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Sample records for milde ryszard przeweda

  1. Mild balanoposthitis.

    PubMed Central

    Fornasa, C V; Calabrŏ, A; Miglietta, A; Tarantello, M; Biasinutto, C; Peserico, A

    1994-01-01

    AIM--To identify and study cases of mild balanoposthitis (MBP) with penile pathology among patients observed at a dermatology clinic over an 18-month period. MATERIALS--The study included 321 patients with penile pathology. The term MBP was used to describe balanoposthitis of a localised, inflammatory nature with few, non-specific symptoms and a tendency to become chronic or recur. Two hundred and seventy had diseases clearly identifiable by clinical examination or laboratory tests; 51 cases were diagnosed as MBP and these patients had blood tests (to evaluate immune status) and microbiological examination; when these proved negative, a series of patch tests was also used. RESULTS--Of the 51 patients diagnosed as having MBP, the cause was ascertained in 34 cases (infection, mechanical trauma, contact irritation, contact allergy, etc.), whereas no specific aetiological factor was detected to explain the symptoms in the remaining 17 cases. PMID:8001949

  2. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Portfolio (IADRP) AMP-AD Detecting Cognitive Impairment Database ... Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition in which people have more memory or other thinking problems than normal for their ...

  3. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... other people their age. This condition is called mild cognitive impairment, or MCI. People with MCI can take care of themselves and do their normal activities. MCI memory problems may include Losing things often Forgetting ...

  4. Cognitive Processing in Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Poteet, James A.

    Research regarding the cognitive processing of students with learning disabilities, mild mental handicap, and emotional handicap is reviewed. In considering cognitive processing for students with mild mental handicap, research attention has been directed to the issues of memory and learning, acquisition and retrieval deficits, inefficient…

  5. Educating Students with Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.; And Others

    The book contains 19 papers from the journal, "Focus on Exceptional Children," that discuss new perspectives and practices in educating students with mild disabilities. The first half of the book is titled "New Perspectives" and includes the following articles: "Beyond the Regular Education Initiative/Inclusion and the Resource Room Controversy"…

  6. "White Privilege": A Mild Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    White privilege analysis has been influential in philosophy of education. I offer some mild criticisms of this largely salutary direction--its inadequate exploration of its own normative foundations, and failure to distinguish between "spared injustice", "unjust enrichment" and "non-injustice-related" privileges; its inadequate exploration of the…

  7. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Derting, T.M.

    1988-07-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  8. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

    1988-02-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1-Test Plan; Task 2-Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3-Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4-Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  9. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Williams, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  10. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

    1987-11-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  11. Mild coal gasification: Product separation

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.; Singleton, M.F.

    1992-08-04

    Our general objective is to further the development of efficient continuous mild coal gasification processes. The research this year has been focused on product separation problems and particularly the problem of separating entrained ultra-fine particles from the chemically reactive environment of the product gas stream. Specifically, the objective of the present work has been to study candidate barrier filters for application to mild coal gasification processes. Our approach has been to select the most promising existing designs, to develop a design of our own and to test the designs in our bench-scale gasification apparatus. As a first step towards selection of the most promising barrier filter we have determined coking rates on several candidate filter media.

  12. Memory dysfunction in mild aphasics.

    PubMed

    Rönnberg, J; Larsson, C; Fogelsjöö, A; Nilsson, L G; Lindberg, M; Angquist, K A

    1996-03-01

    The effect of mild aphasia (n = 9), as a result of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), was evaluated against one matched (sex, age, and education) control group suffering from SAH of unknown origin without aphasia, and against one matched healthy control group. According to aphasia testing (Reinvang & Engvik, 1980), criteria for a classical diagnosis were not met. Therefore, the patients were characterized as mild aphasics: They generally displayed intact audo-verbal comprehension and repetition abilities, and they demonstrated a fluent, spontaneous speech. However, they showed phonemic and semantic paraphasias, with self-corrections; a few patients displayed alexia and agraphia. Memory performance of these three groups was evaluated by a neuropsychological test battery, designed to tap various components of verbal memory function. From the results it was concluded that: (a) Short-term memory is impaired, as regards the phonological loop and the central executive in working memory, whereas maintenance rehearsal is unaffected, given that the demands on phonological coding is minimized, (b) long-term memory is also generally impaired, whereas long-term learning and forgetting by means of subject-performed tasks proceeds within a normal range. Impairments were hypothesized to reflect less efficient central executive functions of working memory, involving generation of less appropriate semantic codes and phonological representations, (c) mildly aphasic patients are not subjectively aware of their own memory deficits, and (d) aphasia classification by means of standard procedures do not sufficiently characterize the nature of a mildy aphasic patient's memory problems. PMID:8900819

  13. Mild Hypertransaminasemia in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busafi, Said A.; Hilzenrat, Nir

    2013-01-01

    The liver enzymes, alanine transaminase (ALT) or aspartate transaminase (AST), are commonly used in clinical practice as screening as well as diagnostic tests for liver diseases. ALT is more specific for liver injury than AST and has been shown to be a good predictor of liver related and all-cause mortality. Asymptomatic mild hypertransaminasemia (i.e., less than five times normal) is a common finding in primary care and this could be attributed to serious underlying condition or has transient and benign cause. Unfortunately, there are no good literatures available on the cost-effectiveness of evaluating patients with asymptomatic mild hypertransaminasemia. However, if the history and physical examination do not suggest a clear cause, a stepwise approach should be initiated based on pretest probability of the underlying liver disease. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is becoming the most common cause of mild hypertransaminasemia worldwide. Other causes include alcohol abuse, medications, and hepatitis B and C. Less common causes include hemochromatosis, α1-antitrypsin deficiency, autoimmune hepatitis, and Wilson's disease. Nonhepatic causes such as celiac disease, thyroid, and muscle disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Referral to a specialist and a possible liver biopsy should be considered if persistent hypertransaminasemia for six months or more of unclear etiology.

  14. Myocardial protection with mild hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Tissier, Renaud; Ghaleh, Bijan; Cohen, Michael V; Downey, James M; Berdeaux, Alain

    2012-05-01

    Mild hypothermia, 32-35° C, is very potent at reducing myocardial infarct size in rabbits, dogs, sheep, pigs, and rats. The benefit is directly related to reduction in normothermic ischaemic time, supporting the relevance of early and rapid cooling. The cardioprotective effect of mild hypothermia is not limited to its recognized reduction of infarct size, but also results in conservation of post-ischaemic contractile function, prevention of no-reflow or microvascular obstruction, and ultimately attenuation of left ventricular remodelling. The mechanism of the anti-infarct effect does not appear to be related to diminished energy utilization and metabolic preservation, but rather to survival signalling that involves either the extracellular signal-regulated kinases and/or the Akt/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways. Initial clinical trials of hypothermia in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were disappointing, probably because cooling was too slow to shorten normothermic ischaemic time appreciably. New approaches to more rapid cooling have recently been described and may soon be available for clinical use. Alternatively, it may be possible to pharmacologically mimic the protection provided by cooling soon after the onset of ischaemia with an activator of mild hypothermia signalling, e.g. extracellular signal-regulated kinase activator, that could be given by emergency medical personnel. Finally, the protection afforded by cooling can be added to that of pre- and post-conditioning because their mechanisms differ. Thus, myocardial salvage might be greatly increased by rapidly cooling patients as soon as possible and then giving a pharmacological post-conditioning agent immediately prior to reperfusion. PMID:22131353

  15. Mild traumatic brain injury in a gymnast.

    PubMed

    Knight, Debra; Dewitt, Rachel; Moser, Sharon

    2016-07-01

    Primary care providers often are responsible for the initial evaluation and management plan of young patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mild TBI, also called concussion), and need to be familiar with new protocols and how to incorporate them into a patient's treatment plan. This article describes a patient who suffered a mild TBI and returned to sports too early, and discusses the appropriate protocols for managing concussion in children. PMID:27351644

  16. Evaluation of mild skin cleansers.

    PubMed

    Wortzman, M S

    1991-01-01

    Each person makes the decision of how best to care for his or her own skin. Among the prime concerns, especially for facial skin, is the type of dirt, debris, or make-up to be removed. In most cases, all products do an adequate job in the removal of dirt; if not, the washing techniques can be modified to accomplish the task at hand. What cannot be controlled are the adverse side effects inherent in the use of that product. These adverse properties include damages to the barrier function of the skin; increased susceptibility to environmental sources of irritation and sensitization; frank irritation responses, such as erythema and edema; and reduction of the cosmetic qualities of the skin, such as degree of moisture and smoothness. Part of the problem is that most of these changes are subtle, occurring slowly over time. Often, the association of these problems with the use of a particular facial cleansing regimen is overlooked. The typical woman uses as many as 10 to 15 facial cosmetic and cleansing products each day, making the identification of a problem even more difficult. It is important to identify the risks associated with individual products and with product categories in general. Although the identification of a safe group of products to use for facial cleansing is desirable, the results of this investigation indicate that there are no simple answers. It has been assumed that because moisturizing cream formulations are routinely safe and mild in general use, a cleansing product in the same general form would share these attributes. We can see from the results in Table 2 and Figures 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9 that cleansing creams are not uniformly superior to cleansing bars in the key attributes that are used to evaluate mildness. In each evaluation there were individual cleansing creams that demonstrated statistically weaker performance than did cleansing bars in general. As a group, cleansing creams did well in the cosmetic categories of dryness and texture but

  17. [Mild brain injuries in emergency medicine].

    PubMed

    Liimatainen, Suvi; Niskakangas, Tero; Ohman, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostics and correct classification of mild brain injuries is challenging. Problems caused by insufficient documentation at the acute phase become more obvious in situations in which legal insurance issues are to be considered. A small proportion of patients with mild brain injury suffer from prolonged symptoms. Medical recording and classification of the brain injury at the initial phase should therefore be carried out in a structured manner. The review deals with the diagnostic problems of mild brain injuries and presents a treatment protocol for adult patients at the acute phase, aiming at avoiding prolonged problems. PMID:22238915

  18. Kids with Mild Asthma Can Take Acetaminophen

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160475.html Kids With Mild Asthma Can Take Acetaminophen: Study Finding counters past research ... 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Acetaminophen does not worsen asthma symptoms in young children, a new study finds. ...

  19. Mild Air Pollution of Concern in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158558.html Mild Air Pollution of Concern in Pregnancy Study found risk for ... Being exposed to just a small amount of air pollution during pregnancy ups the risk of a pregnancy ...

  20. Mild Air Pollution of Concern in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158558.html Mild Air Pollution of Concern in Pregnancy Study found risk for ... Being exposed to just a small amount of air pollution during pregnancy ups the risk of a pregnancy ...

  1. Treatment Alternatives Following Mild Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novack, Thomas A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses treatment alternatives which may alleviate problems in recovery following mild head injury, including providing education, cognitive stimulation, stress management training, individual counseling, group discussion, and physical activity in a day treatment setting. (Author/ABL)

  2. Classification and management of mild head trauma

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Almir F; Paiva, Wellingson S; Soares, Matheus S; De Amorim, Robson LO; Tavares, Wagner M; Teixeira, Manoel J

    2011-01-01

    Mild head trauma had been defined in patients with direct impact or deceleration effect admitted with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13–15. It is one of the most frequent causes of morbidity in emergency medicine. Although common, several controversies persist about its clinical management. In this paper, we describe the Brazilian guidelines for mild head trauma, based on a critical review of the relevant literature. PMID:21475628

  3. Automatic Prosodic Analysis to Identify Mild Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Moreira, Eduardo; Torres-Boza, Diana; Kairuz, Héctor Arturo; Ferrer, Carlos; Garcia-Zamora, Marlene; Espinoza-Cuadros, Fernando; Hernandez-Gómez, Luis Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory technique to identify mild dementia by assessing the degree of speech deficits. A total of twenty participants were used for this experiment, ten patients with a diagnosis of mild dementia and ten participants like healthy control. The audio session for each subject was recorded following a methodology developed for the present study. Prosodic features in patients with mild dementia and healthy elderly controls were measured using automatic prosodic analysis on a reading task. A novel method was carried out to gather twelve prosodic features over speech samples. The best classification rate achieved was of 85% accuracy using four prosodic features. The results attained show that the proposed computational speech analysis offers a viable alternative for automatic identification of dementia features in elderly adults. PMID:26558287

  4. Automatic Prosodic Analysis to Identify Mild Dementia.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Moreira, Eduardo; Torres-Boza, Diana; Kairuz, Héctor Arturo; Ferrer, Carlos; Garcia-Zamora, Marlene; Espinoza-Cuadros, Fernando; Hernandez-Gómez, Luis Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory technique to identify mild dementia by assessing the degree of speech deficits. A total of twenty participants were used for this experiment, ten patients with a diagnosis of mild dementia and ten participants like healthy control. The audio session for each subject was recorded following a methodology developed for the present study. Prosodic features in patients with mild dementia and healthy elderly controls were measured using automatic prosodic analysis on a reading task. A novel method was carried out to gather twelve prosodic features over speech samples. The best classification rate achieved was of 85% accuracy using four prosodic features. The results attained show that the proposed computational speech analysis offers a viable alternative for automatic identification of dementia features in elderly adults. PMID:26558287

  5. Bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia following mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, N; Veerarajkumar, N; Madeswaran, K

    2001-05-01

    A 7-year-old child presented with bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) following a trivial head injury. CT was normal. MRI revealed a pontine lesion. Two months after the injury the patient was neurologically normal. INO following head injury is rare. Rarer still is INO following mild head injury. To date, only four cases of INO had been reported following mild head injury; the present case is the fifth and the first in which the lesion was documented using MRI. The relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:11417420

  6. Mild fetal hydronephrosis indicating vesicoureteric reflux.

    PubMed Central

    Marra, G; Barbieri, G; Moioli, C; Assael, B M; Grumieri, G; Caccamo, M L

    1994-01-01

    The management of neonates with mild hydronephrosis diagnosed antenatally is still debated. Although some of these infants are normal, it is recognised that others will have mild obstruction of the ureteropelvic junction or vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). A prospective study was performed in all newborn infants with an antenatal diagnosis of mild hydronephrosis (47 babies, 62 kidneys) born over a two year period in order to assess the frequency of VUR. Voiding cystography in 14 patients with 21 renal units showed VUR. Two patients underwent surgery and the VUR resolved; the other 12 received medical treatment. Repeat cystography was scheduled for 12-18 months later, when a high rate of spontaneous cure was observed. The remaining patients were monitored by ultrasonography but only in one case did hydronephrosis deteriorate because of the presence of severe ureteropelvic junction obstruction. It is concluded that mild dilatation of the pelvis might be an expression of a potentially severe malformation such as VUR, and a careful follow up of these cases is mandatory. Images PMID:7802758

  7. Learning Strategies for Adolescents with Mild Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Koman, Kara; Schibelka, Mary; Higgin, Karen; Cooper, Cody; Butler, Jordyn

    2013-01-01

    Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…

  8. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Facilitating School Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hux, Karen; Hacksley, Carolyn

    1996-01-01

    A case study is used to demonstrate the effects of mild traumatic brain injury on educational efforts. Discussion covers factors complicating school reintegration, ways to facilitate school reintegration, identification of cognitive and behavioral consequences, minimization of educators' discomfort, reintegration program design, and family…

  9. Mortality associated with mild, untreated xerophthalmia.

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, A

    1983-01-01

    The high mortality rate among children with severe corneal xerophthalmia is well recognized. The present study investigates, for the first time, mortality among the very much larger number of otherwise healthy free-living children with mild xerophthalmia (night blindness and Bitot's spots). An average of 3481 children (under 6 years of age) living in six Indonesian villages were reexamined by an ophthalmologist, pediatrician, and nutritionist every 3 months for 18 months. The overall prevalence of mild xerophthalmia was 4.9%. During the 18 months of observation, 132 children died. Of these, 24 had mild xerophthalmia and 108 had normal eyes at the 3-monthly examination preceding their death. Mortality rates were calculated for each 3-month interval by classifying all children by their ocular status at the start of the interval, and then dividing the number of deaths within the interval by the number of children of the same ocular status followed up for that interval. Mortality rates for the six 3-month intervals were then added together, and the results expressed as deaths per 1000 "child-intervals" of follow-up. Overall mortality rates for children with mild xerophthalmia and for children with normal eyes were 23.3 and 5.3, respectively, a ratio of 4 to 1. Excess mortality among the mildly xerophthalmic children increased with the severity of their xerophthalmia. Mortality rates for children with night blindness, with Bitot's spots, and with the two conditions concurrently were 2.7, 6.6, and 8.6 times the mortality rate of non-xerophthalmic children. This direct, almost linear relation between mortality and the severity of mild xerophthalmia was still present after standardizing for age and for the presence or absence of respiratory infection and protein-energy malnutrition. In the population studied, 16% of all deaths in children 1 to 6 years of age were directly related to vitamin A deficiency identified by the presence of mild xerophthalmia. These results

  10. The ENCOAL Mild Gasification Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The DOE plans to enter into a Cooperative Agreement with ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, for the cost-shared design, construction and operation of a mild gasification facility based on Liquids-from-Coal (LFC) technology. The facility is planned to be located at the Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The mild gasification process to be demonstrated will produce two new, low-sulfur fuel forms (a solid and a liquid) from subbituminous coal. The new fuel forms would be suitable for combustion in commercial, industrial, and utility boilers. This environmental assessment has been prepared by the DOE to comply with the requirements of the NEPA. Pollutant emissions, land use, water, and waste management are briefly discussed. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. [Nonsurgical management of mild primary hyperparathyroidism].

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism(PHPT)is one of the common endocrine disorders, which results clinically in nephrolithiasis, osteoporosis, muscle weakness, cardiac and psychiatric abnormalities even in a mild or asymptomatic disease. Parathyroidectomy(PTX)is the only definitive treatment for PHPT, however, some patients with sporadic PHPT refuse surgery, are medically unfit, or have residual or recurrent disease inaccessible to further surgery. These patients may require intervention for management of symptomatic or moderate to severe hypercalcemia, bone loss or kidney calculi. PMID:27230840

  12. Disposable baby wipes: efficacy and skin mildness.

    PubMed

    Odio, M; Streicher-Scott, J; Hansen, R C

    2001-04-01

    The results of a series of four clinical studies demonstrated that disposable baby wipes were milder to the skin than use of a cotton washcloth and water, recognized as a "gold standard" for skin mildness. Importantly, the baby wipes caused no significant change from the baseline value in any of the skin parameters examined. This observation verified that the test wipes are minimally disruptive to the epidermal barrier and thus suitable for use on intact or compromised, irritated skin. PMID:11917305

  13. Perinatal Risk Factors for Mild Motor Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Beth; Kendall, Garth; Larkin, Dawne; Parker, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of mild motor disability (MMD) is a complex issue and as yet is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of perinatal risk factors in a cohort of 10-year-old boys and girls with (n = 362) and without (n = 1193) MMD. Among the males with MMD there was a higher prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage,…

  14. Subacute to chronic mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mott, Timothy F; McConnon, Michael L; Rieger, Brian P

    2012-12-01

    Although a universally accepted definition is lacking, mild traumatic brain injury and concussion are classified by transient loss of consciousness, amnesia, altered mental status, a Glasgow Coma Score of 13 to 15, and focal neurologic deficits following an acute closed head injury. Most patients recover quickly, with a predictable clinical course of recovery within the first one to two weeks following traumatic brain injury. Persistent physical, cognitive, or behavioral postconcussive symptoms may be noted in 5 to 20 percent of persons who have mild traumatic brain injury. Physical symptoms include headaches, dizziness, and nausea, and changes in coordination, balance, appetite, sleep, vision, and hearing. Cognitive and behavioral symptoms include fatigue, anxiety, depression, and irritability, and problems with memory, concentration and decision making. Women, older adults, less educated persons, and those with a previous mental health diagnosis are more likely to have persistent symptoms. The diagnostic workup for subacute to chronic mild traumatic brain injury focuses on the history and physical examination, with continuing observation for the development of red flags such as the progression of physical, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms, seizure, progressive vomiting, and altered mental status. Early patient and family education should include information on diagnosis and prognosis, symptoms, and further injury prevention. Symptom-specific treatment, gradual return to activity, and multidisciplinary coordination of care lead to the best outcomes. Psychiatric and medical comorbidities, psychosocial issues, and legal or compensatory incentives should be explored in patients resistant to treatment. PMID:23198672

  15. Mild Appendicitis Complication Rates Similar for Surgery, Antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Mild Appendicitis Complication Rates Similar for Surgery, Antibiotics Decision not to operate might be matter of ... 25, 2016 FRIDAY, March 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Antibiotics can be used to treat mild appendicitis, but ...

  16. The Relationship of Mild Depression to Stress and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolenc, Koleen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated relationship of mild depression, stress, and coping based on Lazarus's model of stress and coping. Examined two coping styles (problem and emotion focused), two measures of stress, and mild depression in college students (N=227). Found mildly depressed persons relied more on emotion-focused coping and experience more stress than did…

  17. Writing Impairments in Japanese Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Atsuko; Nomura, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Ruriko; Ohnuma, Ayumu; Kimpara, Teiko; Suzuki, Kyoko; Mori, Etsuro

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji). Methods A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task. Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks. Results For the written Kanji words, the mild AD group performed worse than the aMCI group and the controls, but there was no difference between the aMCI group and the controls. For the picture story writing task, the mild AD and aMCI groups performed worse than the controls, but the difference between the AD and the aMCI groups was not significant. Conclusions The mild AD group showed defects in writing Kanji characters, and the aMCI group showed impairments in narrative writing. Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients. PMID:26483830

  18. Mild hypoglycaemia and questionnaire measures of aggression.

    PubMed

    Benton, D; Kumari, N; Brain, P F

    1982-01-01

    A glucose-tolerance test was given to a group of males who did not have a history involving aggressive behaviour or abnormal glucose metabolism. In these subjects a significant correlation was found between the tendency to become mildly hypoglycaemic and scores on the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory and the Rosenzweig Picture Frustration Study. A factor analysis of the data found that both scores on the aggression questionnaires and the measure of hypoglycaemia were similarly weighted. These results extent to normal subjects the finding that there is a relationship between hypoglycaemia and aggressiveness, a result previously found in psychiatric patients. PMID:7104424

  19. Mild cognitive impairment is becoming more psychosocial.

    PubMed

    Verhey, Frans; de Vugt, Marjolein

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have underlined the need for more studies of early psychosocial interventions for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia (Moniz-Cook, Vernooij-Dassen, Woods, & Orrell, 2011 ). In the last 10 years, MCI has become more 'psychosocial' and a starting point for professionals to help patients and their nearest ones to deal with their handicaps, to cope with a future that is insecure and gloomy, and to get prepared for the possibility of further decline and dependency. It is timely that Aging & Mental Health is devoting this paper, a special section in this issue with contributions dealing with psychological and social aspects of MCI. PMID:23402425

  20. Mild Neurocognitive Disorder: An Old Wine in a New Bottle

    PubMed Central

    Stokin, Gorazd B.; Krell-Roesch, Janina; Petersen, Ronald C.; Geda, Yonas E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The American Psychiatric Association has recently published the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The DSM-IV category “Dementia, Delirium, Amnestic, and Other Cognitive Disorders” has undergone extensive revision. DSM-5 has renamed this category as “Neurocognitive Disorders” (NCD), which now covers three entities: delirium, major NCD, and mild NCD. The DSM-IV version of mild NCD resembles the DSM-5 version in name only. DSM-IV defined mild NCD based on a single criterion, whereas DSM-5 defines mild NCD by using several cognitive and related criteria. The main difference between mild NCD and the Key International Symposium criteria of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is that the research work that led to the construct of MCI primarily involved elderly study participants (even though age was not part of the definition of MCI), whereas mild NCD includes acquired cognitive disorders of all age groups. DSM-5 essentially discusses the epidemiology and diagnostic markers of mild NCD by drawing congruence between MCI and mild NCD. The DSM-5 definition of mild NCD is anchored on four criteria and two specifiers. The four criteria refer to cognitive changes, functional activities, and exclusion of delirium and competing mental disorders. The two specifiers are the presumed etiologies of mild NCD and the presence or absence of behavioral problems. While the category “mild NCD” may improve reliability of diagnoses, it has yet to withstand scientific scrutiny to be considered a valid construct. This article reviews the DSM-5 criteria for mild NCD, compares them with the Key International Symposium MCI criteria, and discusses the pros and cons of the mild NCD construct. PMID:26332219

  1. Endothelial dysfunction and atherothrombosis in mild hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Norbert; Keller, Christiane; Hoffmann, Ulrich; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2002-08-01

    Mildly elevated plasma homocysteine levels are an independent risk factor for atherothrombotic vascular disease in the coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral arterial circulation. Endothelial dysfunction as manifested by impaired endothelium-dependent regulation of vascular tone and blood flow, by increased recruitment and adhesion of circulating inflammatory cells to the endothelium, and by a loss of endothelial cell antithrombotic function contributes to the vascular disorders linked to hyperhomocysteinemia. Increased vascular oxidant stress through imbalanced thiol redox status and inhibition of important antioxidant enzymes by homocysteine results in decreased bioavailability of the endothelium-derived signaling molecule nitric oxide via oxidative inactivation. This plays a central role in the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of homocysteine on endothelial function. Supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 has been demonstrated to be efficient in lowering mildly elevated plasma homocysteine levels and in reversing homocysteine-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent vasoreactivity. Results from ongoing intervention trials will determine whether homocysteine-lowering therapies contribute to the prevention and reduction of atherothrombotic vascular disease and may thereby provide support for the causal relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and atherothrombosis. PMID:12553746

  2. ENCOAL mild coal gasification project. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July--September 1993) and the 1993 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, has completed the construction of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). ENCOAL submitted an application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project was selected by DOE in December, 1989 and the Cooperative Agreement approved in September, 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL mild coal gasification facility was completed in June of 1992, and the project is currently in the operations phase. Some plant modifications have been required and are discussed in this report.

  3. Mild pyrolysis of selectively oxidized coals

    SciTech Connect

    Hippo, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the removal organic sulfur from selectively oxidized Illinois coals using mild thermal/chemical processes. Work completed this quarter includes the investigation of the mild pyrolysis of unoxidized coals plus a selection of selectively oxidized coals. In addition the effect of particle size and extent of oxidation on pyrolysis was investigated. Some preliminary data concerning pyrolysis under vacuum and ambient pressure was also obtained. Work completed this quarter supports the following conclusions: (1) Desulfurization of unoxidized coals increases with increasing pyrolysis temperature and correlates with the loss of volatile matter. (2) Particle size did not influence the extent of desulfurization significantly. (3) Removing pyrite prior to pyrolysis helps to achieve a lower sulfur product beyond that expected from the removal of pyrite alone. (4) The extent of selective oxidation in teh pretreatment step did not effect the level of desulfurization obtained by pyrolysis alone. However this factor was important in the desulfurization obtained with supercritical methanol (SCM)/base. (5) Up to 84% of the sulfur has been removed from the IBC 101 coal by combining selective oxidation and SCM/base reactions. (6) Evidence for regressive reactions between volatilized sulfur compounds and partially desulfurized products was obtained by studying how changes in pyrolysis pressure effected the product sulfur content.

  4. Swimming and persons with mild persistant asthma.

    PubMed

    Arandelović, Mirjana; Stanković, Ivana; Nikolić, Maja

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of recreational swimming on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in patients with mild persistent asthma. This study included 65 patients with mild persistent asthma, who were divided into two groups: experimental group A (n = 45) and control group B (n = 20). Patients from both groups were treated with low doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and short-acting beta2 agonists salbutamol as needed. Our program for patients in group A was combined asthma education with swimming (twice a week on a 1-h basis for the following 6 months). At the end of the study, in Group A, we found a statistically significant increase of lung function parameters FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) (3.55 vs. 3.65) (p < 0.01), FVC (forced vital capacity) (4.27 vs. 4.37) (p < 0.05), PEF (peak expiratory flow) (7.08 vs. 7.46) (p < 0.01), and statistically significant decrease of BHR (PD20 0.58 vs. 2.01) (p < 0.001). In Group B, there was a statistically significant improvement of FEV1 3.29 vs. 3.33 (p < 0.05) and although FVC, FEV1/FVC, and PEF were improved, it was not significant. When Groups A and B were compared at the end of the study, there was a statistically significant difference of FVC (4.01 vs. 4.37), FEV1 (3.33 vs. 3.55), PEF (6.79 vs.7.46), and variability (p < 0.001), and statistically significantly decreased BHR in Group A (2.01 vs. 1.75) (p < 0.001). Engagement of patients with mild persistent asthma in recreational swimming in nonchlorinated pools, combined with regular medical treatment and education, leads to better improvement of their parameters of lung function and also to more significant decrease of their airway hyperresponsiveness compared to patients treated with traditional medicine. PMID:17704850

  5. Mild desalination of various raw water streams.

    PubMed

    Groot, C K; van den Broek, W B P; Loewenberg, J; Koeman-Stein, N; Heidekamp, M; de Schepper, W

    2015-01-01

    For chemical industries, fresh water availability is a pre-requisite for sustainable operation. However, in many delta areas around the world, fresh water is scarce. Therefore, the E4 Water project (www.e4water.eu) comprises a case study at the Dow site in Terneuzen, The Netherlands, which is designed to develop commercial applications for mild desalination of brackish raw water streams from various origins to enable reuse in industry or agriculture. This study describes an effective two-stage work process, which was used to narrow down a broad spectrum of desalination technologies to a selection of the most promising techniques for a demonstration pilot at 2-4 m³/hour. Through literature study, laboratory experiments and multi-criteria analysis, nanofiltration and electrodialysis reversal were selected, both having the potential to attain the objectives of E4Water at full scale. PMID:26204068

  6. Mildly Recycled Pulsars at High-Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzoni, A.

    2011-08-01

    Mildly recyled pulsars (MRP), conventionally defined as neutron star having spin period in the 20-100 ms range and surface magnetic field <1011 Gauss, probably rise from binary systems (disrupted or not) with an intermediate or an high mass companion. Despite their relatively low spin-down energies compared to the ``fully'' recycled millisecond pulsars (arising from common low mass X-ray binaries), nearby MRPs can be detected by deep X-ray observations and by timing analysis of the very long data span provided by gamma-ray space detectors. The discovery of peculiar timing and spectral properties, possibly transitional, of the MRPs can be of the utmost importance to link different classes of neutron stars and study their evolution.

  7. [Mental disorders after mild traumatic brain injury].

    PubMed

    Gonschorek, A S; Schwenkreis, P; Guthke, T

    2016-05-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a frequent neurological disorder following a closed head injury. It is often accompanied by temporary changes of consciousness as well as cognitive, emotional and physical symptoms. These symptoms subside in the vast majority of affected persons within a few weeks; however, in recent years it has become increasingly more apparent that functionally significant long-term effects can remain after an initially diagnosed mTBI. In these cases mental disorders, such as impairment of cognitive and emotional functions as well as somatic disorders play an important role. This article presents the frequency, diagnosis, therapy and possible mechanisms of cognitive and emotional dysfunction after mTBI, including medicolegal aspects. PMID:27119532

  8. South: in the mild southern tradition

    SciTech Connect

    Price, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    Trends in the development of current and future energy resources in the southern states of the U.S. are reviewed. The south has the advantages of a mild climate and abundant sources of natural gas, coal, and hydro power, however, the supply and distribution of energy are primarily controlled by private and federal monopolies. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has a program for funding 100,000 solar domestic hot water systems plus low interest loans for wood heaters, zero interest conservation loans, and financing of passive solar homes. TVA will also construct a large passive solar complex. Other applications of solar technology discussed include installation in a brewery, apartment buildings, abandoned city housing, a duplex, an environmental center, a planned community, and a kiln company.

  9. Functional Hubs in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas, Adrián; Papo, David; Boccaletti, Stefano; Del-Pozo, F.; Bajo, Ricardo; Maestú, Fernando; Martínez, J. H.; Gil, Pablo; Sendiña-Nadal, Irene; Buldú, Javier M.

    We investigate how hubs of functional brain networks are modified as a result of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition causing a slight but noticeable decline in cognitive abilities, which sometimes precedes the onset of Alzheimer's disease. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the functional brain networks of a group of patients suffering from MCI and a control group of healthy subjects, during the execution of a short-term memory task. Couplings between brain sites were evaluated using synchronization likelihood, from which a network of functional interdependencies was constructed and the centrality, i.e. importance, of their nodes was quantified. The results showed that, with respect to healthy controls, MCI patients were associated with decreases and increases in hub centrality respectively in occipital and central scalp regions, supporting the hypothesis that MCI modifies functional brain network topology, leading to more random structures.

  10. Synchrotron emissivity from mildly relativistic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosian, V.

    1981-01-01

    Approximate analytic expressions are presented for evaluation of the frequency and angular dependence of synchrotron emissivity from mildly relativistic particles with arbitrary energy spectrum and pitch angle distribution in a given magnetic field. Results agree with previous expressions for a nonrelativistic Maxwellian particle distribution, and when extrapolated to nonrelativistic and extreme relativistic regimes, they also agree with the previous expressions obtained under those limiting conditions. The results from the analytic expression are compared with results from detailed numerical evaluations. Excellent agreement is found not only at frequencies large compared to the gyro-frequency but also at lower frequencies, in fact, all the way down to the gyro-frequency, where the analytic approximations are expected to be less accurate.

  11. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gismelseed, Abbasher; Al-Harthi, S. H.; Elzain, M.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Yousif, A.; Al-Saadi, S.; Al-Omari, I.; Widatallah, H.; Bouziane, K.

    2006-01-01

    A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas. The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Mössbauer spectroscopy (295 and 78 K) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere. Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.

  12. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gismelseed, Abbasher; Al-Harthi, S. H.; Elzain, M.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Yousif, A.; Al-Saadi, S.; Al-Omari, I.; Widatallah, H.; Bouziane, K.

    A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas. The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Mossbauer spectroscopy (295 and 78 K) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere. Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.

  13. Pressure passivation of mild pyrolysis char

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, T.; Summers, C.; Schroeder, K.; Sands, W.

    1999-07-01

    Low-rank coals that have been thermally dried in the mild pyrolysis process have a tendency to spontaneously combust. The spontaneous combustion of coals and chars has been linked to their affinity for oxygen. The USDOE has developed a method for the passivation of mild pyrolysis char derived from a low-rank coal using pressure differentials to control the oxidation of the active sites in the char rapidly and safely. Initial experiments performed by the USDOE show that the affinity of the coal for oxygen uptake (residual oxygen demand, ROD) is reduced by exposure of the coal-char to high-pressure gas mixtures including air or oxygen-enriched air. Laboratory-scale tests have shown that the ROD can be rapidly reduced by cycling the active coals between low-pressure (atmospheric pressure or less) and high-pressure (500 psi to 1,500 psi) regimes. Cycling the pressure of the treatment gas provides rapid passivation resulting from two effects: The high-pressure cycle forces fresh oxygen into the pores which have been purged of adsorbed gases and reaction products. The pores of coal are small enough to prohibit free convection and force oxygen exchange to take place by way of diffusion under ambient conditions. The forced introduction of fresh process gas under high pressure overcomes the restrictions due to diffusion limits while the removal of adsorbed products clears the way to active surface sites. The high pressure increases the number of oxygen molecules with sufficient energy to overcome the activation barrier of the passivation reaction, due to the increased number of molecules per unit volume of the high-pressure gas. Combined, the two effects rapidly produce a coal with a significantly reduced ROD.

  14. The small chill: mild hypothermia for cardioprotection?

    PubMed

    Tissier, Renaud; Chenoune, Mourad; Ghaleh, Bijan; Cohen, Michael V; Downey, James M; Berdeaux, Alain

    2010-12-01

    Reducing the heart's temperature by 2-5°C is a potent cardioprotective treatment in animal models of coronary artery occlusion. The anti-infarct benefit depends upon the target temperature and the time at which cooling is instituted. Protection primarily results from cooling during the ischaemic period, whereas cooling during reperfusion or beyond offers little protection. In animal studies, protection is proportional to both the depth and duration of cooling. An optimal cooling protocol must appreciably shorten the normothermic ischaemic time to effectively salvage myocardium. Patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction could be candidates for mild hypothermia since the current door-to-balloon time is typically 90 min. But they would have to be cooled quickly shortly after their arrival. Several strategies have been proposed for ultra-fast cooling, but most like liquid ventilation and pericardial perfusion are too invasive. More feasible strategies might include cutaneous cooling, peritoneal lavage with cold solutions, and endovascular cooling with intravenous thermodes. This last option has been investigated clinically, but the results have been disappointing possibly because the devices lacked capacity to cool the patient quickly or cooling was not implemented soon enough. The mechanism of hypothermia's protection has been assumed to be energy conservation. However, whereas deep hypothermia clearly preserves ATP, mild hypothermia has only a modest effect on ATP depletion during ischaemia. Some evidence suggests that intracellular signalling pathways might be responsible for the protection. It is unknown how cooling could trigger these pathways, but, if true, then it might be possible to duplicate cooling's protection pharmacologically. PMID:20621922

  15. [Status of mild hypertension guidelines in Japan and abroad].

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Hiroaki

    2008-08-01

    Historically patients with systolic blood pressure level 140 to 159 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure level 90 to 99 mmHg had been defined as mild hypertension. However, the word of mild hypertension is not used in recent guidelines, such as JNC 7 and ESH/ESC 2007, although it is still used in JSH2004 and BHS IV. Patients with mild hypertension in JSH2004 are diagnosed as high risk hypertension if these patients are complicated cardiovascular organ damage, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes mellitus etc. Personally, I think the word of mild hypertension should be changed to another word or applied to patients with low risk hypertension. PMID:18700542

  16. Digit Symbol Performance in Mild Dementia and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Robert P.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Patients with mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT), patients with major depression, and normal control subjects completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Digit Symbol test of incidental memory. Though mild DAT and depressed patients had equivalent deficits in psychomotor speed, DAT patients recalled fewer digit-symbol items.…

  17. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    To investigate the relation between low level lead absorption and mild mental retardation, hair lead concentrations were compared in a group of 40 mildly retarded children "etiology unknown" with a control group of 20 children. Children with probable cause for retardation were excluded from the sample as were children with a history of lead…

  18. Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof

    2005-01-01

    We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…

  19. Get Well Care: Guidelines for Programs Serving Mildly Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanari, Ellen Orton, Ed.

    Although child care programs for mildly ill children are proliferating around the country, very few states have developed regulations for these types of programs, and no states have developed standards or guidelines. Based upon this concern, a group of medical and early childhood professionals, parents, and directors of programs for mildly ill…

  20. Teaching Elementary Social Studies to Students with Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Howard E.; Larson, Susan M.

    2000-01-01

    Explains what mild disabilities are and discusses the issue of mainstreaming within the realm of elementary school social studies. Provides strategies for social studies teachers to use when addressing the needs of students with learning disabilities, emotional and behavioral disorders, mild mental retardation, and other health impairments. (CMK)

  1. Mild Aphasia: Is This the Place for an Argument?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Fox, Sarah; Wilkinson, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with mild aphasia often report significant disruption to their communication despite seemingly minor impairment. This study explored this phenomenon through examining conversations of a person with mild aphasia engaging in argumentation--a skill she felt had significantly deteriorated after her stroke. Method: A person with…

  2. Predicting Mild and Severe Husband-to-Wife Physical Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Helen S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Estimated odds of mild and severe husband-to-wife physical aggression in 11,870 white men. Being younger, having lower income, and having alcohol problem significantly increased odds of either mild or severe physical aggression. Drug problem uniquely increased risk of severe physical aggression. Marital discord and depression further increased…

  3. Mild cognitive impairment: believe it or not?

    PubMed

    Allegri, Ricardo F; Glaser, Frank B; Taragano, Fernando E; Buschke, Herman

    2008-08-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was previously defined as a transitional state that can precede dementia, but the condition and the rates of conversion remain controversial. MCI is now the focus of natural history studies, along with Alzheimer's disease (AD) prevention. The objective of our review will be to consider the question of whether MCI is a well enough established entity that it can be a diagnosis in medical practice and a valid target of Alzheimer's prevention therapy. MCI was originally defined by Petersen et al. (1999) as progressive memory loss, prodrome of Alzheimer's disease. More recently MCI has been expanded to other cognitive domains with other potential causes like normal aging, fronto-temporal dementia, and vascular dementia. Despite many consensus conferences, experts cannot agree on critical aspects of the MCI, particularly with respect to its clinical utility. Based on neuropsychological studies, a hippocampal memory profile has been proposed for MCI as prodromal AD. Further research is needed to advance these criteria. We have no doubt, however, that in the future, the diagnosis of AD as disease (not only a dementia syndrome) will be made in the early pre-dementia stage and will be drawn from a combination of neuropsychological, neuro-imaging and CSF biomarkers. PMID:18925484

  4. Mild-split SUSY with flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliaz, Latif; Giveon, Amit; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Tsuk, Eitan

    2013-10-01

    In the framework of a gauge mediated quiver-like model, the standard model flavor texture can be naturally generated. The model — like the MSSM — has furthermore a region in parameter space where the lightest Higgs mass is fed by heavy stop loops, which in turn sets the average squark mass scale near 10 - 20TeV. We perform a careful flavor analysis to check whether this type of mild-split SUSY passes all flavor constraints as easily as envisioned in the original type of split SUSY. Interestingly, it turns out to be on the border of several constraints, in particular, the branching ratio of μ → eγ and, if order one complex phases are assumed, also ɛ K , neutron and electron EDM. Furthermore, we consider unification as well as dark matter candidates, especially the gravitino. Finally, we provide a closed-form formula for the soft masses of matter in arbitrary representations of any of the gauge groups in a generic quiver-like model with a general messenger sector.

  5. Arterial stiffness in mild primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Mishaela R; Maurer, Mathew S; McMahon, Donald J; Bilezikian, John P; Silverberg, Shonni J

    2005-06-01

    When primary hyperparathyroidism was a more symptomatic disease, it was often associated with increased cardiovascular risk. As the clinical manifestations of the disease have changed to a milder, more asymptomatic disorder, investigation is shifting to more subtle cardiovascular abnormalities. We measured arterial stiffness in 39 patients with mild primary hyperparathyroidism [serum calcium, 2.66 +/- 0.2 mmol/liter (10.7 +/- 0.6 mg/dl); PTH, 21.7 +/- 9.5 pmol/liter (89 +/- 39 pg/ml)] and in 134 controls. Arterial stiffness was measured mathematically at the radial artery with a noninvasive device as the "augmentation index" (AIx). The AIx measures the difference between the second and first systolic peaks in the pressure waveform and correlates with increased cardiovascular risk. When physiological variables affecting augmentation index and potentially confounding cardiovascular risk factors (age, gender, heart rate, height, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and hyperlipidemia) were adjusted for, primary hyperparathyroidism was an independent predictor of increased augmentation index (B = 3.37; P < 0.03). A matched-pair analysis showed that 15% of the variance in AIx was uniquely accounted for by the presence of primary hyperparathyroidism. The presence of primary hyperparathyroidism was a stronger predictor of elevated AIx than age, gender, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes mellitus. AIx was also directly correlated with evidence of more active parathyroid disease, including higher PTH levels (r = +0.42; P < 0.05) and lower bone mineral density at the distal one-third radius (r = -0.33; P < 0.05). The diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism was therefore an independent predictor of increased AIx, an early measure of arterial stiffness, and the increase was associated with evidence of more active parathyroid disease. PMID:15769995

  6. Inverse Compton Scattering in Mildly Relativistic Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, S. M.; Birkinshaw, M.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effect of inverse Compton scattering in mildly relativistic static and moving plasmas with low optical depth using Monte Carlo simulations, and calculated the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the cosmic background radiation. Our semi-analytic method is based on a separation of photon diffusion in frequency and real space. We use Monte Carlo simulation to derive the intensity and frequency of the scattered photons for a monochromatic incoming radiation. The outgoing spectrum is determined by integrating over the spectrum of the incoming radiation using the intensity to determine the correct weight. This method makes it possible to study the emerging radiation as a function of frequency and direction. As a first application we have studied the effects of finite optical depth and gas infall on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (not possible with the extended Kompaneets equation) and discuss the parameter range in which the Boltzmann equation and its expansions can be used. For high temperature clusters (k(sub B)T(sub e) greater than or approximately equal to 15 keV) relativistic corrections based on a fifth order expansion of the extended Kompaneets equation seriously underestimate the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect at high frequencies. The contribution from plasma infall is less important for reasonable velocities. We give a convenient analytical expression for the dependence of the cross-over frequency on temperature, optical depth, and gas infall speed. Optical depth effects are often more important than relativistic corrections, and should be taken into account for high-precision work, but are smaller than the typical kinematic effect from cluster radial velocities.

  7. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Translation

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Claudia S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This Introduction to a Special Issue on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) highlights the methodological challenges in outcome studies and clinical trials involving patients who sustain mTBI. Recent advances in brain imaging and portable, computerized cognitive tasks have contributed to protocols that are sensitive to the effects of mTBI and efficient in time for completion. Investigation of civilian mTBI has been extended to single and repeated injuries in athletes and blast-related mTBI in service members and veterans. Despite differences in mechanism of injury, there is evidence for similar effects of acceleration-deceleration and blast mechanisms of mTBI on cognition. Investigation of repetitive mTBI suggests that the effects may be cumulative and that repeated mTBI and repeated subconcussive head trauma may lead to neurodegenerative conditions. Although animal models of mTBI using cortical impact and fluid percussion injury in rodents have been able to reproduce some of the cognitive deficits frequently exhibited by patients after mTBI, modeling post-concussion symptoms is difficult. Recent use of closed head and blast injury animal models may more closely approximate clinical mTBI. Translation of interventions that are developed in animal models to patients with mTBI is a priority for the research agenda. This Special Issue on mTBI integrates basic neuroscience studies using animal models with studies of human mTBI, including the cognitive sequelae, persisting symptoms, brain imaging, and host factors that facilitate recovery. PMID:23046349

  8. Toxicity studies of mild gasification products

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, T.M.; Whong, W.Z.; Ma, J.; Zhong, B.Z.; Bryant, D.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to perform mutagenicity studies with the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system on coal liquids produced by mild gasification from different coals and/or processing conditions, (2) to determine whether coal liquids which are mutagenic to bacteria are also genotoxic to mammalian cells, (3) to establish correlations between mutagenicity, aromaticity, and boiling point range of coal liquids, and (4) to identify the chemical classes which are likely to be responsible for the mutagenic activity of gasification products. Four of the seven samples tested so far failed to demonstrate any mutagenic activity under any conditions tested. Those samples were SHELL[number sign]830331, MG-122IBP-420[degree]F, MG-122 420--720[degree]F, and MG-122 720[degree]F+. Table 1 summarizes the results from all samples tested in DMSO and Tween 80. When solvated in DMSO, MG-119 and MG-120 composite materials displayed slight, but ultimately insignificant, genotoxic activity on TA98 and TA1OO in the presence of S9. When Tween 80 was used as the solvent, MG-119 and MG-120 displayed slight, but significant, geno-toxic activity on TA98 with S9 (Figure 4). CTC[number sign]11 in DMSO displayed significant genotoxic activity on both TA98 and TA1OO with and without S9. The activity was higher on TA98 than TA100, and higher with S9 than without, primarily indicating the presence of indirect-acting frameshift mutagen. The results of the testing on CTC[number sign]11 were similar for both solvents, DMSO and Tween 80 (Table 2).

  9. Toxicity studies of mild gasification products

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, T.M.; Whong, W.Z.; Ma, J.; Zhong, B.Z.; Bryant, D.

    1992-11-01

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to perform mutagenicity studies with the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system on coal liquids produced by mild gasification from different coals and/or processing conditions, (2) to determine whether coal liquids which are mutagenic to bacteria are also genotoxic to mammalian cells, (3) to establish correlations between mutagenicity, aromaticity, and boiling point range of coal liquids, and (4) to identify the chemical classes which are likely to be responsible for the mutagenic activity of gasification products. Four of the seven samples tested so far failed to demonstrate any mutagenic activity under any conditions tested. Those samples were SHELL{number_sign}830331, MG-122IBP-420{degree}F, MG-122 420--720{degree}F, and MG-122 720{degree}F+. Table 1 summarizes the results from all samples tested in DMSO and Tween 80. When solvated in DMSO, MG-119 and MG-120 composite materials displayed slight, but ultimately insignificant, genotoxic activity on TA98 and TA1OO in the presence of S9. When Tween 80 was used as the solvent, MG-119 and MG-120 displayed slight, but significant, geno-toxic activity on TA98 with S9 (Figure 4). CTC{number_sign}11 in DMSO displayed significant genotoxic activity on both TA98 and TA1OO with and without S9. The activity was higher on TA98 than TA100, and higher with S9 than without, primarily indicating the presence of indirect-acting frameshift mutagen. The results of the testing on CTC{number_sign}11 were similar for both solvents, DMSO and Tween 80 (Table 2).

  10. Risk factors for behavioral abnormalities in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Apostolova, Liana G.; Di, Li Jie; Duffy, Erin L.; Brook, Jenny; Elashoff, David; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Fairbanks, Lynn; Cummings, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Behavioral symptoms are common in both MCI and AD. Methods We analyzed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire data of 3456 MCI and 2641 mild AD NACC participants. Using factor analysis and logistic regression we estimated the effects of age, sex, race, education, MMSE, functional impairment, marital status and family history on presence of behavioral symptoms. We also compared the observed prevalence of behavioral symptoms between amnestic and nonamnestic MCI. Results Four factors were identified: affective behaviors (depression, apathy and anxiety); distress/tension behaviors (irritability and agitation); impulse control behaviors (disinhibition, elation and aberrant motor behavior), and psychotic behaviors (delusions and hallucinations). Male gender was significantly associated with all factors. Younger age was associated with higher prevalence of distress/tension, impulse control and psychotic behaviors. Being married was protective against psychotic behaviors. Lower education was associated with the presence of distress/tension behaviors. Caucasians showed higher prevalence of affective behaviors. Functional impairment was strongly associated with all behavioral abnormalities. Amnestic MCI had more elation and agitation relative to nonamnestic MCI. Conclusions Younger age, male gender and greater functional impairment were associated with higher overall presence of behavioral abnormalities in MCI and mild AD. Marital status, lower education and race had effect on selected behaviors. PMID:24481207

  11. Headaches and Migraines: Understanding Headaches, From Mild to Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... not all headaches are the same. From mild tension headaches to crippling migraines, there are steps you ... The most common type of headache is a tension headache. These usually are due to tight muscles ...

  12. Mild Cognitive Impairment and Progession to Dementia: New Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Karceski, MD Mild cognitive impairment and progression to dementia New findings John C.S. Breitner, MD, MPH WHAT ... many people with MCI go on to develop dementia after a few years. But other people show ...

  13. Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158807.html Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision Study of college players raises concerns about repetitive non-concussive impacts To use the sharing features on ...

  14. Kids' Mild Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160606.html Kids' Mild Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects Early head ... 000 Swedes who suffered at least one traumatic brain injury (TBI) before age 25 with their unaffected ...

  15. Reading Improvement for Mainstreamed Children Who Are Mildly Mentally Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttery, Thomas J.; Mason, George E.

    1979-01-01

    Covers two major aspects of reading instruction for mildly mentally handicapped children in the regular classroom: a review of their reading characteristics and a presentation of questioning techniques useful for promoting their reading comprehension. (FL)

  16. Could Inducing Brief, Mild 'Fever' Help Ease Depression?

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Could Inducing Brief, Mild 'Fever' Help Ease Depression? Small study suggests heating the body might alter ... brain region is less active in people with depression, the researchers explained. "Our hope is to find ...

  17. Mild, Moderate, Severe Asthma: What Do Grades Mean?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Mild, Moderate, Severe Asthma: What Do Grades Mean? Page Content Article Body ... is when assessed at follow-up visits. Intermittent Asthma A child who has symptoms of wheezing and ...

  18. Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision Study of college players raises concerns about repetitive ... Repeated blows to the head can cause near vision to blur slightly, even if the individual impacts ...

  19. Mild factor XIII deficiency and concurrent hypofibrinogenemia: effect of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaveney, Amanda D; Philipp, Claire S

    2016-06-01

    Factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder. Patients with mild congenital FXIII deficiency tend to be asymptomatic, but may demonstrate significant bleeding symptoms with surgery, trauma, and pregnancy. Postpartum hemorrhage has been described in mild FXIII deficiency. We present a case of mild FXIII deficiency and concurrent hypofibrinogenemia manifested by recurrent postpartum hemorrhage, menorrhagia, and miscarriage. Mutational analysis identified a previously unreported heterozygous mutation of the FXIIIA subunit (p.Trp315Arg). No mutation was noted in the fibrinogen gene. FXIII levels decreased approximately 50% from nonpregnant levels to their nadir during labor, whereas fibrinogen levels rose approximately 1.5-fold from decreased nonpregnant levels to their peak at the time of labor. This case illustrates the course of mild FXIII and fibrinogen deficiencies during pregnancy, labor, and postpartum, and raises possible management options for prevention of antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage in women with these deficiencies. PMID:26575494

  20. Mild extractability and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, J.; Alexander, M.

    1999-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the relationship between bioavailability of unaged and aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil and the amounts detected by mild solvent extraction. More aged than unaged anthracene remained in Lima loam following introduction of earthworms (Eisenia foetida), a mixed culture containing anthracene-degrading microorganisms, or earthworms or wheat after bacterial biodegradation of the compound. Aging decreased the percentage of anthracene recovered by mild extraction with n-butanol from soil following introduction of earthworms, growth of wheat, biodegradation by bacteria, or when maintained sterile. Biodegradation resulted in a marked decrease in the percentage of aged and unaged anthracene recovered from soil by mild extraction with n-butanol or ethyl acetate. Aging of fluoranthene and pyrene decreased the amount removed by mild extraction with n-butanol, ethyl acetate, and propanol. The uptake of aged and unaged anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene by earthworms was correlated with the amounts recovered from soil by mild extraction with n-butanol, propanol, and ethyl acetate. The retention of aged and unaged anthracene by wheat and barley was correlated with the amounts recovered from soil by the same procedure. The authors suggest that mild extraction with organic solvents can be used to predict the bioavailability of PAHs in soil.

