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  1. Assessment of the hormonal milieu.

    PubMed

    Hankinson, Susan E; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2011-01-01

    The hormonal milieu has been hypothesized to play a role in a range of human diseases, and therefore has been a topic of much epidemiologic investigation. Hormones of particular interest include: sex steroids; growth hormones; insulin-like growth factors; stress hormones, such as cortisol; and hormones produced by the adipose tissue, termed adipokines. Depending on the hormone, levels may be measured in plasma or serum, urine, saliva, tissue, or by assessing genetic variation in the hormone or hormone metabolizing genes. Sample collection, processing, and storage requirements vary according to the type of sample collected (e.g. blood or urine) and the hormone of interest. Laboratory analysis of hormones is frequently complex, and the technology used to conduct the assays is constantly evolving. For example, direct or indirect radioimmunoassay, bioassay or mass spectrometry can be used to measure sex steroids, each having advantages and disadvantages. Careful attention to laboratory issues, including close collaboration with laboratory colleagues and ongoing quality control assessments, is critical. Whether a single hormone measurement, as is frequently collected in epidemiologic studies, is sufficient to characterize the hormonal environment of interest (e.g. long-term adult hormone exposure) is also an important issue. While the assessment of hormones in epidemiologic studies is complex, these efforts have, and will continue to, add importantly to our knowledge of the role of hormones in human health. PMID:22997864

  2. Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.; Cassel, Susie L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX), a clinical program designed to assess the degree to which an individual is able to demonstrate self-control for overall general relaxation. The program is designed for use with the Cassel Biosensors biofeedback equipment. (JAC)

  3. Creating a therapeutic milieu in retirement communities.

    PubMed

    Bekhet, Abir; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2011-01-01

    Elderly persons' relocation to retirement communities is a stressful event that requires person-milieu adjustment. Research has shown differences in relocation adjustment for elders residing in different retirement communities. A secondary analysis used findings from a study of relocated elders in order to determine whether certain therapeutic factors were lacking in retirement communities where elders had difficulty in adjusting. Study participants were 104 elders who relocated to six retirement communities in Northeast Ohio. This study analyzed qualitative data from the researchers' observations and field notes and narratives obtained from the elders who participated in the original study. The analysis focused on data that described the environmental characteristics of retirement communities where elders reported less successful adjustment. These environmental characteristics were evaluated for consistency with the characteristics of Shives' therapeutic milieu. Most retirement communities in the study did not fulfill all eight dimensions of a therapeutic milieu as defined by Shives. For example, individualized treatment programs were lacking in most of the retirement communities and the activities offered were not based on individual assessment and did not contribute to personal growth. The findings point to the need to create a more therapeutic milieu in retirement communities in order to facilitate successful readjustment for relocated elders. PMID:21574846

  4. Siblings' Use of Milieu Teaching at Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Terry B.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    1996-01-01

    Three older siblings were taught to use two milieu teaching procedures, modeling and mand modeling, with young children who exhibited language delays. Older siblings applied the techniques while playing, and subjects learned to use the targeted utterances both as responses and spontaneously. Additionally, interactions became more positive.…

  5. Milieu Teaching. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Milieu teaching" is a practice that involves manipulating or arranging stimuli in a preschool child's natural environment to create a setting that encourages them to engage in a targeted behavior. For example, a teacher might place a desirable toy in a setting to encourage a student to request that toy (where requesting a toy is the desired…

  6. The unique endocrine milieu of the fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, D A

    1986-01-01

    Table II summarizes in tabular form the major features of the fetal endocrine milieu discussed in the foregoing pages. The mammalian fetus develops in an environment where respiration, alimentation, and excretory functions are provided by the placenta. Fetal tissue metabolism is oriented largely to anabolism; body temperature is modulated by maternal metabolism, and fetal tissue thermogenesis is maintained at a basal level. Tissue and organ growth appear to be regulated by growth factors which probably function by autocrine or paracrine mechanisms during most of gestation (72, 146-148). In this milieu conventional endocrine control systems are largely redundant, and other transient systems more appropriate to the intrauterine environment have evolved. We have developed some insights into these systems, but much more information is necessary before we can truly understand this fascinating environment. PMID:3018041

  7. Social Allostasis: Anticipatory Regulation of the Internal Milieu

    PubMed Central

    Schulkin, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Social regulation of the internal milieu is a fundamental behavioral adaptation. Cephalic capability is reflected by anticipatory behaviors to serve systemic physiological regulation. Homeostatic regulation, a dominant perspective, reflects reactive responses; allostatic regulation, the physiology of change, emphasizes longer-term anticipatory, and feedforward systems. Steroids, such as cortisol, and peptides such as corticotrophin releasing hormone are but one example of such anticipatory regulatory systems. The concept of “allostasis” is in part to take account of anticipatory control amidst diverse forms of adaptation underlying this regulatory adaptation that supports social contact and the internal milieu. PMID:21369352

  8. Adolescent Health Promotion Groups: A Primer for Milieu Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puskar, Kathryn; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Stark, Kirsti Hetager; Frazier, Leann

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents who are required to live away from their families of origin face many challenges that can affect mood and mental health. Milieu therapists (mental health associates) working with adolescents in a residential treatment center may be expected to provide group activities that promote mental health. It is important for new group leaders to…

  9. On the Social and Cultural Milieu of an Urban Black School: An Ethnographic Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rist, Ray C.

    To understand the phenomena of academic success or failure among black children in urban ghetto schools, one must look beyond the boundaries of the individual classrooms and examine the social and cultural milieu of the school itself. Both the milieu of the classroom and the milieu of the school appear to sustain one another in a pattern of…

  10. Bioenergetics and Diffusion in the Crowded Milieu of Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikal, Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is a key cofactor in energy metabolism pathways and a myriad of oxidation-reduction reactions in living cells. The crowded milieu of these cells with organelles and macromolecules influences many biological processes such as biomolecular diffusion, protein-protein and protein-substrate interactions, and protein folding. In this contribution, I will highlight our recent findings on the role of macromolecular crowding on biochemical reaction between NADH and selected dehydrogenases in both living cells and in controlled macromolecules-rich environment. In addition, multiscale diffusion (rotational and translational) of a small fluorophore will be used to understand the role of non-specific binding, heterogeneity in microenvironmental viscosity in crowded solutions. Our experimental approach is a combination of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, time-resolved anisotropy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The broader impacts of these results will be discussed within the context of energy metabolism and biophysics in the crowded milieu of living cells.

  11. Psychodynamic Milieu-Therapy and Changes in Personality--What Is the Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heede, Tine; Runge, Hanne; Storebo, Ole Jakob; Rowley, Eva; Hansen, Kim Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    This article refers to the results of a prospective effect evaluation study of three psychodynamic milieu-therapeutic institutions for children, which included cognitive and projective testing. After introducing milieu-therapy and explaining its roots in psychoanalytic and developmental thinking, the specific results of the research evaluation are…

  12. Using Milieu Training to Promote Photograph Exchange for a Young Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Billy T.; Davis, Patricia; Hambrecht, Georgia; Phillips, Ellen Wooten

    2012-01-01

    A milieu teaching sequence was used to train photograph exchange as a method of requesting to a 7-year-old boy with autism. A multiple baseline design across four items (ball, puzzle, books, bubbles) was used to identify a functional relation between requesting and the milieu teaching sequence. Although performance during intervention was…

  13. Les astronomes de l'Empire du Milieu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    2007-02-01

    Explosions d'étoiles, comètes, durée du jour, taches solaires, dans tous ces domaines, des observations chinoises datant de plusieurs siècles sont encore utilisées aujourd'hui. Pendant plus de 4000 ans, les astronomes de l'Empire du Milieu, organisés dans les grands observatoires impériaux, ont noté jour après jour, mois après mois, avec la plus grande précision tous les phénomènes célestes. Et ce sont des milliers de textes couvrant des périodes depuis au moins le Ve siècle avant l'ère moderne jusqu'à fin de la dernière dynastie des Qing en 1911, qui ont été conservés et dont une grande partie n'a pu encore être véritablement étudiée. Un véritable trésor, malheureusement très mal connu en Europe et, de façon incompréhensible, largement ignoré par l'histoire moderne des sciences.

  14. Social Milieu and Future Orientation: The Case of Kibbutz vs. Urban Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seginer, Rachel

    1988-01-01

    Examines the effect of one social milieu factor (Israeli kibbutz vs. urban lifestyle) on adolescents' future orientation. Analysis of questionnaires from 114 kibbutz and 112 urban adolescents shows that kibbutz adolescents express fewer hopes for the future. (SKC)

  15. Teaching Functions in a Graphic Milieu: What Forms of Knowledge Enable Students To Conjecture and Prove?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Isabelle

    2003-01-01

    Presents a teaching approach related to the concept of function that lead students working within a graphic milieu to producing, discussing, and testing the validity of mathematical statements and theorems. Indicates that students experimenting with the approach became able to think of functions as objects and engage in questions of the validity…

  16. A Holistic Milieu Approach to High Risk Students: A Title III ESEA Project, Mattoon, Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Richard

    This paper describes a holistic milieu approach for underachieving, socially maladjusted students in a junior high school in Mattoon, Illinois. It also reports on the effects of the program on certain academic, affective, and behavioral measures taken on those students. The program, called the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), included five teachers, two…

  17. Assessments of Community Attributes: The Influence of Size of Place and Ecological Milieu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J.

    A 1978 statewide survey of Florida's licensed drivers 18 years or older was used to ascertain: (1) if significant differences in assessment of 23 community attributes exist by size of place and ecological milieu (community location relative to a metropolitan core county) and (2) if these differences persist when personal characteristics of…

  18. Case Study: Parent-Implemented Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching with a High Risk Dyad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCathren, Rebecca B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold. The first purpose was to determine if a mother with mild developmental disabilities living in poverty was able to implement Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching (PMT) strategies. The strategies included following the child's lead, arranging the environment to increase opportunities for communication, imitating the…

  19. Dragons and Dinosaurs: Directing Inquiry in Biology Using the Notions of "Milieu" and "Validation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achiam, Marianne; Solberg, Jan; Evans, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how inquiry teaching can be directed towards specific content learning goals while allowing for student exploration and validation of hypotheses. Drawing from the Theory of Didactical Situations, the concepts of "milieu" and "validation" are illustrated through two sample biology lessons designed to engage and challenge…

  20. Describing Treatment Intensity in Milieu Teaching Interventions for Children with Developmental Disabilities: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker-McGowan, Quannah; Chen, Mo; Reichle, Joe; Pandit, Shivani; Johnson, LeAnne; Kreibich, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation aimed to apply the dosage framework proposed by Warren, Fey, and Yoder (2007) to variations of milieu language teaching intervention strategies to explore how each of the dosage parameters (i.e., dose, dose form, dose frequency, total duration, and cumulative intervention intensity) was reported in the located…

  1. Impact of Milieu Teaching on Communication Skills of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen-Sandfort, Robyn J.; Whinnery, Stacie B.

    2013-01-01

    This 5-month study examined the impact of a behaviorally based naturalistic teaching strategy, milieu teaching, on the communication skills of preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in an early childhood special education (ECSE) classroom. A multiple baseline across participants design was used. Communication targets were…

  2. Is More Better? Milieu Communication Teaching in Toddlers with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fey, Marc E.; Yoder, Paul J.; Warren, Steven F.; Bredin-Oja, Shelley L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors sought to determine whether a program of 5 weekly doses of milieu communication teaching (MCT) would yield improvements in children's communication and word use compared with a once-weekly delivery of the same treatment. Method: Sixty-four children with intellectual and communication delay were randomly assigned to…

  3. Feeling “overloaded” and “shortcomings”: milieu therapists’ experiences of vulnerability in caring for severely mentally ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Liv; Michaelsen, Ragnhild A; Vatne, Solfrid

    2016-01-01

    Background Milieu therapists’ relationships with patients with severe mental illnesses are viewed as challenging. Elucidating vulnerability from their perspective in daily face-to-face encounters with patients might contribute to extending our knowledge about milieu therapists’ vulnerability and the dynamics of the interaction between patients in mental health services and expertise in building caring and therapeutic relationships. The aim of this project was to study educated milieu therapists’ experiences of their own vulnerability in their interactions with patients in mental health services. Materials and methods The data collection method was focus-group interviews. Thirteen part-time master’s in mental health students (eight nurses, three social workers, two social educators) participated. All participants had experience with community or specialized mental health services (2–8 years). Results The milieu therapists mainly related their experiences of vulnerability to negative feelings elicited by challenging work conditions, disclosed as two main themes: 1) “overloaded”, by the possibility of being physically and mentally hurt and the burdens of long-lasting close relationships; milieu therapists were extremely vulnerable because of their difficulty in protecting themselves; and 2) “shortcomings”, connected to feelings of despair associated with not acting in concordance with their professional standards and insecurity about their skills to handle challenging situations, which was a threat to their professional integrity. There seemed to be coherence between vulnerability and professional inauthenticity. A misunderstanding that professionalism refers to altruism seems to increase milieu therapist vulnerability. Conclusion Vulnerability in health care is of interest to multiple disciplines, and is of relevance for knowledge development in higher education. Extended knowledge and understanding about milieu therapists’ vulnerability might

  4. Social Milieu Oriented Routing: A New Dimension to Enhance Network Security in WSNs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lianggui; Chen, Li; Jia, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    In large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs), in order to enhance network security, it is crucial for a trustor node to perform social milieu oriented routing to a target a trustee node to carry out trust evaluation. This challenging social milieu oriented routing with more than one end-to-end Quality of Trust (QoT) constraint has proved to be NP-complete. Heuristic algorithms with polynomial and pseudo-polynomial-time complexities are often used to deal with this challenging problem. However, existing solutions cannot guarantee the efficiency of searching; that is, they can hardly avoid obtaining partial optimal solutions during a searching process. Quantum annealing (QA) uses delocalization and tunneling to avoid falling into local minima without sacrificing execution time. This has been proven a promising way to many optimization problems in recently published literatures. In this paper, for the first time, with the help of a novel approach, that is, configuration path-integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations, a QA-based optimal social trust path (QA_OSTP) selection algorithm is applied to the extraction of the optimal social trust path in large-scale WSNs. Extensive experiments have been conducted, and the experiment results demonstrate that QA_OSTP outperforms its heuristic opponents. PMID:26907277

  5. Social Milieu Oriented Routing: A New Dimension to Enhance Network Security in WSNs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lianggui; Chen, Li; Jia, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    In large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs), in order to enhance network security, it is crucial for a trustor node to perform social milieu oriented routing to a target a trustee node to carry out trust evaluation. This challenging social milieu oriented routing with more than one end-to-end Quality of Trust (QoT) constraint has proved to be NP-complete. Heuristic algorithms with polynomial and pseudo-polynomial-time complexities are often used to deal with this challenging problem. However, existing solutions cannot guarantee the efficiency of searching; that is, they can hardly avoid obtaining partial optimal solutions during a searching process. Quantum annealing (QA) uses delocalization and tunneling to avoid falling into local minima without sacrificing execution time. This has been proven a promising way to many optimization problems in recently published literatures. In this paper, for the first time, with the help of a novel approach, that is, configuration path-integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations, a QA-based optimal social trust path (QA_OSTP) selection algorithm is applied to the extraction of the optimal social trust path in large-scale WSNs. Extensive experiments have been conducted, and the experiment results demonstrate that QA_OSTP outperforms its heuristic opponents. PMID:26907277

  6. Theory of the milieu dependent isomerisation dynamics of reducing sugars applied to d-erythrose.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Martin; Mügge, Clemens; Kroh, Lothar W

    2015-12-11

    Quantitative (1)H selective saturation transfer NMR spectroscopy ((1)H SST qNMR) was used to fully describe the milieu dependent dynamics of the isomeric system of d-erythrose. Thermodynamic activation parameters are calculated for acidic as well as for basic catalysis combining McConnell's modified Bloch equations for the chemical exchange solved for the constraint of saturating the non-hydrated acyclic isomer, the Eyring equation and Hudson's equation for pH dependent catalysis. A detailed mathematical examination describing the milieu dependent dynamics of sugar isomerisation is provided. Thermodynamic data show evidence that photo-catalysed sugar isomerisation as well as degradation has to be considered. Approximations describing the pH and temperature dependence of thermodynamic activation parameters are derived that indicate the possibility of photo-affecting equilibrium constants. Moreover, the results show that isomerisation dynamics are closely related to degradation kinetics and that sugars' reactivities are altered by the concentration of acyclic carbonyl isomer and the sum of its ring closing rate constants. Additionally, it is concluded that sugar solutions show a limited self-stabilising behaviour. PMID:26580710

  7. A murine model of obesity implicates the adipokine milieu in the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zyromski, Nicholas J; Mathur, Abhishek; Pitt, Henry A; Lu, Debao; Gripe, John T; Walker, Julia J; Yancey, Kyle; Wade, Terence E; Swartz-Basile, Deborah A

    2008-09-01

    Obesity is clearly an independent risk factor for increased severity of acute pancreatitis (AP), although the mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. Adipokines (including leptin and adiponectin) are pleiotropic molecules produced by adipocytes that are important regulators of the inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the altered adipokine milieu observed in obesity contributes to the increased severity of pancreatitis. Lean (C57BL/6J), obese leptin-deficient (LepOb), and obese hyperleptinemic (LepDb) mice were subjected to AP by six hourly intraperitoneal injections of cerulein (50 microg/kg). Severity of AP was assessed by histology and by measuring pancreatic concentration of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-6, the chemokine MCP-1, and the marker of neutrophil activation MPO. Both congenitally obese strains of mice developed significantly more severe AP than wild-type lean animals. Severity of AP was not solely related to adipose tissue volume: LepOb mice were heaviest; however, LepDb mice developed the most severe AP both histologically and biochemically. Circulating adiponectin concentrations inversely mirrored the severity of pancreatitis. These data demonstrate that congenitally obese mice develop more severe AP than lean animals when challenged by cerulein hyperstimulation and suggest that alteration of the adipokine milieu exacerbates the severity of AP in obesity. PMID:18583460

  8. Robust microarray production of freshly expressed proteins in a human milieu

    PubMed Central

    Festa, Fernanda; Rollins, Sean M.; Vattem, Krishna; Hathaway, Margarita; Lorenz, Phillip; Mendoza, Eliseo Alejandro; Yu, Xiaobo; Qiu, Ji; Kilmer, Greg; Jensen, Penny; Webb, Brian; Ryan, Ed T.; LaBaer, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In vitro transcription/translation (IVTT) systems are widely used in proteomics. For clinical applications, mammalian systems are preferred for protein folding and activity; however, the level of protein obtained is low. A new system extracted from human cells (1-Step Human Coupled IVT) has the potential to overcome this problem and deliver high yields of protein expressed in a human milieu. Experimental design Western blots and self-assembled protein microarrays were used to test the efficiency of protein synthesis by 1-Step Human Coupled IVT (HCIVT) compared to rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL). The arrays were also used to measure the immune response obtained from serum of patients exposed to pathogens or vaccine. Results HCIVT performed better than RRL in all experiments. The yield of protein synthesized in HCIVT is more than 10 times higher than RRL, in both western blot and protein microarrays. Moreover, HCIVT showed a robust lot-to-lot reproducibility. In immune assays, the signals of many antigens were detected only in HCIVT-expressed arrays, mainly due to the reduction in the background signal and the increased levels of protein on the array. Conclusion and clinical relevance HCIVT is a robust IVTT system that yields high levels of protein produced in a human milieu. It can be used in applications where protein expression in a mammalian system and high yields are needed. The increased immunogenic response of HCIVT-expressed proteins will be critical for biomarker discovery in many diseases, including cancer. PMID:23027544

  9. The mare as a model for luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome: intrafollicular endocrine milieu.

    PubMed

    Bashir, S T; Gastal, M O; Tazawa, S P; Tarso, S G S; Hales, D B; Cuervo-Arango, J; Baerwald, A R; Gastal, E L

    2016-03-01

    Luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF) syndrome is a recurrent anovulatory dysfunction that affects up to 23% of women with normal menstrual cycles and up to 73% with endometriosis. Mechanisms underlying the development of LUF syndrome in mares were studied to provide a potential model for human anovulation. The effect of extended increase in circulating LH achieved by administration of recombinant equine LH (reLH) or a short surge of LH and decrease in progesterone induced by prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) on LUF formation (Experiment 1), identification of an optimal dose of COX-2 inhibitor (flunixin meglumine, FM; to block the effect of prostaglandins) for inducing LUFs (Experiment 2), and evaluation of intrafollicular endocrine milieu in LUFs (Experiment 3) were investigated. In Experiment 1, mares were treated with reLH from Day 7 to Day 15 (Day 0=ovulation), PGF2α on Day 7, or in combination. In Experiment 2, FM at doses of 2.0 or 3.0 mg/kg every 12 h and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (1500 IU) were administered after a follicle ≥32 mm was detected. In Experiment 3, FM at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg every 12 h plus hCG was used to induce LUFs and investigate the intrafollicular endocrine milieu. No LUFs were induced by reLH or PGF2α treatment; however, LUFs were induced in 100% of mares using FM. Intrafollicular PGF2α metabolite, PGF2α, and PGE2 were lower and the ratio of PGE2:PGF2α was higher in the induced LUF group. Higher levels of intrafollicular E2 and total primary sex steroids were observed in the induced LUF group along with a tendency for higher levels of GH, cortisol, and T; however, LH, PRL, VEGF-A, and NO did not differ between groups. In conclusion, this study reveals part of the intrafollicular endocrine milieu and the association of prostaglandins in LUF formation, and indicates that the mare might be an appropriate model for studying the poorly understood LUF syndrome. PMID:26647418

  10. Homeostasis, the milieu intérieur, and the wisdom of the nephron.

    PubMed

    Hoenig, Melanie P; Zeidel, Mark L

    2014-07-01

    The concept of homeostasis has been inextricably linked to the function of the kidneys for more than a century when it was recognized that the kidneys had the ability to maintain the "internal milieu" and allow organisms the "physiologic freedom" to move into varying environments and take in varying diets and fluids. Early ingenious, albeit rudimentary, experiments unlocked a wealth of secrets on the mechanisms involved in the formation of urine and renal handling of the gamut of electrolytes, as well as that of water, acid, and protein. Recent scientific advances have confirmed these prescient postulates such that the modern clinician is the beneficiary of a rich understanding of the nephron and the kidney's critical role in homeostasis down to the molecular level. This review summarizes those early achievements and provides a framework and introduction for the new CJASN series on renal physiology. PMID:24789550

  11. The Milieu Intérieur study - an integrative approach for study of human immunological variance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Stéphanie; Rouilly, Vincent; Patin, Etienne; Alanio, Cécile; Dubois, Annick; Delval, Cécile; Marquier, Louis-Guillaume; Fauchoux, Nicolas; Sayegrih, Seloua; Vray, Muriel; Duffy, Darragh; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Albert, Matthew L

    2015-04-01

    The Milieu Intérieur Consortium has established a 1000-person healthy population-based study (stratified according to sex and age), creating an unparalleled opportunity for assessing the determinants of human immunologic variance. Herein, we define the criteria utilized for participant enrollment, and highlight the key data that were collected for correlative studies. In this report, we analyzed biological correlates of sex, age, smoking-habits, metabolic score and CMV infection. We characterized and identified unique risk factors among healthy donors, as compared to studies that have focused on the general population or disease cohorts. Finally, we highlight sex-bias in the thresholds used for metabolic score determination and recommend a deeper examination of current guidelines. In sum, our clinical design, standardized sample collection strategies, and epidemiological data analyses have established the foundation for defining variability within human immune responses. PMID:25562703

  12. Neutrophils alter the inflammatory milieu by signal-dependent translation of constitutive messenger RNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemann, Stephan W.; Yost, Christian C.; Denis, Melvin M.; McIntyre, Thomas M.; Weyrich, Andrew S.; Zimmerman, Guy A.

    2004-05-01

    The mechanisms by which neutrophils, key effector cells of the innate immune system, express new gene products in inflammation are largely uncharacterized. We found that they rapidly translate constitutive mRNAs when activated, a previously unrecognized response. One of the proteins synthesized without a requirement for transcription is the soluble IL-6 receptor , which translocates to endothelial cells and induces a temporal switch to mononuclear leukocyte recruitment. Its synthesis is regulated by a specialized translational control pathway that is inhibited by rapamycin, a bacterial macrolide with therapeutic efficacy in transplantation, inflammatory syndromes, and neoplasia. Signal-dependent translation in activated neutrophils may be a critical mechanism for alteration of the inflammatory milieu and a therapeutic target.

  13. A pipeline for determining protein-protein interactions and proximities in the cellular milieu.

    PubMed

    Subbotin, Roman I; Chait, Brian T

    2014-11-01

    It remains extraordinarily challenging to elucidate endogenous protein-protein interactions and proximities within the cellular milieu. The dynamic nature and the large range of affinities of these interactions augment the difficulty of this undertaking. Among the most useful tools for extracting such information are those based on affinity capture of target bait proteins in combination with mass spectrometric readout of the co-isolated species. Although highly enabling, the utility of affinity-based methods is generally limited by difficulties in distinguishing specific from nonspecific interactors, preserving and isolating all unique interactions including those that are weak, transient, or rapidly exchanging, and differentiating proximal interactions from those that are more distal. Here, we have devised and optimized a set of methods to address these challenges. The resulting pipeline involves flash-freezing cells in liquid nitrogen to preserve the cellular environment at the moment of freezing; cryomilling to fracture the frozen cells into intact micron chunks to allow for rapid access of a chemical reagent and to stabilize the intact endogenous subcellular assemblies and interactors upon thawing; and utilizing the high reactivity of glutaraldehyde to achieve sufficiently rapid stabilization at low temperatures to preserve native cellular interactions. In the course of this work, we determined that relatively low molar ratios of glutaraldehyde to reactive amines within the cellular milieu were sufficient to preserve even labile and transient interactions. This mild treatment enables efficient and rapid affinity capture of the protein assemblies of interest under nondenaturing conditions, followed by bottom-up MS to identify and quantify the protein constituents. For convenience, we have termed this approach Stabilized Affinity Capture Mass Spectrometry. Here, we demonstrate that Stabilized Affinity Capture Mass Spectrometry allows us to stabilize and elucidate

  14. Effects of a Modified Milieu Therapy Intervention on the Social Communicative Behaviors of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancil, G. Richmond; Conroy, Maureen A.; Haydon, Todd F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of combining milieu therapy and functional communication training (FCT) to replace aberrant behavior with functional communicative skills in 3 male preschool or elementary aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Study activities were conducted in the natural…

  15. Non-targeted metabolomic evaluation of the uterine milieu during the transitional period of embryo elongation in the pig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alterations in the signaling of critical molecular factors within the uterine milieu lead to deficiencies in embryo elongation. The objective of this study was to identify metabolites within the uterine environment that are present as porcine embryos transition between spherical, ovoid, and tubular ...

  16. Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Contribute to APOL1-induced Podocyte Injury in HIV milieu

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Xiqian; Wen, Hongxiu; Saleem, Moin A.; Mikulak, Joanna; Malhotra, Ashwani; Skorecki, Karl; Singhal, Pravin C

    2015-01-01

    Clinical reports have demonstrated that higher rates of non-diabetic glomerulosclerosis in African Americans can be attributed to two coding sequence variants (G1 and G2) in the APOL1 gene; however, the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Kidney biopsy data suggest enhanced expression of APOL1/APOL1 variants (Vs) in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of renal vasculature. Since APOL1 is a secretory protein of relatively low molecular weight (41 kDa), SMCs may be a contributory endocrine/paracrine source of APOL1 wild type (WT)/APOL1Vs in the glomerular capillary perfusate percolating podocytes. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that an HIV milieu stimulated secretion of APOL1 and its risk variants by arterial SMCs contributes to podocyte injury. Human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HSMCs)-treated with conditioned media (CM) of HIV-infected peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC/HIV-CM), CM of HIV-infected U939 cells, or recombinant IFN-γ displayed enhanced expression of APOL1. Podocytes co-cultured in trans-wells with HSMCs-over expressing APOL1WT showed induction of injury; however, podocytes co-cultured with HSMC-over expressing either APOL1G1 or APOL1G2 showed several fold greater injury when compared to HSMC- over expressing APOL1WT. Conditioned media collected from HSMC-over-expressing APOL1G1/APOL1G2 (HSMC/APOL1G1-CM or HSMC/APOL1G2-CM) also displayed higher percentages of injured podocytes in the form of swollen cells, leaky lysosomes, loss of viability, and enhanced sensitivity to adverse host factors when compared to HSMC/APOL1WT-CM. Notably, HSMC/APOL1WT-CM promoted podocyte injury only at a significantly higher concentrations compared to HSMC/APOL1G1/G2-CM. We conclude that HSMCs could serve as an endocrine/paracrine source of APOL1Vs, which mediate accelerated podocyte injury in HIV milieu. PMID:25796344

  17. The Response of Human Macrophages to β-Glucans Depends on the Inflammatory Milieu

    PubMed Central

    Montero, Olimpio; Hugo, Etzel; Rodríguez, Mario; Domingo, Esther; Alonso, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Background β-glucans are fungal cell wall components that bind to the C-type lectin-like receptor dectin-1. Polymorphisms of dectin-1 gene are associated with susceptibility to invasive fungal infection and medically refractory ulcerative colitis. The purpose of this study has been addressing the response of human macrophages to β-glucans under different conditions mimicking the composition of the inflammatory milieu in view of the wide plasticity and large range of phenotypical changes showed by these cells, and the relevant role of dectin-1 in several pathophysiological conditions. Principal Findings Serum-differentiated macrophages stimulated with β-glucans showed a low production of TNFα and IL-1β, a high production of IL-6 and IL-23, and a delayed induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and PGE2 biosynthesis that resembled the responses elicited by crystals and those produced when phagosomal degradation of the phagocytic cargo increases ligand access to intracellular pattern recognition receptors. Priming with a low concentration of LPS produced a rapid induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and a synergistic release of PGE2. When the differentiation of the macrophages was carried out in the presence of M-CSF, an increased expression of dectin-1 B isoform was observed. In addition, this treatment made the cells capable to release arachidonic acid in response to β-glucan. Conclusions These results indicate that the macrophage response to fungal β-glucans is strongly influenced by cytokines and microbial-derived factors that are usual components of the inflammatory milieu. These responses can be sorted into three main patterns i) an elementary response dependent on phagosomal processing of pathogen-associated molecular patterns and/or receptor-independent, direct membrane binding linked to the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-bearing transmembrane adaptor DNAX-activating protein 12, ii) a response primed by TLR4-dependent signals, and iii) a response dependent

  18. Protein unfolding in crowded milieu: what crowding can do to a protein undergoing unfolding?

    PubMed

    Stepanenko, Olga V; Povarova, Olga I; Sulatskaya, Anna I; Ferreira, Luisa A; Zaslavsky, Boris Y; Kuznetsova, Irina M; Turoverov, Konstantin K; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-10-01

    The natural environment of a protein inside a cell is characterized by the almost complete lack of unoccupied space, limited amount of free water, and the tightly packed crowd of various biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, and complexes thereof. This extremely crowded natural milieu is poorly mimicked by slightly salted aqueous solutions containing low concentrations of a protein of interest. The accepted practice is to model crowded environments by adding high concentrations of various polymers that serve as model "crowding agents" to the solution of a protein of interest. Although studies performed under these model conditions revealed that macromolecular crowding might have noticeable influence on various aspects related to the protein structure, function, folding, conformational stability, and aggregation propensity, the complete picture describing conformational behavior of a protein under these conditions is missing as of yet. Furthermore, there is an accepted belief that the conformational stability of globular proteins increases in the presence crowding agents due to the excluded volume effects. The goal of this study was to conduct a systematic analysis of the effect of high concentrations of PEG-8000 and Dextran-70 on the unfolding behavior of eleven globular proteins belonging to different structural classes. PMID:26474212

  19. Is More Better? Milieu Communication Teaching in Toddlers With Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Fey, Marc E.; Yoder, Paul J.; Warren, Steven F.; Bredin-Oja, Shelley L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The authors sought to determine whether a program of 5 weekly doses of milieu communication teaching (MCT) would yield improvements in children’s communication and word use compared with a once-weekly delivery of the same treatment. Method Sixty-four children with intellectual and communication delay were randomly assigned to receive 60-min sessions of MCT either 1 time or 5 times per week over a 9-month treatment. Growth curves were fit to data collected at 5 points before, during, and after the MCT was delivered. Results With groups collapsed, significant growth across the experimental period was observed on all measures, but this was not associated unconditionally with treatment intensity. Children who played with 9 or more objects during a standard play assessment, an empirically identified cut-point, benefitted more from the high- than from the low-intensity treatment on lexical measures (Hedges’s g range = .49 to .65). Conclusions More MCT is not always better for all children. Clinicians can expect that increasing the frequency of MCT sessions will yield moderate enhancement of outcomes if the child has high interest in objects. PMID:23275404

  20. Parent-Implemented Enhanced Milieu Teaching with Preschool Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Ann P.; Roberts, Megan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Enhanced Milieu Teaching (EMT) implemented by parents and therapists versus therapists only on the language skills of preschool children with intellectual disabilities (ID), including children with Down syndrome and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method Seventy-seven children were randomly assigned to two treatments (parent + therapist EMT or therapist only EMT) and received 36 intervention sessions. Children were assessed before, immediately after, 6 months after, and 12 months after intervention. Separate linear regressions were conducted for each standardized and observational measure at each time point. Results Parents in the parent + therapist group demonstrated greater use of EMT strategies at home than untrained parents in the therapist only group and these effects maintained over time. Effect sizes for observational measures ranged from d = .10 to d = 1.32 favoring the parent + therapist group, with the largest effect sizes found 12 months after intervention. Conclusion Findings from this study indicate generally that there are benefits to training parents to implement naturalistic language intervention strategies with preschool children who have ID and significant language impairments. PMID:22744141

  1. Peri-Implantation Hormonal Milieu: Elucidating Mechanisms of Abnormal Placentation and Fetal Growth1

    PubMed Central

    Mainigi, Monica A.; Olalere, Devvora; Burd, Irina; Sapienza, Carmen; Bartolomei, Marisa; Coutifaris, Christos

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have been associated with several adverse perinatal outcomes involving placentation and fetal growth. It is critical to examine each intervention individually in order to assess its relationship to the described adverse perinatal outcomes. One intervention ubiquitously used in ART is superovulation with gonadotropins. Superovulation results in significant changes in the hormonal milieu, which persist during the peri-implantation and early placentation periods. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that the treatment-induced peri-implantation maternal environment plays a critical role in perinatal outcomes. In this study, using the mouse model, we have isolated the exposure to the peri-implantation period, and we examine the effect of superovulation on placentation and fetal growth. We report that the nonphysiologic peri-implantation maternal hormonal environment resulting from gonadotropin stimulation appears to have a direct effect on fetal growth, trophoblast differentiation, and gene expression. This appears to be mediated, at least in part, through trophoblast expansion and invasion. Although the specific molecular and cellular mechanism(s) leading to these observations remain to be elucidated, identifying this modifiable risk factor will not only allow us to improve perinatal outcomes with ART, but help us understand the pathophysiology contributing to these outcomes. PMID:24352558

  2. Self-assembled hydrogel fibers for sensing the multi-compartment intracellular milieu

    PubMed Central

    Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Kohler, Jonathan E.; Blass, Amy; Williams, Miguel; Xu, Chenjie; Chen, Lynna; Jadhav, Swapnil R.; John, George; Soybel, David I.; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Targeted delivery of drugs and sensors into cells is an attractive technology with both medical and scientific applications. Existing delivery vehicles are generally limited by the complexity of their design, dependence on active transport, and inability to function within cellular compartments. Here, we developed self-assembled nanofibrous hydrogel fibers using a biologically inert, low-molecular-weight amphiphile. Self-assembled nanofibrous hydrogels offer unique physical/mechanical properties and can easily be loaded with a diverse range of payloads. Unlike commercially available E. coli membrane particles covalently bound to the pH reporting dye pHrodo, pHrodo encapsulated in self-assembled hydrogel-fibers internalizes into macrophages at both physiologic (37°C) and sub-physiologic (4°C) temperatures through an energy-independent, passive process. Unlike dye alone or pHrodo complexed to E. coli, pHrodo-SAFs report pH in both the cytoplasm and phagosomes, as well the nucleus. This new class of materials should be useful for next-generation sensing of the intracellular milieu. PMID:24667734

  3. ΔPK oncolytic activity includes modulation of the tumour cell milieu.

    PubMed

    Bollino, Dominique; Colunga, Aric; Li, Baiquan; Aurelian, Laure

    2016-02-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a unique cancer therapeutic that encompasses tumour cell lysis through both virus replication and programmed cell death (PCD) pathways. Nonetheless, clinical efficacy is relatively modest, likely related to the immunosuppressive tumour milieu. Our studies use the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)-based oncolytic virus ΔPK that has documented anti-tumour activity associated with virus replication, PCD and cancer stem cell lysis. They are designed to examine whether ΔPK-mediated oncolysis includes the ability to reverse the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment by altering the balance of cytokines directly secreted by the melanoma cells and to define its mechanism. Here, we show that melanoma cells secreted the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, and that secretion was inhibited by ΔPK through virus replication and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/c-Jun activation. ΔPK-induced IL-10 inhibition upregulated surface expression of MHC class I chain-related protein A, the ligand for the activating NKG2D receptor expressed on NK- and cytotoxic T-cells. Concomitantly, ΔPK also upregulated the secretion of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-1β through autophagy-mediated activation of Toll-like receptor 2 pathways and pyroptosis, and it inhibited the expression of the negative immune checkpoint regulator cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4. Pharmacologic inhibition of these processes significantly reduces the oncolytic activity of ΔPK. PMID:26602205

  4. Culturally diverse Malayan milieu: experiences and perceptions of RAANC nurses 1955-1960.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Margaret

    2007-07-01

    The war exploits of Australian Army nurses have been represented in a number of literary sources, but there is a paucity of data about the nurses who served in the Malayan Emergency (1948-1960). Using descriptive interpretive historiography, with a central focus on oral testimony, this paper aims to highlight the culturally rich and diverse environment of Malaya in the 1950s. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four women from the Royal Australian Army Nursing Corps to expose their experiences and perceptions of the Malayan environment and its people. The information provided by these nurses was subjected to manual thematic analysis resulting in the emergence of a number of themes. One prominent theme, Malaya's cultural diversity, was chosen for this paper because it contained an abundant source of new and rich data. To protect the identities of the informants pseudonyms were used in the presentation of the oral narratives. This approach led to revelations about how Australian women, with limited knowledge or exposure to other cultural groups, engaged in work and leisure time pursuits in Malaya's exotic cultural milieu. PMID:18074769

  5. Exercise training can attenuate the inflammatory milieu in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Perandini, Luiz A; Sales-de-Oliveira, Diego; Mello, Suzana B V; Camara, Niels O; Benatti, Fabiana B; Lima, Fernanda R; Borba, Eduardo; Bonfa, Eloisa; Sá-Pinto, Ana L; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno

    2014-09-15

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation. This study sought to assess the effects of an exercise training program on cytokines and soluble TNF receptors (sTNFRs) in response to acute exercise in SLE women. Eight SLE women and 10 sex-, age-, and body mass index-comparable healthy controls (HC) participated in this study. Before and after a 12-wk aerobic exercise training program, cytokines and sTNFRs were assessed at rest and in response to single bouts of acute moderate/intense exercise. HC performed the acute exercise bouts only at baseline. After the exercise training program, there was a decrease in resting TNFR2 levels (P = 0.025) and a tend to reduction interleukin (IL)-10 levels (P = 0.093) in SLE. The resting levels of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α after the exercise training in SLE reached HC levels (P > 0.05). In response to a single bout of acute moderate exercise, the area under the curve (AUC) of IL-10 was significantly reduced after the exercise training program in SLE (P = 0.043), and the AUC of IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α, and sTNFR1 of SLE approached control values (P > 0.05). In response to a single bout of acute intense exercise, the AUC of IL-10 was significantly reduced in SLE (P = 0.015). Furthermore, the AUC of sTNFR2 tended to decrease after exercise training program in SLE (P = 0.084), but it did not reach control values (P = 0.001). An aerobic exercise training program attenuated the inflammatory milieu in SLE women, revealing a novel homeostatic immunomodulatory role of exercise in an autoimmunity condition. PMID:25038103

  6. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes of Trichinella spiralis Larvae after Exposure to Host Intestine Milieu

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hui Jun; Cui, Jing; Yang, Wei; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan

    2013-01-01

    Although it has been known for many years that T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) can not invade intestinal epithelial cells unless they are exposed to the intestinal milieu and activated into intestinal infective larvae (IIL), which genes in IIL are involved in the process of invasion is still unknown. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed to identify differentially expressed genes between IIL and ML. SSH library was constructed using cDNA generated from IIL as the ‘tester’. About 110 positive clones were randomly selected from the library and sequenced, of which 33 T. spiralis genes were identified. Thirty encoded proteins were annotated according to Gene Ontology Annotation in terms of molecular function, biological process, and cellular localization. Out of 30 annotated proteins, 16 proteins (53.3%) had binding activity and 12 proteins (40.0%) had catalytic activity. The results of real-time PCR showed that the expression of nine genes (Ts7, Ndr family protein; Ts8, serine/threonine-protein kinase polo; Ts11, proteasome subunit beta type-7; Ts17, nudix hydrolase; Ts19, ovochymase-1; Ts22, fibronectin type III domain protein; Ts23, muscle cell intermediate filament protein OV71; Ts26, neutral and basic amino acid transport protein rBAT and Ts33, FACT complex subunit SPT16) from 33 T. spiralis genes in IIL were up-regulated compared with that of ML. The present study provide a group of the potential invasion-related candidate genes and will be helpful for further studies of mechanisms by which T. spiralis infective larvae recognize and invade the intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:23840742

  7. Does HIV Exploit the Inflammatory Milieu of the Male Genital Tract for Successful Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Esra, Rachel T.; Olivier, Abraham J.; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Jaspan, Heather B.; Harryparsad, Rushil; Gray, Clive M.

    2016-01-01

    In many parts of the World, medical male circumcision (MMC) is used as standard prevention of care against HIV infection. This is based on seminal reports made over 10 years ago that removal of the foreskin provides up to 60% protection against HIV infection in males and seems currently the best antiretroviral-free prevention strategy yet against the global epidemic. We explore the potential mechanisms by which MMC protects against HIV-1 acquisition and that one of the oldest, albeit re-invented, rituals of removing a foreskin underscores the exploitative nature of HIV on the anatomy and tissue of the uncircumcised penis. Furthermore, foreskin removal also reveals how males acquire HIV, and in reality, the underlying mechanisms of MMC are not known. We argue that the normal sequelae of inflammation in the male genital tract (MGT) for protection from sexually transmitted infections (STI)-induced pathology represents a perfect immune and microbial ecosystem for HIV acquisition. The accumulation of HIV-1 target cells in foreskin tissue and within the urethra in response to STIs, both during and after resolution of infection, suggests that acquisition of HIV-1, through sexual contact, makes use of the natural immune milieu of the MGT. Understanding immunity in the MGT, the movement of HIV-1 target cells to the urethra and foreskin tissue upon encounter with microbial signals would provide more insight into viral acquisition and lay the foundation for further prevention strategies in males that would be critical to curb the epidemic in all sexual partners at risk of infection. The global female-centric focus of HIV-1 transmission and acquisition research has tended to leave gaps in our knowledge of what determines HIV-1 acquisition in men and such understanding would provide a more balanced and complete view of viral acquisition.

  8. Rocky milieu: Challenges of effective integration of clinical risk management into hospitals in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farokhzadian, Jamileh; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Borhani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare risks and clinical risks have been recognized as a major challenge in healthcare. Clinical risks can never be eliminated and can have serious adverse effects on patient safety. Thus, a clinical risk management (CRM) system has been introduced in the healthcare system to improve quality services. The aim of this study was to explore nurses’ experiences related to the challenges of implementing CRM in the organizational context. This qualitative study was based on the conventional content analysis of the Lundman and Graneheim approach, and it consisted of 22 interview sessions with 20 nurses. The purposive sampling method was used to choose the participants from three hospitals affiliated with the Kerman University of Medical Sciences. We used semi-structured interviews and review of relevant documents to collect data. The analysis of the data led to the emergence of “rocky milieu” as the main theme, and it consisted of three categories that, along with their subcategories, explain the challenges of implementing CRM. The three categories and their subcategories were (1) organizational culture and leadership challenges (decision and performance of leadership and cultural resistance to change), (2) limitation of resources (financial, human, and physical and equipment resources), and (3) variations and complexities in working conditions (the emotional, psychological, and social atmosphere and the heaviness of workload). Attempts have been made to establish CRM through clinical governance and accreditation, but organizational challenges have created a rocky milieu for implementing CRM. However, from an organizational context concerning the suitability of healthcare in Iran, there are obvious needs to move toward quality improvement and safe practices through the effective implementation of CRM. PMID:25968444

  9. Pituitary Adenlylate Cyclase Activating Peptide Protects Adult Neural Stem Cells from a Hypoglycaemic milieu.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Shiva; Lietzau, Grazyna; Lundberg, Mathias; Nathanson, David; Nyström, Thomas; Patrone, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Hypoglycaemia is a common side-effect of glucose-lowering therapies for type-2 diabetic patients, which may cause cognitive/neurological impairment. Although the effects of hypoglycaemia in the brain have been extensively studied in neurons, how hypoglycaemia impacts the viability of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) has been poorly investigated. In addition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of how hypoglycaemia regulates NSCs survival have not been characterized. Recent work others and us have shown that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist Exendin-4 stimulate NSCs survival against glucolipoapoptosis. The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro system where to study the effects of hypoglycaemia on NSC survival. Furthermore, we determine the potential role of PACAP and Exendin-4 in counteracting the effect of hypoglycaemia. A hypoglycaemic in vitro milieu was mimicked by exposing subventricular zone-derived NSC to low levels of glucose. Moreover, we studied the potential involvement of apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress by quantifying protein levels of Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and mRNA levels of CHOP. We show that PACAP via PAC-1 receptor and PKA activation counteracts impaired NSC viability induced by hypoglycaemia. The protective effect induced by PACAP correlated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, Exendin-4 was ineffective. The results show that hypoglycaemia decreases NSC viability and that this effect can be substantially counteracted by PACAP via PAC-1 receptor activation. The data supports a potential therapeutic role of PAC-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of neurological complications, based on neurogenesis impairment by hypoglycaemia. PMID:27305000

  10. Does HIV Exploit the Inflammatory Milieu of the Male Genital Tract for Successful Infection?

    PubMed

    Esra, Rachel T; Olivier, Abraham J; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Jaspan, Heather B; Harryparsad, Rushil; Gray, Clive M

    2016-01-01

    In many parts of the World, medical male circumcision (MMC) is used as standard prevention of care against HIV infection. This is based on seminal reports made over 10 years ago that removal of the foreskin provides up to 60% protection against HIV infection in males and seems currently the best antiretroviral-free prevention strategy yet against the global epidemic. We explore the potential mechanisms by which MMC protects against HIV-1 acquisition and that one of the oldest, albeit re-invented, rituals of removing a foreskin underscores the exploitative nature of HIV on the anatomy and tissue of the uncircumcised penis. Furthermore, foreskin removal also reveals how males acquire HIV, and in reality, the underlying mechanisms of MMC are not known. We argue that the normal sequelae of inflammation in the male genital tract (MGT) for protection from sexually transmitted infections (STI)-induced pathology represents a perfect immune and microbial ecosystem for HIV acquisition. The accumulation of HIV-1 target cells in foreskin tissue and within the urethra in response to STIs, both during and after resolution of infection, suggests that acquisition of HIV-1, through sexual contact, makes use of the natural immune milieu of the MGT. Understanding immunity in the MGT, the movement of HIV-1 target cells to the urethra and foreskin tissue upon encounter with microbial signals would provide more insight into viral acquisition and lay the foundation for further prevention strategies in males that would be critical to curb the epidemic in all sexual partners at risk of infection. The global female-centric focus of HIV-1 transmission and acquisition research has tended to leave gaps in our knowledge of what determines HIV-1 acquisition in men and such understanding would provide a more balanced and complete view of viral acquisition. PMID:27446076

  11. Pituitary Adenlylate Cyclase Activating Peptide Protects Adult Neural Stem Cells from a Hypoglycaemic milieu

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Shiva; Lietzau, Grazyna; Lundberg, Mathias; Nathanson, David; Nyström, Thomas; Patrone, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Hypoglycaemia is a common side-effect of glucose-lowering therapies for type-2 diabetic patients, which may cause cognitive/neurological impairment. Although the effects of hypoglycaemia in the brain have been extensively studied in neurons, how hypoglycaemia impacts the viability of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) has been poorly investigated. In addition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of how hypoglycaemia regulates NSCs survival have not been characterized. Recent work others and us have shown that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist Exendin-4 stimulate NSCs survival against glucolipoapoptosis. The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro system where to study the effects of hypoglycaemia on NSC survival. Furthermore, we determine the potential role of PACAP and Exendin-4 in counteracting the effect of hypoglycaemia. A hypoglycaemic in vitro milieu was mimicked by exposing subventricular zone-derived NSC to low levels of glucose. Moreover, we studied the potential involvement of apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress by quantifying protein levels of Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and mRNA levels of CHOP. We show that PACAP via PAC-1 receptor and PKA activation counteracts impaired NSC viability induced by hypoglycaemia. The protective effect induced by PACAP correlated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, Exendin-4 was ineffective. The results show that hypoglycaemia decreases NSC viability and that this effect can be substantially counteracted by PACAP via PAC-1 receptor activation. The data supports a potential therapeutic role of PAC-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of neurological complications, based on neurogenesis impairment by hypoglycaemia. PMID:27305000

  12. Release of hydrogen peroxide and antioxidants by the coral Stylophora pistillata to its external milieu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armoza-Zvuloni, R.; Shaked, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a common reactive oxygen species, plays multiple roles in coral health and disease. Elevated H2O2 production by the symbiotic algae during stress may result in symbiosis breakdown and bleaching of the coral. We have recently reported that various Red Sea corals release H2O2 and antioxidants to their external milieu, and can influence the H2O2 dynamics in the reef. Here, we present a laboratory characterization of H2O2 and antioxidant activity release kinetics by intact, non-stressed Stylophora pistillata. Experimenting with bleached and non-bleached corals and different stirring speeds, we explored the sources and modes of H2O2 and antioxidant release. Since H2O2 is produced and degraded simultaneously, we developed a methodology for resolving the actual H2O2 concentrations released by the corals. H2O2 and antioxidant activity steadily increased in the water surrounding the coral over short periods of 1-2 h. Over longer periods of 5-7 h, the antioxidant activity kept increasing with time, while H2O2 concentrations were stabilized at ~ 1 μM by 1-3 h, and then gradually declined. Solving for H2O2 release, corals were found to release H2O2 at increasing rates over 2-4 h, and then to slow down and stop by 5-7 h. Stirring was shown to induce the release of H2O2, possibly since the flow reduces the thickness of the diffusive boundary layer of the coral, and thus increases H2O2 mass flux. Antioxidant activity was released at similar rates by bleached and non-bleached corals, suggesting that the antioxidants did not originate from the symbiotic algae. H2O2, however, was not released from bleached corals, implying that the symbiotic algae are the source of the released H2O2. The observed flow-induced H2O2 release may aid corals in removing some of the internal H2O2 produced by their symbiotic algae, and may possibly assist in preventing coral bleaching under conditions of elevated temperature and irradiance.

