yasuyuki; Okuma, Yasunobu

    2016-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, which include autism spectrum disorder, are congenital impairments in the growth and development of the central nervous system. They are mainly accentuated during infancy and childhood. Autism spectrum disorder may be caused by environmental factors, genomic imprinting of chromosome 15q11-q13 regions, and gene defects such as those in genes encoding neurexin and neuroligin, which are involved in synaptogenesis and synaptic signaling. However, regardless of the many reports on neurodevelopmental disorders, the pathogenic mechanism and treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders remain unclear. Conversely, it has been reported that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in neurodegenerative diseases. ER stress is increased by environmental factors such as alcohol consumption and smoking. Here we show the recent results on ER stress-induced neurodevelopmental disorders. ER stress led to a decrease in the mRNA levels of the proneural factors Hes1/5 and Pax6, which maintain an undifferentiated state of the neural cells. This stress also led to a decrease in nestin expression and an increase in beta-III tubulin expression. In addition, dendrite length was shortened by ER stress in microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) positive cells. However, the ubiquitin ligase HRD1 expression was increased by ER stress. By suppressing HRD1 expression, the ER stress-induced decrease in nestin and MAP-2 expression and increase in beta-III tubulin returned to control levels. Therefore, we suggest that ER stress induces abnormalities in neuronal differentiation and maturation via HRD1 expression. These results suggest that targeting ER stress may facilitate quicker approaches toward the prevention and treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:27252060

  17. Stress-induced phase transformation in nanocrystalline UO2

    SciTech Connect

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Desai, Tapan

    2009-01-01

    We report a stress-induced phase transfonnation in stoichiometric UO{sub 2} from fluorite to the {alpha}-PbO{sub 2} structure using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. MD simulations, performed on nanocrystalline microstructure under constant-stress tensile loading conditions, reveal a heterogeneous nucleation of the {alpha}-PbO{sub 2} phase at the grain boundaries followed by the growth of this phase towards the interior of the grain. The DFT calculations confinn the existence of the {alpha}-PbO{sub 2} structure, showing that it is energetically favored under tensile loading conditions.

  18. Rescue of GABAB and GIRK function in the lateral habenula by protein phosphatase 2A inhibition ameliorates depression-like phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Lecca, Salvatore; Pelosi, Assunta; Tchenio, Anna; Moutkine, Imane; Lujan, Rafael; Hervé, Denis; Mameli, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) encodes aversive signals, and its aberrant activity contributes to depression-like symptoms. However, a limited understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying LHb hyperactivity has precluded the development of pharmacological strategies to ameliorate depression-like phenotypes. Here we report that an aversive experience in mice, such as foot-shock exposure (FsE), induces LHb neuronal hyperactivity and depression-like symptoms. This occurs along with increased protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity, a known regulator of GABAB receptor (GABABR) and G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel surface expression. Accordingly, FsE triggers GABAB1 and GIRK2 internalization, leading to rapid and persistent weakening of GABAB-activated GIRK-mediated (GABAB-GIRK) currents. Pharmacological inhibition of PP2A restores both GABAB-GIRK function and neuronal excitability. As a consequence, PP2A inhibition ameliorates depression-like symptoms after FsE and in a learned-helplessness model of depression. Thus, GABAB-GIRK plasticity in the LHb represents a cellular substrate for aversive experience. Furthermore, its reversal by PP2A inhibition may provide a novel therapeutic approach to alleviate symptoms of depression in disorders that are characterized by LHb hyperactivity. PMID:26808347

  19. Subchronic Arsenic Exposure Induces Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Normal Mice and Enhances Depression-Like Behaviors in the Chemically Induced Mouse Model of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Guo, How-Ran; Tsai, Wan-Chen; Yang, Kai-Lin; Lin, Li-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates that subchronic arsenic exposure causes cerebral neurodegeneration leading to behavioral disturbances relevant to psychiatric disorders. However, there is still little information regarding the influence of subchronic exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water on mood disorders and its underlying mechanisms in the cerebral prefrontal cortex. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of subchronic arsenic exposure (10 mg/LAs2O3 in drinking water) on the anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in normal mice and in the chemically induced mouse model of depression by reserpine pretreatment. Our findings demonstrated that 4 weeks of arsenic exposure enhance anxiety-like behaviors on elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT) in normal mice, and 8 weeks of arsenic exposure augment depression-like behaviors on tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) in the reserpine pretreated mice. In summary, in this present study, we demonstrated that subchronic arsenic exposure induces only the anxiety-like behaviors in normal mice and enhances the depression-like behaviors in the reserpine induced mouse model of depression, in which the cerebral prefrontal cortex BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway is involved. We also found that eight weeks of subchronic arsenic exposure are needed to enhance the depression-like behaviors in the mouse model of depression. These findings imply that arsenic could be an enhancer of depressive symptoms for those patients who already had the attribute of depression. PMID:26114099

  20. Subchronic Arsenic Exposure Induces Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Normal Mice and Enhances Depression-Like Behaviors in the Chemically Induced Mouse Model of Depression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Guo, How-Ran; Tsai, Wan-Chen; Yang, Kai-Lin; Lin, Li-Chuan; Cheng, Tain-Junn; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates that subchronic arsenic exposure causes cerebral neurodegeneration leading to behavioral disturbances relevant to psychiatric disorders. However, there is still little information regarding the influence of subchronic exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water on mood disorders and its underlying mechanisms in the cerebral prefrontal cortex. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of subchronic arsenic exposure (10 mg/LAs2O3 in drinking water) on the anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in normal mice and in the chemically induced mouse model of depression by reserpine pretreatment. Our findings demonstrated that 4 weeks of arsenic exposure enhance anxiety-like behaviors on elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT) in normal mice, and 8 weeks of arsenic exposure augment depression-like behaviors on tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) in the reserpine pretreated mice. In summary, in this present study, we demonstrated that subchronic arsenic exposure induces only the anxiety-like behaviors in normal mice and enhances the depression-like behaviors in the reserpine induced mouse model of depression, in which the cerebral prefrontal cortex BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway is involved. We also found that eight weeks of subchronic arsenic exposure are needed to enhance the depression-like behaviors in the mouse model of depression. These findings imply that arsenic could be an enhancer of depressive symptoms for those patients who already had the attribute of depression. PMID:26114099

  1. Mutation-related differences in exploratory, spatial, and depressive-like behavior in pcd and Lurcher cerebellar mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Tuma, Jan; Kolinko, Yaroslav; Vozeh, Frantisek; Cendelin, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum is not only essential for motor coordination but is also involved in cognitive and affective processes. These functions of the cerebellum and mechanisms of their disorders in cerebellar injury are not completely understood. There is a wide spectrum of cerebellar mutant mice which are used as models of hereditary cerebellar degenerations. Nevertheless, they differ in pathogenesis of manifestation of the particular mutation and also in the strain background. The aim of this work was to compare spatial navigation, learning, and memory in pcd and Lurcher mice, two of the most frequently used cerebellar mutants. The mice were tested in the open field for exploration behavior, in the Morris water maze with visible as well as reversal hidden platform tasks and in the forced swimming test for motivation assessment. Lurcher mice showed different space exploration activity in the open field and a lower tendency to depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test compared with pcd mice. Severe deficit of spatial navigation was shown in both cerebellar mutants. However, the overall performance of Lurcher mice was better than that of pcd mutants. Lurcher mice showed the ability of visual guidance despite difficulties with the direct swim toward a goal. In the probe trial test, Lurcher mice preferred the visible platform rather than the more recent localization of the hidden goal. PMID:26029065

  2. Deletion of fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22) causes a depression-like phenotype in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Williams, Aislinn J; Yee, Patricia; Smith, Mitchell C; Murphy, Geoffrey G; Umemori, Hisashi

    2016-07-01

    Specific growth factors induce formation and differentiation of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, and are essential for brain development and function. Fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22) is important for specifying excitatory synapses during development, including in the hippocampus. Mice with a genetic deletion of FGF22 (FGF22KO) during development subsequently have fewer hippocampal excitatory synapses in adulthood. As a result, FGF22KO mice are resistant to epileptic seizure induction. In addition to playing a key role in learning, the hippocampus is known to mediate mood and anxiety. Here, we explored whether loss of FGF22 alters affective, anxiety or social cognitive behaviors in mice. We found that relative to control mice, FGF22KO mice display longer duration of floating and decreased latency to float in the forced swim test, increased immobility in the tail suspension test, and decreased preference for sucrose in the sucrose preference test, which are all suggestive of a depressive-like phenotype. No differences were observed between control and FGF22KO mice in other behavioral assays, including motor, anxiety, or social cognitive tests. These results suggest a novel role for FGF22 specifically in affective behaviors. PMID:27036645

  3. Dietary DHA during development affects depression-like behaviors and biomarkers that emerge after puberty in adolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Michael J.; Wynalda, Kelly; Salem, Norman; Butt, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    DHA is an important omega-3 PUFA that confers neurodevelopmental benefits. Sufficient omega-3 PUFA intake has been associated with improved mood-associated measures in adult humans and rodents, but it is unknown whether DHA specifically influences these benefits. Furthermore, the extent to which development and puberty interact with the maternal diet and the offspring diet to affect mood-related behaviors in adolescence is poorly understood. We sought to address these questions by 1) feeding pregnant rats with diets sufficient or deficient in DHA during gestation and lactation; 2) weaning their male offspring to diets that were sufficient or deficient in DHA; and 3) assessing depression-related behaviors (forced swim test), plasma biomarkers [brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin, and melatonin], and brain biomarkers (BDNF) in the offspring before and after puberty. No dietary effects were detected when the offspring were evaluated before puberty. In contrast, after puberty depressive-like behavior and its associated biomarkers were worse in DHA-deficient offspring compared with animals with sufficient levels of DHA. The findings reported here suggest that maintaining sufficient DHA levels throughout development (both pre- and postweaning) may increase resiliency to emotional stressors and decrease susceptibility to mood disorders that commonly arise during adolescence. PMID:25411442

  4. Photoperiodic responses of depression-like behavior, the brain serotonergic system, and peripheral metabolism in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Kawai, Misato; Togo, Yuki; Goda, Ryosei; Kawase, Takahiro; Matsuo, Haruka; Iwamoto, Ayaka; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yasuo, Shinobu

    2014-02-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by depression during specific seasons, generally winter. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying SAD remain elusive due to a limited number of animal models with high availability and validity. Here we show that laboratory C57BL/6J mice display photoperiodic changes in depression-like behavior and brain serotonin content. C57BL/6J mice maintained under short-day conditions, as compared to those under long-day conditions, demonstrated prolonged immobility times in the forced swimming test with lower brain levels of serotonin and its precursor l-tryptophan. Furthermore, photoperiod altered multiple parameters reflective of peripheral metabolism, including the ratio of plasma l-tryptophan to the sum of other large neutral amino acids that compete for transport across the blood-brain barrier, responses of circulating glucose and insulin to glucose load, sucrose intake under restricted feeding condition, and sensitivity of the brain serotonergic system to peripherally administered glucose. These data suggest that the mechanisms underlying SAD involve the brain-peripheral tissue network, and C57BL/6J mice can serve as a powerful tool for investigating the link between seasons and mood. PMID:24485474

  5. Startle response memory and hippocampal changes in adult zebrafish pharmacologically-induced to exhibit anxiety/depression-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Julian T; Lott, Chad S

    2014-01-17

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly becoming a popular animal model for neurobehavioral and psychopharmacological research. While startle testing is a well-established assay to investigate anxiety-like behaviors in different species, screening of the startle response and its habituation in zebrafish is a new direction of translational biomedical research. This study focuses on a novel behavioral protocol to assess a tapping-induced startle response and its habituation in adult zebrafish that have been pharmacologically-induced to exhibit anxiety/depression-like behaviors. We demonstrated that zebrafish exhibit robust learning performance in a task adapted from the mammalian literature, a modified plus maze, and showed that ethanol and fluoxetine impair memory performance in this maze when administered after training at a dose that does not impair motor function, however, leads to significant upregulation of hippocampal serotoninergic neurons. These results suggest that the maze associative learning paradigm has face and construct validity and that zebrafish may become a translationally relevant study species for the analysis of the mechanisms of learning and memory changes associated with psychopharmacological treatment of anxiety/depression. PMID:24184510

  6. Repeated, high-dose dextromethorphan treatment decreases neurogenesis and results in depression-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Po, Kai Ting; Siu, Andrew Man-Hong; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Chan, Jackie Ngai-Man; So, Kwok-Fai; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2015-07-01

    Abuse of cough mixture is increasingly prevalent worldwide. Clinical studies showed that chronic consumption of cough mixture at high dosages may lead to psychiatric symptoms, especially affective disturbances, with the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The present study aims at exploring the effect of repeated, high-dose dextromethorphan (DXM, a common active component of cough mixture) treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which is associated with pathophysiology of mood disturbances. After treatment with a high-dose of DXM (40 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks, Sprague-Dawley rats showed increased depression-like behavior when compared to the control animals. Neurogenesis in the hippocampus was suppressed by DXM treatment, which was indicated by decreases in number of proliferative cells and doublecortin (an immature neuron marker)-positive new neurons. Furthermore, the dendritic complexity of the immature neurons was suppressed by DXM treatment. These findings suggest that DXM induces depression- and anxiety-like behavior and suppresses neurogenesis in rats. The current experimental paradigm may serve as an animal model for study on affective effect of cough mixture abuse, rehabilitation treatment options for abusers and the related neurological mechanisms. PMID:25939533

  7. Adolescent chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical hypo-responsiveness and depression-like behavior in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Wulsin, Aynara C; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Packard, Benjamin A; Morano, Rachel; Herman, James P

    2016-03-01

    Adolescence is a period of substantial neuroplasticity in stress regulatory neurocircuits. Chronic stress exposure during this period leads to long-lasting changes in neuroendocrine function and emotional behaviors, suggesting adolescence may be a critical period for development of stress vulnerability. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in late-adolescent (pnd 45-58) female rats on neuroendocrine function, neuropeptide mRNA expression and depressive-like behavior in adolescence (pnd 59) and in adulthood (pnd 101). Adult females exposed to CVS in adolescence have a blunted hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to a novel stressor and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Blunted HPA axis responses were accompanied by reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), suggesting decreased central drive. Adolescent females tested immediately after CVS did not exhibit differences in stress reactivity or immobility in the forced swim test, despite evidence for enhanced central HPA axis drive (increased CRH mRNA expression in PVN). Overall, our study demonstrates that exposure to chronic stress in adolescence is sufficient to induce lasting changes in neuroendocrine drive and behavior, potentially altering the developmental trajectory of stress circuits as female rats age into adulthood. PMID:26751968

  8. Dietary DHA during development affects depression-like behaviors and biomarkers that emerge after puberty in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Michael J; Wynalda, Kelly; Salem, Norman; Butt, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    DHA is an important omega-3 PUFA that confers neurodevelopmental benefits. Sufficient omega-3 PUFA intake has been associated with improved mood-associated measures in adult humans and rodents, but it is unknown whether DHA specifically influences these benefits. Furthermore, the extent to which development and puberty interact with the maternal diet and the offspring diet to affect mood-related behaviors in adolescence is poorly understood. We sought to address these questions by 1) feeding pregnant rats with diets sufficient or deficient in DHA during gestation and lactation; 2) weaning their male offspring to diets that were sufficient or deficient in DHA; and 3) assessing depression-related behaviors (forced swim test), plasma biomarkers [brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin, and melatonin], and brain biomarkers (BDNF) in the offspring before and after puberty. No dietary effects were detected when the offspring were evaluated before puberty. In contrast, after puberty depressive-like behavior and its associated biomarkers were worse in DHA-deficient offspring compared with animals with sufficient levels of DHA. The findings reported here suggest that maintaining sufficient DHA levels throughout development (both pre- and postweaning) may increase resiliency to emotional stressors and decrease susceptibility to mood disorders that commonly arise during adolescence. PMID:25411442

  9. Mutation-related differences in exploratory, spatial, and depressive-like behavior in pcd and Lurcher cerebellar mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Tuma, Jan; Kolinko, Yaroslav; Vozeh, Frantisek; Cendelin, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum is not only essential for motor coordination but is also involved in cognitive and affective processes. These functions of the cerebellum and mechanisms of their disorders in cerebellar injury are not completely understood. There is a wide spectrum of cerebellar mutant mice which are used as models of hereditary cerebellar degenerations. Nevertheless, they differ in pathogenesis of manifestation of the particular mutation and also in the strain background. The aim of this work was to compare spatial navigation, learning, and memory in pcd and Lurcher mice, two of the most frequently used cerebellar mutants. The mice were tested in the open field for exploration behavior, in the Morris water maze with visible as well as reversal hidden platform tasks and in the forced swimming test for motivation assessment. Lurcher mice showed different space exploration activity in the open field and a lower tendency to depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test compared with pcd mice. Severe deficit of spatial navigation was shown in both cerebellar mutants. However, the overall performance of Lurcher mice was better than that of pcd mutants. Lurcher mice showed the ability of visual guidance despite difficulties with the direct swim toward a goal. In the probe trial test, Lurcher mice preferred the visible platform rather than the more recent localization of the hidden goal. PMID:26029065

  10. Adolescent chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical hypo-responsiveness and depression-like behavior in adult female rats

    PubMed Central

    Wulsin, Aynara C.; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Packard, Benjamin A.; Morano, Rachel; Herman, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of substantial neuroplasticity in stress regulatory neurocircuits. Chronic stress exposure during this period leads to long-lasting changes in neuroendocrine function and emotional behaviors, suggesting adolescence may be a critical period for development of stress vulnerability. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in late-adolescent (pnd 45–58) female rats on neuroendocrine function, neuropeptide mRNA expression and depressive-like behavior in adolescence (pnd 59) and in adulthood (pnd 101). Adult females exposed to CVS in adolescence have a blunted hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to a novel stressor and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Blunted HPA axis responses were accompanied by reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), suggesting decreased central drive. Adolescent females tested immediately after CVS did not exhibit differences in stress reactivity or immobility in the forced swim test, despite evidence for enhanced central HPA axis drive (increased CRH mRNA expression in PVN). Overall, our study demonstrates that exposure to chronic stress in adolescence is sufficient to induce lasting changes in neuroendocrine drive and behavior, potentially altering the developmental trajectory of stress circuits as female rats age into adulthood. PMID:26751968

  11. Long-term ovariectomy enhances anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in mice submitted to chronic unpredictable stress.

    PubMed

    Lagunas, Natalia; Calmarza-Font, Isabel; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2010-11-01

    Ovarian hormones exert anti-depressive and anxiolytic actions. In this study we have analyzed the effects of ovariectomy on the development of anxiety and depression-like behaviors and on cell proliferation in the hippocampus of mice submitted to chronic unpredictable stress. Animals submitted to stress 4 months after ovariectomy showed a significant increase in immobility behavior in the forced swimming test compared to animals submitted to stress 2 weeks after ovariectomy. In addition, long-term ovariectomy resulted in a significant decrease on the time spent in the open arms in the elevated plus-maze test compared to control animals. Stress did not significantly affect cell proliferation in the hilus of the dentate gyrus. However, ovariectomy resulted in a significant decrease in cell proliferation. These results indicate that long-term deprivation of ovarian hormones enhances the effect of chronic unpredictable stress on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in mice. Therefore, a prolonged deprivation of ovarian hormones may represent a risk factor for the development of depressive and anxiety symptoms after the exposure to stressful experiences. PMID:20691693

  12. Effects of 4-hydroxyisoleucine from Fenugreek Seeds on Depression-like Behavior in Socially Isolated Olfactory Bulbectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kalshetti, Padmaja B.; Alluri, Ramesh; Mohan, Vishwaraman; Thakurdesai, Prasad Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Context: Antidepressant-like effects of (2S, 3R, 4S)-4-hydroxyisoleucine (4-HI), a major amino acid from fenugreek seeds, has been reported in the animal model of acute depression. Aims: To evaluate effects of subacute administration of 4-HI in animal model of stress-induced depression namely socially isolated olfactory bulbectomized rats. Materials and Methods: Bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) were induced in 30 Sprague-Dawley rats. After recovery period of 14 days, rats were randomized into five groups of 6 rats each and stressed with social isolation (individual housing). The rats were orally treated with either vehicle (OBX-Iso), positive control, fluoxetine (30 mg/kg) or 4-HI (10, 30, 100 mg/kg) once a day from day 14 onward. Separate group of rats with social isolation but without OBX (Sham-Iso) was also maintained. The behavioral depression and anxiety related parameters using open field test (OFT), sucrose intake test, novelty suppressed feeding (NSF) and forced swim test (FST), and neurochemical estimation (brain monoamines viz., serotonin and nor-adrenaline, serotonin turnover, and serum cortisol) were performed. Statistical Analysis Used: Data was analyzed by either two-way ANOVA (OFT and FST) or one-way ANOVA (sucrose intake test, NSF, and neurochemical estimation) followed by Dunnett's multiple comparisons test. Differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results: The significant and dose-dependent protection from behavioral and neurochemical changes were observed in 4-HI co-administrated OBX-Iso rats. Conclusion: 4-HI demonstrated the antidepressant and antianxiety effects in socially isolated stress-induced OBX rats with possible involvement of multiple stress relieving mechanisms. HIGHLIGHTS OF PAPER In this study, the subacute pretreatment of 4-HI showed strong and dose-dependent prevention of isolation stress related behavioral and neurochemical responses in olfactory bulbectomized rats. The prevention of hyperactive HPA axis in OBX

  13. Horizontal stresses induced by vertical processes in planetary lithospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. B.

    1993-01-01

    Understanding the state of stress in the elastic lithosphere is of fundamental importance for planetary geophysics, as it is the link between the observed geologic structures on the surface and the processes which form and modify these structures. As such, it can provide valuable constraints for the difficult problem of determining interior structure and processes. On the Earth, most large scale, organized deformation can be related to lateral tectonics associated with plate dynamics; however, the tectonics on many extraterrestrial bodies (such as the Moon, Mars, and most of the outer-planet satellites) appears to be primarily vertical in nature, and the horizontal stresses induced by vertical motions and loads are expected to dominate the deformation of their lithospheres. The largest stress contributions from vertical loading come from the flexure of the lithosphere, which induces both bending moments and membrane stresses. We are concerned here only with nonflexural changes in the state of stress induced by processes such as sedimentary and volcanic deposition, erosional denudation, and changes in the thermal gradient that induce uplift or subsidence. This analysis is important both for evaluating stresses for specific regions in which the vertical stress history can be estimated, as well as for applying the proper loading conditions to global stress models. It is also of interest for providing a reference state of stress for interpreting stress measurements in the crust of the Earth.

  14. Oxidative stress induces mitochondrial fragmentation in frataxin-deficient cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lefevre, Sophie; Sliwa, Dominika; Rustin, Pierre; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Santos, Renata

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yeast frataxin-deficiency leads to increased proportion of fragmented mitochondria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress induces complete mitochondrial fragmentation in {Delta}yfh1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress increases mitochondrial fragmentation in patient fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of mitochondrial fission in {Delta}yfh1 induces oxidative stress resistance. -- Abstract: Friedreich ataxia (FA) is the most common recessive neurodegenerative disease. It is caused by deficiency in mitochondrial frataxin, which participates in iron-sulfur cluster assembly. Yeast cells lacking frataxin ({Delta}yfh1 mutant) showed an increased proportion of fragmented mitochondria compared to wild-type. In addition, oxidative stress induced complete fragmentation of mitochondria in {Delta}yfh1 cells. Genetically controlled inhibition of mitochondrial fission in these cells led to increased resistance to oxidative stress. Here we present evidence that in yeast frataxin-deficiency interferes with mitochondrial dynamics, which might therefore be relevant for the pathophysiology of FA.

  15. Stress Induces Pain Transition by Potentiation of AMPA Receptor Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changsheng; Yang, Ya; Liu, Sufang; Fang, Huaqiang; Zhang, Yong; Furmanski, Orion; Skinner, John; Xing, Ying; Johns, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic postsurgical pain is a serious issue in clinical practice. After surgery, patients experience ongoing pain or become sensitive to incident, normally nonpainful stimulation. The intensity and duration of postsurgical pain vary. However, it is unclear how the transition from acute to chronic pain occurs. Here we showed that social defeat stress enhanced plantar incision-induced AMPA receptor GluA1 phosphorylation at the Ser831 site in the spinal cord and greatly prolonged plantar incision-induced pain. Interestingly, targeted mutation of the GluA1 phosphorylation site Ser831 significantly inhibited stress-induced prolongation of incisional pain. In addition, stress hormones enhanced GluA1 phosphorylation and AMPA receptor-mediated electrical activity in the spinal cord. Subthreshold stimulation induced spinal long-term potentiation in GluA1 phosphomimetic mutant mice, but not in wild-type mice. Therefore, spinal AMPA receptor phosphorylation contributes to the mechanisms underlying stress-induced pain transition. PMID:25297100

  16. (+)-Catechin protects dermal fibroblasts against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress has been suggested as a mechanism underlying skin aging, as it triggers apoptosis in various cell types, including fibroblasts, which play important roles in the preservation of healthy, youthful skin. Catechins, which are antioxidants contained in green tea, exert various actions such as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer actions. In this study, we investigated the effect of (+)-catechin on apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in fibroblasts. Methods Fibroblasts (NIH3T3) under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (0.1 mM) were treated with either vehicle or (+)-catechin (0–100 μM). The effect of (+)-catechin on cell viability, apoptosis, phosphorylation of c-Jun terminal kinases (JNK) and p38, and activation of caspase-3 in fibroblasts under oxidative stress were evaluated. Results Hydrogen peroxide induced apoptotic cell death in fibroblasts, accompanied by induction of phosphorylation of JNK and p38 and activation of caspase-3. Pretreatment of the fibroblasts with (+)-catechin inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and reduced phosphorylation of JNK and p38 and activation of caspase-3. Conclusion (+)-Catechin protects against oxidative stress-induced cell death in fibroblasts, possibly by inhibiting phosphorylation of p38 and JNK. These results suggest that (+)-catechin has potential as a therapeutic agent for the prevention of skin aging. PMID:24712558

  17. Stress induced reversible crystal transition in poly(butylene succinate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoming; Zheng, Liuchun; Zhang, Xiuqin; Li, Chuncheng; Wang, Dujin

    2015-03-01

    The plastic deformation mechanism of semi-crystalline polymers is a long-studied topic, which is crucial for establishing structure/property relationships. For polymers with stress induced crystal transition, some open questions still need to be answered, such as on which stage of plastic deformation does the crystal transition take place, and more importantly, what happens on the lamellar structure during crystal transition. In this talk, stress-induced reversible crystal transition in poly(butylene succinate) was systematically investigated by in-situ WAXS and SAXS. A ``lamellar thickening'' phenomenon was observed during stretching, which was shown to mainly originated from the reversible crystal transition. This mechanism was shown to be valid in poly(ethylene succinate). The critical stress for the transition was measured in a series of PBS-based crystalline-amorphous multi-block copolymers. Interestingly, these PBS copolymers exhibited identical critical stress independent of amorphous blocks. The universal critical stress for crystal transition was interpreted through a single-microfibril-stretching mechanism. The work is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51203170).

  18. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gu, Simeng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fushun; Huang, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC)/norepinephrine (NE) system is regarded as a critical part of the central "stress circuitry," whose major function is to induce "fight or flight" behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty). The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear), but also for fight (anger). Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. "Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush" and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders. PMID:27051536

  19. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Simeng; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jason H.

    2016-01-01

    Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC)/norepinephrine (NE) system is regarded as a critical part of the central “stress circuitry,” whose major function is to induce “fight or flight” behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty). The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear), but also for fight (anger). Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. “Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush” and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders. PMID:27051536

  20. Consequences of long-term treatment with agomelatine on depressive-like behavior and neurobiological abnormalities in pinealectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Nenchovska, Zlatina; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Atanasova, Milena; Kortenska, Lidia; Stefanova, Miroslava; Alova, Liana; Lazarov, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    Previous data have shown that the rat model of melatonin deficit can cause a number of neurobiological aberrations. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the antidepressant drug agomelatine, a MT1/MT2 melatoninergic receptor agonist/5-HT2C receptor antagonist is able to prevent some of the behavioral, biochemical and cellular abnormalities induced by pinealectomy. The injection of agomelatine (40 mg/kg, i.p. for 5 weeks)/vehicle started after pinealectomy/sham procedure in Wistar rats. Animals were tested in different behavioral tests for anxiety and depression during the period of agomelatine treatment (chronic effect) and two months later (plastic effect). The effect of agomelatine on KCl-evoked serotonin (5-HT) release from the hippocampus, the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neuronal loss in pinealectomized rats were assessed. Our results showed that agomelatine not only did not prevent the disturbed emotional arousal/anxiety behavior in pinealectomized rats during the treatment but the enhanced motor activity and decreased anxiety state was still observed two months after the discontinuation of treatment. However, the drug corrected a depressive-like behavior (chronic and plastic effect), alleviated the enhanced KCl-evoked 5-HT release in the hippocampus, recovered the suppressed negative feedback inhibition of HPA axis and exerted a neuroprotection in pinealectomized rats. Our findings suggest that pinealectomy can model melancholic depression disorder while the antidepressant action of agomelatine is associated with a correction of 5-HT release in the hippocampus, dysregulated HPA system and neuroprotection in limbic structures. PMID:26779670

  1. Alteration in plasma corticosterone levels following long term oral administration of lead produces depression like symptoms in rats.

    PubMed

    Haider, Saida; Saleem, Sadia; Tabassum, Saiqa; Khaliq, Saima; Shamim, Saima; Batool, Zehra; Parveen, Tahira; Inam, Qurat-ul-ain; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2013-03-01

    Lead toxicity is known to induce a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioral dysfunctions that may result in adverse effects on several organs, including the central nervous system. Long-term exposure to low levels of lead (Pb(2+)) has been shown to produce behavioral deficits in rodents and humans by affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These deficits are thought to be associated with altered brain monoamine neurotransmission and due to changes in glucocorticoids levels. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Pb(2+)exposure on growth rate, locomotor activity, anxiety, depression, plasma corticosterone and brain serotonin (5-HT) levels in rats. Rats were exposed to lead in drinking water (500 ppm; lead acetate) for 5 weeks. The assessment of depression was done using the forced swimming test (FST). Estimation of brain 5-HT was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Plasma corticosterone was determined by spectrofluorimetric method. The present study showed that long term exposure to Pb(2+) significantly decreased the food intake followed by the decrease in growth rate in Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control group. No significant changes in open field activity were observed following Pb(2+)exposure while significant increase in anxiogenic effect was observed. Increased plasma corticosterone and decreased 5-HT levels were exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to controls. A significant increase in depressive like symptoms was exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control rats. The results are discussed in the context of Pb(2+) inducing a stress-like response in rats leading to changes in plasma corticosterone and brain 5-HT levels via altering tryptophan pyrrolase activity. PMID:23315312

  2. Chronic caffeine produces sexually dimorphic effects on amphetamine-induced behavior, anxiety and depressive-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, Sarah M; Townsend, Shannon E; Dixon, Rushell S; Hickman, Emma T; Lee, Sabrina M

    2016-04-01

    Caffeine consumption has been increasing rapidly in adolescents; however, most research on the behavioral effects of caffeine has been conducted in adults. Two experiments were conducted in which adolescent male and female rats were treated with a moderate dose of caffeine (0.25 g/l) in their drinking water beginning on P26-28. In the first experiment, animals were maintained on caffeinated drinking water or normal tap water for 14 days and were then tested for behavioral and striatal c-Fos response to amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg). In the second experiment, rats were maintained on caffeinated drinking water or normal tap water beginning on P28 and were tested for novel object recognition, anxiety in the light/dark test (L/D) and elevated plus maze (EPM), and depressive like behavior in the forced swim test (FST) beginning on the 14th day of caffeine exposure. Caffeine decreased amphetamine-induced rearing in males, but had no effect in females; however, this behavioral effect was not accompanied by changes in striatal c-Fos, which was increased by amphetamine but not altered by caffeine. No effects of caffeine were observed on novel object recognition or elevated plus maze behavior. However, in the L/D test, there was a sex by caffeine interaction on time spent in the light driven by a caffeine-induced increase in light time in the males but not the females. On the pretest day of the FST, sex by caffeine interactions were observed for swimming and struggling; caffeine decreased struggling behavior and increased swimming behavior in males and caffeine-treated females demonstrated significantly more struggling and significantly less swimming than caffeine-treated males. A similar pattern was observed on the test day in which caffeine decreased immobility overall and increased swimming. These data reveal sex dependent effects of caffeine on behavior in adolescent rats. PMID:26850920

  3. Agmatine, by Improving Neuroplasticity Markers and Inducing Nrf2, Prevents Corticosterone-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Andiara E; Egea, Javier; Buendia, Izaskun; Gómez-Rangel, Vanessa; Parada, Esther; Navarro, Elisa; Casas, Ana Isabel; Wojnicz, Aneta; Ortiz, José Avendaño; Cuadrado, Antonio; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Lopez, Manuela G

    2016-07-01

    Agmatine, an endogenous neuromodulator, is a potential candidate to constitute an adjuvant/monotherapy for the management of depression. A recent study by our group demonstrated that agmatine induces Nrf2 and protects against corticosterone effects in a hippocampal neuronal cell line. The present study is an extension of this previous study by assessing the antidepressant-like effect of agmatine in an animal model of depression induced by corticosterone in mice. Swiss mice were treated simultaneously with agmatine or imipramine at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg/day (p.o.) and corticosterone for 21 days and the daily administrations of experimental drugs were given immediately prior to corticosterone (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) administrations. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice (Nrf2 (+/+)) and Nrf2 KO (Nrf2 (-/-)) were treated during 21 days with agmatine (0.1 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or vehicle. Twenty-four hours after the last treatments, the behavioral tests and biochemical assays were performed. Agmatine treatment for 21 days was able to abolish the corticosterone-induced depressive-like behavior and the alterations in the immunocontent of mature BDNF and synaptotagmin I, and in the serotonin and glutamate levels. Agmatine also abolished the corticosterone-induced changes in the morphology of astrocytes and microglia in CA1 region of hippocampus. In addition, agmatine treatment in control mice increased noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine levels, CREB phosphorylation, mature BDNF and synaptotagmin I immunocontents, and reduced pro-BDNF immunocontent in the hippocampus. Agmatine's ability to produce an antidepressant-like effect was abolished in Nrf2 (-/-) mice. The present results reinforce the participation of Nrf2 in the antidepressant-like effect produced by agmatine and expand literature data concerning its mechanisms of action. PMID:25966970

  4. Effects of Agmatine on Depressive-Like Behavior Induced by Intracerebroventricular Administration of 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)).

    PubMed

    Moretti, Morgana; Neis, Vivian Binder; Matheus, Filipe Carvalho; Cunha, Mauricio Peña; Rosa, Priscila Batista; Ribeiro, Camille Mertins; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Prediger, Rui Daniel

    2015-10-01

    Considering that depression is a common non-motor comorbidity of Parkinson's disease and that agmatine is an endogenous neuromodulator that emerges as a potential agent to manage diverse central nervous system disorders, this study investigated the antidepressant-like effect of agmatine in mice intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injected with the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)). Male C57BL6 mice were treated with agmatine (0.0001, 0.1 or 1 mg/kg) and 60 min later the animals received an i.c.v. injection of MPP(+) (1.8 µg/site). Twenty-four hours after MPP(+) administration, immobility time, anhedonic behavior, and locomotor activity were evaluated in the tail suspension test (TST), splash test, and open field test, respectively. Using Western blot analysis, we investigated the putative modulation of MPP(+) and agmatine on striatal and frontal cortex levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). MPP(+) increased the immobility time of mice in the TST, as well as induced an anhedonic-like behavior in the splash test, effects which were prevented by pre-treatment with agmatine at the three tested doses. Neither drug, alone or in combination, altered the locomotor activity of mice. I.c.v. administration of MPP(+) increased the striatal immunocontent of TH, an effect prevented by the three tested doses of agmatine. MPP(+) and agmatine did not alter the immunocontent of BDNF in striatum and frontal cortex. These results demonstrate for the first time the antidepressant-like effects of agmatine in an animal model of depressive-like behavior induced by the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPP(+). PMID:26156429

  5. PEG-mediated osmotic stress induces premature differentiation of the root apical meristem and outgrowth of lateral roots in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hongtao; Liu, Ling; Li, Kexue; Xie, Qingen; Wang, Zhijuan; Zhao, Xuhua; Li, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Water stress is one of the major environmental stresses causing growth retardation and yield loss of plants. In the past decades, osmotic adjustment, antioxidant protection, and stomatal movement have been extensively studied, but much less attention has been paid to the study of root system reprogramming to maximize water absorption and survival under water stress. Here, it is shown that polyethylene glycol (PEG)-simulated mild and moderate osmotic stress induced premature differentiation of the root apical meristem (RAM). It is demonstrated that RAM premature differentiation is a conserved adaptive mechanism that is widely adopted by various plants to cope with osmotic stress simulated by PEG 8000, and the occurrence of RAM premature differentiation is directly related to stress tolerance of plants. It is shown that the osmotic stress-induced premature differentiation caused growth cessation of primary roots allowing outgrowth of lateral roots. This work has uncovered a key mechanism for controlling the plastic development of the root system by which plants are capable of survival, growth, or reproduction under water stress. PMID:24935621

  6. Critical features of acute stress-induced cross-sensitization identified through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis output.