  1. NK Cells are Activated in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment but not in Mild Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Le Page, Aurélie; Bourgade, Karine; Lamoureux, Julie; Frost, Eric; Pawelec, Graham; Larbi, Anis; Witkowski, Jacek M; Dupuis, Gilles; Fülöp, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimerś disease (AD) is a progressive irreversible neurological brain disorder characterized by accumulation of amyloid-β, amyloid plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Inflammation and immune alterations have been linked to AD, suggesting that the peripheral immune system plays a role during the asymptomatic period of AD. NK cells participate in innate immune surveillance against intracellular pathogens and malignancy but their role in AD remains controversial. We have investigated changes in peripheral NK cell phenotypes and functions in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 10), patients with mild AD (mAD, n = 11), and healthy elderly controls (n = 10). Patients selected according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria were classified using neuropsychological assessment tests. Phenotype analysis revealed differences in expression of CD16 (increased in mAD), NKG2A (decreased in aMCI), and TLR2 and TLR9 (both decreased in mAD). Functional assays revealed that NK cell killing activity and degranulation (CD107 expression) were unchanged in the three groups. In contrast, expression of the CD95 receptor was increased in aMCI and mAD. Granzyme B expression and cytokine production (TNFα, IFNγ) were increased in aMCI but not in mAD. CCL19- but not CCL21-dependent chemotaxis was decreased in aMCI and mAD, despite the fact that CCR7 expression was increased in aMCI. Our data suggest that the number of alterations observed in peripheral NK cells in aMCI represent an activation state compared to mAD patients and that may reflect an active immune response against a still to be defined aggression. PMID:25720398

  2. Distinct molecular signatures of mild extrinsic and intrinsic atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Martel, Britta C; Litman, Thomas; Hald, Andreas; Norsgaard, Hanne; Lovato, Paola; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone; Thestrup-Pedersen, Kristian; Skov, Søren; Skak, Kresten; Poulsen, Lars K

    2016-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with underlying defects in epidermal function and immune responses. In this study, we used microarray analysis to investigate differences in gene expression in lesional skin from patients with mild extrinsic or intrinsic AD compared to skin from healthy controls and from lesional psoriasis skin. The primary aim was to identify differentially expressed genes involved in skin barrier formation and inflammation, and to compare our results with those reported for patients with moderate and severe AD. In contrast to severe AD, expression of the majority of genes associated with skin barrier formation was unchanged or upregulated in patients with mild AD compared to normal healthy skin. Among these, no significant differences in the expression of filaggrin (FLG) and loricrin at both mRNA and protein level were found in lesional skin from patients with mild AD, despite the presence of heterozygous FLG mutations in the majority of patients with mild extrinsic AD. Several inflammation-associated genes such as S100A9, MMP12, CXCL10 and CCL18 were highly expressed in lesional skin from patients with mild psoriasis and were also increased in patients with mild extrinsic and intrinsic AD similar to previous reports for severe AD. Interestingly, expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses in intrinsic AD resembled that of psoriasis more than that of extrinsic AD. Overall, differences in expression of inflammation-associated genes found among patients with mild intrinsic and extrinsic AD correlated with previous findings for patients with severe intrinsic and extrinsic AD. PMID:26841714

  3. Diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical management of mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Levin, Harvey S; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon R

    2015-05-01

    Concussion and mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) are interchangeable terms to describe a common disorder with substantial effects on public health. Advances in brain imaging, non-imaging biomarkers, and neuropathology during the past 15 years have required researchers, clinicians, and policy makers to revise their views about mild TBI as a fully reversible insult that can be repeated without consequences. These advances have led to guidelines on management of mild TBI in civilians, military personnel, and athletes, but their widespread dissemination to clinical management in emergency departments and community-based health care is still needed. The absence of unity on the definition of mild TBI, the scarcity of prospective data concerning the long-term effects of repeated mild TBI and subconcussive impacts, and the need to further develop evidence-based interventions to mitigate the long-term sequelae are areas for future research that will improve outcomes, reduce morbidity and costs, and alleviate delayed consequences that have only recently come to light. PMID:25801547

  4. Prenatal natural history of isolated fetal mild bilateral pyelectasis

    PubMed Central

    de Paula Pereira, Gustavo; Bunduki, Victor; Hase, Eliane Azeka; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prenatal outcomes in a cohort of fetuses with mild bilateral pyelectasis and determine whether performing serial ultrasounds is a good follow-up strategy. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted on 62 fetuses with mild bilateral pyelectasis. Fetal mild bilateral pyelectasis was considered when the renal pelvis measured (in millimeters) ≥5.0 to 10.0, ≥7.0 to 10.0, and ≥10.0 to 15 at ≤23 weeks 6 days, 24 to 31 weeks 6 days, and ≥32 weeks, respectively, with no uretero-calyceal dilatation. Ultrasounds were performed every 3 weeks to assess whether the mild bilateral pyelectasis regressed, remained unchanged (Group 1) or progressed (Group 2). RESULTS: Group 1 consisted of 53 fetuses (85.4%), and progression was observed in 9 cases (Group 2, 14.6%). The initial renal pelvis diameter was significantly larger in fetuses with progression (p=0.028). Statistically significant differences in the renal pelvis diameter were also found at weeks 31 and 35 for both kidneys (p<0.05). The cases requiring intrauterine procedures or early delivery were not observed. CONCLUSION: Fetal mild bilateral pyelectasis with no calyceal dilatation is a benign condition that can be managed in the postnatal period. The initial renal pelvis diameter and the diameter in week 31 or 35 were valuable parameters for identifying cases that would eventually need specific postnatal procedures.

  5. Final infarct volume discriminates outcome in mild strokes

    PubMed Central

    Sucharew, Heidi; Prabhakaran, Shyam; Khatri, Pooja; Jovin, Tudor; Michel, Patrik; Wintermark, Max

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Knowledge of whether final infarct volume (FIV) predicts disability after mild stroke is limited. We sought to determine if FIV could differentiate good versus poor outcome after mild stroke. Methods We retrospectively identified 65 patients with mild stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≤5) in a multicenter registry of 2453 patients. We evaluated associations between FIV and clinical outcome and evaluated the optimal FIV threshold that discriminated favorable (modified Rankin scale (mRS) 0–1) versus poor (mRS 2–6) outcome. Results The FIV cut-point of 20 mL differentiated favorable and poor outcomes (area under curve (AUC) 0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.58–0.88). Favorable outcome was observed in 37/45 (82%) with FIV < 20 mL, compared to 5/14 (36%) with FIV ≥ 20 mL (p < 0.01). FIV ≥ 20 mL remained strongly associated with poor outcome independent of age, gender, stroke severity, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS), and proximal arterial occlusion. Conclusion In our small sample size, an FIV of 20 mL best differentiated between the likelihood of good versus poor outcome in patients with mild stroke. Further validation of infarct volume as a surrogate marker in mild stroke is warranted. PMID:26427891

  6. Reassurance seeking and depression in adults with mild intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, S. L.; Lickel, A. Hayes; MacLean, W. E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adults with intellectual disability (ID) experience a high prevalence of depression. Yet, little research has investigated interpersonal processes related to depression in this population. In the general population, depressed persons behave in ways that elicit negative and rejecting reactions from others. In particular, excessive reassurance seeking, defined as excessively and persistently seeking assurance from others that one is lovable and worthy, indirectly contributes to depressive symptoms through evoking negative and rejecting social interactions. We examined the relation between excessive reassurance seeking, negative and rejecting social interactions and depression in adults with mild ID. Method Eighty-seven adults with mild ID and staff completed the Glasgow Depression Scale for people with a Learning Disorder and the Reassurance-Seeking Scale. In addition, adults with mild ID reported on their experience of negative social interactions, and staff rated their relative preference to interact with the adult with mild ID. A meditational model of the indirect effect of excessive reassurance seeking on depressive symptoms via negative and rejecting social interactions was tested. Results Excessive reassurance seeking was positively related to depressive symptoms. Negative and rejecting interactions partially mediated the relation between excessive reassurance seeking and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Findings identify an important interpersonal process in depression. Efforts to educate staff and adults with mild ID about excessive reassurance seeking and ways to alter it may be useful in treating depression. PMID:19017166

  7. Neurobiology of chronic mild stress: Parallels to major depression

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Matthew N.; Hellemans, Kim G.C.; Verma, Pamela; Gorzalka, Boris B.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    The chronic mild (or unpredictable/variable) stress (CMS) model was developed as an animal model of depression more than 20 years ago. The foundation of this model was that following long-term exposure to a series of mild, but unpredictable stressors, animals would develop a state of impaired reward salience that was akin to the anhedonia observed in major depressive disorder. In the time since its inception, this model has also been used for a variety of studies examining neurobiological variables that are associated with depression, despite the fact that this model has never been critically examined to validate that the neurobiological changes induced by CMS are parallel to those documented in depressive disorder. The aim of the current review is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the effects of chronic mild stress on neurobiological variables, such as neurochemistry, neurochemical receptor expression and functionality, neurotrophin expression and cellular plasticity. These findings are then compared to those of clinical research examining common variables in populations with depressive disorders to determine if the changes observed following chronic mild stress are in fact consistent with those observed in major depression. We conclude that the chronic mild stress paradigm: (1) evokes an array of neurobiological changes that mirror those seen in depressive disorders and (2) may be a suitable tool to investigate novel systems that could be disturbed in depression, and thus aid in the development of novel targets for the treatment of depression. PMID:22776763

  8. Effects of Mild Chronic Intermittent Cold Exposure on Rat Organs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohui; Che, Honglei; Zhang, Wenbin; Wang, Jiye; Ke, Tao; Cao, Rui; Meng, Shanshan; Li, Dan; Weiming, Ouyang; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    Cold adaptation is a body's protective response to cold stress. Mild chronic intermittent cold (CIC) exposure has been used to generate animal models for cold adaptation studies. However, the effects of mild CIC exposure on vital organs are not completely characterized. In the present study, we exposed rats to mild CIC for two weeks, and then measured the body weights, the weights of brown adipose tissue (BAT), the levels of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brains, livers, hearts, muscles and BATs. Rats formed cold adaptation after exposure to CIC for two weeks. Compared to rats of the control group that were hosted under ambient temperature, rats exposed to mild CIC showed a lower average body weight, but a higher weight of brown adipose tissue (BAT). Rats exposed to CIC for two weeks also exhibited higher levels of ATP and ROS in all examined organs as compared to those of the control group. In addition, we determined the expression levels of cold-inducible RNA binding protein (Cirbp) and thioredoxin (TRX) in rat tissues after 2 weeks of CIC exposure. Both Cirbp and TRX were increased, suggesting a role of these two proteins for establishment of cold adaptation. Together, this study reveals the effects of mild CIC exposure on vital organs of rats during CIC exposure. PMID:26327811

  9. Biomarkers for dementia and mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Alvarado, Manuel; Gago, Belén; Navalpotro-Gomez, Irene; Jiménez-Urbieta, Haritz; Rodriguez-Oroz, María C

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive decline is one of the most frequent and disabling nonmotor features of Parkinson's disease. Around 30% of patients with Parkinson's disease experience mild cognitive impairment, a well-established risk factor for the development of dementia. However, mild cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease is a heterogeneous entity that involves different types and extents of cognitive deficits. Because it is not currently known which type of mild cognitive impairment confers a higher risk of progression to dementia, it would be useful to define biomarkers that could identify these patients to better study disease progression and possible interventions. In this sense, the identification among patients with Parkinson's disease and mild cognitive impairment of biomarkers associated with dementia would allow the early detection of this process. This review summarizes studies from the past 25 years that have assessed the potential biomarkers of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease patients. Despite the potential importance, no biomarker has as yet been validated. However, features such as low levels of epidermal and insulin-like growth factors or uric acid in plasma/serum and of Aß in CSF, reduction of cerebral cholinergic innervation and metabolism measured by PET mainly in posterior areas, and hippocampal atrophy in MRI might be indicative of distinct deficits with a distinct risk of dementia in subgroups of patients. Longitudinal studies combining the existing techniques and new approaches are needed to identify patients at higher risk of dementia. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27193487

  10. Does mild COPD affect prognosis in the elderly?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects independence and survival in the general population, but it is unknown to which extent this conclusion applies to elderly people with mild disease. The aim of this study was to verify whether mild COPD, defined according to different classification systems (ATS/ERS, BTS, GOLD) impacts independence and survival in elderly (aged 65 to 74 years) or very elderly (aged 75 years or older) patients. Methods We used data coming from the Respiratory Health in the Elderly (Salute Respiratoria nell'Anziano, SaRA) study and compared the differences between the classification systems with regards to personal capabilities and 5-years survival, focusing on the mild stage of COPD. Results We analyzed data from 1,159 patients (49% women) with a mean age of 73.2 years (SD: 6.1). One third of participants were 75 years or older. Mild COPD, whichever was its definition, was not associated with worse personal capabilities or increased mortality after adjustment for potential confounders in both age groups. Conclusions Mild COPD may not affect survival or personal independence of patients over 65 years of age if the reference group consists of patients with a comparable burden of non respiratory diseases. Comorbidity and age itself likely are main determinants of both outcomes. PMID:20529281

  11. Could mild hypoxia impair pilot decision making in emergencies?

    PubMed

    Legg, Stephen; Hill, Stephen; Mundel, Toby; Gilbey, Andrew; Schlader, Zac; Raman, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    The decreased pressure in the cabin of a pressurised aircraft (typically equivalent to ~8000 ft) reduces the oxygen level so that the blood oxygen saturation of all occupants falls from >97% (normoxia) at sea-level to below 92% (mild hypoxia). Although exposure to mild hypoxia does not affect well-learned cognitive and motor performance of aircrew, it has been proposed that it can affect the performance of some complex cognitive performance tasks involving multiple demands typical of emergency tasks that may have to be performed by pilots. In order to simulate some of these complex cognitive demands, 25 student volunteers participated in an experiment which assessed performance of complex logical reasoning and and multiple memory tasks before and after 2 hours of exposure to normoxia and mild hypoxia. Performance for the more difficult components of the complex reasoning task, especially involving conflict decisions, were marginally significantly degraded by mild hypoxia. Since the effects were only marginally significant future studies should investigate the effects of mild hypoxia on more subtle complex decision-making tasks. PMID:22316722

  12. Activity restriction in mild COPD: a challenging clinical problem.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Denis E; Gebke, Kevin B

    2014-01-01

    Dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and activity restriction are already apparent in mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, patients may not seek medical help until their symptoms become troublesome and persistent and significant respiratory impairment is already present; as a consequence, further sustained physical inactivity may contribute to disease progression. Ventilatory and gas exchange impairment, cardiac dysfunction, and skeletal muscle dysfunction are present to a variable degree in patients with mild COPD, and collectively may contribute to exercise intolerance. As such, there is increasing interest in evaluating exercise tolerance and physical activity in symptomatic patients with COPD who have mild airway obstruction, as defined by spirometry. Simple questionnaires, eg, the modified British Medical Research Council dyspnea scale and the COPD Assessment Test, or exercise tests, eg, the 6-minute or incremental and endurance exercise tests can be used to assess exercise performance and functional status. Pedometers and accelerometers are used to evaluate physical activity, and endurance tests (cycle or treadmill) using constant work rate protocols are used to assess the effects of interventions such as pulmonary rehabilitation. In addition, alternative outcome measurements, such as tests of small airway dysfunction and laboratory-based exercise tests, are used to measure the extent of physiological impairment in individuals with persistent dyspnea. This review describes the mechanisms of exercise limitation in patients with mild COPD and the interventions that can potentially improve exercise tolerance. Also discussed are the benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation and the potential role of pharmacologic treatment in symptomatic patients with mild COPD. PMID:24940054

  13. Activity restriction in mild COPD: a challenging clinical problem

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Denis E; Gebke, Kevin B

    2014-01-01

    Dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and activity restriction are already apparent in mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, patients may not seek medical help until their symptoms become troublesome and persistent and significant respiratory impairment is already present; as a consequence, further sustained physical inactivity may contribute to disease progression. Ventilatory and gas exchange impairment, cardiac dysfunction, and skeletal muscle dysfunction are present to a variable degree in patients with mild COPD, and collectively may contribute to exercise intolerance. As such, there is increasing interest in evaluating exercise tolerance and physical activity in symptomatic patients with COPD who have mild airway obstruction, as defined by spirometry. Simple questionnaires, eg, the modified British Medical Research Council dyspnea scale and the COPD Assessment Test, or exercise tests, eg, the 6-minute or incremental and endurance exercise tests can be used to assess exercise performance and functional status. Pedometers and accelerometers are used to evaluate physical activity, and endurance tests (cycle or treadmill) using constant work rate protocols are used to assess the effects of interventions such as pulmonary rehabilitation. In addition, alternative outcome measurements, such as tests of small airway dysfunction and laboratory-based exercise tests, are used to measure the extent of physiological impairment in individuals with persistent dyspnea. This review describes the mechanisms of exercise limitation in patients with mild COPD and the interventions that can potentially improve exercise tolerance. Also discussed are the benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation and the potential role of pharmacologic treatment in symptomatic patients with mild COPD. PMID:24940054

  14. SPM-based count normalization provides excellent discrimination of mild Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment from healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, Igor; Hammers, Alexander; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Scheurich, Armin; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Peters, Jürgen; Bartenstein, Peter; Lieb, Klaus; Schreckenberger, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Statistical comparisons of [(18)F]FDG PET scans between healthy subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) usually require normalization of regional tracer uptake via ROIs defined using additional software. Here, we validate a simple SPM-based method for count normalization. FDG PET scans of 21 mild, 15 very mild AD, 11 aMCI patients and 15 age-matched controls were analyzed. First, we obtained relative increases in the whole patient sample compared to controls (i.e. areas relatively preserved in patients) with proportional scaling to the cerebral global mean (CGM). Next, average absolute counts within the cluster with the highest t-value were extracted. Statistical comparisons of controls versus three patients groups were then performed using count normalization to CGM, sensorimotor cortex (SMC) as standard, and to the cluster-derived counts. Compared to controls, relative metabolism in aMCI patients was reduced by 15%, 20%, and 23% after normalization to CGM, SMC, and cluster-derived counts, respectively, and 11%, 21%, and 25% in mild AD patients. Logistic regression analyses based on normalized values extracted from AD-typical regions showed that the metabolic values obtained using CGM, SMC, and cluster normalization correctly classified 81%, 89% and 92% of aMCI and controls; classification accuracies for AD groups (very mild and mild) were 91%, 97%, and 100%. The proposed algorithm of fully SPM-based count normalization allows for a substantial increase of statistical power in detecting very early AD-associated hypometabolism, and very high accuracy in discriminating mild AD and aMCI from healthy aging. PMID:18691659

  15. Johnson - Cook Strength Models for Mild and DP 590 Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedantam, K.; Bajaj, D.; Brar, N. S.; Hill, S.

    2006-07-01

    Automotive steels, Mild and Dual Phase590 (DP590) are characterized in tension at room temperature, using the quasi-static and split Hopkinson bar techniques at various strain rates ranging from ˜10-3/s to ˜1800/s. Tension stress-strain data for both the steels are analyzed to determine the Johnson-Cook Strength model constants, J-C strength model constants for mild steel are A=217 MPa, B = 234 MPa, n = 0.643 and C = 0.076 and for DP590 steel are A = 430 MPa, B = 824 MPa, n = 0.510 and C = 0.017. Higher value of strain rate sensitivity constant C for mild steel (0.076) compared to DP 590 (0.017) is also reflected in the stress- strain data at various strain rates.

  16. Johnson - Cook Strength Models for Mild and DP 590 Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Vedantam, K.; Brar, N. S.; Bajaj, D.; Hill, S.

    2006-07-28

    Automotive steels, Mild and Dual Phase590 (DP590) are characterized in tension at room temperature, using the quasi-static and split Hopkinson bar techniques at various strain rates ranging from {approx}10-3/s to {approx}1800/s. Tension stress-strain data for both the steels are analyzed to determine the Johnson-Cook Strength model constants, J-C strength model constants for mild steel are A=217 MPa, B = 234 MPa, n = 0.643 and C = 0.076 and for DP590 steel are A = 430 MPa, B = 824 MPa, n = 0.510 and C = 0.017. Higher value of strain rate sensitivity constant C for mild steel (0.076) compared to DP 590 (0.017) is also reflected in the stress- strain data at various strain rates.

  17. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury among the Geriatric Population.

    PubMed

    Papa, Linda; Mendes, Matthew E; Braga, Carolina F

    2012-09-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an unfortunately common occurrence in the elderly. With the growing population of older adults in the United States and globally, strategies that reduce the risk of becoming injured need to be developed, and diagnostic tools and treatments that may benefit this group need to be explored. Particular attention needs to be given to polypharmacy, drug interactions, the use of anticoagulants, safety issues in the living environment, elder abuse, and alcohol consumption. Low-mechanism falls should prompt health care providers to consider the possibility of head injury in elderly patients. Early and tailored management of our seniors following a mild TBI can provide them with the best possible quality of life. This review will discuss the current literature on mild TBI in the older adult, address gaps in research, and discuss the implications for future care of the older TBI patient. PMID:23589783

  18. [Arterial hypertension in special situations: mild, systolic and in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Luque Otero, M; Fernández Pinilla, C

    1990-01-01

    Mild hypertension is very common, 50% of hypertensives being with their diastolic BP between 90 and 104 mmHg. Many large studies, especially HDFP, had shown not only the deleterious cardiovascular effects of mild hypertension but also the benefits obtained with the therapy. The non-pharmacological approach should be the first step in the treatment of mild hypertension. Isolated systolic hypertension have a high prevalence in the elderly, increasing the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Sodium restriction and, if necessary, vasodilators increasing the arterial compliance seem to be the logical approach to treat isolated systolic hypertension. Finally, eclampsia is the most serious complication of pregnancy - induced hypertension. The treatment with bed rest and either betablockers or methyldopa is beneficial. If eclampsia occurs hydralazine, magnesium sulphate or nifedipine should be used. PMID:2186454

  19. Mild serotonin syndrome: A report of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Sanjay; Patel, Varsha; Kakked, Siddharth; Patel, Indravadan; Yadav, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin syndrome (SS) is an under diagnosed and under reported condition. Mild SS is easily overlooked by physicians. Every patient with mild SS is a potential candidate for developing life-threatening severe SS because of inadvertent overdose or the addition of the second serotonergic drug. Herein, we describe 12 patients with mild SS observed over 12 months in neurology outpatient clinic. It is a retrospective chart review of 12 consecutive patients who had hyperreflexia with tremor (defined as mild SS Hunter's criteria) and had received serotonergic agents in the past 5 weeks. Only four patients (33%) reported tremor as a presenting or main feature. The presenting features in another eight patients were: Dizziness, generalized body pain, headache, and seizure. Five patients responded to the removal of the offending agents and got a complete response in 2-7 days. There were no or minimal responses in another seven patients to the removal of the serotonergic drugs. Cyproheptadine was started in these patients, at the dose of 8 mg three times daily. Response started within 1-3 days of initiation of the drug and the complete responses were noted in 5-14 days. There were no side effects from cyproheptadine in any patient. We suggest that any patient on serotonergic drug developing new symptoms should be examined for the presence of tremor, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, and clonus to look for mild SS. In addition, every patient on any serotonergic drug should be examined for the presence of mild SS before escalating the dose or before adding a new one. PMID:26019424

  20. Investigation of the combined effects of bedrest and mild hypoxia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J. M.; Horrigan, D. J., Jr.; Bungo, M. W.; Conkin, J.

    1982-01-01

    Subjects were exposed to an 8-h mild hypoxia exposure (8000 ft. equivalent, 2438 m) with and without a 28-h period of 6 deg headdown bedrest. Anticipated responses to the bedrest and the hypoxia were observed. There was no indication that bedrest affected the arterial oxygenation or the oxygen gradient across the lungs of the subjects undergoing mild hypoxia. It is concluded that there is no evidence that would preclude an alveolar O2 pressure as low as 69 torr during contingency spacecraft operation.

  1. Recent Analysis of UCAPs in Mild Hybrids (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2006-05-01

    This report presents the analysis of ultracapacitors for mild/moderate hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) review the fuel economy improvement trends of today's HEVs with respect to degree of hybridization; (2) perform analysis to see the extent of fuel economy improvement possible with various strategies in mild/moderate HEVs, with no engine downsizing, using either batteries or ultracapacitors; (3) identify energy requirements of various driving events/functions--what matches a limited ucap's energy; and (4) discuss potential roles for high-voltage ultracapacitors in HEVs, if any.

  2. Academic behavior and grades of mainstreamed students with mild disabilities.

    PubMed

    Truesdell, L A; Abramson, T

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the classroom behaviors and final grades of mainstreamed students with mild disabilities in three urban schools in Grades 3-9. Significant correlations were found for all academic behaviors except attendance and homework at the elementary level and written work at the junior high level. In addition, significant differences in reading scores were found between mainstreamed and regular elementary school students. Findings indicate that mainstreamed students with mild disabilities may participate in academic lessons as well or nearly as well as their peers without disabilities. PMID:1582434

  3. Reduced Sympathetic Response to Head-Up Tilt in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Mild Alzheimer's Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Mellingsæter, Marte Rognstad; Wyller, Torgeir Bruun; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wyller, Vegard Bruun

    2015-01-01

    Background Hemodynamic control was compared in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild Alzheimer's dementia (AD) as well as in healthy elderly subjects. Methods Noninvasive, continuous hemodynamic recordings were obtained from 14 patients and 48 controls during supine rest (tilt of 30 and 70°). Cardiac output, end-diastolic volume, total peripheral resistance, heart rate variability (HRV), systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV), and baroreceptor sensitivity were calculated. Results At 70° tilt, the HRV indices differed significantly, with higher high-frequency (HF) variability as well as lower low-frequency (LF) variability and LF/HF ratios in the patients. The patients had significantly lower SBPV in the LF range at 30° tilt. Conclusions The results indicate a poorer sympathetic response to orthostatic stress in MCI and mild AD. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:25873932

  4. Spontaneous Rehearsal by Mildly Mentally Retarded Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lisa A.; Bray, Norman W.

    1985-01-01

    The use of a rehearsal strategy by 10-, 12-, and 14-year-old mildly mentally retarded children and adolescents (N=39) was investigated using a self-paced recall readiness task. The task allowed Ss to study items in any order as many times as desired. Each group used rehearsal, as indicated by increasing study time patterns and the number of…

  5. Strategy Training and Semantic Encoding in Mildly Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Randall W.; Nagle, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    Mildly retarded children were instructed in encoding strategies or rehearsal strategy. Performance was higher for semantic encoding strategies. Seven months later the semantic condition also showed greater improvement after strategies were prompted. Performance on incidental learning tasks was enhanced for 13- but not 10-year olds. (Author/RD)

  6. Care Partner Responses to the Onset of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blieszner, Rosemary; Roberto, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We examined characteristics, responses, and psychological well-being of care partners who support and assist older adults recently diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design and Methods: Based on a sample of 106 care partners of community residents diagnosed with MCI at memory clinics, we conducted face-to-face interviews…

  7. Human Capability, Mild Perfectionism and Thickened Educational Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues for a mild perfectionism in applying Amartya Sen's capability approach for an education transformative of student agency and well-being. Key to the paper is the significance of education as a process of being and becoming in the future, and education's fundamental objective of a positively changed human being. The capability…

  8. Promoting Intensive Socialization of Mildly Retarded Within an Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graebner, Oliver E.; And Others

    Eight papers report on the project at Austin State School, funded by a Hospital Improvement (HIP) grant, which used a multidisciplinary team to implement socialization programs for institutionalized mildly retarded persons exhibiting socially inept behavior. Two papers consider social rehabilitation and the task of trying to move residents out…

  9. Cognitive vulnerability in moderate, mild, and low seasonality.

    PubMed

    Rohan, Kelly J; Nillni, Yael I; Mahon, Jennifer N; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Sitnikov, Lilya; Haaga, David A F

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the association between cognitive vulnerability factors and seasonality. Students (N = 88), classified based on the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire as experiencing moderate (n = 26) or mild (n = 32) seasonality, and nondepressed, low-seasonality controls (n = 30) completed explicit (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes, automatic negative thoughts, seasonal attitudes, and rumination) and implicit (i.e., implicit associations test) measures of cognitive vulnerability at one winter and one nonwinter assessment. Relative to low- and mild-seasonality participants, moderate-seasonality participants endorsed more automatic thoughts and rumination in winter and more dysfunctional attitudes across both seasons. Moderate- and mild-seasonality participants endorsed more maladaptive seasonal attitudes than did low-seasonality participants. All groups demonstrated increased dysfunctional attitudes, automatic thoughts, and rumination and stronger implicit associations about light and dark during the winter. The findings support a possible cognitive mechanism of winter depression onset and/or maintenance unique to individuals with moderate, as opposed to mild, seasonality. PMID:22134455

  10. Numerical Magnitude Processing in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquiere, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated numerical magnitude processing in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and examined whether these children have difficulties in the ability to represent numerical magnitudes and/or difficulties in the ability to access numerical magnitudes from formal symbols. We compared the performance of 26 children…

  11. Project Based Learning for Children with Mild Mental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guven, Yildiz; Duman, Hulya Gulay

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the effectiveness of a project-based learning program delivered to children with mild mental disabilities. The 7 children (4 girls and 3 boys) selected for this experimental study were from an elementary school and attending a special class. The theme of the project was "Patisserie." At posttest the…

  12. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  13. Mild Intellectual Deficits in a Child with 49,XXXXY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Joseph H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Although most males with a 49,XXXXY karyotype will have significant mental retardation, the case of an affected boy having mild-cognitive and motor delays and age-appropriate adaptive skills at 59 months is presented. Guarded optimism may be justified in affected males demonstrating close to or age-appropriate developmental skills through early…

  14. Teaching Area and Volume to Students with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hord, Casey; Xin, Yan Ping

    2015-01-01

    In the current educational climate, teachers are required to find methods to give all students, including students with mild intellectual disability, access to the general education curriculum. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of the concrete-semiconcrete-abstract instructional sequence and model-based problem…

  15. Late Diagnosis in Severe and Mild Intellectual Disability in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verri, A. P.; Maraschio, P.; Uggetti, C.; Pucci, E.; Ronchi, G.; Nespoli, L.; Destefani, V.; Ramponi, A.; Federico, A.

    2004-01-01

    The diagnosis of intellectual disability (ID) is highly dependent on a comprehensive personal and family medical history, a complete physical examination and a careful developmental assessment of the patient. Our study intended to: (1) classify the aetiology of mild and severe ID in an adult population of 140 Italian subjects; (2) evaluate the…

  16. Stressful Social Interactions Experienced by Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…

  17. Cholinergic Enhancement of Frontal Lobe Activity in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saykin, Andrew J.; Wishart, Heather A.; Rabin, Laura A.; Flashman, Laura A.; McHugh, Tara L.; Mamourian, Alexander C.; Santulli, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    Cholinesterase inhibitors positively affect cognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other conditions, but no controlled functional MRI studies have examined where their effects occur in the brain. We examined the effects of donepezil hydrochloride (Aricept[Registered sign]) on cognition and brain activity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive…

  18. Verbal Working Memory in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Molen, M. J.; Van Luit, J. E. H.; Jongmans, M. J.; Van der Molen, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous research into working memory of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) has established clear deficits. The current study examined working memory in children with mild ID (IQ 55-85) within the framework of the Baddeley model, fractionating working memory into a central executive and two slave systems, the phonological…

  19. Mild Learning Disability or Learning Style Difference? [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Given, Barbara K.

    This paper proposes that mild learning disability may often be more the result of teaching which ignores individual differences in learning style than the result of psychological processing and/or central nervous system disorders that are characteristic of true learning disabilities. A brief overview of learning disability identification explains…

  20. Ambrisentan: new drug. Too risky in mildly symptomatic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    2009-04-01

    (1) In patients with mildly symptomatic pulmonary hypertension (stage III), there is no firm evidence that ambrisentan reduces mortality or slows disease progression. In contrast, ambrisentan has frequent and sometimes serious adverse effects; (2) In patients whose physical activity is markedly restricted by pulmonary hypertension, it is better to continue using bosentan, with which we have far more experience. PMID:19585715

  1. Subtle Symptoms Associated with Self-Reported Mild Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lawson, Sheila

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 1,345 high school students and 2,321 university students found that 30-37% reported having experienced a head injury, with 12-15% reporting loss of consciousness. Significant relationships were found between mild head injury incidence and gender; sleep difficulties; social difficulties; handedness pattern; and diagnoses of attention…

  2. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning impairs left ventricular diastolic function

    PubMed Central

    Çiftçi, Özgür; Günday, Murat; Çalışkan, Mustafa; Güllü, Hakan; Doğan, Rafi; Güven, Aytekin; Müderrisoğlu, Haldun

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is associated with direct cardiovascular toxicity. In mild CO poisoning in which cardiovascular life support is not required, the effects of CO on left and right ventricular functions are unknown in patients without cardiac failure. Objectives: Echocardiography was used to determine whether or not mild CO poisoning impairs ventricular function. Twenty otherwise healthy patients with CO poisoning and 20 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. Echocardiographic examinations were performed at the time of admission and 1 week after poisoning. Results: The impairment observed in the left and right ventricular diastolic function at the time of admission was greater than the impairment 1 week after poisoning. Mild CO poisoning did not have a significant effect on systolic function. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were positively correlated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, whereas the levels were not correlated with right ventricular diastolic function. Conclusions: In CO intoxication, the development of left and right ventricular diastolic dysfunction precedes systolic abnormality. Patients with mild CO poisoning do not manifest cardiovascular symptoms; however, it should be borne in mind that most of these patients have myocardial involvement. PMID:24082611

  3. Mild to moderate intra-abdominal hypertension: Does it matter?

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, Liivi; Starkopf, Joel; Reintam Blaser, Annika

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiological consequences and impact on outcome of mild to moderate (Grade I to II) intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), points out possible pitfalls in available treatment recommendations and focuses on tasks for future research in the field. IAH occurs in about 40% of ICU patients. Whereas the prevalence of abdominal compartment syndrome seems to be decreasing, the prevalence of IAH does not. More than half of IAH patients present with IAH grade I and approximately a quarter with IAH grade II. However, most of the studies have addressed IAH as a yes-or-no variable, with little or no attention to different severity grades. Even mild IAH can have a negative impact on tissue perfusion and microcirculation and be associated with an increased length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation. However, the impact of IAH and its different grades on mortality is controversial. The influence of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on outcome most likely depends on patient and disease characteristics and the concomitant macro- and microcirculation. Therefore, management might differ significantly. Today, clear triggers for interventions in different patient groups with mild to moderate IAH are not defined. Further studies are needed to clarify the clinical importance of mild to moderate IAH identifying clear triggers for interventions to lower the IAP. PMID:26855899

  4. Comparison of Reading Intervention Approaches for Students with Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Douglas; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Research-based reading interventions (peer tutoring, reciprocal teaching, effective teaching principles, computer-aided instruction, and two direct instruction models) were implemented by 37 special-education resource teachers working with 176 elementary school students with mild disabilities. The computer-assisted, reciprocal, and direct…

  5. Mild Head Injury as a Source of Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Brown, Deborah

    1991-01-01

    This survey of 616 Canadian high-school adolescents suggests that light and mild head injury is almost 10 times as common as hospital-reported incidence. The study found significant relationships between reported head injury and hyperactivity, stuttering, mixed handedness, and dislike of mathematics. (Author/JDD)

  6. ADHD Symptoms in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Wood, Nicky; Gringras, Paul; Chadwick, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether the nature and correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are different in subjects with mild intellectual disability (ID) compared to subjects with average ability. Method: From a general population sample of 2,726 12- to 15-year-olds, a stratified subsample was selected to enrich for…

  7. Congenital Syndromes and Mildly Handicapped Students: Implications for Special Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandra M.

    1989-01-01

    Many learning disabilities or cases of mild retardation are due to medically diagnosable, congenital syndromes, such as fetal alcohol syndrome, sex chromosome abnormalities, multiple anomaly syndromes, phenylketonuria, and Tourette Syndrome. These syndromes are discussed, and suggestions are given for special education management. (Author/JDD)

  8. Pufferfish poisoning: emergency diagnosis and management of mild human tetrodotoxication.

    PubMed

    Sims, J K; Ostman, D C

    1986-09-01

    A 45-year-old man ate the liver of the toxic pufferfish (Diodron hystrix) and developed mild tetrodotoxication consisting of hyperemesis, bradycardia, hypotension, generalized numbness, and a generalized paresis. He was treated with atropine, normal saline IV infusions, nasogastric suction, and oxygen, and he recovered after six days. PMID:3740600

  9. Music Enhances Autobiographical Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Haj, Mohamad; Postal, Virginie; Allain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that the "Four Seasons" music may enhance the autobiographical performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We used a repeated measures design in which autobiographical recall of 12 mild AD patients was assessed using a free narrative method under three conditions: (a) in "Silence," (b) after being exposed to the opus "Four…

  10. Separation of products from mild coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.

    1991-09-11

    The primary mild coal gasification product mixture containing noncondensible gas, high-boiling hydrocarbon vapors and entrained fines is difficult to process into the desired pure products: gas, liquids, and dry solids. This challenge for mild coal gasification process development has been studied by surveying the technical literature for suitable separations processes and for similar issues in related processes. The choice for a first-stage solids separation step is standard cyclones, arranged in parallel trains for large-volume applications in order to take advantage of the higher separation efficiency of smaller cyclones. However, mild gasification pilot-plant data show entrainment of ultrafine particles for which standard cyclones have poor separation efficiency. A hot secondary solids separation step is needed for the ultrafine entrainment in order to protect the liquid product from excessive amounts of contaminating solids. The secondary solids separation step is similar to many high-temperature flue-gas applications with an important complicating condition: Mild gasifier vapors form coke on surfaces in contact with the vapors. Plugging of the filter medium by coke deposition is concluded to be the main product separation problem for mild gasification. Three approaches to solution of this problem are discussed in the order of preference: (1) a barrier filter medium made of a perforated foil that is easy to regenerate, (2) a high-efficiency cyclone coupled with recycle of a solids-containing tar fraction for coking/cracking in the gasifier, and (3) a granular moving bed filter with regeneration of the bed material. The condensation of oil vapors diluted by noncondensible gas is analyzed thermodynamically, and the conclusion is that existing commercial oil fractionator designs are adequate as long as the vapor stream does not contain excessive amounts of solids. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Analysis of Functional Pathways Altered after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Redell, John B.; Moore, Anthony N.; Grill, Raymond J.; Johnson, Daniel; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Yin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Concussive injury (or mild traumatic brain injury; mTBI) can exhibit features of focal or diffuse injury patterns. We compared and contrasted the cellular and molecular responses after mild controlled cortical impact (mCCI; a focal injury) or fluid percussion injury (FPI; a diffuse injury) in rats. The rationale for this comparative analysis was to investigate the brain's response to mild diffuse versus mild focal injury to identify common molecular changes triggered by these injury modalities and to determine the functional pathways altered after injury that may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Microarrays containing probes against 21,792 unique messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were used to investigate the changes in cortical mRNA expression levels at 3 and 24 h postinjury. Of the 354 mRNAs with significantly altered expression levels after mCCI, over 89% (316 mRNAs) were also contained within the mild FPI (mFPI) data set. However, mFPI initiated a more widespread molecular response, with over 2300 mRNAs differentially expressed. Bioinformatic analysis of annotated Gene Ontology molecular function and biological pathway terms showed a significant overrepresentation of genes belonging to inflammation, stress, and signaling categories in both data sets. We therefore examined changes in the protein levels of a panel of 23 cytokines and chemokines in cortical extracts using a Luminex-based bead immunoassay and detected significant increases in macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α (CCL3), GRO-KC (CXCL1), interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Immunohistochemical localization of MIP-1α and IL-1β showed marked increases at 3 h postinjury in the cortical vasculature and microglia, respectively, that were largely resolved by 24 h postinjury. Our findings demonstrate that both focal and diffuse mTBI trigger many shared pathobiological processes (e.g., inflammatory responses) that could be targeted for mechanism-based therapeutic interventions

  12. Management of women with mild and moderate cervical dyskaryosis.

    PubMed Central

    Flannelly, G.; Anderson, D.; Kitchener, H. C.; Mann, E. M.; Campbell, M.; Fisher, P.; Walker, F.; Templeton, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the outcomes in women with mild and moderate dyskaryosis after increasing periods of surveillance and thereby to define a rational protocol for managing such women. DESIGN--Prospective study with randomisation of women to one of four treatment groups, each with a different period of surveillance; one group in which the women were given immediate treatment and three other groups in which the women were under surveillance for six, 12, and 24 months. SETTING--A dedicated colposcopy clinic in Aberdeen, Scotland. SUBJECTS--902 women who presented with a mildly or moderately dyskaryotic smear for the first time. INTERVENTIONS--Cytological and colposcopic examinations at intervals of six months until the allocated period of surveillance was completed, at which time biopsy was performed. Women with severe dyskaryosis were withdrawn from surveillance and a biopsy was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The histological findings after punch biopsy or large loop excision of the transformation zone, and the trends in cytological appearances of serial cervical smears. RESULTS--793 women completed the study. In all, 769 women had an adequate final smear, of which 197 were normal cytologically, 328 were still mildly or moderately dyskaryotic, and 244 were severely dyskaryotic. Seventeen of the 67 (25%) women with one repeat smear showing non-dyskaryosis had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III compared with only one of the 31 (3%) women with no dyskaryosis in four repeat cervical smears (P < 0.0001). None of the women had invasive cancer. Of 158 women whose index smear showed mild dyskaryosis and who were allocated to the group under surveillance for two years, only 40 had not defaulted or still had dyskaryotic smears by the end of the two years. CONCLUSION--Cytological surveillance, although safe, is not an efficient strategy for managing women with mildly abnormal smears. Women with any degree of dyskaryosis in a smear should be referred for

  13. Quality of Life in Adolescents With Mild Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Hallstrand, Teal S.; Curtis, J. Randall; Aitken, Moira L.; Sullivan, Sean D.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The majority of individuals with asthma have mild disease, often in conjunction with allergic rhinitis and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Although health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) is reduced in moderate to severe asthma and allergic rhinitis, little is known about the effect of mild asthma, mild allergic rhinitis, and EIB on HRQoL outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of mild asthma, allergic rhinitis, and EIB on HRQoL. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 160 adolescent athletes participating in a screening program to detect EIB. Generic HRQoL was assessed with the teen version of the pediatric quality-of-life inventory (PedsQL™). Prior diagnoses of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and EIB, and current symptoms of dyspnea during exercise and asthma, were recorded. Lung function and the presence of EIB were determined by spirometry before and after an exercise challenge test. Adolescent athletes with a prior physician diagnosis of asthma had a lower HRQoL scale summary score (P < 0.01) and lower physical functioning, emotional functioning, and school functioning domain scores (P values, 0.01–0.02) in comparison to adolescent athletes with no prior diagnosis of these disorders. Athletes with a prior diagnosis of asthma reported dyspnea during exercise more frequently than did those without asthma (P < 0.001). Adolescent athletes with dyspnea during exercise had a lower scale summary score, and lower physical functioning, general well-being, and emotional functioning domain scores (P values, 0.02–0.03). These data show that mild asthma and dyspnea without asthma significantly affect HRQoL. Symptoms of dyspnea during exercise are common in asthma and are associated with lower HRQoL. The clinical significance of these differences in HRQoL is unclear. PMID:14618647

  14. The Structure and Validity of Self-reported Affect in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ready, Rebecca E.; Carvalho, Janessa O.; Green, Robert C.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Stern, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study determined the reliability, validity, and factor structure of self-report emotions in persons with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) relative to controls. Methods Participants (mild AD, n = 73; MCI, n = 159; controls, n = 96) rated current emotions with the Visual Analogue Mood Scales (Stern, 1997). Results Internal consistency reliabilities were comparable across groups, as were the factor structures of emotion. Persons with AD reported more negative affect (NA) than persons with MCI and controls. The emotion that most differentiated groups was confusion. NA and PA may be more bipolar in persons with AD than for persons with MCI and controls. Conclusions The underlying structure of affect was similar in persons with mild AD, MCI, and controls. Further, persons with MCI appeared to be “transitional” between cognitive health and dementia with regard to mood and affect. That is, participants with MCI tended to have affect scores that were intermediate between those with AD and controls. Implications for interventions to improve emotional well-being in AD and MCI are discussed. PMID:21429280

  15. Telehealth home monitoring of solitary persons with mild dementia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Glenn E; Lunde, Angela M; Hathaway, Julie C; Vickers, Kristin S

    2007-01-01

    Medication safety is a special concern for the 30% to 40% of dementia patients who live alone at the time of diagnosis, and it plays an important part in relocation decisions. Televideo monitoring could improve medication self-administration accuracy and improve mood for persons with mild dementia who live alone or spend a significant amount of their day alone. The authors used 2-way interactive video technology to monitor medication compliance of 8 persons with mild dementia. They conducted more than 4000 contacts with these persons and found adequate technical outcome in 82% of calls. End medication compliance was 81% in the video-monitored group compared to 66% in the controls (P < .05). Comparison of compliance from initial to end ratings revealed that video-monitored participants' compliance remained stable while unmonitored patients' compliance fell 12 percentage points, consistent with expectations for dementia. This difference was also significant. Quantitative and qualitative outcome data from this project are presented. PMID:17533998

  16. The potential for DHA to mitigate mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bailes, Julian E; Patel, Vimal

    2014-11-01

    Scientific knowledge of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) has grown in the last decade to a greater understanding of their mechanisms of action and their potential therapeutic effects. Omega-3 FAs have shown therapeutic potential with respect to hyperlipidemia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and mild cognitive impairment. Laboratory evidence and clinical interest have grown such that omega-3 FAs have now assumed a role in concussion management. This has coincided with recent research that has also helped to increase the scientific understanding of cerebral concussion; although concussion or mild traumatic brain injury was assumed to be a malfunctioning brain without anatomical damage, we now know that there is the potential for damage and dysfunction at the cellular and microstructural levels. Specifically, with concussion abnormal metabolism of glucose may occur and intracellular mitochondrial dysfunction can persist for several days. In this article, we discuss the role of omega-3 FAs, particularly docosahexaenoic acid, in concussion management. PMID:25373094

  17. A new approach to the oxidational theory of mild wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, H.; Hochman, R. F.; Quinn, T. F. J.

    1988-01-01

    The wear and friction of 316 stainless steel was investigated in relation to oxidation at the real area of contact. An approach describing the oxidation characteristics of mild wear in terms of linear oxidation kinetics is presented. Linear oxidation kinetics more closely approaches the physical conditions involved where oxide growth on asperities is continuously interrupted by spalling and removal. The mild wear rate may now be described mathematically by two empirical equations in terms of the operational variables and the oxidational constants without using the critical oxide thickness, which is dependent on asperity size, shape and temperature, and is difficult to measure. The resulting activation energy for oxidational wear was significantly lower than that for static oxidation governed by diffusion controlled kinetics.

  18. [Mild cognitive impairment: could it be a sleep disorder?].

    PubMed

    Bayard, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    The mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is described as an intermediate state of cognitive impairment whereby individuals present with mild clinical symptoms but with nearly normal daily living activities. These subjects do not meet the clinical criteria for dementia, yet their cognitive functioning is below what we would expect for age and education in healthy people. In the other hand, older adults are at risk for sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, REM sleep behavioral disorder and chronic insomnia, which could have an impact on cognitive functioning and are exclusion criteria for the MCI diagnosis. Moreover, REM sleep behavioral disorder represents a risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. In subjects more 65 years of age the association between chronic insomnia and cognitive changes is still debated. The main aim of this paper is to focus on identification of sleep disorders in the context of cognitive disturbances among professionals working with the elderly. PMID:26395305

  19. Carbonization of Sugi Leaves Using Mild Superheated Steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhixia; Lin, Hongfei; Yamasaki, Nakamichi

    2006-05-01

    As one of main biomass wastes in Japan, Sugi (Japanese cedar) leaves were chipped and treated for preparation of charcoal at mild temperature (250 - 450 °C) using superheated steam with controllable pressure. After the treatment, the solid residual charcoal was examined by FT-IR and CHN elemental analysis. The results suggest that degree of carbonization was significantly affected by treating temperature, time and partial pressure of steam. A temperature above 400 °C and a partial pressure of steam above 4 MPa are necessary for accelerating and completing the carbonization within 2 hours. Adsorption experimental results of charcoal show that the residual charcoal has an excellent absorbability for ammonia gas and heavy metal ion Pb2+. Therefore it is expectable to develop mild superheated steam as reaction medium for preparing valuable charcoal products from biomass wastes with lower energy cost.

  20. [Experience with ciclesonide in patients with mild persistent bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Bartosíková, L; Necas, J; Frána, L; Bartosík, T

    2007-12-01

    Experience with ciclesonide in patients with mild persistent bronchial asthma The study aimed to monitor the effectiveness and safety of the treatment with ciclesonide, administered once a day in a 160 microg dose, over a 3-month period, to a group of 100 patients diagnosed with mild persistent bronchial asthma with deterioration of problems after exercise. The results of the study prove significant positive effects of the preparation used. A significant improvement of FEV1 and PEF values was observed, as well as a statistically significant remission of both day and nocturnal symptoms of the disease, a significantly lower consumption of short-acting beta2-sympathomimetics, and an improvement of all evaluated data relating to the quality of life of the asthmatic patients. No adverse effects were registered. PMID:18257418

  1. Substantial Genetic Influence on Mild Mental Impairment in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinath, Frank M.; Harlaar, Nicole; Ronald, Angelica; Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    We report the first major genetic study of mild mental impairment. From a representative sample of 3,886 twins (1,314 monozygotic, 1,296 dizygotic same-sex, and 1,276 dizygotic opposite-sex), the lowest 5% were selected on a composite measure of verbal and nonverbal abilities assessed by parents when the twins were 2, 3, and 4 years of age. Twin…

  2. Is surgery necessary for 'mild' or 'asymptomatic' hyperparathyroidism?

    PubMed

    Niederle, Bruno; Wémeau, Jean-Louis

    2015-09-01

    A large majority of the currently diagnosed patients with hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are mild or asymptomatic, mainly women after menopause. Following the debate held at the 16th European Congress of Endocrinology in Wroclaw (Poland) from May 3-7, 2014, arguments are here presented by a surgeon and a medical practitioner considering these situations rather have to profit from surgery, or simply from survey. For the trained endocrine surgeon, it is evident that parathyroidectomy confirms the diagnosis and undoubtedly reduces the discomfort felt by certain patients, prevents all risks of complications, removes patients and medical teams from the monitoring and represents a real individual financial benefit. On the other hand, the medical practitioner considers that mild or asymptomatic PHPT is commonly stable, and very rare are the subjects at risk of complications, particularly of fractures; prevention of vascular and metabolic disorders, nephrolithiasis and bone rarefaction justify regular physical exercise, a safe alimentation, a sufficient calcium and high water intake, the correction of the frequent deficit in vitamin D; finally has also to be considered the impossibility to refer to specialized (endocrine) surgeons, the enormous cohort of subjects more than 50 years with 'mild' or 'asymptomatic' PHPT. The surgeon and the medical practitioner agree to consider that in patients with 'mild' or 'asymptomatic' disease, there is no place for medical treatments, in particular calcimimetics and bisphophonates. Both agree that further studies are needed to clarify the long-term prognosis of operated and non-operated PHPT in term of fractures, cardiovascular risk and mortality. Individual and collective cost/benefit ratios of surgery or survey are also still imperfectly evaluated. PMID:26101370

  3. A mouse model of human repetitive mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Michael J.; Pérez, Mariana Angoa; Briggs, Denise I.; Viano, David C.; Kreipke, Christian W.; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for the study of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) that models the most common form of head injury in humans is presented. Existing animal models of TBI impart focal, severe damage unlike that seen in repeated and mild concussive injuries, and few are configured for repetitive application. Our model is a modification of the Marmarou weight drop method and allows repeated head impacts to lightly anesthetized mice. A key facet of this method is the delivery of an impact to the cranium of an unrestrained subject allowing rapid acceleration of the free-moving head and torso, an essential characteristic known to be important for concussive injury in humans, and a factor that is missing from existing animal models of TBI. Our method does not require scalp incision, emplacement of protective skull helmets or surgery and the procedure can be completed in 1-2 minutes. Mice spontaneously recover the righting reflex and show no evidence of seizures, paralysis or impaired behavior. Skull fractures and intracranial bleeding are very rare. Minor deficits in motor coordination and locomotor hyperactivity recover over time. Histological analyses reveal mild astrocytic reactivity (increased expression of GFAP) and increased phospho-tau but a lack of blood-brain-barrier disruption, edema and microglial activation. This new animal model is simple and cost-effective and will facilitate characterization of the neurobiological and behavioral consequences of rmTBI. It is also ideal for high throughput screening of potential new therapies for mild concussive injuries as experienced by athletes and military personnel. PMID:21930157

  4. Thermolytic cleavage of selected ether linkages at mild temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Chawla, B.; Davis, B.H. ); Shi, Buchang; Guthrie, R.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Most of the reported studies describing the thermolysis of coal model compounds, ethers in particular, have been performed at much higher temperatures than used in coal liquefaction processes. Obviously, conclusions derived from thermolysis at the higher temperatures cannot be applied directly toward understanding of coal dissolution and/or thermolysis processes. Therefore, they initiated studies on the chemistry of thermolysis of four arylmethyl aryl ethers which undergo thermolysis to a significant extent under relatively mild reaction conditions.