  13. Release of hydrogen peroxide and antioxidant by the coral Stylophora pistillata to its external milieu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armoza-Zvuloni, R.; Shaked, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a common reactive oxygen species, plays multiple roles in coral health and disease. Elevated H2O2 production by the symbiotic algae during stress may result in symbiosis breakdown and bleaching of the coral. We have recently reported that various Red Sea corals release H2O2 and antioxidants to their external milieu and can influence the H2O2 dynamics in the reef. Here we present laboratory characterization of H2O2 and antioxidant activity release kinetics by intact, non-stressed Stylophora pistillata. Experimenting with bleached and non-bleached corals and different stirring speeds, we explored the sources and modes of H2O2 and antioxidant release. Since H2O2 is produced and degraded simultaneously, we developed methodology for resolving the actual rates of H2O2 release by the corals. H2O2 and antioxidant activity linearly increased in the water surrounding the coral over short periods of 1-2 h. Over longer periods of 5-7 h, the antioxidant activity kept increasing with time, while H2O2 concentrations were stabilized at ~ 1 μM by 2-3 h, and then gradually declined. Solving for H2O2 release, corals were found to release H2O2 at increasing rates over 2-4 h, and then slow down and stop by 5-7 h. Stirring was shown to induce the release of both H2O2 and antioxidant activity, possibly due to ventilation of the coral by the flow. Antioxidant activity was released at similar rates by bleached and non-bleached corals, suggesting that the antioxidant did not originate from the symbiotic algae. H2O2, however, was only minimally released from bleached corals, implying that the symbiotic algae are the source of the released H2O2. The observed flow-induced H2O2 release may aid corals in removing some of the internal H2O2 produced by their symbiotic algae and possibly assist in preventing coral bleaching under conditions of elevated temperature and irradiance.

  14. Les valvulopathies cardiaques en milieu hospitalier à Lomé (Togo)

    PubMed Central

    Balaka, Abago; Tchamdja, Toyi; Djibril, Mohaman Awalou; Djagadou, Kodjo Agbéko; Tchandana, Makilioubè; Damorou, Findibé; Agbétra, Aïssah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Notre étude a consisté en l'identification les principales valvulopathies retrouvées en milieu hospitalier à Lomé (Togo). Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective, transversale, multicentrique menée du 1er janvier 2006 au 31 décembre 2010 et portant sur les dossiers de patients suivis dans le service de cardiologie du CHU Campus de Lomé. Résultats Du 1er janvier 2006 au 31 Décembre 2010,5412 patients ont été consulté dans le service de cardiologie du CHU Campus. Parmi eux, 241 (4,45%) présentaient une valvulopathie. On notait une prédominance féminine avec un sex-ratio H/F à 0,60. La moyenne d’âge était de 62,32 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 16 à 89 ans et un écart type de 14,27. Les antécédents le plus souvent retrouvés étaient l'hypertension artérielle (26,97%) et le diabète (8,29%). Parmi les motifs de consultations, les plus fréquents étaient la dyspnée (39,00%), les précordialgies (32,78%) et les palpitations (21,16%). A l'examen physique 30,70% des patients présentaient des signes de d'insuffisance cardiaque. A l’échographie, on notait des atteintes d'une seule valve (77,17%), de 02 valves (17,42%) ou 03 valves (5,4%). L'insuffisance mitrale (56,84%) et l'insuffisance aortique (30,70%) ont été les valvulopathies les plus fréquemment retrouvées. La maladie mitrale a été notée chez 05 patients. Les principales étiologies étaient dégénératives et ischémiques. Conclusion Les valvulopathies sont relativement fréquentes à Lomé. L'insuffisance cardiaque est leur principal mode de révélation. Les plus retrouvées sont l'insuffisance mitrale et aortique. PMID:26113911

  15. Smart reticulated hydrogel of functionally decorated gellan copolymer for prolonged delivery of salbutamol sulphate to the gastro-luminal milieu.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Sabyasachi; Ghosh, Sudipa; Mondol, Ranjit; Ray, Somasree; Sa, Biswanath

    2012-01-01

    A partially hydrolysed poly(acrylamide)-grafted-gellan (HPAmGG) copolymer was synthesised and characterised. Temperature- and concentration-dependent rheology and gel-like property of Gelrite gellan (GG) disappeared in HPAmGG copolymer. Smart HPAmGG hydrogel was fabricated with variation in aluminium chloride (AlCl(3)) strength and initial drug loading. The hydrogel reticulates seemed spherical and showed a maximum of ∼65% drug retention, but the assay was ∼22% lower for GG hydrogel. The drug release rate was inversely proportional to AlCl(3) strength in simulated intestinal milieu (pH 7.4), but approximated a proportional relationship with drug load. HPAmGG hydrogel liberated only 10-17% content in simulated gastric milieu (pH 1.2) in 2 h. The release data correlated well with the pH-dependent swelling of hydrogel and indicated the anomalous drug diffusion mechanism. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the amorphous nature of the drug and its stability in fresh and aged hydrogel. Hence, smart HPAmGG hydrogel had the potential to prolong drug release mimicking the variable pH of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:22594768

  16. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  17. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, J. Matthew; Titiz, Ali S.; Hernan, Amanda E.; Scott, Rod C.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  18. Soteria Berne: an innovative milieu therapeutic approach to acute schizophrenia based on the concept of affect-logic

    PubMed Central

    Ciompi, Luc; Hoffmann, Holger

    2004-01-01

    The name "Soteria" stands for an alternative low-drug milieu-therapeutic approach to acute schizophrenia that was first implemented by Mosher and Menn in San Francisco, and since 1984 further developed by Ciompi and co-workers in Berne, on the basis of their concept of affect-logic, that emphasizes the often neglected influence of emotional factors in schizophrenia. In both settings, equal and even partly better therapeutic results, compared with traditional methods, were obtained with much lower doses of antipsychotics and comparable daily costs. Basic concepts, practical proceedings and empirical findings of Soteria Berne are reported, and their theoretical and practical implications for mainstream psychiatry are discussed. They support the hypothesis of a crucial pathogenetic and therapeutic-preventive role played by emotional factors not only in the so-called affective psychoses, but also in schizophrenia. PMID:16633478

  19. Role of Family Milieu in Tobacco Addiction: A Study in a Tertiary-care Institution in India

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Shridhar; Singh, Nishant; Aggarwal, Sourabh; Sharma, Vishal

    2013-01-01

    Use of tobacco is singularly responsible for most cases of cancer and coronary artery disease (CAD). Efforts to stop tobacco-use need to be guided by social circumstances. It is believed that family milieu may play a role in tobacco addiction. We studied the prevalence and pattern of tobacco-use in families of 50 consecutive tobacco-user patients who presented to a tobacco-cessation clinic and compared with age- and gender-matched controls (non-users of tobacco). The tobacco-use rates were significantly higher in the family of patients with tobacco-use compared to the control group. We conclude that problems of tobacco-use are not related to individual phenomenon, and efforts for control of tobacco addiction must be focused on entire family. PMID:23617213

  20. Ionic milieu controls the compartment-specific activation of pro-opiomelanocortin processing in AtT-20 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, W K; Moore, H P

    1995-01-01

    Newly synthesized prohormones and their processing enzymes transit through the same compartments before being packaged into regulated secretory granules. Despite this coordinated intracellular transport, prohormone processing does not occur until late in the secretory pathway. In the mouse pituitary AtT-20 cell line, conversion of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) to mature adrenocorticotropic hormone involves the prohormone convertase PC1. The mechanism by which this proteolytic processing is restricted to late secretory compartments is unknown; PC1 activity could be regulated by compartment-specific activators/inhibitors, or through changes in the ionic milieu that influence its activity. By arresting transport in a semi-intact cell system, we have addressed whether metabolically labeled POMC trapped in early secretory compartments can be induced to undergo conversion if the ionic milieu in these compartments is experimentally manipulated. Prolonged incubation of labeled POMC trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi/trans-Golgi network did not result in processing, thereby supporting the theory that processing is normally a post-Golgi/trans-Golgi network event. However, acidification of these compartments allowed effective processing of POMC to the intermediate and mature forms. The observed processing increased sharply at a pH below 6.0 and required millimolar calcium, regardless of the compartment in which labeled POMC resided. These conditions also resulted in the coordinate conversion of PC1 from the 84/87 kDa into the 74-kDa and 66-kDa forms. We propose that POMC processing is predominantly restricted to acidifying secretory granules, and that a change in pH within these granules is both necessary and sufficient to activate POMC processing. Images PMID:8573786

  1. A Comparison of High and Low Dosages of a Component of Milieu Teaching Strategies for Two Preschool-Age Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julien, Hannah M.; Reichle, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The intersection of treatment intensity and communication intervention is an emerging area of investigation. Milieu teaching (MT) approaches for teaching communication skills to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a substantial evidence base (see Goldstein, 2002). However, a relatively small percentage (37.8%) of MT studies…

  2. Growing up in a Dangerous Developmental Milieu: The Effects of Parenting Processes on Adjustment in Inner-City African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Pickering, Lloyd E.; Bolland, John M.

    2006-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the protective effects of parenting processes on measures of adolescent adjustment (health-compromising and violent behaviors) in a sample of high-risk, inner-city, poor African American youth N = 2,867). Parenting processes played an important role in this dangerous developmental milieu. For male…

  3. Changes of intracellular milieu with fatigue or hypoxia depress contraction of skinned rabbit skeletal and cardiac muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Godt, R E; Nosek, T M

    1989-01-01

    1. Maximal calcium-activated force (Fmax) and calcium sensitivity were markedly decreased in detergent-skinned fibres from skeletal and cardiac muscle by solutions that mimicked the total milieu changes associated with fatigue and hypoxia. Further experiments determined the relative contribution of each of the individual changes in milieu. 2. Both Ca2+ sensitivity and Fmax of skeletal and cardiac fibres were decreased with increased [H+] or inorganic phosphate (Pi). These effects were greater in cardiac muscle. 3. Decreasing MgATP over the range observed with fatigue and hypoxia (6.8-4.7 mM) had no effect on Fmax or Ca2+ sensitivity of either muscle type. 4. Decreasing phosphocreatine (PCr: 15-1 mM) increased Fmax but had little effect on Ca2+ sensitivity in both muscle types. In cardiac fibres, the effect on Fmax could be mimicked by inhibition of endogenous creatine kinase. 5. ADP (0.7 mM) increased Fmax and Ca2+ sensitivity, while AMP (0.06 mM) slightly increased Fmax but had no effect on Ca2+ sensitivity of either skeletal or cardiac fibres. 6. Creatine (25 mM) had no significant effect on either Ca2+ sensitivity or Fmax of skeletal and cardiac muscle fibres. At higher levels (50 mM), however, creatine depressed Fmax and slightly altered Ca2+ sensitivity. 7. Thiophosphorylation of myosin P light chains (phosphorylatable light chains of myosin) in rabbit psoas fibres had no effect on Ca2+ sensitivity, yet slightly but significantly increased Fmax under fatigue conditions. 8. Reducing the affinity for ATP hydrolysis (by adding ADP, AMP and creatine) over the range calculated for fatigue/hypoxia (60-45 kJ/mol) produced the enhancement in Fmax expected from added ADP and AMP in cardiac but not skeletal muscle, indicating that changes in affinity influence Fmax of skeletal muscle. Reducing affinity produced little change in Ca2+ sensitivity of skeletal muscle. In contrast, the change produced in cardiac muscle was greater than that expected from addition of ADP and

  4. Plasma-induced signatures reveal an extracellular milieu possessing an immunoregulatory bias in treatment-naive paediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Gurram, B; Salzman, N H; Kaldunski, M L; Jia, S; Li, B U K; Stephens, M; Sood, M R; Hessner, M J

    2016-04-01

    The inflammatory state associated with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) remains incompletely defined. To understand more clearly the extracellular milieu associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we employed a bioassay whereby plasma of treatment naive paediatric IBD patients (n = 22 CD, n = 15 UC) and unrelated healthy controls (uHC, n = 10) were used to induce transcriptional responses in a healthy leucocyte population. After culture, gene expression was measured comprehensively with microarrays and analysed. Relative to uHC, plasma of CD and UC patients induced distinct responses consisting, respectively, of 985 and 895 regulated transcripts [|log2 ratio| ≥ 0·5 (1·4-fold); false discovery rates (FDR) ≤ 0·01]. The CD:uHC and UC:uHC signatures shared a non-random, commonly regulated, intersection of 656 transcripts (χ(2)  = P < 0·001) and were highly correlative [Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0·96, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.96, 0.97]. Despite sharing common genetic susceptibility loci, the IBD signature correlated negatively with that driven by plasma of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients (Pearson's correlation coefficient = -0·51). Ontological analyses revealed the presence of an immunoregulatory plasma milieu in IBD, as transcripts for cytokines/chemokines, receptors and signalling molecules consistent with immune activation were under-expressed relative to uHC and T1D plasma. Multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and receptor blockade studies confirmed transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and interleukin (IL)-10 as contributors to the IBD signature. Analysis of CD patient signatures detected a subset of transcripts associated with responsiveness to 6-mercaptopurine treatment. Through plasma-induced signature analysis, we have defined a unique, partially TGF-β/IL-10-dependent immunoregulatory signature associated with IBD that may prove useful in predicting therapeutic responsiveness

  5. Sjögren syndrome and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder co-exist in a common autoimmune milieu.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Diogo C; Tironi, Tauana S; Freitas, Denise S; Kleinpaul, Rodrigo; Talim, Natalia C; Lana-Peixoto, Marco A

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is not completely understood. We report two patients with both conditions and review 47 other previously reported cases meeting currently accepted diagnostic criteria, from 17 articles extracted from PubMed. Out of 44 patients whose gender was informed, 42 were females. Mean age at onset of neurological manifestation was 36.2 years (10-74). Serum anti-AQP4-IgG was positive in 32 patients, borderline in 1, and negative in 4. Our Case 1 was seronegative for AQP4-IgG and had no non-organ-specific autoantibodies other than anti-SSB antibodies. Our Case 2 had serum anti-AQP4, anti-SSA/SSB, anti-thyreoglobulin and anti-acethylcholine-receptor antibodies, as well as clinical hypothyreoidism, but no evidence of myasthenia gravis. Our Cases and others, as previously reported in literature, with similar heterogeneous autoimmune response to aquaporin-4, suggest that SS and NMO co-exist in a common autoimmune milieu which is not dependent on aquaporin-4 autoimmunity. PMID:25098478

  6. Cross-talk among myeloid-derived suppressor cells, macrophages, and tumor cells impacts the inflammatory milieu of solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Beury, Daniel W.; Parker, Katherine H.; Nyandjo, Maeva; Sinha, Pratima; Carter, Kayla A.; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    MDSC and macrophages are present in most solid tumors and are important drivers of immune suppression and inflammation. It is established that cross-talk between MDSC and macrophages impacts anti-tumor immunity; however, interactions between tumor cells and MDSC or macrophages are less well studied. To examine potential interactions between these cells, we studied the impact of MDSC, macrophages, and four murine tumor cell lines on each other, both in vitro and in vivo. We focused on IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, and NO, as these molecules are produced by macrophages, MDSC, and many tumor cells; are present in most solid tumors; and regulate inflammation. In vitro studies demonstrated that MDSC-produced IL-10 decreased macrophage IL-6 and TNF-α and increased NO. IL-6 indirectly regulated MDSC IL-10. Tumor cells increased MDSC IL-6 and vice versa. Tumor cells also increased macrophage IL-6 and NO and decreased macrophage TNF-α. Tumor cell-driven macrophage IL-6 was reduced by MDSC, and tumor cells and MDSC enhanced macrophage NO. In vivo analysis of solid tumors identified IL-6 and IL-10 as the dominant cytokines and demonstrated that these molecules were produced predominantly by stromal cells. These results suggest that inflammation within solid tumors is regulated by the ratio of tumor cells to MDSC and macrophages and that interactions of these cells have the potential to alter significantly the inflammatory milieu within the tumor microenvironment. PMID:25170116

  7. Cutaneous, Purpuric Painful Nodules Upon Addition of Ibrutinib to RCVP Therapy in a CLL Patient: A Distinctive Reaction Pattern Reflecting Iatrogenic Th2 to Th1 Milieu Reversal.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, Joseph Justin; Nuovo, Gerard J; Magro, Cynthia M

    2016-07-01

    A 70-year-old white man with stage C chronic lymphocytic leukemia who was being successfully treated with ibrutinib and rituximab developed bilateral, purpuric, painful cutaneous nodules. Biopsies of these nodules did not reveal the usual Th2 milieu of chronic lymphocytic leukemia but instead exhibited a Th1-rich lymphocytic infiltrate with resultant neutrophil and granulomatous inflammation. The eruption resolved with drug cessation emphasizing the potential importance of this drug in treating conditions associated with Th2 dysregulation. PMID:27043332

  8. Combined 17β-Estradiol with TCDD Promotes M2 Polarization of Macrophages in the Endometriotic Milieu with Aid of the Interaction between Endometrial Stromal Cells and Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Chen, Hong; Wang, NingLing; Guo, HaiYan; Fu, Yonglun; Xue, Songguo; Ai, Ai; Lyu, Qifeng; Kuang, Yanping

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to elucidate the effects of 17β-estradiol and TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) on macrophage phenotypes in the endometriotic milieu. Co-culture of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and U937 cells (macrophage cell line) was performed to simulate the endometriotic milieu and to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol and/or TCDD on IL10, IL12 production and HLA-DR, CD86 expression by U937 macrophages. We found that combining 17β-estradiol with TCDD has a synergistic effect on inducing M2 activation when macrophages are co-cultured with ESCs. Moreover, the combination of 17β-estradiol and TCDD significantly enhanced STAT3 and P38 phosphorylation in macrophages. Differentiation of M2 macrophages induced by 17β-estradiol and TCDD were effectively abrogated by STAT3 and P38MAPK inhibitors, but not by ERK1/2 and JNK inhibitors. In conclusion, 17β-estradiol and TCDD in the ectopic milieu may lead to the development of endometriosis by inducing M2 polarization of macrophages through activation of the STAT3 and P38MAPK pathways. PMID:25950905

  9. Combined 17β-Estradiol with TCDD Promotes M2 Polarization of Macrophages in the Endometriotic Milieu with Aid of the Interaction between Endometrial Stromal Cells and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, NingLing; Guo, HaiYan; Fu, Yonglun; Xue, Songguo; Ai, Ai; Lyu, Qifeng; Kuang, Yanping

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to elucidate the effects of 17β-estradiol and TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) on macrophage phenotypes in the endometriotic milieu. Co-culture of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and U937 cells (macrophage cell line) was performed to simulate the endometriotic milieu and to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol and/or TCDD on IL10, IL12 production and HLA-DR, CD86 expression by U937 macrophages. We found that combining 17β-estradiol with TCDD has a synergistic effect on inducing M2 activation when macrophages are co-cultured with ESCs. Moreover, the combination of 17β-estradiol and TCDD significantly enhanced STAT3 and P38 phosphorylation in macrophages. Differentiation of M2 macrophages induced by 17β-estradiol and TCDD were effectively abrogated by STAT3 and P38MAPK inhibitors, but not by ERK1/2 and JNK inhibitors. In conclusion, 17β-estradiol and TCDD in the ectopic milieu may lead to the development of endometriosis by inducing M2 polarization of macrophages through activation of the STAT3 and P38MAPK pathways. PMID:25950905

  10. Key endothelial cell angiogenic mechanisms are stimulated by the circulating milieu in sickle cell disease and attenuated by hydroxyurea

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Flavia C. M.; Traina, Fabiola; Almeida, Camila B.; Leonardo, Flavia C.; Franco-Penteado, Carla F.; Garrido, Vanessa T.; Colella, Marina P.; Soares, Raquel; Olalla-Saad, Sara T.; Costa, Fernando F.; Conran, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    As hypoxia-induced inflammatory angiogenesis may contribute to the manifestations of sickle cell disease, we compared the angiogenic molecular profiles of plasma from sickle cell disease individuals and correlated these with in vitro endothelial cell-mediated angiogenesis-stimulating activity and in vivo neovascularization. Bioplex demonstrated that plasma from patients with steady-state sickle cell anemia contained elevated concentrations of pro-angiogenic factors (angiopoietin-1, basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-D and placental growth factor) and displayed potent pro-angiogenic activity, significantly increasing endothelial cell proliferation, migration and capillary-like structure formation. In vivo neovascularization of Matrigel plugs was significantly greater in sickle cell disease mice than in non-sickle cell disease mice, consistent with an up-regulation of angiogenesis in the disease. In plasma from patients with hemoglobin SC disease without proliferative retinopathy, anti-angiogenic endostatin and thrombospondin-2 were significantly elevated. In contrast, plasma from hemoglobin SC individuals with proliferative retinopathy had a pro-angiogenic profile and more significant effects on endothelial cell proliferation and capillary formation than plasma from patients without retinopathy. Hydroxyurea therapy was associated with significant reductions in plasma angiogenic factors and inhibition of endothelial cell-mediated angiogenic mechanisms and neovascularization. Thus, individuals with sickle cell anemia or hemoglobin SC disease with retinopathy present a highly angiogenic circulating milieu, capable of stimulating key endothelial cell-mediated angiogenic mechanisms. Combination anti-angiogenic therapy to prevent the progression of unregulated neovascularization and associated manifestations in sickle cell disease, such as pulmonary hypertension, may be indicated; furthermore, the

  11. [Encouraging healthy habits by playing with the child in the family milieu: the snakes and ladders game].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Echenique, M; Pèlach, R

    2002-01-01

    In recent decades society has been undergoing many changes and these have had a strong incidence on infant morbidity and mortality. Diseases that have practically vanished due to the impact of vaccinations and the improvement of the standard of living have given way to others derived from the changes in eating habits and life style; accidents, on the other hand, have come to be the first cause of morbidity and mortality after the first year of life has been passed. Strategies must be directed towards avoiding the causes of this new way of falling ill. We present a Spanish version of a game similar to "snakes and ladders" called "the healthy goose", which encourages healthy living habits. In order that the child should internalize safe habits by means of the game, certain squares in the game have been replaced by positive drawings, in which the child carries out healthy activities, receiving prizes for these, and others in which risky activities are performed, which are penalized. The areas dealt with are: habits (nutrition, sleep, study, games, etc.), Accidents at home, road safety (pedestrian, cyclist and automobile traveler), and swimming pools. The game starts with a child of 3-4 years and the goal is reached as a healthy adolescent. Given that the variation in personalities is enormous, we believe the family milieu should be the complement to legislative and educational measures and general campaigns in the means of communication, since it is what the child knows best and where he learns his deepest attitudes. This game could be a help to parents in this difficult task. PMID:12861260

  12. Correlated and Anticorrelated Domain Movement of Human Serum Albumin: A Peek into the Complexity of the Crowded Milieu.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Saikat; Chowdhury, Pramit Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Protein dynamics in cells have been shown to be markedly different from that in dilute solutions because of the highly crowded cellular interior. The volume exclusion arising from the high concentration of macromolecules present can affect both equilibrium and kinetic processes involving protein conformational changes. While global changes in structure leading to modulations in the stability of the protein have been well-documented, local changes that can have a large bearing on the functional aspects of these biomolecules are rare to come across. Using the multidomain serum protein human serum albumin and a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based approach, with fluorescent reporters in each of its three domains, we, in this article, have provided a detailed mapping of variations in the interdomain distances (as a function of pH) in the presence of five macromolecular crowding agents, differing based on their constituent monomers and average molecular weight(s). From the observation of correlated domain movements for dextran based crowding agents to anticorrelated motion induced by Ficoll 70, and both correlated and anticorrelated action for PEG8000 (PEG8), our results reveal the inherent complexity of a crowded milieu with the serum protein serving as an able sensor for decoding such variations. Differences in the manner in which the macromolecular crowders of similar average molecular weights influence the protein conformational ensemble also provide insights into the possible variations at the molecular level that these polymeric molecules possess. Evidence is presented in support of the fact that for the large molecular weight crowding agents and PEG8, soft interactions predominate over hard sphere potentials. Finally, the nature of domain movements encountered for the serum protein are of immense significance with respect to the function of human serum albumin (HSA) as a prolific binder and transporter of small molecules. PMID:27163260

  13. Les tumeurs malignes anorectales en milieu hospitalier à Ouagadougou: aspects épidémiologiques et diagnostiques

    PubMed Central

    Guingané, Alice Nanelin; Sombié, Roger Arsène; Bougouma, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Le but de notre étude était de décrire les caractéristiques épidémiologiques et diagnostiques des tumeurs malignes anorectales en milieu hospitalier à Ouagadougou. Il s'est agi d'une étude rétrospective et transversale qui a concerné les patients vus en endoscopie digestive basse au cours de la période allant du 29/09/1999 au 04/10/2008. À l'aide d'une fiche de collecte, nous avons recueilli, dans 4 structures sanitaires et 3 laboratoires d'anatomie et de cytologie pathologiques de la ville de Ouagadougou, les données à partir des comptes-rendus d'endoscopie digestive basse et des registres d'anatomie et de cytologie pathologiques. Durant la période de notre étude, 645 patients ont été examinés en anorectoscopie et 882 cas d'affections anorectales colligés. Les tumeurs malignes anorectales avec 61 cas (6,9%) occupaient la quatrième place après la maladie hémorroïdaire (45,6%), les anites (21,1%) et les fissures (13,9%). Elles regroupaient les cancers du rectum (4,2%) et les cancers de l'anus (2,7%). Vingt cancers anorectaux ont été histologiquement confirmés parmi lesquels l'adénocarcinome était le type histologique le plus retrouvé avec 17 cas. Les tumeurs malignes, quatrième affection anorectale la plus fréquente au cours de notre étude, constituent une préoccupation du fait de leur fréquence croissante, leur diagnostic souvent tardif et les difficultés liées à leur prise en charge surtout dans nos pays avec une population à faible revenu. La sensibilisation de la population et la prescription plus large de l'endoscopie digestive basse devraient permettre une meilleure prise en charge des patients. PMID:25368715

  14. Mesenchymal stromal cells transiently alter the inflammatory milieu post-transplant to delay graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Melinda E.; Turner, Brie E.; Sinfield, Laura J.; Kollar, Katarina; Cullup, Hannah; Waterhouse, Nigel J.; Hart, Derek N.J.; Atkinson, Kerry; Rice, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells suppress T-cell function in vitro, a property that has underpinned their use in treating clinical steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However the potential of mesenchymal stromal cells to resolve graft-versus-host disease is confounded by a paucity of pre-clinical data delineating their immunomodulatory effects in vivo. Design and Methods We examined the influence of timing and dose of donor-derived mesenchymal stromal cells on the kinetics of graft-versus-host disease in two murine models of graft-versus-host disease (major histocompatibility complex-mismatched: UBI-GFP/BL6 [H-2b]→BALB/c [H-2d] and the sibling transplant mimic, UBI-GFP/BL6 [H-2b]→BALB.B [H-2b]) using clinically relevant conditioning regimens. We also examined the effect of mesenchymal stromal cell infusion on bone marrow and spleen cellular composition and cytokine secretion in transplant recipients. Results Despite T-cell suppression in vitro, mesenchymal stromal cells delayed but did not prevent graft-versus-host disease in the major histocompatibility complex-mismatched model. In the sibling transplant model, however, 30% of mesenchymal stromal cell-treated mice did not develop graft-versus-host disease. The timing of administration and dose of the mesenchymal stromal cells influenced their effectiveness in attenuating graft-versus-host disease, such that a low dose of mesenchymal stromal cells administered early was more effective than a high dose of mesenchymal stromal cells given late. Compared to control-treated mice, mesenchymal stromal cell-treated mice had significant reductions in serum and splenic interferon-γ, an important mediator of graft-versus-host disease. Conclusions Mesenchymal stromal cells appear to delay death from graft-versus-host disease by transiently altering the inflammatory milieu and reducing levels of interferon-γ. Our data suggest that both the

  15. Modelisation du Signal Radar EN Milieu Stratifie et Evaluation de Techniques de Mesure de L'humidite du Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Johanne

    La presente etude se penche sur des problemes relies a l'echantillonnage de l'humidite de sol et a l'estimation du signal radar sur sols nus. Le travail se divise en deux volets. Le volet 1 evalue trois techniques de mesure de l'humidite du sol (gravimetrie, reflectometrie temporelle et sonde dielectrique) et deux protocoles d'echantillonnage. Dans le volet 2, un modele de simulation du signal en milieu stratifie est developpe, et les estimes de signal obtenus sont compares aux estimes bases uniquement sur une valeur moyenne d'humidite du sol prise sur une profondeur fixe d'echantillonnage. Les differences entre les deux estimes dependent de la frequence et du choix judicieux de la profondeur d'echantillonnage; elles sont plus importantes aux faibles angles et en polarisation HV, puis VV. Le modele de simulation a aussi ete utilise pour etudier la profondeur de penetration du signal et en deduire la profondeur optimale d'echantillonnage en tenant compte des caracteristiques du signal. Une variation de 25 ^circ de l'angle d'incidence a peu d'effet sur la profondeur de penetration en bande Ku; l'ecart reste inferieur ou egal a 0,5 cm en bande C mais peut atteindre 1,3 cm en bande L. L'impact de la polarisation est nul en bande Ku mais croi t avec l'angle d'incidence en bande C et L. A 50^circ, il est, en moyenne de 1 cm en bande C et de 2 cm en bande L. En polarisation VV, la profondeur croi t avec une augmentation de l'angle alors que l'effet est inverse en polarisation HH. Deux methodes pour estimer la profondeur d'echantillonnage en conditions operationnelles sont presentees. Lorsqu'on inverse un modele pour estimer l'humidite du sol a partir du signal, ces methodes permettent aussi d'estimer l'epaisseur de sol representee par l'humidite ainsi estimee.

  16. [Cosmos, coral and cultural milieu. The significance of the popular science connection in the late German Empire and the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Schirrmacher, Arne

    2008-12-01

    This paper discusses the role of popular science communication for the 'cultural milieu' or more generally the 'environment' of scientists and science in Germany between c. 1900 and 1933 in the sense of Paul Forman. On the rich basis of diverse journals aiming at a differentiated public the discourse on atomic physics is sketched. Since the thesis of a general hostility towards atomic physics in particular and science in general cannot be accredited the question arises how widespread and in which sense a crisis of science was discussed in the Weimar years. PMID:19391361

  17. Defected red blood cell membranes and direct correlation with the uraemic milieu: the connection with the decreased red blood cell lifespan observed in haemodialysis patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamopoulos, D.; Grapsa, E.; Manios, E.; Gogola, V.; Bakirtzi, N.

    2012-12-01

    Together with impaired production of erythropoietin and iron deficiency, the decreased lifespan of red blood cells (RBCs) is a main factor contributing to the chronic anaemia observed in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Atomic force microscopy is employed in this work to thoroughly survey the membrane of intact RBCs (iRBCs) of HD patients in comparison to those of healthy donors, aiming to obtain direct information on the structural status of RBCs that can be related to their decreased lifespan. We observed that the iRBC membrane of the HD patients is overpopulated with extended circular defects, termed ‘orifices’, that have typical dimension ranging between 0.2 and 1.0 μm. The ‘orifice’ index—that is, the mean population of ‘orifices’ per top membrane surface—exhibits a pronounced relative increase of order 54 ± 12% for the HD patients as compared to healthy donors. Interestingly, for the HD patients, the ‘orifice’ index, which relates to the structural status of the RBC membrane, correlates strongly with urea concentration, which is a basic index of the uraemic milieu. Thus, these results indicate that the uraemic milieu downgrades the structural status of the RBC membrane, possibly triggering biochemical processes that result in their premature elimination from the circulation. This process could decrease the lifespan of RBCs, as observed in HD patients.

  18. Approche aux soins en milieu communautaire à des adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Osmun, W.E.; Chan, Nelson; Solomon, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les obligations d’ordre médical, éthique et juridique dans les soins aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) qui vivent dans la communauté. Sources des données Des recherches ont été faites dans Google et MEDLINE à l’aide des mots disabled, disability, vulnerable et community. Les lois pertinentes ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Message principal Le traitement d’un patient ayant une DD varie en fonction de facteurs comme la pathogenèse du problème actuel du patient, ses affections concomitantes, la gravité de ses déficiences et ses soutiens sociaux habituels. Bien que l’on s’entende sur les bienfaits du transfert des soins institutionnels vers des soins communautaires pour les patients ayant une DD, il s’est révélé difficile de leur dispenser des soins de grande qualité en milieu communautaire. Par ailleurs, il existe peu de travaux de recherche sur les façons d’offrir efficacement des soins aux adultes ayant une DD. En tant que professionnels des soins primaires, les médecins de famille sont souvent le premier point de contact pour les patients et sont à la fois responsables de la coordination et de la continuité des soins. Compte tenu de l’importance accrue accordée aux soins préventifs et à la détection précoce des maladies, la participation active du patient revêt aussi une grande importance. Les valeurs et les objectifs du patient sont des éléments essentiels à prendre en compte, même s’ils vont à l’encontre de la bonne santé du patient ou des propres valeurs du clinicien. Les lois s’appliquant aux personnes vulnérables varient d’une province à l’autre. Par conséquent, l’obligation de signaler des mauvais traitements suspectés pourrait différer selon que la personne vulnérable habite dans un centre de soins ou la communauté, que la personne qui soupçonne le comportement abusif est un fournisseur de services ou un professionnel de la santé ou

  19. Formation et Evolution des Structures dans le Milieu interstellaire. Une Approche théorique, numérique et observationnelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennebelle, Patrick

    2000-11-01

    Le milieu interstellaire, au sein duquel se forme les étoiles,présente d'importants contrastes de densités. Ces structures se forment sous l'action couplée de processus magnétohydrodynamiques, thermiques et chimiques. La première partie de cette thèse est un travail théorique et numérique sur la condensation induite dynamiquement de gaz chaud et diffus en une phase froide et condensée. Nous montrons, tout d'aborddans le cas hydrodynamique, puis MHD, comment, dans un milieu thermiquement bistable, une fluctuation de vitesse typiquement transonique conduit, si elle est d'amplitude suffisante et dure un temps assez long, à la formationd'une structure stable. L'influence de divers paramètres -amplitude et échelle spatiale caractéristique de la perturbation, pression initiale, configuration du champ magnétique- sur la condensationest étudiée numériquement et analytiquement. Des spectres synthétiques sont calculés et qualitativement comparés aux spectres observationnels. La seconde partie de la thèse porte sur l'étudeobservationnelle des phases les plus condensées du milieu interstellaire détectées en absorption sur le fond infrarouge galactique par le satellite ISO. Nous effectuons tout d'abordune extraction systématique de ces objets à partir d'une analyse multi-échelle des données ISOGAL.L'étude du rapport des contrastes à 7 et 15 um permet de mesurer le rapport de l'extinction interstellaire, peu connue dans cette région du spectre, à ces deux longueurs d'onde. Des estimations d'opacité de quelques objets sont égalementdéduites des données en infrarouge. Des observations complémentaires spectroscopiques et bolométriques dans le domaineradio ont été effectuées et permettent une analyse plus détaillée des paramètres physico-chimiques de ces nuages.

  20. Integration des sciences et de la langue: Creation et experimentation d'un modele pedagogique pour ameliorer l'apprentissage des sciences en milieu francophone minoritaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Marianne

    Les faibles resultats en sciences des eleves du milieu francophone minoritaire, lors d'epreuves au plan national et international, ont interpelle la recherche de solutions. Cette these avait pour but de creer et d'experimenter un modele pedagogique pour l'enseignement des sciences en milieu linguistique minoritaire. En raison de la presence de divers degres de francite chez la clientele scolaire de ce milieu, plusieurs elements langagiers (l'ecriture, la discussion et la lecture) ont ete integres a l'apprentissage scientifique. Nous avions recommande de commencer le processus d'apprentissage avec des elements langagiers plutot informels (redaction dans un journal, discussions en dyades...) pour progresser vers des activites langagieres plus formelles (redaction de rapports ou d'explications scientifiques). En ce qui a trait a l'apprentissage scientifique, le modele preconisait une demarche d'evolution conceptuelle d'inspiration socio-constructiviste tout en s'appuyant fortement sur l'apprentissage experientiel. Lors de l'experimentation du modele, nous voulions savoir si celui-ci provoquait une evolution conceptuelle chez les eleves, et si, simultanement, le vocabulaire scientifique de ces derniers s'enrichissait. Par ailleurs, nous cherchions a comprendre comment les eleves vivaient leurs apprentissages dans le cadre de ce modele pedagogique. Une classe de cinquieme annee de l'ecole de Grande-Digue, dans le Sud-est du Nouveau-Brunswick, a participe a la mise a l'essai du modele en etudiant les marais sales locaux. Lors d'entrevues initiales, nous avons remarque que les connaissances des eleves au sujet des marais sales etaient limitees. En effet, s'ils etaient conscients que les marais etaient des lieux naturels, ils ne pouvaient pas necessairement les decrire avec precision. Nous avons egalement constate que les eleves utilisaient surtout des mots communs (plantes, oiseaux, insectes) pour decrire le marais. Les resultats obtenus indiquent que les eleves ont

  1. [The effect of pH and amount of antacids on bile acid binding in a quasi-natural reflux milieu].

    PubMed

    Kurtz, W; Güldütuna, S; Leuschner, U

    1991-05-01

    Bile acid adsorption may be one therapeutical mechanism of antacids. Little is known about the effect of pH and amount of antacid on bile acid adsorption. Therefore we carried out the following investigations using a lattice [correction of lettuce] layer antacid as a model substance. 5 ml of "quasi-natural reflux milieu" were mixed with 0.5, 1 or 2 ml of hydrotalcite and adjusted to pH 3, 5 or 7. The highest total bile acid adsorption was found at pH 3, the degree of bile acid adsorption correlated with bile acid lipophilicity, i.e. the most lipophilic and toxic bile acids are adsorbed best. High adsorption of lipophilic and particularly toxic bile acids even at low gastric pH may help to explain the good therapeutic effect of low-dose antacids in gastric ulcer. PMID:1950032

  2. The "kidney-liver" multiorgan ex vivo perfused model improves the circuit's biochemical milieu during perfusion compared to the "liver-kidney" counterpart.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wen Yuan; Gravante, Gianpiero; Eltweri, Amar; Sorge, Roberto; Ong, Seok Ling; Pollard, Cristina; Metcalfe, Mathew; Dennison, Ashley

    2015-06-01

    The multiorgan ex vivo perfused liver-kidney model allows studying the hepatic pathophysiology and purifying waste products. We tested if the addition of the kidney first followed by the liver (KL circuit) produces better results compared to the classic liver-first approach (LK). Intact livers and kidneys were obtained post mortem from ten female domestic white pigs, five experiments were conducted with the KL circuit and five with the LK. Bile, urine production, arterial blood gases, glucose, renal and liver tests were collected hourly during the perfusions. The KL circuit had values more close to physiological ranges, more stable over time and showed less variability compared to the LK circuit for urine production, glucose, PH, anion gap, lactate, urea, sodium, potassium and Alanine Transaminase (ANOVA test for repeated measures p < 0.05). The KL circuit produced a more physiological and reliable biochemical milieu. PMID:25557139

  3. A Qualitative Analysis of Substance Use among Liberian Youth: Understanding Behaviors, Consequences, and Protective Factors Involving School Youth and the School Milieu

    PubMed Central

    Pullen, Samuel J; Petruzzi, Liana; Lange, Brittany CL; Parnarouskis, Lindsey; Dominguez, Silvia; Harris, Benjamin; Quiterio, Nicole; Durham, Michelle P; Lekpeh, Gondah; Manobah, Burgess; Slopadoe, Siede P; Diandy, Veronique C; Payne, Arthur J; Henderson, David C; Borba, Christina PC

    2016-01-01

    Objective Substance use is a significant and common problem among school-aged youths throughout Africa. Like other countries on this continent, the West-African nation of Liberia is recovering from civil war. A well-educated population of young people is critical to the recovery efforts and long-term success of Liberia. Substance use by school-aged youths has important public health consequences that could undermine Liberia’s post-conflict recovery efforts. We wanted to better understand the culturally significant themes and subthemes related to substance use among youths attending public schools in Monrovia, Liberia. Methods A qualitative research design was used to collect data from 72 students attending public school in Monrovia, Liberia. Nine focus groups of 6–8 students from three public schools were facilitated using a semi-structured format to guide discussions on substance use. Student narratives were translated and re-occurring themes and subthemes were coded and analyzed. Results Four emergent themes described in this study were: Behaviors associated with substance use Consequences associated with individual use Consequences of substance use that affected the school milieu School-related factors that were protective from substance use. Subthemes associated with substance use included concealment of substances, intoxication and disruption of the classroom environment, expulsion from school, school drop-out, and school as protective against substance use. Conclusion Liberian school-aged youths described important themes and subthemes associated with substance use occurring within the school milieu. These data have germane public health ramifications, and could help inform larger epidemiologic study methods and public health interventions for Liberia and countries with similar profiles. PMID:27158680

  4. Prévalence des cervicalgies et douleurs des membres supérieures chez les utilisateurs d'ordinateur en milieu professionnel à Casablanca (Maroc)

    PubMed Central

    Seknaji, Nawal; Rachidi, Wafaa; Hassoune, Samira; Janani, Saadia; Nani, Samira; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane; Mkinsi, Ouafaa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Les cervicalgies et douleurs du membre supérieur (CDMS) affectent des millions d'utilisateurs d'ordinateurs dans les pays développés. L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer la prévalence des cervicalgies et douleurs du membre supérieur (CDMS) à Casablanca et identifier les différents facteurs de risque qui y sont impliqués, afin de définir les sous-groupes à haut risque, et d’établir des plans d'intervention efficaces. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale, menée chez 118 employés de bureau francophones et utilisant l'ordinateur, à Casablanca. Les données ont été collectées de Décembre 2011 à Juin 2012, en utilisant la version française d'un questionnaire validé: Maastricht-Upper-extremity-Questionnaire. Résultats 118 utilisateurs d'ordinateur en milieu professionnel ont été recrutés. Parmi les employés enquêtés, 93% ont rapporté des CDMS localisées au moins à un site. Les plaintes les plus fréquemment rapportées étaient les douleurs des épaules et les cervicalgies (48,3% et 46,6% respectivement). Nous n'avons pas remarqué de différence significative des fréquences des douleurs selon le genre. Nos résultats concordent avec les données de la littérature où il existe un certain consensus quant à l'impact des mauvaises conditions ergonomiques sur les troubles musculo-squelettiques du membre supérieur en milieu professionnel. De même, les études récentes examinant les effets combinés et/ou interactifs tant des facteurs biomécaniques/physiques que de facteurs psychosociaux professionnels vont de pair avec nos résultats. Conclusion Il en ressort que les stratégies d'intervention visant à réduire les CDMS doivent agir essentiellement sur 3 volets, le premier correspond à l'amélioration et la sensibilisation quant au respect des conditions ergonomiques, le second concerne l'amélioration des conditions psychosociales. Enfin le troisième volet vise la rationalisant de la demande de

  5. MMP1-1607 polymorphism increases the risk for periapical lesion development through the upregulation MMP-1 expression in association with pro-inflammatory milieu elements

    PubMed Central

    TROMBONE, Ana Paula Favaro; CAVALLA, Franco; SILVEIRA, Elcia Maria Varize; ANDREO, Camile Bermejo; FRANCISCONI, Carolina Favaro; FONSECA, Angélica Cristina; LETRA, Ariadne; SILVA, Renato Menezes; GARLET, Gustavo Pompermaier

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Increased matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity is a hallmark of periapical granulomas. However, the factors underlying the MMPs expression modulation in healthy and diseased periapical tissues remains to be determined. Objective In this study, we evaluated the association between the MMP1-1607 polymorphism (rs1799750) and pro-inflammatory milieu elements with MMP-1 mRNA levels in vivo. Material and Methods MMP1-1607 SNP and the mRNA levels of MMP-1, TNF-a, IFN-g, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-10, IL-4, IL-9, and FOXp3 were determined via RealTimePCR in DNA/RNA samples from patients presenting periapical granulomas (N=111, for both genotyping and expression analysis) and control subjects (N=214 for genotyping and N=26 for expression analysis). The Shapiro-Wilk, Fisher, Pearson, Chi-square ordinal least squares regression tests were used for data analysis (p<0.05 was considered statistically significant). Results The MMP1-1607 1G/2G and 1G/2G+2G/2G genotypes were significantly more prevalent in the patients than in controls, comprising a risk factor for periapical lesions development. MMP-1 mRNA levels were higher in periapical lesions than in healthy periodontal ligament samples, as well as higher in active than in inactive lesions. The polymorphic allele 2G carriers presented a significantly higher MMP-1 mRNA expression when compared with the 1G/1G genotype group. The ordered logistic regression demonstrated a significant correlation between the genetic polymorphism and the expression levels of MMP-1. Additionally, the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-17A, IFN-g, TNF-a, IL-21, IL-10, IL-9, and IL-4 were significant as complementary explanatory variables of MMP-1 expression. Conclusion The MMP1-1607 SNP was identified as a risk factor for periapical lesions development, possibly due to its association with increased MMP-1 mRNA levels in periapical lesions. The MMP-1 expression is also under the control of the inflammatory milieu elements, being the

  6. Propriétés électriques des oxydes de tantale électrogénérés en milieu aqueux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nâamoune, F.; Hammouche, A.; Kahoul, A.

    1998-07-01

    The tantalum anodization in aqueous solutions has been investigated by chronopotentiometry. Analysis of admittance diagrams allows the caracterization of the electrical properties of the formed oxide layer. The electrode/electrolyte interface can bemodelized by an equivalent circuit consisting of a resistance Rp in parallel with a capacitance Cp, this loop being inseries with a resistance Rs. The results have shown that the electrical properties of the formed oxide layer depend on the nature of the electrolyte. For a given electrolyte, the Rp.Cp product is constant for a wide range of oxide thickness. Its value is used as a criterion of the oxide quality; high values of this product indicate that the electronic transfert through the oxide layer is difficult, corresponding to highly passivated electrodes. L'anodisation du tantale en milieu aqueux a été réalisée par chronopotentiométrie. L'exploitation des diagrammes d'admittance permet d'accéder aux propriétés électriques de la couche d'oxyde formée. L'interface électrode/électrolyte peut être modélisée par un circuit équivalent comportant une résistance Rp en parallèle avec une capacité Cp. Cette boucle étant elle-même en série avec une résistance Rs. Les résultats ont montré l'influence du choix de l'électrolyte sur les propriétés électriques des couches d'oxyde formées. Dans un milieu donné, le produit Rp.Cp est constant pour une large gamme d'épaisseurs. La valeur de ce produit constitue un critère de qualité des couches formées ; une valeur élevée indique que le transfert électronique à travers la couche d'oxyde est difficile, donc un caratère plus marqué.