    PubMed

    Belda, Xavier; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Stress-induced sensitization represents a process whereby prior exposure to severe stressors leaves animals or humans in a hyper-responsive state to further stressors. Indeed, this phenomenon is assumed to be the basis of certain stress-associated pathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. One biological system particularly prone to sensitization is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the prototypic stress system. It is well established that under certain conditions, prior exposure of animals to acute and chronic (triggering) stressors enhances HPA responses to novel (heterotypic) stressors on subsequent days (e.g. raised plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels). However, such changes remain somewhat controversial and thus, the present study aimed to identify the critical characteristics of the triggering and challenging stressors that affect acute stress-induced HPA cross-sensitization in adult rats. We found that HPA cross-sensitization is markedly influenced by the intensity of the triggering stressor, whereas the length of exposure mainly affects its persistence. Importantly, HPA sensitization is more evident with mild than strong challenging stressors, and it may remain unnoticed if exposure to the challenging stressor is prolonged beyond 15 min. We speculate that heterotypic HPA sensitization might have developed to optimize biologically adaptive responses to further brief stressors. PMID:27511270

  7. Critical features of acute stress-induced cross-sensitization identified through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis output

    PubMed Central

    Belda, Xavier; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Stress-induced sensitization represents a process whereby prior exposure to severe stressors leaves animals or humans in a hyper-responsive state to further stressors. Indeed, this phenomenon is assumed to be the basis of certain stress-associated pathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. One biological system particularly prone to sensitization is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the prototypic stress system. It is well established that under certain conditions, prior exposure of animals to acute and chronic (triggering) stressors enhances HPA responses to novel (heterotypic) stressors on subsequent days (e.g. raised plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels). However, such changes remain somewhat controversial and thus, the present study aimed to identify the critical characteristics of the triggering and challenging stressors that affect acute stress-induced HPA cross-sensitization in adult rats. We found that HPA cross-sensitization is markedly influenced by the intensity of the triggering stressor, whereas the length of exposure mainly affects its persistence. Importantly, HPA sensitization is more evident with mild than strong challenging stressors, and it may remain unnoticed if exposure to the challenging stressor is prolonged beyond 15 min. We speculate that heterotypic HPA sensitization might have developed to optimize biologically adaptive responses to further brief stressors. PMID:27511270

  8. Oxidative stress-induced autophagy: Role in pulmonary toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Malaviya, Rama; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2014-03-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process important in regulating the turnover of essential proteins and in elimination of damaged organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy is observed in the lung in response to oxidative stress generated as a consequence of exposure to environmental toxicants. Whether autophagy plays role in promoting cell survival or cytotoxicity is unclear. In this article recent findings on oxidative stress-induced autophagy in the lung are reviewed; potential mechanisms initiating autophagy are also discussed. A better understanding of autophagy and its role in pulmonary toxicity may lead to the development of new strategies to treat lung injury associated with oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Exposure to pulmonary toxicants is associated with oxidative stress. • Oxidative stress is known to induce autophagy. • Autophagy is upregulated in the lung following exposure to pulmonary toxicants. • Autophagy may be protective or pathogenic.

  9. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition reduces stress-induced affective pathology.

    PubMed

    Gamble-George, Joyonna Carrie; Baldi, Rita; Halladay, Lindsay; Kocharian, Adrina; Hartley, Nolan; Silva, Carolyn Grace; Roberts, Holly; Haymer, Andre; Marnett, Lawrence J; Holmes, Andrew; Patel, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Mood and anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric conditions and are exacerbated by stress. Recent studies have suggested cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition could represent a novel treatment approach or augmentation strategy for affective disorders including anxiety disorders and major depression. We show that traditional COX-2 inhibitors and a newly developed substrate-selective COX-2 inhibitor (SSCI) reduce a variety of stress-induced behavioral pathologies in mice. We found that these behavioral effects were associated with a dampening of neuronal excitability in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) ex vivo and in vivo, and were mediated by small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel and CB1 cannabinoid receptor activation. Taken together, these data provide further support for the potential utility of SSCIs, as well as traditional COX-2 inhibitors, as novel treatment approaches for stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:27162170

  10. Stress-induced obesity and the emotional nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Dallman, Mary F

    2009-01-01

    Stress and emotional brain networks foster eating behaviors that may lead to obesity. The neural networks underlying the complex interactions among stressors, body, brain and food intake are now better understood. Stressors, by activating a neural stress-response network, bias cognition toward increased emotional activity and degraded executive function. This causes formed habits to be used rather than a cognitive appraisal of responses. Stress also induces secretion of both glucocorticoids, which increases motivation for food, and insulin, which promotes food intake and obesity. Pleasurable feeding then reduces activity in the stress-response network, reinforcing the feeding habit. These effects of stressors emphasize the importance of teaching mental reappraisal techniques to restore responses from habitual to thoughtful, thus battling stress-induced obesity. PMID:19926299

  11. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition reduces stress-induced affective pathology

    PubMed Central

    Gamble-George, Joyonna Carrie; Baldi, Rita; Halladay, Lindsay; Kocharian, Adrina; Hartley, Nolan; Silva, Carolyn Grace; Roberts, Holly; Haymer, Andre; Marnett, Lawrence J; Holmes, Andrew; Patel, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Mood and anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric conditions and are exacerbated by stress. Recent studies have suggested cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition could represent a novel treatment approach or augmentation strategy for affective disorders including anxiety disorders and major depression. We show that traditional COX-2 inhibitors and a newly developed substrate-selective COX-2 inhibitor (SSCI) reduce a variety of stress-induced behavioral pathologies in mice. We found that these behavioral effects were associated with a dampening of neuronal excitability in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) ex vivo and in vivo, and were mediated by small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel and CB1 cannabinoid receptor activation. Taken together, these data provide further support for the potential utility of SSCIs, as well as traditional COX-2 inhibitors, as novel treatment approaches for stress-related psychiatric disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14137.001 PMID:27162170

  12. Tau protein is essential for stress-induced brain pathology.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Sofia; Vaz-Silva, João; Pinto, Vitor; Dalla, Christina; Kokras, Nikolaos; Bedenk, Benedikt; Mack, Natalie; Czisch, Michael; Almeida, Osborne F X; Sousa, Nuno; Sotiropoulos, Ioannis

    2016-06-28

    Exposure to chronic stress is frequently accompanied by cognitive and affective disorders in association with neurostructural adaptations. Chronic stress was previously shown to trigger Alzheimer's-like neuropathology, which is characterized by Tau hyperphosphorylation and missorting into dendritic spines followed by memory deficits. Here, we demonstrate that stress-driven hippocampal deficits in wild-type mice are accompanied by synaptic missorting of Tau and enhanced Fyn/GluN2B-driven synaptic signaling. In contrast, mice lacking Tau [Tau knockout (Tau-KO) mice] do not exhibit stress-induced pathological behaviors and atrophy of hippocampal dendrites or deficits of hippocampal connectivity. These findings implicate Tau as an essential mediator of the adverse effects of stress on brain structure and function. PMID:27274066

  13. Neurobiology of Stress-Induced Reproductive Dysfunction In Female Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Bethea, Cynthia L.; Centeno, Maria Luisa; Cameron, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    It is now well accepted that stress can precipitate mental and physical illness. However, it is becoming clear that given the same stress, some individuals are very vulnerable and will succumb to illness while others are more resilient and cope effectively, rather than becoming ill. This difference between individuals is called stress sensitivity. Stress-sensitivity of an individual appears to be influenced by genetically inherited factors, early life (even prenatal) stress, and by the presence or absence of factors that provide protection from stress. In comparison to other stress-related diseases, the concept of sensitivity versus resilience to stress-induced reproductive dysfunction has received relatively little attention. The studies presented herein were undertaken to begin to identify stable characteristics and the neural underpinnings of individuals with sensitivity to stress-induced reproductive dysfunction. Female cynomolgus macaques with normal menstrual cycles either stop ovulating (Stress Sensitive) or to continue to ovulate (Stress Resilient) upon exposure to a combined metabolic and psychosocial stress. However, even in the absence of stress, the stress sensitive animals have lower secretion of the ovarian steroids, estrogen and progesterone, have higher heart rates, have lower serotonin function, have fewer serotonin neurons and lower expression of pivotal serotonin-related genes, have lower expression of 5HT2A and 2C genes in the hypothalamus, have higher gene expression of GAD67 and CRH in the hypothalamus and have reduced GnRH transport to the anterior pituitary. Altogether, the results suggest that the neurobiology of reproductive circuits in stress sensitive individuals is compromised. We speculate that with the application of stress, the dysfunction of these neural systems becomes exacerbated and reproductive function ceases. PMID:18931961

  14. Stress induced obesity: lessons from rodent models of stress

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Zachary R.; Abizaid, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Stress was once defined as the non-specific result of the body to any demand or challenge to homeostasis. A more current view of stress is the behavioral and physiological responses generated in the face of, or in anticipation of, a perceived threat. The stress response involves activation of the sympathetic nervous system and recruitment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. When an organism encounters a stressor (social, physical, etc.), these endogenous stress systems are stimulated in order to generate a fight-or-flight response, and manage the stressful situation. As such, an organism is forced to liberate energy resources in attempt to meet the energetic demands posed by the stressor. A change in the energy homeostatic balance is thus required to exploit an appropriate resource and deliver useable energy to the target muscles and tissues involved in the stress response. Acutely, this change in energy homeostasis and the liberation of energy is considered advantageous, as it is required for the survival of the organism. However, when an organism is subjected to a prolonged stressor, as is the case during chronic stress, a continuous irregularity in energy homeostasis is considered detrimental and may lead to the development of metabolic disturbances such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes mellitus and obesity. This concept has been studied extensively using animal models, and the neurobiological underpinnings of stress induced metabolic disorders are beginning to surface. However, different animal models of stress continue to produce divergent metabolic phenotypes wherein some animals become anorexic and lose body mass while others increase food intake and body mass and become vulnerable to the development of metabolic disturbances. It remains unclear exactly what factors associated with stress models can be used to predict the metabolic outcome of the organism. This review will explore a variety of rodent stress models and discuss the

  15. Angina and Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Pimple, Pratik; Shah, Amit J.; Rooks, Cherie; Bremner, J. Douglas; Nye, Jonathon; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Raggi, Paolo; Vaccarino, Viola

    2015-01-01

    Objective Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia is a common phenomenon in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and an emerging prognostic factor. Mental stress ischemia is correlated with ambulatory ischemia. However, whether it is related to angina symptoms during daily life has not been examined. Methods We assessed angina-frequency (past month) in 98 post-myocardial infarction (MI) subjects (age 18-60 years) using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire. Patients underwent [99mTc]sestamibi SPECT perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress, and after exercise/pharmacological stress. Summed scores of perfusion abnormalities were obtained by observer-independent software. A summed-difference score (SDS), the difference between stress and rest scores, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. Results The mean age was 50 years, 50% were female and 60% were non-white. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, CAD-severity, depressive, anger and anxiety symptoms, each 1-point increase in mental-stress SDS was associated with 1.73-unit increase in the angina-frequency score (95% CI: 0.09-3.37) and 17% higher odds of being in a higher angina-frequency category (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.00-1.38). Depressive symptoms were associated with 12% higher odds of being in a higher angina-frequency category (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03-1.21). In contrast, exercise/pharmacological stress-induced SDS was not associated with angina-frequency. Conclusion Among young and middle-aged post-MI patients, myocardial ischemia induced by mental stress in the lab, but not by exercise/pharmacological stress, is associated with higher frequency of retrospectively reported angina during the day. Psychosocial stressors related to mental stress ischemia may be important contributory factor to daily angina. PMID:25727240

  16. Molecular Mechanism for Stress-Induced Depression Assessed by Sequencing miRNA and mRNA in Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ke; Guo, Li; Xu, Aiping; Cui, Shan; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depression is a prevalent mood disorder. Chronic stress is presumably main etiology that leads to the neuron and synapse atrophies in the limbic system. However, the intermediate molecules from stresses to neuronal atrophy remain elusive, which we have studied in the medial prefrontal cortices from depression mice. Methods and Results The mice were treated by the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) until they expressed depression-like behaviors confirmed by the tests of sucrose preference, forced swimming and Y-maze. High-throughput sequencings of microRNA and mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortices were performed in CUMS-induced depression mice versus control mice to demonstrate the molecular profiles of major depression. In the medial prefrontal cortices of depression-like mice, the levels of mRNAs that translated the proteins for the GABAergic synapses, dopaminergic synapses, myelination, synaptic vesicle cycle and neuronal growth were downregulated. miRNAs of regulating these mRNAs are upregulated. Conclusion The deteriorations of GABAergic and dopaminergic synapses as well as axonal growth are associated with CUMS-induced depression. PMID:27427907

  17. Impacts of early intervention with fluoxetine following early neonatal immune activation on depression-like behaviors and body weight in mice.

    PubMed

    Doosti, Mohammad-Hossein; Bakhtiari, Amir; Zare, Payman; Amani, Mohammad; Majidi-Zolbanin, Naime; Babri, Shirin; Salari, Ali-Akbar

    2013-06-01

    Several reports have suggested that early neonatal immune activation adversely influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis development in humans and animal models. In addition, there have been several studies indicating that early intervention with fluoxetine (FLX) can alter HPA axis development and function, and prevent occurrence of behavioral abnormalities induced by common early-life insults. The present study aims to investigate the effects of early intervention with FLX following early neonatal immune activation on depression-like behaviors and body weight in mice. Neonatal mice in their postnatal days (PNDs) 3 and 5 received either lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 50 μg/kg, s.c.) or saline treatment, then male and female mice of both neonatal intervention groups received oral administration of FLX (5 and 10 mg/kg/day) or water via regular drinking bottles during the periadolescent period (PNDs 35-65). The results showed that neonatal LPS exposure elevated depression-like behaviors accompanied by increasing corticosterone levels in adulthood and decreasing body weight during neonatal and adolescent periods. Furthermore, the periadolescent FLX treatment inhibited the depression-like behaviors induced by neonatal infection in both sexes. This study obtained some experimental evidence indicating the potential adverse impacts of the FLX on normal behavioral development in male control animals. In conclusion, our findings suggest that an early pharmacological intervention with FLX may prevent emergence of depression-like behaviors induced by neonatal immune challenge without any detrimental effect on health in a sex- and dose-dependent manner in mice. PMID:23270703

  18. Chronic resveratrol treatment exerts antihyperalgesic effect and corrects co-morbid depressive like behaviors in mice with mononeuropathy: involvement of serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Yu, Chao; Wang, Chuang; Zhang, Jun-Fang; Zhou, Wen-Hua; Cui, Wu-Geng; Ye, Feng; Xu, Ying

    2014-10-01

    Patients suffering from chronic neuropathic pain are at high risk of co-morbid depression, which burdens healthcare. This work aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol, a phenolic monomer enriched in red wine and grapes, on pain-related and depressive-like behaviors in mice with mononeuropathy, and explored the mechanism(s). Mice received chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerves, and sequentially developed pain-related and depressive-like behaviors, as evidenced by sensory hypersensitivity (thermal hyperalgesia in Hargreaves test and mechanical allodynia in von Frey test) and behavioral despair (prolonged immobility time in forced swim test). Chronic treatment of neuropathic mice with resveratrol (30 mg/kg, p.o., twice per day for three weeks) normalized their thermal hyperalgesia (but not mechanical allodynia) and depressive-like behaviors, and these actions were abolished by chemical depletion of central serotonin (5-HT) but potentiated by co-treatment with 5-HTP, a precursor of 5-HT. The anti-hyperalgesia and anti-depression exerted by resveratrol may be pharmacologically segregated, since intrathecal (i.t.) and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of methysergide, a non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist, separately abrogated the two actions. Furthermore, the antihyperalgesic action of resveratrol was preferentially counteracted by co-administration of the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-258719, while the anti-depression was abrogated by 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635. These results confirm that chronic resveratrol administration exerts curative-like effects on thermal hyperalgesia and co-morbid depressive-like behaviors in mice with mononeuropathy. Spinal and supraspinal serotonergic systems (coupled with 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors, respectively) are differentially responsible for the antihyperalgesic and antidepressant-like properties of resveratrol. PMID:24835468

  19. Depressive-Like Behavior Is Paired to Monoaminergic Alteration in a Murine Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Adele; Pace, Lorenzo; Tempesta, Bianca; Lavecchia, Angelo Michele; Macheda, Teresa; Bedse, Gaurav; Petrella, Antonio; Cifani, Carlo; Serviddio, Gaetano; Vendemiale, Gianluigi; Gaetani, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neuropsychiatric signs are critical in primary caregiving of Alzheimer patients and have not yet been fully inves tigated in murine models. Methods: 18-month-old 3×Tg-AD male mice and their wild-type male littermates (non-Tg) were used. The open field test and the elevated plus maze test were used to evaluate anxiety-like behaviors, whereas the Porsolt forced swim test, the tail suspension test, and the sucrose preference test for antidepressant/depression-coping behaviors. Neurochemical study was conducted by microdialysis in freely-moving mice, analyzing the basal and K+-stimulated monoamine output in the frontal cortex and ventral hippocampus. Moreover by immunohistochemistry, we analysed the expression of Tyrosin hydroxylase and Tryptophan hydroxylase, which play a key role in the synthesis of monoamines. Results: Aged 3×Tg-AD mice exhibited a higher duration of immobility in the forced swim and tail suspension tests (predictors of depression-like behavior) which was not attenuated by a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, desipramine. In the sucrose preference test, 3×Tg-AD mice showed a significantly lower sucrose preference compared to the non-Tg group, without any difference in total fluid intake. In contrast, the motor functions and anxiety-related emotional responses of 3×Tg-AD mice were normal, as detected by the open-field and elevated plus-maze tests. To strengthen these results, we then evaluated the monoaminergic neurotransmissions by in vivo microdialysis and immunohistochemistry. In particular, with the exception of the basal hippocampal dopamine levels, 3×Tg-AD mice exhibited a lower basal extracellular output of amines in the frontal cortex and ventral hippocampus and also a decreased extracellular response to K+ stimulation. Such alterations occur with obvious local amyloid-β and tau pathologies and without gross alterations in the expression of Tyrosin and Tryptophan hydroxylase. Conclusions: These results suggest that 3

  20. Therapeutic effect of vagus nerve stimulation on depressive-like behavior, hyperglycemia and insulin receptor expression in Zucker fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoyuan; Zhai, Xu; Rong, Peijing; McCabe, Michael F; Wang, Xing; Zhao, Jingjun; Ben, Hui; Wang, Shuxing

    2014-01-01

    Depression and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are common comorbid diseases and highly prevalent in the clinical setting with an unclarified mechanism. Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF, fa/fa) rats natively develop T2D with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Here we studied whether ZDF rats also innately develop depression, what a correlation is between depression and T2D, whether insulin receptor (IR) expression is involved in, and whether transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) would be beneficial in amelioration of the comorbidity. Six week old male ZDF and Zucker lean (ZL, fa/+) littermates were randomly divided into naïve (ZDF, n = 6; ZL, n = 7) and taVNS (ZDF-taVNS, n = 8; ZL-taVNS, n = 6) groups. Once daily 30 min-taVNS sessions were administrated under anesthesia for 34 consecutive days in taVNS groups. Blood glucose levels were tested weekly, and plasma glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc) level and immobility time in forced swimming test were determined on day 35 in all groups. The expression of insulin receptor (IR) in various tissues was also detected by immunostaining and Western blot. We found that naïve ZDF rats developed hyperglycemia steadily. These ZDF rats showed a strong positive correlation between longer immobility time and higher plasma HbAlC level. Long term taVNS treatment simultaneously prevented the development of depression-like behavior and progression of hyperglycemia in ZDF rats. The expression of IR in various tissues of naïve ZDF rats is lower than in naïve ZL and long-term taVNS treated ZDF rats. Collectively, our results indicate that in ZDF rats, i) depression and T2D develop simultaneously, ii) immobility time and HbAlc concentrations are highly and positively correlated, iii) a low expression of IR may be involved in the comorbidity of depression and T2D, and iv) taVNS is antidiabetic and antidepressive possibly through IR expression upregulation. PMID:25365428

  1. Increased Signaling via Adenosine A1 Receptors, Sleep Deprivation, Imipramine, and Ketamine Inhibit Depressive-like Behavior via Induction of Homer1a.

    PubMed

    Serchov, Tsvetan; Clement, Hans-Willi; Schwarz, Martin K; Iasevoli, Felice; Tosh, Dilip K; Idzko, Marco; Jacobson, Kenneth A; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Normann, Claus; Biber, Knut; van Calker, Dietrich

    2015-08-01

    Major depressive disorder is among the most commonly diagnosed disabling mental diseases. Several non-pharmacological treatments of depression upregulate adenosine concentration and/or adenosine A1 receptors (A1R) in the brain. To test whether enhanced A1R signaling mediates antidepressant effects, we generated a transgenic mouse with enhanced doxycycline-regulated A1R expression, specifically in forebrain neurons. Upregulating A1R led to pronounced acute and chronic resilience toward depressive-like behavior in various tests. Conversely, A1R knockout mice displayed an increased depressive-like behavior and were resistant to the antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation (SD). Various antidepressant treatments increase homer1a expression in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Specific siRNA knockdown of homer1a in mPFC enhanced depressive-like behavior and prevented the antidepressant effects of A1R upregulation, SD, imipramine, and ketamine treatment. In contrast, viral overexpression of homer1a in the mPFC had antidepressant effects. Thus, increased expression of homer1a is a final common pathway mediating the antidepressant effects of different antidepressant treatments. PMID:26247862

  2. Increased Signaling via Adenosine A1 Receptors, Sleep Deprivation, Imipramine, and Ketamine Inhibit Depressive-like Behavior via Induction of Homer1a

    PubMed Central

    Serchov, Tsvetan; Clement, Hans-Willi; Schwarz, Martin K.; Iasevoli, Felice; Tosh, Dilip K.; Idzko, Marco; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Normann, Claus; Biber, Knut; van Calker, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Major depressive disorder is among the most commonly diagnosed disabling mental diseases. Several non-pharmacological treatments of depression upregulate adenosine concentration and/or adenosine A1 receptors (A1R) in the brain. To test whether enhanced A1R signaling mediates antidepressant effects, we generated a transgenic mouse with enhanced doxycycline-regulated A1R expression, specifically in forebrain neurons. Upregulating A1R led to pronounced acute and chronic resilience toward depressive-like behavior in various tests. Conversely, A1R knockout mice displayed an increased depressive-like behavior and were resistant to the antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation (SD). Various antidepressant treatments increase homer1a expression in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Specific siRNA knockdown of homer1a in mPFC enhanced depressive-like behavior and prevented the antidepressant effects of A1R upregulation, SD, imipramine, and ketamine treatment. In contrast, viral overexpression of homer1a in the mPFC had antidepressant effects. Thus, increased expression of homer1a is a final common pathway mediating the antidepressant effects of different antidepressant treatments. PMID:26247862

  3. Differential Regulation of MAPK Phosphorylation in the Dorsal Hippocampus in Response to Prolonged Morphine Withdrawal-Induced Depressive-Like Symptoms in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianguo; Wu, Bin; Dang, Wei; Du, Ying; Zhou, Qiong; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Depression is one of the most frequent neuropsychiatric comorbidities associated with opiate addiction. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK phosphatase (MKP) are involved in drug addiction and depression. However, the potential role of MAPK and MKP in depression caused by morphine withdrawal remains unclear. We utilized a mouse model of repeated morphine administration to examine the molecular mechanisms that contribute to prolonged withdrawal induced depressive-like behaviors. Depressive-like behaviors were significant at 1 week after withdrawal and worsened over time. Phospho-ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) was decreased and MKP-1 was elevated in the hippocampus, and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase), p38 (p38 protein kinase) and MKP-3 were unaffected. A pharmacological blockade of MKP-1 by intra-hippocampal sanguinarine (SA) infusion prevented the development of depressive-like behaviors and resulted in relatively normal levels of MKP-1 and phospho-ERK after withdrawal. Our findings support the association between hippocampal MAPK phosphorylation and prolonged morphine withdrawal-induced depression, and emphasize the MKP-1 as an negative regulator of the ERK phosphorylation that contributes to depression. PMID:23823128

  4. Electrical stimulation of the vmPFC serves as a remote control to affect VTA activity and improve depressive-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Bruchim-Samuel, Merav; Lax, Elad; Gazit, Tomer; Friedman, Alexander; Ahdoot, Hadas; Bairachnaya, Maryia; Pinhasov, Albert; Yadid, Gal

    2016-09-01

    Despite progress in elucidating mechanisms of depression, the efficacy of different treatments remains inadequate. Recent small-scale clinical studies suggested anti-depressant treatment using deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum or subgenual cingulate cortex (SCC), yet controlled, multi-center trials were unsuccessful. We recently suggested the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as an important intersection for treating depression. We also found that stimulation of the VTA of a genetic rat model of depression (Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats) with a programmed pattern designed to mimic the burst firing of normal rats decreases depressive-like behavior. Herein, we examined the possibility of reaching the VTA - located deep in the brain stem - through its direct connection to the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), which parallels the human SCC. Thus, we compared treatment of FSLs with modified versions of DBS - either chronic-intermittent low-frequency electrical stimulation of the vmPFC, or patterned acute electrical stimulation (pAES), which integrates transcranial magnetic stimulation properties, namely, bursts of pulse trains and low frequency stimulation, applied to the VTA. We found that stimulation of the vmPFC (20Hz, 15min/day, 10days) improved depressive-like behavior and VTA local field potential (LFP) activity of FSLs, yet it had only a partial long-term effect on behavior. In particular, vmPFC stimulation decreased theta band activity, which correlated with the improvement in depressive-like behavior of all treated FSLs at day 1, and in ~50% of treated FSLs at day 28 post treatment. pAES of the VTA (10Hz, 20min) caused significant, long-term improvement of depressive-like behavior of FSLs, concurrently with normalizing intra-VTA LFP activity, and increasing VTA LFP synchronicity and hippocampal BDNF mRNA levels. Thus, although low-frequency electrical stimulation of the PFC alters VTA activity, leading to attenuation of

  5. The role of the AMPA receptor and 5-HT(3) receptor on aggressive behavior and depressive-like symptoms in chronic social isolation-reared mice.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Koh; Kurosawa, Natsuki; Seki, Kenjiro

    2016-01-01

    Chronic social isolation (SI)-reared mice exhibit aggressive and depressive-like behaviors. However, the pathophysiological changes caused by chronic SI remain unclear. The hypothalamus and amygdala have been suggested to be associated with the stress of SI. In addition to serotonin 3 (5-HT3) receptors, AMPA receptors have also been suggested to be involved in aggressive behavior and depressive-like symptoms in animals. Therefore, we examined whether chronic SI affects AMPA and 5-HT3 receptor expression levels in these regions. A Western blot analysis revealed that after four weeks of SI, mice exhibited up-regulated AMPA receptor subunit (GluR1, GluR2) protein levels in the amygdala and down-regulated hypothalamic 5-HT3 receptor protein levels. The AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist NBQX (10 mg/kg; i.p.) attenuated SI-induced depressive-like symptoms but not aggressive behavior. Intra-amygdalar infusions of the selective AMPA receptor agonist (S)-AMPA (10 μM) induced despair-like behavior, but not sucrose preference or aggressive behavior, in mice not reared in SI (naïve mice). Alternatively, treatment with the 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR57227A (3.0 mg/kg; i.p.) decreased aggression levels. In addition, intra-hypothalamic infusions of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (3 μM) did not trigger aggressive behavior in naïve mice; however, the administration of ondansetron (0.3 mg/kg; i.p.) increased aggression levels in two-week SI mice, which rarely exhibited the aggressive behavior. Moreover, ondansetron did not affect the depressive-like symptoms of the SI mice. These results suggest that SI-induced up-regulation of GluR1 and GluR2 subunits protein levels in the amygdalar region and down-regulation of 5-HT3 receptor proteins level in the hypothalamic region are associated with the effect of AMPA receptor agonist and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist -induced aggressive behavior and depressive-like symptoms. PMID:26522741

  6. Synaptoproteomics of learned helpless rats involve energy metabolism and cellular remodeling pathways in depressive-like behavior and antidepressant response.

    PubMed

    Mallei, Alessandra; Giambelli, Roberto; Gass, Peter; Racagni, Giorgio; Mathé, Aleksander A; Vollmayr, Barbara; Popoli, Maurizio

    2011-06-01

    Although depression is a severe and life-threatening psychiatric illness, its pathogenesis still is essentially unknown. Recent studies highlighted the influence of environmental stress factors on an individual's genetic predisposition to develop mood disorders. In the present study, we employed a well-validated stress-induced animal model of depression, Learned Helplessness paradigm, in rats. Learned helpless (LH) and non-learned helpless (NLH) rats were treated with nortriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant. The resulting 4 groups (LH vs. NLH, treated vs. non-treated), were subjected to global analysis of protein expression, a powerful approach to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying vulnerability to psychiatric disorders and the long-term action of drug treatments. Many of the biological targets of antidepressant drugs are localized at synapses. Thus, to reduce the complexity of the proteome analyzed and to enrich for less abundant synaptic proteins, purified nerve terminals (synaptosomes) from prefrontal/frontal cortex (P/FC) and hippocampus (HPC) of LH-NLH rats were used. Synaptosomes were purified by differential centrifugation on Percoll gradients and analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Protein spots differently regulated in the various comparisons were excised from gels and identified by mass spectrometry. Proteins involved in energy metabolism and cellular remodeling were primarily dysregulated, when LH and NLH rats were compared. Moreover, several proteins (aconitate hydratase, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1, dihydropyrimidinase-related protein-2 and stathmin) were found to be regulated in opposite directions by stress and drug treatment. These proteins could represent new molecular correlates of both vulnerability to stress and response to drugs, and putative targets for the development of novel drugs with antidepressant action. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology

  7. Low-fat diet and regular, supervised physical exercise in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: reduction of stress-induced myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, G.; Schlierf, G.; Wirth, A.; Mautner, H.P.; Scheurlen, H.; Thumm, M.; Roth, H.; Schwarz, F.; Kohlmeier, M.; Mehmel, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of physical exercise and normalization of serum lipoproteins on stress-induced myocardial ischemia were studied in 18 patients with coronary artery disease, stable angina pectoris, and mild hypercholesterolemia (total serum cholesterol 242 +/- 32 mg/dl). These patients underwent a combined regimen of low-fat/low-cholesterol diet and regular, supervised physical exercise at high intensity for 12 months. At 1 year serum lipoproteins has been lowered to ideal levels (serum cholesterol 202 +/- 31 mg/dl, low-density lipoproteins 130 +/- 30 mg/dl, very low-density lipoproteins 22 +/- 15 mg/dl, serum triglycerides 105 (69 to 304) mg/dl) and physical work capacity was improved by 21% (p less than .01). No significant effect was noted on high-density lipoproteins, probably as a result of the low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet. Stress-induced myocardial ischemia, as assessed by thallium-201 scintigraphy, was decreased by 54% (p less than .05) despite higher myocardial oxygen consumption. Eighteen patients matched for age and severity of coronary artery disease served as a control group and ''usual medical care'' was rendered by their private physicians. No significant changes with respect to serum lipoproteins, physical work capacity, maximal rate-pressure product, or stress-induced myocardial ischemia were observed in this group. These data indicate that regular physical exercise at high intensity, lowered body weight, and normalization of serum lipoproteins may alleviate compromised myocardial perfusion during stress.

  8. Cordycepin prevents oxidative stress-induced inhibition of osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Yin, Peipei; Lu, Ye; Zhou, Zubin; Jiang, Chaolai; Liu, Yingjie; Yu, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is known to be involved in impairment of osteogenesis and age-related osteoporosis. Cordycepin is one of the major bioactive components of Cordyceps militaris that has been shown to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, there are few reports available regarding the effects of cordycepin on osteogenesis and the underlying mechanism. In this study, we investigated the potential osteoprotective effects of cordycepin and its mechanism systematically using both in vitro model as well as in vivo mouse models. We discovered that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced inhibition of osteogenesis which was rescued by cordycepin treatment in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). Cordycepin exerted its protective effects partially by increasing or decreasing expression of osteogenic and osteoclastogenesis marker genes. Treatment with cordycepin increased Wnt-related genes' expression whereas supplementation of Wnt pathway inhibitor reversed its protective effects. In addition, administration of cordycepin promoted osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs by reducing oxidative stress in both ovariectomized and aged animal models. Taken together, these results support the protective effects of cordycepin on oxidative stress induced inhibition of osteogenesis by activation of Wnt pathway. PMID:26462178

  9. Stress inducible proteomic changes in Capsicum annuum leaves.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Neha S; Mishra, Manasi; Tamhane, Vaijayanti A; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2014-01-01

    Herbivore attack induces defense responses in plants, activating several signaling cascades. As a result, molecules deterrent to the herbivores are produced and accumulated in plants. Expression of defense mechanism/traits requires reorganization of the plant metabolism, redirecting the resources otherwise meant for growth. In the present work, protein profile of Capsicum annuum leaves was examined after herbivore attack/induction. Majority of proteins identified as differentially accumulated, were having roles in redox metabolism and photosynthesis. For example, superoxide dismutase and NADP oxidoreductase were upregulated by 10- and 6-fold while carbonic anhydrase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase were downregulated by 9- and 4-fold, respectively. Also, superoxide dismutase, NADPH quinone oxidoreductase and NADP dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase transcripts showed a higher accumulation in induced leaf tissues at early time points. In general, proteins having role in defense and damage repair were upregulated while those involved in photosynthesis appeared downregulated. Thus metabolic reconfiguration to balance defense and tolerance was evident in the stress-induced leaves. PMID:24316010

  10. Cordycepin prevents oxidative stress-induced inhibition of osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Yin, Peipei; Lu, Ye; Zhou, Zubin; Jiang, Chaolai; Liu, Yingjie; Yu, Xiaowei

    2015-11-01

    Oxidative stress is known to be involved in impairment of osteogenesis and age-related osteoporosis. Cordycepin is one of the major bioactive components of Cordyceps militaris that has been shown to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, there are few reports available regarding the effects of cordycepin on osteogenesis and the underlying mechanism. In this study, we investigated the potential osteoprotective effects of cordycepin and its mechanism systematically using both in vitro model as well as in vivo mouse models. We discovered that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced inhibition of osteogenesis which was rescued by cordycepin treatment in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). Cordycepin exerted its protective effects partially by increasing or decreasing expression of osteogenic and osteoclastogenesis marker genes. Treatment with cordycepin increased Wnt-related genes' expression whereas supplementation of Wnt pathway inhibitor reversed its protective effects. In addition, administration of cordycepin promoted osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs by reducing oxidative stress in both ovariectomized and aged animal models. Taken together, these results support the protective effects of cordycepin on oxidative stress induced inhibition of osteogenesis by activation of Wnt pathway. PMID:26462178

  11. Stress-induced voiding study in integrated circuit interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yuejin; Tan, Cher Ming

    2008-07-01

    An analytical equation for an ultralarge-scale integration interconnect lifetime due to stress-induced voiding (SIV) is derived from the energy perspective. It is shown that the SIV lifetime is strongly dependent on the passivation quality at the cap layer/interconnect interface, the confinement effect by the surrounding materials to the interconnects, and the available diffusion paths in the interconnects. Contrary to the traditional power-law creep model, we find that the temperature exponent in SIV lifetime formulation is determined by the available diffusion paths for the interconnect atoms and the interconnect geometries. The critical temperature for the SIV is found to be independent of passivation integrity and dielectric confinement effect. Actual stress-free temperature (SFT) during the SIV process is also found to be different from the dielectric/cap layer deposition temperature or the final annealing temperature of the metallization, and it can be evaluated analytically once the activation energy, temperature exponent and critical temperature are determined experimentally. The smaller actual SFT indicates that a strong stress relaxation occurs before the high temperature storage test. Our results show that our SIV lifetime model can be used to predict the SIV lifetime in nano-interconnects.