  5. Sustained mild hypergravity reduces spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Ryo; Ogawa, Yojiro; Ueda, Kaname; Aoki, Ken; Iwasaki, Ken-ichi

    2014-10-01

    Head-to-foot gravitational force >1G (+Gz hypergravity) augments venous pooling in the lower body and reduces central blood volume during exposure, compared with 1Gz. Central hypovolemia has been reported to reduce spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity. However, no investigations have examined spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during exposure to sustained mild +Gz hypergravity. We therefore hypothesized that mild +Gz hypergravity would reduce spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, compared with 1Gz. To test this hypothesis, we examined spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in 16 healthy men during exposure to mild +Gz hypergravity using a short-arm centrifuge. Beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure (tonometry) and R-R interval (electrocardiography) were obtained during 1Gz and 1.5Gz exposures. Spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity was assessed by sequence slope and transfer function gain. Stroke volume was calculated from the arterial pressure waveform using a three-element model. All indices of spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity decreased significantly (up slope: 18.6±2.3→12.7±1.6ms/mmHg, P<0.001; down slope: 19.0±2.5→13.2±1.3ms/mmHg, P=0.002; transfer function gain in low frequency: 14.4±2.2→10.1±1.1ms/mmHg, P=0.004; transfer function gain in high frequency: 22.2±7.5→12.4±3.5ms/mmHg, P<0.001). Stroke volume decreased significantly (88±5→80±6ml, P=0.025). Moreover, although systolic arterial pressure variability increased, R-R interval variability did not increase. These results suggest that even mild +Gz hypergravity reduces spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disturbance during the exposure. PMID:25156804

  6. Cerebrovascular regulation, exercise, and mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, William P.; Iverson, Grant L.; Taylor, J. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A substantial number of people who sustain a mild traumatic brain injury report persistent symptoms. Most common among these symptoms are headache, dizziness, and cognitive difficulties. One possible contributor to sustained symptoms may be compromised cerebrovascular regulation. In addition to injury-related cerebrovascular dysfunction, it is possible that prolonged rest after mild traumatic brain injury leads to deconditioning that may induce physiologic changes in cerebral blood flow control that contributes to persistent symptoms in some people. There is some evidence that exercise training may reduce symptoms perhaps because it engages an array of cerebrovascular regulatory mechanisms. Unfortunately, there is very little work on the degree of impairment in cerebrovascular control that may exist in patients with mild traumatic brain injury, and there are no published studies on the subacute phase of recovery from this injury. This review aims to integrate the current knowledge of cerebrovascular mechanisms that might underlie persistent symptoms and seeks to synthesize these data in the context of exploring aerobic exercise as a feasible intervention to treat the underlying pathophysiology. PMID:25274845

  7. Plasma multianalyte profiling in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Anne M.; Perrin, Richard; Arnold, Steven E.; Grossman, Murray; Xiong, Chengjie; Craig-Schapiro, Rebecca; Clark, Christopher M.; Pickering, Eve; Kuhn, Max; Chen, Yu; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; McCluskey, Leo; Elman, Lauren; Karlawish, Jason; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Hurtig, Howard I.; Siderowf, Andrew; Swenson, Frank; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Morris, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: While plasma biomarkers have been proposed to aid in the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD), few biomarkers have been validated in independent patient cohorts. Here we aim to determine plasma biomarkers associated with AD in 2 independent cohorts and validate the findings in the multicenter Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Methods: Using a targeted proteomic approach, we measured levels of 190 plasma proteins and peptides in 600 participants from 2 independent centers (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Washington University, St. Louis, MO), and identified 17 analytes associated with the diagnosis of very mild dementia/mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD. Four analytes (apoE, B-type natriuretic peptide, C-reactive protein, pancreatic polypeptide) were also found to be altered in clinical MCI/AD in the ADNI cohort (n = 566). Regression analysis showed CSF Aβ42 levels and t-tau/Aβ42 ratios to correlate with the number of APOE4 alleles and plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptide and pancreatic polypeptide. Conclusion: Four plasma analytes were consistently associated with the diagnosis of very mild dementia/MCI/AD in 3 independent clinical cohorts. These plasma biomarkers may predict underlying AD through their association with CSF AD biomarkers, and the association between plasma and CSF amyloid biomarkers needs to be confirmed in a prospective study. PMID:22855860

  8. Current status of fluid biomarkers in mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kulbe, Jacqueline R; Geddes, James W

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) affects millions of people annually and is difficult to diagnose. Mild injury is insensitive to conventional imaging techniques and diagnoses are often made using subjective criteria such as self-reported symptoms. Many people who sustain a mTBI develop persistent post-concussive symptoms. Athletes and military personnel are at great risk for repeat injury which can result in second impact syndrome or chronic traumatic encephalopathy. An objective and quantifiable measure, such as a serum biomarker, is needed to aid in mTBI diagnosis, prognosis, return to play/duty assessments, and would further elucidate mTBI pathophysiology. The majority of TBI biomarker research focuses on severe TBI with few studies specific to mild injury. Most studies use a hypothesis-driven approach, screening biofluids for markers known to be associated with TBI pathophysiology. This approach has yielded limited success in identifying markers that can be used clinically, additional candidate biomarkers are needed. Innovative and unbiased methods such as proteomics, microRNA arrays, urinary screens, autoantibody identification and phage display would complement more traditional approaches to aid in the discovery of novel mTBI biomarkers. PMID:25981889

  9. Effect of Machining Parameters on Oxidation Behavior of Mild Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, P.; Shekhar, S.; Mondal, K.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to find out a correlation between machining parameters, resultant microstructure, and isothermal oxidation behavior of lathe-machined mild steel in the temperature range of 660-710 °C. The tool rake angles "α" used were +20°, 0°, and -20°, and cutting speeds used were 41, 232, and 541 mm/s. Under isothermal conditions, non-machined and machined mild steel samples follow parabolic oxidation kinetics with activation energy of 181 and ~400 kJ/mol, respectively. Exaggerated grain growth of the machined surface was observed, whereas, the center part of the machined sample showed minimal grain growth during oxidation at higher temperatures. Grain growth on the surface was attributed to the reduction of strain energy at high temperature oxidation, which was accumulated on the sub-region of the machined surface during machining. It was also observed that characteristic surface oxide controlled the oxidation behavior of the machined samples. This study clearly demonstrates the effect of equivalent strain, roughness, and grain size due to machining, and subsequent grain growth on the oxidation behavior of the mild steel.

  10. Primary care physicians' and psychiatrists' approaches to treating mild depression

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, R. E.; Rasinski, K. A.; Yoon, J. D.; Meador, K. G.; Koenig, H. G.; Curlin, F. A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To measure how primary care physicians (PCPs) and psychiatrists treat mild depression. Method We surveyed a national sample of US PCPs and psychiatrists using a vignette of a 52-year-old man with depressive symptoms not meeting Major Depressive Episode criteria. Physicians were asked how likely they were to recommend an antidepressant counseling, combined medication, and counseling or to make a psychiatric referral. Results Response rate was 896/1427 PCPs and 312/487 for psychiatrists. Compared with PCPs, psychiatrists were more likely to recommend an antidepressant (70% vs. 56%), counseling (86% vs. 54%), or the combination of medication and counseling (61% vs. 30%). More psychiatrists (44%) than PCPs (15%) were `very likely' to promote psychiatric referral. PCPs who frequently attended religious services were less likely (than infrequent attenders) to refer the patient to a psychiatrist (12% vs. 18%); and more likely to recommend increased involvement in meaningful relationships/activities (50% vs. 41%) and religious community (33% vs. 17%). Conclusion Psychiatrists treat mild depression more aggressively than PCPs. Both are inclined to use antidepressants for patients with mild depression. PMID:22616640

  11. Overlapping MERS and mild AESD caused by HHV-6 infection.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Mari; Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Tanabe, Takuya; Nakahara, Hiroshi; Ohta, Kazumi; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    We report the case of an overlapping encephalopathy syndrome consisting of clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) and a mild form of acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) caused by human herpesvirus-6. A previously healthy 17-month-old girl was admitted to our hospital as a precaution because of seizures that had developed more than 25 hours (h) after fever. Brain diffusion-weighted images (DWI) showed high signal intensity in the central splenial region on Day 2. She regained consciousness 16 h after the second seizure. On Day 6, she had a secondary cluster of partial seizures. DWI showed resolution of the splenial lesion and revealed reduced diffusion in the fronto-subcortical white matter. She regained consciousness 36 h after the secondary cluster of seizures without any sequelae. A third DWI performed on Day 15 showed that the fronto-subcortical white matter lesions had completely disappeared. Based on the clinicoradiological findings, we diagnosed the patient with overlapping MERS and mild AESD. Our case, together with previous reports, suggests that patients can develop combined encephalopathy syndromes as a phenotype. Many encephalopathy syndromes have been established and classified; however, some may not present as independent syndromes. PMID:24856142

  12. Mild Dissonance Preferred Over Consonance in Single Chord Perception.

    PubMed

    Lahdelma, Imre; Eerola, Tuomas

    2016-05-01

    Previous research on harmony perception has mainly been concerned with horizontal aspects of harmony, turning less attention to how listeners perceive psychoacoustic qualities and emotions in single isolated chords. A recent study found mild dissonances to be more preferred than consonances in single chord perception, although the authors did not systematically vary register and consonance in their study; these omissions were explored here. An online empirical experiment was conducted where participants (N = 410) evaluated chords on the dimensions of Valence, Tension, Energy, Consonance, and Preference; 15 different chords were played with piano timbre across two octaves. The results suggest significant differences on all dimensions across chord types, and a strong correlation between perceived dissonance and tension. The register and inversions contributed to the evaluations significantly, nonmusicians distinguishing between triadic inversions similarly to musicians. The mildly dissonant minor ninth, major ninth, and minor seventh chords were rated highest for preference, regardless of musical sophistication. The role of theoretical explanations such as aggregate dyadic consonance, the inverted-U hypothesis, and psychoacoustic roughness, harmonicity, and sharpness will be discussed to account for the preference of mild dissonance over consonance in single chord perception. PMID:27433333

  13. Mild Dissonance Preferred Over Consonance in Single Chord Perception

    PubMed Central

    Eerola, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on harmony perception has mainly been concerned with horizontal aspects of harmony, turning less attention to how listeners perceive psychoacoustic qualities and emotions in single isolated chords. A recent study found mild dissonances to be more preferred than consonances in single chord perception, although the authors did not systematically vary register and consonance in their study; these omissions were explored here. An online empirical experiment was conducted where participants (N = 410) evaluated chords on the dimensions of Valence, Tension, Energy, Consonance, and Preference; 15 different chords were played with piano timbre across two octaves. The results suggest significant differences on all dimensions across chord types, and a strong correlation between perceived dissonance and tension. The register and inversions contributed to the evaluations significantly, nonmusicians distinguishing between triadic inversions similarly to musicians. The mildly dissonant minor ninth, major ninth, and minor seventh chords were rated highest for preference, regardless of musical sophistication. The role of theoretical explanations such as aggregate dyadic consonance, the inverted-U hypothesis, and psychoacoustic roughness, harmonicity, and sharpness will be discussed to account for the preference of mild dissonance over consonance in single chord perception. PMID:27433333

  14. Mild Epicureanism: notes toward the definition of a therapeutic attitude.

    PubMed

    Strenger, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    Psychotherapists generally feel uncomfortable addressing patients' beliefs, particularly religious beliefs, because of the desire to respect client subjectivity and to avoid the abuse of therapeutic authority. This paper's first contention is that at some junctures, investigation of the client's belief structure can be an important catalyst for change, as exemplified by an extended case example. This stance assumes that much of the individual and collective damage rigid belief systems inflict derives from their function as a defense against death awareness, as described by terror management theory. The paper develops the concept of a therapeutic meta-attitude towards belief mild Epicureanism, related to the classical Greek philosopher Epicurus (341-270 BC). Mild Epicureanism means to soften attachments to all belief systems, even therapeutic theories, to lower their potential inhibition of personal growth. The paper presents the argument that mild Epicureanism is consistent with most therapeutic approaches, and allows addressing clients' belief without interfering with their right to make up their own minds. PMID:18605130

  15. The postconcussion syndrome and the sequelae of mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Evans, R W

    1992-11-01

    The postconcussion syndrome refers to a large number of symptoms and signs that may occur alone or in combination following usually mild head injury. The most common complaints are headaches, dizziness, fatigue, irritability, anxiety, insomnia, loss of consciousness and memory, and noise sensitivity. Mild head injury is a major public health concern because the annual incidence is about 150 per 100,000 population, accounting for 75% or more of all head injuries. The postconcussion syndrome has been recognized for at least the last few hundred years and has been the subject of intense controversy for more than 100 years. The Hollywood head injury myth has been an important contributor to persisting skepticism and might be countered by educational efforts and counter-examples from boxing. The organicity of the postconcussion syndrome has now become well documented. Abnormalities following mild head injury have been reported in neuropathologic, neurophysiologic, neuroimaging, and neuropsychologic studies. There are multiple sequelae of mild head injury, including headaches of multiple types, cranial nerve symptoms and signs, psychologic and somatic complaints, and cognitive impairment. Rare sequelae include hematomas, seizures, transient global amnesia, tremor, and dystonia. Neuroimaging and physiologic and psychologic testing should be used judiciously based on the problems of the particular patient rather than in a cookbook fashion. Prognostic studies clearly substantiate the existence of a postconcussion syndrome. Manifestations of the postconcussion syndrome are common, with resolution in most patients by 3 to 6 months after the injury. Persistent symptoms and cognitive deficits are present in a distinct minority of patients for additional months or years. Risk factors for persisting sequelae include age over 40 years; lower educational, intellectual, and socioeconomic level; female gender; alcohol abuse; prior head injury; and multiple trauma. Although a small

  16. Long-term evolution and predictive factors of mild inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Reenaers, C; Pirard, C; Vankemseke, C; Latour, P; Belaiche, J; Louis, E

    2016-06-01

    Background Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are potentially progressive diseases. Few data are available on the prevalence and the factors associated with mild inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Aim Our aim was to assess the natural history of mild CD and mild UC and to identify predictive factors of mild evolution over the long term. Methods Retrospective study of IBD patients registered in the database of the university hospital CHU of Liège, Belgium. Mild CD was defined as an inflammatory luminal disease (no stricture, abdominal or perianal fistulae) requiring no immunomodulator (IM), anti-TNF and no surgery. Mild UC was defined as no requirement for IM, anti-TNF and no colectomy. Results Four hundred and seventy-three CD and 189 UC were included (median follow-up: 13 and 11 years respectively). At 1 year, 147 patients had mild CD. At 5 years and the maximum follow-up, 56% and 13% patients still had mild CD, respectively. At 1 year, 142 patients had mild UC. At 5 years and the maximum follow-up, 72% and 44% still had a mild UC, respectively. Factors associated with long-term mild CD and UC were older age at diagnosis and absence of corticosteroids in the first year. In UC proctitis location was associated with mild UC. Conclusions In this cohort, 90% of CD patients and 3/4 of UC with mild disease at 1 year lost their mild disease status over time. An old age at diagnosis was predictive of the persistence of a mild CD and UC. PMID:26815198

  17. Recovery from Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Previously Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Losoi, Heidi; Silverberg, Noah D; Wäljas, Minna; Turunen, Senni; Rosti-Otajärvi, Eija; Helminen, Mika; Luoto, Teemu M; Julkunen, Juhani; Öhman, Juha; Iverson, Grant L

    2016-04-15

    This prospective longitudinal study reports recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) across multiple domains in a carefully selected consecutive sample of 74 previously healthy adults. The patients with MTBI and 40 orthopedic controls (i.e., ankle injuries) completed assessments at 1, 6, and 12 months after injury. Outcome measures included cognition, post-concussion symptoms, depression, traumatic stress, quality of life, satisfaction with life, resilience, and return to work. Patients with MTBI reported more post-concussion symptoms and fatigue than the controls at the beginning of recovery, but by 6 months after injury, did not differ as a group from nonhead injury trauma controls on cognition, fatigue, or mental health, and by 12 months, their level of post-concussion symptoms and quality of life was similar to that of controls. Almost all (96%) patients with MTBI returned to work/normal activities (RTW) within the follow-up of 1 year. A subgroup of those with MTBIs and controls reported mild post-concussion-like symptoms at 1 year. A large percentage of the subgroup who had persistent symptoms had a modifiable psychological risk factor at 1 month (i.e., depression, traumatic stress, and/or low resilience), and at 6 months, they had greater post-concussion symptoms, fatigue, insomnia, traumatic stress, and depression, and worse quality of life. All of the control subjects who had mild post-concussion-like symptoms at 12 months also had a mental health problem (i.e., depression, traumatic stress, or both). This illustrates the importance of providing evidence-supported treatment and rehabilitation services early in the recovery period. PMID:26437675

  18. A rodent model of mild traumatic brain blast injury.

    PubMed

    Perez-Polo, J R; Rea, H C; Johnson, K M; Parsley, M A; Unabia, G C; Xu, G-Y; Prough, D; DeWitt, D S; Spratt, H; Hulsebosch, C E

    2015-04-01

    One of the criteria defining mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in humans is a loss of consciousness lasting for less than 30 min. mTBI can result in long-term impairment of cognition and behavior. In rats, the length of time it takes a rat to right itself after injury is considered to be an analog for human return to consciousness. This study characterized a rat mild brain blast injury (mBBI) model defined by a righting response reflex time (RRRT) of more than 4 min but less than 10 min. Assessments of motor coordination relying on beam-balance and foot-fault assays and reference memory showed significant impairment in animals exposed to mBBI. This study's hypothesis is that there are inflammatory outcomes to mTBI over time that cause its deleterious effects. For example, mBBI significantly increased brain levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) protein. There were significant inflammatory responses in the cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and amygdala 6 hr after mBBI, as evidenced by increased levels of the inflammatory markers associated with activation of microglia and macrophages, ionized calcium binding adaptor 1 (IBA1), impairment of the blood-brain barrier, and significant neuronal losses. There were significant increases in phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) levels, a putative precursor to the development of neuroencephalopathy, as early as 6 hr after mBBI in the cortex and the hippocampus but not in the thalamus or the amygdala. There was an apparent correlation between RRRTs and p-Tau protein levels but not IBA1. These results suggest potential therapies for mild blast injuries via blockade of the IL-1β and TNFα receptors. PMID:25410497

  19. Idiopathic and mild subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood: clinical management.

    PubMed

    De Luca, F; Corica, D; Pitrolo, E; Santucci, S; Romeo, M

    2014-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is a common clinical problem in children and adolescents, for which there are many controversial issues regarding natural course and management. Aim of this review is to report on the state of the art regarding these controversial points of idiopathic SH in pediatric age. We included in our search only full-length articles on natural history and treatment of SH in children with no associated diseases or genetic syndromes, thus identifying only 13 papers that were suitable for our analysis. According to the results of these retrospective or longitudinal studies a persistently mild TSH elevation (between 5 and 10 mIU/L) in SH children with no underlying disease is unable to affect growth and bone maturation or body mass index (two studies) or cognitive function (one study). Moreover, the risk of a deterioration over time of thyroid function in the untreated cases with mild and idiophatic SH is only 12% (one study). Progression odds increase with increasing baseline TSH, with goiter presence and with positive anti-thyroid antibodies (two studies in children). Although no broad consensus exists on whether children with mild SH require L-T4 therapy, nevertheless, on the basis of the results of the majority of included studies, it can be concluded that L-T4 treatment is not indicated when TSH is repeatedly between 5 and 10 mIU/L and an underlying disease has been excluded. By contrast, treatment is suitable in the cases with TSH>10 mIU/L and/or an underlying disease. PMID:24608582

  20. How does mild hypothermia affect monoclonal antibody glycosylation?

    PubMed

    Sou, Si Nga; Sellick, Christopher; Lee, Ken; Mason, Alison; Kyriakopoulos, Sarantos; Polizzi, Karen M; Kontoravdi, Cleo

    2015-06-01

    The application of mild hypothermic conditions to cell culture is a routine industrial practice used to improve recombinant protein production. However, a thorough understanding of the regulation of dynamic cellular processes at lower temperatures is necessary to enhance bioprocess design and optimization. In this study, we investigated the impact of mild hypothermia on protein glycosylation. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing a monoclonal antibody (mAb) were cultured at 36.5°C and with a temperature shift to 32°C during late exponential/early stationary phase. Experimental results showed higher cell viability with decreased metabolic rates. The specific antibody productivity increased by 25% at 32°C and was accompanied by a reduction in intracellular nucleotide sugar donor (NSD) concentrations and a decreased proportion of the more processed glycan structures on the mAb constant region. To better understand CHO cell metabolism at 32°C, flux balance analysis (FBA) was carried out and constrained with exometabolite data from stationary phase of cultures with or without a temperature shift. Estimated fluxomes suggested reduced fluxes of carbon species towards nucleotide and NSD synthesis and more energy was used for product formation. Expression of the glycosyltransferases that are responsible for N-linked glycan branching and elongation were significantly lower at 32°C. As a result of mild hypothermia, mAb glycosylation was shown to be affected by both NSD availability and glycosyltransferase expression. The combined experimental/FBA approach generated insight as to how product glycosylation can be impacted by changes in culture temperature. Better feeding strategies can be developed based on the understanding of the metabolic flux distribution. PMID:25545631

  1. The fate of sulfur in mild gasification liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Koncar, G.J.; Babu, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    This investigation addresses the determination of sulfur distribution in mild gasification liquids produced from untreated coal and from modified in two ways to reduce sulfur in the products: (a) physical mixing with a sulfur scavenger (CaO), and (b) pretreatment with aqueous alkali followed by mixing with CaO. Coal pyrolysis in the presence of CaO has previously been investigated, (3,5) showing that CaO can be effective in reducing the sulfur content of the fuel gas, and possibly that of the product liquids. Pretreatment of coals with alkaline chemicals has also been studied,(6,7) showing reduced sulfur and other changes in the liquid products.(8) Data on sulfur distribution in the liquid products could be useful for understanding the chemistry of alkali pretreatment and CaO interaction with coal sulfur during pyrolysis. In this work, a pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC) technique that simulates mild gasification on a milligram scale was used in conjunction with a carbon-specific flame ionization detector (FID) and a sulfur-specific flame photometric detector (FPD) to determine the sulfur distribution in oils/tars from Illinois No. 6 coal. A low-resolution packed GC column was employed to resolve oils/tars by carbon number, with ranges selected to approximate distillation fractions which might be recovered from a commercial mild gasification process. Oils/tars up to C{sub 18} were also collected from the pyro-probe effluent into dichloromethane for off-line study using a high-resolution GC with atomic emission detector (GC/AED) and with GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to measure specific sulfur compounds. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  2. An update on topical therapies for mild-moderate psoriasis.

    PubMed

    van de Kerkhof, Peter C M

    2015-01-01

    Topical therapies are the mainstream treatment of psoriasis because most patients have mild disease. First-line treatments are vitamin D derivatives and corticosteroids. These treatments are usually given in combination schedules. For topical treatments the selection of the most appropriate vehicle is of major importance, thus improving adherence to the treatment, which frequently is impaired by the complexities of topical therapeutic choices. Evidence for efficacy and safety of topical treatments is readily available for vitamin D treatments and short-term treatment with corticosteroids. However, the scientific evidence for longer-term treatments is limited. Multiple new small molecules are in various stages of development and are reviewed. PMID:25412784

  3. Mild to moderate postnatal hydronephrosis--grading systems and management.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, Matthew D; Herndon, C D Anthony

    2013-11-01

    No universal guidelines exist for the management of patients with mild to moderate antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH). Unsurprisingly, practice patterns vary considerably with respect to recommendations for postnatal evaluation and follow-up imaging schedule. Although some clinical tools are available to specifically grade ANH and postnatal hydronephrosis, these are commonly used interchangeably with varying degrees of success. A universal classification system and nomenclature are needed to best identify patients at risk of renal deterioration, UTI and need for surgical intervention. We present our own approach to postnatal risk stratification and management, including recommendations regarding serial ultrasonography schedule, prophylactic antibiotics, voiding cystourethrogram and renal scintigraphy. PMID:23958828

  4. Teaching banking skills to mildly mentally retarded adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aeschleman, S R; Gedig, K S

    1985-01-01

    In this study, two experiments evaluated a classroom training program designed to teach basic banking skills to three mildly mentally retarded adolescents. The participants were taught to open savings and checking accounts during Experiment I and to conduct banking transactions during Experiment II. The banking transaction skills acquired in Experiment II maintained at high levels and generalized to two novel environments for two participants, whereas moderate generalization and maintenance scores were obtained by the third participant. The average performance of the mentally retarded participants compared favorably with the scores obtained by 10 college student volunteers in both the percentage of correct responses and the pattern of incorrect responses. PMID:4073890

  5. Lifelong Reading Disorder and Mild Cognitive Impairment: Implications for Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lebowitz, Brian K.; Weinstein, Cheryl; Beiser, Alexa; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Auerbach, Sandford; Au, Rhoda

    2016-01-01

    Although neuropsychological tests are commonly used in the evaluation of possible mild cognitive impairment (MCI), poor test scores may be indicative of factors other than neurological compromise. The current study assessed the role of lifelong reading disorder on MCI classification. Community dwelling older adults with a suspected developmental reading disorder were identified by inference based on reading test performance. Individuals with a suspected reading disorder were significantly more likely to perform at a level consistent with MCI on several commonly used neuropsychological tests. The findings suggest a relationship between a history of reading disorder and MCI classification. PMID:26639959

  6. Mild approaches in assisted reproduction--better for the future?

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Nargund, Geeta

    2014-12-01

    Mild approaches in assisted reproduction are aimed at achieving quality and not quantity of gametes, embryos, and endometrium with a view to protecting the long-term health and welfare of women and children at an affordable cost. The true success of IVF is in creating children who are full term and normal for gestational age without compromising the health of their mothers. Equal access to IVF treatment can only be achieved by reducing the cost and complications. The state and the society should not suffer as a consequence of IVF treatment. This is the time for change. PMID:25458619

  7. An Iron Catalyst for Ketone Hydrogenations Under Mild Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, R. Morris

    2007-10-01

    Casey and Guan reported a homogeneous catalyst for ketone hydrogenation that does not require a precious metal, but instead is based on iron. Excellent yields and chemoselectivity for hydrogenation are found under mild conditions (25 °C, 3 atm H2). An ionic hydrogenation mechanism allows the delivery of a proton from the OH and a hydride from the metal. RMB gratefully acknowledges funding from the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy, and from a grant from the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  8. Mild oxidative stress is beneficial for sperm telomere length maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Swetasmita; Kumar, Rajeev; Malhotra, Neena; Singh, Neeta; Dada, Rima

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate telomere length in sperm DNA and its correlation with oxidative stress (normal, mild, severe). METHODS: The study included infertile men (n = 112) and age matched fertile controls (n = 102). The average telomere length from the sperm DNA was measured using a quantitative real time PCR based assay. Seminal reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 8-Isoprostane (8-IP) levels were measured by chemiluminescence assay and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: Average sperm telomere length in infertile men and controls was 0.609 ± 0.15 and 0.789 ± 0.060, respectively (P < 0.0001). Seminal ROS levels in infertile was higher [66.61 ± 28.32 relative light units (RLU)/s/million sperm] than in controls (14.04 ± 10.67 RLU/s/million sperm) (P < 0.0001). The 8-IP level in infertile men was significantly higher (421.55 ± 131.29 pg/mL) than in controls (275.94 ± 48.13 pg/mL) (P < 0.001). When correlated to oxidative stress, in normal range of oxidative stress (ROS, 0-21.3 RLU/s/million sperm) the average telomere length in cases was 0.663 ± 0.14, in mild oxidative stress (ROS, 21.3-35 RLU/s/million sperm) it was elevated (0.684 ± 0.12) and in severe oxidative stress (ROS > 35 RLU/s/million sperm) average telomere length was decreased to 0.595 ± 0.15. CONCLUSION: Mild oxidative stress results in lengthening of telomere length, but severe oxidative stress results in shorter telomeres. Although telomere maintenance is a complex trait, the study shows that mild oxidative stress is beneficial in telomere length maintenance and thus a delicate balance needs to be established to maximize the beneficial effects of free radicals and prevent harmful effects of supra physiological levels. Detailed molecular evaluation of telomere structure, its correlation with oxidative stress would aid in elucidating the cause of accelerated telomere length attrition. PMID:27376021

  9. Clinical Trial Design Issues in Mild to Moderate Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knopman, David S.

    2009-01-01

    The field of clinical trials and therapeutics in Alzheimer Disease (AD) is little more than 20 years old. Considerable progress has been made in crafting appropriate designs for clinical trials of promising therapeutic agents for AD. This article reviews basic issues in diagnostic criteria, choice of outcome measures, duration of trials and analytic strategies. Through trial and error, a general set of strategies has evolved for the assessment of putative therapies for mild to moderate AD. The experience of the past two decades has set the stage for discovering the next generation of anti-AD drugs and introducing those therapies at milder stages of the disease. PMID:19057167

  10. The new DSM-5 diagnosis of mild neurocognitive disorder and its relation to research in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Blazer, Dan G

    2015-01-01

    The Diagnostic Statistical Manual-5 (DSM-5) has included a category named the neurocognitive disorder which was formally known in DSM-IV as 'dementia, delirium, amnestic, and other cognitive disorders'. The DSM-5 distinguishes between 'mild' and 'major' neurocognitive disorders. Major neurocognitive disorder replaces the DSM-IV's term 'dementia or other debilitating conditions'. A pivotal addition is 'mild neurocognitive disorder (mNCD)' defined by a noticeable decrement in cognitive functioning that goes beyond normal changes seen in aging. It is a disorder that may progress to dementia - importantly, it may not. Presently, our understanding of mNCD is derived from research on mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Whereas there is currently no clear treatment for mNCD, many experimental therapies now and into the future will focus upon secondary prevention, namely decreasing the risk of progression to major NCD. In this article, we will focus on mNCD by reviewing the relevant literature on MCI. We will review the research on the incidence and prevalence of MCI, conversion rates from MCI to dementia, risk factors for conversion of MCI to dementia, comorbidity of MCI with other neuropsychiatric disorders (NPS), and the development of treatment strategies for neuropsychiatric disorders in MCI. The presence of NPS is common among individuals with MCI and is an important risk for progression to dementia. However, there has been little research on effective treatments for NPS in MCI. Clinicians and investigators must determine if the treatment of the NPS in mNCD will improve quality of life and help reduce the progression of the cognitive impairment. PMID:24914889

  11. Evidence for the Therapeutic Efficacy of Either Mild Hypothermia or Oxygen Radical Scavengers after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Miyauchi, Takashi; Wei, Enoch P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Repetitive brain injury, particularly that occurring with sporting-related injuries, has recently garnered increased attention in both the clinical and public settings. In the laboratory, we have demonstrated the adverse axonal and vascular consequences of repetitive brain injury and have demonstrated that moderate hypothermia and/or FK506 exerted protective effects after repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) when administered within a specific time frame, suggesting a range of therapeutic modalities to prevent a dramatic exacerbation. In this communication, we revisit the utility of targeted therapeutic intervention to seek the minimal level of hypothermia needed to achieve protection while probing the role of oxygen radicals and their therapeutic targeting. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to repetitive mTBI by impact acceleration injury. Mild hypothermia (35°C, group 2), superoxide dismutase (group 3), and Tempol (group 4) were employed as therapeutic interventions administered 1 h after the repetitive mTBI. To assess vascular function, cerebral vascular reactivity to acetylcholine was evaluated 3 and 4 h after the repetitive mTBI, whereas to detect the burden of axonal damage, amyloid precursor protein (APP) density in the medullospinal junction was measured. Whereas complete impairment of vascular reactivity was observed in group 1 (without intervention), significant preservation of vascular reactivity was found in the other groups. Similarly, whereas remarkable increase in the APP-positive axon was observed in group 1, there were no significant increases in the other groups. Collectively, these findings indicate that even mild hypothermia or the blunting free radical damage, even when performed in a delayed period, is protective in repetitive mTBI. PMID:24341607

  12. Do UCP2 and mild uncoupling improve longevity?

    PubMed

    Dikov, Daniel; Aulbach, Angelique; Muster, Britta; Dröse, Stefan; Jendrach, Marina; Bereiter-Hahn, Jürgen

    2010-08-01

    Mild uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration is considered to prolong life span of organisms by reducing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Experimental evidence against this hypothesis has been brought forward by premature senescence in cell cultures treated with uncouplers. Exposing HUVEC to a mixture of nutritionally important fatty acids (oil extract of chicken yolk) mild uncoupling with "naturally acting substances" was performed. This treatment also resulted in premature senescence although ROS production did not increase. Fatty acids activate uncoupling proteins (UCP) in the inner mitochondrial membrane. UCP2 expression proved to be sensitive to the presence of fatty acids but remains unchanged during the ageing process. UCP3 expression in senescent HUVEC and avUCP expression in senescent CEF were considerably less than in young cultures. No indication for protonophoric reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential was found in UCP2 overexpressing HeLa cells and only little in HUVEC. ROS levels increased instead of being reduced in these cells. Stable transfection with UCP2-GFP was possible only in chick embryo fibroblasts and HeLa cells and resulted in decreased proliferation. Stable transfection of HUVEC with UCP2-GFP resulted in death of cultures within one or two weeks. The reason for this behaviour most probably is apoptosis preceded by mitochondrial fragmentation and loss of membrane potential. PMID:20332018

  13. Is Mild Dementia Related to Unsafe Street-Crossing Decisions?

    PubMed

    Dommes, Aurélie; Wu, Ya-Huei; Aquino, Jean-Pierre; Pitti-Ferrandi, Hélène; Soleille, Martine; Martineau-Fleury, Sophie; Samson, Michel; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The overrepresentation of very old people (75 or older) in pedestrian crash statistics raises the issue of the effects of normal and pathologic ageing on gap-selection difficulties during street crossing. The present study focused on Alzheimer disease, a condition commonly associated with cognitive declines detrimental to daily life activities such as crossing the street. Twenty-five participants with mild dementia and 33 controls carried out a street-crossing task in a simulated environment. They also took a battery of cognitive tests. The mild-dementia group was more likely than the control group to make decisions that led to collisions with approaching cars, especially when the traffic was coming from 2 directions and they were in the far lane. Regression analyses demonstrated that the increased likelihood of collisions in the dementia group was associated with impairments in processing-speed and visual-attention abilities assessed on the Useful Field of View test. This test has already proven useful for predicting driving outcomes, falls, and street-crossing difficulties in healthy old adults, and among drivers with Alzheimer disease. Clinicians are encouraged to use it to help estimate whether a patient can drive, walk, and cross a street safely. PMID:25494367

  14. Histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemic and diabetic women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate and compare the incidence of histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemia, gestational diabetes and overt diabetes at term and preterm gestation. Research design and methods One-hundred-and-thirty-one placental samples were collected from Diabetes mellitus (DM) positive screened patients. Two diagnostic tests, glycemic profile and 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in parallel identified 4 groups normoglycemic, mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH), gestational DM (GDM) or overt DM (DM). Placental tissue specimens and sections from 4 groups were obtained by uniform random sampling and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results Placentas from MGH group presented 17 types of histopathological change and higher rates of syncytial nodes and endarteritis. GDM placentas presented only nine types of histopathological change, high rates of dysmaturity, low rates of calcification and no syncytial nodes. Overt DM placentas showed 22 types of histopathological change, 21 of which were present in the preterm period. There were histopathological similarities between MGH and DM placentas, but the former exhibited a higher incidence of endarteritis, which has been described as a "post-mortem" phenomenon. Conclusion Our results confirmed that the distinct placental changes associated with DM and MGH depend on gestational period during which the diabetic insult occurs. It may reasonably be inferred that subclinical maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy, as showed in MGH group, is responsible for increased placental endarteritis, a postmortem lesion in the live fetus. PMID:21831283

  15. Female gonadal hormones, mild restraint, and male preference.

    PubMed

    Uphouse, L; Hiegel, C; Sarkar, J; Hurlburt, J; Templeton, C; Guptarak, J; Maswood, N

    2008-10-01

    The partner preference paradigm was used to test the hypothesis that mild restraint reduced sexual motivation of female rats. Ovariectomized rats were primed with 10 pg estradiol benzoate or estradiol benzoate and 500 microg progesterone. Additional rats were injected with sesame seed oil. These three groups of rats (oil-oil, estradiol benzoate-oil, or estradiol benzoate-progesterone; OO, EO, EP) were placed for 10 min in an arena, the ends of which enclosed either a sexually active male or an ovariectomized, unprimed female. Time spent near the sexually active male relative to time spent near either stimulus animal was used as the index of male preference. As expected, hormonal treatment significantly increased male preference. After this first 10 min interval, females were returned to the home cage or restrained for 5 min in a Decapicone. Thereafter, male preference was recorded for another 10 min. Consistent with the first 10 min period, EP rats spent significantly more time near the male than did OO rats while EO rats were intermediate. There was no effect of restraint, but there was a significant increase in self-grooming. These findings contrast with previous studies and allow the suggestion that a brief, mild restraint fails to influence the female's sexual motivation. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:18582496

  16. Comparison of four noninvasive rewarming methods for mild hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Daanen, H A; Van de Linde, F J

    1992-12-01

    Four noninvasive rewarming techniques for mildly hypothermic subjects were compared. Seven subjects were cooled in a water bath of 15 degrees C for 2 h to an average esophageal temperature (Tes) of 36 degrees C. Thereafter, the subjects were rewarmed by immersion of the body in a water bath of 42 degrees C (Method 1), the body but not the extremities in water of 42 degrees C (Method 2), only the extremities in water of 42 degrees C (Method 3), or spontaneous rewarming in blankets (Method 4). Method 1 showed the highest rewarming rate in Tes (10.1 degrees C/h) and an afterdrop in Tes of 0.18 degrees C. Method 2 showed the same afterdrop, but a lower rewarming rate (7.5 degrees C/h). In Method 3, the heat uptake of the extremities was too low to rewarm the subjects effectively. The afterdrop and rewarming rate were 0.38 degrees C and 0.8 degrees C/h, respectively. Method 4 had the lowest rewarming rate (0.2 degrees C/h), and an afterdrop (0.14 degrees C) which was not significantly lower than that of Method 1 or 2. Therefore, Method 1 is recommended for rewarming mild hypothermic subjects because of its high rewarming rate and small afterdrop. PMID:1456918

  17. Risk of cervical cancer associated with mild dyskaryosis.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J H; Woodend, B E; Crozier, E H; Hutchinson, J

    1988-07-01

    In a survey of 1781 patients who had mild dyskaryosis in a cervical smear taken between 1965 and 1984 invasive cancer occurred in 10 women. In four cancer was diagnosed soon after presentation, and in three it developed some years after default from follow up. Invasion occurred in one patient during cytological surveillance and in a further two after referral for colposcopic supervision. A poor correlation was found between a single cervical smear showing mild dyskaryosis and biopsy results. This was, however, improved by a series of smears. During initial surveillance cervical smear results reverted to normal in 46% of our patients within two years. During longer term follow up none of these patients developed invasive cancer, and life table analysis showed that three quarters had not relapsed after 14 years. We also found no evidence to suggest that preinvasive disease is more rapidly progressive in younger women. Our results indicate that cytological surveillance is acceptably safe provided that biopsy is advised if dyskaryosis persists. PMID:3408902

  18. Alexander disease with mild dorsal brainstem atrophy and infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Torisu, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Yoko; Yamaguchi-Takada, Yui; Yano, Tamami; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Sawaishi, Yukio; Hara, Toshiro

    2013-05-01

    We present the case of a Japanese male infant with Alexander disease who developed infantile spasms at 8 months of age. The patient had a cluster of partial seizures at 4 months of age. He presented with mild general hypotonia and developmental delay. Macrocephaly was not observed. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings fulfilled all MRI-based criteria for the diagnosis of Alexander disease and revealed mild atrophy of the dorsal pons and medulla oblongata with abnormal intensities. DNA analysis disclosed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.1154 C>T, p.S385F) in the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene. At 8 months of age, tonic spasms occurred, and electroencephalography (EEG) revealed hypsarrhythmia. Lamotrigine effectively controlled the infantile spasms and improved the abnormal EEG findings. Although most patients with infantile Alexander disease have epilepsy, infantile spasms are rare. This comorbid condition may be associated with the distribution of the brain lesions and the age at onset of Alexander disease. PMID:22818990

  19. Diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    De Kruijk, J R; Twijnstra, A; Leffers, P

    2001-02-01

    Brain injury is classified clinically as severe, moderate or mild brain injury characteristics, including admission Glasgow coma score, duration of unconsciousness and post-traumatic amnesia and any focal neurological findings. Most traumatic brain injuries are classified as mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Headache, nausea and dizziness are frequent symptoms after MTBI and may continue for weeks to months after the trauma. MTBI may also be complicated by intracranial injuries. Experimental animal models and post-mortem studies have shown axonal damage and dysfunction in MTBI. This damage is mostly localized in the frontal lobes. Serum S-100 and NSE have been reported to be markers for the seventy of brain damage. In the literature, indications for radiodiagnostic evaluation following MTBI have been the subject of debate. Radiographs of the skull are used to exclude skull fractures, but are not useful for an evaluation of brain injury. Computed tomography of the brain seems to be the best way to exclude the development of relevant intracranial lesions. MTBI has a good clinical outcome, although a substantial group of patients develop post-concussional complaints (PCC). There is little information on the effectiveness of various methods suggested for reducing the frequency of PCC. PMID:11260760

  20. Reducing biomass recalcitrance via mild sodium carbonate pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Mirmohamadsadeghi, Safoora; Chen, Zhu; Wan, Caixia

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effects of mild sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of different feedstocks (i.e., corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass). The results showed that sodium carbonate pretreatment markedly enhanced the sugar yields of the tested biomass feedstocks. The pretreated corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass gave the glucose yields of 95.1%, 62.3%, and 81.3%, respectively, after enzymatic hydrolysis. The above glucose yields of pretreated feedstocks were 2-4 times that of untreated ones. The pretreatment also enhanced the xylose yields, 4 times for corn stover and 20 times for both Miscanthus and switchgrass. Sodium carbonate pretreatment removed 40-59% lignin from the tested feedstocks while preserving most of cellulose (<5% cellulose loss). Corn stover appeared to be least resistant to breakdown by Na2CO3 and enzymatic hydrolysis. Our study indicated that mild sodium carbonate pretreatment was effective for reducing biomass recalcitrance and subsequently improving the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:26972025

  1. Sex differences in the chronic mild stress model of depression.

    PubMed

    Franceschelli, Anthony; Herchick, Samantha; Thelen, Connor; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta; Pitychoutis, Pothitos M

    2014-09-01

    A large volume of clinical and experimental evidence documents sex differences in brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, as well as in stress and drug responses. The chronic mild stress model (CMS) is one of the most extensively investigated animal models of chronic stress. However, only a limited number of studies have been conducted in female rodents despite the markedly higher prevalence of major depression among women. Herein, we review CMS studies conducted in rats and mice of both sexes and further discuss intriguing sex-dependent behavioral and neurobiological findings. The PubMed literature search engine was used to find and collect all relevant articles analyzed in this review. Specifically, a multitermed search was performed with 'chronic mild stress', 'chronic unpredictable stress' and 'chronic variable stress' as base terms and 'sex', 'gender', 'females' and 'depression' as secondary terms in various combinations. Male and female rodents appear to be differentially affected by CMS application, depending on the behavioral, physiological, and neurobiological indices that are being measured. Importantly, the CMS paradigm, despite its limitations, has been successfully used to assess a constellation of interdisciplinary research questions in the sex differences field and has served as a 'silver bullet' in assessing the role of sex in the neurobiology of major depression. PMID:25025701

  2. Topical rebamipide improves the ocular surface in mild lagophthalmos

    PubMed Central

    Itakura, Mariko; Itakura, Hirotaka; Kashima, Tomoyuki; Akiyama, Hideo; Kishi, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Administration of topical rebamipide improves the ocular surface in dry eye. We consecutively studied seven eyes in seven cases (three males and four females) with mild lagophthalmos (three cases after eyelid surgery, two cases of incomplete facial nerve palsy, and two cases of senile ectropion) during the treatment of corneal disorders with rebamipide eye drops four times daily for 2 weeks. The fluorescein corneal staining (FCS) score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer’s test, and decimal visual acuity were examined. Ocular symptoms were examined and scored by questioning each patient before and after administration of the drug. In all seven eyes, inferior corneal erosion decreased or disappeared within 2 weeks after administration of topical rebamipide. The FCS score was significantly improved (P < 0.05). The TBUT was significantly extended from 2.9 ± 0.5 seconds to 5.2 ± 0.4 seconds (P < 0.05). The scores of ocular symptoms, such as eye pain, dryness, blurred vision, and foreign body sensations, were significantly improved (P < 0.05).Topical rebamipide was effective for corneal disorders in mild lagophthalmos. This drug may provide a novel approach to treat lagophthalmos. PMID:23836962

  3. Mild hydrocracking in heavy oils in the 80's

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnemans, J.W.M.; D'Amico, V.J.; Desai, P.H.; Dixon, P.H.; Plantenga, F.L.

    1984-03-01

    Many refiners have determined that mild hydrocracking (MHC) is an attractive alternative for converting heavy fuel oils to lighter mid-distillates which are increasingly in demand. Important advantages of MHC are the selective formation of high quality diesel blendstock and the ability to apply this technology in existing vacuum gas oil (VGO) desulfurizers. This paper discusses the criteria for optimizing both catalyst choice and utilization to maximize the economic benefits of MHC. The MHC performance of conventional hydrotreating catalysts and a new generation of MHC catalysts developed by AKZO Chemie's Ketjen Catalyst Group is compared. By applying these new catalysts, conversion levels of 45%, representing an absolute increase of up to 12% over conventional catalysts, may be realized. The improved MHC catalysts have excellent stability. Application studies demonstrate that more than one catalyst type may be needed to optimize conversion for a specific application. Reactor configuration (e.g. single versus multiple bed), feedstock and processing conditions determine the choice of the optimal catalyst(s). Process studies and economic evaluations by Lummus-Crest Inc. indicate that the mild hydrocracking process is an effective way to upgrade heavy oils. For a 20,000 BPSD unit, additional revenue as high as 15 million dollars per year may be realized when going from the HDS to MHC mode of operation. Payout times for revamp investments, when necessary to optimize either conversion and/or the refiner's product slate, are estimated to be about one year.

  4. Mild Depressive Symptoms and Slowing Across Multiple Functional Domains

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Steven M.; Bear-Lehman, Jane; Burkhardt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background Subthreshold depressive symptoms are common in older adults. The threshold for the clinical significance of such symptoms is unclear. Mechanisms linking depressed mood to increased risk of disability need further investigation. Methods Older adults who did not meet criteria for depression were divided into two groups based on the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2). Respondents reporting no anhedonia and dysphoria over the past 2 weeks were compared to respondents reporting occasional symptoms on a battery of cognitive, psychomotor, and physical performance tests. Results Of 290 community-resident participants without dementia or neurologic disease, 32% (n=93) reported at least one of the two depressive symptoms “several days” in the past 2 weeks. Older adults with mild depressive symptoms did not differ in ADL or IADL disability but reported more physician-diagnosed medical conditions (1.8 vs. 2.2, p < .01) and balance problems (2.9 vs. 1.8 on 0–7 scale, p < .001). Subthreshold depressive symptoms were associated with slowing in gait (p < .01), chair stand time (p < .01) and performance on Trails A (p < .05) and B (p < .001). Conclusions Mild depressive symptoms in people who do not meet criteria for depression are associated with slowing across multiple domains. PMID:21801471

  5. Directed network motifs in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Eric J; Young, Karl; Tremper, Graham; Liang, Jason; Landsberg, Adam S; Schuff, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Directed network motifs are the building blocks of complex networks, such as human brain networks, and capture deep connectivity information that is not contained in standard network measures. In this paper we present the first application of directed network motifs in vivo to human brain networks, utilizing recently developed directed progression networks which are built upon rates of cortical thickness changes between brain regions. This is in contrast to previous studies which have relied on simulations and in vitro analysis of non-human brains. We show that frequencies of specific directed network motifs can be used to distinguish between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and normal control (NC) subjects. Especially interesting from a clinical standpoint, these motif frequencies can also distinguish between subjects with mild cognitive impairment who remained stable over three years (MCI) and those who converted to AD (CONV). Furthermore, we find that the entropy of the distribution of directed network motifs increased from MCI to CONV to AD, implying that the distribution of pathology is more structured in MCI but becomes less so as it progresses to CONV and further to AD. Thus, directed network motifs frequencies and distributional properties provide new insights into the progression of Alzheimer's disease as well as new imaging markers for distinguishing between normal controls, stable mild cognitive impairment, MCI converters and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25879535

  6. Corrosion of mild steel in simulated cesium elution process solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, M.R.

    1996-09-01

    The West Valley Support Project is being conducted to meet technology needs for the West Valley Demonstration Project and to provide support to the site cleanup and stabilization activities, which involves removing residual Cs in Tank 8D-1 after waste retrieval. In-tank oxalic acid elution of Cs-loaded zeolite is being evaluated. The work reported here involved evaluating the potential for increased corrosion of Tank 8D-1 during Cs elution, because oxalic acid is corrosive to carbon steel. This included corrosion tests with mild steel (A516 Grade 55) at 27-50 C with 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid, for 2, 4, and 6 days. Results agreed with Sept. 1995 tests at 50 C for 1-3 weeks. Corrosion rate of A516 Grade 55 mild steel in oxalic acid is quite high (about 150 mils/y or 3.8 mm/y). Corrosion increased three- or fourfold going from 27 to 50 C. Although the tests resulted in a very rough surface appearance, indicating potential for localized corrosion, eg, pitting and crevice corrosion, the exposure times used were apparently too short to initiate pitting.

  7. Neurosensory Symptom Complexes after Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Szczupak, Mikhaylo; Kiderman, Alexander; Crawford, James; Murphy, Sara; Marshall, Kathryn; Pelusso, Constanza

    2016-01-01

    Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) is a prominent public health issue. To date, subjective symptom complaints primarily dictate diagnostic and treatment approaches. As such, the description and qualification of these symptoms in the mTBI patient population is of great value. This manuscript describes the symptoms of mTBI patients as compared to controls in a larger study designed to examine the use of vestibular testing to diagnose mTBI. Five symptom clusters were identified: Post-Traumatic Headache/Migraine, Nausea, Emotional/Affective, Fatigue/Malaise, and Dizziness/Mild Cognitive Impairment. Our analysis indicates that individuals with mTBI have headache, dizziness, and cognitive dysfunction far out of proportion to those without mTBI. In addition, sleep disorders and emotional issues were significantly more common amongst mTBI patients than non-injured individuals. A simple set of questions inquiring about dizziness, headache, and cognitive issues may provide diagnostic accuracy. The consideration of other symptoms may be critical for providing prognostic value and treatment for best short-term outcomes or prevention of long-term complications. PMID:26727256

  8. Investigation of a sulfur reduction technique for mild gasification char

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The object of this program is to investigate the desulfurization of mild gasification char using hydrogen/methane mixtures in a laboratory-scale experimental study. In the first year of the two- year program, char is being treated with mixtures of H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} at temperatures of 1100{degrees}C to 1550{degrees}F and pressures of 50 to 100 psig. The effects of temperature, pressure, residence time, gas velocity, and gas composition on sulfur removal and carbon gasification are being determined. The batch experiments are being performed in a nominal 2-inch-ID stainless-steel, batch, fluidized-bed reactor. The char to be desulfurized was produced by the IGT mild gasification process research unit (PRU) in a recently completed DOE/METC-sponsored technology development program. The parent coal was Illinois No. 6 from a preparation plant, and the char from the selected test contains 4.58 wt% sulfur. In the first quarter, we have obtained and prepared a char for the desulfurization tests. Ultimate and proximate analyses were performed on this char, and its pore size distribution and surface area were determined. Also this quarter, the fluidized-bed reactor system was constructed and equipped with high pressure mass flow controllers and a high pressure sintered metal filter to remove fines from the effluent gas stream.