  7. A grid matrix-based Raman spectroscopic method to characterize different cell milieu in biopsied axillary sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Som, Dipasree; Tak, Megha; Setia, Mohit; Patil, Asawari; Sengupta, Amit; Chilakapati, C Murali Krishna; Srivastava, Anurag; Parmar, Vani; Nair, Nita; Sarin, Rajiv; Badwe, R

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy which is based upon inelastic scattering of photons has a potential to emerge as a noninvasive bedside in vivo or ex vivo molecular diagnostic tool. There is a need to improve the sensitivity and predictability of Raman spectroscopy. We developed a grid matrix-based tissue mapping protocol to acquire cellular-specific spectra that also involved digital microscopy for localizing malignant and lymphocytic cells in sentinel lymph node biopsy sample. Biosignals acquired from specific cellular milieu were subjected to an advanced supervised analytical method, i.e., cross-correlation and peak-to-peak ratio in addition to PCA and PC-LDA. We observed decreased spectral intensity as well as shift in the spectral peaks of amides and lipid bands in the completely metastatic (cancer cells) lymph nodes with high cellular density. Spectral library of normal lymphocytes and metastatic cancer cells created using the cellular specific mapping technique can be utilized to create an automated smart diagnostic tool for bench side screening of sampled lymph nodes. Spectral library of normal lymphocytes and metastatic cancer cells created using the cellular specific mapping technique can be utilized to develop an automated smart diagnostic tool for bench side screening of sampled lymph nodes supported by ongoing global research in developing better technology and signal and big data processing algorithms. PMID:26552923

  8. Acid gradient across plasma membrane can drive phosphate bond synthesis in cancer cells: acidic tumor milieu as a potential energy source.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Gautam; Sen, Suvajit; Chaudhuri, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive cancers exhibit an efficient conversion of high amounts of glucose to lactate accompanied by acid secretion, a phenomenon popularly known as the Warburg effect. The acidic microenvironment and the alkaline cytosol create a proton-gradient (acid gradient) across the plasma membrane that represents proton-motive energy. Increasing experimental data from physiological relevant models suggest that acid gradient stimulates tumor proliferation, and can also support its energy needs. However, direct biochemical evidence linking extracellular acid gradient to generation of intracellular ATP are missing. In this work, we demonstrate that cancer cells can synthesize significant amounts of phosphate-bonds from phosphate in response to acid gradient across plasma membrane. The noted phenomenon exists in absence of glycolysis and mitochondrial ATP synthesis, and is unique to cancer. Biochemical assays using viable cancer cells, and purified plasma membrane vesicles utilizing radioactive phosphate, confirmed phosphate-bond synthesis from free phosphate (Pi), and also localization of this activity to the plasma membrane. In addition to ATP, predominant formation of pyrophosphate (PPi) from Pi was also observed when plasma membrane vesicles from cancer cells were subjected to trans-membrane acid gradient. Cancer cytosols were found capable of converting PPi to ATP, and also stimulate ATP synthesis from Pi from the vesicles. Acid gradient created through glucose metabolism by cancer cells, as observed in tumors, also proved critical for phosphate-bond synthesis. In brief, these observations reveal a role of acidic tumor milieu as a potential energy source and may offer a novel therapeutic target. PMID:25874623

  9. In vitro and ex vivo infection models help assess the molecular aspects of the interaction of Trichophyton rubrum with the host milieu.

    PubMed

    Peres, Nalu Teixeira de Aguiar; Silva, Larissa Gomes da; Santos, Rodrigo da Silva; Jacob, Tiago Rinaldi; Persinoti, Gabriela Felix; Rocha, Lenaldo Branco; Falcão, Juliana Pfrimer; Rossi, Antonio; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce Maria

    2016-05-01

    Dermatophytes are fungal pathogens that cause cutaneous infections such as onychomycosis and athlete's foot in both healthy and immunocompromised patients.Trichophyton rubrumis the most prevalent dermatophyte causing human nail and skin infections worldwide, and because of its anthropophilic nature, animal infection models are limited. The purpose of this work was to compare the expression profile ofT. rubrumgenes encoding putative virulence factors during growth inex vivoandin vitroinfection models. The efficiency of theex vivoskin infection model was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed that the conidia had produced hyphae that penetrated into the epidermis. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the expression of some genes is modulated in response to the infection model used, as compared to that observed in cells grown in glucose-containing media. We concluded thatex vivoinfection models help assess the molecular aspects of the interaction ofT. rubrumwith the host milieu, and thus provide insights into the modulation of genes during infection. PMID:26768373

  10. Potentiel des images satellitaires multibandes a haute resolution spatiale pour la cartographie des componsants de l'eau en milieu cotier marin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoie, Andre

    L'objectif principal que que nous poursuivons est de developper un modele de simulation du transfert radiatif eau-atmosphere adapte aux observations faites par le capteur Thematic Mapper (TM) de Landsat. Les informations que nous cherchons ont trait au milieu cotier marin et concernent les elements qui sont en suspension dans l'eau. Les images multibandes du capteur TM dans la partie visible du spectre, sont surtout visees par nos travaux. A la base de la simulation, nous utilisons un programme de simulation atmospherique, le code 6S, auquel nous greffons un modele de simulation du transfert radiatif dans la masse d'eau. Ce dernier estime le signal en fonction de 4 composants: l'eau, les pigments chlorophylliens (chlorophylle et phaeopigments), les matieres minerales et les substances organiques dissoutes. La concentration des differents composants sert de parametre d'entree pour definir le comportement optique de la masse d'eau. Le modele permet egalement de simuler une masse d'eau stratifiee si l'on connai t les concentrations des composants dans les differentes couches. Il inclut aussi la contribution du fond, selon sa nature et sa composition, ainsi que celle du miroitement du soleil et du ciel a la surface de l'eau. Les informations d'un echantillonnage de la masse d' eau synchronise avec le passage du satellite, a la baie des Chaleurs, d'une cartographie du couvert d'algues et d'un modele bathymetrique ont ete utilisees pour fixer les parametres de simulation par le modele. La comparaison montrent que le modele se comporte relativement bien surtout dans la bande TM2. Une erreur systematique de 2 valeurs numeriques en moyenne subsiste dans les trois bandes spectrales. Les resultats nous montrent que la visibilite du fond aux faibles profondeurs est un element tres important a considerer. Par ailleurs, l'analyse de sensibilite montre que les images TM sont plus sensibles aux concentrations en matieres minerales qu'aux pigments chlorophylliens et aux substances

  11. The Influence of Immunization Route, Tissue Microenvironment, and Cytokine Cell Milieu on HIV-Specific CD8+ T Cells Measured Using Fluidigm Dynamic Arrays.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Shubhanshi; Ranasinghe, Charani

    2015-01-01

    Thirty different genes including cytokines, chemokines, granzymes, perforin and specifically integrins were evaluated in Peyer's patch-KdGag197-205-specific CD8+ T cells (pools of 100 cells) using Fluidigm 48.48 Dynamic arrays following three different prime-boost immunization strategies. Data revealed that the route of prime or the booster immunization differentially influenced the integrin expression profile on gut KdGag197-205-specific CD8+ T cells. Specifically, elevated numbers of integrin αE and αD expressing gut KdGag197-205-specific CD8+ T cells were detected following mucosal but not systemic priming. Also, αE/β7 and αD/β2 heterodimerization were more noticeable in an intranasal (i.n.)/i.n. vaccination setting compared to i.n./intramuscular (i.m) or i.m./i.m. vaccinations. Moreover, in all vaccine groups tested α4 appeared to heterodimerize more closely with β7 then β1. Also MIP-1β, RANTES, CCR5, perforin and integrin α4 bio-markers were significantly elevated in i.n./i.m. and i.m./i.m. immunization groups compared to purely mucosal i.n./i.n. delivery. Furthermore, when wild type (WT) BALB/c and IL-13 knockout (KO) mice were immunized using i.n./i.m. strategy, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES, integrins α4, β1 and β7 mRNA expression levels were found to be significantly different, in mucosal verses systemic KdGag197-205-specific CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, the numbers of gut KdGag197-205-specific CD8+ T cells expressing gut-homing markers α4β7 and CCR9 protein were also significantly elevated in IL-13 KO compared to WT control. Collectively, our findings further corroborate that the route of vaccine delivery, tissue microenvironment and IL-13 depleted cytokine milieu can significantly alter the antigen-specific CD8+ T cell gene expression profiles and in turn modulate their functional avidities as well as homing capabilities. PMID:25946028

  12. Modelisation de l'erosion hydrique en milieu semi-aride de forte energie de relief a partir de donnees de teledetection: Application a la Bolivie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouattara, Tidiane

    In this study, we propose a model of water erosion risks for such environments using remote sensing and morphometric data: MEH-SAFER (Modele d'Erosion Hydrique en milieu Semi-Aride de Forte Energie de Relief). MEH-SAFER is based on the Lamachere and Guillet model (MLG) (Burkina Faso) to the Lake Laka-Laka drainage basin (Bolivia). While preserving the same principle calculations of runoff potential, we have improved the acquisition method of the biophysical data in order to avoid errors related to topography and to the ground data. We have conceived a method based on multisource satellite images (RADARSAT-1, Landsat-7 and SPOT-4). We replaced the geomorphological graphic models used by Lamachere and Guillet with a topographic vulnerability map originating from the MVT (topographic vulnerability model). This, in turn, was derived from a DEM. Several combinations of multisource image and texture bands give classification accuracies greater than 80% for the land use classes. These include, among others, the combinations of entropy-ETM+2-ETM+4, correlation-ETM+2-ETM+4, homogeneity-ETM +2-ETM+4, mean-ETM+2-ETM +4, standard deviation-ETM+2-ETM+4, original radar image-ETM+2-ETM+4, dissimilarity-ETM +2-ETM+4, angular second moment-ETM+2-ETM +4, XS1-ETM+3-ETM+4 and XS2-ETM +3-ETM+4. In 83% of the basin, the potential runoff is superior to 0,50 on a maximum of 1. In the remaining 17% of the basin, the potential varies of 0 to 0,42, which is explained by the resistant hydrodynamical characteristics of the geoecological units. The results reported here reveal that in general the study area is not particularly vulnerable to erosion and that as a consequence the perceived rate of sedimentation is a natural consequence of the morphoclimatic conditions of the drainage basin. The main contribution of this study is the development of the MEH-SAFER. It includes several original ingredients including the numerical processing of multisource satellite data and morphometric topographical

  13. EPR-Spin Trapping and Flow Cytometric Studies of Free Radicals Generated Using Cold Atmospheric Argon Plasma and X-Ray Irradiation in Aqueous Solutions and Intracellular Milieu.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Hidefumi; Zhao, Qing-Li; Hassan, Mariame Ali; Andocs, Gabor; Nojima, Nobuyuki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    intracellular milieu is discussed. PMID:26318000

  14. Facteurs de risque de faible poids de naissance en milieu semi-rural de Kamina, République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kangulu, Ignace Bwana; Umba, Elie Kilolo Ngoy; Nzaji, Michel Kabamba; Kayamba, Prosper Kalenga Mwenze

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le faible poids de naissance constitue un problème majeur de santé publique, aussi bien dans les pays développés que dans les pays en développement, de par son ampleur et sa forte association avec la morbidité et la mortalité infantiles. Méthodes Il s’agit d’une étude cas-témoins rétrospective menée sur les différents facteurs de risque de faible poids de naissance(FPN) en milieu semi-rural de Kamina chez les accouchées et leurs nouveau-nés respectifs enregistrés de la période allant de janvier 2009 à décembre 2010. Résultats Cette étude a répertorié 69 cas des nouveau-nés de FPN sur 483 accouchements enregistrés (14,3%). Les facteurs associés au FPN déterminés dans ce travail sont l’âge maternel inférieur à 18 ans (OR=7,62, IC=3.46-16.8) et supérieur à 35 ans (OR=2,04;IC=0.91-4.46), la primiparité(OR=2,48;IC=1.18-5.21) et le non suivi des consultations prénatales (OR=5,50;IC=2.00-15.03), la prématurité avec grossesse âgée de moins de 37 semaines d’aménorrhée, la grossesse multiple (OR=30,94) et le sexe féminin du nouveau-né. Conclusion Cette étude a démontré que l’âge maternel inférieur à 18 ans et supérieur à 35 ans, le non suivi des consultations prénatales, la primiparité et la prématurité, la grossesse multiple et le sexe féminin du nouveau-né sont les facteurs associés au faible poids de naissance. PMID:25237417

  15. Diabète en milieu urbain de Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso: profil épidémiologique et niveau de perception de la population adulte

    PubMed Central

    Millogo, Georges Rosario Christian; Yaméogo, Clément; Samandoulougou, André; Yaméogo, Nobila Valentin; Kologo, Koudougou Jonas; Toguyeni, Jean Yves; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'accroissement rapide de la prévalence du diabète sucré en Afrique subsaharienne constitue un problème de santé public. L'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) estime qu’à l'horizon 2025, l'augmentation la plus significative de la prévalence du diabète sera enregistrée dans les pays en développement. Ceux-ci devraient abriter 75% des patients diabétiques du monde. Outre ses complications métaboliques, le diabète est un facteur de risque cardiovasculaire majeur. Le but de notre étude était de decrire le profil épidémiologique du diabète et d’évaluer le niveau de perception de la maladie par une population africaine en milieu urb qwqain de Ouagadougou. Méthodes Le diabète a été défini chez tout sujet ayant une glycémie casuelle supérieure à 2 g/L ou une glycémie à jeun supérieur ou égale à 1,26 g/L (≥ 7 mmol/L) à deux controles d'une semaine d'intervalle. Etaient considérés diabétique, les sujets déjà suivis et ceux nouvellement dépistés par l'etude. Résultats L’étude a inclus 1532 personnes, d’âge compris entre 25 et 64 ans dont 55,6% d'hommes et 44,4% de femmes. L’âge moyen était 36,10 ± 11,19 ans. La tranche d’âge de 25 à 34 ans était la plus représentée avec une proportion de 57,1%. La glycémie moyenne était de 1,04 g/L, la proportion des femmes ayant une hyperglycémie était statistiquement plus importante que celle des hommes (p< 0,05). Près de 81,3% de la population ignoraient que le diabète était un facteur de risque cardiovasculaire. Conclusion Il est urgent de mettre en place un programme national de lutte contre le diabète sucré et les autres maladies non transmissibles au Burkina Faso. PMID:26524982

  16. EPR-Spin Trapping and Flow Cytometric Studies of Free Radicals Generated Using Cold Atmospheric Argon Plasma and X-Ray Irradiation in Aqueous Solutions and Intracellular Milieu

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Hidefumi; Zhao, Qing-Li; Hassan, Mariame Ali; Andocs, Gabor; Nojima, Nobuyuki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    intracellular milieu is discussed. PMID:26318000

  17. S100A8 and S100A9 are messengers in the crosstalk between epidermis and dermis modulating a psoriatic milieu in human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young; Jang, Sunhyae; Min, Jeong-Ki; Lee, Kyungmin; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lim, Jong-Soon; Im, Myung; Lee, Hae-Eul; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang-Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulated S100A8 and/or S100A9 in psoriasis epidermis induce cytokine production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulated S100A8 and/or S100A9 in psoriasis epidermis induce migration of immune cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulated S100A8 and/or S100A9 in psoriasis epidermis induce angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S100A8 and/or S100A9 may play a role in the crosstalk between epidermis and dermis in psoriasis. -- Abstract: S100A8 and S100A9 are members of the S100A8 protein family that exist as homodimers and heterodimers in neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. Recent studies have shown the pivotal roles of S100A8 and S100A9 in the propagation of inflammation and keratinocyte proliferation in psoriasis. We found significant up-regulation of S100A8 and S100A9 secretion from keratinocytes in psoriatic lesions. To mimic the in vivo secretory conditions of S100A8 and S100A9 from psoriatic epidermal keratinocytes, we used the culture medium (CM) of S100A8 and S100A8/A9 adenovirus-transduced keratinocytes to investigate the functions of S100A8 and S100A9. We detected increased levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CM, including IL-8 and TNF-{alpha}, which are involved in aggravating psoriatic skin lesions, and IL-6 and members of the CXCL family of pro-angiogenic cytokines. The CM increased immune cell migration and increased angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In conclusion, we found that the upregulated production of S100A8 and S100A9 by psoriatic epidermal keratinocytes activated adjacent keratinocytes to produce several cytokines. Moreover, S100A8 and S100A9 themselves function as pro-angiogenic and chemotactic factors, generating a psoriatic milieu in skin.

  18. Effets de la taille finie du milieu non-linéaire sur le bruit quantique spatial généré par un oscillateur paramétrique optique confocal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, L.; Gatti, A.; Maitre, A.; Treps, N.; Gigan, S.; Fabre, C.

    2004-11-01

    Nous nous intéressons au comportement spatial des fluctuations quantiques à la sortie d'un oscillateur paramétrique optique dégénéré en modes transverses, sous le seuil. En vue de futures expériences, nous étudions les effets de la diffraction dans le milieu paramétrique sur le bruit quantique spatial. Nous montrons que l'on voit apparaître une aire de cohérence de taille finie pour les effets quantiques transverses.

  19. L'hemorragie grave du peripartum en milieu de reanimation dans un centre universitaire tunisien de niveau 3: épidémiologie et facteurs de risque de mortalité maternelle

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Laidi Ben; Marzouk, Sofiene Ben; Kehila, Mehdi; Jabri, Hamed; Thamleoui, Saber; Maghrebi, Hayen

    2015-01-01

    L'hémorragie grave du péripartum demeure une des causes principales de mortalité maternelle. L'objectif de notre étude était de décrire le profil épidémiologique des patientes qui ont été prises en charge en milieu de réanimation suite à une hémorragie grave du péripartum et de rechercher d’éventuels facteurs de risque de mortalité. Notre étude est rétrospective descriptive et analytique. Nous avons inclus tous les cas d'hémorragie du péripartum ayant séjourné en unité de réanimation obstétricale du centre de maternité et de néonatologie de Tunis (CMNT) au cours de la période allant de janvier 2010 à Décembre 2013. Nous avons recueilli les paramètres démographiques, obstétricaux, ceux relatifs à la prise en charge chirurgicale et réanimatoire, les scores de gravité SAPS obstétrical et APACHEII, ainsi que la morbi-mortalité. Au total nous avons colligé 322 cas sur quatre ans. La répartition annuelle des patientes ainsi que les caractéristiques démographiques et obstétricales étaient comparables dans leur globalité sur les quatre années. Les pratiques thérapeutiques étaient également comparables. Le taux global de mortalité par hémorragie dans notre unité était à 4,7%, avec un taux annuel de mortalité stable. L'analyse des facteurs de risque de mortalité par hémorragie en milieu de réanimation a montré une association statistiquement significative entre la survenue du décès et les facteurs suivants: recours aux catécholamines, survenue de sepsis, œdème pulmonaire aigu, coagulation intravasculaire disséminée, insuffisance rénale aigue avec recours à l'hémodialyse, SDRA ou TRALI, atteinte neurologique grave, défaillance multiviscérale et arrêt cardiaque récupéré. PMID:26587127

  20. The Changing Milieu for Educational Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, George

    1995-01-01

    Three major demographic trends (immigration patterns, dissolution of the traditional family structure, and the emerging age profile of the United States population) and three social trends (socioeconomic polarization, growing importance of the Pacific Rim countries to American trade, and new communications technology) are examined as they affect…

  1. [The limits of Bruno Bettelheim's milieu therapy].

    PubMed

    Otto, B

    1992-11-01

    In this essay a position is taken concerning the reproaches against Bruno Bettelheim. Shortly after his death grave reproaches were risen by a former client of him. The reproaches cannot be refuted. But they have to be discussed in connection with Bruno Bettelheim's activities at the Orthogenic School of Chicago. By this example the authors tries to demonstrate the problem of over-taxing in psychiatric activities. PMID:1470599

  2. Plaque fluid as a bacterial milieu.

    PubMed

    Edgar, W M; Higham, S M

    1990-06-01

    Studies of the extracellular, free concentrations of substrates, growth factors, inhibitors, and end-products of metabolism to which the intact plaque microflora is exposed in situ can assist in the understanding of factors controlling plaque pathogenicity. Information is becoming increasingly available from analysis of fluid separated by centrifugation of plaques collected at various intervals after an intra-oral pulse of dietary or experimental substrate, or different procedures or treatments having cariostatic potential. Such analytical results give more information than those obtained by analysis of aqueous or other extracts, because they yield values of substrate concentration representing those occurring at the bacterial cell surface. The largest body of information concerns extracellular levels of acid end-products of sugar catabolism in relation to food quality or sequence, and of amino acids and other products of nitrogen metabolism, in relation to studies of the detailed metabolic events of the Stephan curve, and of the demineralizing effect of the plaque environment. Areas where little information is available and which merit further study include plaque clearance of salivary and other components with anti-caries activity (e.g., antibodies, enzymes, fluorides, cations, other antimicrobials, etc.), and substrate concentrations to determine gradients for diffusion into and out of plaque. PMID:2191982

  3. Temptation and Seduction in the Technological Milieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Laan, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Jacques Ellul's work on propaganda provides the basis for this analysis of life in technology. Advertising and the mass media rely on temptation and seduction and create a constant flow of propaganda, all of which serve the technological system. Propaganda aims to condition and regulate us so that we participate in and adapt ourselves to a desired…

  4. Teaching Your Tot to Talk: Using Milieu Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curiel, Emily S. L.; Sainato, Diane M.

    2016-01-01

    Both of these toddlers struggle with communication. Parents and practitioners working with very young children often struggle to find ways to enhance their toddlers' communication skills. They may question: When do I teach? What should I teach? Where do I teach? How do I teach? This article will provide suggestions and techniques to support the…

  5. Principal Leadership: Communication in a Changing Educational Milieu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gougeon, Thomas D.

    Issues in improving administrator communication in response to changing conditions within the school environment are examined in this paper. A communication model of leadership as social control is presented, based on the variables of personal orientation and motivation. A conclusion is that administrators must be prepared to understand the…

  6. Striding Toward Social Justice: The Ecologic Milieu of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Cubbin, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in physical activity should be investigated in light of social justice principles. This manuscript critically evaluates evidence and trends in disparities research within an ecologic framework, focusing on multi-level factors such as neighborhood and racial discrimination that influence physical activity. Discussion focuses on strategies for integrating social justice into physical activity promotion and intervention programming within an ecologic framework. PMID:19098519

  7. Communiquer en milieu interculturel (Communicating in an Intercultural Environment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanaprasart, Patchareerat, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    The articles, written in French, in this issue refer to research and intercultural practices with regard to confrontational situations between two or more cultural systems. The titles are as follows: "La culture universitaire comme culture en soi" (The University Culture as a Culture in Its Own Right) (Aline Gohard-Radenkovic); "Interrelations…

  8. [Normal and pathologic sebaceous function. Research in a shallow milieu?].

    PubMed

    Saint-Léger, D

    2003-07-01

    Modern therapeutic approaches allow to control sebaceous secretion but knowledge about the sebaceous gland and its precise function within the pilosebaceous unit is still insufficient. Steroid hormones are the principal albeit not exclusive regulators of the sebaceous glands. Three phases may be distinguished in sebaceous physiology: secretion-production, stocking in the follicular reservoir, and excretion. Human "native" intracellular sebum, before secretion, is composed of squalene, waxes, and triglycerides. Once secreted, the sebum is colonised by various xenobiots whose development is controlled by several defensive humoral mechanisms and by the contact with ambient oxygen. Oxygen and micro-organisms transform "native" sebum, lysis of triglycerides to fatty acids being the most pronounced activity. Certain components of this complex mixture of molecules present in the sebum are clearly cytotoxic or irritant, provoking reactive follicular hyperkeratosis and comedone formation--the first step to acne. Some lipophilic organisms like Malassezia yeast may be highly antigenic and induce chronic inflammatory reactions like in seborrhoeic dermatitis. Demodex is an inrafollicular parasite feeding on sebum that frequently causes blepharitis. Sebum is also a vehicle transporting and transmitting several endogenous and exogenous molecules, including potential regulatory factors of hair follicles. Recent development of in vitro cultures of functional sebocytes should help to better understand several aspects of the sebaceous gland's biology. PMID:14567194

  9. Telemedicine: socio-ethical considerations in the Indian milieu.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Luv K; Rajput, Meena

    2009-01-01

    Telemedicine is the rapidly developing application of clinical medicine by telephone, the internet or other networks for the purpose of consulting, and on occasions carrying out examinations or medical procedures. Telemedicine may be as simple as two health professionals discussing a case over the telephone, or as complex as using satellite technology and video-conferencing equipment to conduct a real-time consultation between medical specialists in two different countries. Telemedicine offers real benefits in a country as vast as India where the majority of the population lives in remote areas with no access to even the most basic healthcare. As the practice of telemedicine spreads, maintaining standards, security and privacy, will be a challenge especially with regard to legal and regulatory measures and who will be held responsible if telemedicine-assisted surgery fails due to failure in connectivity? Is it the surgeon, the satellite provider or the software/hardware engineer? What is the legal status of telemedicine-based diagnosis and treatment? Other legal issues involve conflicting national laws and information piracy, the dangers of prescription drugs that are banned in one country but not in another and quacks who offer medical advice and prescribe drugs over the internet. This paper discusses some of the legal, ethical and social considerations in the Indian context. PMID:19731480

  10. The Roosevelt years: crucial milieu for Carl Rogers' innovation.

    PubMed

    Barrett-Lennard, Godfrey T

    2012-02-01

    This study explores broad features of political culture and event of the 1930s and World War 2 years, viewed in relation to the emergence and rapid early growth of the new therapy of Carl Rogers. The paper traces Rogers' early professional life and examines distinctive emphases in sociopolitical thought and development during Franklin D. Roosevelt's leadership as President over the prolonged emergency of the Great Depression and the crisis of the War. The study includes a focus on the President's own outlook and style, pertinent New Deal innovations, and wartime needs. Twelve features of this larger context are discriminated as together having vital importance for the new therapy and its founder. The congruent courses of the macrocontext and of Rogers' innovation are followed to the ending of Roosevelt's life. Direct causation is not attributed, but the evidence adduced newly points to particular contours of a larger environment favorable for the expression of Rogers' values and rare ability. In sum, the author concludes that a synergy of highly conducive historical circumstance and individual exceptionality contributed to the philosophical underpinnings, attitudinal values and early momentum of Rogers' client-centered therapy. PMID:22530376

  11. Chronic Glucocorticoid-Rich Milieu and Liver Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Villagarcía, Hernán Gonzalo; Sabugo, Vanesa; Castro, María Cecilia; Schinella, Guillermo; Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Spinedi, Eduardo; Massa, María Laura; Francini, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the impact of chronic hypercorticosteronemia (due to neonatal monosodium L-glutamate, MSG, and treatment) on liver oxidative stress (OS), inflammation, and carbohydrate/lipid metabolism in adult male rats. We evaluated the peripheral concentrations of several metabolic and OS markers and insulin resistance indexes. In liver we assessed (a) OS (GSH and protein carbonyl groups) and inflammatory (IL-1b, TNFa, and PAI-1) biomarkers and (b) carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms. MSG rats displayed degenerated optic nerves, hypophagia, low body and liver weights, and enlarged adipose tissue mass; higher peripheral levels of glucose, triglycerides, insulin, uric acid, leptin, corticosterone, transaminases and TBARS, and peripheral and liver insulin resistance; elevated liver OS, inflammation markers, and glucokinase (mRNA/activity) and fructokinase (mRNA). Additionally, MSG liver phosphofructokinase-2, glucose-6-phosphatase (mRNA and activity) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, Chrebp, Srebp1c, fatty acid synthase, and glycerol-3-phosphate (mRNAs) were increased. In conclusion adult MSG rats developed an insulin-resistant state and increased OS and serious hepatic dysfunction characterized by inflammation and metabolic signs suggesting increased lipogenesis. These features, shared by both metabolic and Cushing's syndrome human phenotypes, support that a chronic glucocorticoid-rich endogenous environment mainly impacts on hepatic glucose cycle, displacing local metabolism to lipogenesis. Whether correcting the glucocorticoid-rich environment ameliorates such dysfunctions requires further investigation. PMID:27597864

  12. Literacy in a Non-Literacy Milieu: The Indian Scenario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraf, S. N.

    Section 1 of this report develops the thesis that while illiteracy is deeply entrenched in certain areas of India, it is also confined to specific pockets of the population. Recognition of this fact should be the basis, according to the author, of literacy strategy. Section 2 provides a history of the levels of priority given to adult education…

  13. New Frontiers: "Milieu" and the Sociology of American Jewish Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Bethamie

    2008-01-01

    Over the course of the twentieth century changing circumstances have prompted American Jewish educators to develop new educational strategies to address these needs, and these developments are an important aspect of the sociology of American Jewish education. Using the method of historical sociology, I examine the educational configuration at…

  14. Chronic Glucocorticoid-Rich Milieu and Liver Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Castro, María Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the impact of chronic hypercorticosteronemia (due to neonatal monosodium L-glutamate, MSG, and treatment) on liver oxidative stress (OS), inflammation, and carbohydrate/lipid metabolism in adult male rats. We evaluated the peripheral concentrations of several metabolic and OS markers and insulin resistance indexes. In liver we assessed (a) OS (GSH and protein carbonyl groups) and inflammatory (IL-1b, TNFa, and PAI-1) biomarkers and (b) carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms. MSG rats displayed degenerated optic nerves, hypophagia, low body and liver weights, and enlarged adipose tissue mass; higher peripheral levels of glucose, triglycerides, insulin, uric acid, leptin, corticosterone, transaminases and TBARS, and peripheral and liver insulin resistance; elevated liver OS, inflammation markers, and glucokinase (mRNA/activity) and fructokinase (mRNA). Additionally, MSG liver phosphofructokinase-2, glucose-6-phosphatase (mRNA and activity) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, Chrebp, Srebp1c, fatty acid synthase, and glycerol-3-phosphate (mRNAs) were increased. In conclusion adult MSG rats developed an insulin-resistant state and increased OS and serious hepatic dysfunction characterized by inflammation and metabolic signs suggesting increased lipogenesis. These features, shared by both metabolic and Cushing's syndrome human phenotypes, support that a chronic glucocorticoid-rich endogenous environment mainly impacts on hepatic glucose cycle, displacing local metabolism to lipogenesis. Whether correcting the glucocorticoid-rich environment ameliorates such dysfunctions requires further investigation. PMID:27597864

  15. [Prognosis of twin deliveries in an African milieu].

    PubMed

    Meye, J F; Zue, A S; Ngou, J P; Engongah-Beka, T

    2001-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective study of 101 multiple pregnancies between January 1st 1997 and June 30 1999, to investigate the prognosis of twin deliveries at the Josephine Bongo Maternity Unit. The frequency of twin deliveries was 2.22%, corresponding to over 1 in 45 deliveries. Mean birth weight was 2,309.6 +/- 369.31 g for the first twin and 2,234.31 +/- 397.58 g for the second twin. The frequency of cesarean section was 11% for the first twin and 18% for the second twin. The neonatal mortality rate was 30 per thousand for the first twin and 50 per thousand for the second twin. The reorganization of mother and child health services would help to improve fetal prognosis in twin deliveries. PMID:11440883

  16. Urban Education: The Relationship Between Schools and the Urban Milieu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Petra Elizabeth

    Changes in the metropolitan environment and its population, and the inability of public school systems to respond to these changes, are discussed in this paper. The author states that public school systems are closed systems which are inflexible and resistant to change, and are therefore unable to meet the challenges posed by the massive changes…

  17. Photodynamic Therapy: The Imminent Milieu For Treating Oral Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Neeta; Jalaluddin, MD; Kotina, Sreekanth; Routray, Samapika; Ingale, Yashwant

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used in curative and palliative treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and other oral lesions. Oral infections (such as mucosal and endodontic infections, periodontal diseases, caries, and peri-implantitis) are among the specific targets where PDT can be applied Photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy depends on the local dose deposited in the lesion as well as oxygen availability in the lesion. Further long-term clinical studies are necessary in establishing a more specific place of the technique in the field of dentistry. PMID:23905154

  18. [Risk management in the hospital milieu: needs and implications].

    PubMed

    Wasserfallen, J B; Droz, P O; Tissot, J D

    2001-11-01

    Medicine can be dangerous for the patients, the caregivers, the visitors and the environment. Technological progress provides devices and drugs that are always more powerful, more efficacious, but at the same time able to lead to severe side effects. This paper describes the system set up in a university hospital to fulfill legal requirements. Specialists in specific fields build up commissions, which are united in a coordination office. A general policy for the hospital has been decided, but each commission is responsible for managing the risks in its field. The overall philosophy moved from a quality assurance to a quality management system, in which the employee involved in an incident or an accident is no longer considered the only culprit except in cases of obvious violation of established procedures. In order to be efficient, the system must be as simple as possible, and well known, so that collaborators gain confidence in it. Once this cultural revolution is accomplished, quality but also security of the procedures will be improved. Its impact on cost is more questionable, as the system generates running costs which might be higher than the savings it might bring. PMID:11765561

  19. Le pompage optique naturel dans le milieu astrophysique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    The title of this lecture abstracts only a part of it : the importance in astrophysics of the study of non-LTE situations has become considerable, as well in the stellar atmospheres as, still more, in the study of fortuitous coincidences as a mechanism of formation of emission line nebular spectra, or of molecular interstellar « masers ». Another part of this talk underlines the role of Kastler in his time, and describes his warm personality through his public reactions in front of the nuclear armement, of the Viet-Nam and Algerian wars, of the problems of political refugees... Kastler was a great scientist ; he was also a courageous humanist. 1976 : Les accords nucléaires du Brésil : allocution d'ouverture (19 mars). Colloque sur le sujet ci-dessus. 1976 : La promotion de la culture dans le nouvel ordre économique international, allocution à l'occasion d'une table ronde sur ce thème par l'UNESCO (23-27 juin 1976) ; « Sciences et Techniques », octobre 1976. 1979 : La bête immonde (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Matin », 20 mars. 1979 : Appel à nos ministres (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Monde », 13 décembre. 1979 : Le flou, le ténébreux, l'irrationnel (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Monde », 14 septembre. 1980 : Education à la paix, Préface, in : Publ. UNESCO. 1981 : Le vrai danger, « Le Monde », 6 août 1981. 1982 : Nucléaire civil et militaire, « Le Monde », 1er juin 1982. 1982 : Les scientifiques face à la perspective d'holocauste nucléaire (texte inédit). Le titre de cette communication en résume seulement une partie : l'importance prise en astrophysique par l'analyse des situations hors ETL est devenue considérable, qu'il s'agisse des atmosphères stellaires, ou plus encore, des coïncidences fortuites de la formation des spectres d'émission nébulaires, ou des « masers » moléculaires interstellaires. Une autre partie de cet exposé souligne le rôle de Kastler dans son époque, et décrit sa personnalité généreuse à travers ses réactions publiques face à l'armement nucléaire, aux guerres de Viet-Nam et d'Algérie, aux problèmes des réfugiés politiques... Kastler était un grand savant, mais aussi un homme courageux.

  20. Langage, normes et repertoire en milieu urbain africain: L'indoubill (Language, Norms, and Repertoire in the African Urban Milieu: Indoubill).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesep, N'Sial Bal-Nsien

    A study explored, from a sociolinguistic perspective, the phenomenon of indoubill, patterns and usage of a special variety of Lingala, among a group of delinquent urban youth in Kinshasa (Zaire). It is proposed that: (1) at a particular moment in its social history, the community experienced sociocultural change that brought with it a special…

  1. Homeostasis, the Milieu Intérieur, and the Wisdom of the Nephron

    PubMed Central

    Zeidel, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of homeostasis has been inextricably linked to the function of the kidneys for more than a century when it was recognized that the kidneys had the ability to maintain the “internal milieu” and allow organisms the “physiologic freedom” to move into varying environments and take in varying diets and fluids. Early ingenious, albeit rudimentary, experiments unlocked a wealth of secrets on the mechanisms involved in the formation of urine and renal handling of the gamut of electrolytes, as well as that of water, acid, and protein. Recent scientific advances have confirmed these prescient postulates such that the modern clinician is the beneficiary of a rich understanding of the nephron and the kidney’s critical role in homeostasis down to the molecular level. This review summarizes those early achievements and provides a framework and introduction for the new CJASN series on renal physiology. PMID:24789550

  2. Increasing Social Interaction Using Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching with Nonverbal School-Age Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Jessica H.; Davis, Barbara L.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Children with autism display marked deficits in initiating and maintaining social interaction. Intervention using play routines can create a framework for developing and maintaining social interaction between these children and their communication partners. Method: Six nonverbal 5- to 8-year-olds with autism were taught to engage in…

  3. An Analysis of Brousseau's Milieu in a Community College's Calculus Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the writings of the French educational psychologist Guy Brousseau to see how his situation-centered theories shed light on the learning in a computer laboratory associated with a community college mathematics class. Like the community college's laboratory, Brousseau's theories intend to help students construct mathematical…

  4. Modulating the Immune Response Towards a Neuroregenerative Peri-injury Milieu After Cerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Klebe, Damon; McBride, Devin; Flores, Jerry J; Zhang, John H; Tang, Jiping

    2015-12-01

    Cerebral hemorrhages account for 15-20 % of stroke sub-types and have very poor prognoses. The mortality rate for cerebral hemorrhage patients is between 40 and 50 %, of which at least half of the deaths occur within the first 2 days, and 75 % of survivors are incapable of living independently after 1 year. Current emergency interventions involve lowering blood pressure and reducing intracranial pressure by controlled ventilations or, in the worst case scenarios, surgical intervention. Some hemostatic and coagulatherapeutic interventions are being investigated, although a few that were promising in experimental studies have failed in clinical trials. No significant immunomodulatory intervention, however, exists for clinical management of cerebral hemorrhage. The inflammatory response following cerebral hemorrhage is particularly harmful in the acute stage because blood-brain barrier disruption is amplified and surrounding tissue is destroyed by secreted proteases and reactive oxygen species from infiltrated leukocytes. In this review, we discuss both the destructive and regenerative roles the immune response play following cerebral hemorrhage and focus on microglia, macrophages, and T-lymphocytes as the primary agents directing the response. Microglia, macrophages, and T-lymphocytes each have sub-types that significantly influence the over-arching immune response towards either a pro-inflammatory, destructive, or an anti-inflammatory, regenerative, state. Both pre-clinical and clinical studies of cerebral hemorrhages that selectively target these immune cells are reviewed and we suggest immunomodulatory therapies that reduce inflammation, while augmenting neural repair, will improve overall cerebral hemorrhage outcomes. PMID:25946986

  5. Foregut Exclusion Disrupts Intestinal Glucose Sensing and Alters Portal Nutrient and Hormonal Milieu

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Atanu; Rhoads, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetes effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are well-known, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Isolating the proximal small intestine, and in particular its luminal glucose sensors, from the nutrient stream has been proposed as a critical change, but the pathways involved are unclear. In a rodent model, we tested the effects of isolating and then stimulating a segment of proximal intestine using glucose analogs to examine their impact on glucose absorption (Gabsorp) and hormone secretion after a glucose bolus into the distal jejunum. Analogs selective for sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) family members and the sweet taste receptor were tested, and measurements of the portosystemic gradient were used to determine Gabsorp and hormone secretion, including GLP-1. Proximal intestinal isolation reduced Gabsorp and GLP-1 secretion. Stimulation of the glucose-sensing protein SGLT3 increased Gabsorp and GLP-1 secretion. These effects were abolished by vagotomy. Sweet taste receptor stimulation only increased GLP-1 secretion. This study suggests a novel role for SGLT3 in coordinating intestinal function, as reflected by the concomitant modulation of Gabsorp and GLP-1 secretion, with these effects being mediated by the vagus nerve. Our findings provide potential mechanistic insights into foregut exclusion in RYGB and identify SGLT3 as a possible antidiabetes therapeutic target. PMID:25576062

  6. Tyr99 phosphorylation determines the regulatory milieu of tumor suppressor p73.

    PubMed

    Satija, Y K; Das, S

    2016-01-28

    p73 is a member of the p53 tumor suppressor family, which mediates genotoxic stress response by triggering cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Similar to p53, p73 is maintained at very low levels, but it gets rapidly induced upon genotoxic stress. Mounting evidences demonstrate that p73 is primarily regulated posttranslationally. However, the molecular mechanisms which determine its stability and activity discerningly under normal and stress conditions are still not well understood. Here, we employed a proteomics approach to identify differential interactors of p73 under normal and genotoxic stress conditions. We report here that TRIM28, an E3 ligase, interacts with p73 and targets it for proteasomal degradation under normal conditions. Genotoxic stress-induced phosphorylation of p73 at tyrosine 99 residue by c-abl kinase leads to abrogation of this interaction thereby promoting p73 stabilization. Furthermore, the phosphorylated form of p73 specifically interacts with MED15, which serves as a transcriptional coactivator and leads to activation of proarrest, proapoptotic and anti-metastatic genes. RNAi-mediated abrogation of TRIM28 expression facilitates p73-mediated tumor suppression in mouse tumor models, whereas disruption of MED15 expression abrogates p73 tumor suppressor and anti-metastatic functions. These findings provide new insights into the pivotal role of Tyr99 phosphorylation in determining p73 levels and functions. PMID:25893286

  7. Synthese de nanoparticules plasmoniques par laser femtoseconde en milieu liquide pour des applications biomedicales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besner, Sebastien

    The femtosecond laser synthesis of plasmonic nanoparticles (Au, Ag, Cu, AuAg, AuCu) is described. The approach relies on the fs laser ablation of a target immersed in a liquid, followed by the laser-induced fragmentation and growth of nanoparticles in solution. This two-step methodology significantly enhances the production rate, the reproducibility and the size control of nanoparticles in comparison to the direct laser ablation based technique. For gold, the laser-induced growth of nanometric seeds initially formed by laser ablation in the presence of a stabilizing agent allows the synthesis of functionalized nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 3-76 nm and coefficients of variation (COV) varying between 15-30%. In comparison to the direct laser ablation, the size control is much simpler, as it uniquely depends on the gold to stabilizing agent molecular concentration ratio. The approach has been described for dextran and polyethylene glycol (PEG), but can be extended to all stabilizing agents and open new avenues in the formation of various novel bioconjugates. The fs laser ablation and fragmentation also allow the synthesis of stable and low dispersed Au nanoparticles in pure water. These nanoparticles are unique for sensing applications with high sensitivity based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), since they greatly reduce the noise associated with surface contaminants and byproducts found in solution. The formation of various nanospheres with predetermined size, shape and composition (AuxAg(1-x), AuxCu(1-x) ) is also reported by the use of a fs irradiation of a mixture of two pure metallic ix colloidal solutions in a very simple chemical environment, e.g. water and a stabilizing agent. From a chemical point of view, oxidation of silver nanoparticles is significantly reduced by the incorporation of a small amount of gold and is completely inhibited for a gold atomic fraction larger than 0.4-0.5. The bifunctional nature related to the partial oxidation of the gold nanoparticle surface allows a wide range of stabilization mechanisms. The stabilization by hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction, by hydrogen bonds formation, by chemisorptions of thiols and by electrostatic interactions is evaluated. A new class of stabilizing agents, biopolymers, is also introduced. The addition of these polymers during the laser ablation, fragmentation or growth process enables in situ surface functionalization and efficient size control. The biocompatibility of these stabilizers also allows the direct introduction of nanoparticles in in vitro or in vivo applications without further purification. Significant efforts have also been undertaken to check the possible degradation of the polymers used during the laser process. These studies demonstrate a low degradation via an oxidation mechanism, involving the production of free radicals and oxidizing species by dissociation of water molecules during the laser process. Finally, the mechanisms of laser ablation in liquids and a growth model for the nanoparticles are proposed based on experimental results from literature and this thesis. The formation of nanoparticles is described by three distinct phases. First, a fast nucleation and condensation of the ejected species occur in the plasma and are caused by extremely high cooling rates, which lead to a strong supersaturation. This short nucleation and condensation phase is followed by a marked growth of the liquid (and still hot) nuclei by coalescence. After solidification, these nuclei should have sizes below 2 nm and be mostly condensed at the liquid-vapor interface of the growing cavitation bubble. Without the presence of stabilizing agent, growth by atomic diffusion and coalescence continue inside the cavitation bubble and should be accelerated following its collapse. Nanoparticles and unreacted monomers are then propelled out of the ablation zone by the secondary shock wave associated with the collapse of the cavitation bubble and further grow in solution. This cycle is repeated for each laser pulse and interaction between species in solution and the ablated species and/or the incident radiation is expected to occur based on the geometry of the ablation cell. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  8. Learning Experiences of Gifted Young String Players in the Taiwan Milieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chia-Hui

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of the learning experiences of gifted young string players in Taiwan. Nine musicians under the age of 40, who had been accepted into music programs for the gifted, were invited to discuss their experiences and the development of their careers. Thorough interviews were conducted and then…

  9. Endocrine milieu and developmental dynamics of ovarian cysts and persistent follicles in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roth, Z; Biran, D; Lavon, Y; Dafni, I; Yakobi, S; Braw-Tal, R

    2012-04-01

    Ovarian follicular cysts and persistent follicles are follicular pathologies involved in reduced fertility of dairy cows. Two separate experiments were performed on high-yielding Holstein cows to characterize ovarian cyclicity and evaluate the developmental dynamics of follicle pathologies postpartum. In experiment 1, 58 cows were monitored by ultrasonography twice weekly from d 18±1 to 69±2 postpartum. First ovulation occurred 38±3, 27±2, 20±1, and 25±3 d postpartum in cows with 1 cycle (n=11), 2 cycles (n=21), 3 cycles (n=13), and 4 cycles (n=7), respectively. Follicular pathologies were developed in cows that were either acyclic (n=6) or had 1 or 2 cycles, but not in cows with more than 2 cycles. In experiment 2, 47 cows were monitored twice weekly from 10 d postpartum to second ovulation. Follicles ≥17 mm in diameter in 2 consecutive scans were aspirated, and concentrations of various hormones were measured. Cows were defined as cyclic (n=30; 64%) or with the potential to develop follicular pathology (n=17; 36%). Aspirated follicles (n=27) were classified into 3 main groups based on follicular growth rate, follicular diameter, and ovarian activity before and after follicular aspiration. Dominant follicles (n=4) were defined as large follicles (20 mm in diameter) with growth rate ≤1 mm/d and normal ovarian activity. Persistent follicles (n=6) had the same growth rate and diameter as the dominant follicles, but persisted at the same diameter for ≥10 d. Ovarian cysts (n=17) were defined as the largest follicular structures (19 to 32 mm in diameter), with abnormal growth rate (>1 mm/d) and abnormal ovarian activity. Single or turnover cysts did not differ in their growth parameters and were therefore combined and further classified according to follicular-fluid hormone concentrations. Estradiol-dominant cysts (n=7) were characterized by normal estradiol (284 to 659 ng/mL) and progesterone (20 to 113 ng/mL) concentrations, similar to those of the dominant follicle (554 to 993 ng/mL and 44 to 106 ng/mL, respectively). Progesterone-dominant cysts (n=5) were characterized by low estradiol (0.06 to 330 ng/mL) and high progesterone (586 to 3,288 ng/mL) concentrations. Low-steroidogenic active cysts (n=5) were characterized by low concentrations of both estradiol (23 to 61 ng/mL) and progesterone (17 to 205 ng/mL). Characterization of spontaneously forming cysts might enable definition of the formation of ovarian follicular pathologies in postpartum cows. PMID:22459821

  10. Immunology by numbers: quantitation of antigen presentation completes the quantitative milieu of systems immunology!

    PubMed

    Purcell, Anthony W; Croft, Nathan P; Tscharke, David C

    2016-06-01

    We review approaches to quantitate antigen presentation using a variety of biological and biochemical readouts and highlight the emerging role of mass spectrometry (MS) in defining and quantifying MHC-bound peptides presented at the cell surface. The combination of high mass accuracy in the determination of the molecular weight of the intact peptide of interest and its signature pattern of fragmentation during tandem MS provide an unambiguous and definitive identification. This is in contrast to the potential receptor cross-reactivity towards closely related peptides and variable dose responsiveness seen in biological readouts. In addition, we gaze into the not too distant future where big data approaches in MS can be accommodated to quantify whole immunopeptidomes both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27060633

  11. Characteristics of peri-implantation porcine concepti population and maternal milieu influence the transcriptome profile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asynchrony of trophectoderm elongation, gestational days 11-12, is evident in porcine concepti and rapid progression through this phase has been associated with conceptus competency. The goal of the current study was to determine the extent of transcriptomic responses of concepti to developmental ...

  12. Children with Anxiety Disorders: Use of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Model within a Social Milieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearny, Regina; Pawlukewicz, Justine; Guardino, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Because anxiety is the most common mental health disorder diagnosed in children, early intervention is crucial for fundamental coping. Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the preferred treatment method for this affective disorder, instruction for children needs to be specific for them to successfully acquire and implement essential CBT…

  13. The Antikythera Mechanism: The oldest mechanical universe in its scientific milieu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussas, Xenophon

    2011-06-01

    In this review the oldest known advanced astronomical instrument and dedicated analogue computer is presented, in context. The Antikythera Mechanism a mysterious device, assumed to be ahead of its time, probably made around 150 to 100 BCE, has been found in a 1st century BCE shipwreck near the island of Antikythera in a huge ship full of Greek treasures that were on their way to Rome. The Antikythera Mechanism is a clock-like device made of bronze gears, which looks much more advanced than its contemporary technological achievements. It is based on mathematics attributed to the Hipparchus and possibly carries knowledge and tradition that goes back to Archimedes, who according to ancient texts constructed several automata, including astronomical devices, a mechanical planetarium and a celestial sphere. The Antikythera Mechanism probably had a beautiful and expensive box; looking possibly like a very elaborate miniature Greek Temple, perhaps decorated with golden ornaments, of an elegant Hellenistic style, even perhaps with automatic statuettes, `daemons', functioning as pointers that performed some of its operations. Made out of appropriately tailored trains of gears that enable to perform specialised calculations, the mechanism carries concentric scales and pointers, in one side showing the position of the Sun in the ecliptic and the sky, possibly giving the time, hour of the day or night, like a clock. The position of the Moon and its phase is also shown during the month. On the other side of the Mechanism, having probably the size of a box (main part 32×20×6 cm), are two large spiral scales with two pointers showing the time in two different very long calendars, the first one concerning the eclipses, and lasting 18 years 11 days and 8 hours, the Saros period, repeating the solar and lunar eclipses, and enabling their prediction, and the 19 year cycle of Meton, that is the period the Moon reappears in the same place of the sky, with the same phase. An additional four-year dial shows the year of all Greek Festivities, the so-called `games' (Olympic, Pythian, Isthmian etc). Two additional dials give the Exeligmos, the 54 year and 34 day cycle, which provides a more accurate prediction of eclipses. It is possible that the Mechanism was also equipped with a planetary show display, as three of the planets and their motion (stationary points) are mentioned many times in the manual of the instrument, so it was also a planetarium. From the manual we have hints that the mechanism was probably also an observational instrument, as having instructions concerning a viewfinder and possibly how to orient the viewfinder to pass a sunbeam through it, probably measuring the altitude of the Sun. There are fragmented sentences that probably give instructions on how to move the pointers to set the position of the Sun, the Moon and the planets in their initial places in the ecliptic, on a specific day, or how to measure angular distances between two celestial bodies or their coordinates. This mechanism is definitely not the first one of its kind. The fact that it is accompanied with instructions means that the constructor had in its mind to be used by somebody else and one posits that he made at least another similar instrument.