  12. Cloning and Characterization of a Novel Drosophila Stress Induced DNase

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Chang-Soo; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Tang, Xiaolei; Anchondo, Brenda; Magallanes, Diego; Aguilera, Renato J.

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster flies mount an impressive immune response to a variety of pathogens with an efficient system comprised of both humoral and cellular responses. The fat body is the main producer of the anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) with anti-pathogen activity. During bacterial infection, an array of secreted peptidases, proteases and other enzymes are involved in the dissolution of debris generated by pathogen clearance. Although pathogen destruction should result in the release a large amount of nucleic acids, the mechanisms for its removal are still not known. In this report, we present the characterization of a nuclease gene that is induced not only by bacterial infection but also by oxidative stress. Expression of the identified protein has revealed that it encodes a potent nuclease that has been named Stress Induced DNase (SID). SID belongs to a family of evolutionarily conserved cation-dependent nucleases that degrade both single and double-stranded nucleic acids. Down-regulation of sid expression via RNA interference leads to significant reduction of fly viability after bacterial infection and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that SID protects flies from the toxic effects of excess DNA/RNA released by pathogen destruction and from oxidative damage. PMID:25083901

  13. Stress-induced Ageing of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Held, Marcel; Sennhauser, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are well established for use in portable consumer products and are increasingly used in high power electro-mobility and photovoltaic storage applications. In hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles degradation and useful lifetime at standard operation conditions are critical parameters in addition to performance and safety. Here stress-induced ageing of commercially available high power battery cells of the type A123 AHR32113M1 Ultra-B, consisting of a LiFePO(4) cathode and a graphite anode have been investigated. A usually accepted capacity loss for electric vehicles of 20% was reached after 8560 stress profiles corresponding to a driving distance of almost 200'000 km. Cycling with a stress profile applying constant power corresponding to the average power and energy of a full stress profile and starting at 60% state of charge showed a much faster capacity loss. Electric impedance measurements show the dependence of the capacity loss and constant phase element at low frequency, indicating Li-ion diffusion blocking in the cathode. Microscopic analysis of anode, separator, and cathode, shows defect formation in bulk material and at interfaces. PMID:26842322

  14. Proper PWHT can stop stress-induced corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, C.; Hill, J.; Connell, D.

    1997-05-01

    Postweld heat treatment of welded joints to improve the ductility of welds susceptible to cracking due to metal composition or wall thickness has become an essential component of standards generated by professional organizations. When properly applied, these procedures have proven to be quite effective in preventing premature weld-related failures. Recently, the welding industry has recognized that weld-induced stress also plays a role in certain localized corrosion phenomena. To address the cause of these long-term corrosion failures, it has become common practice to specify postweld heat treatment for thin-walled piping and vessels that would otherwise be exempt from code procedures. Corrosion often continues to be a problem even after post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) is performed on these relatively thin-walled weldments. The results of the extensive tests performed for the preparation of this paper indicate that surprisingly large through-wall radial temperature gradients often exist during the application of common PWHT practices. As a result of these radial temperature gradients, the standard application of heating elements to the pipe exterior does not always provide assurance that the interior surfaces at the edge of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) will achieve the temperatures necessary to adequately reduce weld-induced hardness. It is on these interior surfaces that the stress-induced corrosion phenomena is initiated.

  15. Cyclin C mediates stress-induced mitochondrial fission and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Yan, Ruilan; Cooper, Katrina F.; Strich, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo constant fission and fusion cycles. In response to cellular damage, this balance is shifted dramatically toward fission. Cyclin C–Cdk8 kinase regulates transcription of diverse gene sets. Using knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), we demonstrate that cyclin C directs the extensive mitochondrial scission induced by the anticancer drug cisplatin or oxidative stress. This activity is independent of transcriptional regulation, as Cdk8 is not required for this activity. Furthermore, adding purified cyclin C to unstressed permeabilized MEF cultures induced complete mitochondrial fragmentation that was dependent on the fission factors Drp1 and Mff. To regulate fission, a portion of cyclin C translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it associates with Drp1 and is required for its enhanced mitochondrial activity in oxidatively stressed cells. In addition, although HeLa cells regulate cyclin C in a manner similar to MEF cells, U2OS osteosarcoma cultures display constitutively cytoplasmic cyclin C and semifragmented mitochondria. Finally, cyclin C, but not Cdk8, is required for loss of mitochondrial outer membrane permeability and apoptosis in cells treated with cisplatin. In conclusion, this study suggests that cyclin C connects stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfission and programmed cell death in mammalian cells. PMID:25609094

  16. Vitamin E attenuates myocardial oxidative stress induced by DHEA in rested and exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, A H; McIntosh, M K; Boyer, B T

    1996-02-01

    Sixty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of eight treatment groups to determine whether vitamin E (VitE) could help protect the heart from oxidative stress induced by either dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) or exercise. Oxidative stress was indicated by lipid peroxidation [i.e., thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)] and two scavenger enzymes. VitE supplementation (250 IU VitE/kg of diet) was given to one-half of the rats. DHEA acetate (0.35 mol/kg body wt) was injected intraperitoneally to one-half of the animals while the others were injected with corn oil vehicle. All treatments lasted for 5 wk. Next, 32 rats were randomly assigned to run for 1 h on a motorized rodent treadmill at 21 m/min up a 12% grade and then were killed. The remaining rats were killed at rest. Exercise increased TBARS in heart independent of treatment (1.94 +/- 0.12 vs. 2.43 +/- 0.11 nmol/mg protein). VitE attenuated the amount of TBARS in heart when DHEA was given. DHEA significantly increased TBARS in heart. Total and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activities in heart were unaffected by any treatment. DHEA increased catalase activity at rest. Exercise increased catalase activity (71.5 +/- 7.9 vs. 97.4 +/- 9.5 mu mol x min-1 x mg protein-1); however, when VitE was given, the response to exercise was attenuated (74.1 +/- 8.4 vs. 80.9 +/- 9.9 mu mol center dot min-1 x mg protein-1). These results suggest that aerobic exercise and DHEA are mild oxidative stressors on the heart and that VitE supplementation can be beneficial in attenuating these combined stressors on the heart. PMID:8929588

  17. Stress induced premature senescence : a new culprit in ovarian tumorigenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Raghuram, Gorantla Venkata; Mishra, Pradyumna Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Stress induced premature senescence (SIPS) is a relative extension to the concept of exogenous cellular insult. Besides persistent double strand (ds) DNA breaks and increased β-galactosidase activity, biological significance of telomeric attrition in conjunction with senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP) has been highlighted in SIPS. To gain insight on the potential role of this unique phenomenon invoked upon environmental stress, we sequentially validated the molecular repercussions of this event in ovarian epithelial cells after exposure to methyl isocyanate, an elegant regulator of cellular biotransformation. Persistent accumulation of DNA damage response factors phospho-ATM/γ-H2AX, morphological changes with increased cell size and early yet incremental β-gal staining, imply the inception of premature senescence. Advent of SASP is attributed by prolonged secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines along with untimely but significant G1/S cell cycle arrest. Telomeric dysfunction associated with premature senescence is indicative of early loss of TRF2 (telomeric repeat binding factor 2) protein and resultant multiple translocations. Induction of senescence-associated heterochromatic foci formation showcases the chromatin alterations in form of trimethylated H3K9me3 in conjunction with H4 hypoacetylation and altered miRNA expression. Anchorage-independent neoplastic growth observed in treated cells reaffirms the oncogenic transformation following the exposure. Collectively, we infer the possible role of SIPS, as a central phenomenon, to perturbed genomic integrity in ovarian surface epithelium, orchestrated through SASP and chromatin level alterations, a hitherto unknown molecular paradigm. Although translational utility of SIPS as a biomarker for estimating ovarian cancer risk seems evident, further investigations will be imperative to provide a tangible way for its precise validation in clinical settings. PMID:25673532

  18. Association between Anger and Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Pimple, Pratik; Shah, Amit; Rooks, Cherie; Bremner, J. Douglas; Nye, Jonathon; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Murrah, Nancy; Shallenberger, Lucy; Kelley, Mary; Raggi, Paolo; Vaccarino, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia is associated with adverse prognosis in coronary artery disease patients. Anger is thought to be a trigger of acute coronary syndromes and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk; however, little direct evidence exists for a link between anger and myocardial ischemia. Methods [99mTc]sestamibi single-photon emission tomography was performed at rest, after mental stress (a social stressor with a speech task), and after exercise/pharmacological stress. Summed scores of perfusion abnormalities were obtained by observer-independent software. A summed difference score, the difference between stress and rest scores, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Spielberger's State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory was used to assess different anger dimensions. Results The mean age was 50 years, 50% were female and 60% were non-white. After adjusting for demographic factors, smoking, coronary artery disease severity, depressive and anxiety symptoms, each interquartile range increment in state-anger score was associated with 0.36 units adjusted increase in ischemia as measured by the summed difference score (95% CI: 0.14-0.59); the corresponding association for trait-anger was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.21-1.69). Anger expression scales were not associated ischemia. None of the anger dimensions were related to ischemia during exercise/pharmacological stress. Conclusion Anger, both as an emotional state and as a personality trait, is significantly associated with propensity to develop myocardial ischemia during mental stress, but not during exercise/pharmacological stress. Patients with this psychological profile may be at increased risk for silent ischemia induced by emotional stress and this may translate into worse prognosis. PMID:25497256

  19. Stress-induced core temperature changes in pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Myla de Aguiar; Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Marino-Neto, José

    2015-02-01

    Changes in body temperature are significant physiological consequences of stressful stimuli in mammals and birds. Pigeons (Columba livia) prosper in (potentially) stressful urban environments and are common subjects in neurobehavioral studies; however, the thermal responses to stress stimuli by pigeons are poorly known. Here, we describe acute changes in the telemetrically recorded celomatic (core) temperature (Tc) in pigeons given a variety of potentially stressful stimuli, including transfer to a novel cage (ExC) leading to visual isolation from conspecifics, the presence of the experimenter (ExpR), gentle handling (H), sham intracelomatic injections (SI), and the induction of the tonic immobility (TI) response. Transfer to the ExC cage provoked short-lived hyperthermia (10-20 min) followed by a long-lasting and substantial decrease in Tc, which returned to baseline levels 2 h after the start of the test. After a 2-hour stay in the ExC, the other potentially stressful stimuli evoked only weak, marginally significant hyperthermic (ExpR, IT) or hypothermic (SI) responses. Stimuli delivered 26 h after transfer to the ExC induced definite and intense increases in Tc (ExpR, H) or hypothermic responses (SI). These Tc changes appear to be unrelated to modifications in general activity (as measured via telemetrically recorded actimetric data). Repeated testing failed to affect the hypothermic responses to the transference to the ExC, even after nine trials and at 1- or 8-day intervals, suggesting that the social (visual) isolation from conspecifics may be a strong and poorly controllable stimulus in this species. The present data indicated that stress-induced changes in Tc may be a consistent and reliable physiological parameter of stress but that they may also show stressor type-, direction- and species-specific attributes. PMID:25479572

  20. Neural circuit for psychological stress-induced hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Psychological stress-induced hyperthermia (PSH) is a basic physiological stress response to increase physical performances to defend homeostasis and life from stressors, such as natural enemies. However, excessive and long-lasting stressors can lead to chronic hyperthermia, particularly recognized in humans as a psychosomatic symptom called “psychogenic fever.” The sympathetic and neuroendocrine responses that can contribute to PSH include brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, cutaneous vasoconstriction, tachycardia and glucocorticoid secretion. Research on the central circuits underlying these stress responses has recently revealed several fundamental circuit mechanisms including hypothalamomedullary pathways driving the sympathetic stress responses. Psychological stress activates a monosynaptic glutamatergic excitatory neurotransmission from the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) to sympathetic premotor neurons in the rostral medullary raphe region (rMR) to drive BAT thermogenesis and tachycardia, leading to the development of PSH. This glutamatergic neurotransmission could be potentiated by orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus through their projections to the rMR. Psychological stress also activates another monosynaptic pathway from the DMH to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus to stimulate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis for the secretion of glucocorticoids. PSH is independent from the prostaglandin-mediated trigger mechanism for inflammation-induced fever, and several forebrain regions are considered to provide stress-driven inputs to the DMH to activate the sympathetic- and neuroendocrine-driving neurons. The circuit mechanism of PSH based on animal experiments would be relevant to understandings of the etiology of psychogenic fever in humans. This review describes the current understandings of the central circuit mechanism of PSH with recent important progress in research. PMID:27227049

  1. Targeted induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress induces cartilage pathology.

    PubMed

    Rajpar, M Helen; McDermott, Ben; Kung, Louise; Eardley, Rachel; Knowles, Lynette; Heeran, Mel; Thornton, David J; Wilson, Richard; Bateman, John F; Poulsom, Richard; Arvan, Peter; Kadler, Karl E; Briggs, Michael D; Boot-Handford, Raymond P

    2009-10-01

    Pathologies caused by mutations in extracellular matrix proteins are generally considered to result from the synthesis of extracellular matrices that are defective. Mutations in type X collagen cause metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid (MCDS), a disorder characterised by dwarfism and an expanded growth plate hypertrophic zone. We generated a knock-in mouse model of an MCDS-causing mutation (COL10A1 p.Asn617Lys) to investigate pathogenic mechanisms linking genotype and phenotype. Mice expressing the collagen X mutation had shortened limbs and an expanded hypertrophic zone. Chondrocytes in the hypertrophic zone exhibited endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and a robust unfolded protein response (UPR) due to intracellular retention of mutant protein. Hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation and osteoclast recruitment were significantly reduced indicating that the hypertrophic zone was expanded due to a decreased rate of VEGF-mediated vascular invasion of the growth plate. To test directly the role of ER stress and UPR in generating the MCDS phenotype, we produced transgenic mouse lines that used the collagen X promoter to drive expression of an ER stress-inducing protein (the cog mutant of thyroglobulin) in hypertrophic chondrocytes. The hypertrophic chondrocytes in this mouse exhibited ER stress with a characteristic UPR response. In addition, the hypertrophic zone was expanded, gene expression patterns were disrupted, osteoclast recruitment to the vascular invasion front was reduced, and long bone growth decreased. Our data demonstrate that triggering ER stress per se in hypertrophic chondrocytes is sufficient to induce the essential features of the cartilage pathology associated with MCDS and confirm that ER stress is a central pathogenic factor in the disease mechanism. These findings support the contention that ER stress may play a direct role in the pathogenesis of many connective tissue disorders associated with the expression of mutant extracellular matrix

  2. Stress-induced neuroinflammatory priming is time of day dependent.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Weber, Michael D; Daut, Rachel A; Kitt, Meagan M; Frank, Matthew G; Watkins, Linda R; Maier, Steven F

    2016-04-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous cycles of physiology and behavior that align with the daily rotation of the planet and resulting light-dark cycle. The circadian system ensures homeostatic balance and regulates many aspects of physiology, including the stress response and susceptibility to and/or severity of stress-related sequelae. Both acute and chronic stressors amplify neuroinflammatory responses to a subsequent immune challenge, however it is not known whether circadian timing of the stressor regulates the priming response. Here, we test whether stress-induced neuroinflammatory priming is regulated by the circadian system. As has been previously shown, exposure to 100 inescapable tails shocks (IS) increased hippocampal cytokines following a subsequent inflammatory challenge. However, this effect was limited to animals that experienced the stressor during the light phase. Rats exposed to stress during the dark phase did not alter inflammatory potential following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. To determine whether microglia might be involved in diurnal differences in neuroinflammatory priming, microglia were isolated 24h after stress that occurred either during the middle of the light or dark phase. Only microglia isolated from animals stressed during the light phase demonstrated an exaggerated inflammatory response when treated ex vivo with LPS. To determine possible circadian dependency of microglia responsiveness to glucocorticoids - the likely proximal mediator for stress associated neuroinflammatory priming - microglia were isolated during the middle of the light or dark phase and treated ex vivo with corticosterone. Glucocorticoids treatment downregulated CX3CR1 and CD200R, two genes involved in microglial inflammatory "off" signaling; however, there was no effect of time of day on expression of either gene. Importantly, while absolute concentrations of corticosterone were comparable following IS during the light and dark phase, the magnitude of

  3. Sensitivity to stress-induced reproductive dysfunction is associated with a selective but not a generalized increase in activity of the adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Herod, S M; Dettmer, A M; Novak, M A; Meyer, J S; Cameron, J L

    2011-01-01

    Stress-induced reproductive dysfunction is a relatively common cause of infertility in women. In response to everyday life stress, some individuals readily develop reproductive dysfunction (i.e., they are stress sensitive), whereas others are more stress resilient. Female cynomolgus monkeys, when exposed to mild combined psychosocial and metabolic stress (change in social environment + 20% reduced calorie diet), can be categorized as stress sensitive (SS; they rapidly become anovulatory in response to stress), medium stress resilient (MSR; they slowly become anovulatory in response to prolonged stress), or highly stress resilient (HSR; they maintain normal menstrual cycles in response to stress). In this study, we examined whether increased sensitivity to stress-induced reproductive dysfunction is associated with elevated adrenal axis activity by measuring 1) the diurnal release of ACTH and cortisol, 2) ACTH and cortisol in response to an acute psychological stress, 3) the percent suppression of cortisol in response to dexamethasone negative feedback, 4) the diurnal release of ACTH and cortisol following exposure to mild psychosocial and metabolic stress, 5) the concentration of cortisol in hair, and 6) adrenal weight. SS monkeys (n = 5) did not differ from MSR (n = 5) or HSR (n = 7) monkeys in any measurement of baseline HPA axis activity or the integrated measurements of chronic HPA axis activity. However, MSR + SS monkeys (n = 10) did secrete more cortisol than HSR monkeys during the daytime hours (1000-1800) following exposure to a novel social environment and reduced diet. We conclude that increased activity of the HPA axis is unlikely to be the primary mechanism causing increased sensitivity to stress-induced reproductive dysfunction. PMID:20959528

  4. Antidepressants but not antipsychotics have antiepileptogenic effects with limited effects on comorbid depressive-like behaviour in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Citraro, Rita; Leo, Antonio; De Fazio, Pasquale; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Russo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Two of the most relevant unmet needs in epilepsy are represented by the development of disease-modifying drugs able to affect epileptogenesis and/or the study of related neuropsychiatric comorbidities. No systematic study has investigated the effects of chronic treatment with antipsychotics or antidepressants on epileptogenesis. However, such drugs are known to influence seizure threshold. Experimental Approach We evaluated the effects of an early long-term treatment (ELTT; 17 weeks), started before seizure onset (P45), with fluoxetine (selective 5-HT-reuptake inhibitor), duloxetine (dual-acting 5-HT-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor), haloperidol (typical antipsychotic drug), risperidone and quetiapine (atypical antipsychotic drugs) on the development of absence seizures and comorbid depressive-like behaviour in the WAG/Rij rat model. Furthermore, we studied the effects of these drugs on established absence seizures in adult (6-month-old) rats after a chronic 7 weeks treatment. Key Results ELTT with all antipsychotics did not affect the development of seizures, whereas, both ELTT haloperidol (1 mg·kg−1 day−1) and risperidone (0.5 mg·kg−1 day−1) increased immobility time in the forced swimming test and increased absence seizures only in adult rats (7 weeks treatment). In contrast, both fluoxetine (30 mg·kg−1 day−1) and duloxetine (10–30 mg·kg−1 day−1) exhibited clear antiepileptogenic effects. Duloxetine decreased and fluoxetine increased absence seizures in adult rats. Duloxetine did not affect immobility time; fluoxetine 30 mg·kg−1 day−1 reduced immobility time while at 10 mg·kg−1 day−1 an increase was observed. Conclusions and Implications In this animal model, antipsychotics had no antiepileptogenic effects and might worsen depressive-like comorbidity, while antidepressants have potential antiepileptogenic effects even though they have limited effects on comorbid depressive-like behaviour. PMID

  5. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine induces a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-resistant depression like phenotype in mice.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Kumar, K; Rudra, Anjuman; Sreedhara, M V; Siva Subramani, T; Prasad, Durga Shiva; Das, Manish Lal; Murugesan, Senthil; Yadav, Rajbharan; Trivedi, Ravi Kumar; Louis, Justin V; Li, Yu-Wen; Bristow, Linda J; Naidu, Pattipati S; Vikramadithyan, Reeba Kannimel

    2014-11-01

    Preclinical studies have shown that administration of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine induces depression-like behaviors in mice; however, the effect of antidepressant drug treatment has not been reported earlier. In the present study, we induced depression-like behavior by administering BCG vaccine to BALB/c mice. BCG treatment produced robust serum sickness as shown by a decrease in body weight, reduced spontaneous locomotor activity and reduced voluntary wheel running activity. BCG treatment also elevated plasma IL6 and IFNγ levels and produced a marked activation of lung IDO activity. At a time point when serum sickness-related behaviors had fully recovered (i.e., day 14) BCG-treated mice showed a significant increase in immobility in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) indicative of a pro-depressant phenotype. We observed significant increase in [(3)H]PK11195 binding in cortex and hippocampus regions of BGC-treated mice in comparison to saline-treated mice indicating prominent neuroinflammation. Pharmacological evaluation of FST behavior in BCG-treated mice demonstrated selective resistance to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) fluoxetine and escitalopram. In contrast the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine, the dual serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) duloxetine, and the dual dopamine/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (DNRI) nomifensine retained antidepressant efficacy in these mice. The lack of efficacy with acute treatment with SSRIs could not be explained either by differences in drug exposure or serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy. Our results demonstrate that BCG-vaccine induced depression like behavior is selectively resistant to SSRIs and could potentially be employed to evaluate novel therapeutic agents being developed to treat SSRI-resistance in humans. PMID:25016199

  6. Repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury interacts with post-injury foot shock stress to worsen social and depression-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Klemenhagen, Kristen C; O'Brien, Scott P; Brody, David L

    2013-01-01

    The debilitating effects of repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury (rcTBI) have been increasingly recognized in both military and civilian populations. rcTBI may result in significant neurological, cognitive, and affective sequelae, and is often followed by physical and/or psychological post-injury stressors that may exacerbate the effects of the injury and prolong the recovery period for injured patients. However, the consequences of post-injury stressors and their subsequent effects on social and emotional behavior in the context of rcTBI have been relatively little studied in animal models. Here, we use a mouse model of rcTBI with two closed-skull blunt impacts 24 hours apart and social and emotional behavior testing to examine the consequences of a stressor (foot shock fear conditioning) following brain injury (rcTBI). rcTBI alone did not affect cued or contextual fear conditioning or extinction compared to uninjured sham animals. In the sucrose preference test, rcTBI animals had decreased preference for sucrose, an anhedonia-like behavior, regardless of whether they experienced foot shock stress or were non-shocked controls. However, rcTBI and post-injury foot shock stress had synergistic effects in tests of social recognition and depression-like behavior. In the social recognition test, animals with both injury and shock were more impaired than either non-shocked injured mice or shocked but uninjured mice. In the tail suspension test, injured mice had increased depression-like behavior compared with uninjured mice, and shock stress worsened the depression-like behavior only in the injured mice with no effect in the uninjured mice. These results provide a model of subtle emotional behavioral deficits after combined concussive brain injury and stress, and may provide a platform for testing treatment and prevention strategies for social behavior deficits and mood disorders that are tailored to patients with traumatic brain injury. PMID:24058581

  7. Peripheral indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase1 is required for comorbid depression-like behavior but does not contribute to neuropathic pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenjun; Dantzer, Robert; Budac, David P.; Walker, Adam K.; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Lee, Anna W.; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Kavelaars, Annemieke

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain frequently co-occurs with major depressive disorder but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated the contribution of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1), a rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of tryptophan to neurotoxic metabolites to this comorbidity using the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain in mice. SNI resulted in unilateral mechanical allodynia, reduced social interaction, and increased immobility in the forced swim test without changes in locomotor activity. These findings indicate SNI-induced pain and comorbid depression-like behavior. These behavioral responses were accompanied by increases in plasma kynurenine/tryptophan ratios and increased expression of Ido1 and Il1b mRNA in the liver. Interestingly, SNI did not induce detectable changes in spinal cord or brain Ido1 mRNA levels after SNI. SNI was associated with spinal cord inflammatory activity as evidenced by increased Il1b mRNA expression. The SNI-induced increase of liver Ido1and Il1b mRNA was abrogated by intrathecal administration of the IL-1 inhibitor IL-1RA. Intrathecal IL-1RA also inhibited both mechanical allodynia and depression-like behavior. We also show that Ido1 is required for the development of depression-like behavior because Ido1-/- mice do not develop increased immobility in the forced swim test or decreased social exploration in response to SNI. Mechanical allodynia was similar in WT and Ido1-/- mice. In conclusion, our findings show for the first time that neuropathic pain is associated with an increase of Ido1 in liver, but not brain, downstream of spinal cord IL-1β signaling and that Ido1 mediates co-morbid depression. Moreover, comorbidity of neuropathic pain and depression are only partially mediated by a common mechanism because mechanical hyperalgesia develops independently of Ido1. PMID:25637485

  8. 5-(4-hydroxy-3-dimethoxybenzylidene)-rhodanine (RD-1)-improved mitochondrial function prevents anxiety- and depressive-like states induced by chronic corticosterone injections in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Ren, Zhili; Zheng, Ji; Feng, Lu; Li, Dongmei; Gao, Kai; Zhang, Lianfeng; Liu, Yanyong; Zuo, Pingping

    2016-06-01

    Most current pharmacologic antidepressant treatments target monoaminergic systems confronts some problems such as low rate of remission and high risk for relapse indicating new therapeutic strategy is urgently need. Evidences showed that impairments in mitochondrial function were associated with the pathogenesis of mood disorders and improvement in its function may be a novel therapeutic choice. In the present study, effects of 5-(4-hydroxy-3-dimethoxybenzylidene)-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone (RD-1) were investigated in mice model of depression/anxiety induced by corticosterone (20 mg/kg) subcutaneously repeated injections in 5-week male BALB/c mice. Our results showed that five weeks of corticosterone administration induced anxiety/depressive-like behavioral changes, including decreased central activities in open field test, increased the immobility time in forced swimming test and the latency in the novelty-suppressed feeding test, as well as reduced bodyweight. Results showed that oral administration with RD-1 at the doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg for five weeks significantly improved the anxiety/depressive-like behavioral changes induced by corticosterone. In glucose metabolism analysis by photon emission computed tomography/-computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging, corticosterone significantly deactivated the prefrontal cortex (PFC), temporal lobe and hippocampus. RD-1 treatment obviously improved the energy metabolism in the involved brain regions. In primary cultured hippocampal neuron, corticosterone reduced speed of anterograde transport, yet speed of retrograde transport was increased. Furthermore, RD-1 enhanced the mitochondrial anterograde transport to supply energy for the neurotransmitter release. In conclusion, RD-1 prevents anxiety/depressive-like behavior of mice induced by corticosterone repeated injections with novel mechanism of improvement in the mitochondrial function. PMID:26926430

  9. Developmental minocycline treatment reverses the effects of neonatal immune activation on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, hippocampal inflammation, and HPA axis activity in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Majidi, Jafar; Kosari-Nasab, Morteza; Salari, Ali-Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal infection is associated with increased lifetime risk for neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression, with evidence showing that dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-(HPA)-axis system may be partly responsible. Preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate that minocycline exhibits antidepressant effects through inhibition of microglial activation and anti-inflammatory actions, and of interest is that recent studies suggest that minocycline alleviates the behavioral abnormalities induced by early-life insults. The current study was designed to determine if developmental minocycline treatment attenuates the neonatal immune activation-induced anxiety- and depression-like symptoms and HPA-axis-dysregulation later in life. To this end, neonatal mice were treated to either lipopolysaccharide or saline on postnatal days (PND) 3-5, then dams during lactation (PND 6-20) and male offspring during adolescence (PND 21-40) received oral administration of minocycline or water via regular drinking bottles. Anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, HPA-axis-reactivity (corticosterone), and hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and IL-1β) after exposure to stress were evaluated. The results indicated that neonatal immune activation resulted in increased anxiety and depression-like symptoms, HPA-axis-hyperactivity, and elevated the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in the hippocampus in response to stress in adulthood. Interestingly, developmental minocycline treatment significantly reduced the abnormalities induced by neonatal inflammation in adult mice. In addition, minocycline, regardless of postnatal inflammation, did not have any detrimental effects on the above measured parameters. Considering that minocycline is currently under exploration as an alternative or adjunctive therapy for reducing the symptoms of neurological disorders, our findings suggest that minocycline during development can decrease the behavioral abnormalities induced by early

  10. Effect of GDNF on depressive-like behavior, spatial learning and key genes of the brain dopamine system in genetically predisposed to behavioral disorders mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, Vladimir S; Kondaurova, Elena M; Bazovkina, Daria V; Tsybko, Anton S; Ilchibaeva, Tatyana V; Khotskin, Nikita V; Semenova, Alina A; Popova, Nina K

    2014-11-01

    The effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on behavior and brain dopamine system in predisposed to depressive-like behavior ASC (Antidepressant Sensitive Cataleptics) mice in comparison with the parental "nondepressive" CBA mice was studied. In 7days after administration (800ng, i.c.v.) GDNF decreased escape latency time and the path traveled to reach hidden platform in Morris water maze in ASC mice. GDNF enhanced depressive-like behavioral traits in both "nondepressive" CBA and "depressive" ASC mice. In CBA mice, GDNF decreased functional response to agonists of D1 (chloro-APB hydrobromide) and D2 (sumanirole maleate) receptors in tail suspension test, reduced D2 receptor gene expression in the substantia nigra and increased monoamine oxydase A (MAO A) gene expression in the striatum. GDNF increased D1 and D2 receptor genes expression in the nucleus accumbens of ASC mice but failed to alter expression of catechol-O-methyltransferase, dopamine transporter, MAO B and tyrosine hydroxylase genes in both investigated mouse strains. Thus, GDNF produced long-term genotype-dependent effect on behavior and the brain dopamine system. GDNF pretreatment (1) reduced D1 and D2 receptors functional responses and D2 receptor gene expression in s. nigra of CBA mice; (2) increased D1 and D2 receptor genes expression in n. accumbens of ASC mice and (3) improved spatial learning in ASC mice. GDNF enhanced depressive-like behavior both in CBA and ASC mice. The data suggest that genetically defined variance in the cross-talk between GDNF and brain dopamine system contributes to the variability of GDNF-induced responses and might be responsible for controversial GDNF effects. PMID:25101543

  11. Perinatal citalopram does not prevent the effect of prenatal stress on anxiety, depressive-like behaviour and serotonergic transmission in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Inbar; Shoham, Shai; Weinstock, Marta

    2016-02-01

    It is still not clear whether the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors frequently prescribed to depressed pregnant women improve the behavioural outcome in their children. The current study investigated whether administration of citalopram to pregnant rats could prevent anxiety and depressive-like behaviour induced by gestational stress in their offspring, and restore the expression of serotonin 1A autoreceptors in GABAergic interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal raphe nuclei in males, and of corticotropin-releasing factor type 2 receptors in GABAergic interneurons in the dorsal raphe nuclei in females. Activation of these receptors modulates serotonergic transmission to target areas and is reduced in a sex-dependent manner by prenatal stress. Citalopram (10 mg/kg/day), administered orally from day 7 of gestation until 21 days postpartum, prevented the increase in anxiety in stressed mothers but did not reduce anxiety and depressive-like behaviour in their offspring and even induced depressive-like behaviour in the offspring of control mothers. Citalopram failed to restore the reduction in the expression of serotonin 1A autoreceptors in the prefrontal cortex of males and in corticotropin-releasing factor type 2 receptors in the dorsal raphe nuclei of females induced by prenatal stress. Prenatal citalopram did not prevent the behavioural changes or reduction in serotonergic transmission to target areas induced by prenatal stress. It had adverse behavioural effects in the offspring of control rats, which, together with the lack of any change in prenatally-stressed rats, may be due to inhibition of the foetal serotonin transporter thereby preventing normal development of the serotonin system. PMID:26669896

  12. Creep Damage Process of Ni-Base Superalloy Caused by Stress-Induced Anisotropic Atomic Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ken; Ito, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Tatsuya; Miura, Hideo

    In order to make clear the mechanism of the directional coarsening of γ' phases (rafting) of Ni-base superalloy under uni-axial strain, molecular dynamics (MD) analysis was applied to analyze the effect of strain on the diffusion characteristics around the interface between different materials. In a Ni (001)/Al (001) interface structure, the stress induced diffusion of Al atoms perpendicular to the interface was found. The stress induced anisotropic diffusion of Al was also found in a Ni (001)/Ni3Al (001) interface. These results imply that it is highly possible the rafting occurs predominantly by the stress induced anisotropic diffusion of Al atoms.

  13. Chronic unpredictable stress induces a reversible change of PER2 rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen-Gao; Li, Su-Xia; Zhou, Shuang-Jiang; Sun, Yan; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2011-07-01

    Many clinical studies have shown that circadian rhythm abnormalities are strongly associated with major depression. The master clock of the circadian system in mammals is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) within the anterior hypothalamus, where Per1 and Per2 are essential core components of circadian rhythm oscillation. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) is a reliable animal model of depression with good face, predictive, and constructive validity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CUS on the circadian expression of PER1 and PER2 in the SCN. We found that CUS led to depressive-like behavior and reduced the amplitude of PER2 oscillation in the SCN, which were blocked by 3 weeks of desipramine (DMI) treatment. 2 weeks after termination of CUS, the decreased peak of PER2 expression returned to control levels, whereas depressive-like behavior remained unchanged. Our findings suggest that the dampened amplitude of PER2 expression in the SCN may participate in the development of depressive-like behavior induced by CUS but is unlikely involved in the long-lasting effects of CUS on depressive-like behavior. PMID:21621196

  14. The involvement of homocysteine in stress-induced Aβ precursor protein misprocessing and related cognitive decline in rats.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fang; Zhao, Yun; Ma, Jing; Gong, Jing-Bo; Wang, Shi-Da; Zhang, Liang; Gao, Xiu-Jie; Qian, Ling-Jia

    2016-09-01

    Chronic stress is a risk factor in the development of cognitive decline and even Alzheimer's disease (AD), although its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Our previous data demonstrated that the level of homocysteine (Hcy) was significantly elevated in the plasma of stressed animals, which suggests the possibility that Hcy is a link between stress and cognitive decline. To test this hypothesis, we compared the cognitive function, plasma concentrations of Hcy, and the brain beta-amyloid (Aβ) level between rats with or without chronic unexpected mild stress (CUMS). A lower performance by rats in behavioral tests indicated that a significant cognitive decline was induced by CUMS. Stress also disturbed the normal processing of Aβ precursor protein (APP) and resulted in the accumulation of Aβ in the brains of rats, which showed a positive correlation with the hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) that appeared in stressed rats. Hcy-targeting intervention experiments were used to verify further the involvement of Hcy in stress-induced APP misprocessing and related cognitive decline. The results showed that diet-induced HHcy could mimic the cognitive impairment and APP misprocessing in the same manner as CUMS, while Hcy reduction by means of vitamin B complex supplements and betaine could alleviate the cognitive deficits and dysregulation of Aβ metabolism in CUMS rats. Taken together, the novel evidence from our present study suggests that Hcy is likely to be involved in chronic stress-evoked APP misprocessing and related cognitive deficits. Our results also suggested the possibility of Hcy as a target for therapy and the potential value of vitamin B and betaine intake in the prevention of stress-induced cognitive decline. PMID:27435080

  15. Disruption of chaperone-mediated autophagy-dependent degradation of MEF2A by oxidative stress-induced lysosome destabilization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Sun, Yang; Fei, Mingjian; Tan, Cheng; Wu, Jing; Zheng, Jie; Tang, Jiqing; Sun, Wei; Lv, Zhaoliang; Bao, Jiandong; Xu, Qiang; Yu, Huixin

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in both normal aging and various neurodegenerative disorders and it may be a major cause of neuronal death. Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) targets selective cytoplasmic proteins for degradation by lysosomes and protects neurons against various extracellular stimuli including oxidative stress. MEF2A (myocyte enhancer factor 2A), a key transcription factor, protects primary neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell damage. However, the precise mechanisms of how the protein stability and the transcriptional activity of MEF2A are regulated under oxidative stress remain unknown. In this study, we report that MEF2A is physiologically degraded through the CMA pathway. In pathological conditions, mild oxidative stress (200 μM H2O2) enhances the degradation of MEF2A as well as its activity, whereas excessive oxidative stress (> 400 μM H2O2) disrupts its degradation process and leads to the accumulation of nonfunctional MEF2A. Under excessive oxidative stress, an N-terminal HDAC4 (histone deacetylase 4) cleavage product (HDAC4-NT), is significantly induced by lysosomal serine proteases released from ruptured lysosomes in a PRKACA (protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, α)-independent manner. The production of HDAC4-NT, as a MEF2 repressor, may account for the reduced DNA-binding and transcriptional activity of MEF2A. Our work provides reliable evidence for the first time that MEF2A is targeted to lysosomes for CMA degradation; oxidative stress-induced lysosome destabilization leads to the disruption of MEF2A degradation as well as the dysregulation of its function. These findings may shed light on the underlying mechanisms of pathogenic processes of neuronal damage in various neurodegenerative-related diseases. PMID:24879151

  16. Phase Stability and Stress-Induced Transformations in Beta Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolli, R. Prakash; Joost, William J.; Ankem, Sreeramamurthy

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we provide a brief review of the recent developments related to the relationship between phase stability and stress-induced transformations in metastable body-centered-cubic β-phase titanium alloys. Stress-induced transformations occur during tensile, compressive, and creep loading and influence the mechanical response. These transformations are not fully understood and increased understanding of these mechanisms will permit future development of improved alloys for aerospace, biomedical, and energy applications. In the first part of this article, we review phase stability and discuss a few recent developments. In the second section, we discuss the current status of understanding stress-induced transformations and several areas that require further study. We also provide our perspective on the direction of future research efforts. Additionally, we address the occurrence of the hcp ω-phase and the orthorhombic α″-martensite phase stress-induced transformations.