  9. Mild expression differences of MECP2 influencing aggressive social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tantra, Martesa; Hammer, Christian; Kästner, Anne; Dahm, Liane; Begemann, Martin; Bodda, Chiranjeevi; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Giegling, Ina; Stepniak, Beata; Castillo Venzor, Aracely; Konte, Bettina; Erbaba, Begun; Hartmann, Annette; Tarami, Asieh; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter; Rujescu, Dan; Mannan, Ashraf U; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2014-01-01

    The X-chromosomal MECP2/Mecp2 gene encodes methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, a transcriptional activator and repressor regulating many other genes. We discovered in male FVB/N mice that mild (∼50%) transgenic overexpression of Mecp2 enhances aggression. Surprisingly, when the same transgene was expressed in C57BL/6N mice, transgenics showed reduced aggression and social interaction. This suggests that Mecp2 modulates aggressive social behavior. To test this hypothesis in humans, we performed a phenotype-based genetic association study (PGAS) in >1000 schizophrenic individuals. We found MECP2 SNPs rs2239464 (G/A) and rs2734647 (C/T; 3′UTR) associated with aggression, with the G and C carriers, respectively, being more aggressive. This finding was replicated in an independent schizophrenia cohort. Allele-specific MECP2mRNA expression differs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by ∼50% (rs2734647: C > T). Notably, the brain-expressed, species-conserved miR-511 binds to MECP2 3′UTR only in T carriers, thereby suppressing gene expression. To conclude, subtle MECP2/Mecp2 expression alterations impact aggression. While the mouse data provides evidence of an interaction between genetic background and mild Mecp2 overexpression, the human data convey means by which genetic variation affects MECP2 expression and behavior. PMID:24648499

  10. Mild expression differences of MECP2 influencing aggressive social behavior.

    PubMed

    Tantra, Martesa; Hammer, Christian; Kästner, Anne; Dahm, Liane; Begemann, Martin; Bodda, Chiranjeevi; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Giegling, Ina; Stepniak, Beata; Castillo Venzor, Aracely; Konte, Bettina; Erbaba, Begun; Hartmann, Annette; Tarami, Asieh; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter; Rujescu, Dan; Mannan, Ashraf U; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2014-05-01

    The X-chromosomal MECP2/Mecp2 gene encodes methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, a transcriptional activator and repressor regulating many other genes. We discovered in male FVB/N mice that mild (~50%) transgenic overexpression of Mecp2 enhances aggression. Surprisingly, when the same transgene was expressed in C57BL/6N mice, transgenics showed reduced aggression and social interaction. This suggests that Mecp2 modulates aggressive social behavior. To test this hypothesis in humans, we performed a phenotype-based genetic association study (PGAS) in >1000 schizophrenic individuals. We found MECP2 SNPs rs2239464 (G/A) and rs2734647 (C/T; 3'UTR) associated with aggression, with the G and C carriers, respectively, being more aggressive. This finding was replicated in an independent schizophrenia cohort. Allele-specific MECP2 mRNA expression differs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by ~50% (rs2734647: C > T). Notably, the brain-expressed, species-conserved miR-511 binds to MECP2 3'UTR only in T carriers, thereby suppressing gene expression. To conclude, subtle MECP2/Mecp2 expression alterations impact aggression. While the mouse data provides evidence of an interaction between genetic background and mild Mecp2 overexpression, the human data convey means by which genetic variation affects MECP2 expression and behavior. PMID:24648499

  11. Diffusion tensor imaging in mild traumatic brain injury litigation.

    PubMed

    Wortzel, Hal S; Kraus, Marilyn F; Filley, Christopher M; Anderson, C Alan; Arciniegas, David B

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature addresses the application of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to traumatic brain injury (TBI). Most TBIs are of mild severity, and their diagnosis and prognosis are often challenging. These challenges may be exacerbated in medicolegal contexts, where plaintiffs seek to present objective evidence that supports a clinical diagnosis of mild (m)TBI. Because DTI permits quantification of white matter integrity and because TBI frequently involves white matter injury, DTI represents a conceptually appealing method of demonstrating white matter pathology attributable to mTBI. However, alterations in white matter integrity are not specific to TBI, and their presence does not necessarily confirm a diagnosis of mTBI. Guided by rules of evidence shaped by Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., we reviewed and analyzed the literature describing DTI findings in mTBI and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Based on this review, we suggest that expert testimony regarding DTI findings will seldom be appropriate in legal proceedings focused on mTBI. PMID:22159979

  12. Methylene Blue Is Neuroprotective against Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Long, Justin Alexander; Chemello, Jonathan; Van Koughnet, Samantha; Fernandez, Angelica; Huang, Shiliang; Shen, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Methylene blue (MB) has known energy-enhancing and antioxidant properties. This study tested the hypothesis that MB treatment reduces lesion volume and behavioral deficits in a rat model of mild TBI. In a randomized double-blinded design, animals received either MB (n=5) or vehicle (n=6) after TBI. Studies were performed on 0, 1, 2, 7, and 14 days following an impact to the primary forelimb somatosensory cortex. MRI lesion was not apparent 1 h after TBI, became apparent 3 h after TBI, and peaked at 2 days for both groups. The MB-treated animals showed significantly smaller MRI lesion volume than the vehicle-treated animals at all time points studied. The MB-treated animals exhibited significantly improved scores on forelimb placement asymmetry and foot fault tests than did the vehicle-treated animals at all time points studied. Smaller numbers of dark-stained Nissl cells and Fluoro-Jade® positive cells were observed in the MB-treated group than in vehicle-treated animals 14 days post-TBI. In conclusion, MB treatment minimized lesion volume, behavioral deficits, and neuronal degeneration following mild TBI. MB is already approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat a number of indications, likely expediting future clinical trials in TBI. PMID:24479842

  13. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Update: Forensic Neuropsychiatric Implications.

    PubMed

    Wortzel, Hal S; Granacher, Robert P

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) involves a wide range of potential neuropsychiatric outcomes, from death or profound impairment to full and fast recovery. This circumstance has contributed to an atmosphere with considerable potential for both clinical confusion and unjustified medicolegal outcomes. Given that mild (m)TBI accounts for most (∼80%) TBI events and is generally associated with an excellent prognosis, the risk for erroneous clinical formulations and unmerited legal outcomes seems particularly high in cases involving mTBI. In this article, we summarize the recent results published by the International Collaboration on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Prognosis (ICMTBIP) and the new approach of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, to TBI, and we explore the clinical and medicolegal implications. Symptoms that emerge after mTBI remain nonspecific, and potential etiologies are diverse. Clinicians and medicolegal experts should be familiar with the natural history of mTBI, able to recognize atypical outcomes, and willing to search for alternative explanations when confronted with persistent or severe impairment. PMID:26668228

  14. A boy with mild mental retardation, mild sensorineural hearing loss and mild facial dysmorphism caused by a 19p13.2 deletion: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schwemmle, Cornelia; Rost, Imma; Spranger, Stephanie; Jungheim, Michael; Ptok, Martin

    2014-07-01

    The investigation of patients with congenital anomalies and/or intellectual disability with modern genetic methods allows the recognition of an increasing number of cases with these chromosomal rearrangements. Here, we present a mildly mentally retarded boy with mild facial dysmorphism, language development delay, mild sensorineural hearing loss due to a deletion of 1,14 Mb on chromosome 19p 13.2. The deletion was de novo and familial history negative for this disorder. To our knowledge this is the first description of a patient with symptoms mentioned above associated with a 19p13.2-p13.2 deletion. PMID:24814572

  15. The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-03-15

    This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL{reg_sign} Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL{reg_sign} was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL{reg_sign} was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of $90,664,000. ENCOAL{reg_sign} operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL{trademark}). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall objective

  16. Cleaning Carbon Nanotubes by Use of Mild Oxygen Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petkov, Mihail

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have shown that it is feasible to use oxygen radicals (specifically, monatomic oxygen) from mild oxygen plasmas to remove organic contaminants and chemical fabrication residues from the surfaces of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and metal/CNT interfaces. A capability for such cleaning is essential to the manufacture of reproducible CNT-based electronic devices. The use of oxygen radicals to clean surfaces of other materials is fairly well established. However, previously, cleaning of CNTs and of graphite by use of oxygen plasmas had not been attempted because both of these forms of carbon were known to be vulnerable to destruction by oxygen plasmas. The key to success of the present technique is, apparently, to ensure that the plasma is mild . that is to say, that the kinetic and internal energies of the oxygen radicals in the plasma are as low as possible. The plasma oxygen-radical source used in the experiments was a commercial one marketed for use in removing hydrocarbons and other organic contaminants from vacuum systems and from electron microscopes and other objects placed inside vacuum systems. In use, the source is installed in a vacuum system and air is leaked into the system at such a rate as to maintain a background pressure of .0.56 torr (.75 Pa). In the source, oxygen from the air is decomposed into monatomic oxygen by radio-frequency excitation of a resonance of the O2 molecule (N2 is not affected). Hence, what is produced is a mild (non-energetic) oxygen plasma. The oxygen radicals are transported along with the air molecules in the flow created by the vacuum pump. In the experiments, exposure to the oxygen plasma in this system was shown to remove organic contaminants and chemical fabrication residues from several specimens. Many high-magnification scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of CNTs were taken before and after exposure to the oxygen plasma. As in the example shown in the figure, none of these images showed evidence of degradation

  17. 18F-florbetaben Aβ imaging in mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction 18F-florbetaben and positron emission tomography were used to examine the relationships between β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition, cognition, hippocampal volume, and white matter hyperintensities in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods Forty-five MCI participants were evaluated. A neocortical standardized uptake value ratio threshold ≥ 1.45 was used to discriminate high from low Aβ burden. Correlations were adjusted for age, gender and years of education. Results High Aβ burden was found in 53% of MCI. Regression analyses showed standardized uptake value ratio (r = -0.51, P = 0.0015) and hippocampal volume (r = 0.60, P = 0.024) both contributing to episodic memory impairment in independent fashion. White matter hyperintensities correlated with nonmemory cognition, and this correlation was particularly associated with Aβ burden. Conclusion Higher Aβ deposition in MCI is associated with more severe memory impairment and is contributing to early amnestic symptoms independent of hippocampal atrophy. PMID:23324163

  18. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Final design modifications report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The design, construction and operation Phases of the Encoal Mild Coal Gasification Project have been completed. The plant, designed to process 1,000 ton/day of subbituminous Power River Basin (PRB) low-sulfur coal feed and to produce two environmentally friendly products, a solid fuel and a liquid fuel, has been operational for nearly five years. The solid product, Process Derived Fuel (PDF), is a stable, low-sulfur, high-Btu fuel similar in composition and handling properties to bituminous coal. The liquid product, Coal Derived Liquid (CDL), is a heavy, low-sulfur, liquid fuel similar in properties to heavy industrial fuel oil. Opportunities for upgrading the CDL to higher value chemicals and fuels have been identified. Significant quantities of both PDF and CDL have been delivered and successfully burned in utility and industrial boilers. A summary of the Project is given.

  19. Chronic mild cerebrovascular dysfunction as a cause for Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed Central

    Humpel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive chronic disorder and is characterized by β-amyloid plaques and angiopathy, tau pathology, neuronal cell death, and inflammatory responses. The reasons for this disease are not known. This review proposes the hypothesis that a chronic mild longlasting cerebrovascular dysfunction could initiate a cascade of events leading to AD. It is suggested that (vascular) risk factors (e.g. hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, hyperhomocysteinemia) causes either damage of the cerebrovascular system including silent strokes or causes dysregulation of beta-amyloid clearance at the blood-brain barrier resulting in increased brain beta-amyloid. A cascade of subsequent downstream events may lead to disturbed metabolic changes, and neuroinflammation and tau pathology. The role of NGF on the cell death of cholinergic neurons is discussed. Additional risk factors (e.g. acidosis, metals) contribute to plaque development. PMID:21112383

  20. Characteristics of mild dengue virus infection in Thai children.

    PubMed

    Yoon, In-Kyu; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Hermann, Laura; Buddhari, Darunee; Scott, Thomas W; Jarman, Richard G; Aldstadt, Jared; Nisalak, Ananda; Thammapalo, Suwich; Bhoomiboonchoo, Piraya; Mammen, Mammen P; Green, Sharone; Gibbons, Robert V; Endy, Timothy P; Rothman, Alan L

    2013-12-01

    A four-year longitudinal cohort and geographic cluster study in rural Thailand was conducted to characterize the clinical spectrum of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Symptomatic DENV infections in the cohort were detected by active school absence-based surveillance that triggered cluster investigations around ill cohort children. Data from 189 cohort children with symptomatic DENV infection and 126 contact children in the clusters with DENV infection were analyzed. Of infected contacts, only 19% were asymptomatic; 81% were symptomatic, but only 65.9% reported fever. Symptom-based case definitions were unreliable for diagnosis. Symptomatic infections in contacts were milder with lower DENV RNA levels than the cohort. Infections in contacts with fever history were more likely to have detectable DENV RNA than infections without fever history. Mild infections identified by cluster investigations account for a major proportion of all DENV infections. These findings are relevant for disease burden assessments, transmission modeling, and determination of vaccine impact. PMID:24127167

  1. Is there a mildly relativistic jet in SN2007gr?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paragi, Z.; van der Horst, A. J.; Tanaka, M.; Taylor, G. B.; Kouveliotou, C.; Granot, J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Pidopryhora, Y.; Bourke, S.; Campbell, R. M.; Garrett, M. A.; van Langevelde, H. J.

    2011-02-01

    SN2007gr was an ordinary type Ic supernova, with a hint of asymmetric explosion seen in the optical polarization spectrum. This type of SNe is occasionally associated with long duration gamma-ray bursts which generate ultra-relativistic jets; no relativistic outflows have yet been found by direct imaging in SNe Ib/c explosions. High resolution very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data and simultaneous total radio flux density measurements indicated that SN2007gr has expanded mildly relativistically. We performed late time Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) observations to measure the level of the underlying extended emission. Comparison of the VLBI and the background-subtracted WSRT and independent VLA data indicate an at least partially resolved source with an average expansion velocity of >=0.4c, although the VLBI data could be consistent with a fainter source with an expansion velocity of ~0.2c as well.

  2. A selective and mild glycosylation method of natural phenolic alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Poláková, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Summary Several bioactive natural p-hydroxyphenylalkyl β-D-glucopyranosides, such as vanillyl β-D-glucopyranoside, salidroside and isoconiferin, and their glycosyl analogues were prepared by a simple reaction sequence. The highly efficient synthetic approach was achieved by utilizing acetylated glycosyl bromides as well as aromatic moieties and mild glycosylation promoters. The aglycones, p-O-acetylated arylalkyl alcohols, were prepared by the reduction of the corresponding acetylated aldehydes or acids. Various stereoselective 1,2-trans-O-glycosylation methods were studied, including the DDQ–iodine or ZnO–ZnCl2 catalyst combination. Among them, ZnO–iodine has been identified as a new glycosylation promoter and successfully applied to the stereoselective glycoside synthesis. The final products were obtained by conventional Zemplén deacetylation. PMID:27340444

  3. Omental transplantation in a patient with mild ALS

    PubMed Central

    Rafael, Hernando

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not a neurodegenerative disease. The patient, a 33-year-old man began with symptoms of the bulbar form of ALS, characterized by burning pain in both feet during two months and then, he presented right crural monoparesis, fasciculations, slight dysarthria and he walked with help of orthopedic devices. A preoperative MRI scans showed atherosclerosis at the V4 segment of the left vertebral artery. On May 2012, he received an omental transplantation on the anterior, left lateral and posterior surface of the medulla oblongata. About 48 hours after surgery, the dysarthria disappeared and the voluntary movement of the right foot improved. Three days later, he walked without aid of orthopedic device. At present, four years after operation he present complete reversal of symptoms. In conclusión, this patient confirms that bulbar ALS is of ischemic origin and therefore, mild ALS can be cured. PMID:27508110

  4. Mild ammonium stress increases chlorophyll content in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Zabala, Joseba; González-Murua, Carmen; Marino, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3−) and ammonium (NH4+) are the main forms of nitrogen available in the soil for plants. Excessive NH4+ accumulation in tissues is toxic for plants and exclusive NH4+-based nutrition enhances this effect. Ammonium toxicity syndrome commonly includes growth impairment, ion imbalance and chlorosis among others. In this work, we observed high intraspecific variability in chlorophyll content in 47 Arabidopsis thaliana natural accessions grown under 1 mM NH4+ or 1 mM NO3− as N-source. Interestingly, chlorophyll content increased in every accession upon ammonium nutrition. Moreover, this increase was independent of ammonium tolerance capacity. Thus, chlorosis seems to be an exclusive effect of severe ammonium toxicity while mild ammonium stress induces chlorophyll accumulation. PMID:25853545

  5. Persistent vertigo and dizziness after mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Fife, Terry D; Kalra, Deepak

    2015-04-01

    Vertigo, dizziness, and disequilibrium are common symptoms following concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Dizziness and vertigo may be the result of trauma to the peripheral vestibular system or the central nervous system, or, in some cases, may be due to anxiety, depression, or posttraumatic stress disorder; these mechanisms are not mutually exclusive. While most peripheral vestibular disorders can be identified by testing and examination, those without inner-ear causes that have persisting complaints of dizziness and motion sickness are more difficult to understand and to manage. Some of these patients exhibit features compatible with vestibular migraine and may be treated successfully with migraine-preventative medications. This paper reviews the nonotogenic causes of persisting dizziness, the possible mechanisms, and the pathophysiology, as a framework for patient management and for future research. PMID:25728715

  6. Structural Neuroimaging Findings in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy J; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J; Black, Garrett; Christensen, Zachary P; Huff, Trevor; Wood, Dawn-Marie G; Hesselink, John R; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Max, Jeffrey E

    2016-09-01

    Common neuroimaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), including sport-related concussion (SRC), are reviewed based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Common abnormalities radiologically identified on the day of injury, typically a computed tomographic scan, are in the form of contusions, small subarachnoid or intraparenchymal hemorrhages as well as subdural and epidural collections, edema, and skull fractures. Common follow-up neuroimaging findings with MRI include white matter hyperintensities, hypointense signal abnormalities that reflect prior hemorrhage, focal encephalomalacia, presence of atrophy and/or dilated Virchow-Robins perivascular space. The MRI findings from a large pediatric mTBI study show low frequency of positive MRI findings at 6 months postinjury. The review concludes with an examination of some of the advanced MRI-based image analysis methods that can be performed in the patient who has sustained an mTBI. PMID:27482782

  7. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Commercial plant feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    In order to determine the viability of any Liquids from Coal (LFC) commercial venture, TEK-KOL and its partner, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), have put together a technical and economic feasibility study for a commercial-size LFC Plant located at Zeigler Coal Holding Company`s North Rochelle Mine site. This resulting document, the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Plant: Commercial Plant Feasibility Study, includes basic plant design, capital estimates, market assessment for coproducts, operating cost assessments, and overall financial evaluation for a generic Powder River Basin based plant. This document and format closely resembles a typical Phase II study as assembled by the TEK-KOL Partnership to evaluate potential sites for LFC commercial facilities around the world.

  8. Memory activation enhances EEG abnormality in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    van der Hiele, K; Vein, A A; Kramer, C G S; Reijntjes, R H A M; van Buchem, M A; Westendorp, R G J; Bollen, E L E M; van Dijk, J G; Middelkoop, H A M

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated EEG power changes during memory activation in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Twelve MCI patients and 16 age-matched controls underwent EEG registration during two conventional EEG conditions ('eyes closed' and 'eyes open') and three memory conditions ('word memory', 'picture memory' and 'animal fluency'). For all conditions, EEG power in the theta (4-8 Hz), lower alpha (8-10.5 Hz) and upper alpha (10.5-13 Hz) bands were expressed as percentile changes compared to 'eyes closed'. MCI patients showed significantly less decrease in the lower alpha band than controls (p=0.04) during picture memory activation. The word memory task showed a trend towards a similar effect (p=0.09). This study suggests that memory activation reveals EEG differences between MCI patients and controls while conventional EEG conditions do not. PMID:16406153

  9. Nova outbursts in the case of mild hibernation

    SciTech Connect

    Livio, M.; Shankar, A.; Truran, J.W.

    1988-02-01

    The necessary conditions for the production of strong thermonuclear runaways in the hibernation scenario are identified and explored. It is found that a reduction in the accretion rate by a factor of about 100, for a period longer than a few thousand years, is generally sufficient to ensure nova-type outbursts, even in the presence of rather high preoutburst accretion rates. Nova outbursts can be obtained under mild hibernation conditions on 1 solar mass white dwarfs as well as on very massive ones. A reduction in the accretion rate by a factor of 10 only is insufficient to produce a nova outburst, if the preoutburst accretion rate is as high as 10 to the -8th solar mass/yr. 28 references.

  10. Biomechanical Risk Estimates for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Funk, J. R.; Duma, S. M.; Manoogian, S. J.; Rowson, S.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the risk of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in living humans based on a large set of head impact data taken from American football players at the collegiate level. Real-time head accelerations were recorded from helmet-mounted accelerometers designed to stay in contact with the player’s head. Over 27,000 head impacts were recorded, including four impacts resulting in MTBI. Parametric risk curves were developed by normalizing MTBI incidence data by head impact exposure data. An important finding of this research is that living humans, at least in the setting of collegiate football, sustain much more significant head impacts without apparent injury than previously thought. The following preliminary nominal injury assessment reference values associated with a 10% risk of MTBI are proposed: a peak linear head acceleration of 165 g, a HIC of 400, and a peak angular head acceleration of 9000 rad/s2. PMID:18184501

  11. Recovery from mild head injury in pediatric populations.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew D; Irby, James W

    2003-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the diagnosis, classification, and pathophysiology of mild head injury (MHI) in children. The difficulties associated with determination of MHI severity are outlined. Also, recently published research pertaining to pediatric MHI is reviewed. The recent research pertaining to MHI in children is generally consistent with the conclusions reached by the authors of the most recent comprehensive review, which reported that children who have suffered MHI often experience a symptomatic phase that could extend up to a few months, but these symptoms usually resolve. Numerous preinjury variables have been identified, including premorbid learning and behavior problems, disadvantaged socioeconomic status, premorbid neurodevelopmental abnormalities, and adverse family conditions, that appear to explain the persistence of some symptoms experienced by a subset of children with MHI. Directions for future research are provided. PMID:14572149

  12. Mood Differences Among Parkinson's Disease Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacob D; Mangal, Paul; Lafo, Jacob; Okun, Michael S; Bowers, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Studies with healthy elderly adults suggest that apathy, depression, and anxiety are more common among individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study examined differences in mood/amotivational symptoms among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with and without MCI. Patients with PD (N=214) underwent neurocognitive evaluations including assessment of apathy (Apathy Scale), depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II), and trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory trait scale). Trait anxiety and depression were more severe in patients with PD with MCI. Delineation of MCI into amnestic and nonamnestic subtypes revealed greater depression, apathy, and anxiety among patients with PD with amnestic MCI relative to cognitively intact patients with PD. Patients with PD and MCI report greater mood symptoms compared to patients with PD who are cognitively intact. PMID:26792098

  13. Omental transplantation in a patient with mild ALS.

    PubMed

    Rafael, Hernando

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not a neurodegenerative disease. The patient, a 33-year-old man began with symptoms of the bulbar form of ALS, characterized by burning pain in both feet during two months and then, he presented right crural monoparesis, fasciculations, slight dysarthria and he walked with help of orthopedic devices. A preoperative MRI scans showed atherosclerosis at the V4 segment of the left vertebral artery. On May 2012, he received an omental transplantation on the anterior, left lateral and posterior surface of the medulla oblongata. About 48 hours after surgery, the dysarthria disappeared and the voluntary movement of the right foot improved. Three days later, he walked without aid of orthopedic device. At present, four years after operation he present complete reversal of symptoms. In conclusión, this patient confirms that bulbar ALS is of ischemic origin and therefore, mild ALS can be cured. PMID:27508110

  14. Autophagy Alleviates Neurodegeneration Caused by Mild Impairment of Oxidative Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Ya; Yong, Yue; Yang, Guang; Ding, Hanqing; Fan, Zhiqin; Tang, Yifen; Luo, Jia; Ke, Zun-Ji

    2013-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency (TD) causes mild impairment of oxidative metabolism and region-selective neuronal loss in the brain, which may be mediated by neuronal oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and neuroinflammation. TD-induced brain damage is used to model neurodegenerative disorders, and the mechanism for the neuronal death is still unclear. We hypothesized that autophagy might be activated in the TD brain and play a protective role in TD induced neuronal death. Our results demonstrated that TD induced the accumulation of autophagosomes in neurons of the thalamus measured by transmission electron microscopy, and the upregulation of autophagic markers: LC3-II, Atg5 and Beclin1 as measured with western blotting. TD also increased the expression of autophagic markers and induced LC3 puncta in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. TD-induced expression of autophagic markers was reversed once thiamine was re-administered. Both inhibition of autophagy by wortmannin and Beclin1 siRNA potentiated TD-induced death of SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, activation of autophagy by rapamycin alleviated cell death induced by TD. Intraperitoneal injection of rapamycin stimulated neuronal autophagy and attenuated TD-induced neuronal death and microglia activation in the submedial thalamus nucleus (SmTN). TD inhibited the phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase, suggesting mTOR/p70S6 kinase pathway was involved the TD-induced autophagy. These results suggest that autophagy is neuroprotective in response to TD-induced neuronal death in the central nervous system. This opens a potential therapeutic avenue for neurodegenerative diseases caused by mild impairment of oxidative metabolism. PMID:23586593

  15. Pain Sensitivity and Recovery From Mild Chronic Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Roehrs, Timothy A.; Harris, Erica; Randall, Surilla; Roth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine whether an extended bedtime in sleepy and otherwise healthy volunteers would increase alertness and thereby also reduce pain sensitivity. Setting: Outpatient with sleep laboratory assessments. Participants and Interventions: Healthy volunteers (n = 18), defined as having an average daily sleep latency on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) < 8 min, were randomized to 4 nights of extended bedtime (10 hr) (EXT) or 4 nights of their diary-reported habitual bedtimes (HAB). On day 1 and day 4 they received a standard MSLT (10:00, 12:00, 14:00, and 16:00 hr) and finger withdrawal latency pain testing to a radiant heat stimulus (10:30 and 14:30 hr). Results: During the four experimental nights the EXT group slept 1.8 hr per night more than the HAB group and average daily sleep latency on the MSLT increased in the EXT group, but not the HAB group. Similarly, finger withdrawal latency was increased (pain sensitivity was reduced) in the EXT group but not the HAB group. The nightly increase in sleep time during the four experimental nights was correlated with the improvement in MSLT, which in turn was correlated with reduced pain sensitivity. Conclusions: These are the first data to show that an extended bedtime in mildly sleepy healthy adults, which resulted in increased sleep time and reduced sleepiness, reduces pain sensitivity. Citation: Roehrs TA; Harris E; Randall S; Roth T. Pain sensitivity and recovery from mild chronic sleep loss. SLEEP 2012;35(12):1667-1672. PMID:23204609

  16. Severe pulmonary arterial hypertensive rats are tolerant to mild exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Lauren J.; Scruggs, April K.; McLendon, Jared M.; Haven, April K.; Bauer, Natalie N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A frequently used end point of clinical outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is the 6-minute walk distance. Furthermore, some data suggest that mild to moderate exercise as an intervention in stable PAH is beneficial. Some of these questions have been recapitulated in the monocrotaline and hypoxia animal models of pulmonary hypertension. However, mild exercise and walk distance as end points have not been rigorously examined in the severe progressive Sugen 5416/hypoxia/normoxia (Su/Hx/Nx) animal model of PAH at each stage of worsening disease. Our hypothesis was that animals that were preselected as runners would have increased walk times and improved right ventricle/left ventricle plus septum (RV/LV+S) ratios, echocardiography, and histology compared with nonexercised Su/Hx/Nx animals. We examined four groups of rats: Su/Hx/Nx sedentary, Su/Hx/Nx exercised, control sedentary, and control exercised. Echocardiography was performed at 5, 8, and 13 weeks to assess right ventricular inner diameter in diastole and left ventricular eccentricity index. We found no difference between exercised and sedentary Su/Hx/Nx rats, and both were worsened compared with controls. Rats were euthanized at 13 weeks, and we found that neither RV/LV+S nor the occurrence of occlusive lesions were influenced by exercise. Most interesting, however, was that despite progressive PAH development, exercised Su/Hx/Nx rats showed no decrease in time or distance for treadmill exercise. In all, our data suggest that, despite severe PAH development, Su/Hx/Nx rats retain the same treadmill exercise capacity as control animals. PMID:26064461

  17. Recovery of resting brain connectivity ensuing mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Bharath, Rose D.; Munivenkatappa, Ashok; Gohel, Suril; Panda, Rajanikant; Saini, Jitender; Rajeswaran, Jamuna; Shukla, Dhaval; Bhagavatula, Indira D.; Biswal, Bharat B.

    2015-01-01

    Brains reveal amplified plasticity as they recover from an injury. We aimed to define time dependent plasticity changes in patients recovering from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Twenty-five subjects with mild head injury were longitudinally evaluated within 36 h, 3 and 6 months using resting state functional connectivity (RSFC). Region of interest (ROI) based connectivity differences over time within the patient group and in comparison with a healthy control group were analyzed at p < 0.005. We found 33 distinct ROI pairs that revealed significant changes in their connectivity strength with time. Within 3 months, the majority of the ROI pairs had decreased connectivity in mTBI population, which increased and became comparable to healthy controls at 6 months. Within this diffuse decreased connectivity in the first 3 months, there were also few regions with increased connections. This hyper connectivity involved the salience network and default mode network within 36 h, and lingual, inferior frontal and fronto-parietal networks at 3 months. Our findings in a fairly homogenous group of patients with mTBI evaluated during the 6 month window of recovery defines time varying brain connectivity changes as the brain recovers from an injury. A majority of these changes were seen in the frontal and parietal lobes between 3 and 6 months after injury. Hyper connectivity of several networks supported normal recovery in the first 6 months and it remains to be seen in future studies whether this can predict an early and efficient recovery of brain function. PMID:26441610

  18. Metabolic consequences of chronic intermittent mild stress exposure.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Abigail K; Fourman, Sarah; Packard, Amy E B; Egan, Ann E; Ryan, Karen K; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M

    2015-10-15

    Chronic stress in humans has divergent effects on food intake, with some individuals reporting increased vs. decreased food intake during stress. This divergence may depend in part on stress intensity, with higher-intensity stressors preferentially promoting anorexia. Consistent with this idea, rodents given a high-intensity chronic variable stress paradigm have robustly decreased food intake and body weight gain. However, the metabolic effects of a less intense chronic stress paradigm are not clear. Thus in the present study, adult male rats were given chronic intermittent mild stress (CIMS) exposure (3 cycles, in which each cycle consists of once daily mild stress for 5 days/week for 2 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of no stress) vs. non-stress controls, combined with ongoing access to a palatable diet (PD; choice of chow, high-fat diet, 30% sucrose drink, and water) vs. control diet (chow and water). As expected, access to PD increased caloric intake, body weight gain, and adiposity, and impaired glucose tolerance. CIMS decreased body weight gain only during the first cycle of stress and did not affect body weight gain thereafter, regardless of diet. Moreover, CIMS did not alter total food intake, adiposity or glucose tolerance regardless of diet. Lastly, CIMS transiently increased high-fat diet preference in PD-fed rats during the first stress cycle. Collectively, these results suggest that CIMS has relatively modest metabolic effects that occur primarily during initial stress exposure. These results support the hypothesis that the metabolic consequences of chronic stress vary with stress intensity and/or frequency. PMID:25711718

  19. Predictable Chronic Mild Stress in Adolescence Increases Resilience in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Lin; Zhao, Liyan; Si, Jijian; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weili; Chai, Baisheng; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jiajia; Ding, Zengbo; Luo, Yixiao; Shi, Haishui; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Stress in adolescence has been widely demonstrated to have a lasting impact in humans and animal models. Developmental risk and protective factors play an important role in the responses to stress in adulthood. Mild-to-moderate stress in adolescence may resist the negative impacts of adverse events in adulthood. However, little research on resilience has been conducted. In this study, we used a predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) procedure (5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) in adolescent rats (postnatal days (PNDs) 28–55) to test the resilience effect of PCMS on depressive-like behavior in the sucrose preference test and forced swim test and anxiety-like behavior in the novelty-suppressed feeding test and elevated plus maze in adulthood. We also investigated the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the brain during the PCMS procedure in adolescence. Moreover, we investigated the effect of PCMS in adolescence on subsequent responses to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS; PNDs 63–83) in adulthood. The results demonstrated that PCMS during adolescence produced antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects and increased mTOR signaling activity in the prefrontal cortex in early adulthood. Either systemic administration or intra-PFC infusion of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin completely blocked the behavioral effects produced by PCMS in adolescence. PCMS during adolescence resisted depressive- and anxiety-like behavior caused by CUS in adulthood. These findings indicate that PCMS in adolescence can contribute to resilience against depression and anxiety caused by stress in adulthood. PMID:23478858

  20. Slowing down after a mild traumatic brain injury: a strategy to improve cognitive task performance?

    PubMed

    Ozen, Lana J; Fernandes, Myra A

    2012-01-01

    Long-term persistent attention and memory difficulties following a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) often go undetected on standard neuropsychological tests, despite complaints by mild TBI individuals. We conducted a visual Repetition Detection working memory task to digits, in which we manipulated task difficulty by increasing cognitive load, to identify subtle deficits long after a mild TBI. Twenty-six undergraduate students with a self-report of one mild TBI, which occurred at least 6 months prior, and 31 non-head-injured controls took part in the study. Participants were not informed until study completion that the study's purpose was to examine cognitive changes following a mild TBI, to reduce the influence of "diagnosis threat" on performance. Neuropsychological tasks did not differentiate the groups, though mild TBI participants reported higher state anxiety levels. On our working memory task, the mild TBI group took significantly longer to accurately detect repeated targets on our task, suggesting that slowed information processing is a long-term consequence of mild TBI. Accuracy was comparable in the low-load condition and, unexpectedly, mild TBI performance surpassed that of controls in the high-load condition. Temporal analysis of target identification suggested a strategy difference between groups: mild TBI participants made a significantly greater number of accurate responses following the target's offset, and significantly fewer erroneous distracter responses prior to target onset, compared with controls. Results suggest that long after a mild TBI, high-functioning young adults invoke a strategy of delaying their identification of targets in order to maintain, and facilitate, accuracy on cognitively demanding tasks. PMID:22068441

  1. A mortality study among mild steel and stainless steel welders.

    PubMed Central

    Moulin, J J; Wild, P; Haguenoer, J M; Faucon, D; De Gaudemaris, R; Mur, J M; Mereau, M; Gary, Y; Toamain, J P; Birembaut, Y

    1993-01-01

    A mortality study was carried out in conjunction with the European mortality study among welders coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The study was aimed at assessing risks for lung cancer in relation to exposure to asbestos, welding fumes containing chromium and nickel, and tobacco smoke. The study included a cohort of 2721 welders and an internal comparison group of 6683 manual workers employed in 13 factories in France. The mortality of the two cohorts was studied from 1975 to 1988 by the historical prospective method. Job histories of welders were traced including welding processes used, metals welded, and proportion of worktime spent in welding. Data on smoking habits were collected from medical records. The observed number of deaths were compared with those expected (standardised mortality ratio (SMR)) based on national rates with adjustments for age, sex, and calendar time. The smoking habits of 87% of the whole study population were known. The distribution of welders and controls according to smoking was not statistically different. The overall mortality was slightly higher for welders (SMR = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.89-1.18) than for controls (SMR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99). For lung cancer, the SMR was 1.24 (95% CI 0.75-1.94) for welders, whereas the corresponding value was lower for controls (SMR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.68-1.26). The SMR for lung cancer was 1.59 among non-shipyard mild steel welders (95% CI 0.73-3.02). This contrasted with the results for all stainless steel welders (SMR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.19-2.69), and for stainless steel welders predominantly exposed to chromium VI (SMR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.12-3.71). Moreover, SMRs for lung cancer for mild steel welders tended to increase with duration of exposure and time since first exposure, leading to significant excesses for duration > or = 20 years and latency > or = 20 years. Such a pattern was not found for stainless steel welders. PMID:8457490

  2. Exploring the Self-concept of Adults with Mild Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestana, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to add to the research on the self-concept of adults with mild learning disabilities and to generate a deeper understanding of their self-perceptions rather than draw generalised quantitative conclusions. Eight adults diagnosed with mild learning disabilities receiving support from a supported living project were…

  3. Making Sense of Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Qualitative Exploration of the Patient's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingler, Jennifer Hagerty; Nightingale, Marcie C.; Erlen, Judith A.; Kane, April L.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Schulz, Richard; DeKosky, Steven T.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The proposed dementia precursor state of mild cognitive impairment is emerging as a primary target of aging research. Yet, little is known about the subjective experience of living with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. This study examines, from the patient's perspective, the experience of living with and making sense of the…

  4. The Influence of Hearing Aid Use on Outcomes of Children with Mild Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; Holte, Lenore; McCreery, Ryan W.; Spratford, Meredith; Page, Thomas; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of consistent hearing aid (HA) use on outcomes in children with mild hearing loss (HL). Method: Five- or 7-year-old children with mild HL were separated into 3 groups on the basis of patterns of daily HA use. Using analyses of variance, we compared outcomes between groups on speech and language tests and a…

  5. Children with Mild Bilateral and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Parents' Reflections on Experiences and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Grandpierre, Viviane; Durieux-Smith, Andrée; Gaboury, Isabelle; Coyle, Doug; Na, Eunjung; Sallam, Nusaiba

    2016-01-01

    Children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss are now commonly identified early through newborn hearing screening initiatives. There remains considerable uncertainty about how to support parents and about which services to provide for children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss. The goal of this study was to learn about…

  6. Predicting Change in Emotional and Behavioural Problems during Inpatient Treatment in Clients with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenneij, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Koot, Hans M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about client characteristics that are related to outcome during inpatient treatment of adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) and severe behavioural problems. Method: We explored variables that were related to a change in behavioural problems in 87 individuals with mild ID during inpatient treatment in facilities…

  7. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Esbensen, Anna J.; Shalev, Rebecca; Vincent, Lori B.; Mihaila, Iulia; Bussanich, Paige

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on psychosocial treatments for depression in adults with intellectual disability (ID). In this pilot study, we explored the efficacy of a group CBT treatment that involved a caregiver component in adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder. Sixteen adults with mild ID and a depressive disorder participated in a…

  8. Effect of biomineralized manganese on the corrosion behavior of C1008 mild steel

    SciTech Connect

    Olesen, B.H.; Nielsen, P.H.; Lewandowski, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The possibility that biomineralized manganese dioxide (MnO{sub 2}) might serve as an efficient cathodic reactant in mild steel corrosion was studied using stainless steel (SS) covered with microbially or electrochemically deposited MnO{sub 2} and galvanically coupled to mild steel and mild steel covered with microbially deposited MnO{sub 2}. Biofilms of the manganese-oxidizing bacteria, Leptothrix discophora SP-6, were used to deposit biomineralized MnO{sub 2}. When MnO{sub 2} was biologically deposited on the SS, the corrosion rate of the galvanically coupled mild steel was initially about eight times higher than that in a control experiment without depositing manganese. After a few minutes, the MnO{sub 2} discharged and the corrosion rate of the mild steel decreased to values comparable with biofouled cathodes without manganese. When MnO{sub 2} was electroplated on SS, a linear relation between the amount of MnO{sub 2} and the duration of the elevated corrosion rate of mild steel was observed. However, when MnO{sub 2} was biologically deposited directly onto the mild steel, the corrosion rate did not increase, possibly because the corrosion product buildup on the mild steel surface prevented electrical contact between the manganese oxide and the underlying metal.

  9. Biodesulfurization of mild gasification liquid products. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbanes, J.J. II; Ho, K.

    1993-05-01

    The mild gasification of coal, as being developed at IGT and elsewhere, is a promising new technology that can convert coal to multiple products: gas, solid, and liquids. Mild gasification liquids can be used as feedstock to make transportation fuels and chemicals. However, the sulfur content and aromaticity of mild gasification liquids limits their usefulness and biodesulfurization can potentially decrease both sulfur content and aromaticity. The objective of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using biodesulfurization to upgrade the quality of mild gasification liquids. During the current quarter a laboratory-scale mild gasification reactor was used to produce additional liquid derived from IBC-105 coal. The liquid has an organic sulfur content of 2.88%. The biocatalyst is apparently inhibited by chemical constituents in the light oil fraction of mild coal gasification liquids, but functions quite well in other liquid fractions or in unfractionated mild coal gasification liquid. Even when excess biocatalyst is used, approximately 12% of the organosulfur compounds appear to be recalcitrant to biodesulfurization. Biodesulfurization tests utilizing membrane fragments purified from IGTS8 and freeze-dried IGTS8 cell preparations added directly to mild coal gasification liquids have been performed. The processing and analysis of those samples is currently under way.

  10. Biodesulfurization of mild gasification liquid products. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, J.J. II

    1993-12-31

    The mild gasification of coal, as being developed at IGT and elsewhere, is a promising new technology that can convert coal to multiple products: gas, solid, and liquids. Mild gasification liquids can be used as feedstock to make transportation fuels and chemicals. However, the sulfur content and aromaticity of mild gasification liquids limits their usefulness and biodesulfurization can potentially decrease both sulfur content and aromaticity. The objective of this project is to investigate and feasibility of using biodesulfurization to upgrade the quality of mild gasification liquids. During this project, it was shown that the middle distillate (360--440 F) fraction of liquids derived from the mild gasification of coal, and unfractionated liquids can be biodesulfurized. Moreover, it was demonstrated that lysed cell preparations and freeze-dried cells can be used to biodesulfurize mild coal gasification liquids. The importance of the finding that freeze-dried biocatalysts can be used to biodesulfurize mild coal gasification liquids is that freeze-dried cells can be produced at one location, stored indefinitely, and then shipped (at reduced weight, volume, and cost) to another location for coal biodesulfurization. Moreover, freeze-dried biocatalysts can be added directly to mild coal gasification liquids with only minimal additions of water so that reactor volumes can be minimized.

  11. Implementing a Problem-Solving Intervention with Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Debra L.

    2011-01-01

    Students with mild and moderate disabilities need to be skillful at problem solving. This article provides an overview of a problem-solving intervention designed to teach students with mild and moderate disabilities the skills of problem solving. An explanation of the assessments, materials, instructional outline, and methods is presented.…

  12. Coping Strategies of Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability for Stressful Social Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) experience stressful social interactions and often utilize maladaptive coping strategies to manage these interactions. We investigated the specific types of "Active and Avoidant" coping strategies reported by 114 adults with mild ID to deal with stressful social interactions. Open-ended responses to a…

  13. Procedures for Increasing Sustained Attention in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Adam H.; Williams, Dean C.

    2013-01-01

    This research compared the effects of several factors on sustained attention in four participants with mild or mild-to-moderate intellectual disabilities. In each session, each participant received an extended number of conditional discriminations that required a differential response to infrequently occurring target stimuli. We assessed sustained…

  14. Preserved Metamemorial Ability in Patients with Mild Alzheimer's Disease: Shifting Response Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Jill D.; Chong, Hyemi; Wolk, David A.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) display a greater tendency to endorse unstudied items as "old" on memory tests than healthy older adults. This liberal response bias may result in mistaken beliefs about the completion of common tasks. This research attempted to determine whether it was possible to shift the response bias of mild AD…

  15. Parenting with Mild Intellectual Deficits: Parental Expectations and the Educational Attainment of Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Hurd, Heather Doescher; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined how the educational expectations that parents with mild intellectual deficits had for their children shaped their children's attainment, and how parents' own intellectual limitations affected this process. We identified 612 parents with mild intellectual deficits and 2,712 comparison parents from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a…

  16. Everyday Memory and Working Memory in Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Molen, M. J.; Van Luit, J. E. H.; Van der Molen, Maurits W.; Jongmans, Marian J.

    2010-01-01

    Everyday memory and its relationship to working memory was investigated in adolescents with mild intellectual disability and compared to typically developing adolescents of the same age (CA) and younger children matched on mental age (MA). Results showed a delay on almost all memory measures for the adolescents with mild intellectual disability…

  17. Nonverbal Social Skills of Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability Diagnosed with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Birgenheir, Denis G.

    2009-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disability (ID), yet little is known about depressive behaviors in an ID population. This study examined the nonverbal social skills of 18 adults with mild ID diagnosed with depression and a matched sample of adults with mild ID without depression. Nonverbal…

  18. Review of Academic Mathematics Instruction for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hord, Casey; Bouck, Emily C.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics education--like all education--faced changes in recent years including increasing expectations, and these expectations have impacted all students, including students with mild intellectual disability. To explore the impact of the changes on mathematics education on students with mild intellectual disability, the authors reviewed the…

  19. Classification of 3-Year-Old Children with and without Mild Learning Problems: A Cognitive Differentiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Marcia Strong; Fletcher, Kathryn L.

    2001-01-01

    Three-year-old children (n=41) with mild learning problems and 41 typical children were given a battery consisting of seven simple cognitive tasks shown to contribute toward the differentiation of children with and without mild learning problems. Picture identification, oppositional concepts, identity discrimination, and semantic…

  20. The Use of "Mild" Aversive Stimuli for Control of Stereotypic and Self-Injurious Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberto, Paul A.

    The use of mild aversives to control self-injurious and stereotypic behaviors of severely emotionally disturbed children is considered. Research is reviewed on the ethics and effectiveness of aversive stimuli. Mild aversives include a form of nonseclusionary timeout known as facial screening, the administration of certain irritating substances…

  1. Adolescent Sexual Activity and Mildly Deviant Behavior: Sibling and Friendship Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rowe, David C.

    1990-01-01

    Examined the relationship between adolescent sexual activity and mildly deviant behavior. Analyzed data of 1,739 adolescents from the Carolina Population Center's Sexuality Project which contained linkable responses of siblings, best friends, and other friends. Results showed overlap between sexuality and mild deviance but also indicated that the…

  2. Social Information Processing in Boys with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embregts, P.; van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) have less adaptive behaviour and more behaviour problems than children with mild to borderline ID. Social information processing appears to be an important mechanism in the explanation of the socially inadequate behaviour of children…

  3. Transition Services for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward transition services for students with mild intellectual disability in Saudi Arabia, and also examined the relationship between teachers' attitudes regarding transition services for students with mild intellectual disability and teachers' gender and educational…

  4. Sawdust for Brains: Definition and Disconfirmation after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell-Word, Charlotte

    1999-01-01

    Offers an account of one person's struggles with the effects of a mild brain injury. Framed within the context of current literature on mild head injuries, this first-person account discusses how the changes in sense of self created feelings of disconfirmation, confusion, and emotional distress. Discusses ways of coping with internal changes when…

  5. Communicative Interactions of Mildly Delayed and Normally Developing Preschool Children: Effects of Listener's Developmental Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Paul-Brown, Diane

    1986-01-01

    The communicative interactions of 32 mildly delayed and normally developing preschoolers were recorded during free play in a mainstreamed program. Analyses of syntactic complexity, semantic diversity, functional aspects of speech, and the use of selected discourse devices indicated that mildly delayed children adjusted important characteristics of…

  6. Ophthalmologic Psychophysical Tests Support OCT Findings in Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Salobrar-Garcia, Elena; de Hoz, Rosa; Rojas, Blanca; Ramirez, Ana I.; Yubero, Raquel; Gil, Pedro; Triviño, Alberto; Ramirez, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze in mild Alzheimer's disease (MAD) patients, GDS-4 (Reisberg Scale), whether or not some psychophysical tests (PTs) support OCT macular findings in the same group of MAD patients reported previously. Methods. Twenty-three MAD patients and 28 age-matched control subjects with mean Mini Mental State Examination of 23.3 and 28.2, respectively, with no ocular disease or systemic disorders affecting vision were included. Best-corrected visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS) (3, 6, 12, and 18 cpds), color perception (CP), and perception digital test (PDT) were tested in one eye of each patient. Results. In comparison with the controls, MAD patients presented (i) a significant decrease in VA, PDT, and CS for all spatial frequencies analyzed, especially the higher ones, and (ii) a significant increase in unspecific errors on the blue axis (P < 0.05 in all instances). In MAD patients, a wide aROC curve was plotted in all PTs. Conclusions. In MAD, CS, VA, and the tritan axis in CP were impaired. The PTs with the greatest predictive value are the higher spatial frequencies in CS and tritan unspecific errors in CP. PT abnormalities are consistent with the structural findings reported in the same MAD patients using OCT. PMID:26106485

  7. Anosognosia and Anosodiaphoria in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lindau, Maria; Bjork, Randall

    2014-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the occurrence of anosognosia (lack of awareness) and anosodiaphoria (insouciance) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to evaluate the influence of a worsening of dementia on these phenomena. Methods A self-evaluation scale was used assessing degrees of anosognosia and anosodiaphoria; furthermore, a neuropsychological assessment and statistical analyses with nonparametric tests which could cope with data on an ordinal scale level and small samples were employed. Results Cognitive ability was lower in AD (n = 9) than in MCI patients (n = 12), but AD patients self-rated lower cognitive disabilities, which is interpreted as one relative sign of anosognosia in AD. Awareness of the reasons for cognitive problems was also lower in AD, which is considered as another sign of anosognosia. The main pattern in MCI found that the higher the awareness, the lower the cognitive ability. In AD low awareness paralleled low cognitive functioning. Anosodiaphoria was present in AD but not in MCI. Conclusion According to the literature anosognosia and anosodiaphoria seem to increase with progression of dementia from MCI as a result of right hemispheric alterations. PMID:25759713

  8. Prefrontal contributions to relational encoding in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Chris M.; Addis, Donna Rose; Ford, Jaclyn H.; Kaufer, Daniel I.; Burke, James R.; Browndyke, Jeffrey N.; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2016-01-01

    Relational memory declines are well documented as an early marker for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Episodic memory formation relies on relational processing supported by two mnemonic mechanisms, generation and binding. Neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have primarily focused on binding deficits which are thought to be mediated by medial temporal lobe dysfunction. In this study, prefrontal contributions to relational encoding were also investigated using fMRI by parametrically manipulating generation demands during the encoding of word triads. Participants diagnosed with aMCI and healthy control subjects encoded word triads consisting of a category word with either, zero, one, or two semantically related exemplars. As the need to generate increased (i.e., two- to one- to zero-link triads), both groups recruited a core set of regions associated with the encoding of word triads including the parahippocampal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and superior parietal lobule. Participants diagnosed with aMCI also parametrically recruited several frontal regions including the inferior frontal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus as the need to generate increased, whereas the control participants did not show this modulation. While there is some functional overlap in regions recruited by generation demands between the groups, the recruitment of frontal regions in the aMCI participants coincides with worse memory performance, likely representing a form of neural inefficiency associated with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26937384

  9. Automatic Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Electroencephalogram Spectral Features

    PubMed Central

    Kashefpoor, Masoud; Rabbani, Hossein; Barekatain, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most expensive and fatal diseases in the elderly population. Up to now, no cure have been found for AD, so early stage diagnosis is the only way to control it. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) usually is the early stage of AD which is defined as decreasing in mental abilities such a cognition, memory, and speech not too severe to interfere daily activities. MCI diagnosis is rather hard and usually assumed as normal consequences of aging. This study proposes an accurate, mobile, and nonexpensive diagnostic approach based on electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. EEG signals were recorded using 19 electrodes positioned according to the 10–20 International system at resting eyes closed state from 16 normal and 11 MCI participants. Nineteen Spectral features are computed for each channel and examined using a correlation based algorithm to select the best discriminative features. Selected features are classified using a combination of neurofuzzy system and k-nearest neighbor classifier. Final results reach 88.89%, 100%, and 83.33% for accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively, which shows the potential of proposed method to be used as an MCI diagnostic tool, especially for screening a large population. PMID:27014609

  10. Dietary lipid modification for mild and severe dyslipidaemias.

    PubMed

    Marais, A David

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this review is to place a historical perspective on linking dyslipidaemia with atherosclerosis and emphasises previous knowledge about the impact on the lipoprotein profile and health in persons with mild dyslipidaemia and in those with defined genetic disorders. CVD is becoming the leading cause of death and disability in developed and developing countries and is strongly related to lifestyle factors that influence plasma lipoprotein concentrations. It is established that risk of complications from atherosclerosis increases with increasing LDL and decreasing HDL and that there is potentiation of risk when these and other risk factors co-exist. High-fat diets used for losing body mass may increase risk through dyslipidaemia. Pharmaceutical modulation of the lipoproteins has lowered risk powerfully but residual risk persists, possibly relating to existing disease as well as progression relating in many instances to dietary lipids. The impact of various dietary lipids is reviewed as they relate to the conventional lipoprotein profile in persons who do not have significant metabolic defects, as well as the impact on inherited metabolic disease such as familial hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia and phytosterolaemia. For most persons with dyslipidaemias a significant benefit will be seen on the lipid profile by adopting a low saturated fat diet with less cholesterol intake. PMID:23680392

  11. Radithor and the era of mild radium therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Macklis, R.M. )

    1990-08-01

    Soon after the discovery of radium, a school of practitioners arose who were interested primarily in the physiological rather than the tumoricidal powers of this new radioactive element. This treatment philosophy was called mild radium therapy and involved the oral or parenteral administration of microgram quantities of radium and its daughter isotopes, often as cures for rheumatic diseases, hypertension, and metabolic disorders. Manufacturers of patent medicines responded to this market by producing a variety of over-the-counter radioactive preparations including pills, elixirs, and salves. One such nostrum was Radithor, a popular and expensive mixture of radium 226 and radium 228 in distilled water. Radithor was advertised as an effective treatment for over 150 endocrinologic diseases, especially lassitude and sexual impotence. Over 400,000 bottles, each containing over 2 muCi (74 kBq) of radium, were apparently marketed and sold worldwide between 1925 and 1930. The death of the Pittsburgh millionaire sportsman Eben M. Byers, who was an avid Radithor user, by radium poisoning in 1932 brought an end to this era and prompted the development of regulatory controls for all radiopharmaceuticals.