  14. Caracterisation des occupations du sol en milieu urbain par imagerie radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codjia, Claude

    This study aims to test the relevance of medium and high-resolution SAR images on the characterization of the types of land use in urban areas. To this end, we have relied on textural approaches based on second-order statistics. Specifically, we look for texture parameters most relevant for discriminating urban objects. We have used in this regard Radarsat-1 in fine polarization mode and Radarsat-2 HH fine mode in dual and quad polarization and ultrafine mode HH polarization. The land uses sought were dense building, medium density building, low density building, industrial and institutional buildings, low density vegetation, dense vegetation and water. We have identified nine texture parameters for analysis, grouped into families according to their mathematical definitions in a first step. The parameters of similarity / dissimilarity include Homogeneity, Contrast, the Differential Inverse Moment and Dissimilarity. The parameters of disorder are Entropy and the Second Angular Momentum. The Standard Deviation and Correlation are the dispersion parameters and the Average is a separate family. It is clear from experience that certain combinations of texture parameters from different family used in classifications yield good results while others produce kappa of very little interest. Furthermore, we realize that if the use of several texture parameters improves classifications, its performance ceils from three parameters. The calculation of correlations between the textures and their principal axes confirm the results. Despite the good performance of this approach based on the complementarity of texture parameters, systematic errors due to the cardinal effects remain on classifications. To overcome this problem, a radiometric compensation model was developed based on the radar cross section (SER). A radar simulation from the digital surface model of the environment allowed us to extract the building backscatter zones and to analyze the related backscatter. Thus, we were able to devise a strategy of compensation of cardinal effects solely based on the responses of the objects according to their orientation from the plane of illumination through the radar's beam. It appeared that a compensation algorithm based on the radar cross section was appropriate. Some examples of the application of this algorithm on HH polarized RADARSAT-2 images are presented as well. Application of this algorithm will allow considerable gains with regard to certain forms of automation (classification and segmentation) at the level of radar imagery thus generating a higher level of quality in regard to visual interpretation. Application of this algorithm on RADARSAT-1 and RADARSAT-2 images with HH, HV, VH, and VV polarisations helped make considerable gains and eliminate most of the classification errors due to the cardinal effects.

  15. Modulating Intrafollicular Hormonal Milieu in Controlled Ovarian Stimulation: Insights From PPAR Expression in Human Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Tatone, Carla; Benedetti, Elisabetta; Vitti, Maurizio; Di Emidio, Giovanna; Ciriminna, Rosanna; Vento, Maria Elena; Cela, Vito; Borzì, Placido; Carta, Gaspare; Lispi, Monica; Cimini, Anna Maria; Artini, Paolo Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) leading to ovulation of multiple follicles is a crucial aspect of biomedical infertility care. Nevertheless, biomarkers useful for COS management are still lacking. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors relevant to steroid metabolism in granulosa cells (GCs). We investigated whether PPARs and their steroidogenic targets were differentially expressed in GCs differentiated under different recombinant or urinary gonadotropin preparations. GCs from women subjected to COS with r-hFSH, r-hFSH/r-hLH, or hMG-HP were processed to assess expression of PPARα, PPARβ/δ, PPARγ, and steroidogenic enzymes under PPAR modulation. As an evidence of their activation, all PPAR isotypes with their coactivators, the retinoic-X-receptors (RXRs), localized in the nucleus. When GCs from r-hFSH/r-hLH group were compared with r-hFSH, a significant reduction of PPARα protein was observed. By contrast, an increase of PPARβ/δ at both protein and mRNA levels along with that of PPARγ protein were detected. The steroidogenic enzymes 17βHSD IV, 3βHSD II, and HMG-CoA red were downregulated in the r-hFSH/r-hLH group in comparison to r-hFSH unlike CYP19A1 that remained unchanged. In GCs from urinary FSH-LH stimulation (hMG-HP), PPARα was more expressed in comparison with r-hFSH/r-hLH group. Likewise, 3βHSD II and 17βHSD IV were increased suggesting that hMG-HP partially mimicked r-hFSH/r-hLH effects. In summary, transcript analysis associated to protein investigation revealed differential effects of COS protocols on PPARs and their steroidogenic targets in relation to LH and gonadotropin source. These observations candidate PPARs as new biomarkers of follicle competence opening new hypotheses on COS effects on ovarian physiology. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 908-914, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26332656

  16. Increasing Math Milieu Teaching by Varying Levels of Consultation Support: An Example of Analyzing Intervention Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsicano, Richard T.; Morrison, Julie Q.; Moomaw, Sally C.; Fite, Nathan M.; Kluesener, Courtney M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study used a single-case design to examine two performance feedback conditions varying in intensity on the frequency of naturalistic math instruction in preschool classrooms during non-instructional times (transition, lunch, free play). Three Head Start teachers received professional development that combined information on four…

  17. Peri-Implantation Hormonal Milieu: Elucidating Mechanisms of Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mainigi, Monica; Rosenzweig, Jason M; Lei, Jun; Mensah, Virginia; Thomaier, Lauren; Talbot, C Conover; Olalere, Devvora; Ord, Teri; Rozzah, Rayyan; Johnston, Michael V; Burd, Irina

    2016-06-01

    While live births resulting from assisted reproductive technology (ART) exceed 1% of total births annually, the effect of ART on fetal development is not well understood. Data have demonstrated that IVF leads to alterations in DNA methylation and gene expression in the placenta that may have long-term effects on health and disease. Studies have linked adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes to ART, although human studies are inconclusive. In order to isolate the peri-implantation environment and its effects on brain development, we utilized a mouse model with and without superovulation and examined the effect of adult behavior as well as adult cortical neuronal density. Adult offspring of superovulated dams showed increased anxiety-like behavior compared to offspring of naturally mated dams (P < .05). There was no difference in memory and learning tests between the 2 groups. The adult brains from offspring of superovulated recipients had fewer neurons per field compared to naturally mated control offspring (P < .05). In order to examine potential pathways leading to these changes, we measured messenger RNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression in fetal brains at E18.5. Microarray analysis found that miRNAs miR-122, miR-144, and miR-211, involved in regulation of neuronal migration and differentiation, were downregulated in brains of offspring exposed to a superovulated environment(P < .05). There was also altered expression of genes involved in neuronal development. These results suggest that the peri-implantation environment can affect neurodevelopment and can lead to behavioral changes in adulthood. Human studies with long-term follow-up of children from ART are necessary to further investigate the influence of ART on the offspring. PMID:26614264

  18. Targeting the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ to Counter the Inflammatory Milieu in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Corzo, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue, which was once viewed as a simple organ for storage of triglycerides, is now considered an important endocrine organ. Abnormal adipose tissue mass is associated with defects in endocrine and metabolic functions which are the underlying causes of the metabolic syndrome. Many adipokines, hormones secreted by adipose tissue, regulate cells from the immune system. Interestingly, most of these adipokines are proinflammatory mediators, which increase dramatically in the obese state and are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Drugs that target peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of diabetes. These findings, and the link between inflammation and the metabolic syndrome, will be reviewed here. PMID:24404510

  19. Effects of Polymer Hydrophobicity on Protein Structure and Aggregation Kinetics in Crowded Milieu.

    PubMed

    Breydo, Leonid; Sales, Amanda E; Frege, Telma; Howell, Mark C; Zaslavsky, Boris Y; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-05-19

    We examined the effects of water-soluble polymers of various degrees of hydrophobicity on the folding and aggregation of proteins. The polymers we chose were polyethylene glycol (PEG) and UCON (1:1 copolymer of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol). The presence of additional methyl groups in UCON makes it more hydrophobic than PEG. Our earlier analysis revealed that similarly sized PEG and UCON produced different changes in the solvent properties of water in their solutions and induced morphologically different α-synuclein aggregates [Ferreira, L. A., et al. (2015) Role of solvent properties of aqueous media in macromolecular crowding effects. J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn., in press]. To improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms defining behavior of proteins in a crowded environment, we tested the effects of these polymers on secondary and tertiary structure and aromatic residue solvent accessibility of 10 proteins [five folded proteins, two hybrid proteins; i.e., protein containing ordered and disordered domains, and three intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs)] and on the aggregation kinetics of insulin and α-synuclein. We found that effects of both polymers on secondary and tertiary structures of folded and hybrid proteins were rather limited with slight unfolding observed in some cases. Solvent accessibility of aromatic residues was significantly increased for the majority of the studied proteins in the presence of UCON but not PEG. PEG also accelerated the aggregation of protein into amyloid fibrils, whereas UCON promoted aggregation to amyloid oligomers instead. These results indicate that even a relatively small change in polymer structure leads to a significant change in the effect of this polymer on protein folding and aggregation. This is an indication that protein folding and especially aggregation are highly sensitive to the presence of other macromolecules, and an excluded volume effect is insufficient to describe their effect. PMID:25919930

  20. Teledetection passive et processus decisionnel a reference spatiale: Application a l'aquaculture en milieu marin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habbane, Mohamed

    L'objectif de cette etude est d'elaborer un processus decisionnel a reference spatiale (PDRS) pour la mariculture. Le PDRS est applique aux eaux cotieres de la baie des Chaleurs, dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent (Canada). Une carte preliminaire regionale d'indices du potentiel maricole, d'une limite de resolution spatiale de 1 kmsp2, est produite avec des parametres du niveau 1. Ces parametres englobent la temperature de l'eau de surface, extraite des images AVHRR, la salinite, les courants ainsi que les pigments chlorophylliens, quantifies a l'aide de mesures in situ. Les images AVHRR, prises en 1994, ont ete utiliees comme reference primaire pour selectionner des aires pouvant supporter une activite maricole sur la cote nord de la baie des Chaleurs. La temperature de surface extraite de ces images permet une analyse mesoechelle a la fois qualitative et quantitative des processus cotiers observes pendant la periode d'acquisition des donnees. Les autres donnees, soit la salinite, les courants et les concentrations en pigments chlorophylliens, sont analysees de facon a identifier la variabilite spatio-temporelle des caracteristiques des eaux de surface. L'ensemble des informations permet de produire une carte preliminaire regionale d'indices du potentiel maricole de la partie centrale de la baie des Chaleurs. Selon cet indice (defini entre 0 et 1), le secteur de potentiel aquicole de 0,5 a 0,75 s'etend sur une superficie d'environ 300 kmsp2. La localisation de cette aire potentielle est en accord avec les fortes concentrations en pigments chlrophylliens, presentant des conditions environnementales ideales a une haute productivite biologique. Par la suite la carte preliminaire est modifiee en tenant compte des parametres du niveau 2. Ces parametres sont la geomorphologie littorale, la bathymetrie, les sediments en suspension, les vents, les vagues, le debit d'eau douce, la glace marine, le carbone organique dissous, les aires de peche et les sources de pollution. Ces parametres sont compares deux a deux par rapport a la carte preliminaire regionale d'indices du potentiel maricole pour determiner leur poids relatif. La carte finale produite avec ces parametres du niveau 2 presente un secteur ou les indices du potentiel maricole sont de 0,5 a 0,75. Ce secteur longe la cote et epouse les isobathes de 10 a 30 m de profondeur. L'effet de la profondeur d'eau semble avoir jouer un role important. Le secteur de potentiel maricole de 0,25 a 0,5 est toujours present et couvre une superficie d'environ 426 kmsp2. L'etude necessitera toujours un suivi des conditions environnementales prevalant dans la region. Ce suivi peut etre effectue a l'aide d'un outil de vision aerospatiale (capteurs de teledetection) et d'analyse spatio-temporelle (SIG-PDRS). (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  1. Expression profiling of lymph nodes in tuberculosis patients reveal inflammatory milieu at site of infection

    PubMed Central

    Maji, Abhijit; Misra, Richa; Kumar Mondal, Anupam; Kumar, Dhirendra; Bajaj, Divya; Singhal, Anshika; Arora, Gunjan; Bhaduri, Asani; Sajid, Andaleeb; Bhatia, Sugandha; Singh, Sompal; Singh, Harshvardhan; Rao, Vivek; Dash, Debasis; Baby Shalini, E; Sarojini Michael, Joy; Chaudhary, Anil; Gokhale, Rajesh S.; Singh, Yogendra

    2015-01-01

    Extrapulmonary manifestations constitute 15 to 20% of tuberculosis cases, with lymph node tuberculosis (LNTB) as the most common form of infection. However, diagnosis and treatment advances are hindered by lack of understanding of LNTB biology. To identify host response, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected lymph nodes from LNTB patients were studied by means of transcriptomics and quantitative proteomics analyses. The selected targets obtained by comparative analyses were validated by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. This approach provided expression data for 8,728 transcripts and 102 proteins, differentially regulated in the infected human lymph node. Enhanced inflammation with upregulation of T-helper1-related genes, combined with marked dysregulation of matrix metalloproteinases, indicates tissue damage due to high immunoactivity at infected niche. This expression signature was accompanied by significant upregulation of an immunoregulatory gene, leukotriene A4 hydrolase, at both transcript and protein levels. Comparative transcriptional analyses revealed LNTB-specific perturbations. In contrast to pulmonary TB-associated increase in lipid metabolism, genes involved in fatty-acid metabolism were found to be downregulated in LNTB suggesting differential lipid metabolic signature. This study investigates the tissue molecular signature of LNTB patients for the first time and presents findings that indicate the possible mechanism of disease pathology through dysregulation of inflammatory and tissue-repair processes. PMID:26469538

  2. Foregut exclusion disrupts intestinal glucose sensing and alters portal nutrient and hormonal milieu.

    PubMed

    Pal, Atanu; Rhoads, David B; Tavakkoli, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The antidiabetes effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are well-known, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Isolating the proximal small intestine, and in particular its luminal glucose sensors, from the nutrient stream has been proposed as a critical change, but the pathways involved are unclear. In a rodent model, we tested the effects of isolating and then stimulating a segment of proximal intestine using glucose analogs to examine their impact on glucose absorption (Gabsorp) and hormone secretion after a glucose bolus into the distal jejunum. Analogs selective for sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) family members and the sweet taste receptor were tested, and measurements of the portosystemic gradient were used to determine Gabsorp and hormone secretion, including GLP-1. Proximal intestinal isolation reduced Gabsorp and GLP-1 secretion. Stimulation of the glucose-sensing protein SGLT3 increased Gabsorp and GLP-1 secretion. These effects were abolished by vagotomy. Sweet taste receptor stimulation only increased GLP-1 secretion. This study suggests a novel role for SGLT3 in coordinating intestinal function, as reflected by the concomitant modulation of Gabsorp and GLP-1 secretion, with these effects being mediated by the vagus nerve. Our findings provide potential mechanistic insights into foregut exclusion in RYGB and identify SGLT3 as a possible antidiabetes therapeutic target. PMID:25576062

  3. Changes in Personality Disorder Traits Following 2 Years of Treatment in a Secure Therapeutic Community Milieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Catrin; Taylor, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic community treatment models have not previously been applied to forensic patients with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs) with a comorbid diagnosis of personality disorder. Thirteen patients with mild IDs were allocated to a unit within a high secure psychiatric service operating a model of treatment based on the principles and…

  4. mTOR: a link from the extracellular milieu to transcriptional regulation of oligodendrocyte development

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Teresa L.; Bercury, Kathryn K.; Cifelli, Stacey E.; Mursch, Lauren E.; Min, Jungsoo; Dai, Jinxiang; Macklin, Wendy B.

    2013-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte development is controlled by numerous extracellular signals that regulate a series of transcription factors that promote the differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells to myelinating cells in the central nervous system. A major element of this regulatory system that has only recently been studied is the intracellular signalling from surface receptors to transcription factors to down-regulate inhibitors and up-regulate inducers of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. The current review focuses on one such pathway: the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway, which integrates signals in many cell systems and induces cell responses including cell proliferation and cell differentiation. This review describes the known functions of mTOR as they relate to oligodendrocyte development, and its recently discovered impact on oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. A potential model for its role in oligodendrocyte development is proposed. PMID:23421405

  5. Nanoparticle-based highly sensitive MRI contrast agents with enhanced relaxivity in reductive milieu.

    PubMed

    Sigg, Severin J; Santini, Francesco; Najer, Adrian; Richard, Pascal U; Meier, Wolfgang P; Palivan, Cornelia G

    2016-08-01

    Current magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents often produce insufficient contrast for diagnosis of early disease stages, and do not sense their biochemical environments. Herein, we report a highly sensitive nanoparticle-based MRI probe with r1 relaxivity up to 51.7 ± 1.2 mM(-1) s(-1) (3T). Nanoparticles were co-assembled from Gd(3+) complexed to heparin-poly(dimethylsiloxane) copolymer, and a reduction-sensitive amphiphilic peptide serving to induce responsiveness to environmental changes. The release of the peptide components leads to a r1 relaxivity increase under reducing conditions and increases the MRI contrast. In addition, this MRI probe has several advantages, such as a low cellular uptake, no apparent cellular toxicity (tested up to 1 mM Gd(3+)), absence of an anticoagulation property, and a high shelf stability (no increase in free Gd(3+) over 7 months). Thus, this highly sensitive T1 MRI contrast nanoparticle system represents a promising probe for early diagnosis through possible accumulation and contrast enhancement within reductive extracellular tumour tissue. PMID:27435820

  6. Student Teachers' General and Content-Specific Pedagogical Development within a Mathematics Milieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccolo, Diana L.; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen elementary and 6 middle level student teachers were observed and interviewed throughout their initial field placement teaching experience. The Classroom Observation and Performance Assessment for Teachers-Revised (COPAT-R) observation instrument and semistructured interviews were used to compare general and content-specific pedagogical…

  7. Urban effluent discharges as causes of public and environmental health concerns in South Africa's aquatic milieu.

    PubMed

    Sibanda, Timothy; Selvarajan, Ramganesh; Tekere, Memory

    2015-12-01

    The water quality in South Africa's river systems is rapidly deteriorating as a consequence of increased discharge of wastewater effluents. The natural ability of rivers and reservoirs to trap toxic chemicals and nutrients in their sediments enables these systems to accumulate contaminants, altering the natural balance in environmental water quality, thereby raising a plethora of public and environmental health concerns. Impaired water quality has been linked to an array of problems in South Africa including massive fish mortalities, altered habitat template leading to the thinning of riverine macroinvertebrate diversity, shifts in microbial community structures with drastic ecological consequences and evolvement of antibiotic resistance genes that, under natural conditions, can be transferred to waterborne pathogens. Urban wastewater discharge has also been implicated in increased bioaccumulation of metals in edible plant parts, elevated concentrations of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), which are blamed for reduced fertility and increased cancer risk, excessive growth of toxic cyanobacteria and an increase in concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms which constitute a potential health threat to humans. However, despite the ecotoxicological hazards posed by wastewater effluents, ecotoxicological studies are currently underutilised in South African aquatic ecosystem assessments, and where they have been done, the observation is that ecotoxicological studies are mostly experimental and restricted to small study areas. More research is still needed to fully assess especially the ecotoxicological consequences of surface water pollution by urban wastewater effluents in South Africa. A review of the effects of urban effluent discharges that include domestic effluent mixed with industrial effluent and/or urban stormwater run-off is hereby presented. PMID:26408112

  8. Stress among Secondary School Teachers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria: Suggested Interventions in the Worksite Milieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwimo, Ignatius O.; Onwunaka, Chinagorom

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the level of stress experienced by secondary school teachers in Ebonyi State. The dimensions of stress studied included physical stress, mental stress, emotional stress and social stress. The study adopted the cross-sectional survey design using a sample of 660 (male 259, female 401) teachers randomly drawn…

  9. Versatile Redox Chemistry Complicates Antioxidant Capacity Assessment: Flavonoids as Milieu-Dependent Antiand Pro-Oxidants

    PubMed Central

    Chobot, Vladimir; Kubicova, Lenka; Bachmann, Gert; Hadacek, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Some antioxidants have been shown to possess additional pro-oxidant effects. Diverse methodologies exist for studying redox properties of synthetic and natural chemicals. The latter are substantial components of our diet. Exploration of their contribution to life-extending or -compromising effects is mandatory. Among reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydroxyl radical (•OH) is the most damaging species. Due to its short half-life, the assay has to contain a specific generation system. Plants synthesize flavonoids, phenolic compounds recognized as counter-agents to coronary heart disease. Their antioxidant activities are affected by their hydroxylation patterns. Moreover, in the plant, they mainly occur as glycosides. We chose three derivatives, quercetin, luteolin, and rutin, in attempts to explore their redox chemistry in contrasting hydrogen peroxide environments. Initial addition of hydrogen peroxide in high concentration or gradual development constituted a main factor affecting their redox chemical properties, especially in case of quercetin. Our study exemplifies that a combination of a chemical assay (deoxyribose degradation) with an electrochemical method (square-wave voltammetry) provides insightful data. The ambiguity of the tested flavonoids to act either as anti- or pro-oxidant may complicate categorization, but probably contributed to their evolution as components of a successful metabolic system that benefits both producer and consumer. PMID:23736691

  10. CCL19 and CCL21 modulate the inflammatory milieu in atherosclerotic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Akhavanpoor, Mohammadreza; Gleissner, Christian A; Gorbatsch, Stephanie; Doesch, Andreas O; Akhavanpoor, Hamidreza; Wangler, Susanne; Jahn, Frederik; Lasitschka, Felix; Katus, Hugo A; Erbel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in the pharmacologic and interventional treatment of coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and elevated expression of CCL19 and CCL21 has been observed in ruptured lesions of coronary arteries of patients with myocardial infarction and carotid plaques of patients with ischemic symptoms, as well as in plasma of coronary artery disease patients. However, the exact role of CCL19 and CCL21 in atherosclerosis remains unknown. In order to identify CCL19 and CCL21 as a novel therapeutic target, we performed bone marrow transplantation as an immunomodulatory treatment concept. Bone marrow of plt/plt mice (lacking CCL19 and CCL21-Ser) was transplanted into atherogenic Ldlr−/− mice. The study demonstrated a significantly increased inflammatory cellular infiltration into the lesions of plt/plt/Ldlr−/− mice versus controls. Although the level of chemoattraction was increased, messenger ribonucleic acid and protein levels in thoracic aorta and serum of several proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IFNγ, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-17) were significantly reduced in plt/plt/Ldlr−/− versus control mice. Increased influx, accompanied by reduced activation of leukocytes in atherosclerotic lesion, was accompanied by increased plaque stability but unchanged lesion development. In conclusion, modulation of the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 represents a potent immunoregulatory treatment approach, and thus represents a novel therapeutic target to stabilize atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:25473269

  11. CCL19 and CCL21 modulate the inflammatory milieu in atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Akhavanpoor, Mohammadreza; Gleissner, Christian A; Gorbatsch, Stephanie; Doesch, Andreas O; Akhavanpoor, Hamidreza; Wangler, Susanne; Jahn, Frederik; Lasitschka, Felix; Katus, Hugo A; Erbel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in the pharmacologic and interventional treatment of coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and elevated expression of CCL19 and CCL21 has been observed in ruptured lesions of coronary arteries of patients with myocardial infarction and carotid plaques of patients with ischemic symptoms, as well as in plasma of coronary artery disease patients. However, the exact role of CCL19 and CCL21 in atherosclerosis remains unknown. In order to identify CCL19 and CCL21 as a novel therapeutic target, we performed bone marrow transplantation as an immunomodulatory treatment concept. Bone marrow of plt/plt mice (lacking CCL19 and CCL21-Ser) was transplanted into atherogenic Ldlr(-/-) mice. The study demonstrated a significantly increased inflammatory cellular infiltration into the lesions of plt/plt/Ldlr(-/-) mice versus controls. Although the level of chemoattraction was increased, messenger ribonucleic acid and protein levels in thoracic aorta and serum of several proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IFNγ, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-17) were significantly reduced in plt/plt/Ldlr(-/-) versus control mice. Increased influx, accompanied by reduced activation of leukocytes in atherosclerotic lesion, was accompanied by increased plaque stability but unchanged lesion development. In conclusion, modulation of the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 represents a potent immunoregulatory treatment approach, and thus represents a novel therapeutic target to stabilize atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:25473269

  12. Fetal-derived adrenomedullin mediates the innate immune milieu of the placenta

    PubMed Central

    Li, Manyu; Schwerbrock, Nicole M.J.; Lenhart, Patricia M.; Fritz-Six, Kimberly L.; Kadmiel, Mahita; Christine, Kathleen S.; Kraus, Daniel M.; Espenschied, Scott T.; Willcockson, Helen H.; Mack, Christopher P.; Caron, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    The remodeling of maternal uterine spiral arteries (SAs) is an essential process for ensuring low-resistance, high-capacitance blood flow to the growing fetus. Failure of SAs to remodel is causally associated with preeclampsia, a common and life-threatening complication of pregnancy that is harmful to both mother and fetus. Here, using both loss-of-function and gain-of-function genetic mouse models, we show that expression of the pregnancy-related peptide adrenomedullin (AM) by fetal trophoblast cells is necessary and sufficient to promote appropriate recruitment and activation of maternal uterine NK (uNK) cells to the placenta and ultimately facilitate remodeling of maternal SAs. Placentas that lacked either AM or its receptor exhibited reduced fetal vessel branching in the labyrinth, failed SA remodeling and reendothelialization, and markedly reduced numbers of maternal uNK cells. In contrast, overexpression of AM caused a reversal of these phenotypes with a concomitant increase in uNK cell content in vivo. Moreover, AM dose-dependently stimulated the secretion of numerous chemokines, cytokines, and MMPs from uNK cells, which in turn induced VSMC apoptosis. These data identify an essential function for fetal-derived factors in the maternal vascular adaptation to pregnancy and underscore the importance of exploring AM as a biomarker and therapeutic agent for preeclampsia. PMID:23635772

  13. The neural milieu of the developing choroid plexus: neural stem cells, neurons and innervation.

    PubMed

    Prasongchean, Weerapong; Vernay, Bertrand; Asgarian, Zeinab; Jannatul, Nahin; Ferretti, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    The choroid plexus produces cerebrospinal fluid and plays an important role in brain homeostasis both pre and postnatally. In vitro studies have suggested that cells from adult choroid plexus have stem/progenitor cell-like properties. Our initial aim was to investigate whether such a cell population is present in vivo during development of the choroid plexus, focusing mainly on the chick choroid plexus. Cells expressing neural markers were indeed present in the choroid plexus of chick and also those of rodent and human embryos, both within their epithelium and mesenchyme. ß3-tubulin-positive cells with neuronal morphology could be detected as early as at E8 in chick choroid plexus and their morphological complexity increased with development. Whole mount immunochemistry demonstrated the presence of neurons throughout choroid plexus development and they appeared to be mainly catecholaminergic, as indicated by tyrosine-hydroxylase reactivity. The presence of cells co-labeling for BrdU and the neuroblast marker, doublecortin, in organotypic choroid plexus cultures supported the hypothesis that neurogenesis can occur from neural precursors within the developing choroid plexus. Furthermore, we found that extrinsic innervation is present in the developing choroid plexus, unlike previously suggested. Altogether, our data are consistent with the presence of neural progenitors within the choroid plexus, suggest that at least some of the choroid plexus neurons are born locally, and show for the first time that choroid plexus innervation occurs prenatally. Hence, we propose the existence of a complex neural regulatory network within the developing choroid plexus that may play a crucial role in modulating its function during development as well as throughout life. PMID:25873856

  14. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy — Revisiting the biochemical and molecular milieu of brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ashish; Kumar, Ishan; Verma, Nimisha; Aggarwal, Priyanka; Ojha, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an established tool for in-vivo evaluation of the biochemical basis of human diseases. On one hand, such lucid depiction of ‘live biochemistry’ helps one to decipher the true nature of the pathology while on the other hand one can track the response to therapy at sub-cellular level. Brain tumors have been an area of continuous interrogation and instigation for mankind. Evaluation of these lesions by MRS plays a crucial role in the two aspects of disease management described above. Scope of review Presented is an overview of the window provided by MRS into the biochemical aspects of brain tumors. We systematically visit each metabolite deciphered by MRS and discuss the role of deconvoluting the biochemical aspects of pathologies (here in context of brain tumors) in the disease management cycle. We further try to unify a radiologist's perspective of disease with that of a biochemist to prove the point that preclinical work is the mother of the treatment we provide at bedside as clinicians. Furthermore, an integrated approach by various scientific experts help resolve a query encountered in everyday practice. Major conclusions MR spectroscopy is an integral tool for evaluation and systematic follow-up of brain tumors. A deeper understanding of this technology by a biochemist would help in a swift and more logical development of the technique while a close collaboration with radiologist would enable definitive application of the same. General significance The review aims at inciting closer ties between the two specialists enabling a deeper understanding of this valuable technology. PMID:27158592

  15. Comparison of methods probing the intracellular redox milieu in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Mohring, Franziska; Jortzik, Esther; Becker, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione plays a crucial role in the redox regulation of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and is linked to drug resistance mechanisms, especially in resistance against the antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ). The determination of the glutathione-dependent redox potential was recently established in living parasites using a cytosolically expressed biosensor comprising redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein coupled to human glutaredoxin 1 (hGrx1-roGFP2). In order to further elucidate redox changes induced by antimalarial drugs and to consolidate the application spectrum of the ratiometric biosensor we systematically compared it to other methods probing thiol and redox metabolism. Among these methods were cell disruptive and non-disruptive approaches including spectrophotometric assays with Ellman's reagent and naphthalene dicarboxyaldehyde as well as molecular probes such as ThiolTracker™ Violet and the dichlorofluorescein-based probe CM-H2DCFDA. To directly compare the methods, blood stages of the CQ-sensitive P. falciparum 3D7 strain were challenged with the oxidative agent diamide and the antimalarial drugs artemisinin and CQ for 1h, 4h, and 24h. For all conditions, dose-dependent changes in the different redox parameters could be monitored which are compared and discussed. We furthermore detected slight differences in thiol status of parasites transiently transfected with hGrx1-roGFP2 in comparison with control 3D7 cells. In conclusion, ThiolTracker™ Violet and, even more so, the hGrx1-roGFP2 probe reacted reliably and sensitively to drug induced changes in intracellular redox metabolism. These results were substantiated by classical cell disruptive methods. PMID:26593282

  16. "Mesogeny" (Milieu-Mediated Maturation) Versus Endogeny: A Crucial Underemphasis in Piaget's "Internally-Caused" Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Henry G.

    The author credits Piaget for giving an operational definition of deduction and for his descriptions of child behavior. But he states that the latter apply only to white, middle-class urban youths in Switzerland in the first half of the 20th century and cannot support Piaget's claims about invariant stages of intellectual development for all…

  17. The Relationship between Teacher Language Use in Enhanced Milieu Teaching Sessions and Child Language Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jennifer Ragan Henderson

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that linguistic input from teachers may affect child vocabulary development in preschool and beyond (Dickinson & Tabors, 2001). Currently, there is little research on the relationship between specific teacher language use in individual interactions on child language outcomes for preschool children at risk for academic delays.…

  18. Fetal-derived adrenomedullin mediates the innate immune milieu of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Li, Manyu; Schwerbrock, Nicole M J; Lenhart, Patricia M; Fritz-Six, Kimberly L; Kadmiel, Mahita; Christine, Kathleen S; Kraus, Daniel M; Espenschied, Scott T; Willcockson, Helen H; Mack, Christopher P; Caron, Kathleen M

    2013-06-01

    The remodeling of maternal uterine spiral arteries (SAs) is an essential process for ensuring low-resistance, high-capacitance blood flow to the growing fetus. Failure of SAs to remodel is causally associated with preeclampsia, a common and life-threatening complication of pregnancy that is harmful to both mother and fetus. Here, using both loss-of-function and gain-of-function genetic mouse models, we show that expression of the pregnancy-related peptide adrenomedullin (AM) by fetal trophoblast cells is necessary and sufficient to promote appropriate recruitment and activation of maternal uterine NK (uNK) cells to the placenta and ultimately facilitate remodeling of maternal SAs. Placentas that lacked either AM or its receptor exhibited reduced fetal vessel branching in the labyrinth, failed SA remodeling and reendothelialization, and markedly reduced numbers of maternal uNK cells. In contrast, overexpression of AM caused a reversal of these phenotypes with a concomitant increase in uNK cell content in vivo. Moreover, AM dose-dependently stimulated the secretion of numerous chemokines, cytokines, and MMPs from uNK cells, which in turn induced VSMC apoptosis. These data identify an essential function for fetal-derived factors in the maternal vascular adaptation to pregnancy and underscore the importance of exploring AM as a biomarker and therapeutic agent for preeclampsia. PMID:23635772

  19. TPL2 kinase regulates the inflammatory milieu of the myeloma niche

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Chelsea; Ollar, Samuel J.; Heninger, Erika; Hebron, Ellen; Jensen, Jeffrey L.; Kim, Jaehyup; Maroulakou, Ioanna; Miyamoto, Shigeki; Leith, Catherine; Yang, David T.; Callander, Natalie; Hematti, Peiman; Chesi, Marta; Bergsagel, P. Leif

    2014-01-01

    Targeted modulation of microenvironmental regulatory pathways may be essential to control myeloma and other genetically/clonally heterogeneous cancers. Here we report that human myeloma–associated monocytes/macrophages (MAM), but not myeloma plasma cells, constitute the predominant source of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α at diagnosis, whereas IL-6 originates from stromal cells and macrophages. To dissect MAM activation/cytokine pathways, we analyzed Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression in human myeloma CD14+ cells. We observed coregulation of TLR2 and TLR6 expression correlating with local processing of versican, a proteoglycan TLR2/6 agonist linked to carcinoma progression. Versican has not been mechanistically implicated in myeloma pathogenesis. We hypothesized that the most readily accessible target in the versican-TLR2/6 pathway would be the mitogen-activated protein 3 (MAP3) kinase, TPL2 (Cot/MAP3K8). Ablation of Tpl2 in the genetically engineered in vivo myeloma model, Vκ*MYC, led to prolonged disease latency associated with plasma cell growth defect. Tpl2 loss abrogated the “inflammatory switch” in MAM within nascent myeloma lesions and licensed macrophage repolarization in established tumors. MYC activation/expression in plasma cells was independent of Tpl2 activity. Pharmacologic TPL2 inhibition in human monocytes led to dose-dependent attenuation of IL-1β induction/secretion in response to TLR2 stimulation. Our results highlight a TLR2/6-dependent TPL2 pathway as novel therapeutic target acting nonautonomously through macrophages to control myeloma progression. PMID:24723682

  20. Mature cathepsin L is substantially active in the ionic milieu of the extracellular medium.

    PubMed

    Dehrmann, F M; Coetzer, T H; Pike, R N; Dennison, C

    1995-12-01

    The activity of cathepsin L is affected by ionic strength, resulting in the measured pH optimum being higher in acetate-4-morpholineethane sulfonic acid (MES)-Tris buffers of constant ionic strength than in phosphate buffers of constant molarity (and hence varying ionic strength). In acetate-MES-Tris and phosphate buffers of constant ionic strength across the pH range, the catalytic constant, kcat, generally peaked at ca. pH 6.5 and essentially independently of ionic strength. Km values, of ca. 5 microM, manifested a slight rising trend with increasing ionic strength, with a sharp increase to 20-25 microM, specifically at pH 6.5 and I = 0.4. At physiological ionic strengths, the specific buffer ions present affected the activity of mature cathepsin L, kcat/Km declining above pH 6.5 in phosphate buffer, but only above pH 7 in acetate-MES-Tris buffer. In Hanks' balanced salt solution, a model of the extracellular fluid, measured values at pH 7.2 were kcat, 18.9 s-1; Km, 13.5 microM; and kcat/Km, 1.4 x 10(6) M-1 s-1. The stability of cathepsin L in the physiological pH range was also differentially affected by the specific buffer ions, generally in parallel with the enzyme activity. In Hanks' balanced salt solution, mature cathepsin L was substantially active and stable, having a half-life of 179 s at pH 7.2 and 657 s at pH 6.8 (the peritumor pH). PMID:7503566

  1. The Differential Hormonal Milieu of Morning versus Evening May Have an Impact on Muscle Hypertrophic Potential.

    PubMed

    Burley, Simon D; Whittingham-Dowd, Jayde; Allen, Jeremy; Grosset, Jean-Francois; Onambele-Pearson, Gladys L

    2016-01-01

    Substantial gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy are clearly associated with the routine performance of resistance training. What is less evident is the optimal timing of the resistance training stimulus to elicit these significant functional and structural skeletal muscle changes. Therefore, this investigation determined the impact of a single bout of resistance training performed either in the morning or evening upon acute anabolic signalling (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), myogenic index and differentiation) and catabolic processes (cortisol). Twenty-four male participants (age 21.4±1.9yrs, mass 83.7±13.7kg) with no sustained resistance training experience were allocated to a resistance exercise group (REP). Sixteen of the 24 participants were randomly selected to perform an additional non-exercising control group (CP) protocol. REP performed two bouts of resistance exercise (80% 1RM) in the morning (AM: 0800 hrs) and evening (PM: 1800 hrs), with the sessions separated by a minimum of 72 hours. Venous blood was collected immediately prior to, and 5 min after, each resistance exercise and control sessions. Serum cortisol and IGFBP-3 levels, myogenic index, myotube width, were determined at each sampling period. All data are reported as mean ± SEM, statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. As expected a significant reduction in evening cortisol concentration was observed at pre (AM: 98.4±10.5, PM: 49.8±4.4 ng/ml, P<0.001) and post (AM: 98.0±9.0, PM: 52.7±6.0 ng/ml, P<0.001) exercise. Interestingly, individual cortisol differences pre vs post exercise indicate a time-of-day effect (AM difference: -2±2.6%, PM difference: 14.0±6.7%, P = 0.03). A time-of-day related elevation in serum IGFBP-3 (AM: 3274.9 ± 345.2, PM: 3605.1 ± 367.5, p = 0.032) was also evident. Pre exercise myogenic index (AM: 8.0±0.6%, PM: 16.8±1.1%) and myotube width (AM: 48.0±3.0, PM: 71.6±1.9 μm) were significantly elevated (P<0.001) in the evening. Post exercise myogenic index was greater AM (11.5±1.6%) compared with PM (4.6±0.9%). No difference was observed in myotube width (AM: 48.5±1.5, PM: 47.8±1.8 μm) (P>0.05). Timing of resistance training regimen in the evening appears to augment some markers of hypertrophic potential, with elevated IGFBP-3, suppressed cortisol and a superior cellular environment. Further investigation, to further elucidate the time course of peak anabolic signalling in morning vs evening training conditions, are timely. PMID:27583459

  2. Workplace Literacy and Basic Skills = L'alphabetisation et les competences de base en milieu de travail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugh, Sue

    Workplace literacy and basic skills may be defined as skills needed by employees at work: reading, writing, math, and problem solving. Workplace literacy and skill requirements are based on the needs of each workplace and its workers. These skills are important because the work force needs to be highly skilled and adaptable to compete in a global…

  3. Effets d'environnements sur la rupture des alliages de Zr en milieu nucléaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yvon, P.; Lemaignan, C.

    2003-03-01

    Les alliages de zirconium sont essentiellement utilisés dans les réacteurs nucléaires modérés et refroidis à l'eau. Absorbant peu les neutrons thermiques, ils sont choisis pour réaliser divers éléments de structure et les tubes de gainage. Formant la première barrière, leur intégrité doit donc être garantie parfaitement. Diverses sollicitations liées à l'irradiation peuvent cependant conduire à développer une fissuration dans ces composants critiques. On présente dans cette revue l'impact des phénomènes suivants : - une fragilisation, lors de la déformation à froid, liée à la présence d'hydures dont la formation est associée à l'oxydation de l'alliage, - la création de produits de fission, dont l'iode, dans l'UO2, responsable d'un phénomène de corrosion sous contrainte, - une modification de la microstructure de l'alliage, avec, entre autres, formation de boucles de dislocations obtenues par condensation des défauts ponctuels, ce dernier point induisant une localisation de la déformation et une réduction de la déformation à rupture.

  4. Shedding PEG Palisade by Temporal Photostimulation and Intracellular Reducing Milieu for Facilitated Intracellular Trafficking and DNA Release.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tieyan; Chen, Qixian; Lu, Hongguang; Li, Wei; Li, Zaifen; Ma, Jianbiao; Gao, Hui

    2016-08-17

    The dilemma of poly(ethylene glycol) surface modification (PEGylation) inspired us to develop an intracellularly sheddable PEG palisade for synthetic delivery systems. Here, we attempted to conjugate PEG to polyethylenimine (PEI) through tandem linkages of disulfide-bridge susceptible to cytoplasmic reduction and an azobenzene/cyclodextrin inclusion complex responsive to external photoirradiation. The subsequent investigations revealed that facile PEG detachment could be achieved in endosomes upon photoirradiation, consequently engendering exposure of membrane-disruptive PEI for facilitated endosome escape. The liberated formulation in the cytosol was further subjected to complete PEG detachment relying on disulfide cleavage in the reductive cytosol, thus accelerating dissociation of electrostatically assembled PEI/DNA polyplex to release DNA by means of polyion exchange reaction with intracellularly charged species, ultimately contributing to efficient gene expression. PMID:27453033

  5. Le Courrier Electronique: Un Outil d'Enseignement en Milieu de Travail (Electronic Mail: A Teaching Tool in the Workplace).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Lise

    1999-01-01

    Describes a course that used e-mail to improve the German and Spanish written language skills of Canadian Foreign Service Officers. To lower attrition rates, the course required completion of authentic professional tasks, exposing participants to formal, technical, and informal language. Though initial interest was high, attrition was also high,…

  6. Benefices environnementaux de la cogeneration d'energie en milieu hospitalier et cas de l'Hopital de Moncton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kone, Diakalia

    The present study aimed at assessing the environmental benefits of power management practices based on cogeneration in the particular industrial sector of hospitals and healthcare. Cogeneration power systems, also known as "Combined Heat and Power" (CHP) or Cogen, supply on-site electricity and heat from a single fuel source (natural gas in general). While the efficiency of conventional plants to produce power and heat separately is limited to about 30%, the efficiency of a CHP plant is close to 80% and can reach up to 90% in some applications (Borbely et Kreider, 2001). One of the distinctive features of hospitals is their continuous demand for both type of energy (electricity and heat), which makes them good candidate for cogeneration. However, in North America at the present time, less than 5% of hospitals run on CHP. Most are being supplied with electricity by conventional power plants, run by specialized companies, and use on-site boiler(s) to generate heat. Energy spending can reach up to 3% of an hospital's annual operational budget. There are also environmental impacts related to current energy supply and use in hospitals. For instance, the burning of fossil fuels releases greenhouse gases (GHG), which contribute to human health problems and climate change. The first objective of the study was to outline the main benefits and challenges faced by hospitals that aim at becoming their own energy co-generator, in comparison to having power and heat produced separately. Our second objective was to assess prospectively (proactively) the environmental impacts of a cogeneration plant that is being planned, but not yet operated, in a Canadian hospital. The methodology was based on literature reviews and on a case study, namely that of The Moncton Hospital (TMH)/L'Hopital de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada. This hospital is considered a large hospital with 375 beds and a major and expanding ambulatory care service. It is also in the process of developing a 1.06 MW cogeneration plant, to be run on natural gas, to meet about 30% of the facility's current demand for electricity and heat. In order to anticipate the environmental consequences of this CHP project, an environmental impact assessment (EIA) was conducted, according to the principles that apply in New Brunswick (Regulation 87-83 on EIA). A literature review was conducted and a matrix approach (matrix of impacts) was used to identify and assess the anticipated environmental impacts. The study showed that multiple stakeholders in the healthcare sector can reap benefits of CHP deployment. Facility owners can reduce energy costs and increase power reliability to enhance operations' continuity, during normal and extraordinary times (e.g., natural disasters). For instance, when hurricanes Katrina and Rita struck the United States in 2005, hospitals running with CHP were able to provide secure electricity supplies for emergency facilities and shelters. CHP also has environmental benefits related to its distinctively high efficiency. But its deployment in the healthcare sector also provides challenges, mainly due to the fact that power production is not a core activity for an hospital. These challenges can be overcome, however, as shown by numerous success stories in hospitals worldwide; specialised resources are available to help hospitals switch to CHP. This study underlines some of the steps a hospital can take toward this aim. EIA of The Moncton Hospital CHP project suggests that, globally, the environmental impacts of CHP are reduced compared to the traditional production of electricity and heat separately. Cogeneration utilizes fewer resources (fuel) and therefore releases fewer GHG and other pollutants. However, quantifying the emissions avoided is challenging. Also, the environmental benefits of CHP may be less obvious when compared to a centralised nuclear or hydraulic power production, which emits less GHG than power plants operating on coal or fuel oil. The study also indicates that other conditions are required to increase the environmental gai

  7. Immunoglobulin isotype isolated from human placental extract does not interfere in complement-mediated bacterial opsonization within the wound milieu

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kanika; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    The wound healing potency of an aqueous extract of placenta can be evaluated through the presence of numerous regulatory components. The presence of glycans was detected by thin layer chromatography and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the existence of multiple fragments of immunoglobulin G (IgG). IgG was present in the extract at a concentration of 25.2 ± 3.97 μg/ml. IgG possesses anti-complementary activity by diverting the complement activation from target surface. Thus, effect of placental IgG on complement–bacteria interaction was investigated through classical and alternative pathway and the preparation was ascertained to be safe with respect to their interference in the process of bacterial opsonization. PMID:25984442

  8. Low-dose interleukin-2 fosters a dose-dependent regulatory T cell tuned milieu in T1D patients.

    PubMed

    Rosenzwajg, Michelle; Churlaud, Guillaume; Mallone, Roberto; Six, Adrien; Dérian, Nicolas; Chaara, Wahiba; Lorenzon, Roberta; Long, S Alice; Buckner, Jane H; Afonso, Georgia; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Hartemann, Agnès; Yu, Aixin; Pugliese, Alberto; Malek, Thomas R; Klatzmann, David

    2015-04-01

    Most autoimmune diseases (AID) are linked to an imbalance between autoreactive effector T cells (Teffs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs). While blocking Teffs with immunosuppression has long been the only therapeutic option, activating/expanding Tregs may achieve the same objective without the toxicity of immunosuppression. We showed that low-dose interleukin-2 (ld-IL-2) safely expands/activates Tregs in patients with AID, such HCV-induced vasculitis and Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). Here we analyzed the kinetics and dose-relationship of IL-2 effects on immune responses in T1D patients. Ld-IL-2 therapy induced a dose-dependent increase in CD4(+)Foxp3(+) and CD8(+)Foxp3(+) Treg numbers and proportions, the duration of which was markedly dose-dependent. Tregs expressed enhanced levels of activation markers, including CD25, GITR, CTLA-4 and basal pSTAT5, and retained a 20-fold higher sensitivity to IL-2 than Teff and NK cells. Plasma levels of regulatory cytokines were increased in a dose-dependent manner, while cytokines linked to Teff and Th17 inflammatory cells were mostly unchanged. Global transcriptome analyses showed a dose-dependent decrease in immune response signatures. At the highest dose, Teff responses against beta-cell antigens were suppressed in all 4 patients tested. These results inform of broader changes induced by ld-IL-2 beyond direct effects on Tregs, and relevant for further development of ld-IL-2 for therapy and prevention of T1D, and other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:25634360

  9. Benefices environnementaux de la cogeneration d'energie en milieu hospitalier et cas de l'Hopital de Moncton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kone, Diakalia

    The present study aimed at assessing the environmental benefits of power management practices based on cogeneration in the particular industrial sector of hospitals and healthcare. Cogeneration power systems, also known as "Combined Heat and Power" (CHP) or Cogen, supply on-site electricity and heat from a single fuel source (natural gas in general). While the efficiency of conventional plants to produce power and heat separately is limited to about 30%, the efficiency of a CHP plant is close to 80% and can reach up to 90% in some applications (Borbely et Kreider, 2001). One of the distinctive features of hospitals is their continuous demand for both type of energy (electricity and heat), which makes them good candidate for cogeneration. However, in North America at the present time, less than 5% of hospitals run on CHP. Most are being supplied with electricity by conventional power plants, run by specialized companies, and use on-site boiler(s) to generate heat. Energy spending can reach up to 3% of an hospital's annual operational budget. There are also environmental impacts related to current energy supply and use in hospitals. For instance, the burning of fossil fuels releases greenhouse gases (GHG), which contribute to human health problems and climate change. The first objective of the study was to outline the main benefits and challenges faced by hospitals that aim at becoming their own energy co-generator, in comparison to having power and heat produced separately. Our second objective was to assess prospectively (proactively) the environmental impacts of a cogeneration plant that is being planned, but not yet operated, in a Canadian hospital. The methodology was based on literature reviews and on a case study, namely that of The Moncton Hospital (TMH)/L'Hopital de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada. This hospital is considered a large hospital with 375 beds and a major and expanding ambulatory care service. It is also in the process of developing a 1.06 MW cogeneration plant, to be run on natural gas, to meet about 30% of the facility's current demand for electricity and heat. In order to anticipate the environmental consequences of this CHP project, an environmental impact assessment (EIA) was conducted, according to the principles that apply in New Brunswick (Regulation 87-83 on EIA). A literature review was conducted and a matrix approach (matrix of impacts) was used to identify and assess the anticipated environmental impacts. The study showed that multiple stakeholders in the healthcare sector can reap benefits of CHP deployment. Facility owners can reduce energy costs and increase power reliability to enhance operations' continuity, during normal and extraordinary times (e.g., natural disasters). For instance, when hurricanes Katrina and Rita struck the United States in 2005, hospitals running with CHP were able to provide secure electricity supplies for emergency facilities and shelters. CHP also has environmental benefits related to its distinctively high efficiency. But its deployment in the healthcare sector also provides challenges, mainly due to the fact that power production is not a core activity for an hospital. These challenges can be overcome, however, as shown by numerous success stories in hospitals worldwide; specialised resources are available to help hospitals switch to CHP. This study underlines some of the steps a hospital can take toward this aim. EIA of The Moncton Hospital CHP project suggests that, globally, the environmental impacts of CHP are reduced compared to the traditional production of electricity and heat separately. Cogeneration utilizes fewer resources (fuel) and therefore releases fewer GHG and other pollutants. However, quantifying the emissions avoided is challenging. Also, the environmental benefits of CHP may be less obvious when compared to a centralised nuclear or hydraulic power production, which emits less GHG than power plants operating on coal or fuel oil. The study also indicates that other conditions are required to increase the environmental gains that can be expected from CHP deployment in the hospital sector. These conditions include the use of renewable fuel sources (biomass), the development of well-structured frameworks (e.g., efficient environmental management systems) to coordinate and leverage environmental stewardship initiatives within hospitals, and the development of energy partnerships (e.g., municipal heat networks). A broad, eco-systemic vision, like the one of industrial ecology, would help strengthen the ecological benefits of cogeneration in the hospital and health care sector. Key Words Heat and power cogeneration, hospitals, benefits/challenges, environment, society, environmental impact assessment, Canada, sustainable development, industrial ecology.