  17. Adiponectin Modulates Oxidative Stress-Induced Autophagy in Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Essick, Eric E.; Wilson, Richard M.; Pimentel, David R.; Shimano, Masayuki; Baid, Simoni; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Sam, Flora

    2013-01-01

    Diastolic heart failure (HF) i.e., “HF with preserved ejection fraction” (HF-preserved EF) accounts for up to 50% of all HF presentations; however there have been no therapeutic advances. This stems in part from an incomplete understanding about HF-preserved EF. Hypertension is the major cause of HF-preserved EF whilst HF-preserved EF is also highly associated with obesity. Similarly, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), i.e., oxidative stress occurs in hypertension and obesity, sensitizing the heart to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, inducing autophagic type-II programmed cell death and accelerating the propensity to adverse cardiac remodeling, diastolic dysfunction and HF. Adiponectin (APN), an adipokine, mediates cardioprotective actions but it is unknown if APN modulates cardiomyocyte autophagy. We tested the hypothesis that APN ameliorates oxidative stress-induced autophagy in cardiomyocytes. Isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes were pretreated with recombinant APN (30µg/mL) followed by 1mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure. Wild type (WT) and APN-deficient (APN-KO) mice were infused with angiotensin (Ang)-II (3.2mg/kg/d) for 14 days to induced oxidative stress. Autophagy-related proteins, mTOR, AMPK and ERK expression were measured. H2O2 induced LC3I to LC3II conversion by a factor of 3.4±1.0 which was abrogated by pre-treatment with APN by 44.5±10%. However, neither H2O2 nor APN affected ATG5, ATG7, or Beclin-1 expression. H2O2 increased phospho-AMPK by 49±6.0%, whilst pretreatment with APN decreased phospho-AMPK by 26±4%. H2O2 decreased phospho-mTOR by 36±13%, which was restored by APN. ERK inhibition demonstrated that the ERK-mTOR pathway is involved in H2O2-induced autophagy. Chronic Ang-II infusion significantly increased myocardial LC3II/I protein expression ratio in APN-KO vs. WT mice. These data suggest that excessive ROS caused cardiomyocyte autophagy which was ameliorated by APN by inhibiting an H2O2-induced AMPK

  18. Beta transition and stress-induced phase separation in the spinning of spider dragline silk.

    PubMed

    Knight, D P; Knight, M M; Vollrath, F

    2000-06-13

    Spider dragline silk is formed as the result of a remarkable transformation in which an aqueous dope solution is rapidly converted into an insoluble protein filament with outstanding mechanical properties. Microscopy on the spinning duct in Nephila edulis spiders suggests that this transformation involves a stress-induced formation of anti-parallel beta-sheets induced by extensional flow. Measurements of draw stress at different draw rates during silking confirm that a stress-induced phase transition occurs. PMID:10828366

  19. Adult depression-like behavior, amygdala and olfactory cortex functions are restored by odor previously paired with shock during infant's sensitive period attachment learning

    PubMed Central

    Sevelinges, Yannick; Mouly, Anne-Marie; Raineki, Charlis; Moriceau, Stéphanie; Forest, Christina; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2010-01-01

    Maltreatment from the caregiver induces vulnerability to later life psychopathologies, yet attraction and comfort is sometimes provided by cues associated with early life maltreatment. We used a rat model of early life maltreatment with odor-0.5mA shock conditioning to produce depressive-like behaviors and questioned whether stimuli associated with maltreatment would restore emotional neurobehavioral function to control levels. Pups received daily novel odor-0.5mA shock conditioning from postnatal day 8 to 12. This procedure produces a new maternal odor that controls pups' attachment behaviors. In adulthood, either with or without the infant odor, animals received a Forced Swim Test, Sucrose Preference Test or assessment of amygdala and olfactory system functioning using field potential signal evoked by olfactory bulb paired-pulse electrical stimulation. Following neonatal odor-shock pairings, but not unpaired controls, adults without the odor present showed increased depression-like behavior in the Forced Swim Test and Sucrose Preference Test and a deficit in paired-pulse inhibition in amygdala and piriform (olfactory) cortex. All effects were brought to control levels when the infant conditioned odor was presented during behavioral and neural tests. The ability of cues associated with early life maltreatment to normalize behavior and amygdala activity suggests these cues provide adaptive value in adulthood. PMID:21037982

  20. Voluntary exercise enhances activity rhythms and ameliorates anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in the sand rat model of circadian rhythm-related mood changes.

    PubMed

    Tal-Krivisky, Katy; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Einat, Haim

    2015-11-01

    Physical exercise is a non-pharmacological treatment for affective disorders. The mechanisms of its effects are unknown although some suggest a relationship to synchronization of circadian rhythms. One way to explore mechanisms is to utilize animal models. We previously demonstrated that the diurnal fat sand rat is an advantageous model for studying the interactions between photoperiods and mood. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of voluntary exercise on activity rhythms and anxiety and depression-like behaviors in sand rats as a step towards better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Male sand rats were housed in short photoperiod (SP; 5h light/19 h dark) or neutral light (NP; 12h light/12h dark) regimens for 3 weeks and divided into subgroups with or without running wheels. Activity was monitored for 3 additional weeks and then animals were tested in the elevated plus-maze, the forced swim test and the social interaction test. Activity rhythms were enhanced by the running wheels. As hypothesized, voluntary exercise had significant effects on SP animals' anxiety- and depression-like behaviors but not on NP animals. Results are discussed in the context of interactions between physical exercise, circadian rhythms and mood. We suggest that the sand rat model can be used to explore the underlying mechanism of the effects of physical exercise for mood disorders. PMID:26253214

  1. Birth Origin Differentially Affects Depressive-Like Behaviours: Are Captive-Born Cynomolgus Monkeys More Vulnerable to Depression than Their Wild-Born Counterparts?

    PubMed Central

    Camus, Sandrine MJ.; Rochais, Céline; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Li, Qin; Hausberger, Martine; Bezard, Erwan

    2013-01-01

    Background Adverse early-life experience might lead to the expression of abnormal behaviours in animals and the predisposition to psychiatric disorder (e.g. major depressive disorder) in Humans. Common breeding processes employ weaning and housing conditions different from what happens in the wild. Methods The present study, therefore, investigated whether birth origin impacts the possible existence of spontaneous atypical/abnormal behaviours displayed by 40 captive-born and 40 wild-born socially-housed cynomolgus macaques in farming conditions using an unbiased ethological scan-sampling analysis followed by multifactorial correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses. Results We identified 10 distinct profiles (groups A to J) that significantly differed on several behaviours, body postures, body orientations, distances between individuals and locations in the cage. Data suggest that 4 captive-born and 1 wild-born animals (groups G and J) present depressive-like symptoms, unnatural early life events thereby increasing the risk of developing pathological symptoms. General differences were also highlighted between the captive- and wild-born populations, implying the expression of differential coping mechanisms in response to the same captive environment. Conclusions Birth origin thus impacts the development of atypical ethologically-defined behavioural profiles, reminiscent of certain depressive-like symptoms. The use of unbiased behavioural observations might allow the identification of animal models of human mental/behavioural disorders and their most appropriate control groups. PMID:23861787

  2. Early antipsychotic treatment in childhood/adolescent period has long-term effects on depressive-like, anxiety-like and locomotor behaviours in adult rats.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Michael; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2016-02-01

    Childhood/adolescent antipsychotic drug (APD) use is exponentially increasing worldwide, despite limited knowledge of the long-term effects of early APD treatment. Whilst investigations have found that early treatment has resulted in some alterations to dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission systems (essential to APD efficacy), there have only been limited studies into potential long-term behavioural changes. This study, using an animal model for childhood/adolescent APD treatment, investigated the long-term effects of aripiprazole, olanzapine and risperidone on adult behaviours of male and female rats. Open-field/holeboard, elevated plus maze (EPM), social interaction and forced swim (FS) tests were then conducted in adult rats. Our results indicated that in the male cohort, early risperidone and olanzapine treatment elicited long-term hyper-locomotor effects (open-field/holeboard and FS tests), whilst a decrease in depressive-like behaviour (in FS test) was observed in response to olanzapine treatment. Furthermore, anxiolytic-like behaviours were found following testing in the open-field/holeboard and EPM in response to all three drug treatments. Effects in the female cohort, however, were to a far lesser extent, with behavioural attributes indicative of an increased depressive-like behaviour and hypo-locomotor activity exhibited in the FS test following early risperidone and olanzapine treatment. These results suggest that various APDs have different long-term effects on the behaviours of adult rats. PMID:26577063

  3. Depression-like and anxiety-like behavioural aftermaths of impact accelerated traumatic brain injury in rats: a model of comorbid depression and anxiety?

    PubMed

    Pandey, Dilip Kumar; Yadav, Sushil Kumar; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Rajkumar, Ramamoorthy

    2009-12-28

    Depression and anxiety tend to be the most prevalent conditions among the multitude of neurobehavioural disorders which cause distress in the survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The objective of the present investigation was to examine depression-like and anxiety-like behaviour of rats following diffuse TBI. Impact accelerated TBI was induced in anaesthetised rats by a modified weight drop method. TBI and sham-operated rats received either a chronic (14 days) regimen of escitalopram (5-20 mg/kg) or vehicle, following which they were subjected to a behavioural test battery. The results evince the depression-like behaviour of TBI rats in modified open field exploration, hyperemotionality, socio-sexual interaction and elevated plus-maze exploration paradigms. In addition, an anxiety-like behaviour was evident in social interaction and marble-burying tests. Chronic escitalopram (10 and 20 mg/kg) treatment significantly attenuated the TBI associated behavioural deficits. In conclusion, the aforesaid behavioural anomalies observed in TBI rats are analogous to comorbid anxiety and depression in humans. These findings substantiate the TBI rats as a candidate model of comorbid anxiety and depression. PMID:19660499

  4. Effectiveness of different corticosterone administration methods to elevate corticosterone serum levels, induce depressive-like behavior, and affect neurogenesis levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Kott, J M; Mooney-Leber, S M; Shoubah, F A; Brummelte, S

    2016-01-15

    High levels of chronic stress or stress hormones are associated with depressive-like behavior in animal models. However, slight elevations in corticosterone (CORT) - the major stress hormone in rodents - have also been associated with improved performances, albeit in a sex-dependent manner. Some of the discrepancies in the literature regarding the effects of high CORT levels may be due to different administrations methods. The current study aims to compare the effects of ∼40mg/kg given either via subcutaneous injection, through an implanted pellet, or in the drinking water, for ∼21days on CORT serum levels, depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST), and neurogenesis levels in the dentate gyrus (DG) in adult female rats. We found that animals exposed to the daily injections showed elevated CORT levels throughout the administration period, while the pellet animals showed only a transient increase, and drinking water animals revealed no elevation in CORT in serum. In addition, only the injection group exhibited higher levels of immobility in the FST. Interestingly, animals receiving CORT via injection or drinking water had lower numbers of doublecortin-positive cells in the ventral DG one week after the last CORT administration compared to animals implanted with a CORT pellet. These results will contribute to the growing literature on the effects of chronic CORT exposure and may help to clarify some of the discrepancies among previous studies, particularly in females. PMID:26556064

  5. Moderate treadmill exercise rescues anxiety and depression-like behavior as well as memory impairment in a rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Patki, Gaurav; Li, Lumeng; Allam, Farida; Solanki, Naimesh; Dao, An T; Alkadhi, Karim; Salim, Samina

    2014-05-10

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition which can develop from exposure to a severe traumatic event such as those occurring during wars or natural disasters. Benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered the gold standard for PTSD treatment, but their side effects pose a serious problem. While regular physical exercise is regarded as a mood elevator and known to enhance cognitive function, its direct role in rescuing core symptoms of PTSD including anxiety and depression-like behaviors and cognitive impairment is unclear. In the present study using the single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of PTSD (2h restrain, 20 min forced swimming, 15 min rest, and 1-2 min diethyl ether exposure), we examined the beneficial effect of moderate treadmill exercise on SPS-induced behavioral deficits including anxiety and depression-like behaviors and memory impairment. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups: control (sedentary), exercised, SPS (no exercise), or SPS-exercised. Rats were exercised on a rodent treadmill for 14 consecutive days. Rats in all groups were tested for anxiety-like behaviors using open field (OF), light-dark and elevated-plus maze tests. All rats were tested for short-term and long-term memory in the radial arm water maze test. Rats were then sacrificed, blood was collected (for corticosterone levels), and individual organs (spleen, adrenals, and thymus) harvested. Results suggest that moderate physical exercise ameliorates SPS-induced behavioral deficits in rats. PMID:24657739

  6. Electroacupuncture Promotes Proliferation of Amplifying Neural Progenitors and Preserves Quiescent Neural Progenitors from Apoptosis to Alleviate Depressive-Like and Anxiety-Like Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Yue, Na; Zhu, Xiaocang; Han, Qiuqin; Li, Bin; Liu, Qiong; Wu, Gencheng; Yu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviours and neural progenitors in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) in a chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) rat model of depression. After being exposed to a CUS procedure for 2 weeks, rats were subjected to EA treatment, which was performed on acupoints Du-20 (Bai-Hui) and GB-34 (Yang-Ling-Quan), once every other day for 15 consecutive days (including 8 treatments), with each treatment lasting for 30 min. The behavioural tests (i.e., forced swimming test, elevated plus-maze test, and open-field entries test) revealed that EA alleviated the depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviours of the stressed rats. Immunohistochemical results showed that proliferative cells (BrdU-positive) in the EA group were significantly larger in number compared with the Model group. Further, the results showed that EA significantly promoted the proliferation of amplifying neural progenitors (ANPs) and simultaneously inhibited the apoptosis of quiescent neural progenitors (QNPs). In a word, the mechanism underlying the antidepressant-like effects of EA is associated with enhancement of ANPs proliferation and preserving QNPs from apoptosis. PMID:24719647

  7. GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors regulate depression-like behavior and are critical for the rapid antidepressant actions of ketamine

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Oliver H; Yang, Lingling; Wang, Chih-Chieh; Hargroder, Elizabeth A; Zhang, Yihui; Delpire, Eric; Hall, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    A single, low dose of the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine produces rapid antidepressant actions in treatment-resistant depressed patients. Understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying this will lead to new therapies for treating major depression. NMDARs are heteromultimeric complexes formed through association of two GluN1 and two GluN2 subunits. We show that in vivo deletion of GluN2B, only from principal cortical neurons, mimics and occludes ketamine's actions on depression-like behavior and excitatory synaptic transmission. Furthermore, ketamine-induced increases in mTOR activation and synaptic protein synthesis were mimicked and occluded in 2BΔCtx mice. We show here that cortical GluN2B-containing NMDARs are uniquely activated by ambient glutamate to regulate levels of excitatory synaptic transmission. Together these data predict a novel cellular mechanism that explains ketamine's rapid antidepressant actions. In this model, basal glutamatergic neurotransmission sensed by cortical GluN2B-containing NMDARs regulates excitatory synaptic strength in PFC determining basal levels of depression-like behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03581.001 PMID:25340958

  8. Tris-(2,3-Dibromopropyl) Isocyanurate, a New Emerging Pollutant, Impairs Cognition and Provokes Depression-Like Behaviors in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Liang; Hu, Zhengping; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Haibo; Dong, Zhaoju; Jiang, Wanglin; Zhao, Huijuan; Li, Ning; Mi, Wei; Wang, Wenyan; Hu, Xihou

    2015-01-01

    Tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate (TDBP-TAZTO), an emerging brominated flame retardant, possesses the characteristics of candidate persistent organic pollutants and has displayed toxicity to fish and rodents. TDBP-TAZTO can pass through the blood brain barrier and accumulate in brain. However, the neurotoxicity of TDBP-TAZTO has not yet studied in rodents. We hypothesize that TDBP-TAZTO could induce the neurotoxicity in rat hippocampal neurons. The male adult rats were exposed to TDBP-TAZTO of 5 and 50 mg/kg by gavage, daily for 6 months. TDBP-TAZTO resulted in cognitive impairment and depression-like behaviors, which may be related with TDBP-TAZTO-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivation, upregulation of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, overexpression of pro-apoptotic proteins, downexpression of neurogenesis-related proteins in hippocampus, and hippocampal neurons damage in DG, CA1 and CA3 areas. Our findings suggested that TDBP-TAZTO induces significant hippocampal neurotoxicity, which provokes cognitive impairment and depression-like behaviors in adult rats. Therefore, this research will contribute to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of TDBP-TAZTO in human. PMID:26458255

  9. Fluoxetine regulates mTOR signalling in a region-dependent manner in depression-like mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Long; Luo, Liu; Mu, Rong-Hao; Liu, Bin-Bin; Geng, Di; Liu, Qing; Yi, Li-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway has an important role in ketamine-induced, rapid antidepressant effects despite the acute administration of fluoxetine not affecting mTOR phosphorylation in the brain. However, the effects of long-term fluoxetine treatment on mTOR modulation have not been assessed to date. In the present study, we examined whether fluoxetine, a type of commonly used antidepressant agent, alters mTOR signaling following chronic administration in different brain regions, including the frontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus. We also investigated whether fluoxetine enhanced synaptic protein levels in these regions via the activation of the mTOR signaling pathway and its downstream regulators, p70S6K and 4E-BP-1. The results indicated that chronic fluoxetine treatment attenuated the chronic, unpredictable, mild stress (CUMS)-induced mTOR phosphorylation reduction in the hippocampus and amygdala of mice but not in the frontal cortex or the hypothalamus. Moreover, the CUMS-decreased PSD-95 and synapsin I levels were reversed by fluoxetine, and these effects were blocked by rapamycin only in the hippocampus. In conclusion, our findings suggest that chronic treatment with fluoxetine can induce synaptic protein expression by activating the mTOR signaling pathway in a region-dependent manner and mainly in the hippocampus. PMID:26522512

  10. Viral vector mediated expression of mutant huntingtin in the dorsal raphe produces disease-related neuropathology but not depressive-like behaviors in wildtype mice.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Mark; Lueras, Jordan; Warden, Anna; Weber, Sydney; McBride, Jodi

    2015-05-22

    depressive-like behaviors. Wildtype mice were injected with an adeno-associated virus (AAV2/1) encoding HTT containing either a pathogenic (N171-82Q) or control (N171-16Q) CAG repeat length into the ventral DRN and depressive-like behaviors and motor behaviors were assessed for 12 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) verified positive transduction in the ventral aspects of the DRN, including the ventral sub-nucleus (DRv) and interfascicular sub-nucleus (DRif). IHC demonstrated microgliosis in and around the injection site and mHTT-positive inclusions in serotonin-producing neurons and a small percentage of astrocytes in animals injected with N171-82Q compared to controls. Moreover, N171-82Q injected mice showed a 75% reduction in cells that stained positive for the serotonin synthesis enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) compared to controls (p<0.05). Despite mHTT-mediated pathology in the DRv and DRif, no significant changes in depressive-like behavior were detected. Consequently, we conclude that 12 weeks of N171-82Q expression in the ventral sub-nuclei of the DRN of wildtype mice causes characteristic disease-related cellular neuropathology but is not sufficient to elicit depressive-like behaviors. Ongoing studies are investigating whether a larger injection volume that transfects a larger percentage of the DRN and/or a longer time course of mHTT expression might elicit depressive-like behaviors. Moreover, mHTT expression in other regions of the brain, such as the hippocampal dentate gyrus and/or the frontal cortex might be necessary to elicit HD depression. Together, these results may prove helpful in addressing which therapeutic and/or pharmacological strategies might be most efficacious when treating depressive symptomology in patients suffering from HD. PMID:25732261

  11. Inhibition of telomerase causes vulnerability to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Toru; Nakatsu, Kanako; Shimamoto, Akira; Tahara, Hidetoshi; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2016-08-26

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated the possible involvement of telomerase in ER stress-induced cell death. ER stress-induced cell death was ameliorated in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) over-expressing MCF7 cells (MCF7-TERT cell). Telomerase specific inhibitor, BIBR1532, reversed the inhibitory effect of TERT on ER stress-induced cell death in MCF7-TERT cells. These findings suggest that BIBR1532 may specifically inhibit telomerase activity, thereby inducing cell death in ER stress-exposed cells. TERT was expressed in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. To analyze the possible involvement of telomerase in ER stress-induced neuronal cell death, we treated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with BIBR1532 and analyzed ER stress-induced cell death. We found that BIBR1532 significantly enhanced the ER stress-induced neuronal cell death. These findings suggest that inhibition of telomerase activity may enhance vulnerability to neuronal cell death caused by ER stress. PMID:27443785

  12. Physical Exercise Counteracts Stress-induced Upregulation of Melanin-concentrating Hormone in the Brain and Stress-induced Persisting Anxiety-like Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Kyung; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2016-08-01

    Chronic stress induces anxiety disorders, whereas physical exercise is believed to help people with clinical anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying stress-induced anxiety and its counteraction by exercise using an established animal model of anxiety. Mice treated with restraint for 2 h daily for 14 days exhibited anxiety-like behaviors, including social and nonsocial behavioral symptoms, and these behavioral impairments lasted for more than 12 weeks after the stress treatment was removed. Despite these lasting behavioral changes, wheel-running exercise treatment for 1 h daily from post-stress days 1 - 21 counteracted anxiety-like behaviors, and these anxiolytic effects of exercise persisted for more than 2 months, suggesting that anxiolytic effects of exercise stably induced. Repeated restraint treatment up-regulated the expression of the neuropeptide, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), in the lateral hypothalamus, hippocampus, and basolateral amygdala, the brain regions important for emotional behaviors. In an in vitro study, treatment of HT22 hippocampal cells with glucocorticoid increased MCH expression, suggesting that MCH upregulation can be initially triggered by the stress hormone, corticosterone. In contrast, post-stress treatment with wheel-running exercise reduced the stress-induced increase in MCH expression to control levels in the lateral hypothalamus, hippocampus and basolateral amygdala. Administration of an MCH receptor antagonist (SNAP94847) to stress-treated mice was therapeutic against stress-induced anxiety-like behaviors. These results suggest that repeated stress produces long-lasting anxiety-like behaviors and upregulates MCH in the brain, while exercise counteracts stress-induced MCH expression and persisting anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:27574483

  13. Physical Exercise Counteracts Stress-induced Upregulation of Melanin-concentrating Hormone in the Brain and Stress-induced Persisting Anxiety-like Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress induces anxiety disorders, whereas physical exercise is believed to help people with clinical anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying stress-induced anxiety and its counteraction by exercise using an established animal model of anxiety. Mice treated with restraint for 2 h daily for 14 days exhibited anxiety-like behaviors, including social and nonsocial behavioral symptoms, and these behavioral impairments lasted for more than 12 weeks after the stress treatment was removed. Despite these lasting behavioral changes, wheel-running exercise treatment for 1 h daily from post-stress days 1 - 21 counteracted anxiety-like behaviors, and these anxiolytic effects of exercise persisted for more than 2 months, suggesting that anxiolytic effects of exercise stably induced. Repeated restraint treatment up-regulated the expression of the neuropeptide, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), in the lateral hypothalamus, hippocampus, and basolateral amygdala, the brain regions important for emotional behaviors. In an in vitro study, treatment of HT22 hippocampal cells with glucocorticoid increased MCH expression, suggesting that MCH upregulation can be initially triggered by the stress hormone, corticosterone. In contrast, post-stress treatment with wheel-running exercise reduced the stress-induced increase in MCH expression to control levels in the lateral hypothalamus, hippocampus and basolateral amygdala. Administration of an MCH receptor antagonist (SNAP94847) to stress-treated mice was therapeutic against stress-induced anxiety-like behaviors. These results suggest that repeated stress produces long-lasting anxiety-like behaviors and upregulates MCH in the brain, while exercise counteracts stress-induced MCH expression and persisting anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:27574483

  14. Stress-Induced Proton Disorder in Hydrous Ringwoodite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch-Müller, M.; Rhede, D.; Mrosko, M.; Speziale, S.; Schade, U.

    2008-12-01

    observed up to 30 GPa without any discontinuity and their pressure behaviour (dν/dP) can well be described by linear fits. Molecular vibrations are very sensitive to non-hydrostatic conditions and we interpret the disappearance of the OH-bands as a stress-induced proton disordering in hydrous ringwoodite due to the use of hard pressure transmiting media like CsI or argon without thermal annealing. Thus, our study cannot confirm the phase transition observed by Camorro Perez et al. (2006) in ringwoodite. But as they used Neon as pressure transmitting medium, which is known to become non-hydrostatic at pressure above 16 GPa (Bell and Mao, 1981) we argue that their observation of a sudden disappearance of the OH band may also be related to non-hydrostatic conditions. References Bell P.M. and Mao H.-K. (1981) Carnegie Inst. Wash Yrbk 80: 404-406. Camorro Perez E.M., Daniel I., Chervin J.-C., Dumas P., Bass J.D. and Inoue T. (2006) Phys. Chem. Minerals, 33, 502 - 510. Kudoh Y., Kuribayashi T., Mizohata H., Ohtani E., (2000) Phys. Chem. Mineral. 27, 474-479. Wittlinger J., Fischer R., Wener S., ScheiderJ., Schulz J. (1997) Acta Cryst B53, 745 - 749.

  15. Activation and blockade of serotonin7 receptors in the prelimbic cortex regulate depressive-like behaviors in a 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q J; Du, C X; Tan, H H; Zhang, L; Li, L B; Zhang, J; Niu, X L; Liu, J

    2015-12-17

    The role of serotonin7 (5-HT7) receptors in the regulation of depression is poorly understood, particularly in Parkinson's disease-associated depression. Here we examined whether 5-HT7 receptors in the prelimbic (PrL) sub-region of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) involve in the regulation of depressive-like behaviors in sham-operated rats and rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle. The lesion induced depressive-like responses as measured by the sucrose preference and forced swim tests when compared to sham-operated rats. Intra-PrL injection of 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS19 (0.5, 1 and 2 μg/rat) increased sucrose consumption, and decreased immobility time in sham-operated and the lesioned rats, indicating the induction of antidepressant-like effects. Further, intra-PrL injection of 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB269970 (1.5, 3 and 6 μg/rat) decreased sucrose consumption, and increased immobility time, indicating the induction of depressive-like responses. However, the doses producing these effects in the lesioned rats were higher than those in sham-operated rats. Neurochemical results showed that intra-PrL injection of AS19 (2 μg/rat) increased dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA) levels in the mPFC, habenula and ventral hippocampus (vHip) in sham-operated and the lesioned rats; whereas SB269970 (6 μg/rat) decreased 5-HT levels in the habenula and vHip, and the levels of NA in the mPFC, habenula and vHip in the two groups of rats. The results suggest that 5-HT7 receptors in the PrL play an important role in the regulation of these behaviors, which attribute to changes in monoamine levels in the limbic and limbic-related brain regions after activation and blockade of 5-HT7 receptors. PMID:26470809

  16. Effect of Beta vulgaris Linn. Leaves Extract on Anxiety- and Depressive-like Behavior and Oxidative Stress in Mice after Acute Restraint Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Patel, Vikas Kumar; Saxena, Rahul; Dashore, Jagrati; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Rathore, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Beta vulgaris is commonly known as “beet root” possessing antioxidant, anticancer, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective: To study the protective effect of Beta vulgaris Linn. ethanolic extract (BVEE) of leaves against acute restraint stress (ARS)-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and oxidative stress in mice. Materials and Methods: Mice (n = 6) were pretreated with BVEE (100 and 200 mg/kg, p. o.) for 7 days and subjected to ARS for 6 h to induce behavioral and biochemical changes. Anxiety- and depressive-like behavior were measured by using different behavioral paradigms such as open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST) 40 min postARS. Brain homogenate was used to analyze oxidative stress parameters, that is, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level. Results: BVEE pretreatment significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the ARS-induced reduction in EPM parameters, that is, percentage entries and time spent in open arms and in OFT parameters, that is, line crossings, and rearings in mice. ARS-induced increase in the immobility time in FST and TST was attenuated significantly (P < 0.05) by BVEE pretreatment at both the dosage. An increase in MDA and depletion of GSH level postARS was prevented significantly (P < 0.05) with BVEE pretreatment at both the dosage (100 and 200 mg/kg). Conclusion: BVEE exhibits anxiolytic and antidepressant activity in stressed mice along with good antioxidant property suggesting its therapeutic potential in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders. SUMMARY Stress plays major role in the pathogenesis of anxiety and depressionARS-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behavior through oxidative damage in miceBVEE pretreatment reversed ARS-induced behavioral changes

  17. No evidence for attenuated stress-induced extrastriatal dopamine signaling in psychotic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hernaus, D; Collip, D; Kasanova, Z; Winz, O; Heinzel, A; van Amelsvoort, T; Shali, S M; Booij, J; Rong, Y; Piel, M; Pruessner, J; Mottaghy, F M; Myin-Germeys, I

    2015-01-01

    Stress is an important risk factor in the etiology of psychotic disorder. Preclinical work has shown that stress primarily increases dopamine (DA) transmission in the frontal cortex. Given that DA-mediated hypofrontality is hypothesized to be a cardinal feature of psychotic disorder, stress-related extrastriatal DA release may be altered in psychotic disorder. Here we quantified for the first time stress-induced extrastriatal DA release and the spatial extent of extrastriatal DA release in individuals with non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD). Twelve healthy volunteers (HV) and 12 matched drug-free NAPD patients underwent a single infusion [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography scan during which they completed the control and stress condition of the Montreal Imaging Stress Task. HV and NAPD did not differ in stress-induced [18F]fallypride displacement and the spatial extent of stress-induced [18F]fallypride displacement in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and temporal cortex (TC). In the whole sample, the spatial extent of stress-induced radioligand displacement in right ventro-mPFC, but not dorso-mPFC or TC, was positively associated with task-induced subjective stress. Psychotic symptoms during the scan or negative, positive and general subscales of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were not associated with stress-induced [18F]fallypride displacement nor the spatial extent of stress-induced [18F]fallypride displacement in NAPD. Our results do not offer evidence for altered stress-induced extrastriatal DA signaling in NAPD, nor altered functional relevance. The implications of these findings for the role of the DA system in NAPD and stress processing are discussed. PMID:25871972

  18. Two Conserved Histone Demethylases Regulate Mitochondrial Stress-Induced Longevity.

    PubMed

    Merkwirth, Carsten; Jovaisaite, Virginija; Durieux, Jenni; Matilainen, Olli; Jordan, Sabine D; Quiros, Pedro M; Steffen, Kristan K; Williams, Evan G; Mouchiroud, Laurent; Tronnes, Sarah U; Murillo, Virginia; Wolff, Suzanne C; Shaw, Reuben J; Auwerx, Johan; Dillin, Andrew

    2016-05-19

    Across eukaryotic species, mild mitochondrial stress can have beneficial effects on the lifespan of organisms. Mitochondrial dysfunction activates an unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), a stress signaling mechanism designed to ensure mitochondrial homeostasis. Perturbation of mitochondria during larval development in C. elegans not only delays aging but also maintains UPR(mt) signaling, suggesting an epigenetic mechanism that modulates both longevity and mitochondrial proteostasis throughout life. We identify the conserved histone lysine demethylases jmjd-1.2/PHF8 and jmjd-3.1/JMJD3 as positive regulators of lifespan in response to mitochondrial dysfunction across species. Reduction of function of the demethylases potently suppresses longevity and UPR(mt) induction, while gain of function is sufficient to extend lifespan in a UPR(mt)-dependent manner. A systems genetics approach in the BXD mouse reference population further indicates conserved roles of the mammalian orthologs in longevity and UPR(mt) signaling. These findings illustrate an evolutionary conserved epigenetic mechanism that determines the rate of aging downstream of mitochondrial perturbations. PMID:27133168

  19. Cerebral metabolic changes in a depression-like rat model of chronic forced swimming studied by ex vivo high resolution 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Xia; Wang, Yaqiang; Gao, Hongchang; Pan, Wen-Ju; Xiang, Yun; Huang, Mingming; Lei, Hao

    2008-11-01

    Many previous in vivo (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies have shown that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are associated with perturbations of cerebral metabolism of neurotransmitters glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In this study, we investigated the changes of cerebral metabolism in a depression-like rat model of chronic forced swimming stress (CFSS). The aims are to further understand the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying CFSS treatment, and to further establish the face and predictive validity of the CFSS model. The results showed that, relative to control, the CFSS rats had significantly reduced Glu, taurine and glutamate + glutamine (Glx) levels in the PFC, and significantly reduced N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) level, Glu level and Glu/GABA ratio in the hippocampus. Taking together, these results suggest that CFSS treatment can induce region-specific changes in the metabolism of Glu. The CFSS model might be used to study antidepressants specifically targeting the central glutamatergic system. PMID:18473166

  20. The Oxytocin Analogue Carbetocin Prevents Emotional Impairment and Stress-Induced Reinstatement of Opioid-Seeking in Morphine-Abstinent Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Wright, Sherie R; Hourani, Susanna M; Kitchen, Ian; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaëlle; Bailey, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The main challenge in treating opioid addicts is to maintain abstinence due to the affective consequences associated with withdrawal which may trigger relapse. Emerging evidence suggests a role of the neurohypophysial peptide oxytocin (OT) in the modulation of mood disorders as well as drug addiction. However, its involvement in the emotional consequences of drug abstinence remains unclear. We investigated the effect of 7-day opioid abstinence on the oxytocinergic system and assessed the effect of the OT analogue carbetocin (CBT) on the emotional consequences of opioid abstinence, as well as relapse. Male C57BL/6J mice were treated with a chronic escalating-dose morphine regimen (20–100 mg/kg/day, i.p.). Seven days withdrawal from this administration paradigm induced a decrease of hypothalamic OT levels and a concomitant increase of oxytocin receptor (OTR) binding in the lateral septum and amygdala. Although no physical withdrawal symptoms or alterations in the plasma corticosterone levels were observed after 7 days of abstinence, mice exhibited increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors and impaired sociability. CBT (6.4 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated the observed negative emotional consequences of opioid withdrawal. Furthermore, in the conditioned place preference paradigm with 10 mg/kg morphine conditioning, CBT (6.4 mg/kg, i.p.) was able to prevent the stress-induced reinstatement to morphine-seeking following extinction. Overall, our results suggest that alterations of the oxytocinergic system contribute to the mechanisms underlying anxiety, depression, and social deficits observed during opioid abstinence. This study also highlights the oxytocinergic system as a target for developing pharmacotherapy for the treatment of emotional impairment associated with abstinence and thereby prevention of relapse. PMID:24129263

  1. The oxytocin analogue carbetocin prevents emotional impairment and stress-induced reinstatement of opioid-seeking in morphine-abstinent mice.