  12. Mild gut inflammation modulates the proteome of intestinal Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Sara; Alpert, Carl; Engst, Wolfram; Klopfleisch, Robert; Loh, Gunnar; Bleich, André; Blaut, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Using interleukin 10-deficient (IL-10(-/-) ) and wild-type mice monoassociated with either the adherent-invasive Escherichia coli UNC or the probiotic E. coli Nissle, the effect of a mild intestinal inflammation on the bacterial proteome was studied. Within 8 weeks, IL-10(-/-) mice monoassociated with E. coli UNC exhibited an increased expression of several proinflammatory markers in caecal mucosa. Escherichia coli Nissle-associated IL-10(-/-) mice did not do so. As observed previously for E. coli from mice with acute colitis, glycolytic enzymes were downregulated in intestinal E. coli UNC from IL-10(-/-) mice. In addition, the inhibitor of vertebrate C-type lysozyme, Ivy, was upregulated on messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein level in E. coli Nissle from IL-10(-/-) mice compared with E. coli UNC from these mice. Higher expression of Ivy in E. coli Nissle correlated with an improved growth of this probiotic strain in the presence of lysozyme-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). By overexpressing Ivy, we demonstrated that Ivy contributes to a higher lysozyme resistance of E. coli, supporting the role of Ivy as a potential fitness factor. However, deletion of Ivy did not alter the growth phenotype of E. coli Nissle in the presence of lysozyme-EDTA, suggesting the existence of additional lysozyme inhibitors that can take over the function of Ivy. PMID:23855897

  13. Approach to Assessment of Risk Factors in Mild Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, K. L.; Desai, Patricia; Lalsingh, Adella

    1974-01-01

    Criteria are urgently needed for the early detection of subjects with only mildly raised blood pressure who may be at high risk of developing the complications of hypertension. As a step towards the establishment of such criteria we have examined the association of certain possible “risk” factors—namely, x-ray evidence of cardiac enlargement, high serum cholesterol levels, effort pain, E.C.G. abnormalities, and high systolic blood pressure—with fatal or morbid endpoints in a five-year follow-up study of subjects whose diastolic pressure had been found initially to be between 95 and 114 mm Hg. The index group consisted of 22 patients in whom these end-points occurred. They comprised death from cardiovascular disease, clinical or E.C.G. deterioration, and either an increase in diastolic pressure of at least 10 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure of 115 mm Hg or both. The control group consisted of 22 subjects chosen at random from other respondents with the same range of diastolic pressures and the same age and sex distribution. “Any two or more” of the possible risk factors examined were found to occur significantly more often in the index group than in the controls, suggesting a possible approach to the early detection of high-risk subjects. The value of longterm studies along these lines and the urgent need for them are emphasized. PMID:4275518

  14. Emerging Treatment Options in Mild to Moderate Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenstein, Gary R.; Hanauer, Stephen B.; Sandborn, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory condition associated with rectal bleeding and urgency, tenesmus, and diarrhea. Several medical therapies can be used in the treatment of UC. Aminosalicylates are widely used based on their efficacy in the induction and maintenance of remission. Although corticosteroids are effective in patients with more severe disease, systemic use is associated with significant safety concerns. The newer corticosteroid budesonide has lower systemic bioavailability and, consequently, a more favorable safety profile. A budesonide extended-release formulation allows once-daily dosing and delivers the agent locally throughout the colon. Biologic agents used for the treatment of moderate to severe UC include the tumor necrosis factor inhibitors infliximab, adalimumab, and golimumab, and the integrin inhibitor vedolizumab. Rectally administered therapy can also be useful in the treatment of UC. In October 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration approved a budesonide foam formulation for inducing remission in patients with active mild to moderate distal UC extending up to 40 cm from the anal verge. Budesonide foam rapidly distributes to the sigmoid colon and the rectum and avoids some of the drawbacks of suppositories and enemas. PMID:26491415

  15. [Lung dysfunction in patients with mild chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2004-01-01

    VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TCL, TGV, RV, Ravt, Riin, Rex, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaO2 were determined in 33 patients with mild chronic obstructive lung disease (FEV1 > 70% of the normal value). All the patients were found to have impaired bronchial patency; most (63.6%) patients had lung volume and capacity changes, almost half (45.5%) the patients had pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction. Impaired bronchial patency mainly appeared as decreased MEF50, MEF15, and FEV1/VC%; altered lung volumes and capacities manifested chiefly by increased RV and decreased VC; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction showed up primarily as lowered PaO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes was generally slight. MEF50, MEF75, FEV1/VC%, and VC dropped to 59-20 and 79-70% of the normal value, respectively. RV increased up to 142-196% of the normal value; PaO2 reduced up to 79-60% mm Hg. PMID:15478560

  16. Effect of bracing on respiratory mechanics in mild idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, J D; Robertson, C F; Hudson, I; Phelan, P D

    1989-01-01

    The use of a corrective orthopaedic brace is an established form of management for patients with progressive idiopathic scoliosis. Thirteen patients with mild idiopathic scoliosis were studied with and without the corrective brace applied. Lung volumes and the pattern of chest wall and abdominal movement were measured during quiet breathing. Transdiaphragmatic pressures were measured in six of the patients and upper ribcage movement in seven patients. Application of the brace resulted in a significant reduction in vital capacity (14%), functional residual capacity (22%), and total lung capacity (12%). There was no effect on respiratory rate or minute volume. In the erect position the pattern of chest wall movement was altered with a reduction in lower ribcage movement of 46% and abdominal wall of 39% and an increase in upper ribcage movement of 43%. These changes were greater in the supine position. There was at least a twofold increase in end inspiratory and end expiratory gastric pressures during tidal breathing, but oesophageal pressures were not affected by the brace. Transdiaphragmatic pressures showed a similar twofold increase, which implies a substantial increase in the work of breathing. In view of the doubts concerning the influence of bracing on the natural history of idiopathic scoliosis and the substantial functional effect of bracing on the respiratory system, it is suggested that the current practice of bracing in this condition needs to be reviewed. PMID:2772855

  17. Mild cognitive impairment and its management in older people

    PubMed Central

    Eshkoor, Sima Ataollahi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Mun, Chan Yoke; Ng, Chee Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common condition in the elderly. It is characterized by deterioration of memory, attention, and cognitive function that is beyond what is expected based on age and educational level. MCI does not interfere significantly with individuals’ daily activities. It can act as a transitional level of evolving dementia with a range of conversion of 10%–15% per year. Thus, it is crucial to protect older people against MCI and developing dementia. The preventive interventions and appropriate treatments should improve cognitive performance, and retard or prevent progressive deficits. The avoidance of toxins, reduction of stress, prevention of somatic diseases, implementation of mental and physical exercises, as well as the use of dietary compounds like antioxidants and supplements can be protective against MCI. The modification of risk factors such as stopping smoking, as well as the treatment of deficiency in vitamins and hormones by correcting behaviors and lifestyle, can prevent cognitive decline in the elderly. The progressive increase in the growth rate of the elderly population can enhance the rate of MCI all over the world. There is no exact cure for MCI and dementia; therefore, further studies are needed in the future to determine causes of MCI and risk factors of progression from MCI to dementia. This will help to find better ways for prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment worldwide. PMID:25914527

  18. Do patients with mild cognitive impairment understand numerical health information?

    PubMed

    Pertl, Marie-Theres; Benke, Thomas; Zamarian, Laura; Martini, Caroline; Bodner, Thomas; Karner, Elfriede; Delazer, Margarete

    2014-01-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are by definition still autonomous in daily life and therefore make their own decisions, for example, concerning their own or their partners' health care. Health care information typically contains complex mathematical constructs like proportions, probabilities, and survival rates. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether patients with MCI have difficulties with understanding health numeracy questions and to explore the impact of declining cognitive functions. The performance of 25 patients with MCI in a health numeracy questionnaire was compared with the performance of a control sample including 164 healthy older adults, matched in age and educational level. Participants were asked to convert percentages, assess different probabilities, or understand the dosage of a short patient information leaflet. Additionally, neuropsychological background tests were administered. Patients with MCI answered fewer items correctly than controls in the health numeracy questionnaire. A correlation analysis showed statistically significant associations between performance in the health numeracy task and mental arithmetic, executive functions (psychomotor speed, conceptualization), and global cognitive status, respectively. Patients with MCI show problems in understanding numerical information concerning health care. Since patients with MCI are confronted with several health care decisions, special attention has to be paid to presenting information in an easily understandable way, to make additional sources of information available, and to provide adequate support. PMID:24473188

  19. Operational characteristics of a parallel jet MILD combustion burner system

    SciTech Connect

    Szegoe, G.G.; Dally, B.B.; Nathan, G.J.

    2009-02-15

    This study describes the performance and stability characteristics of a parallel jet MILD (Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution) combustion burner system in a laboratory-scale furnace, in which the reactants and exhaust ports are all mounted on the same wall. Thermal field measurements are presented for cases with and without combustion air preheat, in addition to global temperature and emission measurements for a range of equivalence ratio, heat extraction, air preheat and fuel dilution levels. The present furnace/burner configuration proved to operate without the need for external air preheating, and achieved a high degree of temperature uniformity. Based on an analysis of the temperature distribution and emissions, PSR model predictions, and equilibrium calculations, the CO formation was found to be related to the mixing patterns and furnace temperature rather than reaction quenching by the heat exchanger. The critical equivalence ratio, or excess air level, which maintains low CO emissions is reported for different heat exchanger positions, and an optimum operating condition is identified. Results of CO and NO{sub x} emissions, together with visual observations and a simplified two-dimensional analysis of the furnace aerodynamics, demonstrate that fuel jet momentum controls the stability of this multiple jet system. A stability diagram showing the threshold for stable operation is reported, which is not explained by previous stability criteria. (author)

  20. Abstract Word Definition in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Ryon; Kim, SangYun; Baek, Min Jae; Kim, HyangHee

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate concrete and abstract word definition ability (1) between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and normal adults and (2) between the aMCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic single-domain MCI and amnestic multidomain MCI; asMCI and amMCI) and normal controls. The 68 patients with aMCI (29 asMCI and 39 amMCI) and 93 age- and education-matched normal adults performed word definition tasks composed of five concrete (e.g., train) and five abstract nouns (e.g., jealousy). Task performances were analyzed on total score, number of core meanings, and number of supplementary meanings. The results were as follows. First, the aMCI patients scored significantly poorer than the normal controls in only abstract word definition. Second, both subtypes of aMCI performed worse than the controls in only abstract word definition. In conclusion, a definition task of abstract rather than concrete concepts may provide richer information to show semantic impairment of aMCI. PMID:26347214

  1. High Blood Pressure and Cognitive Decline in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Felicia C.; Levey, Allan I.; Steenland, N. Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether high blood pressure (BP) levels are associated with faster decline in specific cognitive domains. Design Prospective longitudinal cohort. Setting Uniform Data Set of the National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Aging Alzheimer's Disease Centers. Participants One thousand three hundred eighty-five participants with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and measured BP values at baseline and two annual follow-up visits. Measurements Neuropsychological test scores and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR Sum) score. Results Participants with MCI with two or three annual occasions of high BP values (systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg) had significantly faster decline on neuropsychological measures of visuomotor sequencing, set shifting, and naming than those who were normotensive on all three occasions. High systolic BP values were associated as well with faster decline on the CDR Sum score. Conclusion Hypertension is associated with faster cognitive decline in persons at risk for dementia. PMID:23301925

  2. Caregivers in China: Knowledge of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Baozhen; Mao, Zongfu; Mei, John; Levkoff, Sue; Wang, Huali; Pacheco, Misty; Wu, Bei

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the experience and knowledge of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among Chinese family caregivers of individuals with MCI. The sample was recruited from memory clinics in Zhongnan Hospital in Wuhan, China. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used. Thirteen family members of individuals diagnosed with MCI participated in the study. Data analysis revealed three themes: 1) initial recognition of cognitive decline; 2) experience of the diagnosis of MCI; 3) perception of cognitive decline as a normal part of aging. While family members recognized the serious consequences of memory loss (e.g. getting lost), they would typically not take their family members to see a doctor until something specific triggered their access to the medical care system. The Chinese traditional perception of dementia as part of normal aging may serve to lessen the stigma of individuals with MCI, while the term “laonian chidai” which literally translates to “stupid, demented elderly” may exacerbate the stigma associated with individuals with MCI. It is suggested that family members’ worries may be relieved by improving their access to accurate knowledge of the disease, community-based and institutional care services, and culturally appropriately words are needed for MCI. PMID:23326541

  3. CONNECTOMICS SIGNATURE FOR CHARACTERIZATON OF MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dajiang; Shen, Dinggang; Jiang, Xi; Liu, Tianming

    2014-01-01

    Human connectomes constructed via neuroimaging data offer a comprehensive description of the macro-scale structural connectivity within the brain. Thus quantitative assessment of connectome-scale structural and functional connectivities will not only fundamentally advance our understanding of normal brain organization and function, but also have significant importance to systematically and comprehensively characterize many devastating brain conditions. In recognition of the importance of connectome and connectomics, in this paper, we develop and evaluate a novel computational framework to construct structural connectomes from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data and assess connectome-scale functional connectivity alterations in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and schizophrenia (SZ) from concurrent resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) data, in comparison with their healthy controls. By applying effective feature selection approaches, we discovered informative and robust functional connectomics signatures that can distinctively characterize and successfully differentiate the two brain conditions of MCI and SZ from their healthy controls (classification accuracies are 96% and 100%, respectively). Our results suggest that connectomics signatures could be a general, powerful methodology for characterization and classification of many brain conditions in the future. PMID:25404998

  4. Mild Metal-Free Hydrosilylation of Secondary Amides to Amines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei-Qiang; Lang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Yan-Rong

    2016-05-20

    The combination of amide activation by Tf2O with B(C6F5)3-catalyzed hydrosilylation with TMDS constitutes a method for the one-pot reduction of secondary amides to amines under mild conditions. The method displays a broad applicability for the reduction of many types of substrates, and shows good compatibility and excellent chemoselectivity for many sensitive functional groups. Reductions of a multifunctionalized α,β-unsaturated amide obtained from another synthetic methodology, and a C-H functionalization product produced the corresponding amines in good to excellent yield. Chemoselective reduction of enantiomeric pure (ee >99%) tetrahydro-5-oxo-2-furaneamides yielded 5-(aminomethyl)dihydrofuran-2(3H)-ones in a racemization-free manner. The latter were converted in one pot to N-protected 5-hydroxypiperidin-2-ones, which are building blocks for the synthesis of many natural products. Further elaboration of an intermediate led to a concise four-step synthesis of (-)-epi-pseudoconhydrine. PMID:27100232

  5. The chemical composition of the mild barium star HD 202109

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushchenko, A. V.; Gopka, V. F.; Kim, C.; Liang, Y. C.; Musaev, F. A.; Galazutdinov, G. A.

    2004-01-01

    We present chemical abundances of the mild barium star HD 202109 (\\zeta Cyg) determined from the analysis of a spectrum obtained by using the 2-m telescope at the Peak Terskol Observatory and a high-resolution spectrometer with R=80 000, signal to noise ratio >100. We also present the atmospheric parameters of the star determined using various methods including iron-line abundance analysis. For line identifications, we use whole-range synthetic spectra computed from Kurucz's database and the latest lists of spectral lines. Among the determined abundances of 51 elements, those of P, S, K, Cu, Zn, Ge, Rb, Sr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, In, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm, Hf, Os, Ir, Pt, Tl, and Pb were not investigated previously. Assuming that the overabundance pattern of Ba stars is due to binary accretion, the observed abundance pattern of the neutron-capture process elements in HD 202109 can be explained by combining the AGB star nucleosynthesis and the wind accretion scenario. Based on observations obtained at the 2-m telescope of Peak Terskol observatory near Mt. Elbrus, Northern Caucasus, Russia - International Center for Astronomical, Medical and Ecological Research (ICAMER), Ukraine & Russia.

  6. Antisaccade task reflects cortical involvement in mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Mirsky, Jacob B.; Kong, Erwin L.; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Miller, Bruce L.; Kramer, Joel H.; Boxer, Adam L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to examine executive dysfunction using an antisaccade (AS) task in normal elderly (NE) and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) as well as to evaluate the relationship between AS performance and cortical thinning within AD-associated regions. Methods: We recorded eye movements in 182 subjects (NE: 118; MCI: 36; AD: 28) during an AS task. We also performed neuropsychological measures of executive function for comparison. Brain MRI scans were collected on most subjects, and cortical thickness was determined in 9 regions known to exhibit atrophy in AD dementia (“AD signature”). We investigated the relationships between AS and neuropsychological performance, as well as possible correlations between AS performance and cortical thickness. Results: AS performance in MCI resembled that in NE; subjects with AD were impaired relative to both MCI and NE. In all subjects, AS performance correlated with neuropsychological measures of executive function, even after controlling for disease severity. In the subjects with MCI but not in NE, cortical thickness in frontoparietal AD signature regions correlated with AS performance. Conclusions: The AS task is a useful measure of executive function across the AD spectrum. In MCI, AS performance may reflect disease burden within cortical brain regions involved in oculomotor control; however, AS impairments in NE may have etiologies other than incipient AD. PMID:23986300

  7. Dietary ketosis enhances memory in mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Krikorian, Robert; Shidler, Marcelle D; Dangelo, Krista; Couch, Sarah C; Benoit, Stephen C; Clegg, Deborah J

    2010-01-01

    We randomly assigned 23 older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment to either a high carbohydrate or very low carbohydrate diet. Following the six-week intervention period, we observed improved verbal memory performance for the low carbohydrate subjects (p = 0.01) as well as reductions in weight (p < 0.0001), waist circumference (p < 0.0001), fasting glucose (p = 0.009), and fasting insulin (p = 0.005). Level of depressive symptoms was not affected. Change in calorie intake, insulin level, and weight were not correlated with memory performance for the entire sample, although a trend toward a moderate relationship between insulin and memory was observed within the low carbohydrate group. Ketone levels were positively correlated with memory performance (p = 0.04). These findings indicate that very low carbohydrate consumption, even in the short-term, can improve memory function in older adults with increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease. While this effect may be attributable in part to correction of hyperinsulinemia, other mechanisms associated with ketosis such as reduced inflammation and enhanced energy metabolism also may have contributed to improved neurocognitive function. Further investigation of this intervention is warranted to evaluate its preventive potential and mechanisms of action in the context of early neurodegeneration. PMID:21130529

  8. Neuropsychological differential diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Larrabee, Glenn J; Rohling, Martin L

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis and evaluation of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is reviewed from the perspective of meta-analyses of neuropsychological outcome, showing full recovery from a single, uncomplicated mTBI by 90 days post-trauma. Persons with history of complicated mTBI characterized by day-of-injury computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, and those who have suffered prior mTBIs may or may not show evidence of complete recovery similar to that experienced by persons suffering a single, uncomplicated mTBI. Persistent post-concussion syndrome (PCS) is considered as a somatoform presentation, influenced by the non-specificity of PCS symptoms which commonly occur in non-TBI samples and co-vary as a function of general life stress, and psychological factors including symptom expectation, depression and anxiety. A model is presented for forensic evaluation of the individual mTBI case, which involves open-ended interview, followed by structured interview, record review, and detailed neuropsychological testing. Differential diagnosis includes consideration of other neurologic and psychiatric disorders, symptom expectation, diagnosis threat, developmental disorders, and malingering. PMID:24105915

  9. Executive Functioning of Combat Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Katy D; Soper, Henry V; Berenji, Gholam R

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates neuropsychological deficits in recently deployed veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Veterans discharged from 2007 to 2012 were recruited from Veterans Affairs clinics. Independent groups of participants with mTBI (n = 57) and those without TBI (n = 57) were administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Combat Exposure Scale, Word Memory Test, and the Self-Awareness of Deficits Interview. Neuropsychological instruments included the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Letter and Category Fluency, Trail-Making Test-Parts A and B, Christiansen H-abbreviated, Soper Neuropsychology Screen, Wechsler Memory Scale subtests Logical Memory I and II, and the Street Completion Test. The mTBI group performed significantly worse on all of the executive and nonexecutive measurements with the exception of Category Fluency, after controlling for age, depression effort, and combat exposure. Depression and combat exposure were greater for the mTBI group. The mTBI group scored poorer on effort, but only the Multiple Choice subtest was significant. The mTBI group had good awareness of their deficits. PMID:26496530

  10. Suspected non-AD pathology in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Wisse, Laura E M; Butala, Nirali; Das, Sandhitsu R; Davatzikos, Christos; Dickerson, Bradford C; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev N; Yushkevich, Paul A; Wolk, David A

    2015-12-01

    We aim to better characterize mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients with suspected non-Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology (SNAP) based on their longitudinal outcome, cognition, biofluid, and neuroimaging profile. MCI participants (n = 361) from ADNI-GO/2 were designated "amyloid positive" with abnormal amyloid-beta 42 levels (AMY+) and "neurodegeneration positive" (NEU+) with abnormal hippocampal volume or hypometabolism using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. SNAP was compared with the other MCI groups and with AMY- controls. AMY-NEU+/SNAP, 16.6%, were older than the NEU- groups but not AMY- controls. They had a lower conversion rate to AD after 24 months than AMY+NEU+ MCI participants. SNAP-MCI participants had similar amyloid-beta 42 levels, florbetapir and tau levels, but larger white matter hyperintensity volumes than AMY- controls and AMY-NEU- MCI participants. SNAP participants performed worse on all memory domains and on other cognitive domains, than AMY-NEU- participants but less so than AMY+NEU+ participants. Subthreshold levels of cerebral amyloidosis are unlikely to play a role in SNAP-MCI, but pathologies involving the hippocampus and cerebrovascular disease may underlie the neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment in this group. PMID:26422359

  11. Weld pool oscillation during GTA welding of mild steel

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Y.H.; Ouden, G. den . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    In this paper the results are reported of a study dealing with the oscillation behavior of weld pools in the case of GTA bead-on-plate welding of mild steel, Fe 360. During welding, the weld pool was brought into oscillation by applying short current pulses, and the oscillation frequency and amplitude were measured by monitoring the arc voltage. It was found that the oscillation of the partially penetrated weld pool is dominated by one of two different oscillation modes (Mode 1 and Mode 2) depending on the welding conditions, whereas the oscillation of the fully penetrated weld pool is characterized by a third oscillation mode (Mode 3). It is possible to maintain partially penetrated weld pool oscillation in Mode 1 by choosing appropriate welding conditions. Under these conditions, an abrupt decrease in oscillation frequency occurs when the weld pool transfers from partial penetration to full penetration. Thus, weld penetration can be in-process controlled by monitoring the oscillation frequency during welding.

  12. Borderlines between Sarcopenia and Mild Late-Onset Muscle Disease

    PubMed Central

    Palmio, Johanna; Udd, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    Numerous natural or disease-related alterations occur in different tissues of the body with advancing age. Sarcopenia is defined as age-related decrease of muscle mass and strength beginning in mid-adulthood and accelerating in people older than 60 years. Pathophysiology of sarcopenia involves both neural and muscle dependent mechanisms and is enhanced by multiple factors. Aged muscles show loss in fiber number, fiber atrophy, and gradual increase in the number of ragged red fibers and cytochrome c oxidase-negative fibers. Generalized loss of muscle tissue and increased amount of intramuscular fat are seen on muscle imaging. However, the degree of these changes varies greatly between individuals, and the distinction between normal age-related weakening of muscle strength and clinically significant muscle disease is not always obvious. Because some of the genetic myopathies can present at a very old age and be mild in severity, the correct diagnosis is easily missed. We highlight this difficult borderline zone between sarcopenia and muscle disease by two examples: LGMD1D and myotonic dystrophy type 2. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool to help differentiate myopathies from sarcopenia and to reach the correct diagnosis also in the elderly. PMID:25324776

  13. Electrophysiological markers of rapid cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Missonnier, Pascal; Kövari, Enikö; Gold, Gabriel; Michon, Agnès

    2009-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is an easily accessible and low-cost modality that might prove to be a particularly powerful tool for the identification of subtle functional changes preceding structural or metabolic deficits in progressive mild cognitive impairment (PMCI). Most previous contributions in this field assessed quantitative EEG differences between healthy controls, MCI and Alzheimer's disease(AD) cases leading to contradictory data. In terms of MCI conversion to AD, certain longitudinal studies proposed various quantitative EEG parameters for an a priori distinction between PMCI and stable MCI. However, cross-sectional comparisons revealed a substantial overlap in these parameters between MCI patients and elderly controls. Methodological differences including variable clinical definition of MCI cases and substantial interindividual differences within the MCI group could partly explain these discrepancies. Most importantly, EEG measurements without cognitive demand in both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs have demonstrated limited sensitivity and generally do not produce significant group differences in spectral EEG parameters. Since the evolution of AD is characterized by the progressive loss of functional connectivity within neocortical association areas, event-modulated EEG dynamic analysis which makes it possible to investigate the functional activation of neocortical circuits may represent a more sensitive method to identify early alterations of neuronal networks predictive of AD development among MCI cases. The present review summarizes clinically significant results of EEG activation studies in this field and discusses future perspectives of research aiming to reach an early and individual prediction of cognitive decline in healthy elderly controls. PMID:19182461

  14. Biologic Treatment of Mild and Moderate Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadis, Elias S; Pneumaticos, Spyros G; Evangelopoulos, Demitrios S; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2014-01-01

    Disc degeneration is the most common cause of back pain in adults and has enormous socioeconomic implications. Conservative management is ineffective in most cases, and results of surgical treatment have not yet reached desirable standards. Biologic treatment options are an alternative to the above conventional management and have become very attractive in recent years. The present review highlights the currently available biologic treatment options in mild and moderate disc degeneration, where a potential for regeneration still exists. Biologic treatment options include protein-based and cell-based therapies. Protein-based therapies involve administration of biologic factors into the intervertebral disc to enhance matrix synthesis, delay degeneration or impede inflammation. These factors can be delivered by an intradiscal injection, alone or in combination with cells or tissue scaffolds and by gene therapy. Cell-based therapies comprise treatment strategies that aim to either replace necrotic or apoptotic cells, or minimize cell death. Cell-based therapies are more appropriate in moderate stages of degenerated disc disease, when cell population is diminished; therefore, the effect of administration of growth factors would be insufficient. Although clinical application of biologic treatments is far from being an everyday practice, the existing studies demonstrate promising results that will allow the future design of more sophisticated methods of biologic intervention to treat intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:25171110

  15. A systematic review of treatments for Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Claudia; Li, Ryan; Lyketsos, Constantine; Livingston, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Background More people are presenting with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), frequently a precursor to dementia but we do not know how to reduce deterioration. Aims To systematically review Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) evaluating effects of any intervention for MCI on cognitive, neuropsychiatric, functional, global outcomes, life quality, or incident dementia. Methods We reviewed the 41 studies fitting predetermined criteria, assessed validity using a checklist, calculated standardised outcomes, and prioritised primary outcome findings in placebo-controlled studies. Results The strongest evidence was that cholinesterase inhibitors did not reduce incident dementia. Cognition improved in single trials of: a heterogeneous psychological group intervention over 6 months; piribedil, a dopamine agonist over 3 months; and donepezil over 48 weeks. Nicotine improved attention over 6 months. There was equivocal evidence that Huannao Yicong improved cognition and social functioning. Conclusions There was no replicated evidence that any intervention was effective. Cholinesterase inhibitors and rofecoxib are ineffective in preventing dementia. Further good quality RCTs are necessary and preliminary evidence suggests these should include trials of psychological group interventions and piribedil. PMID:24085737

  16. Free electron laser for a mildly relativistic electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, H.S.

    1983-08-01

    One of the most basic instabilities which characterize a relativistic electron beam propagating through a helical wiggler (or undulator) magnetic field is the free electron laser instability. This instability has been extensively investigated in recent years with particular emphasis on applications involving high power microwave radiation. Previous theoretical studies of this instability have tended to result in the conclusion that high energy beams with a relativistic factor much greater than 1 are required to generate high frequency microwave radiation. Beams with this high a relativistic factor have proven to be highly unsuited, however, to compact and practical microwave tubes. To this end, for a relativistic electron beam propagating through a dielectric loaded waveguide, this paper presents a method for the bandwidth and frequency enhancement of the free electron laser instability which makes use of a mild (less than 1.5) relativistic factor. It demonstrates that the instability bandwidth and frequency can be greatly enhanced for specified values of the beam energy and wiggler wavelength if the dielectric constant and the thickness of the dielectric material are appropriately selected. The paper also presents a new scheme for a broad bandwidth microwave amplifier.

  17. Marine corrosion of mild steel at Lumut, Perak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Ong Shiou; Potty, Narayanan Sambu; Liew, Mohd. Shahir

    2012-09-01

    The corrosion rate of structural steels in the adverse marine and offshore environments affects the economic interest of offshore structures since the loss of steel may have significant impact on structural safety and performance. With more emphasis to maintain existing structures in service for longer time and hence to defer replacement costs, there is increasing interest in predicting corrosion rate at a given location for a given period of exposure once the protection coating or cathodic protection is lost. The immersion depth, salinity, steel composition and water pollution will be taken into account. Various corrosion allowances are prescribed for structural members by different standards. There are no studies to determine the appropriate corrosion allowance for steel structures in marine environment in Malaysia. The objectives of the research are to determine the nature and rate of corrosion in mm/year for steel structures in marine environment. It also tries to identify whether the corrosion rate is affected by differences in the chemical composition of the steels, and microalgae. Two sets of corrosion coupons of Type 3 Steel consisting of mild steel were fabricated and immersed in seawater using steel frames. The corrosion rate of the coupon in mm/ per year is estimated based on the material weight loss with time in service. The results are compared with recommendations of the code.

  18. Recycling supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guozhan; Pickering, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    Supercapacitors are widely used in electric and hybrid vehicles, wind farm and low-power equipment due to their high specific power density and huge number of charge-discharge cycles. Waste supercapacitors should be recycled according to EU directive 2002/96/EC on waste electric and electronic equipment. This paper describes a recycling approach for end-of-life supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment. At first, supercapacitors are shredded using a Retsch cutting mill. The shredded mixture is then undergone thermal treatment at 200°C to recycle the organic solvent contained in the activated carbon electrodes. After the thermal treatment, the mixture is roughly separated using a fluidized bed method to remove the aluminium foil particles and paper particles from the activated carbon particles, which is subsequently put into water for a wet shredding into fine particles that can be re-used. The recycled activated carbon has a BET surface area of up to 1200m(2)/g and the recycled acetonitrile has a high purity. PMID:26542830

  19. Pain Catastrophizing Correlates with Early Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Outcome.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Geneviève; Lajoie, Susanne P; Naismith, Laura M; Lavigne, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background. Identifying which patients are most likely to be at risk of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a difficult clinical challenge. Objectives. To examine the relationship between pain catastrophizing, defined as the exaggerated negative appraisal of a pain experience, and early MTBI outcome. Methods. This cross-sectional design included 58 patients diagnosed with a MTBI. In addition to medical chart review, postconcussion symptoms were assessed by self-report at 1 month (Time 1) and 8 weeks (Time 2) after MTBI. Pain severity, psychological distress, level of functionality, and pain catastrophizing were measured by self-report at Time 2. Results. The pain catastrophizing subscales of rumination, magnification, and helplessness were significantly correlated with pain severity (r = .31 to .44), number of postconcussion symptoms reported (r = .35 to .45), psychological distress (r = .57 to .67), and level of functionality (r = -.43 to -.29). Pain catastrophizing scores were significantly higher for patients deemed to be at high risk of postconcussion syndrome (6 or more symptoms reported at both Time 1 and Time 2). Conclusions. Higher levels of pain catastrophizing were related to adverse early MTBI outcomes. The early detection of pain catastrophizing may facilitate goal-oriented interventions to prevent or minimize the development of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms. PMID:27445604

  20. Epidemiology of mild traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Raquel C.; Yaffe, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Every year an estimated 42 million people worldwide suffer a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or concussion. More severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a well-established risk factor for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recently, large epidemiological studies have additionally identified MTBI as a risk factor for dementia. The role of MTBI in risk of PD or ALS is less well established. Repetitive MTBI and repetitive sub-concussive head trauma has been linked to increased risk for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE is a unique neurodegenerative tauopathy first described in boxers but more recently described in a variety of contact sport athletes, military veterans, and civilians exposed to repetitive MTBI. Studies of repetitive MTBI and CTE have been limited by referral bias, lack of consensus clinical criteria for CTE, challenges of quantifying MTBI exposure, and potential for confounding. The prevalence of CTE is unknown and the amount of MTBI or sub-concussive trauma exposure necessary to produce CTE is unclear. This review will summarize the current literature regarding the epidemiology of MTBI, post-TBI dementia and Parkinson's disease, and CTE while highlighting methodological challenges and critical future directions of research in this field. PMID:25748121

  1. Mild Cognitive Impairment and Susceptibility to Scams in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Han, S. Duke; Boyle, Patricia A.; James, Bryan D.; Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Falling victim to financial scams can have a significant impact upon social and financial wellbeing and independence. A large proportion of scam victims are older adults, but whether older victims with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are at higher risk remains unknown. Objective We tested the hypothesis that older persons with MCI exhibit greater susceptibility to scams compared to those without cognitive impairment. Methods Seven hundred and thirty older adults without dementia were recruited from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based epidemiologic study of aging. Participants completed a five-item self-report measure of susceptibility to scams, a battery of cognitive measures, and clinical diagnostic evaluations. Results In models adjusted for age, education, and gender, the presence of MCI was associated with greater susceptibility to scams (B = 0.125, SE = 0.063, p-value = 0.047). Further, in analyses of the role of specific cognitive systems in susceptibility to scams among persons with MCI (n = 144), the level of performance in two systems, episodic memory and perceptual speed abilities, were associated with susceptibility. Conclusions Adults with MCI may be more susceptible to scams in old age than older persons with normal cognition. Lower abilities in specific cognitive systems, particularly perceptual speed and episodic memory, may contribute to greater susceptibility to scams in those with MCI. PMID:26519434

  2. Specific impairments of selective attention in mild Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Pignatti, Riccardo; Rabuffetti, Marco; Imbornone, Emilia; Mantovani, Federica; Alberoni, Margherita; Farina, Elisabetta; Canal, Nicola

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate selective visual attention in subjects affected by Alzheimer's Disease (AD), by means of a computerized spatial exploration test that adopts a Touch Screen (TS) interface, which has already proved able to characterize alternative strategies in performing search tasks. We assessed a group of 16 patients affected by mild to moderate AD, comparing them with 16 control subjects matched for age and education. In the experimental tasks the performance of the AD patients was worse than that of the normal elderly, both quantitatively (slower speeds) and qualitatively (poorer planning and higher number of omissions and perseverations). In the visual attention tasks there appeared to be no close connection between AD patients' performance and increased Reaction Times (RT); this evidenced a specific role of non-elementary cognitive structures enclosed in a higher attentional domain, rather than a general decrease in the speed of basic cognitive processes. Our results are in line with specific AD literature: while psychomotor speed and lower attention levels (sensorimotor) are preferentially impaired in subcortical forms of dementia, the higher levels of selective and divided attention could be the first to deteriorate and appear more markedly disrupted in the Alzheimer type of dementia. PMID:15962690

  3. Exceptionally cold and mild winters in Europe (1951-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twardosz, Robert; Kossowska-Cezak, Urszula

    2016-07-01

    Extreme thermal conditions appear to occupy an important place among research subjects at a time of climate warming. This study investigates the frequency, duration and spatial extent of thermally anomalous winters in Europe during the 60 years between 1951 and 2010. Exceptionally cold winters (ECWs) and exceptionally mild winters (EMWs) were identified using the statistical criterion of plus/minus two standard deviations from the long-term winter temperature (January-December) recorded at 60 weather stations. It was demonstrated that ECWs have occurred more frequently and covered larger territories than EMWs and that they may occur anywhere in Europe, while EMWs were limited to its southern and western parts. ECWs are characterised by greater absolute temperature anomalies, as anomalies greater than |6.0 °C| account for 35 % of ECWs, but only for 8 % of EMWs. The greatest anomalies are found in the east of the continent. The largest territory affected by an ECW included 24 stations in 1962/1963, while the equivalent among the EMWs included 11 stations in 2006/2007. The study also confirmed an expected trend whereby ECWs diminished in frequency in favour of EMWs in the second half of the 60-year study period.

  4. EEG Patterns in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) Patients

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Mary; Akrofi, Kwaku; Schiffer, Randolph; Boyle, Michael W. O’

    2008-01-01

    An emerging clinical priority for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the implementation of therapies at the earliest stages of disease onset. All AD patients pass through an intermediary stage of the disorder known as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), but not all patients with MCI develop AD. By applying computer based signal processing and pattern recognition techniques to the electroencephalogram (EEG), we were able to classify AD patients versus controls with an accuracy rate of greater than 80%. We were also able to categorize MCI patients into two subgroups: those with EEG Beta power profiles resembling AD patients and those more like controls. We then used this brain-based classification to make predictions regarding those MCI patients most likely to progress to AD versus those who would not. Our classification algorithm correctly predicted the clinical status of 4 out of 6 MCI patients returning for 2 year clinical follow-up. While preliminary in nature, our results suggest that automated pattern recognition techniques applied to the EEG may be a useful clinical tool not only for classification of AD patients versus controls, but also for identifying those MCI patients most likely to progress to AD. PMID:19018315

  5. Morphological integrity of the bronchial epithelium in mild asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Lozewicz, S; Wells, C; Gomez, E; Ferguson, H; Richman, P; Devalia, J; Davies, R J

    1990-01-01

    In severe asthma bronchial epithelial cells are damaged and detached, and it has been proposed that such damage might lead to the bronchial hyperresponsiveness that characterises asthma. To investigate the relation between airway hyperresponsiveness and epithelial damage, biopsy specimens of the bronchial mucus membrane were obtained at fibreoptic bronchoscopy from 11 patients with mild atopic asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20) less than 1.0 mg/ml), and from 17 healthy non-atopic subjects who did not have airway hyperresponsiveness (PC20 methacholine greater than 8.0 mg/ml). Observers who were blind to the presence or absence of asthma examined the biopsy specimens by light and electron microscopy. Epithelial cells, intercellular spaces, and goblet cells were counted. Intercellular junctional complexes were examined, and a semiquantitative assessment was made of ciliary loss, non-parallel central ciliary filaments, and vacuoles in ciliated cells. There were no differences between the asthmatic and healthy groups in any of these measurements. These findings indicate that airway hyperresponsiveness may be present when there is no apparent change in the structure of the bronchial epithelium. PMID:2321171

  6. Hydrodefluorination and hydrogenation of fluorobenzene under mild aqueous conditions.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Rebekka; McNeill, Kristopher

    2012-09-18

    Fluorinated organic compounds are increasingly used in many applications, and their release to the environment is expected. It is therefore important to find suitable methods for degradation of fluorinated compounds under environmentally relevant conditions. In this study, a simple heterogeneous rhodium-based catalytic system (Rh/Al(2)O(3) and H(2)) for hydrodefluorination and hydrogenation of fluorobenzene under mild aqueous conditions (1 atm of H(2), ambient temperature) was developed and the underlying reaction mechanism was investigated. Fluorobenzene degraded rapidly (t(1/2) ≈ 0.2 h) to form cyclohexane and fluoride (F(-)) as the stable end products, with benzene and cyclohexene observed as intermediates. Cyclohexadiene intermediates were not observed but were expected to form during the hydrogenation of benzene. Three postulated but unobserved fluorinated intermediates were subjected to the catalytic reaction conditions, and it was concluded that they most likely do not form during the fluorobenzene degradation reaction. Isotope labeling experiments showed that the unsaturated intermediates undergo rapid and reversible hydrogenation/dehydrogenation under the reaction conditions and also that fully saturated compounds are unreactive in the catalytic system. Both molecular hydrogen and water were sources of hydrogen in the final cyclohexane product. Kinetic fitting indicated that sorption/desorption of fluorobenzene onto the catalyst surface plays an important role in the mechanism. PMID:22871102

  7. Pain Catastrophizing Correlates with Early Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Geneviève; Lajoie, Susanne P.; Naismith, Laura M.; Lavigne, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background. Identifying which patients are most likely to be at risk of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a difficult clinical challenge. Objectives. To examine the relationship between pain catastrophizing, defined as the exaggerated negative appraisal of a pain experience, and early MTBI outcome. Methods. This cross-sectional design included 58 patients diagnosed with a MTBI. In addition to medical chart review, postconcussion symptoms were assessed by self-report at 1 month (Time 1) and 8 weeks (Time 2) after MTBI. Pain severity, psychological distress, level of functionality, and pain catastrophizing were measured by self-report at Time 2. Results. The pain catastrophizing subscales of rumination, magnification, and helplessness were significantly correlated with pain severity (r = .31 to .44), number of postconcussion symptoms reported (r = .35 to .45), psychological distress (r = .57 to .67), and level of functionality (r = −.43 to −.29). Pain catastrophizing scores were significantly higher for patients deemed to be at high risk of postconcussion syndrome (6 or more symptoms reported at both Time 1 and Time 2). Conclusions. Higher levels of pain catastrophizing were related to adverse early MTBI outcomes. The early detection of pain catastrophizing may facilitate goal-oriented interventions to prevent or minimize the development of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms. PMID:27445604

  8. Office management of mild head injury in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rodriguez, Juan Antonio; Thomas, Roger E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide family physicians with updated, practical, evidence-based information about mild head injury (MHI) and concussion in the pediatric population. Sources of information MEDLINE (1950 to February 2013), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2005 to 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2005 to 2013), and DARE (2005 to 2013) were searched using terms relevant to concussion and head trauma. Guidelines, position statements, articles, and original research relevant to MHI were selected. Main message Trauma is the main cause of death in children older than 1 year of age, and within this group head trauma is the leading cause of disability and death. Nine percent of reported athletic injuries in high school students involve MHI. Family physicians need to take a focused history, perform physical and neurologic examinations, use standardized evaluation instruments (Glasgow Coma Scale; the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool, version 3; the child version of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool; and the Balance Error Scoring System), instruct parents how to monitor their children, decide when caregivers are not an appropriately responsible resource, follow up with patients promptly, guide a safe return to play and to learning, and decide when neuropsychological testing for longer-term follow-up is required. Conclusion A thorough history, physical and neurologic assessment, the use of validated tools to provide an objective framework, and periodic follow-up are the basis of family physician management of pediatric MHI. PMID:24925941

  9. Autonomous Unobtrusive Detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Taati, Babak; Mihailidis, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The current diagnosis process of dementia is resulting in a high-percentage of cases with delayed detection. To address this problem, in this paper we explore the feasibility of autonomously detecting mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the older adult population. We implement a signal processing approach equipped with a machine learning paradigm to process and analyze real world data acquired using home-based unobtrusive sensing technologies. Using the sensor and clinical data pertaining to 97 subjects, acquired over an average period of 3 years, a number of measures associated with the subjects' walking speeds and general activity in the home were calculated. Different time spans of these measures were used to generate feature vectors to train and test two machine learning algorithms namely support vector machines and random forests. We were able to autonomously detect MCI in older adults with an area under the ROC curve of 0.97 and an area under the precision-recall curve of 0.93 using a time window of 24 weeks. This work is of great significance since it can potentially assist in the early detection of cognitive impairment in older adults. PMID:25585407

  10. Cholinesterase inhibitors affect brain potentials in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Irimajiri, Rie; Michalewski, Henry J; Golob, Edward J; Starr, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an isolated episodic memory disorder that has a high likelihood of progressing to Alzheimer’s disease. Auditory sensory cortical responses (P50, N100) have been shown to be increased in amplitude in MCI compared to older controls. We tested whether (1) cortical potentials to other sensory modalities (somatosensory and visual) were also affected in MCI and (2) cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), one of the therapies used in this disorder, modulated sensory cortical potentials in MCI. Somatosensory cortical potentials to median nerve stimulation and visual cortical potentials to reversing checkerboard stimulation were recorded from 15 older controls and 15 amnestic MCI subjects (single domain). Results were analyzed as a function of diagnosis (Control, MCI) and ChEIs treatment (Treated MCI, Untreated MCI). Somatosensory and visual potentials did not differ significantly in amplitude in MCI subjects compared to controls. When ChEIs use was considered, somatosensory potentials (N20, P50) but not visual potentials (N70, P100, N150) were of larger amplitude in untreated MCI subjects compared to treated MCI subjects. Three individual MCI subjects showed increased N20 amplitude while off ChEIs compared to while on ChEIs. An enhancement of N20 somatosensory cortical activity occurs in amnestic single domain MCI and is sensitive to modulation by ChEIs. PMID:17320833

  11. Spoken Language Derived Measures for Detecting Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Roark, Brian; Mitchell, Margaret; Hosom, John-Paul; Hollingshead, Kristy; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Spoken responses produced by subjects during neuropsychological exams can provide diagnostic markers beyond exam performance. In particular, characteristics of the spoken language itself can discriminate between subject groups. We present results on the utility of such markers in discriminating between healthy elderly subjects and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Given the audio and transcript of a spoken narrative recall task, a range of markers are automatically derived. These markers include speech features such as pause frequency and duration, and many linguistic complexity measures. We examine measures calculated from manually annotated time alignments (of the transcript with the audio) and syntactic parse trees, as well as the same measures calculated from automatic (forced) time alignments and automatic parses. We show statistically significant differences between clinical subject groups for a number of measures. These differences are largely preserved with automation. We then present classification results, and demonstrate a statistically significant improvement in the area under the ROC curve (AUC) when using automatic spoken language derived features in addition to the neuropsychological test scores. Our results indicate that using multiple, complementary measures can aid in automatic detection of MCI. PMID:22199464

  12. Ash Reduction of Corn Stover by Mild Hydrothermal Preprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    M. Toufiq Reza; Rachel Emerson; M. Helal Uddin; Garold Gresham; Charles J. Coronella

    2014-04-22

    Lignocellulosic biomass such as corn stover can contain high ash content, which may act as an inhibitor in downstream conversion processes. Most of the structural ash in biomass is located in the cross-linked structure of lignin, which is mildly reactive in basic solutions. Four organic acids (formic, oxalic, tartaric, and citric) were evaluated for effectiveness in ash reduction, with limited success. Because of sodium citrate’s chelating and basic characteristics, it is effective in ash removal. More than 75 % of structural and 85 % of whole ash was removed from the biomass by treatment with 0.1 g of sodium citrate per gram of biomass at 130 °C and 2.7 bar. FTIR, fiber analysis, and chemical analyses show that cellulose and hemicellulose were unaffected by the treatment. ICP–AES showed that all inorganics measured were reduced within the biomass feedstock, except sodium due to the addition of Na through the treatment. Sodium citrate addition to the preconversion process of corn stover is an effective way to reduced physiological ash content of the feedstock without negatively impacting carbohydrate and lignin content.

  13. Communication after mild traumatic brain injury--a spouse's perspective.

    PubMed

    Crewe-Brown, Samantha Jayne; Stipinovich, Alexandra Maria; Zsilavecz, Ursula

    2011-10-01

    Individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) often perform within normal limits on linguistic and cognitive assessments. However, they may present with debilitating communicative difficulties in daily life. A multifaceted approach to MTBI with a focus on everyday communication in natural settings is required. Significant others who interact with the individual with MTBI in a variety of settings may be sensitive to communicative difficulties experienced by the individual with MTBI. This article examines communication after MTBI from the perspective of the spouse. A case study design was implemented. The spouses of two individuals with MTBI served as the participants for this study. Semi-structured interviews were held, during which each participant was requested to describe the communication of their spouse with MTBI. The content obtained from the interviews was subjected to a discourse analysis. The results show that both participants perceived changes in the communication of their spouse following the MTBI. The results further show that MTBI affected communication of the two individuals in different ways. The value of a 'significant other' in providing information regarding communication in natural settings is highlighted. The implications of these findings for the assessment and management of the communication difficulties associated with MTBI are discussed. PMID:22216558

  14. Acetazolamide Mitigates Astrocyte Cellular Edema Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Sturdivant, Nasya M; Smith, Sean G; Ali, Syed F; Wolchok, Jeffrey C; Balachandran, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    Non-penetrating or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is commonly experienced in accidents, the battlefield and in full-contact sports. Astrocyte cellular edema is one of the major factors that leads to high morbidity post-mTBI. Various studies have reported an upregulation of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel protein, following brain injury. AZA is an antiepileptic drug that has been shown to inhibit AQP4 expression and in this study we investigate the drug as a therapeutic to mitigate the extent of mTBI induced cellular edema. We hypothesized that mTBI-mediated astrocyte dysfunction, initiated by increased intracellular volume, could be reduced when treated with AZA. We tested our hypothesis in a three-dimensional in vitro astrocyte model of mTBI. Samples were subject to no stretch (control) or one high-speed stretch (mTBI) injury. AQP4 expression was significantly increased 24 hours after mTBI. mTBI resulted in a significant increase in the cell swelling within 30 min of mTBI, which was significantly reduced in the presence of AZA. Cell death and expression of S100B was significantly reduced when AZA was added shortly before mTBI stretch. Overall, our data point to occurrence of astrocyte swelling immediately following mTBI, and AZA as a promising treatment to mitigate downstream cellular mortality. PMID:27623738

  15. Predictable chronic mild stress improves mood, hippocampal neurogenesis and memory.

    PubMed

    Parihar, V K; Hattiangady, B; Kuruba, R; Shuai, B; Shetty, A K

    2011-02-01

    Maintenance of neurogenesis in adult hippocampus is important for functions such as mood and memory. As exposure to unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) results in decreased hippocampal neurogenesis, enhanced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and memory dysfunction, it is believed that declined hippocampal neurogenesis mainly underlies the behavioral and cognitive abnormalities after UCS. However, the effects of predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) such as the routine stress experienced in day-to-day life on functions such as mood, memory and hippocampal neurogenesis are unknown. Using FST and EPM tests on a prototype of adult rats, we demonstrate that PCMS (comprising 5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) decreases depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors for prolonged periods. Moreover, we illustrate that decreased depression and anxiety scores after PCMS are associated with ~1.8-fold increase in the production and growth of new neurons in the hippocampus. Additionally, we found that PCMS leads to enhanced memory function in WMT as well as NORT. Collectively, these findings reveal that PCMS is beneficial to adult brain function, which is exemplified by increased hippocampal neurogenesis and improved mood and cognitive function. PMID:20010892

  16. Desmopressin in mild hemophilia A: indications, limitations, efficacy, and safety.

    PubMed

    Lethagen, Stefan

    2003-02-01

    Replacement therapy with blood products has long been the only available therapeutic option for patients with bleeding disorders. Plasma-derived cryoprecipitate and factor (F) VIII concentrates, which have been used for hemophilia A patients, involve the risk of transmitting blood-borne diseases. Both plasma-derived and recombinant FVIII concentrates are expensive, and there is a global shortage. The synthetic vasopressin analogue desmopressin acetate (1-deamino-[8-D-arginine]-vasopressin, DDAVP) increases plasma concentrations of coagulation FVIII and von Willebrand factor (vWF) two fold to six fold through endogenous release. The drug is an attractive therapeutic alternative because it carries no risk of transmission of infectious diseases. Desmopressin is today a widely used hemostatic agent not only in patients with mild hemophilia A or von Willebrand disease (vWD) but also in those with congenital or acquired platelet dysfunction. There is a long clinical experience with the drug because it has been used for prevention of bleedings in connection with invasive procedures and for treatment of bleedings since the mid-1970s. Not all hemophilia A patients can be treated. The clinical usefulness depends on the postdesmopressin plasma concentration of FVIII, which in turn depends on the patient's basal FVIII level. Therefore, a test dose is recommended in candidate patients. In general, only the mildest hemophilia A patients respond sufficiently. Optimal hemostatic effect is achieved with a dosage of 0.3 microg/kg given intravenously. An intranasal desmopressin spray is suitable for the home treatment. PMID:12640572

  17. Semantic Knowledge for Famous Names in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Seidenberg, Michael; Guidotti, Leslie; Nielson, Kristy A.; Woodard, John L.; Durgerian, Sally; Zhang, Qi; Gander, Amelia; Antuono, Piero; Rao, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Person identification represents a unique category of semantic knowledge that is commonly impaired in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), but has received relatively little investigation in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The current study examined the retrieval of semantic knowledge for famous names from three time epochs (recent, remote, and enduring) in two participant groups; 23 aMCI patients and 23 healthy elderly controls. The aMCI group was less accurate and produced less semantic knowledge than controls for famous names. Names from the enduring period were recognized faster than both recent and remote names in both groups, and remote names were recognized more quickly than recent names. Episodic memory performance was correlated with greater semantic knowledge particularly for recent names. We suggest that the anterograde memory deficits in the aMCI group interferes with learning of recent famous names and as a result produces difficulties with updating and integrating new semantic information with previously stored information. The implications of these findings for characterizing semantic memory deficits in MCI are discussed. PMID:19128524

  18. Mild cognitive impairment and its management in older people.

    PubMed

    Eshkoor, Sima Ataollahi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Mun, Chan Yoke; Ng, Chee Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common condition in the elderly. It is characterized by deterioration of memory, attention, and cognitive function that is beyond what is expected based on age and educational level. MCI does not interfere significantly with individuals' daily activities. It can act as a transitional level of evolving dementia with a range of conversion of 10%-15% per year. Thus, it is crucial to protect older people against MCI and developing dementia. The preventive interventions and appropriate treatments should improve cognitive performance, and retard or prevent progressive deficits. The avoidance of toxins, reduction of stress, prevention of somatic diseases, implementation of mental and physical exercises, as well as the use of dietary compounds like antioxidants and supplements can be protective against MCI. The modification of risk factors such as stopping smoking, as well as the treatment of deficiency in vitamins and hormones by correcting behaviors and lifestyle, can prevent cognitive decline in the elderly. The progressive increase in the growth rate of the elderly population can enhance the rate of MCI all over the world. There is no exact cure for MCI and dementia; therefore, further studies are needed in the future to determine causes of MCI and risk factors of progression from MCI to dementia. This will help to find better ways for prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment worldwide. PMID:25914527

  19. Outcome from Complicated versus Uncomplicated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Grant L.; Lange, Rael T.; Wäljas, Minna; Liimatainen, Suvi; Dastidar, Prasun; Hartikainen, Kaisa M.; Soimakallio, Seppo; Öhman, Juha

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To compare acute outcome following complicated versus uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) using neurocognitive and self-report measures. Method. Participants were 47 patients who presented to the emergency department of Tampere University Hospital, Finland. All completed MRI scanning, self-report measures, and neurocognitive testing at 3-4 weeks after injury. Participants were classified into the complicated MTBI or uncomplicated MTBI group based on the presence/absence of intracranial abnormality on day-of-injury CT scan or 3-4 week MRI scan. Results. There was a large statistically significant difference in time to return to work between groups. The patients with uncomplicated MTBIs had a median of 6.0 days (IQR = 0.75–14.75, range = 0–77) off work compared to a median of 36 days (IQR = 13.5–53, range = 3–315) for the complicated group. There were no significant differences between groups for any of the neurocognitive or self-report measures. There were no differences in the proportion of patients who (a) met criteria for ICD-10 postconcussional disorder or (b) had multiple low scores on the neurocognitive measures. Conclusion. Patients with complicated MTBIs took considerably longer to return to work. They did not perform more poorly on neurocognitive measures or report more symptoms, at 3-4 weeks after injury compared to patients with uncomplicated MTBIs. PMID:22577556

  20. Outcome from Complicated versus Uncomplicated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Grant L; Lange, Rael T; Wäljas, Minna; Liimatainen, Suvi; Dastidar, Prasun; Hartikainen, Kaisa M; Soimakallio, Seppo; Ohman, Juha

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To compare acute outcome following complicated versus uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) using neurocognitive and self-report measures. Method. Participants were 47 patients who presented to the emergency department of Tampere University Hospital, Finland. All completed MRI scanning, self-report measures, and neurocognitive testing at 3-4 weeks after injury. Participants were classified into the complicated MTBI or uncomplicated MTBI group based on the presence/absence of intracranial abnormality on day-of-injury CT scan or 3-4 week MRI scan. Results. There was a large statistically significant difference in time to return to work between groups. The patients with uncomplicated MTBIs had a median of 6.0 days (IQR = 0.75-14.75, range = 0-77) off work compared to a median of 36 days (IQR = 13.5-53, range = 3-315) for the complicated group. There were no significant differences between groups for any of the neurocognitive or self-report measures. There were no differences in the proportion of patients who (a) met criteria for ICD-10 postconcussional disorder or (b) had multiple low scores on the neurocognitive measures. Conclusion. Patients with complicated MTBIs took considerably longer to return to work. They did not perform more poorly on neurocognitive measures or report more symptoms, at 3-4 weeks after injury compared to patients with uncomplicated MTBIs. PMID:22577556

  1. The Early Indicators of Functional Decrease in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kubicki, Alexandre; Fautrelle, Lilian; Bourrelier, Julien; Rouaud, Olivier; Mourey, France

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Motor deficiency is associated with cognitive frailty in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairments (MCI). In this study we aimed to test the integrity in muscle synergies involved in an arm-pointing movement in functionally unimpaired MCI patients. We hypothesized that early motor indicators exist in this population at a preclinical level. Methods: Electromyographic signals were collected for 11 muscles in 3 groups: Young Adults (YA), Older Adults (OA), and MCI patients. The OA and MCI groups presented the same functional status. Each subject performed 20 arm-pointing movements from a standing position. Results: The main differences were (1) an earlier activation of the left Obliquus internus in MCI compared with OA group, (2) an earlier activation for the MCI compared with both OA and YA. The temporal differences in muscle synergies between MCI and OA groups were linked with executive functions of MCI patients, assessed by the trail making test. Moreover, the results show a delayed activation of the right Biceps Femoris and the right Erector Spinae at l3 in MCI and OA compared with YA. Interpretation: The motor program changes highlighted in our patient MCI group suggest that discrete modifications of the motor command seem to exist even in the absence of functional impairment. Instead of showing an indication of delayed muscle activation in the MCI patients, our results highlight some early activation of several trunk muscles. PMID:27570509

  2. Positron annihilation study of the micro-defects induced by cavitation in mild steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming; Wang, Jiadao; Chen, Darong; Hao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Baoyi

    2008-08-01

    Cavitation-induced micro-defects in mild steel after cavitation experiment in the fluid field have been studied by positron Doppler broadening measurement and positron annihilation lifetime spectra (PALS). Depth-resolved positron Doppler S-parameter (DPDS) results showed that S-parameter increased and micro-defects between the surface and the bulk has obvious variation with depth during the cavitation process. From the positron lifetime results, it was found that the size and number of micro-defects increase with the development of cavitation. These results suggest that more micro-defects are generated in mild steel bulk during the cavitation process than those in the mild steel surface layer region, although more mico-defects seen in the mild steel surface layer. Moreover, the size of micro-defects in mild steel bulk increases remarkably owing to their transfer and aggregation.