  10. The effect of 17 beta-estradiol on cholesterol in human macrophages is influenced by the lipoprotein milieu

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogen and testosterone are thought to modulate coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. To examine how these hormones affect human macrophage cholesterol transport, a key factor in atherogenesis, we obtained monocytes from healthy male and postmenopausal female donors (age 50-70 y). Cells were allowe...

  11. Improvements in the metabolic milieu following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the arrest of diabetic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Neil G; le Roux, Carel W

    2014-09-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an efficacious intervention for morbid obesity and has a diabetes-remitting effect in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which occurs prior to significant weight loss. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is also associated with early and sustained reductions in the risk factor profile for the progression of diabetic complications. Attention is therefore now being placed on RYGB as a metabolic intervention with the capacity to yield therapeutic benefit in relation to the progression of diabetic complications, such as diabetic kidney disease. As alterations in gut anatomy following RYGB coincide with attendant shifts in downstream enteroendocrine signals with direct and indirect resolutionary effects on the kidney, the concept of an endocrine gut-kidney axis post-RYGB is growing. With the model of a gut-kidney axis in mind, this article summarizes emerging data on the effects of RYGB on risk factors for diabetic kidney disease (hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and hypertension), highlighting a potential role for glucagon-like peptide 1 in risk factor reduction. PMID:25085842

  12. Immigrants living in an urban milieu with sanitation in Southern Italy: persistence and transmission of intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Gualdieri, Luciano; Piemonte, Monica; Alfano, Settimia; Maffei, Rita; Della Pepa, Maria Elena; Rinaldi, Laura; Galdiero, Marilena; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    In the current era of globalization, the massive movement of populations to developed countries causes a greater attention to neglected tropical diseases in places where such diseases are considered unusual. The present study was planned to assess the persistence of intestinal parasitosis in immigrants stably living in the urban central area of Naples (Southern Italy) and the spread of infection within households with a lifestyle similar to that of the country of origin. A total of 2150 stool samples were analysed with the FLOTAC dual technique, and 415 subjects (19.3 %) tested positive for pathogenic intestinal parasites. One hundred ninety-six subjects were randomly selected and monitored again after 1 year in order to evaluate the persistence of intestinal parasites in immigrants having access to proper sanitation. No pathogenic parasites were found in these 196 samples. A total of 482 cohabitants of 151 positive subjects were recruited to evaluate the interfamilial spread of the identified parasites. Only in 18 households were there subjects infected with the same parasite. Monitoring of parasites in stool samples of immigrants showed a decrease of almost all pathogenic species over the years. From the analysis of households, it is not possible to assert that there is a familial transmission. Our study provides evidence that the prevalence of parasitic infections in immigrants is likely related to the poor sanitary habits of the country of origin and that acquisition of new sanitary regulations, together with the administration of pharmacological treatment, limits the transmission in the households and in the local population of their destination. PMID:26706907

  13. The importance of selecting a proper biological milieu for protein corona analysis in vitro: Human plasma versus human serum.

    PubMed

    Mirshafiee, Vahid; Kim, Raehyun; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Kraft, Mary L

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) exposure to biological fluids in the body results in protein binding to the NP surface, which forms a protein coating that is called the "protein corona". To simplify studies of protein-NP interactions and protein corona formation, NPs are incubated with biological solutions, such as human serum or human plasma, and the effects of this exposure are characterized in vitro. Yet, how NP exposure to these two different biological milieus affects protein corona composition and cell response has not been investigated. Here, we explore the differences between the protein coronas that form when NPs are incubated in human serum versus human plasma. NP characterization indicated that NPs that were exposed to human plasma had higher amounts of proteins bound to their surfaces, and were slightly larger in size than those exposed to human serum. In addition, significant differences in corona composition were also detected with gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, where a higher fraction of coagulation proteins and complement factors were found on the plasma-exposed NPs. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy showed that the uptake of plasma-exposed NPs was higher than that of serum-exposed NPs by RAW 264.7 macrophage immune cells, but not by NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. This difference is likely due to the elevated amounts of opsonins, such as fibrinogen, on the surfaces of the NPs exposed to plasma, but not serum, because these components trigger NP internalization by immune cells. As the human plasma better mimics the composition of the in vivo environment, namely blood, in vitro protein corona studies should employ human plasma, and not human serum, so the biological phenomena that is observed is more similar to that occurring in vivo. PMID:26643610

  14. The Medical School Learning Milieu: A Study of Students' Perceptions of Twenty-Five British and Irish Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakeford, Richard

    1984-01-01

    A study of medical students' perceptions of their learning environments revealed (1) numerous differences on some dimensions, including vocational vs. scientific orientation, extracurricular involvement, and perceived course intensiveness and (2) only slight differences in administrative flexibility, emphasis on concept vs. fact, and course…

  15. Age-related switch of bone mass in p47phox deficient mice through increased inflammatory milieu in bone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bone remodeling is age-dependently regulated and changes dramatically during the course of development. Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals, has been suggested to be the leading cause of many inflammatory and degener...

  16. Substance Use and Dependency Disorders in Adolescent Girls in Group Living Programs: Prevalence and Associations with Milieu Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Amy J. L.; Ashare, Caryn; Charvat, Benjamin J.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-three adolescent girls residing in community-based group-living child welfare programs were administered a standardized measure (SASS-2) in order to assess probability of a substance use/dependency disorder in this highly vulnerable population. Findings revealed that one third of the sample, and one half of the nonpregnant/parenting girls,…

  17. Caracterisation de l'effet du vieillissement en milieu aqueux sur les proprietes mecaniques de composites a matrice elastomere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favre, Audrey

    Rubber composites are widely used in several engineering fields, such as automotive, and more recently for inflatable dams and other innovative underwater applications. These rubber materials are composed by an elastomeric matrix while the reinforcing phase is a synthetic fabric. Since these components are expected to operate several years in water environment, their durability must be guaranteed. The use of rubber materials immersed in water is not new, in fact, these materials have been studied for almost one century. However, the knowledge on reinforced rubber composites immersed several years in water is still limited. In this work, investigations on reinforced rubbers were carried out in the framework of a research project in partnership with Alstom and Hydro-Quebec. The objective of this study was to identify rubber composites that could be used under water for long periods. Various rubber composites with ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM), silicone, EPDM/silicone and polychloroprene (Neoprene) matrices reinforced with E-glass fabric were studied. Thus, these materials were exposed to an accelerated ageing at 85 °C underwater for periods varying from 14 to 365 days. For comparison purposes, they were also immersed and aged one year at room temperature (21 °C). The impact of accelerated aging was estimated through three different characterization methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was first used to assess the quality of fiber-matrix interface. Then, water absorption tests were performed to quantify the rate of water absorption during immersion. Finally the evolution of the mechanical properties was followed by the determination of Young's modulus (E) and ultimate stress (sigmau) using a dedicated traction test. This analysis allowed to point out that the quality of the fiber-matrix interface was the main factor influencing the drop of the mechanical properties and their durability. Moreover, it was noticed that this interface could be improved by using appropriate coupling agent as confirmed by the silicone composite with treated fabric. It was also observed that fiber-matrix interface could be a place where high stresses were localized because of differential swelling leading to an important loss of mechanical properties. The results revealed very different behaviors from one composite to another. The accelerated aging of EPDM/silicone and Neoprene composites led to a rapid diminution of mechanical properties in only 14 days. Conversely, silicone composites showed a 20 % increase of mechanical properties after 75 days of immersion. EPDM composites exhibited an important variability from one sample to another. It can be concluded from this study that composites made from silicone matrix with treated E-glass result in a better durability underwater. Keywords: composite elastomer, accelerated ageing, immersion in the water

  18. Content Knowledge in Teaching, an Investigation into an Adequate "Milieu" for Teaching Dance: The Case of Indian Dance in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monique, Loquet; Malini, Ranganathan

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1970s, scientific researchers have shown that the nature and practice of the knowledge being taught plays an important role in the organization of teaching. Teaching content, first in mathematics, then in physical education, has become the object of scientific research in didactics in France. This research questions the commonplace…

  19. Work-Related Child-Care Centres in Canada, 2001 = Les garderies en milieu de travail au Canada, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbeau, Carole

    Noting that the number of work-related child care centers has nearly doubled in the past 10 years in Canada, this report, in both English and French, details a study examining the current practices pertaining to work-related child care in Canada. The report highlights the best examples in this area and discusses what has been learned from the…

  20. Overexpression of glucose transporters in rat mesangial cells cultured in a normal glucose milieu mimics the diabetic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Heilig, C W; Concepcion, L A; Riser, B L; Freytag, S O; Zhu, M; Cortes, P

    1995-10-01

    An environment of high glucose concentration stimulates the synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) in mesangial cell (MC) cultures. This may result from a similar increase in intracellular glucose concentration. We theorized that increased uptake, rather than glucose concentration per se is the major determinant of exaggerated ECM formation. To test this, we compared the effects of 35 mM glucose on ECM synthesis in normal MCs with those of 8 mM glucose in the same cells overexpressing the glucose transporter GLUT1 (MCGT1). Increasing medium glucose from 8 to 35 mM caused normal MCs to increase total collagen synthesis and catabolism, with a net 81-90% increase in accumulation. MCs transduced with the human GLUT1 gene (MCGT1) grown in 8 mM glucose had a 10-fold greater GLUT1 protein expression and a 1.9, 2.1, and 2.5-fold increase in cell myo-inositol, lactate production, and cell sorbitol content, respectively, as compared to control MCs transduced with bacterial beta-galactosidase (MCLacZ). MCGT1 also demonstrated increased glucose uptake (5-fold) and increased net utilization (43-fold), and greater synthesis of individual ECM components than MCLacZ. In addition, total collagen synthesis and catabolism were also enhanced with a net collagen accumulation 111-118% greater than controls. Thus, glucose transport activity is an important modulator of ECM formation by MCs; the presence of high extracellular glucose concentrations is not necessarily required for the stimulation of matrix synthesis. PMID:7560072

  1. "The Worst School I've Ever Been To:" Empirical Evaluations of a Restorative School and Treatment Milieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirsky, Laura; Wachtel, Ted

    2007-01-01

    While anecdotal reports have strongly supported restorative practices, there is a need to expand the evidence base through empirical studies of the efficacy of these interventions. This article highlights such emerging findings reported by Paul McCold of the Institute for Restorative Practices in collaboration with researchers from Temple…

  2. Endochitinase Is Transported to the Extracellular Milieu by the eps-Encoded General Secretory Pathway of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Terry D.; Metzger, Daniel J.; Lynch, Jennifer; Folster, Jason P.

    1998-01-01

    The chiA gene of Vibrio cholerae encodes a polypeptide which degrades chitin, a homopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) found in cell walls of fungi and in the integuments of insects and crustaceans. chiA has a coding capacity corresponding to a polypeptide of 846 amino acids having a predicted molecular mass of 88.7 kDa. A 52-bp region with promoter activity was found immediately upstream of the chiA open reading frame. Insertional inactivation of the chromosomal copy of the gene confirmed that expression of chitinase activity by V. cholerae required chiA. Fluorescent analogues were used to demonstrate that the enzymatic activity of ChiA was specific for β,1-4 glycosidic bonds located between GlcNAc monomers in chitin. Antibodies against ChiA were obtained by immunization of a rabbit with a MalE-ChiA hybrid protein. Polypeptides with antigenic similarity to ChiA were expressed by classical and El Tor biotypes of V. cholerae and by the closely related bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. Immunoblotting experiments using the wild-type strain 569B and the secretion mutant M14 confirmed that ChiA is an extracellular protein which is secreted by the eps system. The eps system is also responsible for secreting cholera toxin, an oligomeric protein with no amino acid homology to ChiA. These results indicate that ChiA and cholera toxin have functionally similar extracellular transport signals that are essential for eps-dependent secretion. PMID:9791107

  3. The Motivational Determinants of Task Performance in a Non-Industrial Milieu: A Modification and Extension of Vroom's Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel, Raymond M.; Dickinson, Terry L.

    Vroom's cognitive model, which proposes to both explain and predict an individual's level of work productivity by drawing on the construct motivation, is discussed and three hypotheses generated: (1) that Vroom's model does predict performance in a non-industrial setting; (2) that it predicts self-perceived performance better than measures…

  4. Modelisation, conception et simulation des performances d'un collecteur solaire aeraulique a tubes sous vide en milieu nordique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradis, Pierre-Luc

    The global energy consumption is still increasing year after year even if different initiatives are set up to decrease fossil fuel dependency. In Canada 80% of the energy is used for space heating and domestic hot water heating in residential sector. This heat could be provided by solar thermal technologies despite few difficulties originating from the cold climate. The aim of this project is to design a solar evacuated tube thermal collector using air as the working fluid. Firstly, needs and specifications of the product are established in a clear way. Then, three concepts of collector are presented. The first one relies on the standard evacuated tube. The second one uses a new technology of tubes; both sides are open. The third one uses heat pipe to extract the heat from the tubes. Based on the needs and specification as criteria, the concept involving tubes with both sides open has been selected as the best idea. In order to simulate the performances of the collector, a model of the heat exchanges in an evacuated tube was developed in 4 steps. The first step is a model in steady state intended to calculate the stagnation temperature of the tube for a fixed solar radiation, outside temperature and wind speed. As a second step, the model is generalised to transient condition in order to validate it with an experimental setup. A root mean square error of 2% is then calculated. The two remainder steps are intended to calculate the temperature of airflow leaving the tube. In the same way, a first model in steady state is developed and then generalised to the transient mode. Then, the validation with an experimental setup gave a difference of 0.2% for the root mean square error. Finally, a preindustrial prototype intended to work in open loop for preheating of fresh air is presented. During the project, explosion of the both sides open evacuated tube in overheating condition blocked the construction of a real prototype for the test. Different path for further work are also identified. One of these is in relation with CFD simulation of the uniformity of the airflow inside of the collector. Another one is the analysis of the design with a design of experiment plan.

  5. MEK inhibition prevents tumour-shed transforming growth factor-β-induced T-regulatory cell augmentation in tumour milieu.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Dewan M S; Panda, Abir K; Chakrabarty, Sreeparna; Bhattacharjee, Pushpak; Kajal, Kirti; Mohanty, Suchismita; Sarkar, Irene; Sarkar, Diptendra K; Kar, Santosh K; Sa, Gaurisankar

    2015-04-01

    Tumour progression is associated with immune-suppressive conditions that facilitate the escape of tumour cells from the regimen of immune cells, subsequently paralysing the host defence mechanisms. Induction of CD4(+)  CD25(+)  FoxP3(+) T regulatory (Treg) cells has been implicated in the tumour immune escape mechanism, although the novel anti-cancer treatment strategies targeting Treg cells remain unknown. The focus of this study is to define the interaction between tumour and immune system, i.e. how immune tolerance starts and gradually leads to the induction of adaptive Treg cells in the tumour microenvironment. Our study identified hyperactivated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) -signalling as a potential target for reversing Treg cell augmentation in breast cancer patients. In more mechanistic detail, pharmacological inhibitors of MEK/ERK signalling inhibited transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production in tumour cells that essentially blocked TGF-β-SMAD3/SMAD4-mediated induction of CD25/interleukin-2 receptor α on CD4(+) T-cell surface. As a result high-affinity binding of interleukin-2 on those cells was prohibited, causing lack of Janus kinase 1 (JAK1)/JAK3-mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/STAT5 activation required for FoxP3 expression. Finally, for a more radical approach towards a safe MEK inhibitor, we validate the potential of multi-kinase inhibitor curcumin, especially the nano-curcumin made out of pure curcumin with greater bioavailability; in repealing tumour-shed TGF-β-induced Treg cell augmentation. PMID:25284464

  6. [The impact of a food service in the school milieu on the quality of nutrition in children].

    PubMed

    Michel, C; Cyr, R; Carbonneau, M

    1994-01-01

    The food service at the Le Tremplin school (QC), which is managed by a non-profit organization including parents and members of the community, was evaluated in terms of its impact on the nutritional quality of the meals consumed by the students from the point of view of the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in children. This was done by comparing it with a traditional food service operated by a concessionnaire. On the nutritional level, the menus offered in the two schools were comparable: in both cases, they fell far short of meeting nutritional recommendations related to the prevention of CVDs. In other respects, the nutritional value of the meals consumed by the children differed according to the school. It was closer to meeting recommendations in the case of the Le Tremplin school. The results obtained show that the organization of the food service at the Le Tremplin school appears to favour a more adequate consumption of lipids and carbohydrates, as well as a more appropriate distribution of the different fatty acids in the food. PMID:8012912

  7. Modelisation de l'interaction entre une impulsion laser ultrabreve et une nanostructure plasmonique en milieu aqueux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulais, Etienne

    There is still a limited understanding of the basic mechanisms and processes triggered by laser irradiation that lead to the damaging of the surrounding structures. In particular, there exists for the moment no complete modelling of the process that includes all potential sources of cellular damage, including temperature rise, plasma generation, pressure wave emission and vapor bubble formation. This thesis presents such a modelling, with the cell environment emulated by a much simpler aqueous medium. Water is used as its optical, mechanical and thermal characteristic are similar enough to the cell environment to enable the transposition of the results and tendencies observed in water to this medium. Modelling consists in a continuous medium based approach that uses coupled partial differential equations to simulate the nanostructure-water system's response to an ultrafast laser pulse. The time-dependant field distribution in the system is simulated using classical electromagnetic theory, while the temperature in the nanostructure is calculated using a two-temperature model. Generation and heating of a plasma in the nanostructure's vicinity from photoionization and impact ionization in the near-field, as well as from photothermal emission from the nanostructure at the metal interface are also included. This plasma locally modifies the refractive index, which alters the simulated optical response of the system. Energy relaxation from this plasma as well as heat conduction from the nanostructure's lattice transfer energy to the water, which dynamics and thermodynamics evolutions are simulated from hydrodynamic and energy conservation equations. Modelling is used for analyzing the interaction of a near-infrared ultrafast laser pulse (45 fs, 800 nm, 200 mJ/cm2) with two distinct systems : a 100nm gold nanoparticle and a 10x41 nm2 gold nanorod. The gold nanoparticle shows a plasmon resonance at a ˜550 nm wavelength, and is thus slightly off-resonance at the 800 nm irradiation wavelength. In opposition, the gold nanorod shows a plasmon resonance directly at 800 nm and is thus in-resonance at the irradiation wavelength. The system of tightly coupled time-dependant non-linear partial differential equations is solved in 3D using a finite-element method. The modelling shows the generation of vapor bubble around both systems, which maximal diameter and growth time are validated from spectroscopic measurements. Results show an important production of plasma in the nanostructure's near field, which fast relaxation heats rapidly the surrounding water, leading to the emission of strong pressure wave and to the formation of a vapor bubble. Simulations further demonstrate the crucial importance of the plasma in the cavitation mechanism. For both the nanoparticle and the nanorod, results show that most of the laser energy is indeed absorbed in the plasma surrounding the nanostructure rather than in the nanostructure itself. In particular, the energy absorbed in the nanoparticle is shown to be insufficient to induce the formation of a vapor bubble at 200 mJ/cm2, whereas such a bubble is experimentally observed. This is a major result of the thesis, as such a plasma-mediated plasmonic enhanced cavitation mechanism has never been reported in the literature. The existence of this plasma-mediated mechanism that does not rely on the particle extreme heating to initiate cavitation has important consequences on cell nanosurgery applications. Finally, based on the same modelling, we develop a simple and efficient method to evaluate the potential of specific nanostructures and irradiation parameters for cell nanosurgery. We introduce a performance factor based on minimizing the energy density deposited in the nanostructure to avoid fragmentation, while maximizing the overall energy deposited in the system, to enhance the production of vapor bubbles. Results predict off-resonance 175 nm gold nanoparticles to be best suited for near-infrared ultrafast laser cell nanosurgery using 45 fs pulses at a wavelength of 800 nm. They also confirm the low inte

  8. Quercetin exhibits a specific fluorescence in cellular milieu: a valuable tool for the study of its intracellular distribution.

    PubMed

    Nifli, Artemissia-Phoebe; Theodoropoulos, Panayiotis A; Munier, Sylvie; Castagnino, Chantal; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Katerinopoulos, Haralambos E; Vercauteren, Joseph; Castanas, Elias

    2007-04-18

    The elaboration of novel techniques for flavonoid intracellular tracing would elucidate the compounds' absorption and bioavailability and assist molecular and pharmacological approaches, as they are promising candidates for drug development. This study exploited the properties of quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone), found in high concentrations in the majority of edible plants. Through the use of UV-vis spectroscopy, confocal microscopy, and HPLC-ESI-MS, native quercetin, at physiologically relevant concentrations, was found to exhibit a specific fluorescence (488 nmex/500-540 nmem) upon internalization. This fluorescence shift is due to a non-covalent binding to intracellular targets (probably proteins) and compatible with the settings applied in confocal microscopy. This property provides a valuable, selective alternative technique for quercetin tracing in cellular systems, permitting the quantitative evaluation of its transit at pharmacologically relevant concentrations and the validation of a number of already described molecular functions. PMID:17385883

  9. Modelisation par une approche milieu poreux de l'instabilite fluidelastique dans un faisceau de tubes soumis a un ecoulement diphasique transverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tixier, Eliott

    This work deals with the prediction the fluidelastic instability onset in a tube bundle subject to a two-phase cross-flow. The study of two-phase flows leads to numerous industrial applications, in particular in the nuclear energy field. Indeed, nuclear plants steam generators are subject to two-phase cross-flows that cause damaging vibrations. Repetitive stresses in the structure lead to mechanical fatigue that have many important consequences ranging from regular maintenance partial shutdowns of the plant to a nuclear incident. Steam generators are immense tube arrays counting up to hundreds of thousands of tubes, which makes their study a difficult task. Among the cause of these vibrations, the fluidelastic mechanism is certainly the most destructive one. Therefore, a lot of effort is being put within the research community into understanding this phenomenon and developing tools to predict its triggering. The present study aims at modeling and numerically simulating this instability in a tube bundle subject to a two-phase cross-flow. The main challenge is to develop a model able to simulate a bundle counting numerous tubes with a low computational cost, which is not possible with a direct approach (Direct Numerical Simulations, DNS). First, the averaging technique is presented and then applied to continuity and momentum conservation equations for both the flow and the structure. As the consequence, the model of the porous medium is obtained, in which the fluide-structure interactions are modeled and lumped into the equations. The modified form of the Navier--Stokes equations obtained is significantly cheaper in terms of computational cost. First, the volume averaging process filters many details of the flow such as the geometry of the tubes and small-scale vortices. The resulting macroscopic model presents smoother variations so that coarser meshes may be used. Second, the fluid mesh and the tubes are independent. Therefore, fixed meshes may be used to simulate unsteady problems. The averaged equations are solved by a finite element method and the code is verified using the method of manufactured solutions. Calibration and validation are conducted by comparing the results of simple test cases simulations to the results obtained by DNS simulations. The latter corresponds to the full-order model and results of fluid-structure simulations were presented in recent publications. Simulations were run for a tube bundle subject to a single-phase cross-flow using the porous medium model. The values of the fluidelastic onset critical velocity were compared to those obtained using DNS and to experimental data found in the literature. The predictions obtained tend to be overestimated with respect to reference data. The reason may be that the model itself fails to accurately represent the coupling of neighboring tubes. However, the porous medium approach is significantly less costly than DNS. The porous medium model is then extended to two-phase flows and more precisely to gas-liquid mixtures. The investigation is restricted to bubbly flows and low void fraction in order to stay within the physical boundaries of the model. The two-phase mixture is modeled by an Euler-Euler approach and gas-liquid interactions are modeled. The resulting code is again verified and validated and the results of the numerical simulations are compared to experimental data from the literature and local technical reports. The results obtained overestimate the values of the fluidelastic instability onset critical velocity. Nevertheless, the gap observed seems to be due to the single-phase fluid-structure coupling model. The reasons of scatter between the numerical results and experimental data are investigated and suggestions are made in order to improve the porous medium model.

  10. Transmission quantique de clés de cryptage en milieu aérien par codage en phase de bandes latérales de modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc, M.; Mérolla, J.-M.; Durrafourg, L.; Goedgebuer, J.-P.; Rhodes, W. T.

    2002-06-01

    L'étude présentée concerne un procédé de distribution quantique de clés de cryptage utilisant des états cohérents et la mise au point d'un système de transmission aérien. Le système de cryptage exploite les propriétés d'interférence à un photon dans deux bandes latérales de modulation, qui contiennent chacune en moyenne 0,1 photon. Les probabilités de détecter un photon dans chacune des bandes de modulation varient de façon complémentaire en fonction du déphasage induit entre l'émetteur et le récepteur. Cette méthode permet d'exploiter le protocole à 4 états de distribution de clé.

  11. Consequences experimentales des effets des fluctuations du vide sur la fluorescence parametrique et la generation du second harmonique en milieu confine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, Luc

    Les fluctuations du vide, qui consistent en l'apparition momentanee de particules, ce qui est permit par le principe d'incertitude de Heisenberg, joue un role primordial dans les processus photoniques, en particulier les processus non-lineaires. Par la manipulation de ces fluctuations du vide a l'aide de confinement optique, on retrouve deux phenomenes particuliers : l'intensification de la fluorescence parametrique (Walker, 2008) et l'inhibition de la generation du second harmonique (Collette, 2013). Dans ce travail, on presente les resultats dans le cas classique ; c'est-a-dire sans fluctuations du vide et confinement. Par la suite, on presente les effets des fluctuations du vide et du confinement, ce qui mene aux deux effets mentionnes. Dans le cas de la fluorescence parametrique, le bruit quantique sur le champ interne et externe est calcule, le role du desaccord de phase dans le modele est expose et une generalisation tridimensionnelle est etudiee afin de generaliser la conception du modele d'un cas unidimensionnel a un cas tridimensionnel planaire. Dans le cas de la generation du second harmonique, les difficultes d'un modele purement tridimensionnel sont exposees et ensuite le cas limite planaire est etudie.

  12. Stimulating Milieu to Learning and Teaching at Today's Czech Schools: A Contribution to the Recognition of the Culture of an Essential School Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan; Lenka, Hlouskova; Novotny, Petr; Zounek, Jiri

    2003-01-01

    This contribution deals with the most important area of school operation, the learning and teaching environment. Several weighty circumstances of its functioning are herewith examined, such as the operation of the school as a manifestation of its culture, the relation between learning and teaching, and paradigms of the school as specific…

  13. Take out the Tests, and Hide the Grades; Add the Spiritual with All Voices Raised! Professor Explications and Students' Opinions of an Unconventional Classroom Milieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Dave S.

    2010-01-01

    A primary piece of the conceptual framework that underlies this paper is the argument that changing instructional practices and strategies has not led to substantive innovation in higher education classrooms. More broadly stated, instructional strategies typically have not led to true innovation in higher education because strategy change often…

  14. Le milieu social des eleves et leurs chances de succes a l'ecole (The Social Background of Students and Their Chance of Success at School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a French report in response to an IBE questionnaire. Studies conducted by the Ministry of Information have revealed that particularly serious educational wastage has been taking place on both the elementary and secondary levels, and the French education system is not well…

  15. Bildung und Soziales Milieu: Determinanten des Lebenslangen Lernens in Einer Metropole (Education and Social Environment: Determinants of Life-Long Learning in a Metropolis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barz, Heiner; Tippelt, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    Describes the research on lifelong learning. Presents results of an empirical study analyzing the interest in further education of selected social environments in a large city (Munich, Germany). Concludes that the age of learners and their educational level strongly influences the concrete process of education and lifetime learning. (CAJ)

  16. Thumbs Down. A Classroom Response to Violence towards Women = Pouce. La prevention en milieu scolaire de la violence faite aux femmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Teachers' Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet is designed to encourage age-appropriate classroom discussion and activities aimed at deterring violence against women. Teachers can address violence as an issue that touches the lives of teachers and students. Domestic violence against women cuts across socioeconomic, ethnic and cultural groups. Topics addressed by grade level…

  17. The inflammatory milieu and the insulin like growth factor axis in children with inflammatory bowel disease following recombinant human growth hormone treatment.

    PubMed

    Wong, S C; Dalzell, A M; Mcgrogan, P; Didi, M; Laing, P; Ahmed, S F

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) alters cytokine profile. The objective of this study is to evaluate changes in cytokines and systemic markers of the insulin growth factor axis following 6 months of rhGH treatment in children with IBD. In a six-month randomised control trial in children with IBD treated with rhGH at 0.067 mg/kg/day and controls (11 in each group), we measured pro-, anti-inflammatory cytokines and systemic markers of the IGF axis (total IGF-1, free IGF-1, total IGFBP-3, ALS, IGFBP-2) at baseline (T+0), and six months (T+6). Results expressed as median (range). In the rhGH group, TNFα was 3.1pg/ml (2.9, 100.6) and 3.6pg/ml (3.1, 5.3) at T+0 and T+6, respectively (p=0.85), whereas in the controls this was 3.3pg/ ml (2.7, 4.0) and 3.1pg/m l (2.7, 4.7), respectively (p=0.79). In the rhGH group, IL1β was 18.0pg/ml (5.0,716.7) and 18.0pg/ml (1.7, 52.2) at T+0 and T+6 respectively(p=0.90), whereas in the controls this was 19.8pg/ml (4.1, 27.1) and 19.1pg/ml (2.4,77.3), respectively (p=0.65). None of the twenty-eight other cytokines analysed was different at T+6 in either group. Despite increase in total IGF1 in the rhGH group (p=0.03), free IGF1, IGFBP3, ALS and IGFBP2 did not change in either group at T+6. Percentage change in IGFBP3, was significantly associated with percentage change in IL2 (r=0.77, p=0.009) and IL4 (r=0.58, p=0.01). Percentage change in ALS was significantly associated with percentage change in IL2 (r=0.90, p less than 0.0001) and IL4 (r=0.63, p=0.04). Although changes in markers of the GH/IGF-1 axis do show an association with cytokines (IL-2, IL-4) in pediatric IBD, six months of rhGH treatment was not associated with any significant changes in levels of a range of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokine. Careful evaluation of disease process is required in future trials of rhGH in paediatric IBD. PMID:25864739

  18. The Moral Milieu of Information Technology: Using Domain and Affordance Theory to Explain Situational and Technological Effects on Ethical IT Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilhavy, Richard Arthur Milton

    2012-01-01

    Unethical behavior in the use of IT may result in significant negative impacts on the productivity, profitability, and reputation of the organization. IT exacerbates moral problems through its constant evolution, multi-faceted nature and encroachment into our personal and professional lives. People have difficulty recognizing moral…

  19. [Xenophobia and anti-Semitism in the medical milieu during the Occupation as seen through the journal "Concours Médical"].

    PubMed

    Halioua, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of a well-known medical journal, the Concours Médical reveals the attitude among the French medical corps between 1940 and 1944. This journal kept its readers informed of the various stages of xenophobia and anti-Semitism under the Vichy government. It provided the decisions adopted, and the application of measures prohibiting foreign and Jewish physicians to practice, regularly publishing lists. Analysis of the editions published under the occupation clearly shows the xenophobia and anti-Semitism that existed among a certain population of French practitioners. PMID:12836199

  20. Micellisation et activité de surface des bromures de n-alkyltriméthylammonium en milieu eau-acide orthophosphorique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouni, S.; Hafiane, A.; Dhahbi, M.

    1998-05-01

    Measurements of superficial tension of n-alkyltrimethylammonium bromides in air/water-orthophosphoric acid interface have been made by “stripping method". Data were evaluated by approximation to the Von Szyszkowski equation. Thermodynamic parameters as (Γmax, F, A, B, Δ G^circ_A, Δ GM and CMC) at different concentrations of orhophosphoric acid (0 at 3 M) are calculted. The CMC values of the homologous series in relation to the chain length were determined. They showed a good correlation with the Klevens equation. A minimum of CMC and (-ΔGM) was observed for the n-octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, which has been attributed to the cosolvant effect and the change of medium properties. L'adsorption, de bromure de n-alkyltriméthylammonium à l'interface air/eau-acide orthophosphorique, a été étudiée par la mesure de tension superficielle en fonction du nombre d'atomes de carbone du groupement alkyle et de la concentration en acide orthophosphorique (0 à 3 M). L'analyse des résultats a été effectuée à l'aide de l'équation de Von Szyszkowski. Les grandeurs et paramètres thermodynamiques (Γmax, F, A, B, Δ G^circ_A, Δ GM and CMC) ont été déterminés et discutés selon l'équilibre de forces de répulsion électrostatique entre les têtes polaires et d'attraction hydrophobe des chaînes aliphatiques. Les valeurs des CMC obéissent à l'équation de Klevens. Dans le cas du bromure de n-octadécyltriméthylammonium les valeurs de la CMC et de (-ΔGM) présentent un minimum, attribué au changement des propriétés du binaire eau-acide orthophosphorique.

  1. Municipal wastewater effluents as a source of listerial pathogens in the aquatic milieu of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: a concern of public health importance.

    PubMed

    Odjadjare, Emmanuel E O; Obi, Larry C; Okoh, Anthony I

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the effluent quality of an urban wastewater treatment facility in South Africa and its impact on the receiving watershed for a period of 12 months. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of potential Listeria pathogens (L. ivanovii and L. innocua) and the physicochemical quality of the treated wastewater effluent was assessed, with a view to ascertain the potential health and environmental hazards of the discharged effluent. Total listerial density varied between 2.9 x 10(0) and 1.2 x 10(5) cfu/mL; free living Listeria species were more prevalent (84%), compared to Listeria species attached to planktons (59-75%). The treated effluent quality fell short of recommended standards for turbidity, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, nitrite, phosphate and Listeria density; while pH, temperature, total dissolved solids and nitrate contents were compliant with target quality limits after treatment. The Listeria isolates (23) were sensitive to three (15%) of the 20 test antibiotics, and showed varying (4.5-91%) levels of resistance to 17 antibiotics. Of seven resistance gene markers assayed, only sulII genes were detected in five (22%) Listeria strains. The study demonstrates a potential negative impact of the wastewater effluent on the receiving environment and suggests a serious public health implication for those who depend on the receiving watershed for drinking and other purposes. PMID:20623030

  2. Structure and stability of recombinant bovine odorant-binding protein: III. Peculiarities of the wild type bOBP unfolding in crowded milieu.

    PubMed

    Stepanenko, Olga V; Roginskii, Denis O; Stepanenko, Olesya V; Kuznetsova, Irina M; Uversky, Vladimir N; Turoverov, Konstantin K

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to the majority of the members of the lipocalin family, which are stable monomers with the specific OBP fold (a β-barrel consisting of a 8-stranded anti-parallel β-sheet followed by a short α-helical segment, a ninth β-strand, and a disordered C-terminal tail) and a conserved disulfide bond, bovine odorant-binding protein (bOBP) does not have such a disulfide bond and forms a domain-swapped dimer that involves crossing the α-helical region from each monomer over the β-barrel of the other monomer. Furthermore, although natural bOBP isolated from bovine tissues exists as a stable domain-swapped dimer, recombinant bOBP has decreased dimerization potential and therefore exists as a mixture of monomeric and dimeric variants. In this article, we investigated the effect model crowding agents of similar chemical nature but different molecular mass on conformational stability of the recombinant bOBP. These experiments were conducted in order to shed light on the potential influence of model crowded environment on the unfolding-refolding equilibrium. To this end, we looked at the influence of PEG-600, PEG-4000, and PEG-12000 in concentrations of 80, 150, and 300 mg/mL on the equilibrium unfolding and refolding transitions induced in the recombinant bOBP by guanidine hydrochloride. We are showing here that the effect of crowding agents on the structure and conformational stability of the recombinant bOBP depends on the size of the crowder, with the smaller crowding agents being more effective in the stabilization of the bOBP native dimeric state against the guanidine hydrochloride denaturing action. This effect of the crowding agents is concentration dependent, with the high concentrations of the agents being more effective. PMID:27114858

  3. Examining Mandated Testing, Teachers' Milieu, "and" Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs: Gaining a Fuller Understanding of the Web of Influence on Teachers' Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Jacob W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Much research has been done on the factors that influence teachers' work. Yet, the nature and scope of those factors, and their impact on teachers, remain unclear. Indeed, different literature bases on teachers' work present different and often contradictory conclusions. For example, some researchers claim that mandated accountability…

  4. [Epidemiological aspects relating to the determination of fosfomycin sensitivity: results of a study on 300 strains isolated in a hospital milieu in Turin].

    PubMed

    Vanini, G C; Moiraghi Ruggenini, A; Grassi, R; Maury, F; Giardini, F

    1979-01-01

    The AA. evaluated the sensitivity to Fosfomycin and to other commonly used antibiotics of 105 bacterial strains isolated from hospital environment and 195 from pathological materials. They also studied the problem of bacterial resistence to Fosfomycin considering the frequency of "inner colonies" and of bacterial cross-resistance to other antibiotics. PMID:488578

  5. Bovine Colostrum Increases Pore-Forming Claudin-2 Protein Expression but Paradoxically Not Ion Permeability Possibly by a Change of the Intestinal Cytokine Milieu

    PubMed Central

    Maletzki, Claudia; Lamprecht, Georg

    2013-01-01

    An impaired intestinal barrier function is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Several nutritional factors are supposed to be effective in IBD treatment but scientific data about the effects on the intestinal integrity remain scarce. Bovine colostrum was shown to exert beneficial effects in DSS-induced murine colitis, and the present study was undertaken to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Western blot revealed increased claudin-2 expression in the distal ileum of healthy mice after feeding with colostrum for 14 days, whereas other tight junction proteins (claudin-3, 4, 10, 15) remained unchanged. The colostrum-induced claudin-2 induction was confirmed in differentiated Caco-2 cells after culture with colostrum for 48 h. Paradoxically, the elevation of claudin-2, which forms a cation-selective pore, was neither accompanied by increased ion permeability nor impaired barrier function. In an in situ perfusion model, 1 h exposure of the colonic mucosa to colostrum induced significantly increased mRNA levels of barrier-strengthening cytokine transforming growth factor-β, while interleukine-2, interleukine-6, interleukine-10, interleukine-13, and tumor-necrosis factor-α remained unchanged. Thus, modulation of the intestinal transforming growth factor-β expression might have compensated the claudin-2 increase and contributed to the observed barrier strengthening effects of colostrum in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23717570

  6. PolyICLC Exerts Pro- and Anti-HIV Effects on the DC-T Cell Milieu In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Aravantinou, Meropi; Frank, Ines; Hallor, Magnus; Singer, Rachel; Tharinger, Hugo; Kenney, Jessica; Gettie, Agegnehu; Grasperge, Brooke; Blanchard, James; Salazar, Andres; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Robbiani, Melissa; Derby, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) contribute to both HIV pathogenesis and elicitation of antiviral immunity. Understanding how mDC responses to stimuli shape HIV infection outcomes will inform HIV prevention and treatment strategies. The long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viral mimic, polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (polyIC, PIC) potently stimulates DCs to focus Th1 responses, triggers direct antiviral activity in vitro, and boosts anti-HIV responses in vivo. Stabilized polyICLC (PICLC) is being developed for vaccine adjuvant applications in humans, making it critical to understand how mDC sensing of PICLC influences HIV infection. Using the monocyte-derived DC (moDC) model, we sought to describe how PICLC (vs. other dsRNAs) impacts HIV infection within DCs and DC-T cell mixtures. We extended this work to in vivo macaque rectal transmission studies by administering PICLC with or before rectal SIVmac239 (SIVwt) or SIVmac239ΔNef (SIVΔNef) challenge. Like PIC, PICLC activated DCs and T cells, increased expression of α4β7 and CD169, and induced type I IFN responses in vitro. The type of dsRNA and timing of dsRNA exposure differentially impacted in vitro DC-driven HIV infection. Rectal PICLC treatment similarly induced DC and T cell activation and pro- and anti-HIV factors locally and systemically. Importantly, this did not enhance SIV transmission in vivo. Instead, SIV acquisition was marginally reduced after a single high dose challenge. Interestingly, in the PICLC-treated, SIVΔNef-infected animals, SIVΔNef viremia was higher, in line with the importance of DC and T cell activation in SIVΔNef replication. In the right combination anti-HIV strategy, PICLC has the potential to limit HIV infection and boost HIV immunity. PMID:27603520

  7. Influence d'une substitution partielle du ciment par du laitier de hauts fourneaux sur la résistance des mortiers en milieu acide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achoura, D.; Lanos, Ch.; Jauberthie, R.; Redjel, B.

    2004-11-01

    Le stockage de produits chimiques dans du béton présente souvent des problèmes de durabilité dus aux attaques chimiques. Inévitablement les concentrations élevées sont les plus dangereuses. Le but de notre étude est de déterminer les changements de phases qui apparaissent dans le béton lorsqu'on substitue une partie du ciment par du laitier de haut fourneaux. Les échantillons sont conservés dans des solutions acides différents anions (HCl, H{2}SO{4}, H{3}PO{4} et CH{3}COOH) et différentes concentrations (0,1; 0,25 et 0,5M). Les formations qui apparaissent sont déterminées par diffraction X et observées au MEB. Les solutions sulfatiques conduisent à une formation de gypse en surface et d'ettringite au contact de la matrice cimentaire. Avec l'acide acétique, il y a formation de calcium acétate hydrate sous forme spongieuse tandis que, avec l'acide phosphatique, la formation de calcium hydrogeno phosphate hydrate est très superficielle. Enfin, avec l'acide chlorhydrique, la surface du mortier est recouverte de chlorure de calcium dihydrate et d'hydroxyde de fer. Les résistances mécaniques sont plus ou moins affectées par la concentration mais aussi et surtout par la nature des acides avec dans l'ordre le plus agressif H{2}SO{4} puis HCl et CH{3}COOH enfin peu de modification pour H{3}PO{4}.

  8. Surpoids et obésité dans la population au-dessus de 20 ans en milieu urbain bamakois (Mali)

    PubMed Central

    Oumar Bâ, Hamidou; Menta, Ichaka; Camara, Youssouf; Sangaré, Ibrahima; Sidibé, Noumou; Doumbia, Seydou; Diarra, Mamadou Bocary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Il est question dans notre travail d’étudier le SP et l'OB et les facteurs associés dans la population âgée de 20 ans ou plus. Méthodes Notre échantillon a été obtenu à partir d'une enquête sur les pathologies cardiovasculaires dans le District de Bamako et impliquant 2199 sujets de 5-104 ans, en sélectionnant tous les sujets âgés d'au moins 20 ans (1162). Pour chaque sujet, l'IMC, rapport taille / hanche et le tour de taille ont été déterminées. Les données ont été analysées avec SPSS 12. Résultats L’âge moyen était de 36,86 années, 61,4% étaient des femmes, 49,7% dans le secteur informel et 38,0% avaient réalisé l'enseignement primaire. Facteurs de risque cardiovasculaires étaient l'inactivité physique (72,4%), le tabagisme (12,2%) et hypertension (26,7%). La prévalence de l'obésité était de 8,8 et 14,7% respectivement sur la base de l'indice de masse et le tour de taille. Conclusion Le SP et l'OB sont à prendre en compte dans les mesures de politique sanitaire que dans la pratique quotidienne des professionnels de santé, il est peut-être plus utile d'utiliser plusieurs paramètres pour être à même de bien stratifier nos patients par rapport à leur risque. PMID:25932065

  9. A buffer value index to evaluate effects of buffers on ruminal milieu in cows fed high or low concentrate, silage, or hay diets.

    PubMed

    Tucker, W B; Hogue, J F; Aslam, M; Lema, M; Martin, M; Owens, F N; Shin, I S; Le Ruyet, P; Adams, G D

    1992-03-01

    Our objective was to develop a buffer value index that would incorporate alterations in both ruminal fluid pH and buffering capacity as indicators of the influence of dietary buffering and alkalinizing agents on ruminal acid-base status. This index was evaluated using ruminal fluid from four lactating Holstein cows fed either sorghum silage or alfalfa hay in high or low concentrate diets. Ruminal fluid was incubated in vitro for 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 h with no buffer or with 7.1 g of either NaHCO3, sodium sesquicarbonate, or a multielement buffer added per liter of ruminal fluid. Ruminal fluid pH was lower for diets based on high concentrate or alfalfa; buffering capacity between pH 5 and 7 was greater for high concentrate diets but was not affected by forage type. Ruminal fluid pH was higher for sesquicarbonate than for NaHCO3, the multielement buffer, or the control; however, ruminal fluid H+ concentration was similar between sesquicarbonate and NaHCO3, and both were lower than for the multielement buffer. Hydrogen ion concentration for the multielement buffer was lower than for the control. Buffering capacity was highest for NaHCO3, followed by sesquicarbonate, the multielement buffer, and the control. The buffer value index, which accounted for alterations in both H+ concentration and buffering capacity, was highest for NaCHO3, followed by sesquicarbonate, the multielement buffer, and the control. The poor response to the multielement buffer may be attributable to our relatively short incubation interval (less than 5 h). Dietary buffers increase both ruminal fluid pH and buffering capacity; both of these responses are beneficial.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1314858

  10. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant and Virulent Salmonella spp. in Treated Effluent and Receiving Aquatic Milieu of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Odjadjare, Ejovwokoghene C.; Olaniran, Ademola O.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of treated wastewater effluent from two wastewater treatment plants on the physicochemical parameters and Salmonella spp. load of receiving rivers. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were obtained at all sampled points including the discharge points, with counts ranging from 0 to 4.14 log cfu/mL at both plants. Turbidity, chemical and biological oxygen demand were found to be high and mostly above the required limit for treated wastewater discharge. However, recorded nitrate and phosphate values were very low. Of the 200 confirmed Salmonella spp. isolates recovered from the treated effluent and receiving surface waters, 93% harbored the spiC gene, 84% harbored the misL gene, and 87.5% harbored the orfL gene while 87% harbored the pipD gene. The antibiotic resistance profile revealed that the isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, but susceptible to quinolones and third generation β-lactams. These results indicate that in South Africa treated effluents are still a major source of contamination of rivers with pathogens such as Salmonella. Appropriate steps by the regulatory authorities and workers at the treatment plants are needed to enforce stipulated guidelines in order to prevent pollution of surface water resources due to the discharge of poorly treated effluents. PMID:26295245

  11. Sex Role and Attitudes Toward Institutional Violence Among College Youth: The Impact of Sex-Role Identification, Parental Socialization, and Socio-Cultural Milieu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jerold M.; Cutler, Neal E.