    PubMed

    Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Wright, Sherie R; Hourani, Susanna M; Kitchen, Ian; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaëlle; Bailey, Alexis

    2014-03-01

    The main challenge in treating opioid addicts is to maintain abstinence due to the affective consequences associated with withdrawal which may trigger relapse. Emerging evidence suggests a role of the neurohypophysial peptide oxytocin (OT) in the modulation of mood disorders as well as drug addiction. However, its involvement in the emotional consequences of drug abstinence remains unclear. We investigated the effect of 7-day opioid abstinence on the oxytocinergic system and assessed the effect of the OT analogue carbetocin (CBT) on the emotional consequences of opioid abstinence, as well as relapse. Male C57BL/6J mice were treated with a chronic escalating-dose morphine regimen (20-100 mg/kg/day, i.p.). Seven days withdrawal from this administration paradigm induced a decrease of hypothalamic OT levels and a concomitant increase of oxytocin receptor (OTR) binding in the lateral septum and amygdala. Although no physical withdrawal symptoms or alterations in the plasma corticosterone levels were observed after 7 days of abstinence, mice exhibited increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors and impaired sociability. CBT (6.4 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated the observed negative emotional consequences of opioid withdrawal. Furthermore, in the conditioned place preference paradigm with 10 mg/kg morphine conditioning, CBT (6.4 mg/kg, i.p.) was able to prevent the stress-induced reinstatement to morphine-seeking following extinction. Overall, our results suggest that alterations of the oxytocinergic system contribute to the mechanisms underlying anxiety, depression, and social deficits observed during opioid abstinence. This study also highlights the oxytocinergic system as a target for developing pharmacotherapy for the treatment of emotional impairment associated with abstinence and thereby prevention of relapse. PMID:24129263

  2. Depression-like Behavior Induced by Nesfatin-1 in Rats: Involvement of Increased Immune Activation and Imbalance of Synaptic Vesicle Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jin-Fang; Xu, Ya-Yun; Qin, Gan; Peng, Yao-Nan; Zhang, Chao-Feng; Liu, Xing-Rui; Liang, Li-Chuan; Wang, Zhong-Zheng; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a multicausal disorder and has been associated with metabolism regulation and immuno-inflammatory reaction. The anorectic molecule nesfatin-1 has recently been characterized as a potential mood regulator, but its precise effect on depression and the possible mechanisms remain unknown, especially when given peripherally. In the present study, nesfatin-1 was intraperitoneally injected to the rats and the depression-like behavior and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were evaluated. The plasma concentrations of nesfatin-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP); and the hypothalamic expression levels of nesfatin-1, synapsin I, and synaptotagmin I mRNA were evaluated in nesfatin-1 chronically treated rats. The results showed that both acute and chronic administration of nesfatin-1 increased immobility in the forced swimming test (FST), and resulted in the hyperactivity of HPA axis, as indicated by the increase of plasma corticosterone concentration and hypothalamic expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA. Moreover, after chronic nesfatin-1 administration, the rats exhibited decreased activity and exploratory behavior in the open field test (OFT) and increased mRNA expression of synapsin I and synaptotagmin I in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, chronic administration of nesfatin-1 elevated plasma concentrations of IL-6 and CRP, which were positively correlated with despair behavior, plasma corticosterone level, and the hypothalamic mRNA expression of synapsin I and synaptotagmin I. These results indicated that exogenous nesfatin-1 could induce the immune-inflammatory activation, which might be a central hug linking the depression-like behavior and the imbalanced mRNA expression of synaptic vesicle proteins in the hypothalamus. PMID:26617482

  3. Depressive-like behaviours and decreased dendritic branching in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice with tumors: A novel validated model of cancer-induced depression.

    PubMed

    Nashed, Mina G; Seidlitz, Eric P; Frey, Benicio N; Singh, Gurmit

    2015-11-01

    Depression is commonly comorbid in cancer patients and has detrimental effects on disease progression. Evidence suggests that biological mechanisms may induce the onset of cancer-induced depression (CID). The present investigation aims to establish a validated preclinical animal model of CID. Female BALB/c mice were allocated to four groups: control (n=12), chronic oral exposure to corticosterone (CORT) (n=12), CORT exposure followed by chronic low dose fluoxetine (FLX) treatment (n=12), and subcutaneous inoculation of 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells (n=13). Anhedonia was evaluated using the sucrose preference test (SPT), and behavioural despair was evaluated using the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Sholl analyses were used to examine the dendritic morphology of Golgi-Cox impregnated neurons from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). CORT exposure and tumor burden were both associated with decreased sucrose preference, increased FST immobility, and decreased basilar and apical dendritic branching of neurons in the mPFC. CORT-induced behavioural and dendritic morphological changes were reversible by FLX. No differences in TST immobility were observed between groups. On the secondary TST outcome measure, CORT exposure and tumor burden were associated with a trend towards decreased power of movement. CORT exposure induced a positive control model of a depressive-like state, with FLX treatment confirming the predictive validity of the model. This verified the sensitivity of behavioural and histological tests, which were used to assess the CID model. The induction of a depressive-like state in this model represents the first successfully validated animal model of CID. PMID:26222786

  4. Depressive-like behavioral profiles in captive-bred single- and socially-housed rhesus and cynomolgus macaques: a species comparison

    PubMed Central

    Camus, Sandrine M. J.; Rochais, Céline; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Li, Qin; Hausberger, Martine; Bezard, Erwan

    2014-01-01

    Background: To unravel the causes of major depressive disorder (MDD), the third leading cause of disease burden around the world, ethological animal models have recently been proposed. Our previous studies highlighted a depressive-like profile among single- and socially-housed farm-bred cynomolgus macaques. Although phylogenetically close, cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, the two most commonly used macaque species in biomedical research, differ on several levels such as patterns of aggression, reconciliation, temperament, or dominance styles. The question of whether one captive macaque species was more vulnerable than another in the development of a pathological profile reminiscent of MDD symptoms was explored. Methods: Behavioral data (including body postures, orientations, gaze directions, inter-individual distances, and locations in the cage) were collected in farming conditions. Using an unbiased validated ethological scan-sampling method, followed by multiple correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses, 40 single- and 35 socially-housed rhesus macaques were assessed. Independently, for each housing condition, inter-species comparisons were made with previously acquired data on farm-bred cynomolgus monkeys. Results: Consistent with our previous studies, we found depressive-like characteristics (e.g., inactivity, low level of investigation and maintenance, long time spent inactive while facing the wall) among single- and socially-housed rhesus macaques. Species-specificities were reported in non-depressive time budgets and in the prevalence of the pathological profiles. Conclusions: Our results suggest that rhesus may be more vulnerable to developing a despair-like state than cynomolgus macaques, both in single- and in social-housing conditions. Therefore, rhesus macaques are more suitable for use as a “spontaneous” model of depressive disorders. PMID:24600363

  5. 4-Methylcatechol prevents derangements of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB-related signaling in anterior cingulate cortex in chronic pain with depression-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kozo; Yasuda, Seiko; Fukuhara, Kayoko; Iwanaga, Yasutake; Ida, Yuika; Ishikawa, Junko; Yamagata, Hirotaka; Ono, Midori; Kakeda, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Toshizo

    2014-03-01

    Chronic pain with mood disorder, resulting from a peripheral nerve injury, is a serious clinical problem affecting the quality of life. A lack of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and abnormal intercellular signaling in the brain can mediate this symptom. BDNF is induced in cultured neurons by 4-methylcatechol (4-MC), but little is known about its role in pain-emotion. Thus, we characterized the actions of 4-MC on TrkB receptor-related pERK and BDNF mRNA in discreet brain regions related to pain-emotion after chronic pain in rat. Rats implanted with a stainless steel cannula into the lateral ventricular were subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI). Pain was assessed by changes in paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to heat stimuli after CCI. Immobility time during the forced swimming testing was measured for depression-like behavior. Analgesic and antidepression modulations with 4-MC were examined by an anti-BDNF antibody (K252a, a TrkB receptor inhibitor). The animals were perfused and fixed (4% paraformaldehyde) for immunohistochemistry analysis (c-FOS/pERK). BDNF mRNA expression (anterior cingulate cortex) was determined using reverse transcription-PCR. Rats showed a sustained decrease in PWL, associated with a prolonged immobility time after CCI. 4-MC reduced decreases in PWL and increased immobility time. 4-MC reduced increases in pERK immunoreactivity and decreases in BDNF mRNA expression in regions related to pain and the limbic system. Anti-BDNF blocked effects induced by 4-MC. We suggest that a lack of BDNF associated with activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the pain-emotion network may be involved in depression-like behavior during chronic pain. 4-MC ameliorates pain-emotion symptoms by inducing BDNF and normalizing pERK activities. PMID:24518228

  6. Infliximab ameliorating depression-like behavior through inhibiting the activation of the IDO-HAAO pathway mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiao-Yan; Li, Hai-Yan; Jiang, Qing-Song; Cui, Ting; Jiang, Xin-Hui; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Qiu, Hong-Mei

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, some studies have suggested that the activation of inflammatory system plays a role in the occurrence of depression. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as one of the preinflammatory cytokines, has been reported to be involved in the occurrence of various diseases including depression. Infliximab, an antagonist of TNF-α, is usually used to treat some autoimmune diseases such as Crohn's disease and can perhaps be used to treat other diseases. In this study, the antidepressant effect and a possible mechanism of infliximab were investigated by studying the depression-like behavior and expression of TNF-α, indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), and 3-hydroxyl amino acid oxygenase (HAAO) from the cortex and hippocampus in rat exposed to chronic unpredicted stress. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (CG), an infliximab-treated control group, a model group (MG), and an infliximab-treated model group (IFXM). Infliximab (5 mg/kg once week) was administered to the infliximab-treated control group and IFXM rats by an intraperitoneal injection, whereas an equivalent volume of vehicle was administered to CG and MG rats. Rat behaviors and the expression of TNF-α, IDO, and HAAO in the cortex and hippocampus were determined. It was found that a significant relief in depression-like behaviors was observed with a downregulation of TNF-α, IDO, and HAAO expression in the IFXM rats compared with MG rats. The results show the antidepressant effect of infliximab and suggest that its mechanism is partly related to inhibition of IDO-HAAO pathway activation mediated by TNF-α in rat brain. PMID:27366867

  7. On the effect of minocycline on the depressive-like behavior of mice repeatedly exposed to malathion: interaction between nitric oxide and cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Saeedi Saravi, Seyed Soheil; Amirkhanloo, Roya; Arefidoust, Alireza; Yaftian, Rahele; Saeedi Saravi, Seyed Sobhan; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of minocycline in mice exposed to organophosphate pesticide malathion and possible involvement of nitric oxide/cGMP pathway in this paradigm. Mice were administered specific doses of malathion once daily for 7 consecutive days. After induction of depression, different doses of minocycline were daily injected alone or combined with non-specific NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, specific inducible NOS inhibitor, AG, NO precursor, L-arginine, and PDE5I, sildenafil. After locomotion assessment in open-field test, immobility times were recorded in the FST and TST. Moreover, hippocampal nitrite concentrations and acetylcholinesterase activity were measured. The results showed that repeated exposure to malathion induces depressive-like behavior at dose of 250 mg/kg. Minocycline (160 mg/kg) significantly reduced immobility times in FST and TST (P < 0.001). Combination of sub-effective doses of minocycline (80 mg/kg) with either L-NAME (3 mg/kg) or AG (25 mg/kg) significantly exerted a robust antidepressant-like effect in FST and TST (P < 0.001). Furthermore, minocycline at the same dose which has antidepressant-like effect, significantly reduced hippocampal nitrite concentration. The investigation indicates the essential role for NO/cGMP pathway in malathion-induced depressive-like behavior and antidepressant-like effect of minocycline. Moreover, the interaction between nitrergic and cholinergic systems are suggested to be involved in malathion-induced depression. PMID:26581675

  8. Involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on malathion induced depressive-like behavior in subacute exposure and protective effects of crocin

    PubMed Central

    Dorri, Somaye Ardebili; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Abnous, Khalil; Hasani, Faezeh Vahdati; Robati, Rezvan Yazdian; Razavi, Bibi Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): In this study the effect of crocin, a carotenoid isolated from saffron, on malathion (an organophosphate insecticide) induced depressive- like behavior in subacute exposure was investigated. Moreover the molecular mechanism of malathion induced depressive- like behavior and its decreasing effect on the level of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rat hippocampus and cerebral cortex were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were exposed to malathion (50 mg/kg/day, IP) alone or in combination with crocin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day, IP), imipramine (20 mg/kg/day, IP) and vitamin E (200 mg/kg, three times a week, IP) respectively for 14 days. The forced swimming test (FST) was performed on days 1st, 7th and 14st. The level of malondealdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats. The protein level of BDNF was evaluated using Western blot analysis. Results: Malathion (50 mg/kg, IP) increased immobility time in the FST, without affecting total locomotor activity in open-field test. Malathion increased the malondealdehyde (MDA) and decreased the glutathione (GSH), whereas these effects were reversed by crocin and vitamin E. Malathion decreased plasma acetylcholinesterase activity, however this effect was not reversed by crocin or vitamin E. Malathion reduced the protein level of BDNF in rat hippocampus. Imipramine and crocin prevented the decreasing effect of malathion on BDNF. Conclusion: These results showed that crocin attenuates some neurochemical and behavioral effects induced by malathion. This neuroprotective effect of crocin may be in part due to its effect on BDNF. PMID:26730329

  9. Depressive-like effects of the kappa opioid receptor agonist salvinorin A are associated with decreased phasic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Stephanie R.; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Potter, David N.; Rachlin, Anna B.; Chartoff, Elena H.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) have been implicated in depressive-like states associated with chronic administration of drugs of abuse and stress. Although KOR agonists decrease dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), KOR modulation of phasic dopamine release in the core and shell subregions of the NAc—which have distinct roles in reward processing—remains poorly understood. Objectives Studies were designed to examine whether the time course of effects of KOR activation on phasic dopamine release in the NAc core or shell are similar to effects on motivated behavior. Methods The effect of systemic administration of the KOR agonist salvinorin A (salvA)—at a dose (2.0 mg/kg) previously determined to have depressive-like effects—was measured on electrically evoked phasic dopamine release in the NAc core or shell of awake and behaving rats using fast scan cyclic voltammetry. In parallel, the effects of salvA on intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) and sucrose-reinforced responding were assessed. For comparison, a threshold dose of salvA (0.25 mg/kg) was also tested. Results The active, but not threshold, dose of salvA significantly decreased phasic dopamine release without affecting dopamine reuptake in the NAc core and shell. SalvA increased ICSS thresholds and significantly lowered breakpoint on the progressive ratio schedule, indicating a decrease in motivation. The time course of the KOR-mediated decrease in dopamine in the core was qualitatively similar to the effects on motivated behavior. Conclusions These data suggest that the effects of KOR activation on motivation are due, in part, to inhibition of phasic dopamine signaling in the NAc core. PMID:20372879

  10. The HDAC inhibitor SAHA improves depressive-like behavior of CRTC1-deficient mice: Possible relevance for treatment-resistant depression.

    PubMed

    Meylan, Elsa M; Halfon, Olivier; Magistretti, Pierre J; Cardinaux, Jean-René

    2016-08-01

    Major depression is a highly complex disabling psychiatric disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. Despite the availability of several classes of antidepressants, a substantial percentage of patients are unresponsive to these medications. A better understanding of the neurobiology of depression and the mechanisms underlying antidepressant response is thus critically needed. We previously reported that mice lacking CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) exhibit a depressive-like phenotype and a blunted antidepressant response to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. In this study, we similarly show that Crtc1(-/-) mice are resistant to the antidepressant effect of chronic desipramine in a behavioral despair paradigm. Supporting the blunted response to this tricyclic antidepressant, we found that desipramine does not significantly increase the expression of Bdnf and Nr4a1-3 in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of Crtc1(-/-) mice. Epigenetic regulation of neuroplasticity gene expression has been associated with depression and antidepressant response, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to have antidepressant-like properties. Here, we show that unlike conventional antidepressants, chronic systemic administration of the HDAC inhibitor SAHA partially rescues the depressive-like behavior of Crtc1(-/-) mice. This behavioral effect is accompanied by an increased expression of Bdnf, but not Nr4a1-3, in the prefrontal cortex of these mice, suggesting that this epigenetic intervention restores the expression of a subset of genes by acting downstream of CRTC1. These findings suggest that CRTC1 alterations may be associated with treatment-resistant depression, and support the interesting possibility that targeting HDACs may be a useful therapeutic strategy in antidepressant development. PMID:26970016

  11. Long-term postpartum anxiety and depression-like behavior in mother rats subjected to maternal separation are ameliorated by palatable high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-03-17

    While the effects of maternal separation on pups are well studied, the impact on dams has attracted little attention. The consumption of palatable food is known to dampen stress responses in animals, and emotions influence food choice in humans. Here we examined the early- and long-term impacts of maternal separation on behavioral profile of the dams, and the effects of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD). After littering, Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to prolonged separation, S180 (180 min) or brief separation, S15 (15 min/day) from postnatal days (PND) 2-14. At 4 weeks postpartum, half the dams were assigned to HFD. Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were assessed pre- and post-diet. Compared to S15 dams, S180 dams consuming chow demonstrated increased anxiety and depression-like behaviors assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim (FST) tests, respectively. These behavioral deficits were observed at 4 weeks, and persisted until 17 weeks postpartum. The S180 dams also had increased plasma corticosterone concentration compared to S15 dams, which coincided with increased hypothalamic CRH mRNA and reduced hippocampal GR mRNA expression, suggesting possible dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Interestingly, continuous provision of HFD improved the behavioral deficits observed in S180 dams with significant reduction of hypothalamic CRH mRNA expression. These data are the first to describe long-term detrimental behavioral impacts of separation in dams, suggesting this may provide a model of postpartum depression. Moreover, they support the notion of long-term beneficial effects of 'comfort food' on stress responses. PMID:19896506

  12. Embryonic GABA(B) receptor blockade alters cell migration, adult hypothalamic structure, and anxiety- and depression-like behaviors sex specifically in mice.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Matthew S; Staros, Michelle; Budefeld, Tomaz; Searcy, Brian T; Nash, Connor; Eitel, Chad; Carbone, David; Handa, Robert J; Majdic, Gregor; Tobet, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    Neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) regulate the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system. Females lacking functional GABA(B) receptors because of a genetic disruption of the R1 subunit have altered cellular characteristics in and around the PVN at birth. The genetic disruption precluded appropriate assessments of physiology or behavior in adulthood. The current study was conducted to test the long term impact of a temporally restricting pharmacological blockade of the GABA(B) receptor to a 7-day critical period (E11-E17) during embryonic development. Experiments tested the role of GABA(B) receptor signaling in fetal development of the PVN and later adult capacities for adult stress related behaviors and physiology. In organotypic slices containing fetal PVN, there was a female specific, 52% increase in cell movement speeds with GABA(B) receptor antagonist treatment that was consistent with a sex-dependent lateral displacement of cells in vivo following 7 days of fetal exposure to GABA(B) receptor antagonist. Anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors, open-field activity, and HPA mediated responses to restraint stress were measured in adult offspring of mothers treated with GABA(B) receptor antagonist. Embryonic exposure to GABA(B) receptor antagonist resulted in reduced HPA axis activation following restraint stress and reduced depression-like behaviors. There was also increased anxiety-like behavior selectively in females and hyperactivity in males. A sex dependent response to disruptions of GABA(B) receptor signaling was identified for PVN formation and key aspects of physiology and behavior. These changes correspond to sex specific prevalence in similar human disorders, namely anxiety disorders and hyperactivity. PMID:25162235

  13. Embryonic GABAB Receptor Blockade Alters Cell Migration, Adult Hypothalamic Structure, and Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors Sex Specifically in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Matthew S.; Staros, Michelle; Budefeld, Tomaz; Searcy, Brian T.; Nash, Connor; Eitel, Chad; Carbone, David; Handa, Robert J.; Majdic, Gregor; Tobet, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) regulate the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system. Females lacking functional GABAB receptors because of a genetic disruption of the R1 subunit have altered cellular characteristics in and around the PVN at birth. The genetic disruption precluded appropriate assessments of physiology or behavior in adulthood. The current study was conducted to test the long term impact of a temporally restricting pharmacological blockade of the GABAB receptor to a 7-day critical period (E11–E17) during embryonic development. Experiments tested the role of GABAB receptor signaling in fetal development of the PVN and later adult capacities for adult stress related behaviors and physiology. In organotypic slices containing fetal PVN, there was a female specific, 52% increase in cell movement speeds with GABAB receptor antagonist treatment that was consistent with a sex-dependent lateral displacement of cells in vivo following 7 days of fetal exposure to GABAB receptor antagonist. Anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors, open-field activity, and HPA mediated responses to restraint stress were measured in adult offspring of mothers treated with GABAB receptor antagonist. Embryonic exposure to GABAB receptor antagonist resulted in reduced HPA axis activation following restraint stress and reduced depression-like behaviors. There was also increased anxiety-like behavior selectively in females and hyperactivity in males. A sex dependent response to disruptions of GABAB receptor signaling was identified for PVN formation and key aspects of physiology and behavior. These changes correspond to sex specific prevalence in similar human disorders, namely anxiety disorders and hyperactivity. PMID:25162235

  14. Shear stress-induced NO production is dependent on ATP autocrine signaling and capacitative calcium entry

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Allison M.; Jaron, Dov; Buerk, Donald G.; Barbee, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Flow-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) by endothelial cells plays a fundamental role in vascular homeostasis. However, the mechanisms by which shear stress activates NO production remain unclear due in part to limitations in measuring NO, especially under flow conditions. Shear stress elicits the release of ATP, but the relative contribution of autocrine stimulation by ATP to flow-induced NO production has not been established. Furthermore, the importance of calcium in shear stress-induced NO production remains controversial, and in particular the role of capacitive calcium entry (CCE) has yet to be determined. We have utilized our unique NO measurement device to investigate the role of ATP autocrine signaling and CCE in shear stress-induced NO production. We found that endogenously released ATP and downstream activation of purinergic receptors and CCE plays a significant role in shear stress-induced NO production. ATP-induced eNOS phophorylation under static conditions is also dependent on CCE. Inhibition of protein kinase C significantly inhibited eNOS phosphorylation and the calcium response. To our knowledge, we are the first to report on the role of CCE in the mechanism of acute shear stress-induced NO response. In addition, our work highlights the importance of ATP autocrine signaling in shear stress-induced NO production. PMID:25386222

  15. Treadmill exercise alleviates prenatal noise stress-induced impairment of spatial learning ability through enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis in rat pups

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Woon; Shin, Mal-Soon; Park, Joon-Ki; Shin, Mi-Ai; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Lee, Sam-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Stress alters brain cell properties and then disturbs cognitive processes, such as learning and memory. In this study, we investigated the effect of postnatal treadmill exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial learning ability of rat pups following prenatal noise stress. The impact of exercise intensity (mild-intensity exercise vs heavy-intensity exercise) was also compared. The pregnant rats in the stress-applied group were exposed to a 95 dB supersonic machine sound for 1 h once a day from the 15th day after mating until delivery. After birth, the rat pups in the exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day for 7 consecutive days, starting 4 weeks after birth. The spatial learning ability was tested using radial-arm maze task and hippocampal neurogenesis was determined by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry. The rat pups born from the stress-applied maternal rats spent more time for the seeking of water and showed higher number of error in the radial-arm maze task compared to the control group. These rat pups showed suppressed neurogenesis in the hippocampus. In contrast, the rat pups performed postnatal treadmill exercise saved time for seeking of water and showed lower number of error compared to the stress-applied group. Postnatal treadmill exercise also enhanced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The mild-intensity exercise showed more potent impact compared to the heavy-intensity exercise. The present results reveal that postnatal treadmill exercise lessens prenatal stress-induced deterioration of brain function in offspring. PMID:24282804

  16. Effects of exercise and weight loss on mental stress-induced cardiovascular responses in individuals with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Georgiades, A; Sherwood, A; Gullette, E C; Babyak, M A; Hinderliter, A; Waugh, R; Tweedy, D; Craighead, L; Bloomer, R; Blumenthal, J A

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise and weight loss on cardiovascular responses during mental stress in mildly to moderately overweight patients with elevated blood pressure. Ninety-nine men and women with high normal or unmedicated stage 1 to stage 2 hypertension (systolic blood pressure 130 to 179 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure 85 to 109 mm Hg) underwent a battery of mental stress tests, including simulated public speaking, anger recall interview, mirror trace, and cold pressor, before and after a 6-month treatment program. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) aerobic exercise, (2) weight management combining aerobic exercise with a behavioral weight loss program, or (3) waiting list control group. After 6 months, compared with control subjects, participants in both active treatment groups had lower levels of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total peripheral resistance, and heart rate at rest and during mental stress. Compared with subjects in the control group, subjects in the exercise and weight management groups also had greater resting stroke volume and cardiac output. Diastolic blood pressure was lower for the weight management group than for the exercise-only group during all mental stress tasks. These results demonstrate that exercise, particularly when combined with a weight loss program, can lower both resting and stress-induced blood pressure levels and produce a favorable hemodynamic pattern resembling that targeted for antihypertensive therapy. PMID:10948073

  17. Tianeptine, olanzapine and fluoxetine show similar restoring effects on stress induced molecular changes in mice brain: An FT-IR study.

    PubMed

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Mutlu, Oğuz; Çelikyurt, İpek K; Akar, Furuzan; Ulak, Güner

    2016-05-15

    Chronic stress which can cause a variety of disorders and illness ranging from metabolic and cardiovascular to mental leads to alterations in content, structure and dynamics of biomolecules in brain. The determination of stress-induced changes along with the effects of antidepressant treatment on these parameters might bring about more effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we investigated unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced changes in biomolecules in mouse brain and the restoring effects of tianeptine (TIA), olanzapine (OLZ) and fluoxetine (FLX) on these variations, by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that chronic stress causes different membrane packing and an increase in lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity. A significant increment for lipid/protein, CO/lipid, CH3/lipid, CH2/lipid, PO(-)2/lipid, COO(-)/lipid and RNA/protein ratios but a significant decrease for lipid/protein ratios were also obtained. Additionally, altered protein secondary structure components were estimated, such as increment in random coils and beta structures. The administration of TIA, OLZ and FLX drugs restored these stress-induced variations except for alterations in protein structure and RNA/protein ratio. This may suggest that these drugs have similar restoring effects on the consequences of stress activity in brain, in spite of the differences in their action mechanisms. All findings might have importance in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying chronic stress and contribute to studies aimed for drug development. PMID:26952787

  18. Tianeptine, olanzapine and fluoxetine show similar restoring effects on stress induced molecular changes in mice brain: An FT-IR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Mutlu, Oğuz; Çelikyurt, İpek K.; Akar, Furuzan; Ulak, Güner

    2016-05-01

    Chronic stress which can cause a variety of disorders and illness ranging from metabolic and cardiovascular to mental leads to alterations in content, structure and dynamics of biomolecules in brain. The determination of stress-induced changes along with the effects of antidepressant treatment on these parameters might bring about more effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we investigated unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced changes in biomolecules in mouse brain and the restoring effects of tianeptine (TIA), olanzapine (OLZ) and fluoxetine (FLX) on these variations, by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that chronic stress causes different membrane packing and an increase in lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity. A significant increment for lipid/protein, Cdbnd O/lipid, CH3/lipid, CH2/lipid, PO-2/lipid, COO-/lipid and RNA/protein ratios but a significant decrease for lipid/protein ratios were also obtained. Additionally, altered protein secondary structure components were estimated, such as increment in random coils and beta structures. The administration of TIA, OLZ and FLX drugs restored these stress-induced variations except for alterations in protein structure and RNA/protein ratio. This may suggest that these drugs have similar restoring effects on the consequences of stress activity in brain, in spite of the differences in their action mechanisms. All findings might have importance in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying chronic stress and contribute to studies aimed for drug development.

  19. Metabolomics analysis reveals insights into biochemical mechanisms of mental stress-induced left ventricular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Stephen H.; Matson, Wayne R.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Samad, Zainab; Williams, Redford B.; Sharma, Swati; Thomas, Beena; Wilson, Jennifer L.; O'Connor, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Mental stress induced left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) has been associated with a greater risk of adverse events in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients independent of conventional risk indicators. The underlying biochemical mechanisms of this cardiovascular condition are poorly understood. Our objective was to use metabolomics technology to identify biochemical changes that co-occur with mental stress-induced LVD in patients with clinically stable CHD. Participants were adult CHD patients who were recruited for mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia screening. For this study, we randomly selected 30 patients representing the extremes of the mental stress-induced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) change distribution; 15 who showed LVD (i.e. LVEF reduction ≥5) and 15 who showed a normal left ventricular response (NLVR; i.e. a LVEF increase of ≥5) to three mental stressors. An electrochemistry based metabolomics platform was used to profile pre- and post-stress serum samples yielding data for 22 known compounds, primarily within the tyrosine, tryptophan, purine and methionine pathways. There were significant stress-induced changes in several compounds. A comparison between the NLVR and LVD groups showed significant effects for kynurenine (p = .036, N-acetylserotonin (p = .054), uric acid (p = .015), tyrosine (p = .019) and a trend for methionine (p = .065); the NLVR group showed a significantly greater stress-induced reduction in all of those compounds compared to the LVD group. Many of these biochemicals have been implicated in other stress-related phenomena and are plausible candidates for mechanisms underlying LVD in response to mental stress. PMID:25983674

  20. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Portfolio (IADRP) AMP-AD Detecting Cognitive Impairment Database ... Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition in which people have more memory or other thinking problems than normal for their ...

  1. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... other people their age. This condition is called mild cognitive impairment, or MCI. People with MCI can take care of themselves and do their normal activities. MCI memory problems may include Losing things often Forgetting ...

  2. Depressive-like behavior induced by tumor necrosis factor-α is attenuated by m-trifluoromethyl-diphenyl diselenide in mice.

    PubMed

    Brüning, César Augusto; Martini, Franciele; Soares, Suelen Mendonça; Savegnago, Lucielli; Sampaio, Tuane Bazanella; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence associates activation of immune system with depressive symptoms. Accordingly, pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), have been shown to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acute and subchronic treatments with (m-CF3-PhSe)2 to prevent the depressive-like behavior induced by intracerebroventricular injection of TNF-α in mice. TNF-α induced depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) (0.1 and 0.001 ƒg/5 μL/site, respectively) without changing locomotor activity, performed in the locomotor activity monitor (LAM). Acute (0.01-50 mg/kg; intragastric (i.g.); 30 min) and subchronic (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg; i.g.; 14 days) treatments with (m-CF3-PhSe)2 at low doses were effective against the effect of TNF-α in the FST and TST. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), important proteins in TNF-activated signaling, were determined in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of mouse. TNF-α (0.1 ƒg/5 μL/site) increased NF-κB levels and p38 MAPK activation in both brain areas and acute (10 mg/kg; i.g.) and subchronic (0.01 mg/kg; i.g.) treatments with (m-CF3-PhSe)2 were effective in attenuating this increase. Although more studies are necessary to indicate this compound as a therapeutic alternative to depression, the antidepressant-like and anti-inflammatory effects of (m-CF3-PhSe)2 demonstrated herein may support it as an interesting molecule in the search for new drugs to treat depressive disorders that have been largely linked to immune process and inflammation. PMID:25982254

  3. Activation of sensory nerves participates in stress-induced histamine release from mast cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z L; Mochizuki, T; Watanabe, H; Maeyama, K

    1999-08-01

    To elucidate the mechanism by which stress induces rapid histamine release from mast cells, Wistar rats, pretreated as neonates with capsaicin, were subjected to immobilization stress for 2 h, and histamine release was measured in paws of anesthetized rats by using in vivo microdialysis after activation of sensory nerves by electrical or chemical stimulation. Immobilization stress studies indicated that in control rats stress induced a 2.7-fold increase in the level of plasma histamine compared to that in freely moving rats. Whereas pretreatment with capsaicin significantly decreased stress-induced elevation of plasma histamine. Microdialysis studies showed that electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve resulted in a 4-fold increase of histamine release in rat paws. However, this increase was significantly inhibited in rats pretreated with capsaicin. Furthermore, injection of capsaicin into rat paw significantly increased histamine release in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that activation of sensory nerves participates in stress-induced histamine release from mast cells. PMID:10462124

  4. Role of midbrain raphe in stress-induced renin and prolactin secretion.

    PubMed

    Van de Kar, L D; Lorens, S A; McWilliams, C R; Kunimoto, K; Urban, J H; Bethea, C L

    1984-10-01

    Stress-induced changes in renin and prolactin secretion were studied using a conditioned emotional response paradigm. Three minutes after being placed in a chamber, the stressed animals received a brief electric shock (1.0 mA for 10 s through the grid floor), then were returned to their home cage. This procedure was repeated for 3 consecutive days. On the fourth day, the rats were placed in the chamber for 3 min, but instead of receiving shock, they were removed and sacrificed. Control animals were treated in the same manner, except that they never received foot shock. The sham-operated stressed rats evidenced significant elevations in plasma renin activity (270%) and prolactin level (550%). Electrolytic lesions in the dorsal raphe nucleus blocked the stress-induced increase in plasma renin activity but did not affect the stress-induced increase in prolactin secretion. Electrolytic lesions in the median raphe nucleus did not affect prolactin levels in either control or stressed animals. However, median raphe lesions led to a significant increase in plasma renin activity in non-stressed rats and potentiated the stress-induced elevation in plasma renin activity. These results suggest that neurons within the dorsal and median raphe nuclei are involved in the regulation of renin but not prolactin secretion during stress. The results also suggest that median raphe neurons play a role in basal renin secretion. PMID:6208972

  5. Ghrelin mediates stress-induced food-reward behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Perello, Mario; Sakata, Ichiro; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri; Savitt, Joseph M; Lutter, Michael; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2011-07-01

    The popular media and personal anecdotes are rich with examples of stress-induced eating of calorically dense "comfort foods." Such behavioral reactions likely contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity in humans experiencing chronic stress or atypical depression. However, the molecular substrates and neurocircuits controlling the complex behaviors responsible for stress-based eating remain mostly unknown, and few animal models have been described for probing the mechanisms orchestrating this response. Here, we describe a system in which food-reward behavior, assessed using a conditioned place preference (CPP) task, is monitored in mice after exposure to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), a model of prolonged psychosocial stress, featuring aspects of major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Under this regime, CSDS increased both CPP for and intake of high-fat diet, and stress-induced food-reward behavior was dependent on signaling by the peptide hormone ghrelin. Also, signaling specifically in catecholaminergic neurons mediated not only ghrelin's orexigenic, antidepressant-like, and food-reward behavioral effects, but also was sufficient to mediate stress-induced food-reward behavior. Thus, this mouse model has allowed us to ascribe a role for ghrelin-engaged catecholaminergic neurons in stress-induced eating. PMID:21701068

  6. OXIDATIVE STRESS INDUCES CELL DEATH IN CD-1 MOUSE CRANIAL NEURAL CREST CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    OXIDATIVE STRESS INDUCES CELL DEATH IN CD-1 MOUSE CRANIAL NEURAL CREST CELLS IN VITRO. J.B. Smith, K.K. Sulik, E.S. Hunter III. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599.
    The induction of craniofacial defects by ethanol exposure is mediated in part by...