  3. Supplemental fat for dairy calves during mild cold stress.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Da Silva, D N L; LaBerge, R J; Schefers, J; Kertz, A

    2014-05-01

    Eighty-one Holstein and Holstein-cross dairy calves fed calf milk replacer (CMR) were used to determine response to increasing amounts of supplemental fat during mild cold stress. Calves (n=27) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) low fat [LF; 28% crude protein:15% fat milk replacer (28:15 MR)]; (2) medium fat [MF; 28:15 MR+113 g/d of commercial fat supplement (FS)]; (3) high fat (HF; 28:15 MR+227 g/d of FS). The MF and HF calves received FS from d 2 to 21, and all calves were fed LF from d 22 to 49. The CMR was fed at 1.4% of birth body weight (BBW) from d 1 to 10, at 1.8% of BBW from d 11 to 42, and at 0.9% of BBW from d 43 to 49. Calves were weaned on d 49 and remained in hutches until d 56. The CMR was reconstituted to 13% solids. Calves were fed a commercial starter grain (19.2% crude protein on a dry matter basis) ad libitum and offered warm water after CMR feeding. Calves were fed CMR twice daily at 0630 and 1730 h in hutches bedded with straw. Starter intake, CMR intake, and ambient temperature were measured daily, and body weight (BW), hip height, and body length were measured weekly. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) as a randomized design with linear and quadratic contrasts. Calf BBW averaged 42.0 ± 1.0 kg, total serum protein averaged 5.8 ± 0.1mg/dL, and birth ambient temperature averaged 5.0 ± 1.1°C. Feeding FS increased metabolizable energy intake (MEI) over maintenance but decreased efficiency of conversion of BW gain:MEI. Starter intake by LF calves was greatest until the beginning of weaning, after which starter intake was similar among treatments. Because of higher starter intake, total MEI was similar among treatments. Feed efficiency through d 49 was greater for calves fed MF and HF. Average daily gain during fat supplementation was greater for MF and HF than for LF. Lack of increase in BW gain and feed efficiency between MF and HF treatments indicated that HF did not result in advantages

  4. Updating memory after mild traumatic brain injury and orthopedic injuries.

    PubMed

    Hanten, Gerri; Li, Xiaoqi; Ibarra, Alyssa; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Barnes, Amanda; McCauley, Stephen R; McCarthy, James; Hoxhaj, Shkelzen; Mendez, Donna; Hunter, Jill V; Levin, Harvey S; Smith, Douglas H

    2013-04-15

    Few studies have examined the trajectory of recovery of executive function (EF) after mild TBI (mTBI). Therefore, consensus has not been reached on the incidence and extent of EF impairment after mTBI. The present study investigated trajectory of change in executive memory over 3 months after mTBI on 59 right-handed participants with mTBI, as defined by Centers for Disease Control criteria, ages 14-30 years, recruited within 96 hours post-injury and tested <1 week (baseline), 1 month, and 3 months after injury. Also included were 58 participants with orthopedic injury (OI) and 27 typically developing (TD) non-injured participants with similar age, socioeconomic status, sex, and ethnicity. MRI data were acquired at baseline and 3 months. Although criteria included a normal CT scan, lesions were detected by MRI in 19 mTBI patients. Participants completed the KeepTrack task, a verbal recall task placing demands on goal maintenance, semantic memory, and memory updating. Scores reflected items recalled and semantic categories maintained. The mTBI group was divided into two groups: high (score ≥12) or low (score <12) symptoms based on the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ). Mixed model analyses revealed the trajectory of change in mTBI patients (high and low RPQ), OI patients, and TD subjects were similar over time (although the TD group differed from other groups at baseline), suggesting no recovery from mTBI up to 90 days. For categories maintained, differences in trajectory of recovery were discovered, with the OI comparison group surprisingly performing similar to those in the mTBI group with high RPQ symptoms, and different from low RPQ and the TD groups, bringing up questions about utility of OIs as a comparison group for mTBI. Patients with frontal lesions (on MRI) were also found to perform worse than those without lesions, a pattern that became more pronounced with time. PMID:23227898

  5. Long-term neuropsychological outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Curtiss, Glenn; Belanger, Heather G

    2005-05-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is common, yet few studies have examined neuropsychological outcomes more than 1 year postinjury. Studies of nonreferred individuals with MTBI or studies with appropriate control groups are lacking, but necessary to draw conclusions regarding natural recovery from MTBI. We examined the long-term neuropsychological outcomes of a self-reported MTBI an average of 8 years postinjury in a nonreferred community-dwelling sample of male veterans. This was a cross-sectional cohort study derived from the Vietnam Experience Study. Three groups matched on premorbid cognitive ability were examined, those who (1) had not been injured in a MVA nor had a head injury (Normal Control; n = 3214), (2) had been injured in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) but did not have a head injury (MVA Control; n = 539), and (3) had a head injury with altered consciousness (MTBI; n = 254). A MANOVA found no group differences on a standard neuropsychological test battery of 15 measures. Across 15 measures, the average neuropsychological effect size of MTBI compared with either control group was -.03. Subtle aspects of attention and working memory also were examined by comparing groups on Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) continuation rate and California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) proactive interference (PI). Compared with normal controls, the MTBI group evidenced attention problems in their lower rate of continuation to completion on the PASAT (odds ratio = 1.32, CI = 1.0-1.73) and in excessive PI (odds ratio = 1.66, CI = 1.11-2.47). Unique to the MTBI group, PASAT continuation problems were associated with left-sided visual imperceptions and excessive PI was associated with impaired tandem gait. These results show that MTBI can have adverse long-term neuropsychological outcomes on subtle aspects of complex attention and working memory. PMID:15892899

  6. Subjective cognitive complaints contribute to misdiagnosis of mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Emily C; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Galasko, Douglas R; Salmon, David P; Bondi, Mark W

    2014-09-01

    Subjective cognitive complaints are a criterion for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), despite their uncertain relationship to objective memory performance in MCI. We aimed to examine self-reported cognitive complaints in subgroups of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) MCI cohort to determine whether they are a valuable inclusion in the diagnosis of MCI or, alternatively, if they contribute to misdiagnosis. Subgroups of MCI were derived using cluster analysis of baseline neuropsychological test data from 448 ADNI MCI participants. Cognitive complaints were assessed via the Everyday Cognition (ECog) questionnaire, and discrepancy scores were calculated between self- and informant-report. Cluster analysis revealed Amnestic and Mixed cognitive phenotypes as well as a third Cluster-Derived Normal subgroup (41.3%), whose neuropsychological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker profiles did not differ from a "robust" normal control group. This cognitively intact phenotype of MCI participants overestimated their cognitive problems relative to their informant, whereas Amnestic MCI participants with objective memory impairment underestimated their cognitive problems. Underestimation of cognitive problems was associated with positive CSF AD biomarkers and progression to dementia. Overall, there was no relationship between self-reported cognitive complaints and objective cognitive functioning, but significant correlations were observed with depressive symptoms. The inclusion of self-reported complaints in MCI diagnostic criteria may cloud rather than clarify diagnosis and result in high rates of misclassification of MCI. Discrepancies between self- and informant-report demonstrate that overestimation of cognitive problems is characteristic of normal aging while underestimation may reflect greater risk for cognitive decline. PMID:25156329

  7. Felodipine extended release in mild to moderate hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wester, A; Lorimer, A R; Westberg, B

    1991-01-01

    A multi-centre study was carried out to examine the antihypertensive effect and adverse event profile of felodipine in an extended-release (ER) formulation given once daily as monotherapy. Doses of 5 mg, 10 mg or 20 mg felodipine ER were compared with placebo in 183 patients with mild or moderate hypertension. All antihypertensive medication was discontinued on entering a 4-week placebo run-in period. If, at the end of the run-in period, supine diastolic blood pressure was in the range greater than 95 less than 120 mmHg, patients were randomly allocated to double-blind treatment with felodipine, 5 mg, 10 mg or 20 mg, or placebo, to be taken once daily for 4 weeks. Supine and standing blood pressure, heart rate and body weight were measured every 2 weeks during the trial. Assessments were made 24 hours after intake of the study drug. Adverse events were recorded at each review. Over the 4-week treatment period, a dose-related decrease in supine diastolic blood pressure was observed, this reduction occurring already during the first 2 weeks of active treatment. In the placebo group and the felodipine 5 mg, 10 mg and 20 mg groups, supine blood pressure (systolic/diastolic) decreased by 7/6 mmHg, 9/8 mmHg, 12/10 mmHg and 14/11 mmHg, respectively. Supine diastolic blood pressure reduction in the felodipine 10 mg group and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure reductions in the 20 mg group were significantly greater than with placebo. Standing diastolic blood pressure reduction was significantly greater in all three dose groups on felodipine compared with placebo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2004539

  8. Structural MRI Biomarkers for Preclinical and Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Hagler, Donald J.; McEvoy, Linda K.; Fleisher, Adam S.; Wu, Elaine H.; Karow, David S.; Dale, Anders M.

    2010-01-01

    Noninvasive MRI biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) may enable earlier clinical diagnosis and the monitoring of therapeutic effectiveness. To assess potential neuroimaging biomarkers, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative is following normal controls (NC) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD. We applied high-throughput image analyses procedures to these data to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting subtle structural changes in prodromal AD. Raw DICOM scans (139 NC, 175 MCI, and 84 AD) were downloaded for analysis. Volumetric segmentation and cortical surface reconstruction produced continuous cortical surface maps and region-of-interest (ROI) measures. The MCI cohort was subdivided into single- (SMCI) and multiple-domain MCI (MMCI) based on neuropsychological performance. Repeated measures analyses of covariance were used to examine group and hemispheric effects while controlling for age, sex, and, for volumetric measures, intracranial vault. ROI analyses showed group differences for ventricular, temporal, posterior and rostral anterior cingulate, posterior parietal, and frontal regions. SMCI and NC differed within temporal, rostral posterior cingulate, inferior parietal, precuneus, and caudal midfrontal regions. With MMCI and AD, greater differences were evident in these regions and additional frontal and retrosplenial cortices; evidence for non-AD pathology in MMCI also was suggested. Mesial temporal right-dominant asymmetries were evident and did not interact with diagnosis. Our findings demonstrate that high-throughput methods provide numerous measures to detect subtle effects of prodromal AD, suggesting early and later stages of the preclinical state in this cross-sectional sample. These methods will enable a more complete longitudinal characterization and allow us to identify changes that are predictive of conversion to AD. PMID:19277975

  9. Characterizing mild cognitive impairment in incident Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Yarnall, Alison J.; Breen, David P.; Duncan, Gordon W.; Khoo, Tien K.; Coleman, Shirley Y.; Firbank, Michael J.; Nombela, Cristina; Winder-Rhodes, Sophie; Evans, Jonathan R.; Rowe, James B.; Mollenhauer, Brit; Kruse, Niels; Hudson, Gavin; Chinnery, Patrick F.; O’Brien, John T.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Wesnes, Keith; Brooks, David J.; Barker, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the frequency of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Parkinson disease (PD) in a cohort of newly diagnosed incident PD cases and the associations with a panel of biomarkers. Methods: Between June 2009 and December 2011, 219 subjects with PD and 99 age-matched controls participated in clinical and neuropsychological assessments as part of a longitudinal observational study. Consenting individuals underwent structural MRI, lumbar puncture, and genotyping for common variants of COMT, MAPT, SNCA, BuChE, EGF, and APOE. PD-MCI was defined with reference to the new Movement Disorder Society criteria. Results: The frequency of PD-MCI was 42.5% using level 2 criteria at 1.5 SDs below normative values. Memory impairment was the most common domain affected, with 15.1% impaired at 1.5 SDs. Depression scores were significantly higher in those with PD-MCI than the cognitively normal PD group. A significant correlation was found between visual Pattern Recognition Memory and cerebrospinal β-amyloid 1–42 levels (β standardized coefficient = 0.350; p = 0.008) after controlling for age and education in a linear regression model, with lower β-amyloid 1–42 and 1–40 levels observed in those with PD-MCI. Voxel-based morphometry did not reveal any areas of significant gray matter loss in participants with PD-MCI compared with controls, and no specific genotype was associated with PD-MCI at the 1.5-SD threshold. Conclusions: In a large cohort of newly diagnosed PD participants, PD-MCI is common and significantly correlates with lower cerebrospinal β-amyloid 1–42 and 1–40 levels. Future longitudinal studies should enable us to determine those measures predictive of cognitive decline. PMID:24363137

  10. Psychological well-being in individuals with mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Nicola; Valenzuela, Michael; Sachdev, Perminder S; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cognitive impairments associated with aging and dementia are major sources of burden, deterioration in life quality, and reduced psychological well-being (PWB). Preventative measures to both reduce incident disease and improve PWB in those afflicted are increasingly targeting individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at early disease stage. However, there is very limited information regarding the relationships between early cognitive changes and memory concern, and life quality and PWB in adults with MCI; furthermore, PWB outcomes are too commonly overlooked in intervention trials. The purpose of this study was therefore to empirically test a theoretical model of PWB in MCI in order to inform clinical intervention. Methods Baseline data from a convenience sample of 100 community-dwelling adults diagnosed with MCI enrolled in the Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART) trial were collected. A series of regression analyses were performed to develop a reduced model, then hierarchical regression with the Baron Kenny test of mediation derived the final three-tiered model of PWB. Results Significant predictors of PWB were subjective memory concern, cognitive function, evaluations of quality of life, and negative affect, with a final model explaining 61% of the variance of PWB in MCI. Discussion Our empirical findings support a theoretical tiered model of PWB in MCI and contribute to an understanding of the way in which early subtle cognitive deficits impact upon PWB. Multiple targets and entry points for clinical intervention were identified. These include improving the cognitive difficulties associated with MCI. Additionally, these highlight the importance of reducing memory concern, addressing low mood, and suggest that improving a person’s quality of life may attenuate the negative effects of depression and anxiety on PWB in this cohort. PMID:24855347

  11. The Characterization of Biological Rhythms in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Mardomingo, Carmen; García-Herranz, Sara; Pereda-Pérez, Inmaculada; Peraita, Herminia; Venero, César; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Patients with dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease, present several circadian impairments related to an accelerated perturbation of their biological clock that is caused by the illness itself and not merely age-related. Thus, the objective of this work was to elucidate whether these circadian system alterations were already present in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as compared to healthy age-matched subjects. Methods. 40 subjects (21 patients diagnosed with MCI, 74.1 ± 1.5 y.o., and 19 healthy subjects, 71.7 ± 1.4 y.o.) were subjected to ambulatory monitoring, recording wrist skin temperature, motor activity, body position, and the integrated variable TAP (including temperature, activity, and position) for one week. Nonparametrical analyses were then applied. Results. MCI patients exhibited a significant phase advance with respect to the healthy group for the following phase markers: temperature M5 (mean ± SEM: 04:20 ± 00:21 versus 02:52 ± 00:21) and L10 (14:35 ± 00:27 versus 13:24 ± 00:16) and TAP L5 (04:18 ± 00:14 versus 02:55 ± 00:30) and M10 (14:30 ± 00:18 versus 13:28 ± 00:23). Conclusions. These results suggest that significant advances in the biological clock begin to occur in MCI patients, evidenced by an accelerated aging of the circadian clock, as compared to a healthy population of the same age. PMID:25157363

  12. Headache management in concussion and mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Sylvia

    2011-10-01

    Headache is one of the most common symptoms after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and posttraumatic headache (PTH) may be part of a constellation of symptoms that is seen in the postconcussive syndrome. PTH has no defining clinical features; currently it is classified as a secondary headache based on its close temporal relationship to the injury. A growing number of studies are characterizing PTH by using primary headache classifications. Moderate to severe PTH that is often disabling may be classified as migraine or probable migraine and is found in substantial numbers of individuals. Recent data from civilian adult, pediatric, and military populations all find that PTH may be more of a chronic problem than previously thought, with a prevalence of close to half of the injured population. In addition, if PTH definitions are strictly adhered to, then many cases of PTH may be missed, thus underestimating the scope of the problem. New headaches may be reported well after the 7 days required for diagnosis of PTH by the guidelines of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition. A history of headache before a head injury occurs and female gender are possible risk factors for headache after TBI. Treatment of PTH may be acute or preventive, and recommendations are made for the use of migraine-specific acute therapy when indicated. Preventive therapy may be considered when PTH is frequent, disabling, or refractory to acute therapies. Comorbid conditions should be considered when choosing an appropriate preventive therapy. The symptom of headache as a "return to play" or "return to duty" barrier must be viewed in the context of other symptoms of mild TBI. PMID:22035683

  13. Associations of Mild Cognitive Impairment with Hospitalization and Readmission

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Kathryn E.; Lovato, James F.; Miller, Michael E.; Easterling, Doug; Snitz, Beth; Williamson, Jeff D.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition not previously explored as a risk factor, experience increased hospitalizations and 30-day readmission compared to those with normal cognition. Frequent hospitalizations and unplanned readmissions are recognized as markers of poor quality care for older adults. DESIGN Post-hoc analysis of prospectively gathered data on incident hospitalization and readmission from the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study (GEMS), a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial designed to assess the impact of Ginkgo biloba on incidence of dementia. SETTING GEMS was conducted in 5 academic medical centers in the United States. PARTICIPANTS 2742 community-dwelling adults age 75 or older with normal cognition (n=2314) or MCI (n=428) at baseline cognitive testing. MEASUREMENTS Index hospitalization and 30-day hospital readmission, adjusted for age, sex, race, education, clinic site, trial assignment status, comorbidities, number of prescription medications, and living with an identified proxy. RESULTS MCI was associated with a 17% increase in the hazard of index hospitalization as compared with normal cognition (adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.17 (1.02 – 1.34)). In participants who lived with their proxy, MCI was associated with a 39% increased hazard of index hospitalization (adjusted HR=1.392 (1.169 – 1.657)). Baseline MCI was not associated with increased odds of 30-day hospital readmission (adjusted Odds Ratio=0.90 (0.60 – 1.36)). CONCLUSION MCI may represent a target condition for healthcare providers to coordinate support services in an effort to reduce hospitalization and subsequent disability. PMID:26313420

  14. Sparse Multivariate Autoregressive Modeling for Mild Cognitive Impairment Classification

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Jie, Biao; Peng, Ziwen

    2014-01-01

    Brain connectivity network derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is becoming increasingly prevalent in the researches related to cognitive and perceptual processes. The capability to detect causal or effective connectivity is highly desirable for understanding the cooperative nature of brain network, particularly when the ultimate goal is to obtain good performance of control-patient classification with biological meaningful interpretations. Understanding directed functional interactions between brain regions via brain connectivity network is a challenging task. Since many genetic and biomedical networks are intrinsically sparse, incorporating sparsity property into connectivity modeling can make the derived models more biologically plausible. Accordingly, we propose an effective connectivity modeling of resting-state fMRI data based on the multivariate autoregressive (MAR) modeling technique, which is widely used to characterize temporal information of dynamic systems. This MAR modeling technique allows for the identification of effective connectivity using the Granger causality concept and reducing the spurious causality connectivity in assessment of directed functional interaction from fMRI data. A forward orthogonal least squares (OLS) regression algorithm is further used to construct a sparse MAR model. By applying the proposed modeling to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) classification, we identify several most discriminative regions, including middle cingulate gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, lingual gyrus and caudate regions, in line with results reported in previous findings. A relatively high classification accuracy of 91.89 % is also achieved, with an increment of 5.4 % compared to the fully-connected, non-directional Pearson-correlation-based functional connectivity approach. PMID:24595922

  15. Evidence for mild thyroidal impairment in women undergoing endurance training

    SciTech Connect

    Boyden, T.W.; Pamenter, R.W.; Stanforth, P.; Rotkis, T.; Wilmore, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of endurance training on body composition and the pituitary-thyroid axis were studied in 29 healthy, young (mean age, 28.7 yr), regularly menstruating women. Women who were initially jogging a mean of 13.5 miles/week were selected for this study to minimize dropouts. Body composition, measured by hydrostatic weighing, and nonfasting plasma concentrations of T/sub 4/, T/sub 3/, rT/sub 3/, TSH, and TRH-stimulated TSH, measured by RIA, were examined initially and after each subject's weekly mileage had increased to 30 miles (..delta..30, mean total body weight did not change, mean fat weight decreased (-1.02 kg/ P<0.005), and mean lean weight increased (+0.75 kg; P<0.05). T/sub 4/ and unstimulated TSH did not change. However, mean (+/- SE) T/sub 3/ decreased from 107.2 +/- 4.4 to 97.9 +/- 3.4 ng/dl (P<0.025), and mean rT/sub 3/ decreased from 170.9 +/- 13.9 to 154.6 +/- 13.2 pg/ml (P<0.025). The decrease in T/sub 3/ and rT/sub 3/ were accompanied by significantly greater TSH responses to TRH stimulation (mean (+/- SE) area under TSH curve, 1381.4 +/- 123 vs. 1712.8 +/- 202 ..mu..IU/ml-min; P < 0.01). These results indicate that physically active women who undergo additional endurance training 1) become more lean without a change in total body weight, and 2) have changes in T/sub 3/, rT/sub 3/, and TRH-stimulated TSH indicative of mild thyroidal impairment.

  16. Assessment of cognition in mild cognitive impairment: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Peter J.; Jackson, Colleen E.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Khachaturian, Ara S.; Kaye, Jeffrey; Albert, Marilyn S.; Weintraub, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The demand for rapidly administered, sensitive, and reliable cognitive assessments that are specifically designed for identifying individuals in the earliest stages of cognitive decline (and to measure subtle change over time) has escalated as the emphasis in Alzheimer’s disease clinical research has shifted from clinical diagnosis and treatment toward the goal of developing presymptomatic neuroprotective therapies. To meet these changing clinical requirements, cognitive measures or tailored batteries of tests must be validated and determined to be fit-for-use for the discrimination between cognitively healthy individuals and persons who are experiencing very subtle cognitive changes that likely signal the emergence of early mild cognitive impairment. We sought to collect and review data systematically from a wide variety of (mostly computer-administered) cognitive measures, all of which are currently marketed or distributed with the claims that these instruments are sensitive and reliable for the early identification of disease or, if untested for this purpose, are promising tools based on other variables. The survey responses for 16 measures/batteries are presented in brief in this review; full survey responses and summary tables are archived and publicly available on the Campaign to Prevent Alzheimer’s Disease by 2020 Web site (http://pad2020.org). A decision tree diagram highlighting critical decision points for selecting measures to meet varying clinical trials requirements has also been provided. Ultimately, the survey questionnaire, framework, and decision guidelines provided in this review should remain as useful aids for the evaluation of any new or updated sets of instruments in the years to come. PMID:21575877

  17. Supervised Discriminative Group Sparse Representation for Mild Cognitive Impairment Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Heung-Il; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Research on an early detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), a prodromal stage of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), with resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) has been of great interest for the last decade. Witnessed by recent studies, functional connectivity is a useful concept in extracting brain network features and finding biomarkers for brain disease diagnosis. However, it still remains challenging for the estimation of functional connectivity from rs-fMRI due to the inevitable high dimensional problem. In order to tackle this problem, we utilize a group sparse representation along with a structural equation model. Unlike the conventional group sparse representation method that does not explicitly consider class-label information, which can help enhance the diagnostic performance, in this paper, we propose a novel supervised discriminative group sparse representation method by penalizing a large within-class variance and a small between-class variance of connectivity coefficients. Thanks to the newly devised penalization terms, we can learn connectivity coefficients that are similar within the same class and distinct between classes, thus helping enhance the diagnostic accuracy. The proposed method also allows the learned common network structure to preserve the network specific and label-related characteristics. In our experiments on the rs-fMRI data of 37 subjects (12 MCI; 25 healthy normal control) with a cross-validation technique, we demonstrated the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method, showing the diagnostic accuracy of 89.19% and the sensitivity of 0.9167. PMID:25501275

  18. Mild chemical oxidation of reactive uranium for disposal or recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, N.N.; Lussiez, G.

    1994-12-31

    Large quantities (thousands of drums) of waste uranium metal or alloyed metals as scrap or chips and turnings are generated annually in the DOE complex. The high surface areas of this waste renders it highly reactive with both air and moisture. Storage of the materials is hazardous and expensive, but most DOE sites are forced to store the waste, because no adequate treatment or recycle technology is available. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) currently has over 200 55-gal drums of reactive uranium awaiting treatment or recovery. To address this problem, LANL has developed a process for the low-temperature conversion of waste uranium metal to uranium oxide. The basis of our technology is a mild solution oxidation using sodium hypochlorite (bleach). Divided uranium metal or alloys are excellent candidates for this type of oxidation because of their high chemical reactivity. uranium turnings react rapidly with dilute solutions of sodium hypochlorite to form an insoluble uranium (VI) oxide, UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, as a finely divided yellow powder. The resulting powder is suitable for disposal after solidification or for recycle. Designs for a suitable reactor system for this process have been completed in the Waste Management Group at LANL. The skid-mounted mobile unit will be capable of treating up to 100 kg of metal or alloy per batch. This paper summarizes the details of the process, including formation and characterization of the uranium product, identification of process operating conditions, and reactor design. Included is a description of the steps for permitting the process.

  19. [Schooling and care of mild intellectual disability children].

    PubMed

    David, M; Billette de Villemeur, A; Devillard, F; Dieterich, K; Jouk, P-S; Prado, C; Descotes, A; Guillon, J-L; Counillon, J; Bloch, J; Cans, C

    2015-03-01

    Studies on mild intellectual disability (MID) are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the educational and medical care trajectories and their determinants in children with MID. The study population concerned children born in 1997 and resident in a French county (Isère) in 2008. MID was defined as an overall IQ score between 50 and 69. For the present study, this definition was adjusted by integrating the IQ confidence intervals so that the risk of IQ measurement relativity and possible score discrepancy could be taken into account. Of the 267 children included, 180 (67%) were identified through an institute that decides upon special education and allowances (MDPH) and 87 (33%) through the educational system. The parents of 181 children (68%) accepted to answer a telephone questionnaire, describing their child's educational and medical history. Children with MID frequently presented clinical signs and comorbidities. Educational trajectories were quite varied: a majority of the children (52.9%) were oriented toward sections with adapted general and professional education (SEGPA) after finishing primary school, a minority (41.3%) were oriented towards specialized schools, such as medical-educational institutions, and a small proportion of children (5.8%) stayed in ordinary school. Children followed the SEGPA orientation more frequently when a relative written language disorder was present, and autism-spectrum disorders or other clinical signs were absent. Concerning follow-up care and rehabilitation, children mostly took part in speech therapy (76.2%) and psychotherapy (55.8%). The French law dating from 2005, ensuring equal opportunity for people with disabilities, has borne fruit in the diversification of educational trajectories. PMID:25656456

  20. Static and Dynamic Intrinsic Connectivity following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Josef M.; Allen, Elena A.; Klimaj, Stefan D.; Yeo, Ronald A.; Hanlon, Faith M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is the most common neurological disorder and is typically characterized by temporally limited cognitive impairment and emotional symptoms. Previous examinations of intrinsic resting state networks in mTBI have primarily focused on abnormalities in static functional connectivity, and deficits in dynamic functional connectivity have yet to be explored in this population. Resting-state data was collected on 48 semi-acute (mean=14 days post-injury) mTBI patients and 48 matched healthy controls. A high-dimensional independent component analysis (N=100) was utilized to parcellate intrinsic connectivity networks (ICN), with a priori hypotheses focusing on the default-mode network (DMN) and sub-cortical structures. Dynamic connectivity was characterized using a sliding window approach over 126 temporal epochs, with standard deviation serving as the primary outcome measure. Finally, distribution-corrected z-scores (DisCo-Z) were calculated to investigate changes in connectivity in a spatially invariant manner on a per-subject basis. Following appropriate correction for multiple comparisons, no significant group differences were evident on measures of static or dynamic connectivity within a priori ICN. Reduced (HC>mTBI patients) static connectivity was observed in the DMN at uncorrected (p<0.005) thresholds. Finally, a trend (p=0.07) for decreased dynamic connectivity in patients across all ICN was observed during spatially invariant analyses (DisCo-Z). In the semi-acute phase of recovery, mTBI was not reliably associated with abnormalities in static or dynamic functional connectivity within the DMN or sub-cortical structures. PMID:25318005

  1. Sex Differences in Outcome after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, Brian; Mookerjee, Sohug; He, Hua; McDermott, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to estimate the independent association of sex with outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We performed an analysis of a subset of an established cohort involving 1425 mTBI patients presenting to an academic emergency department (ED). The associations between sex and three outcomes determined 3 months after the initial ED visit were examined: post-concussive symptom (PCS) score (0, 1–5, 6–16, and >16), the number of days to return of normal activities (0, 1–7, and >7), and the number of days of work missed (0, 1–7,and >7). Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between sex and each outcome after controlling for 12 relevant subject-level variables. Of the 1425 subjects, 643 (45.1%) were female and 782 (54.9%) were male. Three months after mTBI, males had significantly lower odds of being in a higher PCS score category (odds ratio [OR] 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50, 0.78); this association appeared to be more prominent during child-bearing years for females. Males and females did not significantly differ with respect to the odds of poorer outcome as defined by the number of days to return of normal activities or the number of days of work missed. Female sex is associated with significantly higher odds of poor outcome after mTBI, as measured by PCS score, after control for appropriate confounders. The observed pattern of peak disability for females during the child-bearing years suggests disruption of endogenous estrogen or progesterone production. Attempts to better understand how mTBI affects production of these hormones acutely after injury and during the recovery period may shed light on the mechanism behind poorer outcome among females and putative therapeutic interventions. PMID:19938945

  2. Anemia and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the German General Population.

    PubMed

    Dlugaj, Martha; Winkler, Angela; Weimar, Christian; Dürig, Jan; Broecker-Preuss, Martina; Dragano, Nico; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Eisele, Lewin

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that anemia is associated with cognitive impairment. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the cross-sectional association of anemia as well as the persistence of anemia over the last five years with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and MCI subtypes (amnestic/non-amnestic MCI (aMCI/naMCI)). Out of 4,157 participants (50% men, 50-80 years) of the second examination (t1) of a cohort study (baseline (t0) 2000-2003), we included 4,033 participants with available hemoglobin information and complete cognitive assessment. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <13 g/dl in men (n = 84) and <12 g/dl in women (n = 79). Group comparisons were used to compare the cognitive subtests. To determine the association of MCI with anemia at t1, with anemia five years prior to the cognitive assessment (t0) and anemia at both time points, we used logistic regression models and included 579 participants with MCI and 1,438 cognitively normal participants out of the total cohort. Anemic participants showed lower performances in verbal memory and executive functions. The fully adjusted odds ratios (OR) for MCI, aMCI, and naMCI in anemic versus non-anemic participants were 1.92 (95% -CI, 1.09-3.39), 1.96 (1.00-3.87), and 1.88 (0.91-3.87). Anemia at both times points showed a non-significant association with naMCI (OR 3.74, 0.94-14.81, fully adjusted). Our results suggest that anemia is associated with an increased risk of MCI independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The association of anemia and MCI has important clinical relevance, because many causes of anemia can be treated effectively. PMID:26599053

  3. Prognostic Value of Posteromedial Cortex Deactivation in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Prince, Steven E.; Wang, Lihong; Hellegers, Caroline; Doraiswamy, P. Murali

    2007-01-01

    Background Normal subjects deactivate specific brain regions, notably the posteromedial cortex (PMC), during many tasks. Recent cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data suggests that deactivation during memory tasks is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The goal of this study was to prospectively determine the prognostic significance of PMC deactivation in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methodology/Principal Findings 75 subjects (34 MCI, 13 AD subjects and 28 controls) underwent baseline fMRI scanning during encoding of novel and familiar face-name pairs. MCI subjects were followed longitudinally to determine conversion to AD. Regression and analysis of covariance models were used to assess the effect of PMC activation/deactivation on conversion to dementia as well as in the longitudinal change in dementia measures. At longitudinal follow up of up to 3.5 years (mean 2.5±0.79 years), 11 MCI subjects converted to AD. The proportion of deactivators was significantly different across all groups: controls (79%), MCI-Nonconverters (73%), MCI-converters (45%), and AD (23%) (p<0.05). Mean PMC activation magnitude parameter estimates, at baseline, were negative in the control (−0.57±0.12) and MCI-Nonconverter (−0.33±0.14) groups, and positive in the MCI-Converter (0.37±0.40) and AD (0.92±0.30) groups. The effect of diagnosis on PMC deactivation remained significant after adjusting for age, education and baseline Mini-Mental State Exam (p<0.05). Baseline PMC activation magnitude was correlated with change in dementia ratings from baseline. Conclusion Loss of physiological functional deactivation in the PMC may have prognostic value in preclinical AD, and could aid in profiling subgroups of MCI subjects at greatest risk for progressive cognitive decline. PMID:17971867

  4. Mild hyperthermia influence on Herceptin® properties

    PubMed Central

    Escoffre, Jean-Michel; Deckers, Roel; Sasaki, Noboru; Bos, Clemens; Moonen, Chrit

    2015-01-01

    Background Mild hyperthermia (mHT) increases the tumor perfusion and vascular permeability, and reduces the interstitial fluid pressure, resulting in better intra-tumoral bioavailability of low molecular weight drugs. This approach is potentially also attractive for delivery of therapeutic macromolecules, such as antibodies. Here, we investigated the effects of mHT on the stability, immunological and pharmacological properties of Herceptin®, a clinically approved antibody, targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) overexpressed in breast cancer. Results Herceptin® was heated to 37°C (control) and 42°C (mHT) for 1 hour. Formation of Herceptin® aggregates was measured using Nile Red assay. mHT did not result in additional Herceptin® aggregates compared to 37°C, showing the Herceptin® stability is unchanged. Immunological and pharmacological properties of Herceptin® were evaluated following mHT using HER-2 positive breast cancer cells (BT-474). Exposure of Herceptin® to mHT preserved recognition and binding affinity of Herceptin® to HER-2. Western-blot and cell proliferation assays on BT-474 cells showed that mHT left the inhibitory activities of Herceptin® unchanged. Conclusions The stability, and the immunological and pharmacological properties of Herceptin® are not negatively affected by mHT. Further in-vivo studies are required to evaluate the influence of mHT on intra-tumoral bioavailability and therapeutic effectiveness of Herceptin®. PMID:25810700

  5. Mild cognitive impairment with suspected nonamyloid pathology (SNAP)

    PubMed Central

    Caroli, Anna; Prestia, Annapaola; Galluzzi, Samantha; Ferrari, Clarissa; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Van Berckel, Bart; Barkhof, Frederik; Teunissen, Charlotte; Wall, Anders E.; Carter, Stephen F.; Schöll, Michael; Choo, Il Han; Grimmer, Timo; Redolfi, Alberto; Nordberg, Agneta; Scheltens, Philip; Drzezga, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of progressive cognitive deterioration in patients with suspected non–Alzheimer disease pathology (SNAP) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We measured markers of amyloid pathology (CSF β-amyloid 42) and neurodegeneration (hippocampal volume on MRI and cortical metabolism on [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose–PET) in 201 patients with MCI clinically followed for up to 6 years to detect progressive cognitive deterioration. We categorized patients with MCI as A+/A− and N+/N− based on presence/absence of amyloid pathology and neurodegeneration. SNAPs were A−N+ cases. Results: The proportion of progressors was 11% (8/41), 34% (14/41), 56% (19/34), and 71% (60/85) in A−N−, A+N−, SNAP, and A+N+, respectively; the proportion of APOE ε4 carriers was 29%, 70%, 31%, and 71%, respectively, with the SNAP group featuring a significantly different proportion than both A+N− and A+N+ groups (p ≤ 0.005). Hypometabolism in SNAP patients was comparable to A+N+ patients (p = 0.154), while hippocampal atrophy was more severe in SNAP patients (p = 0.002). Compared with A−N−, SNAP and A+N+ patients had significant risk of progressive cognitive deterioration (hazard ratio = 2.7 and 3.8, p = 0.016 and p < 0.001), while A+N− patients did not (hazard ratio = 1.13, p = 0.771). In A+N− and A+N+ groups, none of the biomarkers predicted time to progression. In the SNAP group, lower time to progression was correlated with greater hypometabolism (r = 0.42, p = 0.073). Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that patients with SNAP MCI feature a specific risk progression profile. PMID:25568301

  6. Association between Helicobacter pylori infection and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Kountouras, J; Tsolaki, M; Boziki, M; Gavalas, E; Zavos, C; Stergiopoulos, C; Kapetanakis, N; Chatzopoulos, D; Venizelos, I

    2007-09-01

    The association of Helicobacter pylori infection and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has recently been addressed, but no relative data exist regarding mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a prodromal phase of AD. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate H. pylori infection, by histology in a Greek MCI cohort. Sixty-three consecutive patients with amnestic MCI and 35 normal controls underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, histologic and serological examinations. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 88.9% (56/63) in MCI patients and 48.6% (17/35) in anaemic controls, as confirmed by biopsy (P < 0.001, odds ratio: 8.47, 95% CI: 3.03-23.67). Mean serum anti-H. pylori IgG concentration and plasma total homocysteine (Hcy) titre were higher in MCI patients than controls (74.86 +/- 57.22 vs. 17.37 +/- 9.30 U/ml; and 16.03 +/- 4.28 vs. 13.5 +/- 1.20 micromol/l; P < 0.001 and P = 0.015, respectively). When compared with the anaemic participants, MCI patients exhibited more often multifocal (body and antral) gastritis (92.1% vs. 68.6%; P = 0.03); in H. pylori positive MCI patients cognitive state correlated with serum anti-H. pylori IgG concentration. In conclusion, H. pylori prevalence was significantly higher in MCI patients than controls. This infection might contribute, at least in part, to the pathophysiology of MCI, possibly through induction of chronic atrophic gastritis and elevated Hcy consequences. PMID:17718688

  7. Differential effects of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid antagonism on anxiety behavior in mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Fox, Laura C; Davies, Daniel R; Scholl, Jamie L; Watt, Michael J; Forster, Gina L

    2016-10-01

    Mild traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) comprise three-quarters of all TBIs occurring in the United States annually, and psychological symptoms arising from them can last years after injury. One commonly observed symptom following mild TBI is generalized anxiety. Most mild TBIs happen in stressful situations (sports, war, domestic violence, etc.) when glucocorticoids are elevated in the brain at the time of impact, and glucocorticoids have negative effects on neuronal health following TBI. Therefore, blocking glucocorticoid receptors might prevent emergence of anxiety symptoms post-injury. Adult male rats received mifepristone (20mg/kg) or spironolactone (50mg/kg) to block glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, respectively, 40min prior to being exposed to acute social defeat stress followed immediately by mild TBI. In defeated rats with concomitant mild TBI, mifepristone restored time spent in the open arms of an elevated plus maze to control levels, demonstrating for the first time that glucocorticoid receptors play a critical role in the development of anxiety after mild TBI. Future treatments could target these receptors, alleviating anxiety as a major side effect in victims of mild TBI sustained in stressful situations. PMID:27363926

  8. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Sigan L; Esbensen, Anna J; Shalev, Rebecca; Vincent, Lori B; Mihaila, Iulia; Bussanich, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of research on psychosocial treatments for depression in adults with intellectual disability (ID). In this pilot study, we explored the efficacy of a group CBT treatment that involved a caregiver component in adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder. Method Sixteen adults with mild ID and a depressive disorder participated in a 10-week group CBT treatment and 8 adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder served as a treatment as usual (TAU) control group. Adults with mild ID and caregivers completed measures of depressive symptoms, behavior problems, and social skills at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and a 3-month follow-up. Adults with mild ID also completed a series of tasks to measure their understanding of the principles of cognitive therapy pre- and post-treatment. Results The CBT group demonstrated significant decreases in depressive symptoms and behavior problems from pre-treatment to post-treatment and these effects were maintained at a 3-month follow-up. The CBT group demonstrated significant improvements in their ability to infer emotions and thoughts based on various situation-thought-emotion pairings from pre-treatment to post-treatment. Conclusions Findings indicate that adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder benefitted from a group CBT treatment with a caregiver component. Moreover, adults with mild ID appeared to benefit, at least in part, from the cognitive therapy components of the treatment, in addition to the behavior therapy components. PMID:26925187

  9. Biodesulfurization of mild gasification liquid products. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, J.J. II

    1993-09-01

    The mild gasification of coal is a promising new technology that can convert coal to multiple products: gas, solid, and liquids. However, the sulfur content and aromaticity of mild gasification liquids limits their usefulness. Biodesulfurization can potentially decrease both sulfur content and aromaticity. The objective of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using biodesulfurization to upgrade the quality of mild gasification liquids. Previously it was shown that the middle distillate (360--440{degrees}F) fraction of liquids derived from the mild gasification of coal could be biodesulfurized. During this quarter it was demonstrated that unfractionated liquids can be biodesulfurized. Moreover, it was demonstrated that lysed cell preparations and freeze-dried cells can be used to biodesulfurize mild coal gasification liquids. The importance of the finding that freeze-dried biocatalysts can be used to biodesulfurize mild coal gasification liquids is that freezedried cells can be produced at one location, stored indefinitely, and then shipped to another location for coal biodesulfurization. Moreover, freeze-dried biocatalysts can be added directly to mild coal gasification liquids with only minimal additions of water so that reactor volumes can be minimized.

  10. Divided attention and metabolic brain dysfunction in mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type.

    PubMed

    Nestor, P G; Parasuraman, R; Haxby, J V; Grady, C L

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between reaction time (RT) measures under single-task and dual-task conditions and resting levels of brain metabolism, as measured by positron emission tomography (PET), was examined in patients with mild dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) and age- and educationally-matched controls. Slowing of RT in dual-task but not single-task conditions correlated with reductions in brain metabolism in right premotor and right parietal association areas only for the mild DAT patients. The results suggest a relation between divided attention deficits and metabolic dysfunction of right frontal and parietal lobes in mild DAT patients. PMID:1886681

  11. Performance-based testing in mild stroke: identification of unmet opportunity for occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Morrison, M Tracy; Edwards, Dorothy F; Giles, Gordon Muir

    2015-01-01

    Age at first stroke is decreasing, and most strokes are mild to moderate in severity. Executive function (EF) deficits are increasingly recognized in the stroke population, but occupational therapists have not altered their evaluation methods to fully accommodate changing patient needs. We present a hierarchical performance-based testing (PBT) pathway using data to illustrate how PBT could identify patients with mild stroke-related EF deficits in need of occupational therapy intervention. Data suggest that a substantial number of patients with EF deficits after mild stroke could benefit from occupational therapy services. PMID:25553755

  12. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.; Breault, R.W.

    1988-06-01

    Research on mild gasification is discussed. The report is divided into three sections: literature survey of mild gasification processes; literature survey of char, condensibles, and gas upgrading and utilization methods; and industrial market assessment of products of mild gasification. Recommendations are included in each section. (CBS) 248 refs., 58 figs., 62 tabs.

  13. 40 CFR 180.1276 - Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus (TMGMV); temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1276 Tobacco mild green mosaic... requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus in or on...

  14. Time Orientation in the Positive and Negative Free Phantasies of Mildly Abnormal Versus Normal High School Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rychlak, Joseph F.

    1973-01-01

    This study contrasts a group of mildly'' abnormal high school males with matched normals in a two-session free phantasy procedure. Mildly abnormal boys phantasized more negative contents than normal boys. Normal boys projected more positive phantasies into the future than mildly abnormal boys. A logical learning theory'' embracing the…

  15. 40 CFR 180.1276 - Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus (TMGMV); temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1276 Tobacco mild green mosaic... requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus in or on...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1276 - Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus (TMGMV); temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1276 Tobacco mild green mosaic... requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus in or on...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1276 - Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus (TMGMV); temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1276 Tobacco mild green mosaic... requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus in or on...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1276 - Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus (TMGMV); temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1276 Tobacco mild green mosaic... requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus in or on...

  19. Brief Report: Adults with Mild Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)--Scores on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and Comorbid Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketelaars, Cees; Horwitz, Ernst; Sytema, Sjoerd; Bos, Johan; Wiersma, Durk; Minderaa, Ruud; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2008-01-01

    While knowledge about symptom presentation of adults with mild ASD, including comorbid psychopathology, is limited, referral of adults with suspected mild PDD is increasing. We report on pilot research investigating whether patients diagnosed with mild ASD (n = 15) and patients who were not diagnosed with ASD (n = 21) differed in terms of (a) AQ…

  20. Bismuth-based oxide semiconductors: Mild synthesis and practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmaji, Hari Krishna

    In this dissertation study, bismuth based oxide semiconductors were prepared using 'mild' synthesis techniques---electrodeposition and solution combustion synthesis. Potential environmental remediation and solar energy applications of the prepared oxides were evaluated. Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) was prepared by electrodeposition and solution combustion synthesis. A two step electrosynthesis strategy was developed and demonstrated for the first time. In the first step, a Bi film was first electrodeposited on a Pt substrate from an acidic BiCl3 medium. Then, this film was anodically stripped in a medium containing hydrolyzed vanadium precursor, to generate Bi3+, and subsequent BiVO4 formation by in situ precipitation. The photoelectrochemical data were consistent with the in situ formation of n-type semiconductor films. In the solution combustion synthesis procedure, BiVO4 powders were prepared using bismuth nitrate pentahydrate as the bismuth precursor and either vanadium chloride or vanadium oxysulfate as the vanadium precursor. Urea, glycine, or citric acid was used as the fuel. The effect of the vanadium precursor on the photocatalytic activity of combustion synthesized BiVO 4 was evaluated in this study. Methyl orange was used as a probe to test the photocatalytic attributes of the combustion synthesized (CS) samples, and benchmarked against a commercial bismuth vanadate sample. The CS samples showed superior activity to the commercial benchmark sample, and samples derived from vanadium chloride were superior to vanadium oxysulfate counterparts. The photoelectrochemical properties of the various CS samples were also studied and these samples were shown to be useful both for environmental photocatalytic remediation and water photooxidation applications. Silver bismuth tungstate (AgBiW2O8) nanoparticles were prepared for the first time by solution combustion synthesis by using silver nitrate, bismuth nitrate, sodium tungstate as precursors for Ag, Bi, and W

  1. MILD OBESITY IS PROTECTIVE AFTER SEVERE BURN INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Emdad, Fatemeh; Rivero, Haidy G.; Kraft, Robert; Williams, Felicia N; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Klein, Matthew B.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Subgroup analysis revealed that patients with mild obesity have the best survival, whereas morbidly obese patients have the highest mortality. PMID:23877367

  2. Exponential Mixing of the 3D Stochastic Navier-Stokes Equations Driven by Mildly Degenerate Noises

    SciTech Connect

    Albeverio, Sergio; Debussche, Arnaud; Xu Lihu

    2012-10-15

    We prove the strong Feller property and exponential mixing for 3D stochastic Navier-Stokes equation driven by mildly degenerate noises (i.e. all but finitely many Fourier modes being forced) via a Kolmogorov equation approach.

  3. Existence of anti-periodic (differentiable) mild solutions to semilinear differential equations with nondense domain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinghuai; Zhang, Litao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the existence of anti-periodic (or anti-periodic differentiable) mild solutions to the semilinear differential equation [Formula: see text] with nondense domain. Furthermore, an example is given to illustrate our results. PMID:27350933

  4. Neurocognitive outcomes of children secondary to mild iodine deficiency in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Caron, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Iodine deficiency is the most important preventable cause of brain damage worldwide. During pregnancy, severe iodine deficiency causes endemic cretinism, whereas mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency impairs neurocognitive function of the offspring. Numerous reports demonstrate the impact of iodine supplementation on prevention of cretinism, and recent studies evaluate the effects of iodine prophylaxis on neurocognitive development in children of women with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Iodine prophylaxis is generally well tolerated without side effects for the pregnant women and the offspring. In France, the iodine status was recently considered as satisfactory in children and adult population, but regional studies conducted during the last two decades have shown that healthy women are mild-to-moderately iodine deficient during pregnancy. According to recent World Heath Organization guidelines, systematic iodine prophylaxis is recommended in women planning a pregnancy, during gestation and lactation in order to prevent maternal, neonatal and infantile consequences of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. PMID:25934357

  5. A Mild Flu Season, and The End Is in Sight: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158270.html A Mild Flu Season, and the End Is in Sight: CDC ... TUESDAY, April 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- This year's flu season may not quite be over, but it's ...

  6. An example of anti-s causing mild haemolytic disease of the newborn

    PubMed Central

    Davie, M. J.; Smith, D. S.; White, Ursula M.; Dyball, D.

    1972-01-01

    An example of anti-s found during routine antenatal tests and causing mild haemolytic disease of the newborn is described. The serological and immunological properties of the antibody are described. PMID:5086219

  7. Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talib, Nur Atiqah Abu; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chia Chin; Othman, Norinsan Kamil

    2014-09-01

    Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm. Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel

    SciTech Connect

    Talib, Nur Atiqah Abu; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chia Chin; Othman, Norinsan Kamil

    2014-09-03

    Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm. Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  9. The CALS Test Network MIL-D-28000 Class II reference drawing packet: Revision C

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-27

    This CALS Test Network MIL-D-28000 Class II Reference Drawing Packet contains the information needed to conduct tests of the engineering drawing subset, Class II, of the military specification MIL-D-28000 using IGES processors. The material is intended to demonstrate industry's and government's use of MIL-D-28000 in accordance with the CALS initiative. The CALS Test Network (CTN) is the organization tasked with demonstrating this digital data interchange among industry and government and will use this packet during CTN structured testing. The results derived from this testing will allow the CTN to suggest modifications to drafting techniques, CAD vendors' IGES processors, the IGES specification, and most importantly, the MIL-D-28000 military specification.

  10. Assessment Issues, Placement Litigation, and the Future of Mild Mental Retardation Classification and Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J.

    1988-01-01

    The article examines issues concerning mild mental retardation (MMR) classification and programing including placement bias litigation, MMR diagnostic construct and classification criteria, general intellectual functioning, adaptive behavior, sociocultural status, pseudo reforms through changes in assessment, the Learning Potential Assessment…

  11. Kinetics of atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in marine and rural environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palraj, S.; Selvaraj, M.; Maruthan, K.; Natesan, M.

    2015-03-01

    In continuation of the extensive studies carried out to update the corrosion map of India, in this study, the degradation of mild steel by air pollutants was studied at 16 different locations from Nagore to Ammanichatram along the east coast of Tamilnadu, India over a period of two years. The weight loss study showed that the mild steel corrosion was more at Nagapattinam site, when compared to Ammanichatram and Maravakadu sites. A linear regression analysis of the experimental data was attempted to predict the mechanism of the corrosion. The composition of the corrosion products formed on the mild steel surfaces was identified by XRD technique. The corrosion rate values obtained are discussed in the light of the weathering parameters, atmospheric pollutants such as salt content & SO2 levels in the atmosphere, corrosion products formed on the mild steel surfaces.