    Attitudinal differences between males and females on certain issues have been repeatedly documented through commercial public polls and academic studies. One of these differences is the greater reluctance on the part of females to support the use of institutional violence as an instrument of public policy. This paper empirically explores the…

  12. Surpoids et obésité dans la population générale de 5 à 19 ans en milieu urbain bamakois (Mali)

    PubMed Central

    Oumar Bâ, Hamidou; Menta, Ichaka; Camara, Youssouf; Doumbia, Plutôt Seydou; Diarra, Mamadou Bocary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Déterminer la prévalence du surpoids et de l'obésité dans la population âgée de 5 à 19 ans et fournir des données de référence pour de futures études. Méthodes Notre échantillon est issu de la première étude sur les pathologies cardiovasculaires basée sur l'approche STEP de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) en sélectionnant tous les sujets âgés de 5 à 19 ans. Nous avons utilisé les méthodes de l'OMS et de l'International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) pour déterminer la prévalence du surpoids et de l'obésité dans la population générale. Résultats La moyenne d’âge était de 11,75 ans ± 4,387 et le sex-ratio M:F était de 0,79. les moyennes pour le poids et la taille étaient de 36,85 kg et 143,48 cm. Selon les critères OMS 1,61% des garçons et 3,28% des filles étaient en surpoids et 0,92% des garçons contre 1,46% des filles obèses. Selon les critères de l'IOTF 4,10% des garçons et 5,94% des filles étaient en surpoids tandis que 0,72% des garçons et 2,68% des filles étaient obèses. Conclusion Malgré sa faible prévalence le surpoids et l'obésité doivent être régulièrement étudiés pour reconnaître des tendances et prendre des mesures adéquates de prévention. Les 2 méthodes utilisées ont permis d'avoir des données de référence pour de futures études au Mali et ailleurs. PMID:25932064

  13. Morbidité et mortalité hospitalière des maladies cardiovasculaires en milieu tropical: exemple d'un centre hospitalier à Lomé (Togo)

    PubMed Central

    Damorou, Findibe; Baragou, Soodougoua; Pio, Machihuede; Afassinou, Yaovi M; N'da, N'kenon W; Pessinaba, Soulemane; Tchérou, Tchaa; Attiogbé, Halé; Ehlan, Koffi; Goeh-Akue, Edem; Yayehd, Komlavi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV) occupent une place importante dans la mortalité en Afrique, situation inquiétante traduisant une transition épidémiologique rapide. La connaissance des groupes nosologiques les plus mortelles devrait aider à l’élaboration de politiques en matière de traitement et de prévention. Méthodes Il's agit d une étude rétrospective du 1er janvier 2006 au 31 décembre 2010, ayant inclus les patients hospitalisés pour une MCV selon la classification Internationale des maladies (CIM-10). Résultats La fréquentation hospitalière pour maladie MCV a augmenté au fil du temps; les maladies hypertensives étaient le premier motif d hospitalisation (66.8%). Les autres pathologies fréquentes étaient la maladie thromboembolique (9.1%), les syndromes coronaires aigus (SCA) (7.3%), l'insuffisance cardiaque (5.5%), les cardiomyopathies (5.3%). La majorité des sujets étaient jeunes (âge moyen: 55.1 ans) et il n'y avait pas de corrélation entre la durée d'hospitalisation et l’âge: r = + 0.024, p = 0.09. La mortalité globale était élevée (11%) et les taux de létalité élevés dans le SCA (27.9%), l'embolie pulmonaire (25%) et la péricardite (25%). Conclusion Les MCV sont responsables d'une hospitalisation croissante dans nos hôpitaux. L'absence d unité de soins intensifs cardiologiques et des méthodes de revascularisation coronaire, le manque de personnels qualifiés associés l'inexistence de sécurité sociale expliquent une mortalité élevée dans nos pays en voie de développement qui sans avoir achevé leur transition démographique entre en pleine transition épidémiologique. PMID:25018812

  14. Restoration of the cellular secretory milieu overrides androgen dependence of in vivo generated castration resistant prostate cancer cells overexpressing the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Patki, Mugdha; Huang, Yanfang; Ratnam, Manohar

    2016-07-22

    It is believed that growth of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells is enabled by sensitization to minimal residual post-castrate androgen due to overexpression of the androgen receptor (AR). Evidence is derived from androgen-induced colony formation in the absence of cell-secreted factors or from studies involving forced AR overexpression in hormone-dependent cells. On the other hand, standard cell line models established from CRPC patient tumors (e.g., LNCaP and VCaP) are hormone-dependent and require selection pressure in castrated mice to re-emerge as CRPC cells and the resulting tumors then tend to be insensitive to the androgen antagonist enzalutamide. Therefore, we examined established CRPC model cells produced by castration of mice bearing hormone-dependent cell line xenografts including CRPC cells overexpressing full-length AR (C4-2) or co-expressing wtAR and splice-variant AR-V7 that is incapable of ligand binding (22Rv1). In standard colony formation assays, C4-2 cells were shown to be androgen-dependent and sensitive to enzalutamide whereas 22Rv1 cells were incapable of colony formation under identical conditions. However, both C4-2 and 22Rv1 cells formed colonies in conditioned media derived from the same cells or from HEK293 fibroblasts that were proven to lack androgenic activity. This effect was (i) not enhanced by androgen, (ii) insensitive to enzalutamide, (iii) dependent on AR (in C4-2) and on AR-V7 and wtAR (in 22Rv1) and (iv) sensitive to inhibitors of several signaling pathways, similar to androgen-stimulation. Therefore, during progression to CRPC in vivo, coordinate cellular changes accompanying overexpression of AR may enable cooperation between hormone-independent activity of AR and actions of cellular secretory factors to completely override androgen-dependence and sensitivity to drugs targeting hormonal factors. PMID:27179779

  15. Dicer insufficiency and microRNA-155 overexpression in lupus regulatory T cells: an apparent paradox in the setting of an inflammatory milieu.

    PubMed

    Divekar, Anagha A; Dubey, Shweta; Gangalum, Pallavi R; Singh, Ram Raj

    2011-01-15

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by loss of tolerance to self-Ags and activation of autoreactive T cells. Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a critical role in controlling the activation of autoreactive T cells. In this study, we investigated mechanisms of potential Treg cell defects in systemic lupus erythematosus using MRL-Fas(lpr/lpr) (MRL/lpr) and MRL-Fas(+/+) mouse models. We found a significant increase in CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells, albeit with an altered phenotype (CD62L(-)CD69(+)) and with a reduced suppressive capacity, in the lymphoid organs of MRL strains compared with non-autoimmune C3H/HeOuj mice. A search for mechanisms underlying the altered Treg cell phenotype in MRL/lpr mice led us to find a profound reduction in Dicer expression and an altered microRNA (miRNA, miR) profile in MRL/lpr Treg cells. Despite having a reduced level of Dicer, MRL/lpr Treg cells exhibited a significant overexpression of several miRNAs, including let-7a, let-7f, miR-16, miR-23a, miR-23b, miR-27a, and miR-155. Using computational approaches, we identified one of the upregulated miRNAs, miR-155, that can target CD62L and may thus confer the altered Treg cell phenotype in MRL/lpr mice. In fact, the induced overexpression of miR-155 in otherwise normal (C3H/HeOuj) Treg cells reduced their CD62L expression, which mimics the altered Treg cell phenotype in MRL/lpr mice. These data suggest a role of Dicer and miR-155 in regulating Treg cell phenotype. Furthermore, simultaneous appearance of Dicer insufficiency and miR-155 overexpression in diseased mice suggests a Dicer-independent alternative mechanism of miRNA regulation under inflammatory conditions. PMID:21149603

  16. L'enseignant-ressource en milieu urbain defavorise: Une intervention educative efficace. (The Teacher as a Resource in Disadvantaged Urban Environments: An Educational Intervention.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespo, Manuel; Carignan, Nicole

    2001-01-01

    As part of a continuing debate on the effectiveness of educational interventions among disadvantaged groups, this article reports the results of an empirical study of 1,567 pupils from the first and sixth grades, attending 20 primary schools in disadvantaged areas of Montreal, Canada. Assesses the effects of using teachers as "resource persons" on…

  17. The ability of Helianthus annuus L. and Brassica juncea to uptake and translocate natural uranium and 226Ra under different milieu conditions.

    PubMed

    Vera Tomé, F; Blanco Rodríguez, P; Lozano, J C

    2009-01-01

    Seedlings of Helianthus annuus L. (HA) and Brassica juncea (BJ) were used to test the effect of the pH, the presence of phosphates, and the addition of ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) or citrate on the uptake and the translocation of uranium isotopes ((238)U, (235)U, and (234)U) and (226)Ra. The results indicated that the presence of phosphates generally reduces the uptake and transfer of uranium from the roots to the shoots of HA. In the case of BJ, while phosphate enhanced the retention of uranium by roots, the translocation was poorer. Likewise, for (226)Ra, the best translocation was in the absence of phosphates for both species. The addition of citrate increased the translocation of uranium for both species, but had no clear effect on the transfer of (226)Ra. The effect of EDTA was much more moderate both for uranium and for (226)Ra, and for both plant species. Only noticeable was a slightly better uptake of (226)Ra by BJ at neutral pH, although the translocation was lower. PMID:18848715

  18. Recherches Sur La Psychologie de L'enfant de Milieu Defavorise. Rapport- synthese. (Research Relating to the Psychology of the Child in Disadvantaged Environments. Summary Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Charles E.; Bourbeau, Gerald

    Thirteen doctoral dissertations and five masters theses are summarized in this report of research on the disadvantaged child. Contained in each individual summary are the detailed descriptions of the experimental task, the results obtained and the analysis of these results. The eighteen individual theses are concerned with topics such as:…

  19. Comparative Efficacy of an Organic Acid Blend and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate as Growth Promoters in Broiler Chickens: Effects on Performance, Gut Histology, and Small Intestinal Milieu

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Saikat; Haldar, Sudipto; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of organic acids as a growth promoter for broiler chickens relative to antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs). Broiler chickens were supplemented with graded doses of an organic acid blend (OAB, 1 g and 2 g/kg diet) and bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD, 0.5 g and 1 g/kg diet) for 35 days. Supplementation of OAB improved (P < .001) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and increased protein accretion (P < .001). Dietary acidification caused pH of the gizzard to decline linearly (P < .01) with the dose of supplemental OAB. In the lower intestine, pH remained unaffected by dietary treatments. Unlike BMD, supplemental OAB selectively promoted growth of lactobacilli in the small intestine. Moreover, compared to BMD, OAB tended to maintain the villi in the small intestine at a greater height. Although benefits of exceeding the dose of supplemental organic acids more than 1 g/kg diet are not always conspicuous, based on the live weight and feed conversion data, supplementation of 2 g organic acid per kg diet may be recommended for total replacement of AGPs in broiler diet. PMID:20445787

  20. Who were his peers? The social and professional milieu of the provincial surgeon-apothecary in the late-eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Alannah

    2011-01-01

    The social standing of the surgeon-apothecary cannot be determined by reference to professional life alone, yet few such men left social documents. The lower middling sort was typically reticent about evaluations of their own social position in any source genre. This article uses a unique archive, and the concept of community connectedness, to investigate the status of Thomas Higgins, surgeon-apothecary and man-midwife of north Shropshire. Higgins embodied the traditional practitioner who relied on local knowledge and his 'friends' for advancement, in contrast to alternative modes of rising professionalism. He was demonstrably a trusted man at the heart of his home town, but his reliance on the 'partiality' of his neighbors brought him into conflict with his colleagues. PMID:21853622

  1. Systeme prototype pour le suivi des changements de l'occupation du sol en milieu urbain fonde sur les images du satellite RADARSAT-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiset, Robert

    Land use and land cover mapping is of great importance for urban environment management. However, these maps become very rapidly outdated and require constant updating. Even in this day and age, most of the updating process is performed manually with the aid of aerial photography. The essential stages of this process consist in detecting the changes, establishing their nature and performing the database updating accordingly. Automating this operating procedure, even partially, is of utmost importance. Radar imagery may be acquired over large territories even in the presence of clouds. It has been the subject of very few research for urban mapping and there exists no operational application that makes use of it for map updating in this type of environment. However, it is well known that the imaging radar in general is sensitive to raised structures such as buildings. The apparition of new buildings in vacant areas, where most land cover and land use changes occur in urban areas, is clearly an indication for change detection. In the framework of this thesis, RADARSAT-1 imagery acquired in fine mode (10 meter resolution) has been investigated for its use in an innovative image processing method: the map-guided analysis of remote sensing data. The outdated map serves as a guide to segment a more recent image in order to compute characteristic features allowing to detect and identify changes. Tests show that texture measurements obtained with a fast method derived from the grey level co-occurrence matrix constitute such characteristic features allowing new buildings detection. Using 11 pixels square windows, contrast and entropy measurements are computed on a fine mode RADARSAT-1 image. Choosing appropriate thresholds is sufficient to pinpoint new buildings in vacant areas. Validation of this detection method is carried out over 5 sites presenting diverse physiographic characteristics using a dataset of 14 fine mode RADARSAT-1 images acquired with various incident angles throughout 1999. In the best cases, an accuracy of over 90% can be reached, while in the worst case this accuracy is around 75%. The results show that image acquisition using large incidence angles (F4 or F5) during a dry period (summer or fall) is preferable. With regard to the identification of the new taxons, it cannot be achieved with the radar imagery. Thus, a prototype system is developed to perform change detection using a RADARSAT-1 image, which then constitutes the key for the search by an operator into territorial databases (aerial photographs, land register, valuation rolls, etc.) to identify the new taxons. This prototype system, applied in a real case test, shows its potential for an operational use to accelerate and facilitate land use and land cover map updating over large territories. Key words. cartography, land use/land cover, urban areas, automatic updating, map-guided analysis, RADARSAT-l, texture measurements, grey level co-occurrence matrix.

  2. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant and Virulent Salmonella spp. in Treated Effluent and Receiving Aquatic Milieu of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Odjadjare, Ejovwokoghene C; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of treated wastewater effluent from two wastewater treatment plants on the physicochemical parameters and Salmonella spp. load of receiving rivers. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were obtained at all sampled points including the discharge points, with counts ranging from 0 to 4.14 log cfu/mL at both plants. Turbidity, chemical and biological oxygen demand were found to be high and mostly above the required limit for treated wastewater discharge. However, recorded nitrate and phosphate values were very low. Of the 200 confirmed Salmonella spp. isolates recovered from the treated effluent and receiving surface waters, 93% harbored the spiC gene, 84% harbored the misL gene, and 87.5% harbored the orfL gene while 87% harbored the pipD gene. The antibiotic resistance profile revealed that the isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, but susceptible to quinolones and third generation β-lactams. These results indicate that in South Africa treated effluents are still a major source of contamination of rivers with pathogens such as Salmonella. Appropriate steps by the regulatory authorities and workers at the treatment plants are needed to enforce stipulated guidelines in order to prevent pollution of surface water resources due to the discharge of poorly treated effluents. PMID:26295245

  3. Experiencias Educativas en el Medio Rural Colombiano. Serie Divulgacion No. 2. [Educational Experiences in the Rural Colombian Milieu. Circulation Series No. 2].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota (Colombia). Centro Nacional de Documentacion e Informacion Pedagogica.

    In fulfillment of the Colombian National Government's educational policy aimed toward improving the rural population's level of living, two fundamental projects have been implemented. These projects have led to the creation of schools, the continuous extension of grades, and the creation of "Concentraciones de Desarrollo Rural." They seek to: (1)…

  4. A Combination Supplement of Fructo- and Xylo-Oligosaccharides Significantly Abrogates Oxidative Impairments and Neurotoxicity in Maternal/Fetal Milieu Following Gestational Exposure to Acrylamide in Rat.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Gokul; Divyashri, Gangaraju; Prapulla, S G; Muralidhara

    2015-09-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides are demonstrated to confer a wide spectrum of physiological benefits during pregnancy. In view of this, focused attempts are being directed towards understanding their role as modulators of brain chemistry and behavior. Epidemiological studies have identified that exposure to neurotoxins during prenatal/early life can profoundly impact neurodevelopment/function. In this context, we have tested the hypothesis that a combination of prebiotic supplements during gestation has the propensity to attenuate acrylamide (ACR) induced oxidative impairments, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurotoxicity in maternal and fetal brain of rats. To achieve this, pregnant dams given oral supplements of a combination of fructo- and xylooligosaccharides (FOS + XOS, 3 g/kg/day) during gestation days (GD 0-19) were exposed to ACR (200 ppm in drinking water, GD 6-19). The behavioral analysis revealed that ACR dams fed prebiotics displayed higher exploratory behavior in the open field test. The prenatal evaluation showed that ACR-induced decrements of placental/fetal weights were markedly restored with prebiotic feeding. Prebiotics significantly offset markers of oxidative stress, restored enzymic antioxidants, cholinergic and mitochondrial function in the maternal and fetal brain. Concomitantly, prebiotics restored ACR-induced depletion in the levels of dopamine and γ-aminobutyric acid in the maternal cortex that positively correlated with cecal bacterial numbers. Collectively, these data suggest that prenatal prebiotic oligosaccharide supplements protect developing brain against oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity. While the underlying mechanism/s by which prebiotics abrogate the impact of neurotoxicants in the developing brain merits further studies, we speculate that it may be mediated predominantly through attenuation of oxidative stress and proliferation of enteric microbiota. PMID:26248513

  5. Impact of Technologies on Learning in the Workplace. Final Report = L'effet des technologies d'apprentissage sur l'apprentissage a vie en milieu de travail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugas, Tim; Green, Lyndsay; Leckie, Norm

    The use of learning technologies in the workplace and their impact on lifelong learning were examined. Data were collected from three sources: the literature on learning technologies and labor market trends affecting the adoption, implementation, and success of learning technologies in the workplace; case studies of 8 Canadian firms with 100 or…

  6. Estimation de l'equivalent en eau de la neige en milieu subarctique du Quebec par teledetection micro-ondes passives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachon, Francois

    The snow cover (extent, depth and water equivalent) is an important factor in assessing the water balance of a territory. In a context of deregulation of electricity, better knowledge of the quantity of water resulting from snowmelt that will be available for hydroelectric power generation has become a major challenge for the managers of Hydro-Quebec's generating plant. In fact, the snow on the ground represents nearly one third of Hydro-Quebec's annual energy reserve and the proportion is even higher for northern watersheds. Snowcover knowledge would therefore help optimize the management of energy stocks. The issue is especially important when one considers that better management of water resources can lead to substantial economic benefits. The Research Institute of Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), our research partner, is currently attempting to optimize the streamfiow forecasts made by its hydrological models by improving the quality of the inputs. These include a parameter known as the snow water equivalent (SWE) which characterizes the properties of the snow cover. At the present time, SWE data is obtained from in situ measurements, which are both sporadic and scattered, and does not allow the temporal and spatial variability of SWE to be characterized adequately for the needs of hydrological models. This research project proposes to provide the Quebec utility's hydrological models with distributed SWE information about its northern watersheds. The targeted accuracy is 15% for the proposed period of analysis covering the winter months of January, February and March of 2001 to 2006. The methodology is based on the HUT snow emission model and uses the passive microwave remote sensing data acquired by the SSM/I sensor. Monitoring of the temporal and spatial variations in SWE is done by inversion of the model and benefits from the assimilation of in situ data to characterize the state of snow cover during the season. Experimental results show that the assimilation technique of in situ data (density and depth) can reproduce the temporal variations in SWE with a RMSE error of 15.9% (R2=0.76). The analysis of land cover within the SSMI pixels can reduce this error to 14.6% ( R2=0.66) for SWE values below 300 mm. Moreover, the results show that the fluctuations of SWE values are driven by changes in snow depths. Indeed, the use of a constant value for the density of snow is feasible and makes it possible to get as good if not better results. These results will allow IREQ to assess the suitability of using snow cover information provided by the remote sensing data in its forecasting models. This improvement in SWE characterization will meet the needs of IREQ for its work on optimization of the quality of hydrological simulations. The originality and relevance of this work are based primarily on the type of method used to quantify SWE and the site where it is applied. The proposed method focuses on the inversion of the HUT model from passive remote sensing data and assimilates in situ data. Moreover, this approach allows high SWE values (> 300 mm) to be quantified, which was impossible with previous methods. These high SWE values are encountered in areas with large amounts of snow such as northern Quebec. Keywords. remote sensing, microwave, snow water equivalent (SWE), model, retrieval, data assimilation, SWE monitoring, spatialization Complete reference. Vachon, F. (2009) Snow water equivalent retrieval in a subartic environment of Quebec using passive microwave remote sensing. Ph.D. Thesis, Sherbrooke University, Sherbrooke, 211 p.

  7. Structure and stability of recombinant bovine odorant-binding protein: III. Peculiarities of the wild type bOBP unfolding in crowded milieu

    PubMed Central

    Stepanenko, Olga V.; Roginskii, Denis O.; Stepanenko, Olesya V.; Kuznetsova, Irina M.

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to the majority of the members of the lipocalin family, which are stable monomers with the specific OBP fold (a β-barrel consisting of a 8-stranded anti-parallel β-sheet followed by a short α-helical segment, a ninth β-strand, and a disordered C-terminal tail) and a conserved disulfide bond, bovine odorant-binding protein (bOBP) does not have such a disulfide bond and forms a domain-swapped dimer that involves crossing the α-helical region from each monomer over the β-barrel of the other monomer. Furthermore, although natural bOBP isolated from bovine tissues exists as a stable domain-swapped dimer, recombinant bOBP has decreased dimerization potential and therefore exists as a mixture of monomeric and dimeric variants. In this article, we investigated the effect model crowding agents of similar chemical nature but different molecular mass on conformational stability of the recombinant bOBP. These experiments were conducted in order to shed light on the potential influence of model crowded environment on the unfolding-refolding equilibrium. To this end, we looked at the influence of PEG-600, PEG-4000, and PEG-12000 in concentrations of 80, 150, and 300 mg/mL on the equilibrium unfolding and refolding transitions induced in the recombinant bOBP by guanidine hydrochloride. We are showing here that the effect of crowding agents on the structure and conformational stability of the recombinant bOBP depends on the size of the crowder, with the smaller crowding agents being more effective in the stabilization of the bOBP native dimeric state against the guanidine hydrochloride denaturing action. This effect of the crowding agents is concentration dependent, with the high concentrations of the agents being more effective. PMID:27114858

  8. Etude de quelques fonctionnelles du mouvement brownien et de certaines propriétés de la diffusion unidimensionnelle en milieu aléatoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, Cécile

    This paper deals with functionals of Brownian motion that appear in various contexts, and with some properties of anomalous diffusion in a one-dimensional random environment. Section 2 explains why path integrals provide a powerful framework to compute probability distribution of functionals of Brownian motion. This approach is used to study winding properties of planar Brownian motion. Section 3 is devoted to an exponential functional of Brownian motion, which arise in particular in the study of transport properties of classical diffusion in a one-dimensional disordered system of finite length. This functional belongs to the field of multiplicative stochastic processes. Cet article porte sur l'étude des distributions de probabilité de quelques fonctionnelles du mouvement brownien qui interviennent dans divers contextes physiques. Le paragraphe 2 présente une méthode d'intégrale de chemin qui relieles distributions de probabilité de certaines fonctionnelles du mouvement brownien, à des fonctions de Green euclidiennes de la mécanique quantique. Cette approche permet notamment d'étudier certaines propriétés d'enroulementdu mouvement brownien plan, qu'il soit libre ou soumis à l'action d'un potentiel extérieur. Les fonctions d'échelle et les formes des lois asymptotiques à grand temps de l'enroulement autour d'un point dépendent des propriétés spectrales de basse énergied'une famille d'hamiltoniens contenant un potentiel vecteur de type Aharonov-Bohm.Le paragraphe 3 a pour l'objet l'étude de la loi de probabilité d'une fonctionnelle exponentielle du mouvement brownien qui intervient dans le cadnG de la diffusion unidimensionnelle aléatoire. Celle-ci apparaît notamment lorsque l'on s'intéresse à la distribution du flux de particules quitraverse un échantillon désordonné de taille finie, lorsque les particules diffusent classiquement, sous l'action d'une force aléatoire gelée distribuée comme un bruit blanc gaussien. Le spectre de relaxation de la distribution du flux par rapport à longueur de l'échantillon présente une branche continue et quelques états discrets, dont le nombre dépend de l'importance du désordre par rapport à la force moyenne.La fonctionnelle exponentielle étudiée intervient aussi dans l'étude du mouvement brownien libre sur le demi-plan de Poincaré, et s'inscrit plus largement dans le cadre des processus stochastiques multiplicatifs.

  9. Serum titres of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 and anti-IA-2 autoantibodies are associated with different immunoregulatory milieu in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Gabbay, M Andrade Lima; Sato, M N; Duarte, A J S; Dib, S A

    2012-04-01

    Several studies correlated genetic background and pancreatic islet-cell autoantibody status (type and number) in type 1A diabetes mellitus (T1AD), but there are no data evaluating the relationship among these markers with serum cytokines, regulatory T cells and β cell function. This characterization has a potential importance with regard to T1AD patients' stratification and follow-up in therapeutic prevention. In this study we showed that peripheral sera cytokines [interleukin (IL)-12, IL-6, II-1β, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-10] and chemokines (CXCL10, CXCL8, CXCL9, CCL2) measured were significantly higher in newly diagnosed T1AD patients when compared to healthy controls (P < 0·001). Among T1AD, we found a positive correlation between CXCL10 and CCL-2 (r = 0·80; P = 0·000), IL-8 and TNF-α (r = 0·60; P = 0·000); IL-8 and IL-12 (r = 0·57; P = 0·001) and TNF-α and IL-12 (r = 0·93; P = 0·000). Glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD-65) autoantibodies (GADA) were associated negatively with CXCL10 (r = -0·45; P = 0·011) and CCL2 (r = -0·65; P = 0·000), while IA-2A showed a negative correlation with IL-10 (r = -0·38; P = 0·027). Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) DR3, DR4 or DR3/DR4 and PTPN22 polymorphism did not show any association with pancreatic islet cell antibodies or cytokines studied. In summary, our results revealed that T1AD have a proinflammatory cytokine profile compared to healthy controls and that IA-2A sera titres seem to be associated with a more inflammatory peripheral cytokine/chemokine profile than GADA. A confirmation of these data in the pre-T1AD phase could help to explain the mechanistic of the well-known role of IA-2A as a more specific marker of beta-cell damage than GADA during the natural history of T1AD. PMID:22385239

  10. La detection des cyanobacteries en milieu lacustre par l'etude des anomalies des spectres de reflectance de l'eau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Gabriel

    Proliferation of cyanobacteria is a growing problem in lacustrine environment that results in rapid degradation of water quality. Moreover, certain cyanobacteria species produce harmful toxins. Phycocyanin (PC) is a photosynthetic pigment typical of cyanobacteria and affects the water color: it is therefore possible to study them using remote sensing. At least three algorithms to estimate PC concentration ([PC]) have been published, but their relative errors are important, especially for lower concentration. In this study, we are presenting the results of a new algorithm that uses the second order variability (anomalies) of water's reflectance spectrum to estimate [PC]. This method has never been used in lacustrine environment. The dataset used to develop and validate the algorithm was obtained between 2001 and 2005 in 57 different lakes and reservoirs of the Netherlands and Spain. The performance of the second order algorithm is equivalent or better than the three previously published algorithms. For the subset were [PC] > 32 mg m-3, the contribution of the second order term (R2=0.68 and RMSE=0.25) seems to improve considerably the first order algorithm (R2=0.50 and RMSE=0.35). The accuracy of the second order algorithm for [PC] > 32 mg m-3 is superior to the one calculated for the whole dataset (R2=0.69 and RMSE=0.44). The algorithm can also be adapted to the. bands of satellite sensor MERIS for the study of cyanobacteria. The application of this algorithm to a MERIS image acquired the 29 August 2010 taken over the Missisquoi Bay (Quebec, Canada) demonstrates the potential of this new algorithm for a future cyanobacteria' monitoring system. Note that all the statistical results presented above are for the logarithm of [PC] and the units of the RMSE are log(mg/m 3).

  11. Evidence Molded by Contact with Staff Culture and Patient Milieu: An Analysis of the Social Process of Knowledge Utilization in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Øye, Christine; Mekki, Tone Elin; Skaar, Randi; Dahl, Hellen; Forland, Oddvar; Jacobsen, Frode F.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge utilization is politically "hot" because it informs decisions on improving the quality of care in nursing homes (NHs). The difficulties encountered in implementing evidence-based knowledge into practice may be explained by contextual factors. Contextual factors are crucial to understanding the process of knowledge utilization;…

  12. Anti-CS1 humanized monoclonal antibody HuLuc63 inhibits myeloma cell adhesion and induces antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in the bone marrow milieu.

    PubMed

    Tai, Yu-Tzu; Dillon, Myles; Song, Weihua; Leiba, Merav; Li, Xian-Feng; Burger, Peter; Lee, Alfred I; Podar, Klaus; Hideshima, Teru; Rice, Audie G; van Abbema, Anne; Jesaitis, Lynne; Caras, Ingrid; Law, Debbie; Weller, Edie; Xie, Wanling; Richardson, Paul; Munshi, Nikhil C; Mathiot, Claire; Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Afar, Daniel E H; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2008-08-15

    Currently, no approved monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies exist for human multiple myeloma (MM). Here we characterized cell surface CS1 as a novel MM antigen and further investigated the potential therapeutic utility of HuLuc63, a humanized anti-CS1 mAb, for treating human MM. CS1 mRNA and protein was highly expressed in CD138-purified primary tumor cells from the majority of MM patients (more than 97%) with low levels of circulating CS1 detectable in MM patient sera, but not in healthy donors. CS1 was expressed at adhesion-promoting uropod membranes of polarized MM cells, and short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted to CS1 inhibited MM cell adhesion to bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). HuLuc63 inhibited MM cell binding to BMSCs and induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against MM cells in dose-dependent and CS1-specific manners. HuLuc63 triggered autologous ADCC against primary MM cells resistant to conventional or novel therapies, including bortezomib and HSP90 inhibitor; and pretreatment with conventional or novel anti-MM drugs markedly enhanced HuLuc63-induced MM cell lysis. Administration of HuLuc63 significantly induces tumor regression in multiple xenograft models of human MM. These results thus define the functional significance of CS1 in MM and provide the preclinical rationale for testing HuLuc63 in clinical trials, either alone or in combination. PMID:17906076

  13. Adenylyl cyclase AC8 directly controls its micro-environment by recruiting the actin cytoskeleton in a cholesterol-rich milieu

    PubMed Central

    Ayling, Laura J.; Briddon, Stephen J.; Halls, Michelle L.; Hammond, Gerald R. V.; Vaca, Luis; Pacheco, Jonathan; Hill, Stephen J.; Cooper, Dermot M. F.

    2012-01-01

    The central and pervasive influence of cAMP on cellular functions underscores the value of stringent control of the organization of adenylyl cyclases (ACs) in the plasma membrane. Biochemical data suggest that ACs reside in membrane rafts and could compartmentalize intermediary scaffolding proteins and associated regulatory elements. However, little is known about the organization or regulation of the dynamic behaviour of ACs in a cellular context. The present study examines these issues, using confocal image analysis of various AC8 constructs, combined with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. These studies reveal that AC8, through its N-terminus, enhances the cortical actin signal at the plasma membrane; an interaction that was confirmed by GST pull-down and immunoprecipitation experiments. AC8 also associates dynamically with lipid rafts; the direct association of AC8 with sterols was confirmed in Förster resonance energy transfer experiments. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and lipid rafts indicates that AC8 tracks along the cytoskeleton in a cholesterol-enriched domain, and the cAMP that it produces contributes to sculpting the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, an adenylyl cyclase is shown not just to act as a scaffold, but also to actively orchestrate its own micro-environment, by associating with the cytoskeleton and controlling the association by producing cAMP, to yield a highly organized signalling hub. PMID:22399809

  14. Assessment of physicochemical parameters and prevalence of virulent and multiple-antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in treated effluent of two wastewater treatment plants and receiving aquatic milieu in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Leanne; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2016-05-01

    The poor operational status of some wastewater treatment plants often result in the discharge of inadequately treated effluent into receiving surface waters. This is of significant public health concern as there are many informal settlement dwellers (ISDs) that rely on these surface waters for their domestic use. This study investigated the treatment efficiency of two independent wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Durban, South Africa and determined the impact of treated effluent discharge on the physicochemical and microbial quality of the receiving water bodies over a 6-month period. Presumptive Escherichia coli isolates were identified using biochemical tests and detection of the mdh gene via PCR. Six major virulence genes namely eae, hly, fliC, stx1, stx2, and rfbE were also detected via PCR while antibiotic resistance profiles of the isolates were determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. The physicochemical parameters of the wastewater samples ranged variously between 9 and 313.33 mg/L, 1.52 and 76.43 NTUs, and 6.30 and 7.87 for COD, turbidity, and pH respectively, while the E. coli counts ranged between 0 and 31.2 × 10(3) CFU/ml. Of the 200 selected E. coli isolates, the hly gene was found in 28 %, fliC in 20 %, stx2 in 17 %, eae in 14 %, with stx1 and rfbE in only 4 % of the isolates. Notable resistance was observed toward trimethoprim (97 %), tetracycline (56 %), and ampicillin (52.5 %). These results further highlight the poor operational status of these WWTPs and outline the need for improved water quality monitoring and enforcement of stringent guidelines. PMID:27037695

  15. The First Step: Adult Literacy, Basic Education and Academic Upgrading for Acadians in Nova Scotia = Le premier pas vers: "L'alphabetisation, l'education de base, et le rattrapage scolaire dans le milieu acadien en Nouvelle-Ecosse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Entremont, Carmelle

    A study was conducted in the seven Acadian regions of Nova Scotia to identify the basic educational needs of the Acadian population, identify appropriate responses to those needs, and develop recommendations for adult literacy, basic education, and academic continuing education. Results are presented in this report, in both French and English. An…

  16. L'application pedagogique de la visualisation en milieu scolaire: un contexte de pertinence complementaire a la pedagogie conventionnelle (The Pedagogical Use of Visualization in the School Setting: A Context of Complimentary Relevance to Conventional Pedagogy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimond, Renee

    2001-01-01

    The Stress Management in Children Project initiated at an Edmunston (New Brunswick) primary school uses visualization as its primary tool. Visualization, a process whereby people respond to certain themes through mental images, is used to manage stress, as a learning method, as a tool for emotional development, and to explore different levels of…

  17. Comprendre le processus d'adaptation des demarches d'enseignement en classe de sciences et technologies a l'ecole secondaire: Analyse des besoins percus par les personnes enseignantes en milieu defavorise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houde, Sylvie

    Since the implementation of the latest reform in the education programs of Quebec, the adaptation of teaching has taken on an important place in the concerns of all actors in education. However, this adjustment towards the adoption of teaching practices that require more participation on the part of the pupil is not accomplished so easily, particularly in the field of science and technology (ST). In order to gain a better understanding of these processes of adaptation, it is opportune to question ourselves on the factors and dynamics of interest at stake, especially in disadvantaged environments. Such environments are faced with situations where other difficulties coexist: integration of pupils, lack of interest, problems in classroom management, multi-ethnicity, etc. As a result, such difficulties give rise to particular limitations, expressed in the form of needs, by pupils and teachers, likely to have a restrictive effect on the adaptation of teaching practices. Accordingly, our research focuses on the needs perceived by teachers in high school ST classrooms in disadvantaged school environments, since they present a privileged means to better understand the processes involved in the adaptation of practices. The adoption of an ecosystemic perspective, centered on these needs and their contribution towards the dynamics of decision-making, enabled us to better apprehend the complexity of these processes in ST classrooms. We were able to identify the needs perceived by teachers by following the methodology of conceptanalysis of needs, and by combining focus groups with the DRAP software. The results account for the large variety of needs to be considered in the equation of adaptation of teaching practices. These needs generally belong to the classroom system (microsystem). For pupils, they are mainly cognitive needs, but for teachers, they pertain to organization and structure. The influence of these needs on the adaptation processes depends on the interpretation by teachers of teaching situations, so much so that a same need can at times be assumed as negative pressure, generating obstacles, or at other times as a positive impulse, facilitating adaptation. Keywords: teaching practices; science and technology education; high school education; adaptation processes; needs assessment; disadvantaged environments.

  18. Croyances des Futurs Enseignants at L'Utilisation des Technologies de L'Information en Milieu Scholaire. (The Beliefs of Future Teachers About the Utilization of Information Technology in Schools.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IsaBell, Claire; Desjardin, Richard; Desjardins, Yvon

    2001-01-01

    Studies the attitudes of student teachers concerning integration of information technologies and communications (ITC) in school settings. Suggests that the motivation of these teachers is essential for ensuring the integration of microcomputers into the educational environment. Finds that, based on a research study, student teachers expressed…

  19. Prévalence et facteurs de risque du surpoids et de l'obésité dans une population d'enfants scolarisés en milieu urbain à Sfax, Tunisie

    PubMed Central

    Regaieg, Sofien; Charfi, Nadia; Trabelsi, Lobna; Kamoun, Mahdi; Feki, Habib; Yaich, Sourour; Abid, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail etait d’étudier la prévalence du surpoids et de l'obésité chez un groupe d'enfants d’âge scolaire, habitant la ville de Sfax en Tunisie, et identifier les facteurs favorisant la prise pondérale Méthodes Il s'agossait d'une enquête descriptive transversale était réalisée en 2011 sur un échantillon représentatif d’élèves recrutés dans 11 écoles primaires publiques. Des informations concernant les caractéristiques sociodémographiques, les habitudes alimentaires et le comportement sédentaire pour chaque élève ont été précisées au moyen d'un questionnaire Résultats Nous avons colligé 1529 élèves, âgés entre 9 et 12 ans et se répartissant en 787 garçons (51,14%) et 747 filles (48,86%). Selon les seuils de référence de l'IOTF, la fréquence de l'obésité était de 2,4% et celle du surpoids était de 6,3%. L'obésité était significativement associée à l'obésité parentale, un niveau socioéconomique élevé, la prise de plus de deux goûters par jour et à l'activité sédentaire. Conclusion L'identification des facteurs de risque du surpoids et de l'obésité infantile permettrait de dépister les enfants à risques afin de leur proposer des mesures de prévention adaptées. Ces mesures de prévention devraient inclure non seulement des approches individuelles, mais aussi l'environnement social et physique de l'enfant. PMID:25018807

  20. Novel Perspectives in Redox Biology and Pathophysiology of Failing Myocytes: Modulation of the Intramyocardial Redox Milieu for Therapeutic Interventions—A Review Article from the Working Group of Cardiac Cell Biology, Italian Society of Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Arcaro, Alessia; Pirozzi, Flora; Angelini, Annalisa; Chimenti, Cristina; Crotti, Lia; Giordano, Carla; Mancardi, Daniele; Torella, Daniele; Tocchetti, Carlo G.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of heart failure (HF) is still increasing worldwide, with enormous human, social, and economic costs, in spite of huge efforts in understanding pathogenetic mechanisms and in developing effective therapies that have transformed this syndrome into a chronic disease. Myocardial redox imbalance is a hallmark of this syndrome, since excessive reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can behave as signaling molecules in the pathogenesis of hypertrophy and heart failure, leading to dysregulation of cellular calcium handling, of the contractile machinery, of myocardial energetics and metabolism, and of extracellular matrix deposition. Recently, following new interesting advances in understanding myocardial ROS and RNS signaling pathways, new promising therapeutical approaches with antioxidant properties are being developed, keeping in mind that scavenging ROS and RNS tout court is detrimental as well, since these molecules also play a role in physiological myocardial homeostasis. PMID:26881035

  1. La variation synchronique et diachronique de la syntaxe de la negation du francais chez des adultes en milieu guide (Synchronic and Diachronic Variation in the Syntax of French Negation in Adults in a Guided Environment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Corinne

    2001-01-01

    This study hypothesizes that negation and finiteness are linked in the development of foreign language acquisition in comparable ways to their development in first language acquisition. By contrasting synchronic intrapersonal variability data with change occurring in the diachronic data about negation, this article shows how adult learners of…

  2. Disentangling the microRNA regulatory milieu in multiple myeloma: integrative genomics analysis outlines mixed miRNA-TF circuits and pathway-derived networks modulated in t(4;14) patients.

    PubMed

    Calura, Enrica; Bisognin, Andrea; Manzoni, Martina; Todoerti, Katia; Taiana, Elisa; Sales, Gabriele; Morgan, Gareth J; Tonon, Giovanni; Amodio, Nicola; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Neri, Antonino; Agnelli, Luca; Romualdi, Chiara; Bortoluzzi, Stefania

    2016-01-19

    The identification of overexpressed miRNAs in multiple myeloma (MM) has progressively added a further level of complexity to MM biology. miRNA and gene expression profiles of two large representative MM datasets, available from retrospective and prospective series and encompassing a total of 249 patients at diagnosis, were analyzed by means of in silico integrative genomics methods, based on MAGIA2 and Micrographite computational procedures. We first identified relevant miRNA/transcription factors/target gene regulation circuits in the disease and linked them to biological processes. Members of the miR-99b/let-7e/miR-125a cluster, or of its paralog, upregulated in t(4;14), were connected with the specific transcription factors PBX1 and CEBPA and several target genes. These results were validated in two additional independent plasma cell tumor datasets. Then, we reconstructed a non-redundant miRNA-gene regulatory network in MM, linking miRNAs, such as let-7g, miR-19a, mirR-20a, mir-21, miR-29 family, miR-34 family, miR-125b, miR-155, miR-221 to pathways associated with MM subtypes, in particular the ErbB, the Hippo, and the Acute myeloid leukemia associated pathways. PMID:26496024

  3. Disentangling the microRNA regulatory milieu in multiple myeloma: integrative genomics analysis outlines mixed miRNA-TF circuits and pathway-derived networks modulated in t(4;14) patients

    PubMed Central

    Manzoni, Martina; Todoerti, Katia; Taiana, Elisa; Sales, Gabriele; Morgan, Gareth J.; Tonon, Giovanni; Amodio, Nicola; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Neri, Antonino; Agnelli, Luca; Romualdi, Chiara; Bortoluzzi, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The identification of overexpressed miRNAs in multiple myeloma (MM) has progressively added a further level of complexity to MM biology. miRNA and gene expression profiles of two large representative MM datasets, available from retrospective and prospective series and encompassing a total of 249 patients at diagnosis, were analyzed by means of in silico integrative genomics methods, based on MAGIA2 and Micrographite computational procedures. We first identified relevant miRNA/transcription factors/target gene regulation circuits in the disease and linked them to biological processes. Members of the miR-99b/let-7e/miR-125a cluster, or of its paralog, upregulated in t(4;14), were connected with the specific transcription factors PBX1 and CEBPA and several target genes. These results were validated in two additional independent plasma cell tumor datasets. Then, we reconstructed a non-redundant miRNA-gene regulatory network in MM, linking miRNAs, such as let-7g, miR-19a, mirR-20a, mir-21, miR-29 family, miR-34 family, miR-125b, miR-155, miR-221 to pathways associated with MM subtypes, in particular the ErbB, the Hippo, and the Acute myeloid leukemia associated pathways. PMID:26496024

  4. Coumarine-imino-C2-glucosyl conjugate as receptor for Cu(2+) in blood serum milieu, on silica gel sheet and in Hep G2 cells and the characterization of the species of recognition.

    PubMed

    Areti, Sivaiah; Khedkar, Jayshree K; Bandaru, Sateesh; Teotia, Rohit; Bellare, Jayesh; Rao, Chebrolu Pulla

    2015-05-11

    A coumarine-imino-C2-glucosyl conjugate (L) was synthesized and characterized. The conjugate L is found to recognize Cu(2+) in aqueous HEPES buffer by exhibiting a 95% fluorescence quenching in pH range 7-10 even in the presence of several biologically and ecologically relevant metal ions. Fluorescence on-off behavior has been clearly demonstrated on the basis of the binding variability of Cu(2+) to L. The binding has been elicited through the changes observed in fluorescence, absorption, ESI-MS and (1)H NMR titrations. All the other thirteen metal ions studied did not show any change in the fluorescence emission. These ions do not interfere with the recognition of Cu(2+) by L. The structural features of [CuL]2 complex in both the isomeric forms were established by DFT computational calculations. The utility of L has been demonstrated by showing its sensitivity toward Cu(2+) on a thin layer of silica gel. The L gives sensitive fluorescence signals for Cu(2+) even in blood serum and exhibits appropriate fluorescence responses in living cells. PMID:25911433

  5. Workplace Learning: The Role of Canadian Colleges and Institutes in Meeting Canada's Professional, Technical and Trade Skills Challenges = L'apprentissage en milieu de travail: Le role des colleges et instituts canadiens face aux defis canadiens en matiere des competences professionnels et techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolmson, Lorna, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue examines selected topics in vocational education in Canadian community colleges. It focuses on the central themes of community college and industry partnerships, vocational education assessment, and vocational and workplace education pedagogical models. Articles include: (1) "Industry and Colleges: Key Partners in Meeting Canada's…

  6. La langue parlee le plus souvent entre les parents et les enfants: un facteur crucial dans l'acquisition linguistique de l'enfant dans un milieu bilingue (The Language Most Often Spoken between Parents and Children: A Crucial Factor in Child Language Acquisition in a Bilingual Environment). Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebrard, Pierre; Mougeon, Raymond

    The data for the study were gathered in the course of a larger sociolinguistic survey carried out among francophones from Welland and Sudbury, Ontario. Among other things, the acquisition of spoken English by bilingual francophone students from these cities was studied in depth, using error analysis. The present study attempts to show that in a…

  7. Analyse du phénomène de constriction thermique au sein d'un milieu cylindrique avec retournement à 180 des lignes de fluxAnalyse of the thermal constriction phenomenon within a cylindrical medium with a 180 reversal of the flux lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatto, Vincent; Bardon, Jean Pierre; Scudeller, Yves

    We present the analytical solution and a physical analysis of the thermal constriction resistance for a configuration in which the heat flux lines undergo a π reversal. The configuration considered is an adiabatic cylinder except one of its bases, where three boundary conditions are imposed: a circular heat source, three annular surfaces which correspond to two adiabatic surfaces and one isothermal surface (heat sink). We study the size influence of the source, of the heat sink, and of the cylinder thickness on the thermal constriction resistance. To cite this article: V. Gatto et al., C. R. Mecanique 330 (2002) 615-621.

  8. Effet de la substitution du cuivre par du lithium sur les proprietes de l'oxyde spinelle lithium(x)cuivre(y-x)cobalt(3-y)oxygen(4) etudie pour l'electrocatalyse de la reaction de degagement de l'oxygene en milieu alcalin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatih, Khalid

    L'electrolyse de l'eau demeure la seule technologie industrielle de generation de l'hydrogene et de l'oxygene tres purs sans rejet de CO2 dans l'atmosphere, ce qui le rend tres attrayant par rapport a la combustion de carburants fossiles qui provoque presentement de serieux problemes environnementaux. Dans le but d'ameliorer le rendement de ce procede, nous avons developpe de nouveaux materiaux d'anode peu couteux, a base de l'oxyde mixte CuyCo3-yO 4, qui possedent une cinetique rapide pour la reaction de degagement de l'oxygene (RDO). Cette reaction suscite un interet particulier en raison de la surtension d'activation relativement elevee a l'anode qui cause la principale perte de rendement du procede. Une etude systematique a ete effectuee sur la substitution du Cu par du Li (0 a 40%), afin d'elucider les proprietes electrocatalytiques des oxydes LixCuy-xCo3-yO4. Ces oxydes, prepares sous forme de poudres par decomposition thermique des nitrates precurseurs entre 300 et 500°C, ont montre (DRX et FTIR) une structure spinelle inverse non-stcechiometrique avec une diminution du volume de la maille cristalline. La surface specifique par BET est d'environ 6 m2 g-1. Le pcn, obtenu par titrage acido-basique, a indique une diminution de la force du lien M-OH avec le taux du Li dans l'oxyde. Les analyses par XPS, realisees sur des films d'oxyde prepares par nebulisation reactive sur un substrat lisse de nickel, revelent un enrichissement de la surface en Cu a partir de 30% Li, et la presence des cations de surface Co2+, Co3+, Cu +, Cu2+ et Cu3+. La concentration de ce dernier montre un maximum a 10 et 20% Li. Suite a la substitution du Cu par du Li, la compensation de la charge serait assuree principalement par la formation d'especes Cu3+ pour les oxydes contenant jusqu'a 20% Li, et par la formation d'especes Co3+ aux taux de substitution superieurs. Les micrographies MEB montrent une morphologie hemispherique des particules d'oxyde reparties uniformement sur le substrat de nickel avec une tendance a l'agglomeration lorsque le taux de Li est accru. Les micrographies AFM revelent une micro-porosite de ces particules d'oxyde. Les films minces deposes sur un substrat de verre ont montre une conductivite tres interessante de l'ordre de 103O-1 cm-1 pour LixCuy-x Co3-yO4 comparee a 2,8 O-1 cm-1 pour Co3O4. La spectroscopie d'impedance a permis de distinguer les processus de la surface interne des films d'oxydes de ceux de l'interface electrode/electrolyte. Les courbes Mott-Schottky (1/C2 en fonction du potentiel) montrent que les films d'oxyde se comportent comme des semi-conducteurs de type p tres dopes (degeneres). Le potentiel de bandes plates et la densite des porteurs de charge majoritaires des oxydes LixCuy-xCo3-yO4 sont de l'ordre de 0,48 a 0,52 V et 1019 a 10 20 cm-3 respectivement. Pour Co 3O4 ces parametres sont de 0,47 V et ≈10 18 cm-3. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  9. Évaluation des propriétés énergétiques et microphysiques d'une source de convection artificielle à partir d' une étude de combustion organisée de fuel-oil en milieu naturel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Pham Van; Benech, B.; Diamant, W.