  7. Effects of Active Mastication on Chronic Stress-Induced Bone Loss in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Kagaku; Furuzawa, Manabu; Fujiwara, Shu; Yamada, Kumiko; Kubo, Kin-ya

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychologic stress increases corticosterone levels, which decreases bone density. Active mastication or chewing attenuates stress-induced increases in corticosterone. We evaluated whether active mastication attenuates chronic stress-induced bone loss in mice. Male C57BL/6 (B6) mice were randomly divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Stress was induced by placing mice in a ventilated restraint tube (60 min, 2x/day, 4 weeks). The stress/chewing group was given a wooden stick to chew during the experimental period. Quantitative micro-computed tomography, histologic analysis, and biochemical markers were used to evaluate the bone response. The stress/chewing group exhibited significantly attenuated stress-induced increases in serum corticosterone levels, suppressed bone formation, enhanced bone resorption, and decreased trabecular bone mass in the vertebrae and distal femurs, compared with mice in the stress group. Active mastication during exposure to chronic stress alleviated chronic stress-induced bone density loss in B6 mice. Active mastication during chronic psychologic stress may thus be an effective strategy to prevent and/or treat chronic stress-related osteopenia. PMID:26664256

  8. Stress-induced early flowering is mediated by miR169 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Xu, Miao Yun; Zhang, Lan; Li, Wei Wei; Hu, Xiao Long; Wang, Ming-Bo; Fan, Yun Liu; Zhang, Chun Yi; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Plants interact with their environment and they often flower earlier under stress conditions, but how such stress-induced flowering is regulated remains poorly understood. Here evidence is presented that the miR169 family plays a key role in stress-induced flowering in plants. The microRNA (miRNA) miR169 family members are up-regulated in Arabidopsis, maize, and soybean under abiotic stresses. Overexpression of miR169d in Arabidopsis results in early flowering, and overexpression of the miR169d target gene, AtNF-YA2, especially a miR169d-resistant version of AtNF-YA2, results in late flowering. The results suggest that the miR169 family regulates stress-induced flowering by repressing the AtNF-YA transcription factor, which in turn reduces the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), allowing for the expression of FLC target genes such as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and LEAFY (LFY) to promote flowering. It was shown that the expression of genes or miRNAs involved in the other flowering pathways, namely the photoperiod (CO), ambient temperature (SVP), ageing (miR156), and gibberelin (SOC1) pathways, was not affected in miR169d-overexpressing plants, suggesting that stress-induced early flowering is a novel signalling pathway mediated by miR169. PMID:24336445

  9. Diacylglycerol kinase regulation of protein kinase D during oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury

    SciTech Connect

    Song Jun; Li Jing; Mourot, Joshua M.; Mark Evers, B.; Chung, Dai H.

    2008-10-17

    We recently demonstrated that protein kinase D (PKD) exerts a protective function during oxidative stress-induced intestinal epithelial cell injury; however, the exact role of DAG kinase (DGK){zeta}, an isoform expressed in intestine, during this process is unknown. We sought to determine the role of DGK during oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury and whether DGK acts as an upstream regulator of PKD. Inhibition of DGK with R59022 compound or DGK{zeta} siRNA transfection decreased H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced RIE-1 cell apoptosis as measured by DNA fragmentation and increased PKD phosphorylation. Overexpression of kinase-dead DGK{zeta} also significantly increased PKD phosphorylation. Additionally, endogenous nuclear DGK{zeta} rapidly translocated to the cytoplasm following H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. Our findings demonstrate that DGK is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury. PKD activation is induced by DGK{zeta}, suggesting DGK is an upstream regulator of oxidative stress-induced activation of the PKD signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells.

  10. Condition dependent intra-individual repeatability of stress-induced cortisol in a freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Cook, K V; O'Connor, C M; McConnachie, S H; Gilmour, K M; Cooke, S J

    2012-03-01

    The glucocorticoid (GC) stress response is thought to be an individual trait associated with behaviour and life history strategies. Studies exploring such relationships typically assume measured hormone values to be repeatable within an individual. However, repeatability of GCs has proven variable in wild animals and underlying reasons remain unknown. We assessed individual repeatability of circulating stress-induced cortisol, the primary GC in teleost fish, and glucose concentrations in a wild teleost fish held under consistent laboratory conditions. We also tested the hypothesis that the magnitude of intra-individual variability in stress-induced cortisol concentrations ("cortisol variability") is influenced by body condition. Wild-caught bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) were subjected to repeated standardized stressors and blood sampled (3 times over 6 days) once cortisol concentrations peaked. Various indicators of fish condition, both whole body and physiological, were also measured. Overall, stress-induced circulating cortisol concentrations were repeatable but stress-induced glucose was not. Cortisol variability was related to Fulton's condition factor and size (eviscerated mass) where smaller fish in poor condition exhibited increased cortisol variability. The findings have implications for the interpretation of studies that examine correlates of GC concentrations as they suggest consistency in stress responsiveness is influenced by factors such as size and condition. PMID:22179071

  11. Stress-induced osteolysis of distal clavicle: imaging patterns and treatment using CT-guided injection.

    PubMed

    Sopov, V; Fuchs, D; Bar-Meir, E; Groshar, D

    2001-01-01

    Osteolysis of distal clavicle (ODC) may occur in patients who experience repeated stress or microtrauma to the shoulder. This entity has clinical and radiological findings similar to post-traumatic ODC. We describe a case of successful treatment of stress-induced ODC with CT-guided injection of corticosteroid and anesthetic drug into the acromioclavicular joint. PMID:11218026

  12. Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonism attenuates neuronal activity triggered by stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking.

    PubMed

    Schank, J R; Nelson, B S; Damadzic, R; Tapocik, J D; Yao, M; King, C E; Rowe, K E; Cheng, K; Rice, K C; Heilig, M

    2015-12-01

    Substance P (SP) and its cognate neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) are involved in alcohol-related behaviors. We have previously reported that NK1R antagonism attenuates stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking and suppresses escalated alcohol self-administration, but does not affect primary reinforcement or cue-induced reinstatement. Here, we administered an NK1R antagonist or vehicle prior to footshock-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, and mapped the resulting neuronal activation using Fos immunohistochemistry. As expected, vehicle treated animals exposed to footshock showed induction of Fos immunoreactivity in several regions of the brain stress circuitry, including the amygdala (AMG), nucleus accumbens (NAC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). NK1R antagonism selectively suppressed the stress-induced increase in Fos in the DR and NAC shell. In the DR, Fos-induction by stress largely overlapped with tryptophan hydroxylase (TrpH), indicating activation of serotonergic neurons. Of NAC shell neurons activated during stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, about 30% co-expressed dynorphin (DYN), while 70% co-expressed enkephalin (ENK). Few (<1%) activated NAC shell neurons coexpressed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), which labels the cholinergic interneurons of this region. Infusion of the NK1R antagonist L822429 into the NAC shell blocked stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. In contrast, L822429 infusion into the DR had no effect, suggesting that the influence of NK1R signaling on neuronal activity in the DR is indirect. Taken together, our results outline a potential pathway through which endogenous NK1R activation mediates stress-induced alcohol seeking. PMID:26188146

  13. Fyn is required for oxidative- and hyperosmotic-stress-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-1.

    PubMed Central

    Sanguinetti, Amy R; Cao, Haiming; Corley Mastick, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    Caveolin-1 is phosphorylated on Tyr(14) in response to both oxidative and hyperosmotic stress. In the present paper, we show that this phosphorylation requires activation of the Src family kinase Fyn. Stress-induced caveolin phosphorylation was abolished by three Src kinase inhibitors, SU6656, PP2 and PD180970, and was not observed in fibroblasts derived from a Src, Yes and Fyn triple-knockout mouse (SYF-/-). Using cell lines derived from single-kinase-knockout mice (Src-/-, Yes-/- and Fyn-/-), we show that expression of Fyn, but not Src or Yes, is required for stress-induced caveolin phosphorylation. Heterologous expression of Fyn in the SYF-/- and Fyn-/- cells was sufficient to reconstitute stress-induced caveolin phosphorylation, and overexpression of Fyn in wild-type cells induced hyperphosphorylation of caveolin. Fyn was autophosphorylated following oxidative stress, verifying activation of this kinase. Interestingly, there was a concomitant increase in the phosphorylation of Fyn on its Csk (C-terminal Src kinase) site, indicating feedback inhibition. Csk binds to phosphocaveolin [Cao, Courchesne and Mastick (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 8771-8774] and should phosphorylate any co-localized Src-family kinases. Oxidative-stress-induced phosphorylation of caveolin-1 also requires expression of Abl [Sanguinetti and Mastick (2003) Cell Signal. 15, 289-298]. Using inhibitors and cells derived from knockout mice, we verified a requirement for both Abl and Fyn in stress-induced caveolin phosphorylation in a single cell type. Our data suggest a novel mechanism for attenuation of Src-kinase activity by Abl: stable tyrosine phosphorylation of a scaffolding protein, caveolin, and recruitment of Csk. Paxillin, a substrate of both Abl and Src, organizes a similar regulatory complex. PMID:12921535

  14. Time-dependent effects of rapamycin on consolidation of predator stress-induced hyperarousal.

    PubMed

    Fifield, Kathleen; Hebert, Mark; Williams, Kimberly; Linehan, Victoria; Whiteman, Jesse D; Mac Callum, Phillip; Blundell, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated that rapamycin, a potent inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, blocks consolidation of shock-induced associative fear memories. Moreover, rapamycin's block of associative fear memories is time-dependent. It is unknown, however, if rapamycin blocks consolidation of predator stress-induced non-associative fear memories. Furthermore, the temporal pattern of mTOR activation following predator stress is unknown. Thus, the goal of the current studies was to determine if rapamycin blocks consolidation of predator stress-induced fear memories and if so, whether rapamycin's effect is time-dependent. Male rats were injected systemically with rapamycin at various time points following predator stress. Predator stress involves an acute, unprotected exposure of a rat to a cat, which causes long-lasting non-associative fear memories manifested as generalized hyperarousal and increased anxiety-like behaviour. We show that rapamycin injected immediately after predator stress blocked consolidation of stress-induced startle. However, rapamycin injected 9, 24 or 48h post predator stress potentiated stress-induced startle. Consistent with shock-induced associative fear memories, we show that mTOR signalling is essential for consolidation of predator stress-induced hyperarousal. However, unlike shock-induced fear memories, a second, persistent, late phase mTOR-dependent process following predator stress actually dampens startle. Consistent with previous findings, our data support the potential role for rapamycin in treatment of stress related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. However, our data suggest timing of rapamycin administration is critical. PMID:25746515

  15. Influenza A Virus Host Shutoff Disables Antiviral Stress-Induced Translation Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Khaperskyy, Denys A.; Emara, Mohamed M.; Johnston, Benjamin P.; Anderson, Paul; Hatchette, Todd F.; McCormick, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) polymerase complexes function in the nucleus of infected cells, generating mRNAs that bear 5′ caps and poly(A) tails, and which are exported to the cytoplasm and translated by host machinery. Host antiviral defences include mechanisms that detect the stress of virus infection and arrest cap-dependent mRNA translation, which normally results in the formation of cytoplasmic aggregates of translationally stalled mRNA-protein complexes known as stress granules (SGs). It remains unclear how IAV ensures preferential translation of viral gene products while evading stress-induced translation arrest. Here, we demonstrate that at early stages of infection both viral and host mRNAs are sensitive to drug-induced translation arrest and SG formation. By contrast, at later stages of infection, IAV becomes partially resistant to stress-induced translation arrest, thereby maintaining ongoing translation of viral gene products. To this end, the virus deploys multiple proteins that block stress-induced SG formation: 1) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) inactivates the antiviral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated kinase PKR, thereby preventing eIF2α phosphorylation and SG formation; 2) nucleoprotein (NP) inhibits SG formation without affecting eIF2α phosphorylation; 3) host-shutoff protein polymerase-acidic protein-X (PA-X) strongly inhibits SG formation concomitant with dramatic depletion of cytoplasmic poly(A) RNA and nuclear accumulation of poly(A)-binding protein. Recombinant viruses with disrupted PA-X host shutoff function fail to effectively inhibit stress-induced SG formation. The existence of three distinct mechanisms of IAV-mediated SG blockade reveals the magnitude of the threat of stress-induced translation arrest during viral replication. PMID:25010204

  16. Anxiety- and depression-like behavior in mice lacking the CD157/BST1 gene, a risk factor for Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lopatina, Olga; Yoshihara, Toru; Nishimura, Tomoko; Zhong, Jing; Akther, Shirin; Fakhrul, Azam A. K. M.; Liang, Mingkun; Higashida, Chiharu; Sumi, Kohei; Furuhara, Kazumi; Inahata, Yuki; Huang, Jian-Jung; Koizumi, Keita; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Tsuji, Takahiro; Petugina, Yulia; Sumarokov, Andrei; Salmina, Alla B.; Hashida, Koji; Kitao, Yasuko; Hori, Osamu; Asano, Masahide; Kitamura, Yoji; Kozaka, Takashi; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Zhong, Fangfang; Xie, Min-Jue; Sato, Makoto; Ishihara, Katsuhiko; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2014-01-01

    CD157, known as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1, is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ADP-ribosyl cyclase that supports the survival and function of B-lymphocytes and hematopoietic or intestinal stem cells. Although CD157/Bst1 is a risk locus in Parkinson's disease (PD), little is known about the function of CD157 in the nervous system and contribution to PD progression. Here, we show that no apparent motor dysfunction was observed in young knockout (CD157−/−) male mice under less aging-related effects on behaviors. CD157−/− mice exhibited anxiety-related and depression-like behaviors compared with wild-type mice. These behaviors were rescued through treatment with anti-psychiatric drugs and oxytocin. CD157 was weakly expressed in the amygdala and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala was less evident in CD157−/− mice than in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate for the first time that CD157 plays a role as a neuro-regulator and suggest a potential role in pre-motor symptoms in PD. PMID:24795584

  17. Rapid increase of Nurr1 mRNA expression in limbic and cortical brain structures related to coping with depression-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Patricia; Joodmardi, Eliza; Perlmann, Thomas; Ogren, Sven Ove

    2010-08-01

    The immediate-early gene Nurr1 is a member of the inducible orphan nuclear receptor family. Nurr1 is essential to the differentiation, maturation, and maintenance of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and is expressed in different brain regions. We have reported that adult mice with reduced Nurr1 expression displayed an increase in immobility response to acute stress. These mice were also deficient in the retention of emotional memory. Thus, Nurr1 expression seems to be relevant to normal cognitive processes. To investigate the response of Nurr1 to a stress stimulus, Nurr1 mRNA expression was examined by in situ hybridization in adult mice using a depression-like behavior paradigm, the forced swim test. The Nurr1 gene was rapidly and widely up-regulated throughout the brain, including cortical areas (i.e., prefrontal cortex, primary and secondary visual cortex, primary auditory cortex, and secondary somatosensory cortex), hippocampus (dentate gyrus, CA1, CA2, and CA3), and midbrain (substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area) at 30 min and 3 hr after the forced swim test. Dopamine content was reduced in prefrontal cortex and midbrain following swim stress. These results suggest that the increase in Nurr1 expression might be a compensatory mechanism to counteract the changes in forebrain dopamine transmission in coping with acute stress. PMID:20175204

  18. Social defeat and isolation induce clear signs of a depression-like state, but modest cardiac alterations in wild-type rats.

    PubMed

    Carnevali, L; Mastorci, F; Graiani, G; Razzoli, M; Trombini, M; Pico-Alfonso, M A; Arban, R; Grippo, A J; Quaini, F; Sgoifo, A

    2012-05-15

    Adverse social environments play a relevant role in the onset and progression of mood disorders. On the other hand, depression is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. This study was aimed at (i) corroborating the validity of a rat model of depression based on a negative social episode followed by social isolation and (ii) verifying its impact on cardiac function and structure. Pair housed, wild-type Groningen rats (Rattus norvegicus) were implanted with radiotransmitters for ECG, temperature and activity recordings. They were either exposed to a social defeat episode followed by 4-week isolation or left undisturbed with their female partners. The social challenge induced a series of biological changes that are commonly taken as markers of depression in rats, including decreased body weight gain and reduced preference for sucrose consumption, functional and structural changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, increased anxiety in the elevated plus maze test. The cardiovascular alterations consisted in (i) transitory heart rate circadian rhythm alterations, (ii) lack of habituation of cardiac autonomic responsivity (tachycardia and vagal withdrawal) to an acute stressor, and (iii) moderate hypertrophy affecting the right ventricle of the heart. These results indicate that a depression-like state induced via this model of social challenge was associated with a few modest cardiovascular changes. Further studies are required to confirm the validity of this rat model of depression as a valid preclinical approach to the comprehension of the biological substrates underlying depression-cardiovascular comorbidity. PMID:22330326

  19. Fetal brain 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 selectively determines programming of adult depressive-like behaviors and cognitive function, but not anxiety behaviors in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Wyrwoll, Caitlin; Keith, Marianne; Noble, June; Stevenson, Paula L.; Bombail, Vincent; Crombie, Sandra; Evans, Louise C.; Bailey, Matthew A.; Wood, Emma; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Holmes, Megan C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stress or elevated glucocorticoids during sensitive windows of fetal development increase the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders in adult rodents and humans, a phenomenon known as glucocorticoid programming. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which catalyses rapid inactivation of glucocorticoids in the placenta, controls access of maternal glucocorticoids to the fetal compartment, placing it in a key position to modulate glucocorticoid programming of behavior. However, the importance of the high expression of 11β-HSD2 within the midgestational fetal brain is unknown. To examine this, a brain-specific knockout of 11β-HSD2 (HSD2BKO) was generated and compared to wild-type littermates. HSD2BKO have markedly diminished fetal brain 11β-HSD2, but intact fetal body and placental 11β-HSD2 and normal fetal and placental growth. Despite normal fetal plasma corticosterone, HSD2BKO exhibit elevated fetal brain corticosterone levels at midgestation. As adults, HSD2BKO show depressive-like behavior and have cognitive impairments. However, unlike complete feto-placental deficiency, HSD2BKO show no anxiety-like behavioral deficits. The clear mechanistic separation of the programmed components of depression and cognition from anxiety implies distinct mechanisms of pathogenesis, affording potential opportunities for stratified interventions. PMID:26036451

  20. Disruption of the HPA-axis through corticosterone-release pellets induces robust depressive-like behavior and reduced BDNF levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Demuyser, Thomas; Bentea, Eduard; Deneyer, Lauren; Albertini, Giulia; Massie, Ann; Smolders, Ilse

    2016-07-28

    The corticosterone mouse model is widely used in preclinical research towards a better understanding of mechanisms of major depression. One particular administration procedure is the subcutaneous implantation of corticosterone slow-release pellets. In this report we want to provide basic evidence, regarding behavioral changes, neurotransmitter and -modulator levels and some other relevant biomolecules after hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis distortion. We show that three weeks of corticosterone pellet exposure robustly induces depressive-like but not anxiety-like behavior in mice, accompanied by a significant decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, at five weeks after the start of treatment. Furthermore there is an overall decrease in plasma corticosterone levels after three weeks of treatment that lasts up until the five weeks' time point. On the other hand, no differences are observed in total monoamine, glutamate or d-serine levels, nor in glucocorticoid receptor expression, in various depression-related brain areas. Altogether this characterization delivers vital information, supplementary to existing literature, regarding the phenotyping of pellet-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis disruption in mice following three weeks of continuous corticosterone exposure. PMID:27208833

  1. Xiao Yao San Improves Depressive-Like Behaviors in Rats with Chronic Immobilization Stress through Modulation of Locus Coeruleus-Norepinephrine System

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiu-Fang; Zhao, Xiao-Hua; Tao, Yang; Zhong, Wei-Chao; Fan, Qin; Diao, Jian-Xin; Liu, Yuan-Liang; Chen, Yu-Yao; Chen, Jia-Xu; Lv, Zhi-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Most research focuses on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPGA) axis systems of abnormalities of emotions and behaviors induced by stress, while no studies of Chinese herbal medicine such as Xiao Yao San (XYS) on the mechanisms of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system have been reported. Therefore, experiments were carried out to observe mechanism of LC-NE system in response to chronic immobilization stress (CIS) and explore the antidepressant effect of XYS. Rat model was established by CIS. LC morphology in rat was conducted. The serum norepinephrine (NE) concentrations and NE biosynthesis such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH), and corticotrophin-releasing-factor (CRF) in LC were determined. Results showed that there were no discernible alterations in LC in rats. The serum NE concentrations, positive neurons, mean optical density (MOD), and protein levels of TH, DBH, and CRF in model group were significantly increased compared to the control group. But XYS-treated group displayed a significantly decreased in NE levels and expressions of TH, DBH, and CRF compared to the model group. In conclusion, CIS can activate LC-NE system to release NE and then result in a significant decrease in rats. XYS treatment can effectively improve depressive-like behaviors in rats through inhibition of LC-NE neurons activity. PMID:25610478

  2. Xiao Yao San Improves Depressive-Like Behaviors in Rats with Chronic Immobilization Stress through Modulation of Locus Coeruleus-Norepinephrine System.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiu-Fang; Zhao, Xiao-Hua; Tao, Yang; Zhong, Wei-Chao; Fan, Qin; Diao, Jian-Xin; Liu, Yuan-Liang; Chen, Yu-Yao; Chen, Jia-Xu; Lv, Zhi-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Most research focuses on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPGA) axis systems of abnormalities of emotions and behaviors induced by stress, while no studies of Chinese herbal medicine such as Xiao Yao San (XYS) on the mechanisms of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system have been reported. Therefore, experiments were carried out to observe mechanism of LC-NE system in response to chronic immobilization stress (CIS) and explore the antidepressant effect of XYS. Rat model was established by CIS. LC morphology in rat was conducted. The serum norepinephrine (NE) concentrations and NE biosynthesis such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH), and corticotrophin-releasing-factor (CRF) in LC were determined. Results showed that there were no discernible alterations in LC in rats. The serum NE concentrations, positive neurons, mean optical density (MOD), and protein levels of TH, DBH, and CRF in model group were significantly increased compared to the control group. But XYS-treated group displayed a significantly decreased in NE levels and expressions of TH, DBH, and CRF compared to the model group. In conclusion, CIS can activate LC-NE system to release NE and then result in a significant decrease in rats. XYS treatment can effectively improve depressive-like behaviors in rats through inhibition of LC-NE neurons activity. PMID:25610478

  3. A Standardized Chinese Herbal Decoction, Kai-Xin-San, Restores Decreased Levels of Neurotransmitters and Neurotrophic Factors in the Brain of Chronic Stress-Induced Depressive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Ip, Siu-Po; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2012-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction being prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric disease with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness in ancient China until today. However, the mechanism of its antidepression action is still unknown. Here, the chronic mild-stress-(CMS-) induced depressive rats were applied in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment. Daily intragastric administration of KXS for four weeks significantly alleviated the CMS-induced depressive symptoms displayed by enhanced sucrose consumption. In addition, the expressions of those molecular bio-markers relating to depression in rat brains were altered by the treatment of KXS. These KXS-regulated brain biomarkers included: (i) the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (ii) the transcript levels of proteins relating to neurotransmitter metabolism; (iii) the transcript levels of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. The results suggested that the anti-depressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of neurotransmitters and expression of neurotrophic factors and its corresponding receptors in the brain. Thus, KXS could serve as alternative medicine, or health food supplement, for patients suffering from depression. PMID:22973399

  4. Adolescence fluoxetine increases serotonergic activity in the raphe-hippocampus axis and improves depression-like behaviors in female rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sang Bae; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Kim, Jin Young; Ryu, Vitaly; Kang, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to examine if fluoxetine, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, would reverse adverse behavioral effects of neonatal maternal separation in female rats. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam daily for 3h during postnatal day (PND) 1-14 (maternal separation; MS) or left undisturbed (non-handled; NH). Female NH and MS pups received intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine (10mg/kg) or vehicle daily from PND 35 until the end of the whole experimental period. Rats were either subjected to behavioral tests during PND 44-54, or sacrificed for neurochemical analyses during PND 43-45. Daily food intake and weight gain of both NH and MS pups were suppressed by fluoxetine, with greater effects in MS pups. MS experience increased immobility and decrease swimming in forced swim test. Swimming was increased, although immobility was not significantly decreased, in MS females by adolescence fluoxetine. However, adolescence fluoxetine increased immobility during forced swim test and decreased time spent in open arms during elevated plus maze test in NH females. Fluoxetine normalized MS-induced decrease of the raphe 5-HT levels and increased 5-HT metabolism in the hippocampus in MS females, and increased the hypothalamic 5-HT both in NH and MS. Fluoxetine decreased the raphe 5-HT and increased the plasma corticosterone in NH females. Results suggest that decreased 5-HTergic activity in the raphe nucleus is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression-like behaviors, and increased 5-HTergic activities in the raphe-hippocampus axis may be a part of anti-depressant efficacy of fluoxetine, in MS females. Also, an extra-hypothalamic 5-HTergic activity may contribute to the increased anorectic efficacy of fluoxetine in MS females. Additionally, decreased 5-HT in the raphe and elevated plasma corticosterone may be related with fluoxetine-induced depression- and/or anxiety-like behaviors in NH females. PMID:23010142

  5. Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Alleviates Doxorubicin-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors and Neurotoxicity in Rats: Involvement of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan-Qin; Dang, Rui-Li; Tang, Mi-Mi; Cai, Hua-Lin; Li, Huan-De; Liao, De-Hua; He, Xin; Cao, Ling-Juan; Xue, Ying; Jiang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in human malignancies. Its long-term use can cause neurobiological side-effects associated with depression. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), the essential fatty acids found in fish oil, possess neuroprotecitve and antidepressant activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the potential protective effects of ω-3 PUFAs against DOX-induced behavioral changes and neurotoxicity. ω-3 PUFAs were given daily by gavage (1.5 g/kg) over three weeks starting seven days before DOX administration (2.5 mg/kg). Open-field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST) were conducted to assess exploratory activity and despair behavior, respectively. Our data showed that ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly mitigated the behavioral changes induced by DOX. ω-3 PUFAs pretreatment also alleviated the DOX-induced neural apoptosis. Meanwhile, ω-3 PUFAs treatment ameliorated DOX-induced oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Additionally, gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and the protein levels of NF-κB and iNOS were significantly increased in brain tissues of DOX-treated group, whereas ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly attenuated DOX-induced neuroinflammation. In conclusion, ω-3 PUFAs can effectively protect against DOX-induced depressive-like behaviors, and the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect are potentially associated with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. PMID:27120616

  6. Effects of nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor or fluoxetine treatment on depression-like state and cardiovascular changes induced by chronic variable stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Jeferson; Duarte, Josiane O; Oliveira, Leandro A; Crestani, Carlos C

    2015-01-01

    Comorbidity between mood disorders and cardiovascular disease has been described extensively. However, available antidepressants can have cardiovascular side effects. Treatment with selective inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) induces antidepressant effects, but whether the antidepressant-like effects of these drugs are followed by cardiovascular changes has not been previously investigated. Here, we tested in male rats exposed to chronic variable stress (CVS) the hypothesis that nNOS blockers are advantageous compared with conventional antidepressants in terms of cardiovascular side effects. We compared the effects of chronic treatment with the preferential nNOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) with those evoked by the conventional antidepressant fluoxetine on alterations that are considered as markers of depression (immobility in the forced swimming test, FST, decreased body weight gain and increased plasma corticosterone concentration) and cardiovascular changes caused by CVS. Rats were exposed to a 14-day CVS protocol, while being concurrently treated daily with either 7-NI (30 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg). Fluoxetine and 7-NI prevented the increase in immobility in the FST induced by CVS and reduced plasma corticosterone concentration in stressed rats. Both these treatments also prevented the CVS-evoked reduction of the depressor response to vasodilator agents and baroreflex changes. Fluoxetine and 7-NI-induced cardiovascular changes independent of stress exposure, including cardiac autonomic imbalance, increased intrinsic heart rate and vascular sympathetic modulation, a reduction of the pressor response to vasoconstrictor agents, and impairment of baroreflex activity. Altogether, these findings provide evidence that fluoxetine and 7-NI have similar effects on the depression-like state induced by CVS and on cardiovascular function. PMID:26068517

  7. Effects of amycenone on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10, and depression-like behavior in mice after lipopolysaccharide administration.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wei; Zhang, Ji-chun; Dong, Chao; Zhuang, Cun; Hirota, Susumu; Inanaga, Kazutoyo; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of depression and that anti-inflammatory substances have antidepressant effects. Amycenone is obtained from extracts of the Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceum). The purpose of this study is to examine whether amycenone shows anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects in an inflammation-induced mouse model of depression. First, we examined the effects of amycenone on the serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10), after intraperitoneal administration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Oral administration of amycenone (50, 100, or 200mg/kg) markedly blocked an increase in the serum TNF-α levels after a single administration of LPS (0.5mg/kg). Furthermore, amycenone (200mg/kg) markedly increased the serum IL-10 levels by a single administration of LPS (0.5mg/kg). Next, we examined the effects of amycenone on depression-like behaviors in the tail-suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST). Pretreatment with amycenone (200mg/kg) significantly attenuated LPS (0.5mg/kg)-induced increase of the immobility time by the TST and FST, indicating antidepressant effects of amycenone. In addition, oral administration of paroxetine (30mg/kg) showed anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects in the same model. These findings suggest that amycenone has antidepressant effects in LPS-induced inflammation model of depression. Therefore, amycenone could represent a potential supplement to prevent inflammation-related depression. PMID:26150007

  8. Reduction of anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in rats after one month of drinking Aronia melanocarpa berry juice.

    PubMed

    Tomić, Mirko; Ignjatović, Đurđica; Tovilović-Kovačević, Gordana; Krstić-Milošević, Dijana; Ranković, Slavica; Popović, Tamara; Glibetić, Marija

    2016-07-13

    The treatment of mood and anxiety disorders by nutraceuticals is gaining growing awareness. Berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Black chokeberry) and their extracts, exceptionally abundant in diverse phenolic compounds, have become famous for the highest in vitro antioxidant activity among fruits and notable health benefits (e.g. anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective). This study was designed to investigate the behavioral effects of month-long unlimited consumption of Aronia master juice (AJ) and/or juice reconstruct without polyphenols (RJ), in young male rats. AJ was initially evaluated for its content of phenolic compounds by spectrophotometric assays and HPLC-DAD. Rats that were supplied with three various water concentrations of AJ and RJ, respectively: 20% + 0% (ARO group), 5% + 15% (RAJ) and 0 + 20% (PLC), were compared with those which consumed only water (CTL). Daily drinking of AJ solution was significantly elevated from the second or third week onward, which was most expressed in the ARO group. Only this group displayed behavioral variations, manifested by certain hyperactivity in open field tests and prominent reductions of anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze. The ARO rats also expressed an alleviation of depression-like behavior in forced swimming tests. These findings demonstrate the beneficial behavioral effects of the one-month-long free drinking of phenolic-rich AJ in rats (>20 ml per kg b. mass daily) that may be recognized as stimulating, anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like. The in vitro assays suggested that MAO-A/MAO-B inhibitions by the phenolic compounds of AJ might be the possible in vivo mechanisms for such behavioral actions. PMID:27273205

  9. 7-Fluoro-1,3-diphenylisoquinoline-1-amine abolishes depressive-like behavior and prefrontal cortical oxidative damage induced by acute restraint stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Pesarico, Ana Paula; Stangherlin, Eluza Curte; Mantovani, Anderson C; Zeni, Gilson; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2015-10-01

    There is a complex relationship between stressful situations and the onset of depression. 7-Fluoro-1,3-diphenylisoquinoline-1-amine (FDPI) has been reported to have an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test (FST). The aim of this study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of FDPI administered to mice before or after the acute restraint stress (ARS). The mice were submitted to the ARS for 7 h. Two treatments with FDPI (10 mg/kg) were performed: in the first treatment, the mice received FDPI 30 min before ARS (pre-treatment) and in the second treatment mice received FDPI 10 min after the ARS (post-treatment). Thirty minutes after FDPI administration, the FST and locomotor activity were carried out. ARS induced depressive-like behavior in the FST. Both treatments with FDPI were effective against the increase in immobility time in the FST.Moreover, ARS increased lipid peroxidation and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels as well as decreased catalase activity in prefrontal cortical samples of mice. Pre- and post-treatments with FDPI reduced lipid peroxidation and ROS, and post-treatment restored catalase activity. Superoxide dismutase was not altered by stress and/or FDPI. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) activities increased in the prefrontal-cortices of mice submitted to the ARS protocol and treatments with FDPI abolished this increase. Hepatic MAO activities were not altered in the livers of mice submitted to ARS and FDPI treatments. The serotonin uptake was increased in the prefrontal-cortices of mice submitted to the ARS protocol and both treatments with FDPI abolished this increase. The antidepressant-like effect of FDPI appears to involve the modulation of oxidative stress and the monoaminergic system, without inhibiting hepatic MAO activity. PMID:26074205

  10. Intracerebroventricular administration of TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis induces depression-like behavior and cognitive dysfunction in non-autoimmune mice.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jing; Chen, Christopher Holden; Stock, Ariel; Doerner, Jessica; Gulinello, Maria; Putterman, Chaim

    2016-05-01

    Fn14, the sole known signaling receptor for the TNF family member TWEAK, is inducibly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) in endothelial cells, astrocytes, microglia, and neurons. There is increasing recognition of the importance of the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway in autoimmune neurologic conditions, including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and neuropsychiatric lupus. Previously, we had found that Fn14 knockout lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice display significantly attenuated neuropsychiatric manifestations. To investigate whether this improvement in disease is secondary to inhibition of TWEAK/Fn14 signaling within the CNS or the periphery, and determine whether TWEAK-mediated neuropsychiatric effects are strain dependent, we performed intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Fc-TWEAK or an isotype matched control protein to C57Bl6/J non-autoimmune mice. We found that Fc-TWEAK injected C57Bl6/J mice developed significant depression-like behavior and cognitive dysfunction. Inflammatory mediators associated with lupus brain disease, including CCL2, C3, and iNOS, were significantly elevated in the brains of Fc-TWEAK treated mice. Furthermore, Fc-TWEAK directly increased blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, as demonstrated by increased IgG deposition in the brain and reduced aquaporin-4 expression. Finally, Fc-TWEAK increased apoptotic cell death in the cortex and hippocampus. In conclusion, TWEAK can contribute to lupus-associated neurobehavioral deficits including depression and cognitive dysfunction by acting within the CNS to enhance production of inflammatory mediators, promote disruption of the BBB, and induce apoptosis in resident brain cells. Our study provides further support that the TWEAK/Fn14 signaling pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases involving the CNS. PMID:26721417

  11. Blockade of the GLT-1 Transporter in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Induces both Anxiety and Depressive-Like Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    John, Catherine S; Sypek, Elizabeth I; Carlezon, William A; Cohen, Bruce M; Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J

    2015-01-01

    Depression has been associated with abnormalities in glutamatergic neurotransmission and decreased astrocyte number in limbic areas. We previously demonstrated that global and prefrontal cortical blockade of the astrocytic glutamate transporter (GLT-1) induces anhedonia and c-Fos expression in areas that regulate anxiety, including the central amygdala (CEA). Given the role of the amygdala in anxiety and the high degree of comorbidity between anxiety and depression, we hypothesized that GLT-1 blockade in the CEA would induce symptoms of anhedonia and anxiety in rats. We microinjected the GLT-1 inhibitor, dihydrokainic acid (DHK), into the CEA and examined effects on intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) as an index of hedonic state, and on behavior in two anxiety paradigms, elevated plus maze (EPM) and fear conditioning. At lower doses, intra-CEA DHK produced modest increases in ICSS responding (T0). Higher doses resulted in complete cessation of responding for 15 min, suggesting an anhedonic or depressive-like effect. Intra-CEA DHK also increased anxiety-like behavior such that percent time in the open arms and total entries were decreased in the EPM and acquisition of freezing behavior to the tone was increased in a fear-conditioning paradigm. These effects did not appear to be explained by non-specific changes in activity, because effects on fear conditioning were assessed in a drug-free state, and a separate activity test showed no significant effects of intra-CEA DHK on locomotion. Taken together, these studies suggest that blockade of GLT-1 in the CEA is sufficient to induce both anhedonia and anxiety and therefore that a lack of glutamate uptake resulting from glial deficits may contribute to the comorbidity of depression and anxiety. PMID:25586634

  12. A Method for Psychosocial Stress-Induced Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking in Rats.

    PubMed

    Manvich, Daniel F; Stowe, Taylor A; Godfrey, Jodi R; Weinshenker, David

    2016-06-01

    We describe a novel preclinical model of stress-induced relapse to cocaine use in rats using social defeat stress, an ethologically valid psychosocial stressor in rodents that closely resembles stressors that promote craving and relapse in humans. Rats self-administered cocaine for 20 days. On days 11, 14, 17, and 20, animals were subjected to social defeat stress or a nonstressful control condition following the session, with discrete environmental stimuli signaling the impending event. After extinction training, reinstatement was assessed following re-exposure to these discrete cues. Animals re-exposed to psychosocial stress-predictive cues exhibited increased serum corticosterone and significantly greater reinstatement of cocaine seeking than the control group, and active coping behaviors during social defeat episodes were associated with subsequent reinstatement magnitude. These studies are the first to describe an operant model of psychosocial stress-induced relapse in rodents and lay the foundation for future work investigating its neurobiological underpinnings. PMID:26257242

  13. Inonotus obliquus protects against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jong Seok; Pahk, Jung Woon; Lee, Jong Seok; Shin, Won Cheol; Lee, Shin Young; Hong, Eock Kee

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of Inonotus obliquus against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence. Pretreatment with I. obliquus scavenged intracellular ROS and prevented lipid peroxidation in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. As a result, I. obliquus exerted protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and premature senescence in human fibroblasts. In addition, I. obliquus suppressed UV-induced morphologic skin changes, such as skin thickening and wrinkle formation, in hairless mice in vivo and increased collagen synthesis through inhibition of MMP-1 and MMP-9 activities in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. Taken together, these results demonstrate that I. obliquus can prevent the aging process by attenuating oxidative stress in a model of stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:21359681

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy determines the susceptibility of melanoma cells to dabrafenib

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Chao; Zhang, Ziping; Chen, Lihong; Zhou, Kunli; Li, Dongjun; Wang, Ping; Huang, Shuying; Gong, Ting; Cheng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the deadliest skin cancers and accounts for most skin-related deaths due to strong resistance to chemotherapy drugs. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of dabrafenib-induced drug resistance in human melanoma cell lines A375 and MEL624. Our studies support that both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy were induced in the melanoma cells after the treatment with dabrafenib. In addition, ER stress-induced autophagy protects melanoma cells from the toxicity of dabrafenib. Moreover, inhibition of both ER stress and autophagy promote the sensitivity of melanoma cells to dabrafenib. Taken together, the data suggest that ER stress-induced autophagy determines the sensitivity of melanoma cells to dabrafenib. These results provide us with promising evidence that the inhibition of autophagy and ER stress could serve a therapeutic effect for the conventional dabrafenib chemotherapy. PMID:27536070

  15. The deformation units in metallic glasses revealed by stress-induced localized glass transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, L. S.; Ma, J.; Ke, H. B.; Bai, H. Y.; Zhao, D. Q.; Wang, W. H.