  12. Partial trisomy 1(q42-->qter): a new case with a mild phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Concolino, D; Cinti, R; Ferraro, L; Moricca, M T; Strisciuglio, P

    1998-01-01

    We report a female patient with a 46,XX,der(8)t(1;8)(q42.1;p23.3) karyotype who had a mild phenotype characterised by a few subtle dysmorphic features and mild developmental retardation, probably resulting from trisomy 1q42-->qter. The deletion on the short arm of the chromosome 8 appeared to be confined to the distal chromosomal segment. Images PMID:9475102

  13. Impact of mild exacerbation on COPD symptoms in a Japanese cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Minako; Chubachi, Shotaro; Sasaki, Mamoru; Haraguchi, Mizuha; Kameyama, Naofumi; Tsutsumi, Akihiro; Takahashi, Saeko; Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Asano, Koichiro; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with COPD might not report mild exacerbation. The frequency, risk factors, and impact of mild exacerbation on COPD status are unknown. Objectives The present study was performed to compare features between mild exacerbation and moderate or severe exacerbation in Japanese patients with COPD. Patients and methods An observational COPD cohort was designed at Keio University and affiliated hospitals to prospectively investigate the management of COPD comorbidities. This study analyzes data only from patients with COPD who had completed annual examinations and questionnaires over a period of 2 years (n=311). Results Among 59 patients with mild exacerbations during the first year, 32.2% also experienced only mild exacerbations in the second year. Among 60 patients with moderate or severe exacerbations during the first year, 40% also had the same severity of exacerbation during the second year. Findings of the COPD assessment test and the symptom component of the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire at steady state were worse in patients with mild exacerbations than in those who were exacerbation free during the 2-year study period, although the severity of the ratio of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second did not differ between them. Severe airflow limitation (the ratio of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second <50%) and experience of mild exacerbations independently advanced the likelihood of an elevated COPD assessment test score to ≥2 per year. Conclusion The severity of COPD exacerbation seemed to be temporally stable over 2 years, and even mild exacerbations adversely impacted the health-related quality of life of patients with COPD. PMID:27354785

  14. Mild, moderate, and severe pain in patients recovering from major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Zalon, Margarete L

    2014-06-01

    Pain interferes with various activities, such as coughing, deep breathing, and ambulation, designed to promote recovery and prevent complications after surgery. Determining appropriate cutpoints for mild, moderate, and severe pain is important, because specific interventions may be based on this classification. The purpose of this research was to determine optimal cutpoints for postoperative patients based on their worst and average pain during hospitalization and after discharge to home, and whether the optimal cutpoints distinguished patients with mild, moderate, or severe pain regarding patient outcomes. This secondary analysis consisted of 192 postoperative patients aged ≥60 years. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to stratify the sample into mild, moderate, and severe pain groups using eight cutpoint models for worst and average pain in the last 24 hours. One-way analyses of variance were conducted to determine whether patients experiencing mild, moderate, or severe pain were different in outcome. Optimal cutpoints were similar to those previously reported, with the boundary between mild and moderate pain ranging from 3 to 4 and the boundary between moderate and severe pain ranging from 5 to 7. Worst pain cutpoints were most useful in distinguishing patients regarding fatigue, depression, pain's interference with function, and morphine equivalent administered in the previous 24 hours. A substantial proportion of patients experienced moderate to severe pain. The results suggest a narrow boundary between mild and severe pain that interferes with function. The findings indicate that clinicians should seek to aggressively manage postoperative pain ratings greater than 3. PMID:24882032

  15. Regional Neurodegeneration and Gliosis Are Amplified by Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Repeated at 24-Hour Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Amanda Nicholle; Saatman, Kathryn Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Most traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) that occur every year are classified as ‘mild’. Individuals involved in high-risk activities may sustain multiple mild TBIs. We evaluated the acute physiological and histopathological consequences of mild TBI in a mouse model, comparing sham injury, single impact, or 5 impacts at a 24- or 48-hour inter-injury interval. A single closed skull impact resulted in bilateral gliosis in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex that was proportional to impact depth. Midline impact, at a depth just above the threshold to induce transient unconsciousness, produced occasional axonal injury and degenerating neurons accompanied by astrogliosis in the entorhinal cortex and cerebellum. Mild TBI repeated every 24 hours resulted in bilateral hemorrhagic lesions in the entorhinal cortex along with significantly increased neurodegeneration and microglial activation despite diminished durations of apnea and unconsciousness with subsequent impacts. Astrogliosis and diffusely distributed axonal injury were also observed bilaterally in the cerebellum and the brainstem. When the interval between mild TBIs was increased to 48 hours, the pathological consequences were comparable to a single TBI. Together, these data suggest that in mice the brain remains at increased risk for damage for 24 hours after mild TBI despite reduced acute physiological responses to subsequent mild impacts. PMID:25232942

  16. Approach to the Patient with Mild Crohn's Disease: a 2016 Update.

    PubMed

    Scott, Frank I; Lichtenstein, Gary R

    2016-09-01

    Mild Crohn's disease (CD) is classified as those patients who are ambulatory, with <10 % weight loss, are eating and drinking without abdominal mass, tenderness, obstructive symptoms, or fever, and endoscopically they have non-progressive mild findings. Initial evaluation of mild CD should focus on assessment for high-risk features requiring more aggressive therapy. In contrast to moderate-to-severe disease, where therapy is focused on mucosal healing, the management of mild CD is focused on symptom management, while exposing the individual to minimal therapeutic risks. Budesonide is the most commonly used medication for mild CD given its safety profile. Assessment of inflammatory markers, in concert with computed-tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) enterographies and endoscopic studies, should be considered in clinical remission to ensure that mucosal inflammation is not present. Endoscopic inflammation can precede clinical recurrence. Individuals with mild CD require routine vaccination, monitoring for iron-deficiency anemia and vitamin D deficiency, and colorectal cancer screening when appropriate. PMID:27448619

  17. Adolescents with Mild Stunting Show Alterations in Glucose and Insulin Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    da Luz Santos, Carla Danusa; Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Martins, Vinicius José Baccin; Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate glucose and insulin profiles in adolescents with mild stunting and overweight in order to assess the possibility of increased predisposition to diabetes. Subjects and Methods. The study population consisted of 66 pubertal adolescents classified as mildly stunted (height-for-age z scores ≥−2 and <−1) or of normal stature, as well as overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile) or normal weight. Beta-cell function and insulin resistance were evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Results. In the group with mild stunting, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in overweight adolescents compared with those of normal weight, whereas HOMA-B levels were significantly lower. Adolescents with mild stunting showed significantly higher accumulations of body and abdominal fat than their normal stature counterparts. Conclusions. The presence of mild stunting was associated with higher levels of glucose and insulin, diminished function of beta cells, and increased insulin resistance. These results reinforce the need for intervention in adolescents with mild stunting. PMID:21318152

  18. The clock drawing test as a screening tool in mild cognitive impairment and very mild dementia: a new brief method of scoring and normative data in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Monica; Pigliautile, Martina; D'Ambrosio, Valeria; Ercolani, Sara; Bianchini, Cinzia; Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Vanacore, Nicola; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2016-06-01

    many studies sustained that the clock drawing test (CDT) was not able to accurately detect people with CDR = 0.5. Other researchers have promoted the use of scoring approaches with multiple scales that rate quantitative and qualitative features of the production. Nevertheless, these scoring systems are complex and time-consuming. We propose a new brief CDT' scoring system in order to find a good measure for mild cognitive decline which is at the same time easy to administer. we enrolled 719 subjects: n. 181 with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD); n. 200 with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and n. 338 healthy elderly subjects (C). our CDT-three-cluster scoring system demonstrated a good sensitivity and an excellent specificity to discriminate MCI subjects from normal elderly (76 and 84 %, respectively) and an excellent sensitivity and specificity to discriminate patients affected by mild Alzheimer disease (CDR: 1) from normal elderly (91 and 90 %, respectively). We found that CDT' score = 1.30 discriminate people with MCI, whereas a score = 4.38 discriminate AD patients. The three-cluster-scoring-system demonstrated a good diagnostic accuracy, taking into account those error-items more predictive of cognitive decline: omission of numbers or hands, writing numbers or hands in a wrong position and writing numbers or hands in a different code. Our CDT' scoring system is very short and easy method which can be used also by non-specialist. PMID:26863871

  19. Randomised controlled trial of short bursts of a potent topical corticosteroid versus prolonged use of a mild preparation for children with mild or moderate atopic eczema

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, K S; Armstrong, S; Avery, A; Po, A Li Wan; O'Neill, C; Young, S; Williams, H C

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a three day burst of a potent corticosteroid is more effective than a mild preparation used for seven days in children with mild or moderate atopic eczema. Design Randomised, double blind, parallel group study of 18 weeks' duration. Setting 13 general practices and a teaching hospital in the Nottingham area. Participants 174 children with mild or moderate atopic eczema recruited from general practices and 33 from a hospital outpatient clinic. Interventions 0.1% betamethasone valerate applied for three days followed by the base ointment for four days versus 1% hydrocortisone applied for seven days. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were total number of scratch-free days and number of relapses. Secondary outcomes were median duration of relapses, number of undisturbed nights, disease severity (six area, six sign atopic dermatitis severity scale), scores on two quality of life measures (children's life quality index and dermatitis family impact questionnaire), and number of patients in whom treatment failed in each arm. Results No differences were found between the two groups. This was consistent for all outcomes. The median number of scratch-free days was 118.0 for the mild group and 117.5 for the potent group (difference 0.5, 95% confidence interval −2.0 to 4.0, P=0.53). The median number of relapses for both groups was 1.0. Both groups showed clinically important improvements in disease severity and quality of life compared with baseline. Conclusion A short burst of a potent topical corticosteroid is just as effective as prolonged use of a milder preparation for controlling mild or moderate atopic eczema in children. What is already known on this topicTopical corticosteroids have been used to control atopic eczema for 40 yearsNo studies have compared short bursts of a potent preparation with prolonged use of a weak preparation for controlling mild or moderate diseaseWhat this study addsA short burst of a potent topical steroid

  20. Injury of the Arcuate Fasciculus in the Dominant Hemisphere in Patients With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ho; Lee, Ah Young; Shin, So Min

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about injury of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). We investigated injury of the AF in the dominant hemisphere in patients with mild TBI, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). We recruited 25 patients with injury of the left AF among 64 right-handed consecutive patients with mild TBI and 20 normal control subjects. DTTs of the left AF were reconstructed, and fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fiber number of the AF were measured. Among 64 consecutive patients, 25 (39%) patients showed injury of the left AF. The patient group showed lower FA value and fiber number with higher ADC value than the control group (P < 0.05). On K-WAB evaluation, aphasia quotient and language quotient were 95.9 ± 4.1 (range 85–100) and 95.0 ± 5.4 (range 80–100), respectively. However, 23 (92.0%) of 25 patients complained of language-related symptoms after TBI; paraphasia in 12 (48.0%) patients, deficits of comprehension in 4 (16.0%) patients, deficits of speech production in 1 (4.0%) patient, and >2 language symptoms in 6 (24.0%) patients. We found that a significant number (39%) of patients with mild TBI had injury of the AF in the dominant hemisphere and these patients had mild language deficit. These results suggest that DTT could provide useful information in detecting injury of the AF and evaluation of the AF using DTT would be necessary even in the case of a patient with mild TBI who complains of mild language deficit. PMID:26945425

  1. Effect of Harsh or Mild Extraction of Soil on Pesticide Leaching to Groundwater.

    PubMed

    Boesten, Jos J T I

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of leaching to groundwater is an important aspect of pesticide risk assessment. The first leaching tier usually consists of simulations with leaching scenarios based on pesticide-soil properties derived from laboratory studies. Because the extractability of pesticide residues in such studies decreases with time, the harshness of the extraction method influences these pesticide-soil properties. This study investigates the effect of using a mild or harsh extraction method on simulated leaching to groundwater with consideration of substances with a range of half-lives and organic matter sorption coefficient values for selected leaching scenarios. The model for linking the concentrations of the mild and the harsh systems was based on laboratory studies with two pesticides and a Dutch sandy soil and was tested against Canadian field studies with atrazine (6-chloro-2-ethyl-4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine). The degradation rate and the aged-sorption parameters of each "mild" soil-substance system were derived from a hypothetical laboratory incubation study using prescribed parameter values for the corresponding "harsh" soil-substance system. Simulations were performed for three European leaching scenarios (United Kingdom, France, Portugal). For the best-guess parameter set, the leaching concentrations of the harsh system were approximately equal to those of the mild system at leaching concentrations greater than 1 μg L and were at most approximately a factor of two higher than those of the mild systems at mild leaching concentrations between 0.01 and 0.1 μg L. However, an extreme parameter set led to harsh leaching concentrations that were at most approximately 10 times higher than the mild leaching concentrations at levels between 0.01 and 0.1 μg L. PMID:27380081

  2. White matter abnormalities and structural hippocampal disconnections in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jared; Fonov, Vladimir; Wu, Ona; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Wu, Liyong; Mohades, Sara; Shin, Monica; Sziklas, Viviane; Cheewakriengkrai, Laksanun; Shmuel, Amir; Dagher, Alain; Gauthier, Serge; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate white matter degeneration and its impact on hippocampal structural connectivity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. We estimated white matter fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity in two independent cohorts. The ADNI cohort included 108 subjects [25 cognitively normal, 21 amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 47 non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 15 Alzheimer's disease]. A second cohort included 34 subjects [15 cognitively normal and 19 amnestic mild cognitive impairment] recruited in Montreal. All subjects underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment in addition to diffusion and T1 MRI. Individual fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity maps were generated using FSL-DTIfit. In addition, hippocampal structural connectivity maps expressing the probability of connectivity between the hippocampus and cortex were generated using a pipeline based on FSL-probtrackX. Voxel-based group comparison statistics of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity were estimated using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. The proportion of abnormal to total white matter volume was estimated using the total volume of the white matter skeleton. We found that in both cohorts, amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients had 27-29% white matter volume showing higher mean diffusivity but no significant fractional anisotropy abnormalities. No fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity differences were observed between non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients and cognitively normal subjects. Alzheimer's disease patients had 66.3% of normalized white matter volume with increased mean diffusivity and 54.3% of the white matter had reduced fractional anisotropy. Reduced structural connectivity was found in the hippocampal connections to temporal, inferior parietal, posterior

  3. Self-reported versus informant-reported depressive symptoms in adults with mild intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Mileviciute, I.; Hartley, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Virtually nothing is known about potential differences in the types of depression symptoms reported by adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) on self-reported questionnaires as compared with the types of symptoms reported by caregivers on informant questionnaires. Moreover, little is known about how the presentation of depression among adults with mild ID varies based on socio-demographic characteristics. Methods We compared findings from two self-reported questionnaires, the Self-Reported Depression Questionnaire (SRDQ) and the Glasgow Depression Scale for People with a Learning Disability (GDS), to that of an informant questionnaire of depressive symptoms, the Glasgow Depression Scale – Caregiver Supplement (CGDS), in 80 adults with mild ID. We also examined the association between age, sex, IQ and the presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder and frequency of affective, cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms in our sample of adults with mild ID. Results Adults with mild ID self-reported a higher frequency of affective and cognitive depressive symptoms than staff reported on the informant measure. Staff reported a higher frequency of somatic symptoms than adults with mild ID on one of the self-reported questionnaires (GDS) and a similar frequency on the other self-reported questionnaire (SRDQ). Important differences were found in the types of depressive symptoms based on their IQ, age and presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder. Conclusion Informant questionnaires offer valuable information, but assessment should include self-reported questionnaires as these questionnaires add unique information about internalised experiences (affective and cognitive symptoms) of adults with mild ID that may not be apparent to caregivers. Health care providers should be made aware of the important differences in the presentation of depressive based on their IQ, age and presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder. PMID:23902265

  4. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Special School Students with Mild Intellectual Disability in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Mok, W. K.; Ling, T. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to predict the fruit and vegetable consumption intention of students with mild intellectual disability in Hong Kong by the application of Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour. Methods: 50 students with mild intellectual disability (30 male and 20 female), ranging in age from 15 to 38 years, were participated in this study. By means of face-to-face interviews, demographic data, Food Preference and variables of Theory of Planned Behaviour, such as Attitude, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioural Control were measured. Results: 20%, 28% and 10% students with mild intellectual disability were rated to be overweight, obese and severely obese respectively. The rest of 10% were classified to be underweight. Regarding the daily intake of fruit and vegetable, 96% students with mild intellectual disability failed to consume sufficient amount. The variables of Theory of Planned Behaviour explained 47.7% of fruit and vegetable consumption intention with significant factors of Attitude, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioural Control. Food Preference was found to be a useful construct and further improve the prediction by about 7% after incorporating into the model. Conclusions: Results of this study indicated that Theory of Planned Behaviour is a useful model to predict dietary intention of students with mild intellectual disability in Hong Kong. Food Preference was a significant predictor to model the intention of fruit and vegetable consumption among students other than Attitude, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioural Control. PMID:27045396

  5. Cooperative learning and social acceptance of children with mild intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Jacques, N; Wilton, K; Townsend, M

    1998-02-01

    The effects of the participation of non-disabled children in a cooperative learning programme on their social acceptance of classmates with mild intellectual disability was examined. A sample of 24 children with mild intellectual disability in the 9-11-year-old age-range was identified from educational psychologists' case records. All of the children were receiving mainstreaming special education programmes at the time of the study. Twelve of the children had previously attended special education classes, while the remainder had always attended regular classes. Half of the children's regular classes were randomly assigned to either receive an experimental cooperative learning programme or to serve as control classrooms. The non-disabled children in the experimental classes showed significant increases in their social acceptance (sociometric ratings) of the children with mild intellectual disability, both immediately following the programme and 5 weeks later, but no such increases were evident in the children in the control classrooms. This pattern held for both the former special class pupils and the children with mild intellectual disability who had never attended special classes. The results confirm the usefulness of cooperative learning strategies for enhancing the social acceptance of children with mild intellectual disability in mainstreaming special educational programmes, regardless of the nature of their previous special educational provisions. PMID:9534112

  6. Time Course of Mild Arm Lymphedema After Breast Conservation Treatment for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bar Ad, Voichita; Cheville, Andrea; Solin, Lawrence J.; Dutta, Pinaki; Both, Stefan; Harris, Eleanor

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: Arm lymphedema is a potential consequence of the treatment for breast carcinoma. The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize the progression of mild arm lymphedema after breast conservation treatment for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The study cohort was drawn from 1,713 consecutive Stage I or II breast cancer patients who underwent breast conservation therapy, including axillary staging followed by radiation. Arm lymphedema was documented in 266 (16%) of 1,713 patients. One hundred nine patients, 6% of the overall group and 40% of the patients with arm lymphedema, presented with mild arm lymphedema, defined as a difference of 2 cm or less between the measured circumferences of the affected and unaffected arms. Results: Among the 109 patients with mild arm lymphedema at the time of arm lymphedema diagnosis, the rate of freedom from progression to more severe lymphedema was 79% at 1 year, 66% at 3 years, and 52% at 5 years. The patients who were morbidly obese, had positive axillary lymph nodes, or received supraclavicular irradiation at the time of breast cancer treatment were at higher risk of progression from mild arm lymphedema to more severe edema. Conclusions: Mild arm lymphedema, generally considered to be a minor complication after breast conservation treatment for breast cancer, was associated with a risk of progression to a more severe grade of arm lymphedema in a substantial fraction of patients.

  7. Performance of Terminalia catappa on mild steel corrosion in HCl medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotosho, Olugbenga Adeshola; Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Loto, Cleophas Akintoye; Popoola, Abimbola Patricia Idowu; Obi, Chukwunonso Ezekiel; Sonoiki, Oluwatobi Oluwasegun Oluwagbenga; Oni, Adeoluwa Barnabas; Alabi, Ayomide Samuel; Olarewaju, Abisola Ebunoluwa

    2016-07-01

    This work investigates Terminalia catappa leaf-extract performance on mild steel corrosion in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid (HCl). Electrochemical linear-sweep-voltametry (LSV) and gravimetric techniques were employed for assessing the mild steel corrosion in the HCl test-environment of immersion having different concentrations of the leaf-extract. Results showed that all the concentrations of the Terminalia catappa leaf-extract employed inhibited mild steel corrosion from the electrochemical (potentiodynamic) and the gravimetric considerations. Also, corrosion rate from LSV exhibited excellent correlation (R = 95.77%, Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) = 91.72% and p-value = 0.02383) with linear function of the corrosion rate from gravimetric method, for the leaf-extract concentrations employed. From the experimental model, 6 g/L Terminalia catappa exhibited optimal inhibition efficiency, η = 78.07%, while 8 g/L Terminalia catappa was predicted as optimally effective, η = 75.41%, by the correlation fitting model, at inhibiting mild steel corrosion in the medium. However, adsorption isotherm modelling showed that the experimental gravimetric, experimental potentiodynamic and predicted potentiodynamic data exhibited agreements in following the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. All the three data models indicated favourable adsorption and identified physisorption as the prevalent adsorption mechanism of Terminalia catappa leaf-extract on mild steel immersed in the 0.5 M HCl medium.

  8. Hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency impairs hippocampal myelinated growth in lactational rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Yi; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yuan; Min, Hui; Song, Binbin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency causes neurological deficits and impairments of brain function in offspring. Hypothyroxinemia is prevalent in developing and developed countries alike. However, the mechanism underlying these deficits remains less well known. Given that the myelin plays an important role in learning and memory function, we hypothesize that hippocampal myelinated growth may be impaired in rat offspring exposed to hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency. To test this hypothesis, the female Wistar rats were used and four experimental groups were prepared: (1) control; (2) maternal mild iodine deficiency diet inducing hypothyroxinemia; (3) hypothyroidism induced by maternal severe iodine deficiency diet; (4) hypothyroidism induced by maternal methimazole water. The rats were fed the diet from 3 months before pregnancy to the end of lactation. Our results showed that the physiological changes occuring in the hippocampal myelin were altered in the mild iodine deficiency group as indicated by the results of immunofluorescence of myelin basic proteins on postnatal day 14 and postnatal day 21. Moreover, hypothyroxinemia reduced the expressions of oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 and myelin-related proteins in the treatments on postnatal day 14 and postnatal day 21. Our data suggested that hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency may impair myelinated growth of the offspring. PMID:24753110

  9. Microbiologically mediated reduction in the pitting of mild steel overlaid with plywood

    SciTech Connect

    Soracco, R J; Berger, L R; Berger, J A; Mayack, L A; Pope, D H; Wilde, E W

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the role of microorganisms in the pitting of mild steel flooring, which had been overlaid with plywood. The experimental setups consisted of 4.8 mm (3/16 in.) mild steel plates covered with 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) thick pieces of plywood which were exposed to several different aqueous media supplemented with various combinations of a soil suspension and selected inorganic and organic compounds. Half of the replicate metal-wood-water setups were sterilized and aseptically maintained during incubation after which they were checked for the presence of viable microorganisms and pitting of the mild steel. Results of the first set of experiments showed that pitting of the mild steel specimens in many of these setups occurred after a reasonably short incubation period (3 to 6 months). However, the method used to exclude microorganisms by sterilizing the components separately was unsuccessful. In a second set of experiments, setups were sterilized by exposure to gamma irradiation after they had been assembled. The sterilized setups remained sterile after incubation while those which were not originally sterile still contained viable microorganisms. Pitting of the mild steel specimens was more severe when they were exposed to sterile conditions than when viable microorganisms were present. These experiments showed that while microorganisms are known to enhance corrosion processes in some circumstances, their presence can reduce corrosion in others.

  10. Oxygen cost of treadmill and over-ground walking in mildly disabled persons with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Yoojin; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Weikert, Madeline; Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Fernhall, Bo; Goldman, Myla

    2011-01-01

    Walking impairment is a ubiquitous feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) and the O2 cost of walking might quantify this dysfunction in mild MS. This paper examined the difference in O2 cost of walking between persons with MS who have mild disability and healthy controls and the correlation between the O2 cost of walking and disability. Study 1 included 18 persons with mild MS and 18 controls and indicated that the O2 cost of walking was significantly higher in MS than controls and that disability was significantly associated with the O2 cost of slow, moderate, and fast treadmill walking. Study 2 included 24 persons with mild MS and indicated that disability was significantly correlated with O2 cost of comfortable, fast, and slow over-ground walking. We provide evidence that the O2 cost of walking is an indicator of walking dysfunction in mildly disabled persons with MS and should be considered in clinical research and practice. PMID:20798968

  11. Altered Cerebellar White Matter Integrity in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in the Acute Stage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongqiu; Wu, Wenzhong; Liu, Yongkang; Wang, Tianyao; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhou, Guoxing; Chen, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Imaging studies of traumatic brain injury demonstrate that the cerebellum is often affected. We aim to examine fractional anisotropy alteration in acute-phase mild traumatic brain injury patients in cerebellum-related white matter tracts. Materials and Methods This prospective study included 47 mild traumatic brain injury patients in the acute stage and 37 controls. MR imaging and neurocognitive tests were performed in patients within 7 days of injury. White matter integrity was examined by using diffusion tensor imaging. We used three approaches, tract-based spatial statistics, graphical-model-based multivariate analysis, and region-of-interest analysis, to detect altered cerebellar white matter integrity in mild traumatic brain injury patients. Results Results from three analysis methods were in accordance with each other, and suggested fractional anisotropy in the middle cerebellar peduncle and the pontine crossing tract was changed in the acute-phase mild traumatic brain injury patients, relative to controls (adjusted p-value < 0.05). Higher fractional anisotropy in the middle cerebellar peduncle was associated with worse performance in the fluid cognition composite (r = -0.289, p-value = 0.037). Conclusion Altered cerebellar fractional anisotropy in acute-phase mild traumatic brain injury patients is localized in specific regions and statistically associated with cognitive deficits detectable on neurocognitive testing. PMID:26967320

  12. Resilience and Other Possible Outcomes After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Karen A; Kempe, Chloe B; Edmed, Shannon L; Bonanno, George A

    2016-06-01

    The relation between resilience and mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcome has been theorized but empirical studies have been scarce. This systematic review aimed to describe the research in this area. Electronic databases (Medline, CINAHL, PsychINFO, SPORTdiscus, and PILOTS) were searched from inception to August 2015 for studies in which resilience was measured following TBI. The search terms included 'TBI' 'concussion' 'postconcussion' 'resilience' and 'hardiness'. Inclusion criteria were peer reviewed original research reports published in English, human participants aged 18 years and over with brain injury, and an accepted definition of mild TBI. Hand searching of identified articles was also undertaken. Of the 71 studies identified, five studies were accepted for review. These studies were formally assessed for risk of bias by two independent reviewers. Each study carried a risk of bias, most commonly a detection bias, but none were excluded on this basis. A narrative interpretation of the findings was used because the studies reflected fundamental differences in the conceptualization of resilience. No studies employed a trajectory based approach to measure a resilient outcome. In most cases, the eligible studies assessed trait resilience with a scale and used it as a predictor of outcome (postconcussion symptoms). Three of these studies showed that greater trait resilience was associated with better mild TBI outcomes (fewer symptoms). Future research of the adult mild TBI response that predicts a resilient outcome is encouraged. These studies could yield empirical evidence for a resilient, and other possible mild TBI outcomes. PMID:27154289

  13. Mild coarctation of the aorta: to touch or not to touch the patient?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Randles, Amanda; Rikhtegar Nezami, Farhad; Partida, Ramon; Nakamura, Kenta; Staziaki, Pedro V.; Ghoshhajra, Brian; Bhatt, Ami; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2015-11-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is an aortic obstruction. A peak-to-peak trans-coarctation pressure gradient (PKdP) of greater than 20 mmHg warns severe COA and the need for interventional/surgical repair. The optimal method and timing of intervention remain uncertain especially for mild COA (PKdP <20 mmHg); even it is unclear if mild COA should be treated at all. Although it was recently suggested that treatment strategies for mild COA may need to be redefined as transcatheter interventions emerge, benefits of such interventions are unclear. We investigated the effects of transcatheter interventions on the aorta and left ventricle (LV) hemodynamics in 11 patients with mild COA using a developed computational fluid dynamics and lumped parameter modeling framework along with particle image velocimetry and clinical measurements. Such interventions can improve aortic hemodynamics to some extent (e.g., time-averaged wall shear stress and kinetic energy were reduced by about 20%). However there is no concomitant effect on the LV hemodynamics (e.g., stroke work and LV pressure were reduced by only less than 4%). Our computational approach can effectively predict clinical conditions. Herein one must question intervention for mild COA, as it has limited utility in reducing myocardial strain.

  14. Corrosion of Bare and Galvanized Mild Steel in Arabian Gulf Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saricimen, H.; Ahmad, A.; Quddus, A.; Aksakal, A.; Ul-Hamid, A.; Siddique, T. A.

    2010-10-01

    Corrosion performance of bare and galvanized mild steel in atmospheric, soil and splash zone exposure conditions was evaluated at a Khaleej Mardumah test station (KMTS) in Jubail Industrial City (JIC) located at Arabian Gulf coast. The samples were exposed for a period of 15 months. During the exposure, the environmental conditions were periodically monitored by analysis of air, soil, groundwater, and seawater samples. The corroded mild steel and galvanized steel samples were examined by SEM, XRD and XRF to identify the corrosion products and study their surface morphology. Weight loss method was employed to determine the corrosion rates. The experimental results showed that intense temperature and humidity variations as well as high chloride and sulfate concentrations in the region result in severe corrosion of bare mild steel especially under the splash zone conditions. A comparison with the corrosion data for other parts of the world shows that atmospheric and soil environments at the selected test site are significantly corrosive to mild steel. The splash zone, on the other hand, is much more corrosive to mild and galvanized steel than the other parts of the world.

  15. Distinctive sleep problems in children with perinatal moderate or mild hypoxic-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xin; Cheng, Zhi; Sun, Bin; Huang, Jian; Wang, Liang; Han, Xing; Yang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Wen; Cao, Xujun; Miao, Po; Wang, Ying; Guo, Wanliang; Gu, Qin; Feng, Xing

    2016-02-12

    Extensive studies focus on the cognitive and motor impairments after perinatal hypoxic-ischemia (HI). Sleep problems, although reported to be associated with cerebral palsy (CP), are often overlooked in non-severe HI patients. Here, by investigating the sleep qualities of children with different degrees of HI, we discovered that sleep initiation and maintenance, sleep-related breathing problems, or circadian rhythmic issues were highly associated with children of moderate or mild HI, respectively. Follow-up MRI studies in 2-year old patients showed that periventricular white matter lesions including periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) were prevalent in moderate, but not mild, HI children. In contrast, the occurrence of pineal cysts had a high risk in children with mild HI. Our study provides novel insights into the mechanisms of distinctive sleep problems associated with children of different degrees of HI, and therefore sheds light on the studies of targeted therapeutic treatments for sleep disorders in children who suffer from HI. PMID:26762786

  16. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.A.; Wright, R.E.; Im, C.J.; Henkelman, M.R.; O`Neal, G.W.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a continuous mild gasification process to convert highly caking coals to coal liquids, char and coke for near term commercial application. Task 3, Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study, has been underway since September 1989. In char upgrading studies, ``green`` uncured char briquettes have been prepared and calcined in 20-pound batches to evaluate the effects of char, binders, and heating conditions on final coke properties. A total of 150. formulations have been tested thus far in this work. Work on Task 4, Process Development Unit (PDU) Mild Gasification Study, has been in progress since February 1991, with the completion of a Continuous Mild Gasification Unit (CMGU) with a design rate of 1000 lb./hr. Since start-up of the CMGU, there have been 72 runs with a variety of operating conditions and coal types.

  17. The Formation of Fe/Mg Smectite Under Mildly Acidic Conditions on Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Golden, D. C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Niles, P. B.

    2011-01-01

    The detection of Fe/Mg smectites and carbonate in Noachian and early Hesperian terrain of Mars suggests that neutral to mildly alkaline conditions prevailed during the early history of Mars. If early Mars surface geochemical conditions were neutral to moderately alkaline with a denser CO2 atmosphere than today, then large carbonates deposits should be more widely detected in Noachian terrain. Why have so few carbonate deposits been detected compared to Fe/Mg smectites? Fe/Mg smectites on early Mars formed under mildly acidic conditions, which would preclude the extensive formation of carbonate deposits. The goal of the proposed work is to evaluate the formation of Fe/Mg smectites under mildly acidic conditions.

  18. The effect of loaded deep inhale training on mild and moderate COPD smokers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong-Cun; Cao, Jian-Min; Zhou, Hai-Tao; Guo, Xian; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To research the therapeutic effect of loaded deep inhale training on mild and moderate COPD smokers. Design: 30 mild and moderate COPD smokers were divided into the observation group and the control group at random. The observation group underwent loaded deep inhale training in the morning and in the evening twice for 30 minutes each time for 3 months. The control group did regular aerobics like jogging twice a day for 30 minutes as well for 3 months. The power of respiratory muscles and pulmonary function parameters of each group were measured and compared before and three months after the training. Results: After 3 months of hard training, pulmonary function parameters of the observation group was impressively improved compared with the control group and before training. Conclusions: Loaded deep inhale exercise has a remarkable effect on improving pulmonary function of mild and moderate COPD. PMID:25419402

  19. Mosaicism for c.431_454dup in ARX causes a mild Partington syndrome phenotype.

    PubMed

    Grønskov, Karen; Diness, Birgitte; Stahlhut, Michelle; Zilmer, Monica; Tümer, Zeynep; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    A common in frame duplication in ARX (c.431_454dup24) was found in a five year-old boy who presented with mild Partington syndrome. The duplication was detected by PCR amplification followed by fragment length analysis and was located in exon 2 spanning the two polyalanine tracts commonly seen to expand. Detection of the duplication by DNA sequencing was difficult due to preferential sequencing of the normal allele, demonstrating the superiority of fragment length analysis in mosaic cases. The clinical symptoms were mild to moderate developmental delay with only the hand dystonia to suggest Partington syndrome. This patient is the first male reported to be mosaic for the duplication, and his clinical features are subtle. This study shows that in males with a phenotype of mild Partington syndrome and in heterozygous females fragment length analysis should be preferred over DNA sequencing. PMID:24727054

  20. A model to guide the rehabilitation of high-functioning employees after mild brain injury.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Matthew B

    2010-01-01

    Impairment in executive functioning can occur after mild stroke, mild Traumatic Brain Injury, and neurodegenerative disease, and this can have deleterious effects on employment outcomes, occupational functioning, and general quality of life. What is not as well identified is the symbiotic relationship between executive functioning and other important psychosocial constructs inherent in successful employees ("Employee Performance Enablers"), and how various aspects of the employment environment can enable or inhibit the success of the employee with executive functioning deficits in meeting their essential job functions ("Workplace Ecology"). From an extensive review of the literature and the author's practice experience, a clinical model was developed to elucidate these two critical variables, as well as to provide guidance for organizing, planning, and implementing interventions that will address both employee enablers and workplace ecology to affect positive return to work outcomes for individuals with mild brain injury. PMID:20714101

  1. Medical-School Partnership in Guiding Return to School Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Youth.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Gerard A

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury is recognized as a prevalent and significant risk concern for youth. Appropriate school return is particularly challenging. The medical and school systems must be prepared partners to support the school return of the student with mild traumatic brain injury. Medical providers must be trained in assessment and management skills with a focused understanding of school demands. Schools must develop policies and procedures to prepare staff to support a gradual return process with the necessary academic accommodations. Ongoing communication between the family, student, school, and medical provider is essential to supporting recovery. A systematic gradual return to school process is proposed including levels of recommended activity and criteria for advancement. Targets for intervention are described with associated strategies for supporting recovery. A 10-element Progressive Activities of Controlled Exertion (PACE) model for activity-exertion management is introduced to manage symptom exacerbation. A strong medical-school partnership will maximize outcomes for students with mild traumatic brain injury. PMID:25535055

  2. Persistent symptoms in mild to moderate traumatic brain injury associated with executive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hartikainen, Kaisa M; Waljas, Minna; Isoviita, Tuulia; Dastidar, Prasun; Liimatainen, Suvi; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Ogawa, Keith H; Soimakallio, Seppo; Ylinen, Aarne; Ohman, Juha

    2010-08-01

    In order to improve detection of subtle cognitive dysfunction and to shed light on the etiology of persistent symptoms after mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI), we employed an experimental executive reaction time (RT) test, standardized neuropsychological tests, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The Executive RT-Test, an Executive Composite Score from standardized neuropsychological tests, and DTI-indices in the midbrain differentiated between patients with persistent symptoms from those fully recovered after mild-to-moderate TBI. We suggest that persistent symptoms in mild-to-moderate TBI may reflect disrupted fronto-striatal network involved in executive functioning, and the Executive RT-Test provides an objective and novel method to detect it. PMID:20198531

  3. Human capabilities, mild autism, deafness and the morality of embryo selection.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, Pier; Welin, Stellan

    2013-11-01

    A preimplantation genetic test to discriminate between severe and mild autism spectrum disorder might be developed in the foreseeable future. Recently, the philosophers Julian Savulescu and Guy Kahane claimed that there are strong reasons for prospective parents to make use of such a test to prevent the birth of children who are disposed to autism or Asperger's disorder. In this paper we will criticize this claim. We will discuss the morality of selection for mild autism in embryo selection in a hypothetical in vitro fertilization (IVF) situation where preimplantation genetic diagnosis is performed and compare this with a similar selection for congenital deafness. To do this we first discuss relevant human differences. We then introduce the principle of human capabilities (PC) and compare this principle with the principle of procreative beneficence (PB) introduced by Savulescu and Kahane. We apply the two principles to selection for mild autism and selection for congenital deafness. We argue that PC allows for the selection for mild autism but rules out selection for congenital deafness. PB will not give clear answers; the ruling of PB depends to a large extent on expected social, cultural and political developments. We will argue that PC is preferable to PB. We will discuss arguments for the value of mild autism for individuals who have this condition and argue that they are able to lead a life with human dignity provided autism-friendly social circumstances are present. Neither PC nor PB yields strong reasons for prospective parents to seek to prevent the birth of children who are disposed to mild autism spectrum disorder. PMID:23334404

  4. Molecular Evidence for Differences in Endometrium in Severe Versus Mild Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Aghajanova, Lusine; Giudice, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Women with stage III/IV versus stage I/II endometriosis have lower implantation and pregnancy rates in natural and assisted reproduction cycles. To elucidate potential molecular mechanisms underlying these clinical observations, herein we investigated the transcriptome of eutopic endometrium across the menstrual cycle in the setting of severe versus mild endometriosis. Proliferative (PE), early secretory (ESE), and mid-secretory (MSE) endometrial tissues were obtained from 63 participants with endometriosis (19 mild and 44 severe). Purified RNA was subjected to microarray analysis using the Gene 1.0 ST Affymetrix platform. Data were analyzed with GeneSpring and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and subsequently validated. Comparison of differentially regulated genes, analyzed by cycle phase, revealed dysregulation of progesterone and/or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-regulated genes and genes related to thyroid hormone action and metabolism. Also, members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway were observed, with the greatest upregulation of EGFR in severe versus mild disease during the early secretory phase. The extracellular matrix proteoglycan versican (VCAN), which regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis, was the most highly expressed gene in severe versus mild disease. Upregulation of microRNA 21 (MIR21) and DICER1 transcripts suggests roles for microRNAs (miRNAs) in the pathogenesis of severe versus mild endometriosis, potentially through regulation of gene silencing and epigenetic mechanisms. These observed differences in transcriptomic signatures and signaling pathways may result in poorly programmed endometrium during the cycle, contributing to lower implantation and pregnancy rates in women with severe versus mild endometriosis. PMID:21063030

  5. Lack of Impact of Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Sleepiness, Mood and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Stuart F.; Budhiraja, Rohit; Batool-Anwar, Salma; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Eichling, Phillip; Patel, Sanjay; Shen, Wei; Walsh, James K.; Kushida, Clete A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with sleepiness, depression and reduced quality of life. However, it is unclear whether mild OSA has these negative impacts. Using data from the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES), this study determined whether participants with mild OSA had greater sleepiness, more depressive symptoms and poorer quality of life in comparison to those without OSA. Methods 239 individuals evaluated for participation in APPLES with a baseline apnea hypopnea index (AHI) < 15 /hour were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: No OSA (N=40, AHI < 5 /hour) or Mild OSA (N=199, 5 to <15 /hour) based on their screening polysomnogram. Scores on their Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI) were compared between groups. Results There were no significant differences between the No OSA and Mild OSA groups on any of the 5 measures: ESS (No OSA, 9.8 ± 3.5 vs Mild OSA, 10.6 ± 4.3, p=0.26), SSS,(2.8 ± 0.9 vs. 2.9 ± 1.0, p=0.52), HAM-D (4.6 ± 3.0 vs. 4.9 ± 4.7, p=0.27), POMS (33.5 ± 22.3 vs. 28.7 ± 22.0, p=0.70), SAQLI (4.5 ± 0.8 vs. 4.7 ± 0.7, p=0.39). Conclusion Individuals with mild OSA in this cohort do not have worse sleepiness, mood or quality of life in comparison to those without OSA. PMID:25232509

  6. Tau Reduction Diminishes Spatial Learning and Memory Deficits after Mild Repetitive Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jason S.; Craft, Ryan; Yu, Gui-Qiu; Ho, Kaitlyn; Wang, Xin; Mohan, Geetha; Mangnitsky, Sergey; Ponnusamy, Ravikumar; Mucke, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Objective Because reduction of the microtubule-associated protein Tau has beneficial effects in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy, we wanted to determine whether this strategy can also improve the outcome of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods We adapted a mild frontal impact model of TBI for wildtype C57Bl/6J mice and characterized the behavioral deficits it causes in these animals. The Barnes maze, Y maze, contextual and cued fear conditioning, elevated plus maze, open field, balance beam, and forced swim test were used to assess different behavioral functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 7 Tesla) and histological analysis of brain sections were used to look for neuropathological alterations. We also compared the functional effects of this TBI model and of controlled cortical impact in mice with two, one or no Tau alleles. Results Repeated (2-hit), but not single (1-hit), mild frontal impact impaired spatial learning and memory in wildtype mice as determined by testing of mice in the Barnes maze one month after the injury. Locomotor activity, anxiety, depression and fear related behaviors did not differ between injured and sham-injured mice. MRI imaging did not reveal focal injury or mass lesions shortly after the injury. Complete ablation or partial reduction of tau prevented deficits in spatial learning and memory after repeated mild frontal impact. Complete tau ablation also showed a trend towards protection after a single controlled cortical impact. Complete or partial reduction of tau also reduced the level of axonopathy in the corpus callosum after repeated mild frontal impact. Interpretation Tau promotes or enables the development of learning and memory deficits and of axonopathy after mild TBI, and tau reduction counteracts these adverse effects. PMID:25551452

  7. Levothyroxine treatment of mild subclinical hypothyroidism: a review of potential risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Javed, Zeeshan; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat

    2016-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is defined as elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with normal levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4). SCH is further classified into a milder condition with TSH levels between 4.0 and 10.0 milli-international units (mIU)/l (mild-SCH) and a severe form with TSH >10.0 mIU/l (severe-SCH). SCH is a common problem (prevalence is greater in women than men), which increases further with increasing age and TSH levels. Even though the risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is higher in patients with severe-SCH, the risk is also significant in patients having mild-SCH; it has been suggested that every twofold rise in serum TSH would increase the risk from 1 to 4%, which further increases to 38% if thyroid antibodies are positive. Current data have shown increased cardiovascular risk in patients with mild-SCH and have demonstrated some benefits of levothyroxine treatment in reducing these events. However, evidence on the association of mild-SCH and musculoskeletal system, cognitive dysfunction, mood disorders, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and goitre is conflicting. Similarly, the discussion regarding the exact upper limit of normal for serum TSH remains controversial. The data have also shown increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in patient with mild-SCH, with some benefits of thyroxine treatment. The recent available guidelines related to management of patients with serum TSH <10 mIU/l have suggested decisions should be made taking into account the age of the patient, associated risk factors and comorbid conditions. This chronicle review assesses current evidence regarding the risks associated and the recommendations related to benefits of levothyroxine treatment in patients having mild-SCH. PMID:26885359

  8. Levothyroxine treatment of mild subclinical hypothyroidism: a review of potential risks and benefits

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Zeeshan; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is defined as elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with normal levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4). SCH is further classified into a milder condition with TSH levels between 4.0 and 10.0 milli-international units (mIU)/l (mild-SCH) and a severe form with TSH >10.0 mIU/l (severe-SCH). SCH is a common problem (prevalence is greater in women than men), which increases further with increasing age and TSH levels. Even though the risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is higher in patients with severe-SCH, the risk is also significant in patients having mild-SCH; it has been suggested that every twofold rise in serum TSH would increase the risk from 1 to 4%, which further increases to 38% if thyroid antibodies are positive. Current data have shown increased cardiovascular risk in patients with mild-SCH and have demonstrated some benefits of levothyroxine treatment in reducing these events. However, evidence on the association of mild-SCH and musculoskeletal system, cognitive dysfunction, mood disorders, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and goitre is conflicting. Similarly, the discussion regarding the exact upper limit of normal for serum TSH remains controversial. The data have also shown increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in patient with mild-SCH, with some benefits of thyroxine treatment. The recent available guidelines related to management of patients with serum TSH <10 mIU/l have suggested decisions should be made taking into account the age of the patient, associated risk factors and comorbid conditions. This chronicle review assesses current evidence regarding the risks associated and the recommendations related to benefits of levothyroxine treatment in patients having mild-SCH. PMID:26885359

  9. Mild cold effects on hunger, food intake, satiety and skin temperature in humans

    PubMed Central

    Langeveld, M; Tan, C Y; Virtue, S; Ambler, G K; Watson, L P E; Murgatroyd, P R; Chatterjee, V K; Vidal-Puig, A

    2016-01-01

    Background Mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure and can influence energy balance, but at the same time it does not increase appetite and energy intake. Objective To quantify dermal insulative cold response, we assessed thermal comfort and skin temperatures changes by infrared thermography. Methods We exposed healthy volunteers to either a single episode of environmental mild cold or thermoneutrality. We measured hunger sensation and actual free food intake. After a thermoneutral overnight stay, five males and five females were exposed to either 18°C (mild cold) or 24°C (thermoneutrality) for 2.5 h. Metabolic rate, vital signs, skin temperature, blood biochemistry, cold and hunger scores were measured at baseline and for every 30 min during the temperature intervention. This was followed by an ad libitum meal to obtain the actual desired energy intake after cold exposure. Results We could replicate the cold-induced increase in REE. But no differences were detected in hunger, food intake, or satiety after mild cold exposure compared with thermoneutrality. After long-term cold exposure, high cold sensation scores were reported, which were negatively correlated with thermogenesis. Skin temperature in the sternal area was tightly correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Conclusions It is concluded that short-term mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure without changes in food intake. Mild cold exposure resulted in significant thermal discomfort, which was negatively correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Moreover, there is a great between-subject variability in cold response. These data provide further insights on cold exposure as an anti-obesity measure. PMID:26864459

  10. A TRANSGENIC MOUSE MODEL EXPRESSING EXCLUSIVELY HUMAN HEMOGLOBIN E: INDICATIONS OF A MILD OXIDATIVE STRESS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiuying; Fabry, Mary E.; Rybicki, Anne C.; Suzuka, Sandra M.; Balazs, Tatiana C.; Etzion, Zipora; de Jong, Kitty; Akoto, Edna K.; Canterino, Joseph E.; Kaul, Dhananjay K.; Kuypers, Frans A.; Lefer, David; Bouhassira, Eric E.; Hirsch, Rhoda Elison

    2012-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) E (β26 Glu→ Lys) is the most common abnormal hemoglobin (Hb) variant in the world. Homozygotes for HbE are mildly thalassemic as a result of the alternate splice mutation and present with a benign clinical picture (microcytic and mildly anemic) with rare clinical symptoms. Given that the human red blood cell (RBC) contains both HbE and excess α-chains along with minor hemoglobins, the consequence of HbE alone on RBC pathophysiology has not been elucidated. This becomes critical for the highly morbid βE-thalassemia disease. We have generated transgenic mice exclusively expressing human HbE (HbEKO) that exhibit the known aberrant splicing of βE globin mRNA, but are essentially non-thalassemic as demonstrated by RBC α/β (human) globin chain synthesis. These mice exhibit hematological characteristics similar to presentations in human EE individuals: microcytic RBC with low MCV and MCH but normal MCHC; target RBC; mild anemia with low Hb, HCT and mildly elevated reticulocyte levels and decreased osmotic fragility, indicating altered RBC surface area to volume ratio. These alterations are correlated with a mild RBC oxidative stress indicated by enhanced membrane lipid peroxidation, elevated zinc protoporphyrin levels, and by small but significant changes in cardiac function. The C57 (background) mouse and full KO mouse models expressing HbE with the presence of HbS or HbA are used as controls. In select cases, the HbA full KO mouse model is compared but found to be limited due to its RBC thalassemic characteristics. Since the HbEKO mouse RBC lacks an abundance of excess α-chains that would approximate a mouse thalassemia (or a human thalassemia), the results indicate that the observed in vivo RBC mild oxidative stress arises, at least in part, from the molecular consequences of the HbE mutation. PMID:22260787

  11. A Modified Controlled Cortical Impact Technique to Model Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Mechanics in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, YungChia; Mao, Haojie; Yang, King H.; Abel, Ted; Meaney, David F.

    2014-01-01

    For the past 25 years, controlled cortical impact (CCI) has been a useful tool in traumatic brain injury (TBI) research, creating injury patterns that includes primary contusion, neuronal loss, and traumatic axonal damage. However, when CCI was first developed, very little was known on the underlying biomechanics of mild TBI. This paper uses information generated from recent computational models of mild TBI in humans to alter CCI and better reflect the biomechanical conditions of mild TBI. Using a finite element model of CCI in the mouse, we adjusted three primary features of CCI: the speed of the impact to achieve strain rates within the range associated with mild TBI, the shape, and material of the impounder to minimize strain concentrations in the brain, and the impact depth to control the peak deformation that occurred in the cortex and hippocampus. For these modified cortical impact conditions, we observed peak strains and strain rates throughout the brain were significantly reduced and consistent with estimated strains and strain rates observed in human mild TBI. We saw breakdown of the blood–brain barrier but no primary hemorrhage. Moreover, neuronal degeneration, axonal injury, and both astrocytic and microglia reactivity were observed up to 8 days after injury. Significant deficits in rotarod performance appeared early after injury, but we observed no impairment in spatial object recognition or contextual fear conditioning response 5 and 8 days after injury, respectively. Together, these data show that simulating the biomechanical conditions of mild TBI with a modified cortical impact technique produces regions of cellular reactivity and neuronal loss that coincide with only a transient behavioral impairment. PMID:24994996

  12. An update of corrosion inhibitors for mild steel exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.T.; Nichols, D.E.; Lohry, E.J.

    1994-10-01

    This is a continuation of corrosion studies on the effectiveness of commercial and newly-developed corrosion inhibitors for use with mild steel exposed to urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution. This paper provides updated information on five newly-developed corrosion inhibitors. Tests were conducted with mild steel exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution containing each corrosion inhibitor at ambient temperature and under static conditions. Real-time corrosion of the test specimens was monitored using AC impedance techniques. Corrosion performance of the inhibitors was evaluated based on comparison of the corrosion rate of specimens exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution with and without a corrosion inhibitor.

  13. Metal-Free Markovnikov-Type Alkyne Hydration under Mild Conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbo; Wang, Haining; Li, Chao-Jun

    2016-05-01

    A Markovnikov-type alkyne hydration protocol is presented using 20% CF3SO3H (TfOH) as the catalyst under unprecedented mild conditions applicable to various alkynes, including terminal arylalkynes, terminal nonfunctionalized aliphatic alkynes, and internal alkynes with excellent regioselectivity in good to excellent yields (average yields >85%). The reaction procedure operates under mild conditions (25-70 °C), with broad functional group compatibility, and uses only slightly more than a stoichiometric amount of water in the absence of any transition metal. The success of this protocol hinges upon the utilization of trifluoroethanol as the solvent. PMID:27082159

  14. Metabolic Characteristics in Obese Patients Complicated by Mild Thyroid Hormone Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Liu, H; Chen, J; Huang, Y; Li, L; Rampersad, S; Qu, S

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is increasing, especially in obese people. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference in metabolic profiles between obese patients with mild increased thyrotropin (TSH) or with normal TSH. A total of 219 obese patients were recruited in this cross-sectional study. They were divided into 2 groups: obese patients with normal TSH (0.35-2.5 mU/l) and age-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched obese patients with higher-normal TSH (2.5-5.5 mU/l). We have named it compensatory hypothyroidism or mild thyroid hormone deficiency. Anthropometric data, glucose-lipid metabolism, markers of inflammation, body composition, and thyroid function parameters were measured. Results showed that: 1) The levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly lower in obese patients complicated by mild increased TSH than in obese patients with normal TSH (p<0.05). The fasting insulin (FINS) and C reactive protein (CRP) levels were significantly higher in obese patients complicated by mild increased TSH when compared to the obese patients with normal TSH (p<0.01). Jostel's TSH index (TSHI) and standard TSH index (sTSHI) were significantly higher in obesity with mild increased TSH when compared to obesity with normal TSH (both p<0.001). Thyroid's secretory capacity (GT) was significantly lower in obesity with mild increased TSH when compared to obesity with normal TSH (p<0.001). 2) In the obese patients complicated by mild increased TSH group, serum TSH was significantly positively correlated with ALT, AST and CP (p<0.05). In the obese patients with normal TSH group, serum TSH was significantly positively correlated with UA (p<0.05). In all subjects, serum TSH was significantly positively correlated with ALT, AST, FINS, CP, CRP, and UA (p<0.05), but negatively with DBP, FPG, and HDL-C (p<0.05). 3) There was significant difference of the

  15. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Aulich, T.R.