    To evaluate the potential environmental impacts of waste heat released by future dry cooling towers, an oil burning system which emits sensible heat at a rate of the order of 1000 MW into the atmosphere has been built up at the Centre de Recherches Atmosphériques. The project involved development of an oil burner device and experiments to quantify the amounts of heat and other matters released from oil combustion, such as gas and aerosol, that are not present in the case of cooling towers but may interact with heat and cause complications. The burner produces a flame of 3-5 m in height and 0.5-1.5 m in diameter. Fuel is consumed at a rate of 3.5-16.5 ℓ min -1 at a pressure of 30-60 bars to develop a thermal output of 3-11 MW. The thermal power is distributed into three parts: sensible heat (82%), radiative energy (7-13%) and forced convection energy ( ~ 6 %); the two latter energy forms also heat the ambient air and so increase the real sensible heat output which eventually reaches 90 % of the thermal power. When the plume rises to some tens of meters, the combustion gas density is not very different from the air density and the additional water vapor does not exceed 5 % of the ambient water vapor. Smoke aerosol produced at the rate of 2-6gkg -1 of fuel-oil exhibits a maximum concentration of 10 7 particles cm -3 with a mean diameter of 0.5μm. The aerosol consists essentially of hydrophobic carbon (97%), while other elements, that may form hygroscopic or ice nuclei are present only in trace concentrations. The gaseous sulfur content may be higher but the SO 2 oxidation rate is very slow and then the cloud condensation nuclei amounts injected by the plume are neglegible in comparison with the natural nuclei. Thus the thermal impact on the atmosphere of the fuel oil combustion is essentially due to its thermodynamic characteristics, and our 105-burner system (Météotron) should correctly simulate in full scale a dry cooling tower. The smoke particles are quite useful as they make the plume visible and are used as passive tracers of the thermal disturbance.

  10. L'emergence de la lecture chez des enfants presentant des retards de developpement: Programme de stimulation en milieu familial a l'intention des parents (The Emergence of Reading in Children with Developmental Delays: Stimulation Program in the Family Environment Guided by Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Laurent, Lise; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This booklet presents a reading and writing intervention program for French Canadian preschool children with developmental delays, to be implemented by parents or collaboratively by parents and teachers. The program calls for children to have frequent contacts with written language, in order to facilitate the development of a positive attitude…

  11. Kinderland in the Fatherland: Growing Children in Imperial Berlin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the milieu in which children of Imperial Berlin were raised. When contemporaries in the rapidly expanding capital of the Second German Empire (1871-1918) looked at children, this milieu darkened. The city, they argued, threatened children's growing bodies, and such institutions as the home, the clinic, and the school…

  12. Hyperglycemia and anthocyanin inhibit quercetin metabolism in HepG2 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high glucose (Glu) milieu promotes generation of reactive oxygen species, which may not only cause cellular damage, but also modulate phase II enzymes that are responsible for the metabolism of flavonoids. Thus, we examined the effect of a high Glu milieu on quercetin (Q) metabolism in HepG2 cells...

  13. Frame Factors and a Quality Assurance Agency in an "Embryonic" Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkin, Anthony G.

    2004-01-01

    Using the Affiliations Unit of the University of Botswana as a case study, this paper explores how the operational milieu of an External Quality Assurance Agency (EQAA) impacts on its role and function. This milieu is described and selected frame factors are identified and evaluated, including the size of the country; the role of a hegemonic…

  14. Frame Factors and a Quality Assurance Agency in an 'Embryonic' Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkin, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Using the Affiliations Unit of the University of Botswana as a case study, this paper explores how the operational milieu of an External Quality Assurance Agency (EQAA) impacts on its role and function. This milieu is described and selected frame factors are identified and evaluated, including the size of the country; the role of a hegemonic…

  15. Beyond the Token Economy: A Comparison of Two Contingency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, David J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    To determine whether the addition of milieu principles to a contingency program increases its effectiveness, the investigators compared two treatment programs in a mental hospital: (a) a social learning or token economy approach and (b) a combined social learning and milieu approach. (Author)

  16. TOXICOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF IMPLEMENTATION FAILURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Implantation in mammals requires the successful completion of a series of integrated phenomena, including uterine preparation, synchronized embryo transport, embryonic attachment, uterine transformation, placental development, and the requisite hormonal milieu to support each ste...

  17. Teaching Abstract Concepts by Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    Defines metaphor and its uses; explains the construction and application of metaphors in nursing education. Describes the transformation of the abstract psychiatric concept of therapeutic milieu into a visual metaphor. (SK)

  18. Language Interventions in Natural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallaro, Claire C.

    1983-01-01

    Described is a milieu teaching approach to language development of young handicapped children. The method involves prompting and contingent delivery of reinforcers during normal language interactions in such classroom settings as free play, lunch, or instructional periods. (MC)

  19. Biomarkers of Lung Injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unlike the hepatic, cardiovascular, nervous, or excretory organ systems, where there .ls a strong contribution of host factors or extracellular biochemical milieu in causing organ damage, the causes of lung injuries and subsequent diseases are primarily from direct environmental ...

  20. Saying Good-bye in Residential Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bale, Tom

    1979-01-01

    Presents the case history of a 13-year-old asthmatic boy in residential treatment in order to illustrate how experiences in the milieu can become a vehicle for a child to gain better control over separation anxiety. (CM)

  1. Les infections à Pseudomonas aeruginosa au service des maladies infectieuses du CHU YO, Burkina Faso: à propos deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Lassina, Dao; Fla, Koueta

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons deux cas d'infection à Pseudomonas aeruginosa: un cas de méningite et un cas d'infection urinaire. Les auteurs rappellent qu’à côté des étiologies classiques des méningites et des infections urinaires, des germes résistants comme Pseudomonas aeruginosa peuvent être responsables d'infections à localisation méningées et urinaires et dont il faut connaître pour une bonne prise en charge. Le traitement de ces infections requiert un antibiogramme au regard de la grande capacité de résistance de Pseudomonas aeruginosa en milieu hospitalier. La limitation des gestes invasifs et l'application rigoureuse des mesures de prévention des infections en milieu hospitalier contribueront à lutter efficacement contre ces infections en milieu de soins. PMID:26491521

  2. Effective psychiatric day treatment: historical lessons.

    PubMed

    Rosie, J S; Azim, H F; Piper, W E; Joyce, A S

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes a successful day treatment program that provides four months of intensive psychodynamic group-oriented milieu treatment for patients with long-standing personality disorders, who commonly experience recurrent major depression, dysthymia, and excessive anxiety. The authors outline three factors that have contributed to the success of the program--optimal treatment-patientmatching, judicious use of authority in milieu therapy, and careful attention to maintaining close working relationships with referral sources. They provide an overview of the historical evolution of day treatment programs from earlier day hospital model to show day programs' neglect of these factors may have led to treatment failures. Such failures may have spurred recent suggestions that psychiatric day treatment programs should be replaced entirely by assertive community treatment. The authors argue that such a move could amount to abdication of psychiatry's responsibility to provide intensive milieu treatment that can be effectively offered only on a day treatment basis. PMID:8829782

  3. The influence of environmental factors on bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Szpalski, Caroline; Sagebin, Fabio; Barbaro, Marissa; Warren, Stephen M

    2013-05-01

    Bone repair and regeneration are dynamic processes that involve a complex interplay between the substrate, local and systemic cells, and the milieu. Although each constituent plays an integral role in faithfully recreating the skeleton, investigators have long focused their efforts on scaffold materials and design, cytokine and hormone administration, and cell-based therapies. Only recently have the intangible aspects of the milieu received their due attention. In this review, we highlight the important influence of environmental factors on bone tissue engineering. PMID:23165885

  4. Impact of dietary fibers on nutrient management and detoxification organs: gut, liver, and kidneys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased dietary fiber (DF) intake elicits a wide range of physiological effects, not just locally in the gut, but systemically. Dietary fibers can greatly alter the gut milieu by impacting the gut microbiome, which in turn influences the gut barrier, gastrointestinal immune and endocrine response...

  5. Towards a Pedagogy of a New Social Contract: Lessons from the Participatory Budget in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streck, Danilo Romeu

    2004-01-01

    The paper analyses the pedagogical dimension of the process of Participatory Budgeting in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), taking into consideration the local and regional culture as well as the wider political milieu. The question this paper engages with is whether, in this social movement involving around 400,000 people in 2001, there…

  6. Envisioning a Critical Social Pedagogy of Learning and Work in a Contemporary Culture of Cyclical Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Andre P.

    2007-01-01

    In Canada, current federal learning-and-work policy is focused on individual learner-worker development using an iteration of lifelong learning as cyclical. This policy aims to enhance the social as an effect of enhancing the economic. In this neoliberal milieu, cyclical lifelong learning has become not only a norm but also a culture and an…

  7. Space-Centred English Language Learning: The Cyprus Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Mustafa; Kurt, Sevinc

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a study conducted in the Ledra/Lokmaci Milieu in Cyprus, the area in the centre of the divided walled city of Nicosia where Greek and Turkish Cypriots have to use English to communicate with one another. The aim of the study was to locate the effects of a learning space on language learners, teachers and syllabus designers.…

  8. Intellectual Biography in Higher Education: The Public Career of Earl J. McGrath as a Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, John Y.

    The method of writing an intellectual biography and the public career of Earl J. McGrath in the post-World War I cultural milieu are analyzed. One analytical framework is adapted from cultural anthropology and is used to describe the relationship of educational systems to other social systems and to culture as a whole. The second analytic frame,…

  9. Teaching and Learning Competent Historical Documentary Making: Lessons from National History Day Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehn, Bruce R.; Schul, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Today's students grow up in a technological milieu of hand-held computers with high storage capacities, internet access, and the ability to shoot high definition photographs and video. As such, they are empowered to construct representations of the past virtually "on the run." In this article, the authors investigated the historical "and"…

  10. Left-Wing Tragedy or Comic Opera?: A New Look at the Demise of "The Masses".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, Kirk

    Although the suppression in 1917 of "The Masses," an influential Socialist magazine, has been depicted as an American tragedy, such a narrow interpretation ignores the bizarre, confused, often comic developments and episodes that attended the magazine's end. A reexamination of the demise of "The Masses" has been made to show the milieu in which…

  11. The Effects of Family Occupation Type, Sex, and Appeal Style on Helping Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Edward L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A campus blood donation drive provided an opportunity to examine the variables of family occupational type as a milieu for the socialization of altruism, appeal style stressing equity or dependency, and sex-role attitude (traditional and nontraditional) in influencing helping behavior. (Editor)

  12. Television and Social Behavior; Reports and Papers, Volume I: Media Content and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George A., Ed.; Rubinstein, Eli A., Ed.

    Six studies and an overview focus on the amount and character of the violence portrayed on television (TV), the circumstances and milieu in which this violent fare is created, and the formal and informal influences which affect the selection and prohibition of TV content. The overview serves as an introduction to the six studies and summarizes…

  13. Mountain Empire: The Community's College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnage, Martha

    Before a community college can make an impact on the community, there must be an understanding of the milieu of the community and a shared commitment to the college's mission. To be effective, the college must provide direction to and receive direction from its constituents. A survey was conducted among approximately 15,000 adults in the service…

  14. A Survey of Mental Health Service Provision in New York State Residential Treatment Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Amy J. L.; Fulmore, Darren; Collins, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-seven of 43 (86%) agencies operating child welfare residential treatment centers in New York State responded to a survey about the provision of mental health services. Questions were asked about provision of services, satisfaction with services, and suggestions for improvement in five domains: therapeutic milieu, individual therapy, group…

  15. CHANGES IN CARBOHYDRATE COORDINATED PARTITIONING AND CELL WALL REMODELING WITH STRESS-INDUCED PATHOGENESIS IN WHEAT SHEATHS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant cell walls are dynamic structures that undergo specific remodeling events during plant defense responses. Changes in the coordinated partitioning of carbohydrates between the cytosol and the extracellular milieu may direct sheath cell wall remodeling that occurs in a wheat-endophytic interacti...

  16. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION AND THE HOSPITAL, A REPORT ON THE USE OF PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION IN HEALTH CARE INSTITUTIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hospital Research and Educational Trust, Chicago, IL.

    THE FIRST SECTION OF THIS REPORT ON PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION IN THE HEALTH CARE FIELD EXAMINES THE HOSPITAL MILIEU AND SUCH PROBLEMS AS PERSONNEL SHORTAGES, INCREASING SPECIALIZATION, AND STRICT TECHNICAL AND EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS. THE SECOND SECTION REVIEWS SOME RECENT ADVANCES IN BEHAVIORAL TECHNOLOGY, FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING…

  17. School Readiness of Children with Language Impairment: Predicting Literacy Skills from Pre-Literacy and Social-Behavioural Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentimonti, Jill M.; Murphy, Kimberly A.; Justice, Laura M.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: School readiness generally captures the notion that children do best when they arrive at formal schooling with a certain threshold of skill that will help them thrive in the classroom's academic and social milieu. Aims: To examine the dimensionality of the construct of school readiness among children with language impairment (LI), as…

  18. Cultural and Social Capital and Talent Development: A Study of a High-Ability Aboriginal Student in a Remote Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostenko, Karen; Merrotsy, Peter

    2009-01-01

    During the course of a school year, a study was conducted on the cultural context, the social milieu and the personal characteristics of a high ability Aboriginal student in a remote community in Canada. Using the lenses of cultural capital, social capital and human capital, the study explores the development of the student's talent through his…

  19. Classroom Research in a General Education Course: Exploring Implications through an Investigation of the Sophomore Slump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gump, Steven E.

    2007-01-01

    General education classrooms provide a common milieu for understanding and appropriating results of classroom research projects, which are typically viewed as having little application outside their original contexts. Here, results of an investigation into the "sophomore slump," where grades and class attendance rates typically suffer, are…

  20. Practice Parameter for Psychiatric Consultation to Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This practice parameter reviews the topic of psychiatric consultation to schools. The review covers the history of school consultation and current consultative models; the process of developing a consultative relationship; school administrative procedures, personnel, and milieu; legal protections for students with mental disabilities; and issues…

  1. Linking Ruth to Her Past

    PubMed Central

    Justin, Renate G.

    2004-01-01

    A family physician shares the story of her 3-decade-long relationship with a patient and the strong ties that they formed. Although she was taught to keep emotionally distant from her patients in order to maintain the best therapeutic milieu, this relationship enriched the author’s experience as a physician and ministered to her patient’s needs. PMID:15506591

  2. Heidegger, Digital Technology, and Postmodern Education: From Being in Cyberspace to Meeting on MySpace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Patrick; Kop, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Digital technology is transforming life and is beginning to have a profound effect on individual psychic life and the wider social milieu. This article seeks to understand the nature of the new technology and its implications for personal life, culture, and education. The scene is set by comparing the introduction of printing to the revolution…

  3. Fostering Activities of Daily Living by Intact Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Charles E.; Glaister, Judy; Brown, Alston; Phillips, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    We assessed effectiveness of four education programs in providing nursing assistants with ability to produce a therapeutic milieu supportive of intact residents' activities of daily living, positive self-esteem and mood: (1) a combination of Orem's Systems of Nursing Care and Skinner's Applied Behavioral Analysis, (2) Applied Behavioral Analysis,…

  4. A Psychology of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    William James, the turn of the century psychologist, philospher, and educator, was avidly interested in the relationship between psychology and teaching. This paper considers operant conditioning, timing of reinforcers, and programmed instruction--touchstones of B.F. Skinner in the teaching/learning milieu. Of course, materials not just methods…

  5. Perceptions of Teacher Collegial Work Groups at the Department Level in Southern California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the inception of a "Nation at Risk" (1983) and the gradual growth of the school reform movement over the following several decades, the social and political milieu that exist today under No Child Left Behind (NCLB) can be best described as an era in which public education is fending itself from extinction and takeover, often from…

  6. Student Evaluation-of-Teaching Forms: A Critical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Tom C.

    1988-01-01

    Student forms for evaluating instruction are examined from three perspectives: as forms themselves, through their relationship with their authors, and through the milieu in which they exist. Results suggest that the forms objectify students, reify knowledge, place themselves beyond criticism, and reinforce "banking" education and closed learning…

  7. Teaching Prelinguistic Communication Skills to School Age Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Jessica Hetlinger

    2008-01-01

    Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching (PMT) is an intervention designed to teach young children to initiate nonverbal communication using vocalizations, gestures, and eye-gaze. Children are taught through social routines in their natural environment. Techniques include contriving an environment in which the children will be motivated to communicate and…

  8. Development of pre-implantation porcine embryos cultured within a three-dimensional alginate hydrogel system either conjugated with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide or supplemented with secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many uterine specific factors have been shown to be increased within the uterine milieu as the porcine embryo initiates elongation. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) is increased during this time and contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide sequence that has been shown to bind to cell surface integrins ...

  9. New Northern Townsmen in Inuvik.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, A. M.

    A study was conducted in Inuvik, a planned settlement in the Mackenzie Delta region of the Northwest Territories in Canada, to study the factors which work against adaptation among the Indians, Eskimos, and Metis to the "urban milieu" of Inuvik. Field techniques included informal observation and intensive interviews with selected native and white…

  10. Towards a Pedagogy of a New Social Contract: Lessons from Participatory Budgeting in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streck, Danilo R.

    This paper analyzes the pedagogical dimension within the process of participatory budgeting in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, taking into consideration the local and regional culture, as well as the political milieu. The question is whether, in this social movement which involved around 400,000 people in 2001, signs can be identified that…

  11. Evangelizing Eugenics: A Brief Historiography of Popular and Formal American Eugenics Education (1908-1948)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the history of the American Eugenics movement's penetration into the formal and popular educational milieu during the first half of the 20th Century, and includes a review of some recent scholarly research on eugenic themes in education and popular culture. Apologists have dismissed the American Eugenics movement as a…

  12. Effect of probiotics and prebiotics on food animal immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the largest interface between an animal’s internal milieu and its exterior environment. As such, it forms a physical barrier between both environments. However, the function of the GI tract in the well-being of an animal is more complex than this passive role. Th...

  13. Facing the Pressures of the '80's: A Cooperative Venture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushing, Joe B.

    The role of community services and continuing education in the community college must be carefully analyzed by educational leaders in the changing milieu of the 1980's. Never has close affiliation with the parent institution been more critical to the welfare of continuing education, which gains strength from being mainstreamed in terms of…

  14. Psychological, Cultural and Family Factors in Incest and Family Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews clinical experience and research evidence about father-daughter incest and family sexual abuse, and suggests six factors important in its etiology: the personal characteristics of the offender; the role of the mother; a milieu of abandonment; subcultural isolation; poor family sexual boundaries; and opportunity factors. (Author)

  15. A RESEARCH DEMONSTRATION TO ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A SPECIAL LIVING UNIT WITHIN A UNIVERSITY DORMITORY SETTING FOR THE REHABILITATION OF STUDENTS DISABLED BY EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SINNETT, E. ROBERT

    USE OF A RESIDENCE HALL AS A THERAPEUTIC MILIEU FOR DISTURBED COLLEGE STUDENTS IS DESCRIBED IN THIS REPORT OF A RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION STUDY. THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP CONSISTED OF TEN DISTURBED STUDENTS, AND A CONTROL GROUP WAS COMPOSED OF 10 VOLUNTEER STUDENTS. ALL STUDENTS PARTICIPATED IN THE REGULAR RESIDENCE HALL PROGRAMS (ORGANIZATIONAL…

  16. Achievement Goals, the Classroom Environment, and Reflective Thinking: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Research pertaining to achievement goals and reflective thinking practice has received considerable attention in educational psychology. However, very few, if any, studies have looked at the impact of the classroom climate and how this psychosocial milieu may influence students' engagement in achievement goals and reflective thinking…

  17. Beyond an Initial Campus Heritage Survey: Creating an Infrastructure for Renewal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Given their value to the student experience, institutional identity, alumni loyalty, and economic welfare, historic preservation efforts must unite with institutional sustainability efforts and other high priorities to develop an approach for mutual success. Further, it is important to recognize the limits in the current milieu of economic…

  18. The Authority of Truth: Religion and the John Peter Zenger Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, David Paul

    An appreciation of the religious milieu of the John Peter Zenger libel case of 1735 can help explain the nature of the Zenger defense as prepared by Alexander Hamilton, the meaning of the jury's verdict, and the ambiguous legacy of the trial for freedom of expression in the United States. In essence, the case was a disputation on "truth" and on…

  19. "If You Don't Believe That You're Doing Some Good with the Work That You Do, Then You Shouldn't Be Doing It": An Interview with Cindy Selfe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailie, Brian

    2010-01-01

    In this interview, Cindy Selfe talks about the intersections of technological literacy, digital scholarship, poststructuralist theory, and university politics. In doing so, she provides a lens for scholars trying to understand the milieu of the university by viewing its potential in juxtaposition to its past; explains how technology redefines the…

  20. Hormonal profile impact on female sexual function in young women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the impact of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual function. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.

  1. Self-Efficacy for Refusal Mediated by Outcome Expectancies in the Prediction of Alcohol-Dependence amongst Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert J.; Connor, Jason P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relative importance of outcome expectancies and self-efficacy in the production of alcohol dependence and alcohol consumption in a sample of young adult drinkers drawn from a milieu previously reported as supportive of risky drinking. Results suggest that heavy drinking women are particularly at risk of developing drinking-related…

  2. Rethinking Critical Thinking and Its Role in Art Museum Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubard, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Meaningful interactions with works of art are often absent from education. Across the country, art museums are intent on changing this situation. But to incorporate art viewing into an educational milieu that does not value art, art museum educators are constantly forced to justify the educational value of their programs. One common argument to…

  3. Parameters of the Smile as a Social Signal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Wade C.

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the parameters of the smile as a signal. (Subjects were 733 adults of both sexes.) It was hypothesized for adults that gender influences rates of smiling, that smiles effectively elicit smile responses and that a social milieu increases smile responses. (MS)

  4. Cultural Differences in Spatial Perception of the Environment Among Children 10-17 Years Old in the Whitehorse Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Faith Helen Elly

    Two cultures, Indian and non-Indian, in the urban environment of Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, were examined in this study. The purpose was to find what differences, if any, occur in the groups' perceptions of the urban milieu and to isolate factors which do or do not influence these perceptions. Using cognitive mapping and photograph recognition…

  5. Moral Courage from the Perspective of Arab Teachers in Jewish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratz, Lea

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to call attention to the phenomenon of female Muslim Arab teachers teaching in Israeli Jewish schools. The study examined the manner in which these female Muslim Arab teachers perceived their integration into the milieu of the Jewish schools, based on their descriptions of the various processes they experience when dealing…

  6. Autochthonous Change: Self-Renewal through Open Software Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedbring, Charles

    2005-01-01

    In all likelihood, currently employed therapists and teachers grew up with computer technology. Part of their computer culture included programming computers for entertainment using popular consumer software like Microsoft Basic. Within this social-educational milieu, the "FACTS+" curriculum represents one long-term project covering the…

  7. Choosing a Topic for National History Day: History vs. Current Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorn, Cathy

    1988-01-01

    Justifies reasons for using an annual theme in National History Day, and suggests guidelines for selecting a topic. Stresses the importance of the last two words, "in History," urging students to keep historical context in mind. Emphasizes that current events should be considered within the historical milieu and illustrates ways that this can be…

  8. Pedagogy without Pedagogy: Dancing with Living, Knowing and Morale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Rosa Hong

    2015-01-01

    This article takes its retrospective lead from the oppressive schooling years during the Chinese Cultural Revolution to reflect on the educational significance of artistic activities through considering aesthetic virtues and moral agency cultivated in these activities. Describing an unconventional educational milieu where schooling was…

  9. Argumentation in the Canadian House of Commons on the Issue of Nuclear Weapons for Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John Alfred

    The Cuban missile crisis of October 1962 forced the Canadian House of Commons to consider whether Canadian forces in NORAD and NATO were effective without nuclear warheads on special weapons systems. This paper provides an overview of the debates and their milieu, identifies the issues involved, and analyzes the effects of the argumentation. The…

  10. Faculty Development Curriculum: What Informs It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    With the current milieu of current legislation and continued budget reductions for higher education, institutions are faced with being more creative in their efforts to reduce spending while achieving their stated mission. The purpose of this paper is to inform college administrators and faculty about the sources used to inform faculty development…

  11. Attaining Visual Literacy Using Simplified Graphics in Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Terry

    In the current milieu of ISO 9000 certification, just-in-time engineering (JIT), demand flow technology (DFT), and total quality management (TQM), industry is attempting to implement available technology for the creation, control, and delivery of documentation. In most cases, their efforts are in need of outside resources to analyze, develop,…

  12. Knowledge Production through Interdisciplinary Skills: Producing an Effective Postgraduate Research Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitakunye, Pepukayi; Takhar-Lail, Amandeep

    2015-01-01

    This study contributes to existing methodological knowledge by showing how a transformed research methods curriculum, which is beyond the milieu of schooling, can engage postgraduate students in a critical dialogue on how knowledge is produced in industry and higher education. Initial insights are drawn from two interpretive studies that employed…

  13. Computers: from ethos and ethics to mythos and religion. Notes on the new frontier between computers and philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    Mitcham, C.

    1986-01-01

    This essay surveys recent studies concerning the social, cultural, ethical and religious dimensions of computers. The argument is that computers have certain cultural influences which call for ethical analysis. Further suggestions are that American culture is itself reflected in new ways in the high-technology computer milieu, and that ethical issues entail religious ones which are being largely ignored. 28 references.

  14. Elementary School Classroom Teacher Delivered Physical Education: Costs, Benefits and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Clay P.; Tran, Cynthia; Alves, Yara

    2010-01-01

    Given academic priorities and budgetary constraints in the current elementary school milieu, the classroom teacher will likely remain a primary physical education provider. Understanding classroom teachers' perspectives related to costs, benefits, and barriers to teaching physical education is essential to understanding physical education…

  15. Impact of fetal programming, birth weight, and infant feeding on later hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ingelfinger, Julie R; Nuyt, Anne-Monique

    2012-06-01

    The concept of developmental origins of adult disease derives from both epidemiologic and basic sciences. This brief review considers the impact of the intrauterine milieu, intrauterine growth retardation, premature birth, and infant feeding on later hypertension and kidney disease. PMID:22672090

  16. Curriculum Development in the Postmodern Era. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Volume 929. Critical Education Practice, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Patrick

    This book provides an introduction to the field of curriculum and instruction development as it relates to emerging postmodern education paradigms. The book discusses such terms as "curriculum development,""postmodernism,""hermeneutics,""paradigm,""chaos theory,""poststructuralism," and "critical theory" in the context of the educational milieu of…

  17. School-Parent Relations in Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Majzoub, Nada

    2013-01-01

    Lebanon is a nation whose history may be depicted as continuous social, political, and sectarian conflict due to European political meddling and a protracted civil war. Although finding common ground in this complex milieu over the past several decades has been challenging, political and educational reforms have been enacted. The role of parents…

  18. Progressing Children's Participation: Exploring the Potential of a Dialogical Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Anne; Fitzgerald, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    Children's participation is increasingly ambiguous and contested. Such complexity emerges in response to its emancipatory possibilities as well as unresolved tensions and power practices. The authors argue that closer attention must now be given to the interpretative milieu of children's participation, that is, to the act of dialogue that has…

  19. Urbanism from the Perspective of Ecological Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gump, Paul V.; Adelgerg, Bettina

    1978-01-01

    A perception of ecological psychology on urbanism is presented, with emphasis on the following premises: (1) Urban milieu consists of complexes of behavior settings; and (2) Size of a city should be understood in relationship to the number and variety of its settings, rather than in terms of population size. (Author/MA)

  20. Emotional Sequelae of Abortion: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemkau, Jeanne Parr

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes literature on normative reactions to abortion and factors that increase risk of negative emotional sequelae. Discusses characteristics of woman, social support and cultural milieu around the abortion, the medical environment and abortion procedure itself, and events subsequent to abortion which may cause conflict. Discusses implications…

  1. "Why Girls Go Wrong": Advising Female Teen Readers in the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2007-01-01

    This article traces historical uses of the phrase "why girls go wrong" to provide a context for analysis of Progressive Era reading guidance for girls and then turns to actual girls' responses to reading. The historic context depicts the milieu in which young women and the advisors who sought to guide them lived and read as a time of intense…

  2. An Innovative International Program for the Preparation of Bilingual-Crosscultural Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrow, Norma; Sutter, Richard

    Searching for additional bilingual-crosscultural teachers, the California State University (CSU) system plans to combine teacher education and the CSU International Programs approach. Basic elements of this program are: (1) intensive study of Spanish and immersion in a Spanish-speaking milieu; (2) a living experience in the Mexican culture; (3) a…

  3. Challenges for Curriculum Leadership in Contemporary Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines the complex contemporary milieu of Australian teacher education within which curriculum leaders responsible for designing teacher education programs must make their program design decisions. Particular attention is paid to the collision of vertical ("hierarchical" or "academic rationalist") and horizontal…

  4. Whole Class Language Experiences in Primary Classrooms. Monograph No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juliebo, Moira F.

    The inclusion of talk, written language, and body language are critically important in primary classrooms. Although reading and writing may be regarded as cognitive activities, they are embedded in a social/cultural milieu, and the practice of mechanical decoding as a necessary precedent to real reading is not pedagogically sound. A whole class…

  5. Aligning Collaborative and Culturally Responsive Evaluation Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askew, Karyl; Beverly, Monifa Green; Jay, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors, three African-American women trained as collaborative evaluators, offer a comparative analysis of collaborative evaluation (O'Sullivan, 2004) and culturally responsive evaluation approaches (Frierson, Hood, & Hughes, 2002; Kirkhart & Hopson, 2010). Collaborative evaluation techniques immerse evaluators in the cultural milieu of the…

  6. Treating Drug Addiction in the Minority Communities: The Decade Ahead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Joseph S.

    While scholars are not in accord on the basic causes of contemporary drug abuse among minority Americans, most do agree that the social milieu of the drug abuser is fundamental. It has been urged that racism, poverty, police brutality and harrassment, the economics of addiction, the hopelessness of ghetto life, peer pressure, educational…

  7. Jean-Marie Straub.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roud, Richard

    This book covers the life and aesthetic qualities of the work of the European film-maker Jean-Marie Straub (1933- ). It contains introductory chapters on the biography and artistic milieu of Straub and continues with a chapter-by-chapter critical treatment of each of his films: "Machorka-Muff"; "Not Reconciled"; "Chronicle of Anna Magdalena Bach";…

  8. Design Milieux for Learning Environments in African Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duveskog, Marcus; Sutinen, Erkki; Cronje, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    During the years 2002 to 2009, five African settings were used as foundation for designing different learning environments. While the content and target group for each learning environment varied, all of their design settings, or milieux, shared one implicit expectation: the milieu should facilitate the production of a change-making learning…

  9. Seeking Resilience and Sustainability: Outdoor Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Ho, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Outdoor education is not a universal value. Rather, outdoor education's contributions need to be grounded in time, place and culture. In this paper we describe the historical and cultural milieu that has enabled the emergence of outdoor education in Singapore and report on exploratory survey research into Singaporean teachers' conceptions of…

  10. Growing People: A Model That Works. Welcome to Success. The School Program Narrative of the Yellowstone Boys and Girls Ranch School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yellowstone Boys and Girls Ranch School, Billings, MT.

    The booklet describes the philosophy and operation of the Yellowstone Boys and Girls Ranch School Program, an integrated public school residential treatment mainstream educational model located within an accredited residential psychiatric facility in Montana. The therapeutic milieu is designed to redirect children's self-perception. Descriptive…

  11. Worlds Apart: Why Poverty Persists in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Cynthia M.

    This book examines the nature of persistent poverty in two impoverished towns in the coalfields of Appalachia and the Mississippi Delta and a contrasting social milieu in a prosperous but remote rural mill town in northern New England. Drawing on 350 in-depth interviews and census data, the book analyzes the dynamics of poverty, politics, and…

  12. The Language of Treatment: Argot in a Therapeutic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoag, Patricia E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Though it is not known to what extent the cultural orientation revealed in the therapeutic community's argot facilitates treatment, it is likely that at least for those who accept its concept, the therapeutic community provides a milieu in which effective resocialization can take place. (Author)

  13. The Impact of Cultural Religious Values upon Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions of Their Role as Educators in Catholic Religious Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellel, Adrian-Mario; Buchanan, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    The particular history, politics, social milieu and size of the islands of Malta contributed to the formation of specific cultural values and identity. Central to this identity is a unique language and a very strong Catholic community. These factors remain integral (but not exclusive) aspects of the Maltese national identity. This identity has…

  14. Peddling Poverty for Profit: Elements of Oppression in Ruby Payne's Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorski, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    Ruby Payne, CEO of aha! Process, Inc., and author of "A Framework for Understanding Poverty" (2005), has become one of the most influential figures in the U.S. public education milieu. Payne's framework, built largely upon understanding the "culture" of poverty, instructs educators on the values and mindsets poor students carry into the classroom…

  15. ICT Training Courses for Teacher Professional Development in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuhmaid, Atef

    2011-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is increasingly having pervasive role and presence in the educational milieu as it continues to shape all aspects of our lives. Numerous reform projects have been in place aiming to infuse ICT across education systems. Teachers are widely believed to be the key agents of any educational change.…

  16. Psychological Acculturation of Young Visible Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, David Lackland

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the psychological acculturation of young visible immigrants in Western industrialized countries, examining the psychosocial milieu that parents and society provide them, and the inability to assimilate or acculturate. "Visible" immigrant is a value neutral term for nonwhite or non-Caucasian immigrants. (SLD)

  17. A Research Framework for Creative and Imitative Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lithner, Johan

    2008-01-01

    This conceptual research framework addresses the problem of rote learning by characterising key aspects of the dominating imitative reasoning and the lack of creative mathematical reasoning found in empirical data. By relating reasoning to thinking processes, student competencies, and the learning milieu it explains origins and consequences of…

  18. Youth Victimization: School Climate or Deviant Lifestyles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaykowski, Heather; Gunter, Whitney

    2012-01-01

    Despite much focus on school violence, there has been little research that explores the relationship between offending and victimization in various school climates. School climate theory suggests that the school's social system, culture, milieu, and ecological structure affect student outcomes including academic performance, delinquency, and more…

  19. Traditional & Socio-Cultural Barriers to EFL Learning: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Jameel

    2015-01-01

    This research tends to ascertain several traditional and socio-cultural barriers to English language learning in Saudi Arabia and to explore more ways than before for making teaching and learning more effective. The findings of four quantitative and qualitative surveys conducted in this regard reveal a unique traditional and socio-cultural milieu,…

  20. A Study of On-the-Job Training. Technical Paper No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribner, Sylvia; Sachs, Patricia

    A case study of on-the-job training in a factory stockroom took a close look at the working milieu, the way experienced people did their jobs within it, and the means used to induct (train) newcomers into work activities. Stockroom work and stockroom training were considered to represent two different activity systems; the interplay of these two…

  1. EVALUATION OF PROJECT HEAD START READING READINESS IN ISSAQUENA AND SHARKEY COUNTIES, MISSISSIPPI, SUMMER, 1965. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GORDON, SOL

    THE SUBSTANCE OF THIS FINAL REPORT ON THE HEAD START PROJECT OF 1965 IN MISSISSIPPI IS A DEEP CONCERN WITH THE EFFECT OF THE SOCIAL MILIEU IN WHICH THE PROJECT STRUGGLED RATHER THAN WITH THE USUAL VARIETY OF STATISTICS AND RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS. THIS IS DUE, IN PART, TO THE PAUCITY OF SIGNIFICANT RESULTS AND, MORE IMPORTANTLY, TO THE SHOCKINGLY…

  2. Communication and Culture in Ancient India and China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Robert T.

    The rhetorical theories and practices of ancient India and China provide the themes of this book. An examination of the relationship between culture and rhetoric, East and West, opens the book. The rhetorical milieu of India, its philosophy, social system, and uses of speech, leads to a probing of the caste system and speech of the Brahmins.…

  3. Some Comments on Analytic Traditions in EFA As against CFA: An Analysis of Selected Research Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Kevin M.

    Factor analysis has historically been used for myriad purposes in the social and behavioral sciences, but an especially important application of this technique has been to evaluate construct validity. Since in the present milieu both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) are readily available to the researcher,…

  4. The Structure of Linguistic Input to Children. Working Papers of the Language Behavior Research Laboratory, No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drach, Kerry; And Others

    Four papers are included in this document concerning the structure of linguistic input to children. Dan Slobin's paper, "Questions of Language Development in Cross-Cultural Perspective," suggests that children everywhere acquire basic grammatical competence in the first five or six years of life, regardless of social milieu or linguistic…

  5. A National Database on Vocational Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Richard L.

    This report contains data and related information about preservice vocational teacher education programs as offered at U.S. colleges and universities. Data presented are about the institutional and administrative milieu in which vocational education takes place, the professors, curriculum, and instructional parameters. Discussion is also included…

  6. Effective Instruction: An Inconspicuous Strategy for Dropout Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bost, Loujeania Williams; Riccomini, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    Although researchers have clearly connected dropping out of school to prolonged low achievement, to date, effective teaching practices are largely absent from the milieu of interventions and programs that are employed by schools to address dropout prevention. As such, effective instructional design and delivery as a focus for keeping students with…

  7. Reappraising the Theoretical Goals of Research in Social Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, James P.

    1982-01-01

    Examines why social science/social studies educational research does not generate theories. The author concludes that the subject matter of this kind of research--human beings in their sociocultural milieu--makes it difficult to make objective observations from which theoretical principles can be derived. (AM)

  8. William Bennett, Allan Bloom, E. D. Hirsch, Jr.: "Great Nature Has Another Thing to Do to You and Me...."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standley, Fred

    1988-01-01

    Examines the views of William Bennett, Allan Bloom, and E. D. Hirsch, Jr. Challenges the relevance of these views in the current milieu, and suggests three more relevant considerations: (1) the myth of the canon; (2) the effects of literary theory; and (3) the effects of the newfound emphasis on rhetoric and composition. (MS)

  9. Grand Designs! Analysing the Conceptual Tensions Associated with New Physical Education and Health and Well-Being Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Malcolm; Horrell, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The positioning of physical education in the school curriculum continues to reflect external discourses circulating in political and social milieu. As increasing austerity measures influence and restrict educational priorities, we consider that there is an urgent need for physical educationalists to articulate a rationale for an educational…

  10. Changes in Labor Force Characteristics of Women in Low-Income Rural Areas of the South. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 185.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Geraldine B.; Charlton, J. L.

    Changes between 1960 and 1966 in the labor force characteristics of women in low-income rural areas of Alabama, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Tennessee were examined. Within a rural milieu, characterized by low income and high out-migration, the study determined the: (1) scope, social characteristics, and nature of mobility and its effects on…

  11. Common Core, Commonplaces, and Community in Teaching Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen; Neuman, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    Joseph Schwab, a curriculum theorist, described four commonplaces, or universals, of teaching: content, students, milieu and teachers. This article considers how the Reading Standards of the ELA-CCSS are shaping these commonplaces in the teaching of reading. The organization of the Reading Standards, for example, focuses on two broad grade bands,…

  12. Environmental Education Curriculum in a Bilingual Education School in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ling

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses her experiences with developing an English-language science curriculum for students at the experimental Hai Bin Lu Primary School in China. She uses Schwab's (1973) four common denominators (or essential factors) of curricula--teacher, student, subject matter, and milieu--and Genette's (1980) three…

  13. A "Prepaid Package" for Obstetrics: Effect on Teaching and Patient Care in a University Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Philip E.

    1976-01-01

    The changing social milieu has removed the charity patient but not the need for a teaching population. The University Hospital's program is described, in which patients prepaid a fixed, single fee for all obstetrics-related care through the third post partum day. (LBH)

  14. A Retrospective Examination of a University's Thirteen Years in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Ronald E.; And Others

    The context of educational reform within which U.S. higher education has worked in selected Latin American countries is examined, with attention directed to the specific experience of the University of New Mexico. The evolution of the Latin American Programs in Education office (LAPE) in the university setting, the organizational milieu in which…

  15. "Animation Sociale": The Experience of the BAEQ. Condensed Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morency, Marc-A.

    To promote popular participation as a means and goal of community development, the Bureau d'Amenagement de l'Est du Quebec (BAEQ) had to work within a milieu that favored traditional power structures over social participation in decision making. Phase 1 (May-September 1963) of this project was mainly a time for recruiting and training change…

  16. Commodification of Ghana's Volta River: An Example of Ellul's Autonomy of Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbemabiese, Lawrence; Byrne, John

    2005-01-01

    Jacques Ellul argued that modernity's nearly exclusive reliance on science and technology to design society would threaten human freedom. Of particular concern for Ellul was the prospect of the technical milieu overwhelming culture. The commodification of the Volta River in order to modernize Ghana illustrates the Ellulian dilemma of the autonomy…

  17. OZONE DEPLETION AND THE AIR-SEA EXCHANGE OF GREENHOUSE AND CHEMICALLY REACTIVE TRACE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most important aspects of global change is that of stratospheric ozone depletion and the resulting increase in UV radiation reaching the surface of the Earth. Some 70% of the Earth surface is covered by water containing an extremely complicated milieu of organic and in...

  18. "Outstanding Individuals Do Not Arise from Ancestrally Poor Stock": Racial Science and the Education of Black South Africans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Stephen W.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the construction of racial scientific discourse within the milieu of an extremely racially segregated society. Traces the influence of capitalism, racism, Social Darwinism, eugenics, and "racial science" on the pedagogy of modern apartheid in South Africa. Finds evidence of pervasive effects of "scientific" ideas on public policy and…

  19. Work-Sport Competition: The Role of Agricultural Contests in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipples, Rupert; Wilson, Jude

    2007-01-01

    Contests that take place within the rural milieu have tended to be ignored. Yet a wide range of contests are associated with the rural/agricultural lifestyle. In New Zealand, for example, there are contests which judge specialised agricultural skills such as shearing, fencing, wood chopping or pruning, as well as those which assess assorted skills…

  20. Understanding "The Great Gatsby" Online: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Dalton; Gross, MaryJean

    Today, more than 70 years after its publication, the novel "The Great Gatsby" seems as fresh and pertinent to American life as it did in the 1920s. The social, cultural, and historical milieu of the 1920s reflected in its pages is not so very different from that of today. This interdisciplinary collection of commentary and collateral materials…

  1. Organization Model of a Constructivist Learning Community: A Teilhardian Metaphor for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Argues for learning communities as a fruitful milieu for cognitive development and knowledge construction. Provides a metaphor of a constructivist learning community organization grounded on French scientist and philosopher Pierre Teilhard de Chardin's theory of evolution. Asserts that Teilhardian thought is useful for conceptualizing a…

  2. Tracing Family, Teaching Race: Critical Race Pedagogy in the Millennial Sociology Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    The "millennial" historical moment presents fresh dilemmas for race-critical instructors. In addition to being well-versed in colorblind racial discourse, millennial students are socialized in a pop-cultural milieu that implies a more integrated, racially egalitarian world than exists in reality and includes claims that U.S. society is now…

  3. Piaget Versus Materialism: A Concordance of the Discordance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Henry G.

    The purpose of this paper is to disconfirm Piaget's theory of an invariant sequence of intellectual maturation for all youths in all cultures. The author's view is that the kinds and sequences of human development vary greatly, depending on the cultural milieu. The author derives 36 propositions from Piaget's theory, dismisses 5 of them as…

  4. Language Policy in Canada: Current Issues. A Selection of the Proceedings of the Papers Dealing with Language Policy Issues in Canada at the Conference "Language Policy and Social Problems" (Curacao, Venezuela, December, 1983). Publication B-150.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobarrubias, Juan, Ed.

    The papers related to Canadian language policy at an international conference are presented: "Language Policy in Canada: Current Issues" (Juan Cobarrubias); "Multiculturalism and Language Policy in Canada" (Jim Cummins, Harold Troper); "Defining Language Policy in a Nationalistic Milieu and in a Complex Industrialized Region: the Quebec Case"…

  5. Trust Development in Outdoor Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Establishing trusting relationships between leaders and participants is one way that outdoor leaders can create an emotionally safe and productive milieu that supports the attainment of desirable outcomes. Multidisciplinary literature offers considerable insight into leader trust development and the outcomes that are linked to trust in a leader.…

  6. Augmenting Caregiver Responsiveness: An Intervention Proposal for Youngsters with Autism in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Débora R. P.; Araújo, Eliana R.; Walter, Elizabeth; Soares, Rute; Mendonça, Camila

    2016-01-01

    Language disorders that affect children with autism spectrum disorder can bring significant damage to their overall development. Research shows that the best treatment practices for this population are those that start early, have active parental collaboration and are held in natural milieu. In Brazil, early intervention programs are typically…

  7. Commentaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Robert S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Several commentaries on Howard Gruber's paper, "The Evolving Systems Approach to Creative Work," are offered: "How High Should One Climb to Find Common Ground?" (Robert Albert); "Where is the Evolving Milieu?" (Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi); "Creativity: The Individual, The Systems, The Approach" (Todd Lubart and Robert Sternberg); and "Quality and…

  8. Identity Formation of American Indian Adolescents: Local, National, and Global Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    A conceptual model is presented that approaches identity formation of American Indian adolescents according to 3 levels of social contextual influence--local, national, and global--relative to types of identity, dynamics of identity, and sources of influence. Ethnic identity of American Indians is embedded within the local cultural milieu and…

  9. Studying Intertextuality, Discourse and Narratives to Conceptualize and Contextualize Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voithofer, Rick

    2006-01-01

    To demonstrate how qualitative methods can be used to guide the planning of online learning within the cultural and intertextual milieu of the Internet, this project gives the data, methods and the results of the contextualization and conceptualization of an online learning environment. The learning environment addressed and invited people with…

  10. The Multilingual Classroom: New Rhetorical Frontiers in L2 Writing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magistro, Elena

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents some considerations on teaching L2 rhetorical conventions in university-level multilingual classrooms. It is claimed that if L2 students need to acquire versatile writing skills in L2 to be given a voice in the discourse milieu of the receiving society, they should also have the right to preserve their L1 cultural perspective.…

  11. Early growth response protein-1 mediates lipotoxicity-associated placental inflammation: Role in maternal obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation, which contributes to cellular dysfunction promoting metabolic disease. Obesity during pregnancy leads to a pro-inflammatory milieu in the placenta; however, the underlying causes for obesity-induced placental inflammation remain unclear. H...

  12. Metropolitan Spatial Injustice: An Alternative Approach to Instruction in Urban Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Michael E. Eliot

    The definition of geography as the study of man and the realities of his socio-economic milieu is the thesis on which this course in urban geography is based. The functions of the university are observed to be: 1) to ensure economic and cultural continuance; and 2) to advance knowledge and ways of knowing. The first of these functions appears to…

  13. A Child's Creation of a Second Language. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen-Bede, Lynne

    Three stages of the developing second language of a 3;9-3;11 year-old English-speaking child in an Urdu speech milieu were examined and compared with findings that have been accumulated about the order and process of first language acquisition. The study showed that in the development of many syntactic and morphological features the child used…

  14. Educating American Muslim Leadership (Men and Women) for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    al-Islam, Amir

    2006-01-01

    Educating and training Muslim men and women leaders who are capable of effectively navigating the multi-ethnic and multi-religious terrain in America--particularly in the post 9-11 milieu--requires the development of a new critical American Muslim pedagogy. This new pedagogy, centered in Islamic epistemology and ontology, should selectively…

  15. Teachers' Professional Development for ICT Integration: Towards a Reciprocal Relationship between Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albion, Peter R.; Tondeur, Jo; Forkosh-Baruch, Alona; Peeraer, Jef

    2015-01-01

    Teachers in the 21st century are facing new challenges as a result of the expanding possibilities of ICT integration in every aspect of the school milieu. Studies have shown the potential of teacher professional development (TPD) that is tailored to local conditions as well as global components and takes advantage of mutual support among teachers,…

  16. The Effects of Prototypicality and Cultural Salience on Perceptions of People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgas, Joseph P.

    1983-01-01

    Studied person prototypes within a subcultural milieu and the influence of cultural salience on recall memory, predictions, and impression formation in two studies of college students. Results suggested that multiple information-processing strategies are used in person perception, influenced by normative and cultural variables. (WAS)

  17. Sustainability Science Education in Africa: Negotiating Indigenous Ways of Living with Nature in the Third Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasson, George E.; Mhango, Ndalapa; Phiri, Absalom; Lanier, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    In response to global climate change, loss of biodiversity, and the immense human impact on the carrying capacity of the earth systems, attention has been given to sustainable development worldwide. In this paper, we explore the emerging field of sustainability science within the context of the socio-cultural milieu of Malawi, a sub-Saharan…

  18. Prolepsis, Syncretism, and Synergy in Early Language and Literacy Practices: A Case Study of Family Language Policy in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Li; Hu, Guangwei

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a case study of two Chinese-English bilingual families in Singapore and illustrates the importance of incorporating two hitherto disconnected fields of research--family language policy and family literacy practices--to an understanding of early language and literacy acquisition in the familial milieu. Specifically, this work…

  19. A Curricular Framework for Community-Based STS Issue Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Science education cannot be sequestered in the laboratory; it must be an active part of our social milieu. Thus, the agenda of science/technology/society (STS) education must be to examine the interactions of science, technology, and society within a social responsibility framework. (Author)

  20. Practical Curriculum Inquiry: Students' Voices of Their EFL Curriculum and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongboontri, Chantarath

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods study borrowed Schwabian notions of practical curriculum inquiry (1969, 1971, 1973, 1983) to investigate students' perceptions of their English as a foreign language (EFL) curriculum and instruction in light of their interactions with the four commonplaces; i.e., teachers, learners, subject matter, and milieu. Data were…

  1. Laptopers in an Educational Practice: Promoting the Personal Learning Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindroth, Tomas; Bergquist, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    In this article an ethnographical study of laptopers' activities during lectures in a university milieu is analyzed as different kinds of involvements. Through interviews and observations we have focused on how these involvements influence the laptopers' alignment towards the educational practice. The analysis shows the importance of separating…

  2. Cultural Models in Communication with Infants: Lessons from Kikaikelaki, Cameroon and Muenster, Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Carolin; Keller, Heidi; Yovsi, Relindis D.