    2012-06-01

    We report that even in quasi-static cyclic compressions in the apparent elastic regimes of the bulk metallic glasses, the precisely measured stress-strain curve presents a mechanical hysteresis loop, which is commonly perceived to occur only in high-frequency dynamic tests. A phenomenological viscoelastic model is established to explain the hysteresis loop and demonstrate the evolutions of the viscous zones in metallic glasses during the cyclic compression. The declining of the viscosity of the viscous zones to at least 1 × 1012 Pa s when stress applied indicates that stress-induced localized glass to supercooled liquid transition occurs. We show that the deformation units of metallic glasses are evolved from the intrinsic heterogeneous defects in metallic glasses under stress and the evolution is a manifestation of the stress-induced localized glass transition. Our study might provide a new insight into the atomic-scale mechanisms of plastic deformation of metallic glasses.

  16. Immobilization stress-induced anorexia is mediated independent of MyD88.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Toru; Yamawaki, Yosuke; Kimura, Hitomi; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2016-09-01

    MyD88 is an adaptor protein for the toll-like receptor, which is involved in regulating innate immune function. Lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of toll-like receptor 4 signaling induces hypothalamic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and anorexia through MyD88. In the present study, we investigated the possible role of MyD88 in psychological stress-induced anorexia. We found that immobilization stress inhibited food intake in both wild-type mice and MyD88-deficient mice. Immobilization stress slightly increased STAT3 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus, but it was weaker than the lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in STAT3 phosphorylation. These observations suggest that the mechanisms involved in psychological stress-induced anorexia may be regulated differently from those involved in anorexia that is induced by infection. PMID:27391428

  17. Surface-Stress-Induced Phase Transformation of Ultrathin FeCo Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jian; Gong, Maogang; Dai, Qilin; Ren, Shenqiang

    2016-01-13

    Ultrathin metal nanowires have attracted wide attention becau se oftheir unique anisotropy and surface-to-volume effects. In this study, we use ultrathin Au nanowires as the templating core to epitaxially grow magnetic iron-cobalt (FeCo) shell through metal-redox with the control on their thickness and stoichiometry. Large surface-stress-induced phase transformation in Au nanowires triggers and stabilizes metastable tetragonal FeCo nanostructure to enhance its magnetic anisotropy and coercivity. Meanwhile, under illumination, plasmon-induced hotspot in ultrathin Au nanowires enables the light-control on magnetic characteristics of FeCo shell. This study demonstrates the feasibility of surface-stress-induced phase transformation to stabilize and control metastable nanostructures for enhanced magnetic anisotropy, which is one of the key properties of functional magnetic materials. PMID:26709528

  18. Stress-Induced Depressive Behaviors Require a Functional NLRP3 Inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Alcocer-Gómez, Elísabet; Ulecia-Morón, Cristina; Marín-Aguilar, Fabiola; Rybkina, Tatyana; Casas-Barquero, Nieves; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús; Ryffel, Bernhard; Apetoh, Lionel; Ghiringhelli, François; Bullón, Pedro; Sánchez-Alcazar, José Antonio; Carrión, Angel M; Cordero, Mario D

    2016-09-01

    Depression is a major public health concern in modern society, yet little is known about the molecular link between this condition and neuroinflammation. The inflammasome complex was recently shown to be implicated in depression. The present study shows the implication of NLRP3 inflammasome in animal model of stress-induced depression. Accordingly, we show here that in the absence of a NLRP3 inflammasome, prolonged stress does not provoke depressive behaviors or microglial activation in mice or dampen hippocampal neurogenesis. Indeed, NLRP3 deletion or inhibition of microglial activation impairs the stress-induced alterations associated with depression. According to these findings in animal model, the inflammasome could be a target for new therapeutic interventions to prevent depression in patients. PMID:26362308

  19. Inonotus obliquus Protects against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis and Premature Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jong Seok; Pahk, Jung Woon; Lee, Jong Seok; Shin, Won Cheol; Lee, Shin Young; Hong, Eock Kee

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of Inonotus obliquus against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence. Pretreatment with I. obliquus scavenged intracellular ROS and prevented lipid peroxidation in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. As a result, I. obliquus exerted protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and premature senescence in human fibroblasts. In addition, I. obliquus suppressed UV-induced morphologic skin changes, such as skin thickening and wrinkle formation, in hairless mice in vivo and increased collagen synthesis through inhibition of MMP-1 and MMP-9 activities in hydrogen peroxide- treated human fibroblasts. Taken together, these results demonstrate that I. obliquus can prevent the aging process by attenuating oxidative stress in a model of stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:21359681

  20. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter protein MCU is involved in oxidative stress-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yajin; Hao, Yumin; Chen, Hong; He, Qing; Yuan, Zengqiang; Cheng, Jinbo

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is a conserved Ca(2+) transporter at mitochondrial in eukaryotic cells. However, the role of MCU protein in oxidative stress-induced cell death remains unclear. Here, we showed that ectopically expressed MCU is mitochondrial localized in both HeLa and primary cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Knockdown of endogenous MCU decreases mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake following histamine stimulation and attenuates cell death induced by oxidative stress in both HeLa cells and CGNs. We also found MCU interacts with VDAC1 and mediates VDAC1 overexpression-induced cell death in CGNs. This finding demonstrates that MCU-VDAC1 complex regulates mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, which might represent therapeutic targets for oxidative stress related diseases. PMID:25753332

  1. Protective effect of stress-induced liver damage by saponin fraction from Codonopsis lanceolata.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Ho; Lee, Jaehwi; Yoo, Dae Sung; Lee, Yong Gyu; Byeon, Se Eun; Hong, Eock Kee; Cho, Jae Youl

    2009-10-01

    Saponins are valuable principles found in various herbal medicine with pharmaceutical, cosmetical and nutraceutical merits. In this study, we evaluated the protective role of saponin fraction (Cl-SF), prepared from Codonopsis lanceolata, an ethnopharmacologically famous plant in Korea, China and Japan, on water immersion stress-induced liver damage and radical generation. Cl-SF clearly decreased the up-regulated levels of serum glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase induced by water-immersed stress conditions. Furthermore, Cl-SF seemed to block the stress-induced radicals. Thus, Griess and DPPH assays revealed that Cl-SF significantly suppressed both radical generation in sodium nitroprusside-treated RAW264.7 cells and nitric oxide production in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Therefore, these results suggest that Cl-SF may be considered as a promising stress-regulatory principle with radical scavenging actions. PMID:19898808

  2. Stress-induced sensitization of cortical adrenergic receptors following a history of cannabinoid exposure

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, B.A.S.; Szot, P.; Sikkema, C.; Cathel, A. M.; Kirby, L.G.; Van Bockstaele, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    The cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2, increases extracellular norepinephrine levels in the rat frontal cortex under basal conditions, likely via desensitization of inhibitory α2-adrenergic receptors located on norepinephrine terminals. Here, the effect of WIN 55,212-2 on stress-induced norepinephrine release was assessed in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats using in vivo microdialysis. Systemic administration of WIN 55,212-2 thirty minutes prior to stressor exposure prevented stress-induced cortical norepinephrine release induced by a single exposure to swim when compared to vehicle. To further probe cortical cannabinoid-adrenergic interactions, postsynaptic α2-adrenergic receptor (AR)-mediated responses were assessed in mPFC pyramidal neurons using electrophysiological analysis in an in vitro cortical slice preparation. We confirm prior studies showing that clonidine increases cortical pyramidal cell excitability and that this was unaffected by exposure to acute stress. WIN 55,212-2, via bath application, blocked postsynaptic α2-AR mediated responses in cortical neurons irrespective of exposure to stress. Interestingly, stress exposure prevented the desensitization of α2-AR mediated responses produced by a history of cannabinoid exposure. Together, these data indicate the stress-dependent nature of cannabinoid interactions via both pre- and postsynaptic ARs. In summary, microdialysis data indicate that cannabinoids restrain stress-induced cortical NE efflux. Electrophysiology data indicate that cannabinoids also restrain cortical cell excitability under basal conditions; however, stress interferes with these CB1-α2 AR interactions, potentially contributing to over-activation of pyramidal neurons in mPFC. Overall, cannabinoids are protective of the NE system and cortical excitability but stress can derail this protective effect, potentially contributing to stress-related psychopathology. These data add to the

  3. Glutamatergic mechanisms associated with stress-induced amygdala excitability and anxiety-related behavior.

    PubMed

    Masneuf, Sophie; Lowery-Gionta, Emily; Colacicco, Giovanni; Pleil, Kristen E; Li, Chia; Crowley, Nicole; Flynn, Shaun; Holmes, Andrew; Kash, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The neural factors underlying individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress remain poorly understood. Preclinical studies demonstrate that mouse strains vary greatly in anxiety-related responses to chronic stress in a manner paralleled by differential stress-induced changes in glutamatergic signaling in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Previous work has also shown that alterations in the amygdala gene expression of the GluN1 NMDA and the GluK1 kainate receptors are associated with stress-induced alterations in anxiety-like behavior in the C57BL/6J mouse strain. Using in vivo behavioral pharmacological and ex vivo physiological approaches, the aim of the current study was to further elucidate changes in glutamate neurotransmission in the BLA caused by stress and to test the functional roles of GluN1 and GluK1 in mediating stress-related changes in behavior. Results showed that stress-induced alterations in anxiety-like behavior (light/dark exploration test) were absent following bilateral infusion of the GluK1 agonist ATPA into the BLA. Intra-BLA infusion of the competitive NMDA antagonist AP5 produced a generalized behavioral disinhibition/locomotor hyperactivity, irrespective of stress. Slice electrophysiological recordings showed that ATPA augmented BLA GABAergic neurotransmission and that stress increased the amplitude of network-dependent spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents and amplitude of GABAergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in BLA. These findings could indicate stress-induced BLA glutamatergic neuronal network hyperexcitability and a compensatory increase in GABAergic neurotransmission, suggesting that GluK1 agonism augmented GABAergic inhibition to prevent behavioral sequelae of stress. Current data could have implications for developing novel therapeutic approaches, including GluK1 agonists, for stress-related anxiety disorders. PMID:24796255

  4. Evaluation of the relationship between anxiety during withdrawal and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking.

    PubMed

    Erb, Suzanne

    2010-06-30

    The initial termination of cocaine consumption in human addicts is associated with heightened anxiety states and low levels of craving. Craving, however, tends to increase progressively over time, remains high for extended periods of time, and can be exacerbated by stressors, leading to relapse. Laboratory rats, likewise, exhibit heightened states of anxiety after withdrawal from drug, and follow a time course of cocaine seeking that parallels the time course of craving reported in humans. In addition, laboratory rats show heightened susceptibility to relapse when exposed to stressors after extended periods of withdrawal, and exhibit persistent and heightened expressions of stress-induced anxiety. The general objective of this paper is to consider the relationship between anxiety states after withdrawal from cocaine and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking in laboratory rats, and to identify the neural substrates involved. The focus of the review is on studies addressing the roles of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and noradrenaline pathways of the extended amygdala circuitry, and their direct or indirect interactions with the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, in anxiety after withdrawal from cocaine and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Furthermore, the effects of time after withdrawal from cocaine and amount of cocaine exposure during self-administration on the activity of CRF, noradrenaline, and dopamine pathways of the extended amygdala and mesocorticolimbic systems will be considered. The review will highlight how changing levels of activity within these systems may serve to alter the nature of the relationship between anxiety and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking at different times after withdrawal from cocaine. PMID:19969038

  5. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase Aggregate Formation Participates in Oxidative Stress-induced Cell Death*

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Amano, Wataru; Kubo, Takeya; Fukuhara, Ayano; Ihara, Hideshi; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Tajima, Hisao; Inui, Takashi; Sawa, Akira; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2009-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)2 is a classic glycolytic enzyme that also mediates cell death by its nuclear translocation under oxidative stress. Meanwhile, we previously presented that oxidative stress induced disulfide-bonded GAPDH aggregation in vitro. Here, we propose that GAPDH aggregate formation might participate in oxidative stress-induced cell death both in vitro and in vivo. We show that human GAPDH amyloid-like aggregate formation depends on the active site cysteine-152 (Cys-152) in vitro. In SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma, treatment with dopamine decreases the cell viability concentration-dependently (IC50 = 202 μm). Low concentrations of dopamine (50–100 μm) mainly cause nuclear translocation of GAPDH, whereas the levels of GAPDH aggregates correlate with high concentrations of dopamine (200–300 μm)-induced cell death. Doxycycline-inducible overexpression of wild-type GAPDH in SH-SY5Y, but not the Cys-152-substituted mutant (C152A-GAPDH), accelerates cell death accompanying both endogenous and exogenous GAPDH aggregate formation in response to high concentrations of dopamine. Deprenyl, a blocker of GAPDH nuclear translocation, fails to inhibit the aggregation both in vitro and in cells but reduced cell death in SH-SY5Y treated with only a low concentration of dopamine (100 μm). These results suggest that GAPDH participates in oxidative stress-induced cell death via an alternative mechanism in which aggregation but not nuclear translocation of GAPDH plays a role. Moreover, we observe endogenous GAPDH aggregate formation in nigra-striatum dopaminergic neurons after methamphetamine treatment in mice. In transgenic mice overexpressing wild-type GAPDH, increased dopaminergic neuron loss and GAPDH aggregate formation are observed. These data suggest a critical role of GAPDH aggregates in oxidative stress-induced brain damage. PMID:19837666

  6. Platelet Aggregation and Mental Stress Induced Myocardial Ischemia: Results from the REMIT Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Boyle, Stephen H.; Ortel, Thomas L.; Samad, Zainab; Velazquez, Eric J.; Harrison, Robert W.; Wilson, Jennifer; Kuhn, Cynthia; Williams, Redford B.; O’Connor, Christopher M.; Becker, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) is common in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and associated with a poorer cardiovascular prognosis. Platelet hyperactivity is an important factor in acute coronary syndrome. This study examined associations between MSIMI and resting and mental stress-induced platelet activity. METHODS Eligible patients with clinically stable IHD underwent a battery of 3 mental stress tests during the recruitment phase of REMIT (Responses of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment) study. MSIMI was assessed by echocardiography and electrocardiography. Ex vivo platelet aggregation in response to ADP, epinephrine, collagen, serotonin, and combinations of serotonin plus ADP, epinephrine, and collagen were evaluated as was platelet serotonin transporter expression. RESULTS Of the 270 participants who completed mental stress testing, and had both resting and post-stress platelet aggregation evaluation, 43.33% (N=117) met criteria for MSIMI and 18.15% (N=49) had normal left ventricular response to stress (NLVR). The MSIMI group, relative to the NLVR groups, demonstrated heightened mental stress-induced aggregation responses, as measured by area under the curve, to collagen 10 μM (6.95[5.54] vs. −14.23[8.75].; p=0.045), epinephrine 10 μM (12.84[4.84] vs. −6.40[7.61].; p=0.037) and to serotonin 10 μM plus ADP 1 μM (6.64[5.29] vs. −27.34[8.34]; p < .001). The resting platelet aggregation and serotonin transporter expression, however, were not different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that the dynamic change of platelet aggregation caused by mental stress may underlie MSIMI. While the importance of these findings requires additional investigation, they raise concern given the recognized relationship between mental stress-induced platelet hyperactivity and cardiovascular events in patients with IHD. PMID:25819856

  7. Stress-Induced Chromatin Changes: A Critical View on Their Heritability

    PubMed Central

    Pecinka, Ales; Mittelsten Scheid, Ortrun

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of stress responses has been a focus of plant research, breeding and biotechnology for a long time. Insight into stress perception, signaling and genetic determinants of resistance has recently been complemented by growing evidence for substantial stress-induced changes at the chromatin level. These affect specific sequences or occur genome-wide and are often correlated with transcriptional regulation. The majority of these changes only occur during stress exposure, and both expression and chromatin states typically revert to the pre-stress state shortly thereafter. Other changes result in the maintenance of new chromatin states and modified gene expression for a longer time after stress exposure, preparing an individual for developmental decisions or more effective defence. Beyond this, there are claims for stress-induced heritable chromatin modifications that are transmitted to progeny, thereby improving their characteristics. These effects resemble the concept of Lamarckian inheritance of acquired characters and represent a challenge to the uniqueness of DNA sequence-based inheritance. However, with the growing insight into epigenetic regulation and transmission of chromatin states, it is worth investigating these phenomena carefully. While genetic changes (mainly transposon mobility) in response to stress-induced interference with chromatin are well documented and heritable, in our view there is no unambiguous evidence for transmission of exclusively chromatin-controlled stress effects to progeny. We propose a set of criteria that should be applied to substantiate the data for stress-induced, chromatin-encoded new traits. Well-controlled stress treatments, thorough phenotyping and application of refined genome-wide epigenetic analysis tools should be helpful in moving from interesting observations towards robust evidence. PMID:22457398

  8. Stress Induced Mechano-electrical Writing-Reading of Polymer Film Powered by Contact Electrification Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Sumita; Nandy, Suman; Calmeiro, Tomás R.; Igreja, Rui; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Mechano-electrical writing and reading in polyaniline (PANI) thin film are demonstrated via metal-polymer contact electrification mechanism (CEM). An innovative conception for a non-destructive self-powered writable-readable data sheet is presented which can pave the way towards new type of stress induced current harvesting devices. A localized forced deformation of the interface has been enacted by pressing the atomic force microscopic probe against the polymer surface, allowing charge transfer between materials interfaces. The process yields a well-defined charge pattern by transmuting mechanical stress in to readable information. The average of output current increment has been influenced from 0.5 nA to 15 nA for the applied force of 2 nN to 14 nN instead of electrical bias. These results underscore the importance of stress-induced current harvesting mechanism and could be scaled up for charge patterning of polymer surface to writable-readable data sheet. Time evolutional current distribution (TECD) study of the stress-induced patterned PANI surface shows the response of readability of the recorded data with time.

  9. Knockdown of hypothalamic RFRP3 prevents chronic stress-induced infertility and embryo resorption

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, Anna C; Muroy, Sandra E; Zhao, Sheng; Bentley, George E; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Kaufer, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Whereas it is well established that chronic stress induces female reproductive dysfunction, whether stress negatively impacts fertility and fecundity when applied prior to mating and pregnancy has not been explored. In this study, we show that stress that concludes 4 days prior to mating results in persistent and marked reproductive dysfunction, with fewer successful copulation events, fewer pregnancies in those that successfully mated, and increased embryo resorption. Chronic stress exposure led to elevated expression of the hypothalamic inhibitory peptide, RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP3), in regularly cycling females. Remarkably, genetic silencing of RFRP3 during stress using an inducible-targeted shRNA completely alleviates stress-induced infertility in female rats, resulting in mating and pregnancy success rates indistinguishable from non-stress controls. We show that chronic stress has long-term effects on pregnancy success, even post-stressor, that are mediated by RFRP3. This points to RFRP3 as a potential clinically relevant single target for stress-induced infertility. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04316.001 PMID:25581095

  10. Cordyceps militaris Extract Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis and Premature Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun Myoung; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Ki Rim; Ha, Suk-Jin; Hong, Eock Kee

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the major cause of degenerative disorders including aging and disease. In this study, we investigated whether Cordyceps militaris extract (CME) has in vitro protective effects on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Our results showed that the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of CME was increased in a dose-dependent manner. We found that hydrogen peroxide treatment in HDFs increased ROS generation and cell death as compared with the control. However, CME improved the survival of HDFs against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress via inhibition of intracellular ROS production. CME treatment inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptotic cell death and apoptotic nuclear condensation in HDFs. In addition, CME prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced SA-β-gal-positive cells suggesting CME could inhibit oxidative stress-induced premature senescence. Therefore, these results suggest that CME might have protective effects against oxidative stress-induced premature senescence via scavenging ROS. PMID:25230212

  11. Phase-Dependent Shifting of the Adrenal Clock by Acute Stress-Induced ACTH.

    PubMed

    Engeland, William C; Yoder, J Marina; Karsten, Carley A; Kofuji, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal cortex has a molecular clock that generates circadian rhythms in glucocorticoid production, yet it is unclear how the clock responds to acute stress. We hypothesized that stress-induced ACTH provides a signal that phase shifts the adrenal clock. To assess whether acute stress phase shifts the adrenal clock in vivo in a phase-dependent manner, mPER2:LUC mice on a 12:12-h light:dark cycle underwent restraint stress for 15 min or no stress at zeitgeber time (ZT) 2 (early subjective day) or at ZT16 (early subjective night). Adrenal explants from mice stressed at ZT2 showed mPER2:LUC rhythms that were phase-advanced by ~2 h, whereas adrenals from mice stressed at ZT16 showed rhythms that were phase-delayed by ~2 h. The biphasic response was also observed in mice injected subcutaneously either with saline or with ACTH at ZT2 or ZT16. Blockade of the ACTH response with the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, prevented restraint stress-induced phase shifts in the mPER2:LUC rhythm both at ZT2 and at ZT16. The finding that acute stress results in a phase-dependent shift in the adrenal mPER2:LUC rhythm that can be blocked by dexamethasone indicates that stress-induced effectors, including ACTH, act to phase shift the adrenal clock rhythm. PMID:27445984

  12. The Anti-apoptotic Effect of Ghrelin on Restraint Stress-Induced Thymus Atrophy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jie Wan; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Lee, Kyung-Mi

    2016-08-01

    Thymic atrophy is a complication that results from exposure to many environmental stressors, disease treatments, and microbial challenges. Such acute stress-associated thymic loss can have a dramatic impact on the host's ability to replenish the necessary naïve T cell output to reconstitute the peripheral T cell numbers and repertoire to respond to new antigenic challenges. We have previously reported that treatment with the orexigenic hormone ghrelin results in an increase in the number and proliferation of thymocytes after dexamethasone challenge, suggesting a role for ghrelin in restraint stress-induced thymic involution and cell apoptosis and its potential use as a thymostimulatory agent. In an effort to understand how ghrelin suppresses thymic T cell apoptosis, we have examined the various signaling pathways induced by receptor-specific ghrelin stimulation using a restraint stress mouse model. In this model, stress-induced apoptosis in thymocytes was effectively blocked by ghrelin. Western blot analysis demonstrated that ghrelin prevents the cleavage of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bim, Caspase-3, and PARP. In addition, ghrelin stimulation activates the Akt and Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways in a time/dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we also revealed the involvement of the FoxO3a pathway in the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. Together, these findings suggest that ghrelin inhibits apoptosis by modulating the stress-induced apoptotic signal pathway in the restraint-induced thymic apoptosis. PMID:27574503

  13. Loss of OMA1 delays neurodegeneration by preventing stress-induced OPA1 processing in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Korwitz, Anne; Merkwirth, Carsten; Richter-Dennerlein, Ricarda; Tröder, Simon E.; Sprenger, Hans-Georg; Quirós, Pedro M.; López-Otín, Carlos; Rugarli, Elena I.

    2016-01-01

    Proteolytic cleavage of the dynamin-like guanosine triphosphatase OPA1 in mitochondria is emerging as a central regulatory hub that determines mitochondrial morphology under stress and in disease. Stress-induced OPA1 processing by OMA1 triggersmitochondrial fragmentation, which is associated with mitophagy and apoptosis in vitro. Here, we identify OMA1 as a critical regulator of neuronal survival in vivo and demonstrate that stress-induced OPA1 processing by OMA1 promotes neuronal death and neuroinflammatory responses. Using mice lacking prohibitin membrane scaffolds as a model of neurodegeneration, we demonstrate that additional ablation of Oma1 delays neuronal loss and prolongs lifespan. This is accompanied by the accumulation of fusion-active, long OPA1 forms, which stabilize the mitochondrial genome but do not preserve mitochondrial cristae or respiratory chain supercomplex assembly in prohibitin-depleted neurons. Thus, long OPA1 forms can promote neuronal survival independently of cristae shape, whereas stress-induced OMA1 activation and OPA1 cleavage limit mitochondrial fusion and promote neuronal death. PMID:26783299

  14. Stress-induced structural remodeling in hippocampus: Prevention by lithium treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Gwendolyn E.; Young, L. Trevor; Reagan, Lawrence P.; Chen, Biao; McEwen, Bruce S.

    2004-03-01

    Chronic restraint stress, psychosocial stress, as well as systemic or oral administration of the stress-hormone corticosterone induces a morphological reorganization in the rat hippocampus, in which adrenal steroids and excitatory amino acids mediate a reversible remodeling of apical dendrites on CA3 pyramidal cell neurons of the hippocampus. This stress-induced neuronal remodeling is accompanied also by behavioral changes, some of which can be prevented with selective antidepressant and anticonvulsive drug treatments. Lithium is an effective treatment for mood disorders and has neuroprotective effects, which may contribute to its therapeutic properties. Thus, we wanted to determine whether lithium treatment could prevent the effects of chronic stress on CA3 pyramidal cell neuroarchitecture and the associated molecular and behavioral measures. Chronic lithium treatment prevented the stress-induced decrease in dendritic length, as well as the stress-induced increase in glial glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) mRNA expression and the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding in the hippocampus. Lithium treatment, however, did not prevent stress effects on behavior in the open field or the plus-maze. These data demonstrate that chronic treatment with lithium can protect the hippocampus from potentially deleterious effects of chronic stress on glutamatergic activation, which may be relevant to its therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.

  15. Protective effect of Labisia pumila on stress-induced behavioral, biochemical, and immunological alterations.

    PubMed

    Kour, Kiranjeet; Sharma, Neelam; Chandan, Bal Krishan; Koul, Surrinder; Sangwan, Payare Lal; Bani, Sarang

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antistress potential of LABISIA PUMILA aqueous extract (LPPM/A003) using a battery of tests widely employed in different stressful situations. Pretreatment of experimental animals with LPPM/A003 caused an increase in the swimming endurance and hypoxia time and also showed the recovery of physical stress-induced depletion of neuromuscular coordination and scopolamine induced memory deficit. LPPM/A003 at graded doses reversed the chronic restraint stress (RST), induced depletion of CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) T lymphocytes, NK cell population, and corresponding cytokines expression besides downregulating the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone, a major stress hormone. In addition, LPPM/A003 reversed the chronic stress-induced increase in adrenal gland weight, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LP) levels and augmented the RST induced decrease in hepatic glutathione (GSH), thymus and spleen weight. Thus, we conclude that LPPM/A003 has the ability to reverse the alterations produced by various stressful stimuli and therefore restores homeostasis. PMID:20217640

  16. Stress-induced alterations of left-right electrodermal activity coupling indexed by pointwise transinformation.

    PubMed

    Světlák, M; Bob, P; Roman, R; Ježek, S; Damborská, A; Chládek, J; Shaw, D J; Kukleta, M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that experimental stress induces a specific change of left-right electrodermal activity (EDA) coupling pattern, as indexed by pointwise transinformation (PTI). Further, we hypothesized that this change is associated with scores on psychometric measures of the chronic stress-related psychopathology. Ninety-nine university students underwent bilateral measurement of EDA during rest and stress-inducing Stroop test and completed a battery of self-report measures of chronic stress-related psychopathology. A significant decrease in the mean PTI value was the prevalent response to the stress conditions. No association between chronic stress and PTI was found. Raw scores of psychometric measures of stress-related psychopathology had no effect on either the resting levels of PTI or the amount of stress-induced PTI change. In summary, acute stress alters the level of coupling pattern of cortico-autonomic influences on the left and right sympathetic pathways to the palmar sweat glands. Different results obtained using the PTI, EDA laterality coefficient, and skin conductance level also show that the PTI algorithm represents a new analytical approach to EDA asymmetry description. PMID:24359433

  17. Stress Induced Mechano-electrical Writing-Reading of Polymer Film Powered by Contact Electrification Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Sumita; Nandy, Suman; Calmeiro, Tomás R; Igreja, Rui; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Mechano-electrical writing and reading in polyaniline (PANI) thin film are demonstrated via metal-polymer contact electrification mechanism (CEM). An innovative conception for a non-destructive self-powered writable-readable data sheet is presented which can pave the way towards new type of stress induced current harvesting devices. A localized forced deformation of the interface has been enacted by pressing the atomic force microscopic probe against the polymer surface, allowing charge transfer between materials interfaces. The process yields a well-defined charge pattern by transmuting mechanical stress in to readable information. The average of output current increment has been influenced from 0.5 nA to 15 nA for the applied force of 2 nN to 14 nN instead of electrical bias. These results underscore the importance of stress-induced current harvesting mechanism and could be scaled up for charge patterning of polymer surface to writable-readable data sheet. Time evolutional current distribution (TECD) study of the stress-induced patterned PANI surface shows the response of readability of the recorded data with time. PMID:26786701

  18. Stress Induced Mechano-electrical Writing-Reading of Polymer Film Powered by Contact Electrification Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sumita; Nandy, Suman; Calmeiro, Tomás R.; Igreja, Rui; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Mechano-electrical writing and reading in polyaniline (PANI) thin film are demonstrated via metal-polymer contact electrification mechanism (CEM). An innovative conception for a non-destructive self-powered writable-readable data sheet is presented which can pave the way towards new type of stress induced current harvesting devices. A localized forced deformation of the interface has been enacted by pressing the atomic force microscopic probe against the polymer surface, allowing charge transfer between materials interfaces. The process yields a well-defined charge pattern by transmuting mechanical stress in to readable information. The average of output current increment has been influenced from 0.5 nA to 15 nA for the applied force of 2 nN to 14 nN instead of electrical bias. These results underscore the importance of stress-induced current harvesting mechanism and could be scaled up for charge patterning of polymer surface to writable-readable data sheet. Time evolutional current distribution (TECD) study of the stress-induced patterned PANI surface shows the response of readability of the recorded data with time. PMID:26786701

  19. Catecholamine Mediates Psychological Stress-Induced Colitis Through a2-Adrenoreceptor.

    PubMed

    Bai, Aiping; Chen, Jiang; Liao, Wangdi; Lu, Nonghua; Guo, Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Psychological stress has long been reported to be linked with the disease activity of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanisms of psychological stress involved in pathogenesis of IBD are still to be elucidated. We have previously shown that catecholamine participates in progression of acute colitis through a2-adrenoreceptors. The study aimed to explore the pivotal role of catecholamine in psychological stress-induced colitis. The expression of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), the rate-limiting enzyme in regulation of catecholamine synthesis, was induced in colon tissues of mice with restraint stress, indicating the association of catecholamine synthesis with psychological stress. Notably, pretreatment with RX821002, an a2-adrenoceptor antagonist, attenuated inflammatory responses of psychological stress-induced colitis. Intriguingly, DBH levels were elevated in colon tissues of patients with active IBD. The study suggests that a2-adrenoreceptors/catecholamine play pivotal role in psychological stress-induced colitis and might contribute to the development of human IBD. PMID:25867043

  20. Phase-Dependent Shifting of the Adrenal Clock by Acute Stress-Induced ACTH

    PubMed Central

    Engeland, William C.; Yoder, J. Marina; Karsten, Carley A.; Kofuji, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal cortex has a molecular clock that generates circadian rhythms in glucocorticoid production, yet it is unclear how the clock responds to acute stress. We hypothesized that stress-induced ACTH provides a signal that phase shifts the adrenal clock. To assess whether acute stress phase shifts the adrenal clock in vivo in a phase-dependent manner, mPER2:LUC mice on a 12:12-h light:dark cycle underwent restraint stress for 15 min or no stress at zeitgeber time (ZT) 2 (early subjective day) or at ZT16 (early subjective night). Adrenal explants from mice stressed at ZT2 showed mPER2:LUC rhythms that were phase-advanced by ~2 h, whereas adrenals from mice stressed at ZT16 showed rhythms that were phase-delayed by ~2 h. The biphasic response was also observed in mice injected subcutaneously either with saline or with ACTH at ZT2 or ZT16. Blockade of the ACTH response with the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, prevented restraint stress-induced phase shifts in the mPER2:LUC rhythm both at ZT2 and at ZT16. The finding that acute stress results in a phase-dependent shift in the adrenal mPER2:LUC rhythm that can be blocked by dexamethasone indicates that stress-induced effectors, including ACTH, act to phase shift the adrenal clock rhythm. PMID:27445984

  1. The Anti-apoptotic Effect of Ghrelin on Restraint Stress-Induced Thymus Atrophy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jie Wan; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Kim, Hyuk Soon

    2016-01-01

    Thymic atrophy is a complication that results from exposure to many environmental stressors, disease treatments, and microbial challenges. Such acute stress-associated thymic loss can have a dramatic impact on the host's ability to replenish the necessary naïve T cell output to reconstitute the peripheral T cell numbers and repertoire to respond to new antigenic challenges. We have previously reported that treatment with the orexigenic hormone ghrelin results in an increase in the number and proliferation of thymocytes after dexamethasone challenge, suggesting a role for ghrelin in restraint stress-induced thymic involution and cell apoptosis and its potential use as a thymostimulatory agent. In an effort to understand how ghrelin suppresses thymic T cell apoptosis, we have examined the various signaling pathways induced by receptor-specific ghrelin stimulation using a restraint stress mouse model. In this model, stress-induced apoptosis in thymocytes was effectively blocked by ghrelin. Western blot analysis demonstrated that ghrelin prevents the cleavage of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bim, Caspase-3, and PARP. In addition, ghrelin stimulation activates the Akt and Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways in a time/dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we also revealed the involvement of the FoxO3a pathway in the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. Together, these findings suggest that ghrelin inhibits apoptosis by modulating the stress-induced apoptotic signal pathway in the restraint-induced thymic apoptosis. PMID:27574503

  2. Stress-induced microvascular reactivity in normal-weight and obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Franco, Robert L; Evans, Ronald K; Mari, David C; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been shown to have profound effects on hemodynamics and neurological states in humans. Previous studies have demonstrated that obese individuals are highly susceptible to increases in tension, anxiety, and depression. However, the relationship between mental stressors and vascular fluidity in obese humans is not well understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate mental-stress-induced microvascular reactivity (excess blood flow (EBF)) in normal-weight and obese individuals. In addition, the relationships between potential vascular response modulators (heart rate (HR) and norepinephrine (NE)) and EBF were examined. Twenty-two male subjects were classified as obese (n = 12) or normal-weight (n = 10), and each subject completed a 20 min bout of acute mental stress. Our analyses demonstrate significant elevations in forearm blood flow (FBF) and EBF immediately after mental stress in both normal-weight and obese groups. HR was only correlated with EBF immediately poststress in the normal-weight group. Furthermore, stress-induced plasma NE was not associated with FBF or EBF in either group, although in the obese group, stress-induced plasma NE was associated with body mass index and percent body fat. These results suggest that microvascular reactivity after mental stress is not directly related to plasma NE in normal-weight or obese individuals. The novel results presented in this study provide a foundation for additional examination of the mechanisms involved in the effects of mental stress on microvascular reactivity. PMID:24383506

  3. Stress-induced enhancement of leukocyte trafficking into sites of surgery or immune activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Kavitha; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.