    1990-10-01

    The primary objective of the EERC/AMAX Mild Gasification project is to commercialize a process that will produce several value-added products from a high-sulfur midwestern bituminous or a low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Indiana No. 3 and Wyodak coals are being tested in a 100-lb/hr process development unit (PDU) that has undergone shakedown testing and is undergoing parametric testing. This unit will provide the engineering data for use in determining the technical and economic data required for the design of a commercial-scale mild gasification plant. This report discusses results of carbonizer tests, char upgrading and char separations. 12 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Diminished supraspinal pain modulation in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Shivshil; Yang, Eric; Canlas, Bryan; Kadokana, Mawj; Heald, Jason; Davani, Ariea; Song, David; Lin, Lisa; Polston, Greg; Tsai, Alice; Lee, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic pain conditions are highly prevalent in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Supraspinal diffuse axonal injury is known to dissociate brain functional connectivity in these patients. The effect of this dissociated state on supraspinal pain network is largely unknown. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study was conducted to compare the supraspinal pain network in patients with mild traumatic brain injury to the gender and age-matched healthy controls with the hypothesis that the functional connectivities of the medial prefrontal cortices, a supraspinal pain modulatory region to other pain-related sensory discriminatory and affective regions in the mild traumatic brain injury subjects are significantly reduced in comparison to healthy controls. Results The mild traumatic brain injury group (N = 15) demonstrated significantly (P < 0.01, cluster threshold > 150 voxels) less activities in the thalamus, pons, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and medial prefrontal cortices than the healthy control group (N = 15). Granger Causality Analyses (GCA) indicated while the left medial prefrontal cortices of the healthy control group cast a noticeable degree of outward (to affect) causality inference to multiple pain processing related regions, this outward inference pattern was not observed in the mild traumatic brain injury group. On the other hand, only patients’ bilateral anterior cingulate cortex received multiple inward (to be affected) causality inferences from regions including the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices and the inferior parietal lobe. Resting state functional connectivity analyses indicated that the medial prefrontal cortices of the mild traumatic brain injury group demonstrated a significantly (P < 0.01, F = 3.6, cluster size > 150 voxels) higher degree of functional connectivity to the inferior parietal lobe, premotor and secondary somatosensory cortex

  17. The Formation of Fe/Mg Smectite Under Mildly Acidic Conditions on Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, Brad; Golden, D. C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Niles, P. B.

    2011-01-01

    The detection of Fe/Mg smectites and carbonate in Noachian and early Hesperian terrain of Mars has been used to suggest that neutral to mildly alkaline conditions prevailed during the early history of Mars. However, if early Mars was neutral to moderately alkaline with a denser CO2 atmosphere than today, then large carbonates deposits should be more widely detected in Noachian terrain. The critical question is: Why have so few carbonate deposits been detected compared to Fe/Mg smectites? We suggest that Fe/Mg smectites on early Mars formed under mildly acidic conditions, which would inhibit the extensive formation of carbonate deposits. The goal of this work is to evaluate the formation of Fe/Mg smectites under mildly acidic conditions. The stability of smectites under mildly acidic conditions is attributed to elevated Fe/Mg activities that inhibit smectite dissolution. Beidelite and saponite have been shown to form from hydrothermal alteration of basaltic glass at pH 3.5-4.0 in seawater solutions. Nontronite is also known to be stable in mildly acidic systems associated with mafic and ultramafic rock. Nontronite was shown to form in acid sulfate soils in the Bangkok Plain, Thailand due to oxidation of Fe-sulfides that transformed saponite to nontronite. Smectite is known to transform to kaolinite in naturally acid soils due to selective leaching of Mg. However, if Mg removal is limited, then based on equilibrium relationships, the dissolution of smectite should be minimized. If Fe and Mg solution activities are sufficiently high, such as might be found in a low water/rock ratio system that is poorly drained, smectite could form and remain stable under mildly acidic conditions on Mars. The sources of mild acidity on early Mars includes elevated atmospheric CO2 levels, Fe-hydrolysis reactions, and the presence of volcanic SO2 aerosols. Equilibrium calculations dictate that water equilibrated with an early Mars CO2 atmosphere at 1 to 4 bar yields a pH of 3.6 to 3

  18. The Formation of Fe/Mg Smectite Under Mildly Acidic Conditions on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, B.; Golden, D. C.; Ming, D.; Niles, P. B.

    2011-12-01

    The detection of Fe/Mg smectites and carbonate in Noachian and early Hesperian terrain of Mars has been used to suggest that neutral to mildly alkaline conditions prevailed during the early history of Mars. However, if early Mars was neutral to moderately alkaline with a denser CO2 atmosphere than today, then "large" carbonates deposits should be more widely detected in Noachian terrain. The critical question is: Why have so few carbonate deposits been detected compared to Fe/Mg smectites? We suggest that Fe/Mg smectites on early Mars formed under mildly acidic conditions, which would inhibit the extensive formation of carbonate deposits. The goal of this work is to evaluate the formation of Fe/Mg smectites under mildly acidic conditions. The stability of smectites under mildly acidic conditions is attributed to elevated Fe/Mg activities that inhibit smectite dissolution. Beidelite and saponite have been shown to form from hydrothermal alteration of basaltic glass at pH 3.5-4.0 in seawater solutions. Nontronite is also known to be stable in mildly acidic systems associated with mafic and ultramafic rock. Nontronite was shown to form in acid sulfate soils in the Bangkok Plain, Thailand due to oxidation of Fe-sulfides that transformed saponite to nontronite. Smectite is known to transform to kaolinite in naturally acid soils due to selective leaching of Mg. However, if Mg removal is limited, then based on equilibrium relationships, the dissolution of smectite should be minimized. If Fe and Mg solution activities are sufficiently high, such as might be found in a low water/rock ratio system that is poorly drained, smectite could form and remain stable under mildly acidic conditions on Mars. The sources of mild acidity on early Mars includes elevated atmospheric CO2 levels, Fe-hydrolysis reactions, and the presence of volcanic SO2 aerosols. Equilibrium calculations dictate that water equilibrated with an early Mars CO2 atmosphere at 1 to 4 bar yields a pH of 3.6 to 3

  19. The Sexual Knowledge, Experience, Feelings and Needs of People with Mild Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Cummins, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty adults with mild mental retardation and 50 first-year psychology students were surveyed regarding their sexual knowledge, experience, feelings, and needs. Subjects with mental retardation had less knowledge, more negative attitudes toward sexual issues, and less experience in intimacy and sexual intercourse, but more experience in…

  20. Assessing Fears and Related Anxieties in Children and Adolescents with Learning Disabilities or Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Morris, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine self-reported fears and related anxieties in children and adolescents (7-18 years of age) having learning disabilities (LD) or mild mental retardation (MIMR), and whether these fears and related anxieties differ based on gender and age. Students responded to two well validated instruments, The "Fear…

  1. Ultrasound findings of mild neonatal periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage after different treatments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sida; Liao, Chunyan; Liang, Shuyuan; Zhong, Danni; Liu, Junjie; Li, Zhixian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ultrasound findings of mild neonatal periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) after different treatments, and to evaluate the neurological outcomes of mild PIVH with Gesell Development Diagnosis Scale (GDDS). Methods: A total of 194 newborns with grade I-II PIVH were recruited, and findings of cranial ultrasound examination before and 1 month after birth were included for analysis. The echo intensity and size of the lesions were recorded. Results: There was no significant difference in the echo intensity among three groups of grade I PIVH patients (P>0.05). There was significant difference in the echo intensity among three groups of grade II PIVH patients, and the ganglioside had the best therapeutic efficacy (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed in the area change among three groups of grade I PIVH patients (P>0.05). However, significant difference was observed in the area change among three groups of grade II PIVH patients, and ganglioside had a better efficacy than cerebrolysin and control agent (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between cerebrolysin and control groups (P>0.05). GDDS evaluation showed no significant difference among three groups (P>0.05), and all the patients recovered completely. Conclusion: The efficacy of different treatments for mild PIVH can be reflected in the ultrasound findings. Mild PIVH children generally have a good neurological prognosis. PMID:26131081

  2. Reading Instruction for Students with Mild Mental Retardation: Is There a Best Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triller, H. Brian

    This paper reviews what current research says about best practices in reading instruction for students with mild mental retardation. After introducing some key reading issues (such as effects of early reading failure), two principal approaches to reading instruction are discussed: first, the traditional/bottom-up synthetic approach which begins…

  3. The Challenge of Caring for Mildly Ill Children: A Canadian National Childcare Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polyzoi, E.; Babb, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    This Canadian study of the care of mildly ill children in licensed childcare facilities compares director and parent preferences for eight models of care, exclusionary practices for ill children by directors, and preferred backup care options of parents. It also investigates anticipated usage and willingness of parents to pay for emergency…

  4. Amplification considerations for children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss and unilateral hearing loss.

    PubMed

    McKay, Sarah; Gravel, Judith S; Tharpe, Anne Marie

    2008-03-01

    Children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss and unilateral hearing loss are at higher risk for academic, speech-language, and social-emotional difficulties than their normal hearing peers. The choice to fit infants with moderate or greater degrees of bilateral hearing loss has been standard practice for most clinicians, but for those with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss, the fitting of hearing technology must be based on limited data. Evidence does not yet exist to support all the management decisions that an audiologist must make upon identifying an infant with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss. It is not yet known which children are at the greatest risk for educational problems nor is it known if the provision of early amplification in this population will help a child avoid later difficulties. Some of these considerations and current hearing technology options for children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss are reviewed in this article. PMID:18270178

  5. Haplotypes of the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene region encoding mild steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Haglund-Stengler, B; Martin Ritzén, E; Gustafsson, J; Luthman, H

    1991-01-01

    Haplotypes of the complement 4 (C4) and steroid 21-hydroxylase [21-OHase; steroid hydrogen-donor: oxygen oxidoreductase (21-hydroxylating), EC 1.14.99.10] repeated gene complex were studied in nine families with at least one member affected with a mild form of 21-OHase deficiency. DNA probes from different parts of the repeated C4/21-OHase unit were used to follow the segregation of hybridization patterns in the families. Ten structurally distinct haplotypes of the C4/21-OHase gene region were identified, and the encoded phenotype was assigned to 34 of the 36 C4/21-OHase haplotypes. Four structurally different haplotypes with three C4/21-OHase repeat units were found. Eight of the nine haplotypes found with triplications of the C4/21-OHase repeat unit encoded the mild form of 21-OHase deficiency, whereas one particular triplicated haplotype encoded a severe form of the disease. In one case the mild form of 21-OHase deficiency was encoded by a haplotype with a single C4/21-OHase repeat unit. Mild 21-OHase deficiency was predicted in a patient by the presence of a triplicated haplotype. The finding of deranged 21-OHase genes on all triplicated C4/21-OHase haplotypes indicate that most of these common haplotypes carry mutated 21-OHase genes, and thus may cause functional polymorphism of general importance in the population. PMID:1924294

  6. Prevalence and Characteristics of Children with Mild Intellectual Disability in a French County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, M.; Dieterich, K.; Billette de Villemeur, A.; Jouk, P.-S.; Counillon, J.; Larroque, B.; Bloch, J.; Cans, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies conducted on mild intellectual disability (MID) in children are infrequent and the prevalence rates vary widely. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of MID in children in a French county (Isère), to describe the clinical signs and associated comorbidities, and to specify the aetiologies of this disability. Methods: The…

  7. Predictors of Helping Profession Choice and Volunteerism among Siblings of Adults with Mild Intellectual Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Shivers, Carolyn M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined aspects of the sibling relationship that predicted helping profession choice and volunteerism in siblings of individuals with mild intellectual deficits at 3 points in adulthood: their mid-30s, early 50s, and mid-60s. The 393 respondents were from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a prospective, longitudinal study following…

  8. Model Underpinning Treatment for Sex Offenders with Mild Intellectual Disability: Current Theories of Sex Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.

    2005-01-01

    Although many writers have provided a theoretical framework for treatment of mainstream sex offenders, this research has not been extended to sex offenders with mild intellectual disability. My purpose here is to bring together several research strands to provide a theoretical model for working in this field, including theories of sex offending,…

  9. The Social-Sexual Voice of Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, George W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore how adults with mild intellectual disabilities live out their social-sexual lives. Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are often assumed to be asexual or incapable of having sexual lives, resulting in a paucity of research-based knowledge. Research and educational efforts with this…

  10. Response to Intervention for Young Children with Mild, Moderate/Severe Cognitive Disabilities: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almalki, Nabil; Abaoud, Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    This study has discussed in-depth information about understanding the Response to Intervention (RTI) linking with children from pre-school to kindergarten (three to eight years old) who have Cognitive Disabilities (CD), including different levels from mild to moderate and/or severe. The study consists of five main sections--RTI, CD, RTI Linking…

  11. Detective Questions: A Strategy for Improving Inference-Making in Children With Mild Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiménez-Fernández, Gracia

    2015-01-01

    One of the most frequent problems in reading comprehension is the difficulty in making inferences from the text, especially for students with mild disabilities (i.e., children with learning disabilities or with high-functioning autism). It is essential, therefore, that educators include the teaching of reading strategies to improve their students'…

  12. Reading Comprehension Strategy Instruction and Attribution Retraining for Secondary Students with Learning and Other Mild Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Sheri; Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    A pre-post experimental design with 6-week delayed posttest was implemented to investigate the effects of reading comprehension strategy (RCS) instruction with and without attribution retraining (AR) on reading outcomes for seventh, eighth, and ninth graders with learning and other mild disabilities. Students were randomly assigned to one of three…

  13. Dimensions of Ambiguous Loss in Couples Coping with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blieszner, Rosemary; Roberto, Karen A.; Wilcox, Karen L.; Barham, Elizabeth J.; Winston, Brianne L.

    2007-01-01

    We applied the theory of ambiguous loss to couples with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an age-related decline in memory and other cognitive processes assumed not to interfere with daily activities or the maintenance of personal relationships. Face-to-face interviews with 67 older married couples revealed that lack of understanding about the…

  14. Positive Effects of Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, C.; Chambon, C.; Michel, B. F.; Paban, V.; Alescio-Lautier, B.

    2012-01-01

    Considering the high risk for individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (A-MCI) to progress towards Alzheimer's disease (AD), we investigated the efficacy of a non-pharmacological intervention, that is, cognitive training that could reduce cognitive difficulties and delay the cognitive decline. For this, we evaluated the efficacy of a…

  15. Using Text-to-Speech Reading Support for an Adult with Mild Aphasia and Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen; Snell, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    This single case study served to examine text-to-speech (TTS) effects on reading rate and comprehension in an individual with mild aphasia and cognitive impairment. Findings showed faster reading, given TTS presented at a normal speaking rate, but no significant comprehension changes. TTS may support reading in people with aphasia when time…

  16. Brain Substrates of Learning and Retention in Mild Cognitive Impairment Diagnosis and Progression to Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Ling; Bondi, Mark W.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; McEvoy, Linda K.; Hagler, Donald J., Jr.; Jacobson, Mark W.; Dale, Anders M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the underlying qualitative features of memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can provide critical information for early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study sought to investigate the utility of both learning and retention measures in (a) the diagnosis of MCI, (b) predicting progression to AD, and (c)…

  17. Increased Sensitivity to Proactive and Retroactive Interference in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: New Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanseeuw, Bernard J.; Seron, Xavier; Ivanoiu, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Increased sensitivity to proactive (PI) and retroactive (RI) interference has been observed in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). PI and RI are often explained as being the result of a response competition mechanism. However, patients with aMCI are supposed to suffer mostly from encoding deficits. We hypothesized that in aMCI…

  18. Processing of Mass/Count Information in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taler, Vanessa; Jarema, Gonia

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the processing of a specific linguistic distinction, the mass/count distinction, in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Fourteen AD and 10 MCI subjects were tested using a sentence grammaticality judgement task where grammaticality violations were caused by determiner--noun…

  19. Motor Performance of Children with Mild Intellectual Disability and Borderline Intellectual Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuijk, P. J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is a relatively small body of research on the motor performance of children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). Adequate levels of motor skills may contribute to lifelong enjoyment of physical activity, participation in sports and healthy lifestyles. The present study compares…

  20. Eyewitness Testimony and Perceived Credibility of Youth with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, M.; Iarocci, G.; Connolly, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Background Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are more vulnerable to abuse compared to individuals without disabilities yet have limited access to the legal system. This study examined perceived credibility of youth with mild intellectual disability (MID) who provide courtroom testimony. Method Participants, 187 undergraduates, were…

  1. Career Exploration: A Curriculum Manual for Students with Mild Handicaps. Secondary Transition and Employment Project: STEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgart, Diane; Anderson, Jane

    The guide, developed by the Secondary Transition and Employment Project (STEP) in Idaho, is intended to provide students with mild handicaps with systematic individual assessment of vocational preferences and instruction in work-related skills. The curriculum stresses parent involvement, vocational training beginning at the 7th or 8th grade…

  2. Cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability and alcohol use-related problems.

    PubMed

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P L M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N=57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting and were all abstinent and undergoing treatment at the time of testing. Three groups were formed based on the severity of alcohol use-related problems as measured by the AUDIT. In line with the expectations, no differences were found between participants based on the severity of their alcohol use-related problems. In addition, three groups were formed based on IQ to assess the relationship between IQ and the strength of the cognitive biases. There were also no differences between individuals with mild or borderline ID and individuals with (below) average IQ on any of the variables. It is concluded that computer tasks such as these can be used in individuals with mild to borderline ID. As the results suggest no influence of IQ on the strength of cognitive biases, this study opens up new opportunities for future research on the application of measuring cognitive biases in screening, diagnosing and treating individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. PMID:22728604

  3. Lessons for Inclusion: Classroom Experiences of Students with Mild and Moderate Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Up to 15 % of the student population in integrated classrooms has mild or moderate hearing loss (MMHL) (Niskar et al., 2001), a communication disability that can impact language development, academic performance, and social-emotional quality of life. Due to the mostly intelligible speech of these students, teachers may easily overlook their…

  4. Can Mild Bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss Affect Developmental Abilities in Younger School-Age Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ðokovic, Sanja; Gligorovic, Milica; Ostojic, Sanja; Dimic, Nadežda; Radic-Šestic, Marina; Slavnic, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    The research study was conducted for the purpose of examining the influence of mild bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (MBSNHL) on developmental abilities of younger school-age children. The sample encompassed 144 children with MBSNHL, aged 7.5-11 (M = 8.85). MBSNHL (20-40 dB HL) was identified by pure tone audiometry. The control group…

  5. Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Check Excessively in Response to Mild Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Toffolo, Marieke B J; van den Hout, Marcel A; Engelhard, Iris M; Hooge, Ignace T C; Cath, Daniëlle C

    2016-07-01

    Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) not only respond to obsessions with perseverative checking, but also engage in more general checking, irrespective of their obsessive concerns. This study investigated whether general checking is specific to OCD and exacerbated when only mild uncertainty is induced. Thirty-one patients with OCD, 26 anxiety- and 31 healthy controls performed a visual search task with eye-tracking and indicated in 50 search displays whether a target was "present" or "absent". Target-present trials were unambiguous, whereas target-absent trials induced mild uncertainty, because participants had to rely on not overlooking the target. Checking behavior was measured by assessing search time and the number of fixations, measured with an eye-tracker. Results showed that in both target-present and target-absent trials patients with OCD searched longer and made more fixations than healthy and anxiety controls. However, the difference in checking behavior between patients with OCD and the control groups was larger in target-absent trials (where mild uncertainty was induced). Anxiety and healthy controls did not differ in checking behavior. Thus, mild uncertainty appears to specifically promote checking in patients with OCD, which has implications for treatment. PMID:27423170

  6. The Role of Social Awareness in the Employment Success of Adolescents with Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rhonda S.; Rojewski, Jay W.

    The role of social awareness in the employment success of adolescents with mild mental retardation was examined in a two-phase study. In phase 1, a set of social awareness descriptors designed to measure the three components of social awareness--sensitivity, insight, and communication--was developed and validated in a five-stage process. In phase…

  7. Early Detection of Depression and Associated Risk Factors in Adults with Mild/Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, Jane A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presentation and risk factors for depression in adults with mild/moderate intellectual disability (ID). A sample of 151 adults (83 males and 68 females) participated in a semi-structured interview. According to results on the Beck Depression Inventory II, 39.1% of participants evinced symptoms of…

  8. Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease Among Inpatients Who Have Mild Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, S.; Haw, C.; Kirk, J.; Stubbs, J.

    2005-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the UK. The aim of this study was to screen inpatients with mild or borderline intellectual disability, many of whom also have mental illness, for risk factors for CHD. Participants were interviewed, measured and had blood samples taken. Of the 53 participants, 20 (37.7%)…

  9. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kun; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z

    2013-01-01

    There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:23741416

  10. Benefits of treating highly disabled migraine patients with zolmitriptan while pain is mild.

    PubMed

    Klapper, J; Lucas, C; Røsjø, Ø; Charlesworth, B

    2004-11-01

    Clinical trials of migraine therapy often require treatment when migraine pain intensity is moderate or severe, but many physicians find this practice artificial and patients often prefer to treat while pain is mild. This randomized, placebo-controlled study assessed the efficacy of zolmitriptan 2.5 mg in treating migraine while pain is mild, in patients who typically experience migraine attacks that are initially mild, but progress to moderate or severe. The intent-to-treat population comprised 280 patients (138 zolmitriptan; 148 placebo), with mean MIDAS grades of 29.6 (zolmitriptan) and 27.6 (placebo). Zolmitriptan 2.5 mg provided a significantly higher pain-free rate at 2 h (43.4% vs. 18.4% placebo; P < 0.0001). Significantly fewer zolmitriptan patients reported progression of headache pain to moderate or severe intensity 2 h postdose (53.7% vs. 70.4% placebo; P < 0.01), or required further medication within 24 h (46.4% vs. 71.1% placebo; P < 0.0001). The efficacy of zolmitriptan was more pronounced in patients treating during the first 15 min following pain onset. Adverse events were reported in 31.2% of patients treated with zolmitriptan (vs. 11.3% for placebo), and the incidence was lower in patients who treated early after attack onset. Zolmitriptan provides high efficacy when treating migraine while pain is mild, with the clinical benefits being more pronounced when treating early after migraine onset. PMID:15482352

  11. Assist Program 2: Mildly Handicapped/Mainstreaming. Teacher's Guide. ASSIST: Associate Instructional Support for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, E. C.; And Others

    The second of two documents designed to train paraprofessionals to work with mainstreamed mildly handicapped children presents a teacher's guide approach to inservice and preservice training. The following four topics are covered in the section on preservice training (sample subtopics in parentheses): the teacher (forming a good working…

  12. Mild maternal stress disrupts associative learning and increases aggression in offspring.

    PubMed

    Eaton, L; Edmonds, E J; Henry, T B; Snellgrove, D L; Sloman, K A

    2015-05-01

    Maternal stress has been shown to affect behaviour of offspring in a wide range of animals, but this evidence has come from studies that exposed gestating mothers to acute or severe stressors, such as restraint or exposure to synthetic stress hormones. Here we show that exposure of mothers to even a mild stressor reduces associative learning and increases aggression in offspring. Female guppies were exposed to routine husbandry procedures that produced only a minimal, non-significant, elevation of the stress hormone cortisol. In contrast to controls, offspring from mothers that experienced this mild stress failed to learn to associate a colour cue and food reward, and showed a greater amount of inter-individual variation in behaviour compared with control offspring. This mild stress also resulted in offspring that were more aggressive towards their own mirror image than controls. While it is possible that these results could represent the transmission of beneficial maternal characteristics to offspring born into unpredictable environments, the potential for mild maternal stress to affect offspring performance also has important implications for research into the trans-generational effects of stress. PMID:25840012

  13. Clock Drawing Performance and Brain Morphology in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomann, Philipp A.; Toro, Pablo; Santos, Vasco Dos; Essig, Marco; Schroder, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a widely used instrument in the neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As CDT performance necessitates several cognitive functions (e.g., visuospatial and constructional abilities, executive functioning), an interaction of multiple brain regions is likely. Fifty-one subjects with mild cognitive…

  14. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Aimee M; Stephenson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) (and concussion) occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the “dark neuron” (DN) as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours) total sleep deprivation (TSD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day) affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons), and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%). Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%), and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%). Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. PMID:26124685

  15. Teaching Secondary Students with Mild Learning and Behavior Problems: Methods, Materials, Strategies. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Lowell F.; And Others

    This revised text on teaching junior and senior high school students with mild learning and behavior problems is intended to provide a reference for practical and proven ideas. Principles of the instructional approach advocated include: outcome-based educational programming inclusive of learning strategies and career education; use of the…

  16. Teaching Test-Taking Strategies to Improve the Academic Achievement of Students with Mild Mental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretlow, Allison G.; Lo, Ya-yu; White, Richard B.; Jordan, LuAnn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of teaching a test-taking strategy to 4 fourth- and fifth-grade students with mild mental disabilities on reading and math achievement. The intervention consisted of a direct and explicit instructional method using a mnemonic strategy. The participants' acquisition and application of the test-taking strategy on…

  17. People with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disability Talking about Their Diabetes and How They Manage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardol, M.; Rijken, M.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of diabetes is relatively high in people with intellectual disability (ID). However, little is known about how people with ID experience having diabetes and how they manage the condition. Method: Seventeen people with mild to moderate ID who have diabetes were interviewed. A framework on illness perceptions having an…

  18. An Assistive Technology Toolkit: Type II Applications for Students with Mild Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puckett, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    This article describes possibilities for technology use among students with mild disabilities. It considers characteristics of assistive technology from the standpoint of strategies associated with universal design for learning and Type I and Type II software applications. After a brief description of assistive technology definitions, legislation,…

  19. Fruits, vegetables and their components and mild cognitive impairment and dementia: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the current literature on the role of fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and their components in the prevention of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. The components investigated include vitamins C and E, carotenoids, polyphenols, and B-vitamins. Th...

  20. The Emergent Charter School Model for Ninth Grade Mildly Disabled United States Students: Extending to Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Emmanuel Teah

    2009-01-01

    An ethnographic, descriptive research methodology was used to explore the service delivery of three U.S. charter schools (one independent and two dependent secondary public charter schools) in Southern New England, United States as they relate to grade nine mildly disabled special needs students. Field research was also conducted in Costa Rica and…

  1. Family Factors Associated with the Peer Social Competence of Young Children with Mild Delays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Neville, Brian; Connor, Robert T.; Hammond, Mary A.

    2003-01-01

    A model addressing family influences on the peer-related social competence of young children with mild developmental (cognitive) delays was developed and tested. Path analytic techniques were used to evaluate the model. Results supported the importance of family influences on the peer-related social competence of young children with mild…

  2. Stability, Change, and Correlates of the Peer Relationships of Young Children with Mild Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Hammond, Mary A.; Connor, Robert T.; Neville, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The peer relationships of young children with mild developmental (cognitive) delays recruited at 4--6 years of age were examined in a longitudinal study across a 2-year period. Results revealed only modest increases in children's peer interactions, a high degree of intraindividual stability, and the existence of a poorly organized and…

  3. Structural Dissociation of Attentional Control and Memory in Adults with and without Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niogi, Sumit N.; Mukherjee, Pratik; Ghajar, Jamshid; Johnson, Carl E.; Kolster, Rachel; Lee, Hana; Suh, Minah; Zimmerman, Robert D.; Manley, Geoffrey T.; McCandliss, Bruce D.

    2008-01-01

    Memory and attentional control impairments are the two most common forms of dysfunction following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and lead to significant morbidity in patients, yet these functions are thought to be supported by different brain networks. This 3 T magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study investigates whether…

  4. High Stakes? Considering Students with Mild Intellectual Disability in Accountability Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouck, Emily C.

    2013-01-01

    The assessment participation of students with disabilities is now an important part of students' education and educational decision-making. While much attention has been paid to the participation of students with significant intellectual disability, little research exists regarding the extent to which students with mild intellectual…

  5. Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Legacies and Trends in Concepts and Educational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polloway, Edward A.; Lubin, Jacqueline; Smith, J. David; Patton, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Intellectual disability has been considered a high incidence disability in special education since the inception of the field in the United States. The purpose of this article is to evaluate current educational programs and practices for students who historically and commonly have been referred to as having mild mental retardation. The article…

  6. Pentop Computers as Tools for Teaching Multiplication to Students with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouck, Emily C.; Bassette, Laura; Taber-Doughty, Teresa; Flanagan, Sara M.; Szwed, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of a pentop computer when teaching multiplication facts to three middle school students with mild intellectual disabilities was examined. A multiple probe design was used to assess the students learning of one and two digit multiplication facts over a 2-3 week intervention period. During the intervention phase, students used a…

  7. A mildly relativistic radio jet from the otherwise normal type Ic supernova 2007gr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paragi, Z.; Taylor, G. B.; Kouveliotou, C.; Granot, J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Bietenholz, M.; van der Horst, A. J.; Pidopryhora, Y.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Garrett, M. A.; Szomoru, A.; Argo, M. K.; Bourke, S.; Paczyński, B.

    2010-01-01

    The class of type Ic supernovae have drawn increasing attention since 1998 owing to their sparse association (only four so far) with long duration γ-ray bursts (GRBs). Although both phenomena originate from the core collapse of a massive star, supernovae emit mostly at optical wavelengths, whereas GRBs emit mostly in soft γ-rays or hard X-rays. Though the GRB central engine generates ultra-relativistic jets, which beam the early emission into a narrow cone, no relativistic outflows have hitherto been found in type Ib/c supernovae explosions, despite theoretical expectations and searches. Here we report radio (interferometric) observations that reveal a mildly relativistic expansion in a nearby type Ic supernova, SN 2007gr. Using two observational epochs 60days apart, we detect expansion of the source and establish a conservative lower limit for the average apparent expansion velocity of 0.6c. Independently, a second mildly relativistic supernova has been reported. Contrary to the radio data, optical observations of SN 2007gr indicate a typical type Ic supernova with ejecta velocities ~6,000kms-1, much lower than in GRB-associated supernovae. We conclude that in SN 2007gr a small fraction of the ejecta produced a low-energy mildly relativistic bipolar radio jet, while the bulk of the ejecta were slower and, as shown by optical spectropolarimetry, mildly aspherical.

  8. Mild Intellectual Disability in Children in Lahore, Pakistan: Aetiology and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaqoob, M.; Bashir, A.; Zaman, S.; Ferngren, H.; von Dobeln, U.; Gustavson, K.-H.

    2004-01-01

    One of the main objectives of studying intellectual disability (ID) in children is to explore its causes. A specific aetiological diagnosis is important in determining the prognosis, nature and extent of services needed to support affected children. Aetiology and risk factors in mild ID were studied in a cohort of longitudinally followed children…

  9. Oocyte quality is decreased in women with minimal or mild endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bo; Guo, Nan; Zhang, Xiao-min; Shi, Wei; Tong, Xian-hong; Iqbal, Furhan; Liu, Yu-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis, a pathological condition in which the endometrium grows outside the uterus, is one of the most common causes of female infertility; it is diagnosed in 25–40% of infertile women. The mechanism by which endometriosis affects the fertility of females remains largely unknown. We examined the ultrastructure of oocytes from patients with minimal or mild endometriosis and control females undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the physiological significance of oocyte quality for patients with minimal or mild endometriosis. The TEM results revealed that the oocytes from women with minimal or mild endometriosis exhibited abnormal mitochondrial structure and decreased mitochondria mass. Quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed that the mitochondrial DNA copy number was significantly reduced in the oocytes from women with minimal or mild endometriosis compared with those of the control subjects. Our results suggest that decreased oocyte quality because of impaired mitochondrial structure and functions probably an important factor affecting the fertility of endometriosis patients. PMID:26022105

  10. Treating Attention in Mild Aphasia: Evaluation of Attention Process Training-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Laura L.; Keeton, R. Jessica; Karcher, Laura

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether attention processing training-II [Sohlberg, M. M., Johnson, L., Paule, L., Raskin, S. A., & Mateer, C. A. (2001). "Attention Process Training-II: A program to address attentional deficits for persons with mild cognitive dysfunction" (2nd ed.). Wake Forest, NC: Lash & Associates.; APT-II], when applied in the context of…

  11. Markers for Aggression in Inpatient Treatment Facilities for Adults with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenneij, Nienke H.; Didden, Robert; Stolker, Joost Jan; Koot, Hans M.

    2009-01-01

    In high care settings for persons with intellectual disability (ID) aggressive incidents often occur. Still little is known about factors that are associated with an increased risk for aggressive behavior in clients who are admitted to an inpatient treatment facility. In four inpatient facilities, 108 adults with mild and borderline ID and…

  12. Social Problem-Solving and Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Relations with Externalizing Behavior and Therapeutic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Wijnroks, Lex; Vermeer, Adri; Matthys, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Relations among externalizing behavior, therapeutic context (community care vs. residential care), and social problem-solving by children with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intelligence were examined. Participants were 186 children (12 to 14 years of age) who responded to a video-based social problem-solving task. Of these, 130…

  13. The Relation of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury to Chronic Lapses of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontifex, Matthew B.; Broglio, Steven P.; Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Johnson, Chris R.; O'Connor, Phillip M.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the extent to which failures in sustained attention were associated with chronic mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) deficits in cognitive control among college-age young adults with and without a history of sport-related concussion. Participants completed the ImPACT computer-based assessment and a modified flanker task. Results…

  14. Alternatives for the Care of Mildly Ill Children: United States Air Force Child Care Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Linda J.

    Information related to day care center policies for dealing with mildly ill children is provided in this document. Data cited in the report indicate wide inconsistencies at the present time in policies and procedures for screening ill children in Air Force child care centers and in the policies followed for admitting and readmitting children who…

  15. Preclinical Cerebral Network Connectivity Evidence of Deficits in Mild White Matter Lesions.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying; Sun, Xuan; Xu, Shijun; Liu, Yaou; Huang, Ruiwang; Jia, Jianjun; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2016-01-01

    White matter lesions (WMLs) are notable for their high prevalence and have been demonstrated to be a potential neuroimaging biomarker of early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to identify the brain functional and structural mechanisms underlying cognitive decline observed in mild WMLs. Multi-domain cognitive tests, as well as resting-state, diffusion tensor and structural images were obtained on 42 mild WMLs and 42 age/sex-matched healthy controls. For each participant, we examined the functional connectivity (FC) of three resting-state networks (RSNs) related to the changed cognitive domains: the default mode network (DMN) and the bilateral fronto-parietal network (FPN). We also performed voxel-based morphometry analysis to compare whole-brain gray matter (GM) volume, atlas-based quantification of the white matter tracts interconnecting the RSNs, and the relationship between FC and structural connectivity. We observed FC alterations in the DMN and the right FPN combined with related white matter integrity disruption in mild WMLs. However, no significant GM atrophy difference was found. Furthermore, the right precuneus FC in the DMN exhibited a significantly negative correlation with the memory test scores. Our study suggests that in mild WMLs, dysfunction of RSNs might be a consequence of decreased white matter structural connectivity, which further affects cognitive performance. PMID:26924981

  16. Educating Students with Mild Intellectual Disabilities in Regular Schools in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khatib, Jamal M.; Al Khatib, Fareed

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a description of current practices in educating students with mild intellectual disabilities in regular schools in Jordan. The data were obtained using several methods, including interviews with special education staff at the Ministry of Education, summaries of documents and published research related to resource rooms and…

  17. Investment vs. Return: Outcomes of Special Education Technology Research in Literacy for Students with Mild Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cindy L.; Anderson, Kevin M.; Cherup, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of the research on technology integration in the area of literacy for individuals with mild disabilities. It describes relevant legislation, including how special education technology is impacted by the No Child Left Behind Act (2001). Included studies focus on research in the core content areas of reading and…

  18. Certification in Mild Disabilities: Perceptions and Preferences of Louisiana Special Education Professionals and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Jimmy; Ghose, Chhanda; Patterson, Regina; Anzelmo-Skelton, Nicki L.; van der Jagt, Johan; Woods, Carolyn F.

    This study determined the mild disabilities certification perceptions and preferences of Louisiana special education (SPED) professionals and students. A stratified random sampling procedure was used to select the subjects, who included 115 undergraduates and 44 graduate students, 26 professors, 24 local or school system directors of SPED, and 22…

  19. (Social) Cognitive Skills and Social Information Processing in Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Respondents were 79…

  20. Mild Intellectual Disability Associated with a Progeny of Father-Daughter Incest: Genetic and Environmental Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansermet, Francois; Lespinasse, James; Gimelli, Stefania; Bena, Frederique; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 34-year-old female resulting from a father-daughter sexual abuse and presenting a phenotype of mild intellectual disability with minor dysmorphic features. Karyotyping showed a normal 46, XX constitution. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) revealed a heterozygote 320kb 6p22.3 microdeletion in the…

  1. Developmental Differences in the Symptomatology of Psychiatric Inpatients with and without Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Marion; Zigler, Edward

    1995-01-01

    The symptomatology of 93 psychiatric inpatients with mild mental retardation was compared with that of a matched sample of inpatients without mental retardation. Patients with retardation displayed more outwardly directed and less inwardly directed symptoms; more symptoms involving action than thought; and psychotic symptom pictures which more…

  2. Measuring Stress in the Mildly Intellectually Handicapped: The Factorial Structure of the Subjective Stress Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramston, Paul; Fogarty, Gerard J.

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the underlying structure of the Subjective Stress Scale (SSS) by analyzing responses of 221 intellectually disabled adults. Results suggest that, although actual stressors vary, persons with mild intellectual disability are affected by the same major stress dimensions as the general population. Results also found the SSS…

  3. Phonological Awareness Abilities of 6-Year-Old Children with Mild to Moderate Phonological Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gernand, Keri Leigh; Moran, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Standardized and nonstandardized assessments of phonological awareness skills were administered to two groups of 6-year-old children. Group 1 passed a language screening but exhibited mild or moderate phonological impairments on the "Assessment of Phonological Processes--Revised." Group 2 passed a language screening and exhibited no phonological…

  4. Effectiveness of Treatment Programmes for Depression among Adults with Mild/Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, M. P.; McGillivray, J. A.; Newton, D. C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The current study describes the development and evaluation of group treatment programme for people with mild/moderate intellectual disability (ID). Methods: A total of 34 participants (16 males, 18 females) completed the treatment programme and 15 participants (six males, nine females) comprised a control group. Results: Compared to…

  5. Patterns of Intellectual, Adaptive and Behavioral Functioning in Individuals with Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenen, Sarah; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Scholte, Evert

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers have studied the population of individuals with mild mental retardation (MIMR) as if it is a clear entity. Few researchers have investigated potential subtypes within the MIMR population. The purpose of the present study was to investigate which subtypes can be identified on the basis of intellectual, adaptive and behavioral…

  6. Cerebral perfusion and cortical thickness indicate cortical involvement in mild Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Madhyastha, Tara M; Askren, Mary K; Boord, Peter; Zhang, Jing; Leverenz, James B; Grabowski, Thomas J

    2015-12-01

    Cortical dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) may be caused by disruption to ascending systems or by intrinsic cortical neuropathology. We introduce and conduct a joint analysis of metabolism and atrophy capable of identifying whether metabolic disruption occurs in mild PD without cortical atrophy, to determine the extent and spatial pattern of cortical involvement in mild PD. The design was observational, studying 23 cognitively normal participants with mild PD (mean Hoehn & Yahr stage 2) and 21 healthy controls. Cortical thickness (obtained from analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] with FreeSurfer) and cerebral perfusion measures (obtained from arterial spin labeling [ASL]) analyzed independently and then together in a joint multiple factorial analysis to identify spatial patterns of perfusion and cortical thickness. We identify a pattern of changes in perfusion and cortical thickness characterized by symmetric parietal cortical thinning and reduced precuneus perfusion, with relative preservation of thickness and perfusion in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right prefrontal gyrus, and medial frontal gyrus. The expression of this pattern is correlated with motor system symptoms and speed of processing. A spatial pattern of joint parietal cortical thinning and disproportionate reduction in perfusion occurs in our nondemented PD sample. We found no PD-related components of reduced perfusion without cortical thinning. This suggests that PD affects the cortex itself, even when symptoms are relatively mild. PMID:25759166

  7. Detecting and Treating Depression in People with Mild Intellectual Disability: The Views of Key Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, Jane A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2010-01-01

    There is a pressing need for the development of programs for the early identification and treatment of depression in individuals with mild intellectual disability. The aim of this study was to ascertain the perspective of 64 key stakeholders (people with intellectual disability, healthcare professionals, family/caregivers & support workers)…

  8. Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Smoking Cessation Program for an Adult with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Angela D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for a number of health conditions and many smokers find it difficult to quit smoking without specific interventions. We developed and used a mindfulness-based smoking cessation program with a 31-year-old man with mild intellectual disabilities who had been a smoker for 17 years. The mindfulness-based smoking…

  9. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Poor Functioning after Isolated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Children

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Dennis R.; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Wang, Jin; Temkin, Nancy R.; Dorsch, Andrea M.; Vavilala, Monica S.; Jaffe, Kenneth M.; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of poor 3 and 12 month quality of life outcomes in a cohort of pediatric patients with isolated mild TBI. We conducted a prospective cohort study of children and adolescents <18 years of age treated for an isolated mild TBI, defined as “no radiographically apparent intracranial injury” or “an isolated skull fracture, and no other clinically significant non-brain injuries.” The main outcome measure was the change in quality of life from baseline at 3 and 12 months following injury, as measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life index (PedsQL). Poor functioning was defined as a decrease in total PedsQL score of >15 points between baseline and follow-up scores (at 3 and 12 months). Of the 329 patients who met inclusion criteria, 11.3% (95% CI 8.3–15.3%) at 3 months and 12.9% (95% CI 9.6–17.2%) at 12 months following injury had relatively poor functioning. Significant predictors of poor functioning included less parental education, Hispanic ethnicity (at 3 months following injury, but not at 12 months); low household income (at 3 and 12 months), and Medicaid insurance (at 12 months only). Children and adolescents sustaining a mild TBI who are socioeconomically disadvantaged may require additional intervention to mitigate the effects of mild TBI on their functioning. PMID:24294826

  10. Impact of Mild Stroke on the Quality of Life of Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellier, Myriam; Rochette, Annie; Lefebvre, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Clients with mild stroke may present subtle deficits that have an impact on complex activities and roles. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived quality of life of spouses, 3 months after the client with stroke was discharged to go home from acute care. A qualitative design based on a constructivist paradigm was used. Interviews…

  11. Self-Esteem of Gifted, Normal, and Mild Mentally Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Lian-Hwang

    1990-01-01

    Administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) Form B to elementary school students (N=450) identified as gifted, normal, and mild mentally handicapped (MiMH). Results indicated that both the gifted and normal children had significantly higher self-esteem than did the MiMH children, but there were no differences between gifted and normal…

  12. Computer-Based Working Memory Training in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delavarian, Mona; Bokharaeian, Behrouz; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar

    2015-01-01

    We designed a working memory (WM) training programme in game framework for mild intellectually disabled students. Twenty-four students participated as test and control groups. The auditory and visual-spatial WM were assessed by primary test, which included computerised Wechsler numerical forward and backward sub-tests and secondary tests, which…

  13. Emission, absorption and polarization of gyrosynchrotron radiation of mildly relativistic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosian, V.; Mctiernan, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Approximate analytic expressions are presented for the emissivity and absorption coefficient of synchrotron radiation of mildly relativistic particles with an arbitrary energy spectrum and pitch angle distribution. From these, an expression for the degree of polarization is derived. The analytic results are compared with numerical results for both thermal and non-thermal (power law) distributions of particles.

  14. INFLUENCE OF BUFFER CAPACITY, CHLORINE RESIDUAL, AND FLOW RATE ON CORROSION OF MILD STEEL AND COPPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The corrosion rates of mild steel decreased as buffer capacity was increased with pH at constant alkalinity. The corrosion-promoting effect of ionic strength, however, appeared to predominate over the buffer action in water systems with relatively high total dissolved solids and ...

  15. Mild Blast Events Alter Anxiety, Memory, and Neural Activity Patterns in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Kun; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z.

    2013-01-01

    There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:23741416

  16. Depression in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability: Role of Stress, Attributions, and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The experience of stressful social interactions, negative causal attributions, and the use of maladaptive coping efforts help maintain depression over time in the general population. We investigated whether a similar experience occurs among adults with mild intellectual disability. We compared the frequency and stress impact of such interactions,…

  17. Specific Patterns of Cognitive Abilities in Young Children with Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Kathryn L.; Blair, Clancy; Scott, Marcia S.; Bolger, Kerry E.

    2004-01-01

    Whereas a wealth of research has examined cognitive abilities of groups of individuals with mild mental retardation (MMR), less research has investigated potential differences in cognitive performance among individuals with mental retardation (Baumeister, 1997). The present study was an exploratory analysis of variability in performance of…

  18. Mothers' Social Communicative Adjustments to Young Children with Mild Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Neville, Brian; Hammond, Mary A.; Connor, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    The social communication and compliance patterns of 63 mothers interacting with their young children who had mild developmental delays in social play and instructional tasks were examined in a longitudinal study. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that mothers appropriately adjust their social communications in accordance with children's…

  19. Teaching Mathematics to Students with Mild-to-Moderate Mental Retardation: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Frances M.; Miller, Susan P.; Lee, Kit-Hung; Pierce, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A literature search to identify and analyze mathematics interventions for students with mild-to-moderate mental retardation found the focus of instruction has shifted since 1989 from basic skills instruction to computation and problem-solving instruction. Techniques such as constant-time delay, peer tutoring, time trials, and direct instruction…

  20. Teaching Employment Skills to Adolescents with Mild and Moderate Disabilities Using a Constant Time Delay Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Wanda; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A five-second constant time delay procedure was used to teach three chained vocational tasks (filling a soda machine, using a duplicating machine, and using a photocopier) to four high school students with mild or moderate disabilities. All students acquired the skills with a low percentage of errors. Maintenance and generalization data were…

  1. Novel mild strains of Citrus tristeza virus from California and Peru.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) has caused great economic losses to citrus worldwide. CTV isolates from California were identified which reacted to MCA13 but were mild in biological indexing tests. Molecular markers were developed to differentiate these isolates from established CTV genotypes and the is...

  2. Self-Reported versus Informant-Reported Depressive Symptoms in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mileviciute, I.; Hartley, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Virtually nothing is known about potential differences in the types of depression symptoms reported by adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) on self-reported questionnaires as compared with the types of symptoms reported by caregivers on informant questionnaires. Moreover, little is known about how the presentation of…

  3. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Caron, Aimee M; Stephenson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) (and concussion) occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the "dark neuron" (DN) as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours) total sleep deprivation (TSD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day) affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons), and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%). Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%), and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%). Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. PMID:26124685

  4. Mild Memory Impairment in Healthy Older Adults Is Distinct from Normal Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargin, J. Weaver; Maruff, P.; Collie, A.; Masters, C.

    2006-01-01

    Mild memory impairment was detected in 28% of a sample of healthy community-dwelling older adults using the delayed recall trial of a word list learning task. Statistical analysis revealed that individuals with memory impairment also demonstrated relative deficits on other measures of memory, and tests of executive function, processing speed and…

  5. A Pyrosequencing Investigation of Differences in the Feline Subgingival Microbiota in Health, Gingivitis and Mild Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Harris, Stephen; Croft, Julie; O'Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Allsopp, Judi; Milella, Lisa; Davis, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is the most frequently diagnosed health problem in cats yet little is known about the bacterial species important for the disease. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis (<25% attachment loss) in feline plaque. Knowledge of these species is a first step in understanding the potential for improving oral health of cats via dietary interventions that alter the proportions of influential species. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 92 cats with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA from these plaque samples generated more than one million reads and identified a total of 267 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all gingival health categories, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Fusobacteria. The Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant family in gingivitis and mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from various genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. The species identified were very similar to those observed in canine plaque in the corresponding health and disease states. Such similarities were not observed between cat and human at the bacterial species level but with disease progression similarities did emerge at the phylum level. This suggests that interventions targeted at human pathogenic species will not be effective for use in cats but there is more potential for commonalities in interventions for cats and dogs. PMID:26605793

  6. Maternal Distancing Strategies toward Twin Sons, One with Mild Hearing Loss: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Silva, Alicia; Sanchez-Garcia, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    The authors apply descriptive and sequential analyses to a mother's distancing strategies toward her 3-year-old twin sons in puzzle assembly and book reading tasks. One boy had normal hearing and the other a mild hearing loss (threshold: 30 dB). The results show that the mother used more distancing behaviors with the son with a hearing loss, and…

  7. A mildly relativistic radio jet from the otherwise normal type Ic supernova 2007gr.

    PubMed

    Paragi, Z; Taylor, G B; Kouveliotou, C; Granot, J; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Bietenholz, M; van der Horst, A J; Pidopryhora, Y; van Langevelde, H J; Garrett, M A; Szomoru, A; Argo, M K; Bourke, S; Paczyński, B

    2010-01-28

    The class of type Ic supernovae have drawn increasing attention since 1998 owing to their sparse association (only four so far) with long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although both phenomena originate from the core collapse of a massive star, supernovae emit mostly at optical wavelengths, whereas GRBs emit mostly in soft gamma-rays or hard X-rays. Though the GRB central engine generates ultra-relativistic jets, which beam the early emission into a narrow cone, no relativistic outflows have hitherto been found in type Ib/c supernovae explosions, despite theoretical expectations and searches. Here we report radio (interferometric) observations that reveal a mildly relativistic expansion in a nearby type Ic supernova, SN 2007gr. Using two observational epochs 60 days apart, we detect expansion of the source and establish a conservative lower limit for the average apparent expansion velocity of 0.6c. Independently, a second mildly relativistic supernova has been reported. Contrary to the radio data, optical observations of SN 2007gr indicate a typical type Ic supernova with ejecta velocities approximately 6,000 km s(-1), much lower than in GRB-associated supernovae. We conclude that in SN 2007gr a small fraction of the ejecta produced a low-energy mildly relativistic bipolar radio jet, while the bulk of the ejecta were slower and, as shown by optical spectropolarimetry, mildly aspherical. PMID:20110996

  8. Generalization of Social Skills through Self-Monitoring by Adults with Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Anjali

    1992-01-01

    Three adult subjects with mild mental retardation were trained in individualized social skills and then taught to self-monitor their behavior, initially using a self-monitoring device. Self-monitoring assisted in generalization of trained social skills across settings and people; however, maintenance results were variable. (Author/DB)

  9. An Investigation Of Students With Mild Learning Disabilities Reactions To Participating In Sexuality Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gail; Kroese, Biza Stenfert

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates 35 students with mild learning disabilities reactions to participating in a research project exploring their sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Students completed an informed consent procedure prior to their participation in the sexuality research and all were interviewed using a confidential interview procedure.…

  10. Uses of Integrated Media Instruction in a Self-Contained Class for Children with Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narita, Shigeru

    This conference paper describes the use of integrated media-oriented instruction in a self-contained class at Yokohama Municipal Elementary School in Japan. Three students with mild disabilities, in grades 5 and 6, participated in the project. Integrated media (IM) is defined as the linkage of text, sound, video, graphics, and the computer in such…

  11. A Demonstration of Helping Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disability Climb Ladders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kok Hoe Anthony; Varahan, Jayashree Lakshmi; Loh, Peng Loong Daniel; Tan, Sey Ing

    2011-01-01

    A research team at a vocational school in Singapore, catering mainly to students between the ages of 17-21 with mild intellectual disability, studied how to best address the challenge of enabling students to learn how to climb ladders (a skill necessary at many job placements). They documented the approach used and suggested extrapolations and…

  12. Employability Skills for Students with Mild Disabilities: A Sequenced Curriculum Package for Teachers. Project WORK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Garza, Bridget; And Others

    The Employability Skills Curriculum is a functional curriculum designed to help in teaching critical employability skills to students with mild disabilities. The curriculum sequence focuses upon the skills of getting a job and holding that job over time. The 65 lesson plans are organized into 13 units which cover: (1) preparing to look for a job,…

  13. Connecting the GPE and APE Curricula for Students with Mild and Moderate Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Luke E.

    2011-01-01

    Many physical educators today face the challenge of including students with mild and moderate disabilities in their general physical education (GPE) programs. While most GPE teachers are willing to modify their instructional methods and activities to accommodate students with disabilities, this may not be enough to adequately address the students'…

  14. Neuropsychological Characteristics of Adults with Comorbid ADHD and Borderline/Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, E.; Bramham, J.; Young, S.; Paliokostas, E.; Xenitidis, K.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to characterise the neuropsychological functioning of adults with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and intellectual disability. Individuals with ADHD and mild-borderline range intelligence (N=59) and individuals with ADHD and normal intellectual functioning (N=95) were compared on attentional and response…

  15. Effectiveness of a Computerised Working Memory Training in Adolescents with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Molen, M. J.; Van Luit, J. E. H.; Van der Molen, M. W.; Klugkist, I.; Jongmans, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a computerised working memory (WM) training on memory, response inhibition, fluid intelligence, scholastic abilities and the recall of stories in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities attending special education. Method: A total of 95 adolescents with…

  16. Cognitive Biases in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability and Alcohol Use-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting…

  17. Working Memory Structure in 10- and 15-Year Old Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual, Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Mariet J.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of Baddeley's working memory model within the typically developing population, was tested. However, it is not clear if this model also holds in children and adolescents with mild to, borderline intellectual disabilities (ID; IQ score 55-85). The main purpose of this study was therefore, to explore the model's validity in this…

  18. A Comparison of Support for Two Groups of Young Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenen, Sarah; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Scholte, Evert

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) have varying profiles of cognitive, adaptive and behavioural functioning. There is also variability in their educational and therapeutic needs. This study compares recommended and actual provision of support for two groups of young adults with MBID and looks at young adults'…

  19. Development of Science Simulations for Mildly Mentally Retarded or Learning Disabled Students. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macro Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This final report describes the development of eight computer based science simulations designed for use with middle school mainstreamed students having learning disabilities or mild mental retardation. The total program includes software, a teacher's manual, 3 videos, and a set of 30 activity worksheets. Special features of the software for…

  20. Working Memory Development in Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Molen, M. J.; Henry, L. A.; Van Luit, J. E. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the current cross-sectional study was to examine the developmental progression in working memory (WM) between the ages of 9 and 16 years in a large sample of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). Baddeley's influential WM model was used as a theoretical framework. Furthermore, the…