    2005-04-01

    Effective immunoprotection requires rapid recruitment of leukocytes into sites of surgery, wounding, infection, or vaccination. In contrast to immunosuppressive chronic stressors, short-term acute stressors have immunoenhancing effects. Here, we quantify leukocyte infiltration within a surgical sponge to elucidate the kinetics, magnitude, subpopulation, and chemoattractant specificity of an acute stress-induced increase in leukocyte trafficking to a site of immune activation. Mice acutely stressed before sponge implantation showed 200-300% higher neutrophil, macrophage, natural killer cell, and T cell infiltration than did nonstressed animals. We also quantified the effects of acute stress on lymphotactin- (LTN; a predominantly lymphocyte-specific chemokine), and TNF-- (a proinflammatory cytokine) stimulated leukocyte infiltration. An additional stress-induced increase in infiltration was observed for neutrophils, in response to TNF-, macrophages, in response to TNF- and LTN, and natural killer cells and T cells in response to LTN. These results show that acute stress initially increases trafficking of all major leukocyte subpopulations to a site of immune activation. Tissue damage-, antigen-, or pathogen-driven chemoattractants subsequently determine which subpopulations are recruited more vigorously. Such stress-induced increases in leukocyte trafficking may enhance immunoprotection during surgery, vaccination, or infection, but may also exacerbate immunopathology during inflammatory (cardiovascular disease or gingivitis) or autoimmune (psoriasis, arthritis, or multiple sclerosis) diseases. chemokine | psychophysiological stress | surgical sponge | wound healing | lymphotactin

  4. Secondary aerosol formation from stress-induced biogenic emissions and possible climate feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentel, Th. F.; Kleist, E.; Andres, S.; Dal Maso, M.; Hohaus, T.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Rudich, Y.; Springer, M.; Tillmann, R.; Uerlings, R.; Wahner, A.; Wildt, J.

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosols impact climate by scattering and absorbing solar radiation and by acting as ice and cloud condensation nuclei. Biogenic secondary organic aerosols (BSOAs) comprise an important component of atmospheric aerosols. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by vegetation are the source of BSOAs. Pathogens and insect attacks, heat waves and droughts can induce stress to plants that may impact their BVOC emissions, and hence the yield and type of formed BSOAs, and possibly their climatic effects. This raises questions of whether stress-induced changes in BSOA formation may attenuate or amplify effects of climate change. In this study we assess the potential impact of stress-induced BVOC emissions on BSOA formation for tree species typical for mixed deciduous and Boreal Eurasian forests. We studied the photochemical BSOA formation for plants infested by aphids in a laboratory setup under well-controlled conditions and applied in addition heat and drought stress. The results indicate that stress conditions substantially modify BSOA formation and yield. Stress-induced emissions of sesquiterpenes, methyl salicylate, and C17-BVOCs increase BSOA yields. Mixtures including these compounds exhibit BSOA yields between 17 and 33%, significantly higher than mixtures containing mainly monoterpenes (4-6% yield). Green leaf volatiles suppress SOA formation, presumably by scavenging OH, similar to isoprene. By classifying emission types, stressors and BSOA formation potential, we discuss possible climatic feedbacks regarding aerosol effects. We conclude that stress situations for plants due to climate change should be considered in climate-vegetation feedback mechanisms.

  5. Mild ammonium stress increases chlorophyll content in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Zabala, Joseba; González-Murua, Carmen; Marino, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3−) and ammonium (NH4+) are the main forms of nitrogen available in the soil for plants. Excessive NH4+ accumulation in tissues is toxic for plants and exclusive NH4+-based nutrition enhances this effect. Ammonium toxicity syndrome commonly includes growth impairment, ion imbalance and chlorosis among others. In this work, we observed high intraspecific variability in chlorophyll content in 47 Arabidopsis thaliana natural accessions grown under 1 mM NH4+ or 1 mM NO3− as N-source. Interestingly, chlorophyll content increased in every accession upon ammonium nutrition. Moreover, this increase was independent of ammonium tolerance capacity. Thus, chlorosis seems to be an exclusive effect of severe ammonium toxicity while mild ammonium stress induces chlorophyll accumulation. PMID:25853545

  6. Rat Notochordal Cells Undergo Premature Stress-Induced Senescence by High Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Chu-Hwan; Park, Eun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Study Design In vitro cell culture. Purpose The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of high glucose on premature stress-induced senescence of rat notochordal cells. Overview of Literature Glucose-mediated increase of oxidative stress is a major causative factor for the development of diseases associated with diabetes mellitus such as senescence. However, no information is available for the effect of high glucose on premature stress-induced senescence of rat notochordal cells. Methods Notochordal cells were isolated from 4-week-old rats, cultured and placed in either 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, normal control) or 10% FBS plus two high glucose concentrations (0.1 M and 0.2 M, experimental conditions) for 1 and 3 days. We identified and quantified the mitochondrial damage (mitochondrial transmembrane potential), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, such as manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase, for each condition. We also identified and quantified senescence and telomerase activity. Finally, we determined the expression of proteins related to replicative senescence (p53-p21-pRB) and stress-induced senescence (p16-pRB) pathways. Results Two high glucose concentrations enhanced the disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and excessive generation of ROS in notochordal cells for 1 and 3 days, respectively. The expressions of MnSOD and catalase were increased in notochordal cells treated with both high glucose concentrations at 1 and 3 days. The telomerase activity declined at 1 and 3 days. Two high glucose concentrations increased the occurrence of stress-induced senescence of notochordal cells by p16-pRB pathways at 1 and 3 days. Conclusions Despite compensatory expression of antioxidants, high glucose-induced oxidative stress accelerates stress-induced senescence in rat notochordal cells. This may result in dysfunction of notochordal cells, leading to accelerated premature disc degeneration. The prevention of

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha acts as a mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Ren, Feng; Zhang, Xiangying; Wang, Xinxin; Shi, Hongbo; Zhou, Li; Zheng, Sujun; Chen, Yu; Chen, Dexi; Li, Liying; Duan, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a key regulator to ameliorate liver injury in cases of acute liver failure (ALF). However, its regulatory mechanisms remain largely undetermined. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) plays an important role in a number of liver diseases. This study aimed to investigate whether PPARα activation inhibits ER stress-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, thereby protecting against ALF. In a murine model of D-galactosamine (D-GalN)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALF, Wy-14643 was administered to activate PPARα, and 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) was administered to attenuate ER stress. PPARα activation ameliorated liver injury, because pre-administration of its specific inducer, Wy-14643, reduced the serum aminotransferase levels and preserved liver architecture compared with that of controls. The protective effect of PPARα activation resulted from the suppression of ER stress-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Indeed, (1) PPARα activation decreased the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), Grp94 and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) in vivo; (2) the liver protection by 4-PBA resulted from the induction of PPARα expression, as 4-PBA pre-treatment promoted upregulation of PPARα, and inhibition of PPARα by small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment reversed liver protection and increased hepatocyte apoptosis; (3) in vitro PPARα activation by Wy-14643 decreased hepatocyte apoptosis induced by severe ER stress, and PPARα inhibition by siRNA treatment decreased the hepatocyte survival induced by mild ER stress. Here, we demonstrate that PPARα activation contributes to liver protection and decreases hepatocyte apoptosis in ALF, particularly through regulating ER stress. Therefore, targeting PPARα could be a potential therapeutic strategy to ameliorate ALF. PMID:27482818

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha acts as a mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Ren, Feng; Zhang, Xiangying; Wang, Xinxin; Shi, Hongbo; Zhou, Li; Zheng, Sujun; Chen, Yu; Chen, Dexi; Li, Liying; Zhao, Caiyan; Duan, Zhongping

    2016-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a key regulator to ameliorate liver injury in cases of acute liver failure (ALF). However, its regulatory mechanisms remain largely undetermined. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) plays an important role in a number of liver diseases. This study aimed to investigate whether PPARα activation inhibits ER stress-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, thereby protecting against ALF. In a murine model of D-galactosamine (D-GalN)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALF, Wy-14643 was administered to activate PPARα, and 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) was administered to attenuate ER stress. PPARα activation ameliorated liver injury, because pre-administration of its specific inducer, Wy-14643, reduced the serum aminotransferase levels and preserved liver architecture compared with that of controls. The protective effect of PPARα activation resulted from the suppression of ER stress-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Indeed, (1) PPARα activation decreased the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), Grp94 and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) in vivo; (2) the liver protection by 4-PBA resulted from the induction of PPARα expression, as 4-PBA pre-treatment promoted upregulation of PPARα, and inhibition of PPARα by small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment reversed liver protection and increased hepatocyte apoptosis; (3) in vitro PPARα activation by Wy-14643 decreased hepatocyte apoptosis induced by severe ER stress, and PPARα inhibition by siRNA treatment decreased the hepatocyte survival induced by mild ER stress. Here, we demonstrate that PPARα activation contributes to liver protection and decreases hepatocyte apoptosis in ALF, particularly through regulating ER stress. Therefore, targeting PPARα could be a potential therapeutic strategy to ameliorate ALF. PMID:27482818

  9. Neurotrophic Factor-α1 prevents stress-induced depression through enhancement of neurogenesis and is activated by rosiglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yong; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Murthy, Saravana R. K.; Senatorov, Vladimir; Thouennon, Erwan; Cawley, Niamh X.; Aryal, Dipendra K.; Ahn, Sohyun; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Wetsel, William C.; Loh, Y. Peng

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is often linked to stress. Whereas short-term stress is without effect in mice, prolonged stress leads to depressive-like behavior, indicating that an allostatic mechanism exists in this difference. Here we demonstrate that mice after short-term (1h/day for 7days) chronic restraint stress (CRS), do not display depressive-like behavior. Analysis of the hippocampus of these mice showed increased levels of neurotrophic factor-α1(NF-α1) (also known as carboxypeptidase E, CPE), concomitant with enhanced fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) expression, and an increase in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. In contrast, after prolonged (6h/day for 21days) CRS, mice show decreased hippocampal NF-α1 and FGF2 levels and depressive-like responses. In NF-α1-knock out mice, hippocampal FGF2 levels and neurogenesis are reduced. These mice exhibit depressive-like behavior which is reversed by FGF2 administration. Indeed, studies in cultured hippocampal neurons reveal that NF-α1 treatment directly up-regulates FGF2 expression through ERK-Sp1 signaling. Thus, during short-term CRS, hippocampal NF-α1 expression is up-regulated and it plays a key role in preventing the onset of depressive-like behavior through enhanced FGF2-mediated neurogenesis. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of this pathway, we examined, rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, which has been shown to have antidepressant activity in rodents and humans. Rosiglitazone up-regulates FGF2 expression in a NF-α1-dependent manner in hippocampal neurons. Mice fed rosiglitazone show increased hippocampal NF-α1 levels and neurogenesis compared to controls; thereby indicating the antidepressant action of this drug. Development of drugs that activate the NF-α1/FGF2/neurogenesis pathway can offer a new approach to depression therapy. PMID:25330741

  10. Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediate the upregulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and the induction of depressive-like behavior in mice in response to bacillus Calmette-Guerin.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Jason C; André, Caroline; Wang, Yunxia; Lawson, Marcus A; Szegedi, Sandra S; Lestage, Jacques; Castanon, Nathalie; Kelley, Keith W; Dantzer, Robert

    2009-04-01

    Although the tryptophan-degrading enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), is a pivotal mediator of inflammation-induced depression, its mechanism of regulation has not yet been investigated in this context. Here, we demonstrate an essential role for interferon (IFN)gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha in the induction of IDO and depressive-like behaviors in response to chronic immune activation. Wild-type (WT) control mice and IFNgammaR(-/-) mice were inoculated with an attenuated form of Mycobacterium bovis, bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Infection with BCG induced an acute episode of sickness that was similar in WT and IFNgammaR(-/-) mice. Increased immobility during the forced swim and tail suspension tests occurred in WT mice 7 d after BCG inoculation but was entirely absent in IFNgammaR(-/-) mice. In WT mice, these indices of depressive-like behavior were associated with chronic upregulation of IFNgamma, interleukin(IL)-1beta, TNFalpha, and IDO. Proinflammatory cytokine expression was elevated in BCG-infected IFNgammaR(-/-) mice as well, but upregulation of lung and brain IDO mRNA was completely abolished. This was accompanied by an attenuation of BCG-induced TNFalpha mRNA and the lack of an increase in plasma kynurenine/tryptophan ratio in the BCG-inoculated IFNgammaR(-/-) mice compared with WT controls. Pretreatment of mice with the TNFalpha antagonist, etanercept, partially blunted BCG-induced IDO activation and depressive-like behavior. In accordance with these in vivo data, IFNgamma and TNFalpha synergized to induce IDO in primary microglia. Together, these data demonstrate that IFNgamma, with TNFalpha, is necessary for induction of IDO and depressive-like behavior in mice after BCG infection. PMID:19339614

  11. Resveratrol Ameliorates the Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behavior of Subclinical Hypothyroidism Rat: Possible Involvement of the HPT Axis, HPA Axis, and Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin-Fang; Xu, Ya-Yun; Qin, Gan; Cheng, Jiang-Qun; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic disease subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is closely associated with depression-like behavior both in human and animal studies, and our previous studies have identified the antidepressant effect of resveratrol (RES) in stressed rat model. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RES would manifest an antidepressant effect in SCH rat model and explore the possible mechanism. A SCH rat model was induced by hemi-thyroid electrocauterization, after which the model rats in the RES and LT4 groups received a daily intragastric injection of RES at the dose of 15 mg/kg or LT4 at the dose of 60 μg/kg for 16 days. The rats' plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones were measured. Behavioral performance and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity were evaluated. The protein expression levels of the Wnt/β-catenin in the hippocampus were detected by western blot. The results showed that RES treatment downregulated the elevated plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration and the hypothalamic mRNA expression of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in the SCH rats. RES-treated rats showed increased rearing frequency and distance in the open-field test, increased sucrose preference in the sucrose preference test, and decreased immobility in the forced swimming test compared with SCH rats. The ratio of the adrenal gland weight to body weight, the plasma corticosterone levels, and the hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression were reduced in the RES-treated rats. Moreover, RES treatment upregulated the relative ratio of phosphorylated-GSK3β (p-GSK3β)/GSK3β and protein levels of p-GSK3β, cyclin D1, and c-myc, while downregulating the relative ratio of phosphorylated-β-catenin (p-β-catenin)/β-catenin and expression of GSK3β in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that RES exerts anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effect in SCH rats by downregulating hyperactivity of the HPA axis and regulating both the HPT axis and the Wnt

  12. Resveratrol Ameliorates the Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behavior of Subclinical Hypothyroidism Rat: Possible Involvement of the HPT Axis, HPA Axis, and Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jin-Fang; Xu, Ya-Yun; Qin, Gan; Cheng, Jiang-Qun; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic disease subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is closely associated with depression-like behavior both in human and animal studies, and our previous studies have identified the antidepressant effect of resveratrol (RES) in stressed rat model. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RES would manifest an antidepressant effect in SCH rat model and explore the possible mechanism. A SCH rat model was induced by hemi-thyroid electrocauterization, after which the model rats in the RES and LT4 groups received a daily intragastric injection of RES at the dose of 15 mg/kg or LT4 at the dose of 60 μg/kg for 16 days. The rats’ plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones were measured. Behavioral performance and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) activity were evaluated. The protein expression levels of the Wnt/β-catenin in the hippocampus were detected by western blot. The results showed that RES treatment downregulated the elevated plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration and the hypothalamic mRNA expression of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in the SCH rats. RES-treated rats showed increased rearing frequency and distance in the open-field test, increased sucrose preference in the sucrose preference test, and decreased immobility in the forced swimming test compared with SCH rats. The ratio of the adrenal gland weight to body weight, the plasma corticosterone levels, and the hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression were reduced in the RES-treated rats. Moreover, RES treatment upregulated the relative ratio of phosphorylated-GSK3β (p-GSK3β)/GSK3β and protein levels of p-GSK3β, cyclin D1, and c-myc, while downregulating the relative ratio of phosphorylated-β-catenin (p-β-catenin)/β-catenin and expression of GSK3β in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that RES exerts anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effect in SCH rats by downregulating hyperactivity of the HPA axis and regulating both the HPT axis and the

  13. m-Trifluoromethyl-diphenyl diselenide, a multi-target selenium compound, prevented mechanical allodynia and depressive-like behavior in a mouse comorbid pain and depression model.

    PubMed

    Brüning, César Augusto; Martini, Franciele; Soares, Suelen Mendonça; Sampaio, Tuane Bazanella; Gai, Bibiana Mozzaquatro; Duarte, Marta M M F; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2015-12-01

    Chronic pain and depression are two complex states that often coexist in the clinical setting and traditional antidepressants and analgesics have shown limited clinical efficacy. There is an intricate communication between the immune system and the central nervous system and inflammation has been considered a common mediator of pain-depression comorbidity. This study evaluated the effect of m-trifluoromethyl diphenyl diselenide [(m-CF3-PhSe)2], an organoselenium compound that has been reported to have both antinociceptive and antidepressant-like actions, in the comorbidity of chronic pain and depression induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) in an inflammatory approach. Mice were submitted to PSNL during 4weeks and treated with (m-CF3-PhSe)2 acutely (0.1-10mg/kg, i.g.) or subchronically (0.1mg/kg, i.g., once a day during the 3rd and 4th weeks). Both treatments prevented PSNL-increased pain sensitivity and depressive-like behavior observed in Von-Frey hair (VFH) and forced swimming (FST) tests, respectively. These effects could be mainly associated with an anti-inflammatory action of (m-CF3-PhSe)2 which reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, NF-κB and COX-2, and p38 MAPK activation that were increased by PSNL. (m-CF3-PhSe)2 also increased the BDNF levels and reduced glutamate release and 5-HT uptake altered by PSNL. Although acute and subchronic treatments with (m-CF3-PhSe)2 prevented these alterations induced by PSNL, the best results were found when (m-CF3-PhSe)2 was subchronically administered to mice. Considering the potential common mechanisms involved in the comorbidity of inflammation-induced depression and chronic pain, the results found in this study indicate that (m-CF3-PhSe)2 could become an interesting molecule to treat long-lasting pathological pain associated with depression. PMID:26025319

  14. SLC6A15, a novel stress vulnerability candidate, modulates anxiety and depressive-like behavior: involvement of the glutamatergic system.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, S; Wagner, K V; Labermaier, C; Uribe, A; Dournes, C; Balsevich, G; Hartmann, J; Masana, M; Holsboer, F; Chen, A; Müller, M B; Schmidt, M V

    2016-01-01

    Major depression is a multifactorial disease, involving both environmental and genetic risk factors. Recently, SLC6A15 - a neutral amino acid transporter mainly expressed in neurons - was proposed as a new candidate gene for major depression and stress vulnerability. Risk allele carriers for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a SLC6A15 regulatory region display altered hippocampal volume, glutamate levels, and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, all markers associated with major depression. Despite this genetic link between SLC6A15 and depression, its functional role with regard to the development and maintenance of depressive disorder is still unclear. The aim of the current study was therefore to characterize the role of mouse slc6a15 in modulating brain function and behavior, especially in relation to stress as a key risk factor for the development of mood disorders. We investigated the effects of slc6a15 manipulation using two mouse models, a conventional slc6a15 knock-out mouse line (SLC-KO) and a virus-mediated hippocampal slc6a15 overexpression (SLC-OE) model. Mice were tested under basal conditions and following chronic social stress. We found that SLC-KO animals displayed a similar behavioral profile to wild-type littermates (SLC-WT) under basal conditions. Interestingly, following chronic social stress SLC-KO animals showed lower levels of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior compared to stressed WT littermates. In support of these findings, SLC-OE animals displayed increased anxiety-like behavior already under basal condition. We also provide evidence that GluR1 expression in the dentate gyrus, but not GluR2 or NR1, are regulated by slc6a15 expression, and may contribute to the difference in stress responsiveness observed between SLC-KO and SLC-WT animals. Taken together, our data demonstrate that slc6a15 plays a role in modulating emotional behavior, possibly mediated by its impact on glutamatergic neurotransmission. PMID:26585320

  15. Enhancement of BDNF Concentration and Restoration of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Accompany Reduced Depressive-Like Behaviour in Stressed Ovariectomised Rats Treated with Either Tualang Honey or Estrogen

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rahbi, Badriya; Zakaria, Rahimah; Hassan, Asma'; Ahmad, Asma Hayati

    2014-01-01

    A possible interaction between glucocorticoids and estrogen-induced increases in brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in enhancing depressive-like behaviour has been documented. Here we evaluated the effects of Tualang honey, a phytoestrogen, and 17β-estradiol (E2) on the depressive-like behaviour, stress hormones, and BDNF concentration in stressed ovariectomised (OVX) rats. The animals were divided into six groups: (i) nonstressed sham-operated control, (ii) stressed sham-operated control, (iii) nonstressed OVX, (iv) stressed OVX, (v) stressed OVX treated with E2 (20 μg daily, sc), and (vi) stressed OVX treated with Tualang honey (0.2 g/kg body weight daily, orally). Two months after surgery, the animals were subjected to social instability stress procedure followed by forced swimming test. Struggling time, immobility time, and swimming time were scored. Serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, and the BDNF concentration were determined using commercially available ELISA kits. Stressed OVX rats displayed increased depressive-like behaviour with significantly increased serum ACTH and corticosterone levels, while the BDNF concentration was significantly decreased compared to other experimental groups. These changes were notably reversed by both E2 and Tualang honey. In conclusion, both Tualang honey and E2 mediate antidepressive-like effects in stressed OVX rats, possibly acting via restoration of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and enhancement of the BDNF concentration. PMID:24550703

  16. Enhancement of BDNF concentration and restoration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis accompany reduced depressive-like behaviour in stressed ovariectomised rats treated with either Tualang honey or estrogen.

    PubMed

    Al-Rahbi, Badriya; Zakaria, Rahimah; Othman, Zahiruddin; Hassan, Asma'; Ahmad, Asma Hayati

    2014-01-01

    A possible interaction between glucocorticoids and estrogen-induced increases in brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in enhancing depressive-like behaviour has been documented. Here we evaluated the effects of Tualang honey, a phytoestrogen, and 17 β -estradiol (E2) on the depressive-like behaviour, stress hormones, and BDNF concentration in stressed ovariectomised (OVX) rats. The animals were divided into six groups: (i) nonstressed sham-operated control, (ii) stressed sham-operated control, (iii) nonstressed OVX, (iv) stressed OVX, (v) stressed OVX treated with E2 (20  μg daily, sc), and (vi) stressed OVX treated with Tualang honey (0.2 g/kg body weight daily, orally). Two months after surgery, the animals were subjected to social instability stress procedure followed by forced swimming test. Struggling time, immobility time, and swimming time were scored. Serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, and the BDNF concentration were determined using commercially available ELISA kits. Stressed OVX rats displayed increased depressive-like behaviour with significantly increased serum ACTH and corticosterone levels, while the BDNF concentration was significantly decreased compared to other experimental groups. These changes were notably reversed by both E2 and Tualang honey. In conclusion, both Tualang honey and E2 mediate antidepressive-like effects in stressed OVX rats, possibly acting via restoration of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and enhancement of the BDNF concentration. PMID:24550703

  17. Pharmacological studies on stress-induced renin and prolactin secretion: effects of benzodiazepines, naloxone, propranolol and diisopropyl fluorophosphate.

    PubMed

    Van de Kar, L D; Lorens, S A; Urban, J H; Richardson, K D; Paris, J; Bethea, C L

    1985-10-21

    Stress-induced renin and prolactin secretion was investigated using a conditioned emotional response paradigm. Three minutes after placement in a chamber the rats received an electric shock to their feet via the grid floor, then were immediately returned to their home cage. This procedure was repeated for 3 consecutive days. On the fourth day, instead of receiving an electric shock, they were removed after 3 min and sacrificed by decapitation. Control rats were treated identically with the exception that shock was not administered at any time. There was a significant increase in plasma renin activity and prolactin level in the stressed rats. The administration of the antianxiety drugs chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg i.p.) or midazolam (0.125-2 mg/kg i.p.) blocked the stress-induced increase in prolactin levels but not the stress-induced rise in plasma renin activity. Administration of the beta-blocker propranolol (1 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited, but did not completely block, stress-induced rise in plasma-renin activity and had no effect on stress-induced prolactin secretion. The opiate antagonist naloxone (0.1-10 mg/kg i.p.) and the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor diisopropyl fluorophosphate (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) did not block stress-induced renin or prolactin secretion. It is concluded that stress-induced prolactin secretion is regulated by a benzodiazepine-mediated mechanism and that stress-induced renin but not prolactin secretion is mediated in part via beta-receptors. PMID:2994844

  18. Chronic stress-induced oxidative damage and hyperlipidemia are accompanied by atherosclerotic development in rats.

    PubMed

    Devaki, M; Nirupama, R; Yajurvedi, H N

    2013-03-01

    Although stress-induced hyperlipidemia and increased oxidative stress have been reported and implicated in etiology of atherosclerosis, experimental evidence for stress-induced atherosclerotic development concomitant with these alterations is lacking. In this study, exposure of adult male albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) to restraint for 1 h and after a gap of 4 h to forced swimming for 15 min every day for 2, 4, or 24 weeks resulted in a duration of exposure-dependent hyperlipidemia as shown by significant increases in concentrations of blood cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides and decrease in high-density lipoprotein concomitant with increased oxidative stress as indicated by decrease in hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities and increase in lipid peroxidation in the liver, kidney, and heart. These alterations were accompanied by development of fibrous layer, formation of foam cells, reduction in elastic fibers, and accumulation of Oil-Red-O-positive lipid droplets in the intima of thoracic aorta following 24 weeks of stress exposure, but not after 4 weeks. The study demonstrates for the first time that (i) chronic stress-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative damage are coupled with atherosclerotic development in rats fed with normal diet and (ii) chronic stress effects prevail even after the cessation of stress exposure as indicated by high concentration of blood cholesterol and reduced hepatic superoxide dismutase activity 20 weeks after 2 or 4 weeks of stress. This study exemplifies long-term allostatic regulation leading to a pathological state, with long-term hyperlipidemia and oxidative damage from chronic stress resulting in atherosclerosis. PMID:22894170

  19. Influence of trimebutine on inflammation- and stress-induced hyperalgesia to rectal distension in rats.

    PubMed

    Lacheze, C; Coelho, A M; Fioramonti, J; Buéno, L

    1998-08-01

    The effects of trimebutine and its major metabolite, N-desmethyltrimebutine on inflammation- and stress-induced rectal hyperalgesia have been evaluated in rats fitted with electrodes implanted in the longitudinal striated muscle of the abdomen. Intermittent rectal distension was performed before and 3 days after induction of rectal inflammation by local infusion of trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (in ethanol). Stress consisted of 2h partial restraint and rectal distension was performed before and 30min after the end of the partial restraint session. The animals were treated intraperitoneally with trimebutine or desmethyltrimebutine (5, 10 or 20mgkg(-1)) or vehicle 15min before rectal distension. Naloxone (1mgkg(-1)) or saline was injected subcutaneously before trimebutine and desmethyltrimebutine. Before treatment trimebutine at the highest dose (20mgkg(-1)) reduced the abdominal response to rectal distension for the highest volume of distension (1.6mL) whereas desmethyltrimebutine was inactive. After rectocolitis the abdominal response to rectal distension was enhanced and trimebutine at 5mgkg(-1) reduced and at 10 mgkg(-1) suppressed inflammation-induced hyperalgesia, an effect reversed by naloxone. Desmethyltrimebutine was inactive. Stress-induced hypersensitivity was attenuated or suppressed, or both, by trimebutine and desmethyltrimebutine at doses of 5, 10 or 20mgkg(-l); greater efficacy was observed for desmethyltrimebutine and the effects were not reversed by naloxone. It was concluded that trimebutine and desmethyltrimebutine are active against inflammation- and stress-induced rectal hyperalgesia but act differently. The effect of trimebutine on inflammation-induced hyperalgesia is mediated through opioid receptors. PMID:9751458

  20. Ventral hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediate stress-induced analgesia in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Zahra; Rezayof, Ameneh

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that various stressful procedures induce an analgesic effect in laboratory animals commonly referred to as stress-induced analgesia (SIA). The aim of the present study was to assess the role of ventral hippocampal (VH) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in SIA in adult male NMRI mice. The VHs of animals were bilaterally cannulated and nociceptive threshold was measured using infrared source in a tail-flick apparatus. Acute stress was evoked by placing the animals on an elevated platform for 10, 20 and 30 min. The results showed that exposure to 20 and 30 min acute stress produced analgesia, while exposure to 10 min stress had no effect on the pain response. Intra-VH microinjection of nicotine (0.001-0.1 μg/mouse), 5 min before an ineffective stress (10 min stress), induced analgesia, suggesting the potentiative effect of nicotine on SIA. It is important to note that bilateral intra-VH microinjections of the same doses of nicotine without stress had no effect on the tail-flick test. On the other hand, intra-VH microinjection of mecamylamine (0.5-1 μg/mouse) 5 min before 20-min stress inhibited SIA. However, bilateral intra-VH microinjections of the same doses of mecamylamine without stress had no effect on the tail-flick response. In addition, the microinjection of mecamylamine into the VH reversed the potentiative effect of nicotine on SIA. Taken together, it can be concluded that exposure to acute stress induces SIA in a time-dependent manner and the ventral hippocampal cholinergic system may be involved in SIA via nAChRs. PMID:25281932

  1. Overlapping Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Relapse to Opioid Use Disorder and Chronic Pain: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ghitza, Udi E.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a steeply growing number of persons with chronic non-cancer pain have been using opioid analgesics chronically to treat it, accompanied by a markedly increased prevalence of individuals with opioid-related misuse, opioid use disorders, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, admissions to drug treatment programs, and drug overdose deaths. This opioid misuse and overdose epidemic calls for well-designed randomized-controlled clinical trials into more skillful and appropriate pain management and for developing effective analgesics that have lower abuse liability and are protective against stress induced by chronic non-cancer pain. However, incomplete knowledge regarding effective approaches to treat various types of pain has been worsened by an under-appreciation of overlapping neurobiological mechanisms of stress, stress-induced relapse to opioid use, and chronic non-cancer pain in patients presenting for care for these conditions. This insufficient knowledge base has unfortunately encouraged common prescription of conveniently available opioid pain-relieving drugs with abuse liability, as opposed to treating underlying problems using team-based multidisciplinary, patient-centered, collaborative-care approaches for addressing pain and co-occurring stress and risk for opioid use disorder. This paper reviews recent neurobiological findings regarding overlapping mechanisms of stress-induced relapse to opioid misuse and chronic non-cancer pain, and then discusses these in the context of key outstanding evidence gaps and clinical-treatment research directions that may be pursued to fill these gaps. Such research directions, if conducted through well-designed randomized-controlled trials, may substantively inform clinical practice in general medical settings on how to effectively care for patients presenting with pain-related distress and these common co-occurring conditions. PMID:27199787

  2. Protective effect of Acer mono Max. sap on water immersion restraint stress-induced gastric ulceration.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Hong; Son, Hyung-U; Son, Minsik; Lee, Sang-Han

    2011-09-01

    Acer mono Max. sap (AmMs) is called 'Gol-Li-Su' or 'Go-Lo-Soe' in Korean, which means 'water beneficial to the bones'. It is reported that the sap contains several types of minerals and sugars. In particular, the calcium concentration of the sap is 36.5 times higher than that of commercial mineral water. Apart from its anti-osteoporosis effect, no reports have addressed the biological activities of AmMs against degenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether AmMs alleviates gastric ulcer-related symptoms in a stress-induced mouse model. To assess the effect of AmMs on gastric ulcer-like symptoms, we carried out a water immersion restraint (WIRE) test and found that AmMs has potential in alleviating gastric ulcers in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that the nutritional factors of the sap mitigate the gastric ulcer-related symptoms caused by stress-induced gastric lesions in mice. AmMs-treated mice exhibited a significant decrease in the ulcer index as compared to those treated with omeprazole or L-arginine. To examine one potential mechanism underlying this effect, we performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to ascertain whether molecular markers were associated with the mitigation of the gastric lesions. Epithelial and/or tissue nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was assessed to determine whether or not the genes were down-regulated dose-dependently by the sap. The levels of these enzymes were found to be lower in the tissue samples treated with AmMs compared with the levels in the control samples. These findings collectively suggest that AmMs significantly protects the gastric mucosa against WIRE stress-induced gastric lesions, at least in part, by alleviating inducible NOS and/or neuronal NOS expression. PMID:22977586

  3. Glucocorticoids mediate stress-induced impairment of retrieval of stimulus-response memory.

    PubMed

    Atsak, Piray; Guenzel, Friederike M; Kantar-Gok, Deniz; Zalachoras, Ioannis; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Meijer, Onno C; Quirarte, Gina L; Wolf, Oliver T; Schwabe, Lars; Roozendaal, Benno

    2016-05-01

    Acute stress and elevated glucocorticoid hormone levels are well known to impair the retrieval of hippocampus-dependent 'declarative' memory. Recent findings suggest that stress might also impair the retrieval of non-hippocampal memories. In particular, stress shortly before retention testing was shown to impair the retrieval of striatal stimulus-response associations in humans. However, the mechanism underlying this stress-induced retrieval impairment of non-hippocampal stimulus-response memory remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated whether an acute elevation in glucocorticoid levels mediates the impairing effects of stress on retrieval of stimulus-response memory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on a stimulus-response task in an eight-arm radial maze until they learned to associate a stimulus, i.e., cue, with a food reward in one of the arms. Twenty-four hours after successful acquisition, they received a systemic injection of vehicle, corticosterone (1mg/kg), the corticosterone-synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (35mg/kg) or were left untreated 1h before retention testing. We found that the corticosterone injection impaired the retrieval of stimulus-response memory. We further found that the systemic injection procedure per se was stressful as the vehicle administration also increased plasma corticosterone levels and impaired the retrieval of stimulus-response memory. However, memory retrieval was not impaired when rats were tested 2min after the systemic vehicle injection, before any stress-induced elevation in corticosterone levels had occurred. Moreover, metyrapone treatment blocked the effect of injection stress on both plasma corticosterone levels and memory retrieval impairment, indicating that the endogenous corticosterone response mediates the stress-induced memory retrieval impairment. None of the treatments affected rats' locomotor activity or motivation to search for the food reward within the maze. These findings show that stress

  4. Stress-induced breakdown of intestinal barrier function in the rat: reversal by wood creosote.

    PubMed

    Kuge, Tomoo; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Sokabe, Masahiro

    2006-07-24

    Our previous studies demonstrated that wood creosote (Seirogan) inhibits intestinal secretion and normalizes the transport of electrolytes and water in rats subjected to restraint stress. The goal of the present study was to examine whether wood creosote has a protective effect agai