    2012-01-01

    Child rearing is a universal task, yet there are differing solutions according to the dynamics of socio-cultural milieu in which children are raised. Cultural models of what is considered good or bad parenting become explicit in everyday routine practices. Focusing on early mother-infant interactions in this article we examine the discursive…

  3. Dynamic Assessment of Graphic Symbol Combinations by Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigam, Ravi

    2001-01-01

    This article offers teaching strategies in the dynamic assessment of the potential of students with autism to acquire and use multiple graphic symbol combinations for communicative purposes. Examples are given of the matrix strategy and milieu language teaching strategies. It also describes the Individualized Communication-Care Protocol, which…

  4. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Eye Drops

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Yasmeen Jabeen; Zeerak, Sumaya; Hassan, Iffat

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) occurs due to a milieu of allergens and involves different anatomical sites, including eyelids, and periorbital areas. Topically applied ophthalmic drugs are a potential cause of ACD of the periorbital region. Here we describe the report of a patient who developed ACD to eye drop preparations. PMID:26677304

  5. Micro-Social Factors in the Development of Entrepreneurial Giftedness: The Case of Richard Branson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavinina, Larisa V.

    2006-01-01

    Research shows that social circumstances influence the development of an individual's high abilities. This paper identifies the micro-social1 factors in the development of entrepreneurial giftedness. Specifically, the paper considers the family milieu, 'significant others' and great contemporaries in the case of Richard Branson, the most…

  6. Job Turnover and Job Satisfaction among Nursing Home Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Howard M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Interviewed 234 aides in seven nursing homes concerning job turnover rate, job satisfaction, and perception of milieu. A positive association found between turnover rate and aides' perceptions of the homes' order, organization, and control suggested that job turnover would lessen with more involvement in the decision-making process. (JAC)

  7. Cholas, Mexican-American Girls, and Gangs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary G.

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 21 present and former female gang members illustrate the lives of Mexican American girls in the gang milieu of the San Fernando Valley (Los Angeles, California). Gang structure, activities, and reasons for joining are discussed, along with the gang as a source of support. (SLD)

  8. Connoisseurship in an Age of Distractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Samuel

    2002-01-01

    Today, "connoisseurship" conjures up images of fusty old men in tweeds arguing over ancient etchings or perhaps the patter of opera buffs as they pass bejeweled into the night. Connoisseurship is neither fashionable nor politically correct. It signifies a focus on works of art rather than issues of power and is foreign to a cultural milieu where…

  9. Ravishing or Ravaged: Women's Relationships with Women in the Context of Aging and Western Beauty Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselink, Carol A.; Cox, Deborah L.; McClure, Sarissa J.; De Jong, Mary L. G.

    2008-01-01

    We undertook this narrative analysis study to explore the complexities of women's relationships with other women within the sociocultural milieu of beautyism and ageism. Using an open-ended narrative framework, four focus groups of women living in different regions throughout the U.S. were conducted and analyzed to identify thematic categories…

  10. Tensions in Defining Quality Pre-School Education: The Singapore Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim-Ratnam, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, the government in Singapore has been introducing many initiatives in the early childhood sector to raise the quality of pre-school education. Educational reforms made without consideration of the perspectives and concerns of the participants in the socio-cultural milieu would only lead to superficial implementation. This…

  11. The Scriptural Cantatas "Esther" and "Jacob, et Rachel" of Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de La Guerre: Historical Context and Performance Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    This project explores two sacred cantatas of Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de La Guerre, "Esther" and "Jacob, et Rachel". The cultural milieu in which the sacred cantatas of Jacquet de La Guerre were written and performed will be discussed, as well as possible venues for their original performances, including the Parisian salon, and the Royale maison…

  12. Principals Play Many Parts: A Review of the Research on School Principals as Special Education Leaders 2001-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Cam

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis examines current North American research on the work of school principals in the special education milieu. More specifically, it considers how elementary and secondary principals envision and act in ways that foster inclusion within a school community. Three core special education-oriented domains arose in the 19 studies…

  13. Empowering Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: A Training Manual for Group Leaders. Springer Series on Life Styles and Issues in Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Carole B.

    Noting that grandparents in the parenting role are often overwhelmed by the problems of their children, grandchildren, and the social milieu in which they live, this manual presents a 14-session workshop series designed to empower grandparents who are raising their grandchildren alone. Designed to complement "To Grandmother's House We Go and…

  14. The Use and Performance of Hymnody, Spirituals, and Gospels in the Black Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maultsby, Portia K.

    1983-01-01

    Explores use and performance of music in the Black church through examination of (1) the events that led to the conversion of Blacks to Christianity; (2) the formation of independent Black religious groups; and (3) the social and cultural milieu that fostered the development of a unique Black religious music. (Author/ML)

  15. Human Development Theories and Their Applicability to the Middle School Program. A Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Lois E.

    This paper examines theories of human development within the context of the models presented by the schools of cognitive learning, behavioralism, psychoanalysis, and humanistic views of growth. Stress is placed on the stages of human development that provides a means of better meeting the needs of students ages 10-14 in the middle school milieu.…

  16. From Command to Constructivism: Canadian Secondary School Physical Education Curriculum and "Teaching Games for Understanding"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Canadian physical educators have fought long and hard to be recognized as legitimate contributors to school curricula. In claiming alliances with discourses of medicine and morality, science and psychology, proponents of physical education have sought to be recognized and validated within the educational milieu. These claims have fundamentally…

  17. Educational Production Functions for Teacher-Technology Mixes: Problems and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Barry D.; Greenberg, Edward

    The use of large-scale delivery systems to transmit information and skills to a large number of users at low cost is examined. A systematic review of past and current experiments with educational applications of computers and television is coupled with a study of the social milieu in which public schools can be expected to operate in the near…

  18. A Program Project for the Investigation and Application of Procedures of Analysis and Modification of Behavior of Handicapped Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haring, Norris G.; And Others

    Presented is the final report of a project designed to develop systematic curricula, instructional materials, and procedures for the integration of moderately handicapped children, such as the educable mentally retarded, learning disabled, and behaviorally disturbed, into the regular classroom milieu; and to develop instructional materials and…

  19. Effects of the Teach-Model-Coach-Review Instructional Approach on Caregiver Use of Language Support Strategies and Children's Expressive Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Megan Y.; Kaiser, Ann P.; Wolfe, Cathy E.; Bryant, Julie D.; Spidalieri, Alexandria M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the effects of the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach on caregivers' use of four enhanced milieu teaching (EMT) language support strategies and on their children's use of expressive language. Method: Four caregiver-child dyads participated in a single-subject, multiple-baseline…

  20. Positive Emotions: Passionate Scholarship and Student Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Colin; Humberstone, Barbara; Clayton, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This paper challenges the practical and conceptual understanding of the role of emotions in higher education from the twin perspectives of transition and transformation. Focusing on the neglected area of positive emotions, exploratory data reveal a rich, low-level milieu of undergraduate emotional awareness in students chiefly attributed to…

  1. The Purposes Outdoor Education Does, Could and Should Serve in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the purposes that outdoor education does, could and should serve in Singapore. Gert Biesta's conceptualisation of three functions of education is adapted to frame deliberations on the purposes of outdoor education in Singapore's socio-political and educational milieu. The author suggests that outdoor education in…

  2. Issues in International Bilingual Education: The Role of the Vernacular.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford, Beverly, Ed.; And Others

    The fifteen articles in this volume are generally concerned with the role of vernacular language in bilingual education on an international scale. They examine specific nations and how bilingualism affects their social milieu. The following articles are included: (1) "Bilingualism and the Vernacular," by Shana Poplack; (2) "The Bilingual's…

  3. "The Storyteller: Reflections on the Works of Nikolai Leskov."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Oral History, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents 11 selections from Walter Benjamin's essay "The Storyteller" which illustrate how the work milieu and the significance of death are incorporated into stories. Benjamin compares historiography to traditional storytelling, and discusses the effect of the storyteller's need to maintain the listener's interest upon the story's style and…

  4. CHANGES IN TESTICULAR AND SERUM HORMONE CONCENTRATIOS IN THE MALE RAT FOLLOWING TREATMENT WITH 'M'-DINITROBENZENE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    m-Dinitrobenzene (m-DNB)-induced testicular atrophy has been attributed to a direct effect upon the germinal epithelium. However, such degenerative changes in the germinal epithelium should induce shifts in the testicular hormonal milieu, which would in turn alter the hypothalmic...

  5. On the Nature of the Semiotic Structure of the Didactic Action: The Joint Action Theory in Didactics within a Comparative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensevy, Gérard; Gruson, Brigitte; Forest, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we first sketch the joint action theory paradigm from a general viewpoint in sciences of culture. Then we specify this generic description by focusing on the joint action theory in didactics (JATD). We elaborate on three currently developed elements of the theory: the reticence-expression dialectics; the contract-milieu dialectics,…

  6. Towards an Understanding of Mindful Practices with Children and Adolescents in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The author discusses mindful practices with children and adolescents in the residential treatment milieu. The article presents the current literature as well as three case studies informing theoretical and practical viewpoints of these practices as interventions and philosophies towards healing and growth.

  7. Walking around the Curriculum Tree: An Analysis of a Third/Fourth-Grade Mathematics Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Vicki

    2003-01-01

    This study, part of a narrative classroom inquiry into the teaching and learning of mathematics in a Canadian elementary classroom, emerges from the three years I was a participant-observer in Janine O'Neil's 3rd/4th-grade classroom at Bay Street Community School. Drawing on the curriculum commonplaces of teacher, social milieu, subject matter,…

  8. L'acquisition d'une language seconde: Quelques developpements theoriques recents (Second Language Acquisition: Some Recent Theoretical Developments).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Py, Bernard, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This collection of articles on second language learning includes: "Action, langage et discours. Les fondements d'une psychologie du langage" ("Action, Language, and Discourse. Foundations of a Psychology of Language") (Jean-Paul Bronckart); "Contextes socio-culturels et appropriation des languages secondes: l'apprentissage en milieu social et la…

  9. Characterization and mucosal responses of interleukin 17 family ligand and receptor genes in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interleukin (IL) 17 family cytokines are important mediators of mucosal immune responses, tightly regulated by signals from the complex milieu of pathogenic and commensal microbes, epithelial cells and innate and adaptive leukocytes found at tissue barriers. In mammals, IL17 ligand expression has be...

  10. The Experience of Initial Management Training in ELT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Management training in ELT organizations is often inadequate. New managers are in severe need of training, especially for tasks which are non-pedagogical, yet they operate in a milieu where there are few opportunities for support compared with colleagues in mainstream education. The purpose of this case study, a rare evidence-based contribution to…

  11. Harmonizing the Educational Globe. World Polity, Cultural Features, and the Challenges to Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trohler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The general thesis of this paper is that the motives of the currently dominant global educational governance are rooted in a specific cultural milieu in the time of the Cold War, more precisely in the late 1950s, heading to a harmonious world. The more specific thesis is that a series of failures in the achievement of this harmonized globe led to…

  12. A Reflective Conversation with Kobus Maree, Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Moore, Tammy Lynne; Maree, Kobus

    2013-01-01

    Always regarded as somewhat of an "outsider" (the child of an English-speaking (Catholic) mother and an Afrikaans (Protestant) father in an exclusively Afrikaans milieu) and growing up extremely poor, seeing the hardship of others and realising how much talent was going to waste, Kobus Maree took a particular interest in gifted disadvantaged…

  13. How Students Experience and Navigate Transitions in Undergraduate Medical Education: An Application of Bourdieu's Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balmer, Dorene F.; Richards, Boyd F.; Varpio, Lara

    2015-01-01

    Using Bourdieu's theoretical model as a lens for analysis, we sought to understand how students experience the undergraduate medical education (UME) milieu, focusing on how they navigate transitions from the preclinical phase, to the major clinical year (MCY), and to the preparation for residency phase. Twenty-two medical students participated in…

  14. A Transactional Model of Spoken Vocabulary Variation in Toddlers with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woynaroski, Tiffany; Yoder, Paul J.; Fey, Marc E.; Warren, Steven F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined (a) whether dose frequency of milieu communication teaching (MCT) affects children's canonical syllabic communication and (b) whether the relation between early canonical syllabic communication and later spoken vocabulary is mediated by parental linguistic mapping in children with intellectual disabilities (ID).…

  15. Effects of Dose Frequency of Early Communication Intervention in Young Children with and without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Paul; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Fey, Marc; Warren, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability were randomly assigned to receive Milieu Communication Teaching (MCT) at one 1-hr session per week (low dose frequency, LDF) or five 1-hr sessions per week (high dose frequency, HDF) over 9 months (Fey, Yoder, Warren, & Bredin-Oja, 2013. Non-Down syndrome (NDS) and Down syndrome (DS) subgroups were matched…

  16. Internal-External Locus of Control in Middle and Later Life: The Search for Construct Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielby, Denise D.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    This study validates the developmental nature of internal-external locus of control in middle and old age. Longitudinal stability of locus of control in the face of particular changes in social milieu common during the transition from middle to late life was contrasted with that of verbal intelligence, a known stable characteristic, and that of…

  17. A Multivariate Study of Two Techniques for Analyzing Social Variables in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidder, S. J.

    This study was conducted in an attempt to analyze selected aspects of the social milieu surrounding elementary school children. The relationship between the two techniques (one semi-projective, one verbal) used in measuring this social environment was also of interest. Fourth and fifth grade students' affective reactions to the following stimuli…

  18. Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerlage, Patricia A.

    The author traces the case histories of five anorexic female patients treated in the therapeutic milieu in a psychiatric inpatient unit. The history of anorexia nervosa is reviewed, incidence of the disorder is cited, and common characteristics are described. Case histories are presented in terms of events precipitating the weight loss, behavior…

  19. Improving Educational Research and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krathwohl, David

    1977-01-01

    Considers some ways to improve the milieu in which educational research and development takes place, including balancing procurement methods, modifying expectations of R & D, building a political constituency and developing realistic legislative goals, obtaining continual adequate research support, and, joining researchers and practitioners.…

  20. Industry Perceptions of Industry-University Partnerships Related to Doctoral Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Chaya

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of the extent to which industry-university partnerships in doctoral education, which have become increasingly prevalent in the knowledge economy, have begun to penetrate the South African higher education milieu, is reported. The factors that motivate large industries in developing countries such as South Africa to invest in doctoral…

  1. Canadian Books for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Irma, Ed.

    The children's books listed and annotated in this book were selected by Canadian children's librarians; they represent the most informative and relevant books in print for children, providing knowledge and understanding of the Canadian environment and cultural milieu. Each entry indicates bibliographic information and availability.…

  2. A Native American Voice in Multicultural Psychology: Finding Healing in an Interpersonal Tapestry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Rockey R.

    2012-01-01

    The tribal-cultural milieu in which the author was raised incited awareness that Native American people live in a great tapestry of life where everything and everyone is interconnected. It is an awareness that cannot be taught through lectures or books. It is an awareness of connectedness that Native American people had in early childhood but was…

  3. MICROPLATE-BASED OXYGEN RADICAL ABSORBANCE CAPACITY (ORAC) ASSAY OF HYDROPHILIC AND LIPOPHILIC COMPARTMENTS IN PLASMA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods have been developed to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity of foods and plasma but limitations are associated with their ability to determine precisely the contribution of lipophilic antioxidants in a lipid milieu as well as interactions among them. Thus, we modified the Oxygen Radical ...

  4. The Role of Sexual Trauma in the Treatment of Chemically Dependent Women: Addressing the Relapse Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Rick; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Explores issues surrounding sexual trauma and chemical dependency. Aims to provide direction for relapse prevention with a relapse-prone population and explores application of traditional milieu substance-abuse treatment for sexual-trauma survivors. Makes recommendations for working with sexual-trauma survivors who are also substance abusers. (RJM)

  5. Fostering Scholarship Capacity: The Experience of Nurse Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Penelope A.; Tate, Betty

    2012-01-01

    In a milieu where traditional views of scholarship are embedded in the culture of educational institutions, and nursing programs in particular, this paper reports on a research project designed to support nurse educators' capacity to engage in scholarly activities. Rogers' (2003, 2004) "Diffusion of Innovation" model provided a theoretical vantage…

  6. A Physiologist's View of Homeostasis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modell, Harold; Cliff, William; Michael, Joel; McFarland, Jenny; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Wright, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis is a core concept necessary for understanding the many regulatory mechanisms in physiology. Claude Bernard originally proposed the concept of the constancy of the "milieu interieur," but his discussion was rather abstract. Walter Cannon introduced the term "homeostasis" and expanded Bernard's notion of…

  7. Self-Determination in Medical Education: Encouraging Medical Educators to Be More like Blues Artists and Poets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Heather; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, medical education has focused largely on medical students' intellectual development, mostly ignoring the broader psychological milieu of medical practice. This chasm can result in practitioners who are less likely to process their emotions and/or support their patient's needs, and more likely to experience burnout. Self-determination…

  8. Outdoor Education Gives Fewer Demands for Action Regulation and an Increased Variability of Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiskum, Tove Anita; Jacobsen, Karl

    2013-01-01

    In children's lives there are a lot of instigators for actions in every milieu and situation. When children grow older, the cortical activity starts to regulate the action instigation from the limbic system. The school system makes demands of action regulation for children. In outdoor education the many instigators for actions are not under the…

  9. The Contributions of Rebecca Caudill and Dorothy Hoobler to Appalachian Literature for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Mary

    Rebecca Caudill, born in 1899 in Poor Fork (now Cumberland), Kentucky, lived until 1985 and devoted a major portion of her life to writing young adult and children's literature. With one exception, Caudill's books, numbering 17, are all set in Appalachia, each one portraying something of the life, the milieu, and the richness of the mountain…

  10. The Strive Project: A Special "Pull-Out" Instructional Program for At-Risk Ninth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opuni, Kwame A.

    STRIVE was a special instructional program which provided a nurturing, caring, intensive instructional milieu for over-aged, low-performing ninth graders, who were perceived to be at risk of dropping out of school, at Barbara Jordan High School for Careers in Houston (Texas) during the 1988-89 school year. This report evaluates the effectiveness…

  11. Traveling Stories: Converging Milieus and Educative Conundrums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Margaret R.; Craig, Cheryl J.

    2009-01-01

    Schwab (Schwab, J. J. (1970). "The practical: A language for curriculum." Washington, DC: National Education Association, Center for the Study of Instruction) named the teacher, learner, subject matter, and milieu as the desiderata essential for curriculum making. In our research, the teacher commonplace has formed the entry point of inquiry.…

  12. What the West Could Learn from the East: A Reflective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Yali; Craig, Cheryl J.; Poimbeauf, Rita P.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on Lugones' ideas of world traveling, Dewey's notion of education as experience, and Greene's vision of seeing small/seeing big, this article inquires into lives lived in an Eastern educational milieu with attention reflectively paid to what educators in the West could learn from those in the East. Rather than focusing on mega narratives…

  13. Critical control points in the impact of proinflammatory immune response on growth and metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intrinsic in the equation for successful animal production is the efficiency of nutrient use for assimilation into useful animal-derived product. However, when young, growing animals encounter various stressors that activate components of the innate immune system, the resulting cytokine milieu need...

  14. Bringing New Historicism into the American Literature Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Margaret Faye

    2000-01-01

    Notes that students can begin to learn that literature is not a dead art with no relevance to them by studying works that provide a wider context that will allow readers a new sense of the cultural milieu in which texts are written and read in conjunction with the ones in their course anthologies. (SC)

  15. Learning and Education in the Context of Social Milieus: The Risks and Benefits of Social and Cultural Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barz, Heiner

    The benefits of and barriers to lifelong learning were examined in two studies of the relationship between social milieu and interest in, access to, and participation in adult education. The first study was conducted in Freiburg, Germany, in 1995-1998, and the second study was conducted in Munich, Germany, in 2000-2002. The Freiburg study focused…

  16. Comparing Cyberbullying and School Bullying among School Students: Prevalence, Gender, and Grade Level Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapidot-Lefler, Noam; Dolev-Cohen, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological developments have added cyberspace as part of adolescents' social milieu. Bullying, which is prevalent in adolescents' social environment, also takes place in cyberspace, although it is believed to have a more potent and harmful effect. A study of cyberbullying and FtF bullying could elucidate critical implications for…

  17. Unit 1001: The Nature of Meaning in Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This 10th-grade unit in Minnesota's "language-centered" curriculum introduces the complexity of linguistic meaning by demonstrating the relationships among linguistic symbols, their referents, their interpreters, and the social milieu. The unit begins with a discussion of Ray Bradbury's "The Kilimanjaro Machine," which illustrates how an otherwise…

  18. US Higher Education in a Budgetary Vortex--1992-2007: Tracing the Positioning of Academe in the Context of Growing Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliver, Miguel; Briscoe, Felecia M.

    2011-01-01

    Through comparative statistical data of public investment trends in higher education, the institution of higher education in the US is contemporarily contextualized within the growing milieu of disparity. Specifically, this study focuses on the period from 1992 to 2007 to see if a mitigation of the growing economic disparity projected per the…

  19. English Language Cultures in Bulgaria: A Linguistic Sibling Rivalry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Laurie M.

    1998-01-01

    In Bulgaria, a complex matrix of power relations governs English language education, and a triangle of international and intercultural relations between Bulgaria, United States, and United Kingdom. In the context of the changing economic and political milieu of central and eastern Europe, a study examines how Bulgaria fits into the emerging…

  20. Question-Asking and Question-Exploring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Lorraine; Carr, Margaret; Lee, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    The Centre of Innovation Research at Greerton Early Childhood Centre was characterised as a dispositional milieu where working theories were explored through a narrative research methodology. As the research progressed, the teachers at Greerton strengthened the way we were listening to, and watching out for young children's questions to enable…

  1. Le Certificat Pratique de la CCIP et la Traduction dans les Cours de francais Commercial (The CCIP Certificate and Translation in Business French Courses).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Paul Raymond

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the importance of professional translators in the milieu of the European Community and the global economy. The article focuses on the changes occurring within the French educational system in order to accomodate this reality by preparing students for a practical translation test in order to earn a certificate in the translation of…

  2. Symposium: "Crash": Rhetorically Wrecking Discourses of Race, Tolerance, and White Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunley, Vorris L.

    2007-01-01

    From within the milieu of race and identity fatigue emerges "Crash." Winner of three Academy Awards, including Best Picture, "Crash" addresses how the fluidity of identity is pooled, ebbed, blocked, directed, dammed up. How identity and subjectivity are dammed up and mediated through the force of the anxieties, fears, and frustrations of people…

  3. Leading Collective Capacity in Culturally Diverse Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Riordan, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the ways leaders may nurture collective relationships within culturally diverse staff bodies. We organise our discussion around five key, interrelated issues. These are how leaders position themselves within the school's cultural milieu; how they structure work for collective capacity; understanding collective work; giving expression to…

  4. Enhancing Reflective Practice in Multicultural Counseling through Cultural Auditing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Sandra; Arthur, Nancy; Wong-Wylie, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Counselors work in an increasingly complex cultural milieu where every encounter with a client must be considered multicultural in nature. Reflective practice is a central component of professional competence and necessarily involves attention to culture. The cultural auditing model provides an effective and flexible reflective process for…

  5. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2005. Volume 1: Secondary School Students, 2005. NIH Publication No. 06-5883

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2006-01-01

    This monograph provides the 1975-2005 national trends in smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use among American secondary school students. It covers subgroup differences, attitudes and beliefs about use, social milieu, degree and duration of drug highs, initiation rates, prevalence and frequency, and trends in illicit drug and alcohol use. Drug…

  6. Practitioner Research as "Praxidents" Waiting to Happen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiera, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Practitioner research, as Ravitch (2014) writes in the previous issue of "Perspectives on Urban Education," holds the unique possibility of "generating local, practice-based knowledge that is deeply contextualized and meaningfully embedded in a specific milieu" while spurring a "counter-hegemonic way of thinking about and…

  7. Classroom Ideas: The Trial of Susan B. Anthony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabor, Jewel L.

    1986-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of 10 role playing scenarios which involve junior and senior high students in the social milieu of the time in U.S. history before women were able to vote. Identifies resource materials, describes roles students may take, and provides sample objectives. (JDH)

  8. Strategies for Staff Development: Personal and Professional Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Robert A., Ed.; Bryan, William A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Central to the delivery of quality learning opportunities and services for students in the next century is an educated, energetic, motivated management and support staff in tune with their campus milieu and committed to their institution's mission. This volume explores the nature of staff development and emphasizes the fact that staff development…

  9. DIFFERENTIAL INFLUENCE OF DISTINCT FATTY ACIDS ON CARDIOMYOCYTE METABOLIC GENE EXPRESSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Metabolic adaptation of the heart to increased fatty acids (FAs) in the diabetic milieu is mediated by induction of genes promoting FA oxidation (e.g. malonyl-CoA decarboxylase; mcd), as well as those suppressing car...

  10. The Three-legged Stool of Parental Inclusion: The Case of Hana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Cam

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from a critical qualitative inquiry, this case study tells the story of Hana, a Korean-Canadian mother, and identifies barriers that can be encountered in seeking to interact with school professionals in the special education milieu. The case study presents a conceptual model, called the three-legged stool of parental inclusion, which is…

  11. Sailing through Stormy Seas: An Israeli Kindergarten Teacher Confronts Holocaust Remembrance Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, David

    2009-01-01

    The young child's exposure to disaster and trauma through the media or in the social milieu poses a challenge for the early childhood educator who is faced with responding and educating in a developmentally appropriate manner. In the case of public commemoration of a national disaster, the classroom implications are seemingly unavoidable. This…

  12. Attitudes towards Non-Standard English in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Peter K. W.; Tan, Daniel K. H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of a curriculum which promotes a standard linguistic variety in a context where non-standardisms are common in the learners' milieu. There have been curricula which try to incorporate the non-standard and have its function discussed; some have considered the non-standard a stepping-stone towards the standard; and…

  13. Reforming U.S. Education for the Academic Study of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Religion and spirituality are gaining renewed appreciation as key elements of the cultural milieu. Yet there has been an inattention to the academic study of religion and spirituality in U.S. education due to several contributing causes. Central to remediating this deficiency is an understanding of these causes and how the reform of key factors in…

  14. Filtering Shakespeare Teaching through Curricular Commonplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Schwab (1978) argued that curriculum emerged in the commonplaces of teacher, learner, subject matter and milieu. It was in these four frames that I narratively explored my own development as an English teacher and curriculum planner around Shakespeare's work, particularly "The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet." In this narrative, I relate four…

  15. Disenchantment and the Liberal Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathangue, Robin

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an enquiry into the unpredictability of the liberally educated mind. We are all familiar with the value placed on the word "critical" when it figures prominently in justifications for liberal arts pedagogy, as in "a liberal arts education should foster the capacity for critical thinking." However, depending on the milieu in which…

  16. Maternal Responsivity Predicts the Prelinguistic Communication that Facilitates Generalized Intentional Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Steven F.; Yoder, Paul J.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined whether maternal responsivity would predict the extent to which prelinguistic milieu teaching (PMT) facilitated generalized intentional communication better than a contrast small-group treatment with 58 children (ages 17 to 36 months) with developmental disabilities. If mothers were relatively responsive before treatment, PMT…

  17. Randomized Comparison of Two Communication Interventions for Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Paul; Stone, Wendy L.

    2006-01-01

    This randomized group experiment compared the efficacy of 2 communication interventions (Responsive Education and Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching [RPMT] and the Picture Exchange Communication System [PECS]) in 36 preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders. Each treatment was delivered 3 times per week, in 20-min sessions, for 6 months. The results…

  18. Margaret McMillan and Maria Montessori: Champions of the Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuCharme, Catherine C.

    This paper discusses the life and works of Margaret McMillan and Maria Montessori, two advocates for the poor who played a significant role in social and educational reform in Britain and Italy, respectively, in the late 19th- and early 20th century. The upbringing, education, and social milieu of the two women are compared, as well as their…

  19. Moderate Pluralism: Beyond a Reasonable Liberalism to Recognition of Cultural Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser-Burgess, Sheron

    2010-01-01

    The growing diversity of school populations in the present education milieu raises issues of treating difference along multiple lines of the social, political and economic well being of children. Difference is here defined as politically significant group identities to which the author refers as cultures or identity groups. Political liberal…

  20. Restorative Justice in Everyday Life: Beyond the Formal Ritual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachtel, Ted

    2003-01-01

    Restorative justice provides a promising alternative to punitive models in justice and education. Most programs to date have focused on "conferencing," where victims and offenders are brought together for mediation and reconciliation. This article extends the restorative model to the entire milieu of an alternative school setting. (Contains 3…

  1. A Systems Approach for Ameliorating Possible Prima Facie Denial of Hispanic/Black Students' Rights Through Disproportionate Enrollment in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, James R.

    The paper discusses the issue of educational equity, principles of systems analysis, systems approaches in the educational milieu, the evaluation aspect of the systems approach, and application of the systems approach to preventing disproportionate enrollment of Hispanics and Blacks in special education classes in Holyoke, Massachusetts. The…

  2. Electron microscope observations of impact crater debris amongst contaminating particulates on materials surfaces exposed in space in low-Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murr, L. E.; Rivas, J. M.; Quinones, S.; Niou, C.-S.; Advani, A. H.; Marquez, B.

    1993-01-01

    Debris particles extracted from a small sampling region on the leading edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) spacecraft have been examined by analytical transmission electron microscopy and the elemental frequency observed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and compared with upper atmosphere (Earth) particle elemental frequency and the average elemental compositions of interplanetary dust particles. A much broader elemental distribution was observed for the exposed spacecraft surface debris milieu. Numerous metal microfragment analyses, particularly aluminum and stainless steel, were compared with scanning electron microscope observations-of impact crater features, and the corresponding elemental spectra on selected LDEF aluminium tray clamps and stainless steel bolts. The compositions and melt features for these impact craters and ejecta have been shown to be consistent with microcrystalline debris fragments in the case of aluminum, and these observations suggest an ever changing debris milieu on exposed surfaces for space craft and space system materials.

  3. Exploring the role of inflammation in the malignant transformation of low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Michelson, Nicole; Rincon-Torroella, Jordina; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Greenfield, Jeffrey P

    2016-08-15

    Studies of inflammatory mediators have established the tumor micro-environment as a driver of oncogenesis. This inflammatory milieu often precedes cancer, however recent data also point to the ability of oncogenic changes to induce inflammatory responses that are later harnessed by the tumor to survive and proliferate. In this review, we propose that the IDH1 mutation, present in the majority of low-grade gliomas (LGGs), initiates an inflammatory cascade that is ultimately hijacked by the tumor. Glioma infiltrating macrophages and microglia (GIMs) are polarized to the M2 phenotype, subverting the host's adaptive immune response, and fostering a tumor milieu ripe for angiogenesis, migration, and metastasis. As data continue to expand the role of inflammation in low-grade gliomas, new molecular pathways may emerge as therapeutic targets that offer a window of opportunity to intervene before the malignant transformation (MT) of LGGs occurs. PMID:27397086

  4. [Current problems of microbial safety of the interior environment of orbital stations after extended period of operation].

    PubMed

    Viktorov, A N; Novikova, N D; Polikarpov, N A; Gorshkova, V P; Konstantinova, S V

    1995-01-01

    The authors give considerations to one of the core hygienic problems arising in the process of long-term operation of orbital stations, i.e. ensuring microbial health of the milieu interior. Data pertaining the origin, interactions, and transformation of the microbial risk factors are analyzed as applied to this class of spacecraft. A concept of microbial health of the milieu interior including both medical and technological aspects relating to the reliability of space hardware is proposed. Based on the result of investigations in space flight, the developed criteria and indices of microbial health can be turned to practical use. The currently central tasks to be solved within the context of the problem and in view of the construction of international space station ALPHA are listed. PMID:8664877

  5. [Helping to die--helping to live in the boundary between life and death].

    PubMed

    Ruhnau, K J; Steinbach, G

    1984-11-15

    Help for the dying patient is a matter of the physician's duty in the sense of the help for life in a border-line situation of human life. Even if the activity of the physician is no more determined by the thought of the preservation of life, the aims in the care for dying patients are on principle to be compared with those in the care for other patients and contain essential principles of the activity of the physician: somatic area (treatment and care) psycho-social area (aid, care and communication). While the hospital in the somatic field has prerequisites for a careful treatment and care, the domestic milieu has advantages in the psycho-social area. It is recommended a flexible and individually adapted performance of the care of dying patients in the hospital and the domestic milieu. PMID:6528677

  6. Dendritic cell defects in the colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Legitimo, Annalisa; Consolini, Rita; Failli, Alessandra; Orsini, Giulia; Spisni, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) results from the accumulation of both genetic and epigenetic alterations of the genome. However, also the formation of an inflammatory milieu plays a pivotal role in tumor development and progression. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a relevant role in tumor by exerting differential pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic functions, depending on the local milieu. Quantitative and functional impairments of DCs have been widely observed in several types of cancer, including CRC, representing a tumor-escape mechanism employed by cancer cells to elude host immunosurveillance. Understanding the interactions between DCs and tumors is important for comprehending the mechanisms of tumor immune surveillance and escape, and provides novel approaches to therapy of cancer. This review summarizes updated information on the role of the DCs in colon cancer development and/or progression. PMID:25483675

  7. Chemical chaperones assist intracellular folding to buffer mutational variations

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Anannya; Saxena, Kanika; Kasturia, Neha; Dalal, Vijit; Bhatt, Niraj; Rajkumar, Asher; Maity, Shuvadeep; Sengupta, Shantanu; Chakraborty, Kausik

    2012-01-01

    Hidden genetic variations harbor potential for the evolution of new traits. Molecular chaperones, that assist protein folding, may conceal genetic variations in protein coding regions. Here, we investigate if the chemical milieu of cells has the potential to alleviate intracellular protein folding; potentially implicating a role of osmolytes in concealing genetic variations. Using the model osmolyte TMAO, we uncover that it can buffer mutations that impose kinetic traps in the folding pathways of two model proteins. Using this information, we rationally designed TMAO-dependent mutants in vivo, starting from a TMAO-independent protein. Strikingly, we delineate different osmolytes to have a unique spectrum of buffered-mutations. Consequently, the chemical milieu of cells may alter the folding pathways of unique mutant variants in polymorphic populations and lead to unanticipated spectra of genetic buffering. PMID:22246401

  8. Mechanoresponsive musculoskeletal tissue differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Trumbull, Andrew; Subramanian, Gayathri; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal tissues are constantly under mechanical strains within their microenvironment. Yet, little is understood about the effect of in vivo mechanical milieu strains on cell development and function. Thus, this review article outlines the in vivo mechanical environment of bone, muscle, cartilage, tendon, and ligaments, and tabulates the mechanical strain and stress in these tissues during physiological condition, vigorous, and moderate activities. This review article further discusses the principles of mechanical loading platforms to create physiologically relevant mechanical milieu in vitro for musculoskeletal tissue regeneration. A special emphasis is placed on adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) as an emerging valuable tool for regenerative musculoskeletal tissue engineering, as they are easily isolated, expanded, and able to differentiate into any musculoskeletal tissue. Finally, it highlights the current state-of-the art in ADSCs-guided musculoskeletal tissue regeneration under mechanical loading. PMID:27103394

  9. The imperative of strategic alignment across organizations: the experience of the Canadian Cancer Society's Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Roy; Riley, Barbara L; Campbell, H Sharon; Manske, Stephen; Lamers-Bellio, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Cancer Society's Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation (CBRPE) is a national asset for building pan-Canadian capacity to support intervention studies that guide population-level policies and programs. This paper briefly describes CBRPE's experience in advancing this work in the field of prevention. The aim is to illuminate issues of central importance for advancing the goals of the Population Health Intervention Research Initiative for Canada. According to our experience, success in building the population intervention field will depend heavily on purposeful alignment across organizations to enable integration of research, evaluation, surveillance, policy and practice. CBRPE's capacity development roles include a) a catalytic role in shaping this aligned inter-organizational milieu and b) investing our resources in building tangible assets (teams, indicators, data systems) that contribute relevant capacities within this emerging milieu. Challenges in building capacity in this field are described. PMID:19263980

  10. The evolutionary origin and significance of Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Pollycove, Ricki; Naftolin, Frederick; Simon, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary human females have long life expectancy (81y US), especially relative to age at menopause (51y US). Menopause is a consequence of reproductive aging and follicular depletion (ovarian failure), yielding very low circulating estrogen* serum concentrations and biologically disadvantageous metabolic alterations. Stated in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy, the ongoing hypoestrogenic endocrine environment, beneficial during lactation, results in acceleration of several age-related health conditions following menopause (i.e. late postmenopausal osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline). In contrast, the complex hypoestrogenic hormonal milieu present during postpartum lactation provides biologic advantages to both mother and newborn. The lactational hormonal milieu causes symptoms similar to those of the late perimenopause and early postmenopause, prompting theories for their biologic selective advantage. The precepts of evolutionary medicine encourage a reassessment of hormone therapy. Based on data presented, the authors propose additional opportunities for disease prevention and morbidity reduction in postmenopausal women. PMID:21252729

  11. ?Drop-out? in the Danish high school (gymnasium): An investigation of psychological, sociological and pedagogical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohn, Helge

    1991-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate characteristics differentiating high-school students who had dropped out of school from those who remained. The study examined the relationship between drop-out and the following three clusters: (1) the effect of family background factors; (2) the effect of social factors in the educational milieu; and (3) the effect of motivation, achievement and ability. It was concluded that neither the effect of family background nor exposure to factors in the educational milieu were significant in the decision to finish school. One of the main conclusions of the investigation was that drop-out was associated with lack of motivation and achievement of the students.

  12. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is not regulated by testosterone in transmen.

    PubMed

    Auer, Matthias K; Hellweg, Rainer; Briken, Peer; Stalla, Günter K; T'Sjoen, Guy; Fuss, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Brain morphology significantly differs between the sexes. It has been shown before that some of these differences are attributable to the sex-specific hormonal milieu. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in myriads of neuroplastic processes and shows a sexual dimorphism. Transsexual persons may serve as a model to study sex steroid-mediated effects on brain plasticity. We have recently demonstrated that serum levels of BDNF are reduced in transwomen following 12 months of cross-sex hormone treatment. We now wanted to look at the effects of testosterone treatment on BDNF in transmen. In contrast to our initial hypothesis, BDNF levels did not significantly change, despite dramatic changes in the sex-hormonal milieu. Our data indicate that testosterone does not seem to play a major role in the regulation of BDNF in females. PMID:26753091

  13. Upstream Regulators and Downstream Effectors of NADPH Oxidases as Novel Therapeutic Targets for Diabetic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gorin, Yves; Wauquier, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, the complication of diabetes in the kidney. NADPH oxidases of the Nox family, and in particular the homologue Nox4, are a major source of reactive oxygen species in the diabetic kidney and are critical mediators of redox signaling in glomerular and tubulointerstitial cells exposed to the diabetic milieu. Here, we present an overview of the current knowledge related to the understanding of the role of Nox enzymes in the processes that control mesangial cell, podocyte and tubulointerstitial cell injury induced by hyperglycemia and other predominant factors enhanced in the diabetic milieu, including the renin-angiotensin system and transforming growth factor-β. The nature of the upstream modulators of Nox enzymes as well as the downstream targets of the Nox NADPH oxidases implicated in the propagation of the redox processes that alter renal biology in diabetes will be highlighted. PMID:25824546

  14. Ian Curtis: Punk rock, epilepsy, and suicide.

    PubMed

    Tuft, Mia; Gjelsvik, Bergljot; Nakken, Karl O

    2015-11-01

    Ian Curtis was the front man of the post-punk band Joy Division. He suffered from epilepsy and actively incorporated his experiences of the disease in his lyrics. Curtis had frequent epileptic seizures, both on and off stage. After dying from suicide in 1980, he became a legend in the post-punk milieu. The impact which the epilepsy, the epilepsy treatment, and comorbid depression had on his artistic life and premature death is not well known. PMID:26496010

  15. Gay patients. Context for care.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, G.; Saunders, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    Gays and lesbians are a part of our society and our practices: real people with real lives, not stereotypes. Understanding their inner world and their social milieu is the first step to providing care that is holistic and appropriate. The "coming out" process and other unique health issues are described. Guidance is provided on how to identify and relate to gay and lesbian patients. PMID:8199524

  16. [Integration of behaviorism in the technics and methods of psychologic action].

    PubMed

    Xhenseval, B

    1977-01-01

    Behaviourism is described as the study, the analysis and modifications of behaviours interacting with the milieu: a unit of methods and applications is noted and a theoretical body of behaviour changes is emphasized. In the clinic, the objective attitude and statement that psychopathology is the science of abnormal behaviours and not the science of mental states, contrast behaviourism with other methods such as psychoanalysis. In therapy and revalidation, behaviourism is one of the individual or group psychological reeducation method. PMID:883508

  17. The effects of light on man and other mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The present article describes the best-studied extravisual effects of visible and ultraviolet light on humans and other mammals. It also considers the possible biological consequences to man of living in artificially lighted environments that differ significantly from the milieu in which he evolved. Cumulative evidence favors the beneficial influences of sunlight: vitamin D activation, plasma bilirubin elimination, inhibition of pineal melatonin synthesis, etc.

  18. What really happens in the neutrophil phagosome?

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Current viewpoints concerning the bactericidal mechanisms of neutrophils are reviewed from a perspective that emphasizes challenges presented by the inability to duplicate ex vivo the intracellular milieu. Among the challenges considered are the influences of confinement upon substrate availability and reaction dynamics, direct and indirect synergistic interactions between individual toxins, and bacterial responses to stressors. Approaches to gauging relative contributions of various oxidative and nonoxidative toxins within neutrophils using bacteria and bacterial mimics as intrinsic probes are also discussed. PMID:22609248

  19. Cyanide does more to inhibit heme enzymes, than merely serving as an active-site ligand.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Abhinav; Venkatachalam, Avanthika; Gideon, Daniel Andrew; Manoj, Kelath Murali

    2014-12-12

    The toxicity of cyanide is hitherto attributed to its ability to bind to heme proteins' active site and thereby inhibit their activity. It is shown herein that the long-held interpretation is inadequate to explain several observations in heme-enzyme reaction systems. Generation of cyanide-based diffusible radicals in heme-enzyme reaction milieu could shunt electron transfers (by non-active site processes), and thus be detrimental to the efficiency of oxidative outcomes. PMID:25449264

  20. Societal solutions to childhood origins of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Doss, Heather; Jayaram, Natalie; Raghuveer, Geetha

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity and associated risks result in premature cardiovascular damage and disease with a consequent, large burden to society. There are causes for childhood obesity that are rooted in the socioeconomic milieu. Interventions that are population-based, and aimed towards prevention as opposed to treatment, are likely to be most effective in curtailing childhood obesity. Reforms to federal and state managed social welfare programs provide a compelling opportunity to affect the course and consequences of childhood obesity. PMID:23107787

  1. [The significance of Ptolemy's Almagest for its early readers].

    PubMed

    Bernard, Alain

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores the historical reasons why Ptolemy's Almagest was cultivated in Antiquity as a legitimate part of ancient culture. It tries to elucidate first the precise nature of Ptolemy's project in the Almagest, its relation to ethics as well as to the particular conception that Ptolemy had of mathematics. It then proposes an explanation for the fact that this treatise, both in Ptolemy's period and afterwards, was studied within the milieu of ancient astrologers. PMID:21222068

  2. Management of Cardiopulmonary Complications of Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Prabha; Vashishtha, C.; Nasa, M.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced portal hypertension accompanying end-stage liver disease results in an altered milieu due to inadequate detoxification of blood from splanchnic circulation by the failing liver. The portosystemic shunts with hepatic dysfunction result in an increased absorption and impaired neutralisation of the gastrointestinal bacteria and endotoxins leads to altered homeostasis with multiorgan dysfunction. The important cardiopulmonary complications are cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension, and right-sided hydrothorax. PMID:21994850

  3. Hypnotherapy and the Suicidal Patient

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Daniel

    1973-01-01

    Three cases are presented in which a family physician treats a suicidal patient by the hypnotherapeutic method described. It is postulated that such a method may be quick, effective, and relatively safe method for a diagnostic and therapeutic approach in family practice. In the hypnotic state, the patient is hypersuggestible and can accept suggestions which meet her unconscious needs to be loved as an individual within the milieu of the ego state at the time her psychopathology occurred. PMID:20468906

  4. Medical Examination and Poor Relief in Early Modern Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Mitchell Lewis

    2011-01-01

    Summary This article investigates the role of the medical examination in municipal poor relief programmes between 1570 and 1620. Documents from the city of Nördlingen, a community of approximately 10,000 people in 1600, suggest that municipal facilities addressed a range of serious illnesses for a wide spectrum of the population. Practitioners were influenced by their Galenic medical milieu but ultimately focused on a range of practical resource questions rather than the diagnosis of an individual's disease.

  5. Obesity and cancer: At the crossroads of cellular metabolism and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cancer. The mechanisms underlying this association include but are not limited to increased systemic inflammation, an anabolic hormonal milieu, and adipocyte-cancer crosstalk, aberrant stimuli that conspire to promote neoplastic transformation. Cellular proliferation is uncoupled from nutrient availability in malignant cells, promoting tumor progression. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer connection will lead to the development of novel metabolism-based agents for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:25264328

  6. Oblique focus ICCD laboratory evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    An oblique focus intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) was constructed and operated in a vacuum system. Special gratings were obtained and an optical system set up to try to model a candidate UV spectrometer (Milieu Interstellaire et Intergalactique-MISIG), and to produce small enough images to test the theoretical subpixel resolution capability of the ICCD system. The efforts were only partly successful. Based on the results, a similar detector was built and flown successfully on a Princeton rocket program.

  7. Promoting a healthy skepticism with regard to information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    Computer security professionals and members of collaborative research environments have conflicting objectives with respect to computer and network access, and different understandings of what constitutes a reasonable'' organization. These differences create tension between the two communities and make the achievement of an acceptable level of security a matter of some difficulty in such environments. We consider some of the differences and present the elements of a program aimed at promoting sensible computer and network security in the research milieu.

  8. Effects of various pharmacological agents on the function of norepinephrine transporter.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Noriaki; Toyohira, Yumiko; Takahashi, Keita; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki

    2015-03-01

    The norepinephrine transporter is selectively expressed in noradrenergic nerve terminals, where it can exert spatial and temporal control over the action of norepinephrine. The norepinephrine transporter mediates the termination of neurotransmission via the reuptake of norepinephrine released into the extracellular milieu. In the present brief review, we report our recent studies about the effects of various pharmacological agents such as fasudil, nicotine, pentazocine, ketamine and genistein on norepinephrine transporter function. PMID:25787100

  9. Swapnaushadhi: the embedded logic of dreams and medical innovation in Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mukharji, Projit Bihari

    2014-09-01

    Numerous medicines in South Asia have their origins in dreams. Deities, saints and other supernatural beings frequently appear in dreams to instruct dreamers about specific remedies, therapeutic techniques, modes of care etc. These therapies challenge available models of historicising dreams. Once we overcome these challenges and unearth the embedded logic of these dreams, we begin to discern in them a dynamic institution that enabled and sustained therapeutic change within a 'traditional' medical milieu. PMID:24990459

  10. Hyperglycemia and Anthocyanin Inhibit Quercetin Metabolism in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Naoto; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Chen, C-Y Oliver

    2016-02-01

    A high glucose (Glu) milieu promotes generation of reactive oxygen species, which may not only cause cellular damage, but also modulate phase II enzymes that are responsible for the metabolism of flavonoids. Thus, we examined the effect of a high Glu milieu on quercetin (Q) metabolism in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were grown for 3 days in Glu ranging from 5.5 to 50 mmol/L and/or cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) ranging from 0 to 25 μmol/L. Subsequently, the capacity of HepG2 cells to metabolize Q was assessed for up to 16 h. Q metabolites were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Four major Q metabolites were observed in the culture medium and inside the HepG2 cells. Three of these metabolites appear to be sulfated forms of Q or methylated Q, and one was a methylated Q. These metabolites and Q itself were reduced or tended to be reduced in cells grown in a high Glu compared to a normal Glu medium. Addition of C3G or superoxide dismutase plus catalase did not prevent or enhance reduction of Q metabolites. In vitro, a hyperglycemic milieu decreases the production of the principal Q metabolites in HepG2 cells, mediated through mechanisms independent of oxidative stress. PMID:26692239

  11. Design of Growth Factor Sequestering Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Belair, David G.; Le, Ngoc Nhi; Murphy, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Growth factors (GFs) are major regulatory proteins that can govern cell fate, migration, and organization. Numerous aspects of the cell milieu can modulate cell responses to GFs, and GF regulation is often achieved by the native extracellular matrix (ECM). For example, the ECM can sequester GFs and thereby control GF bioavailability. In addition, GFs can exert distinct effects depending on whether they are sequestered in solution, at two-dimensional interfaces, or within three-dimensional matrices. Understanding how the context of GF sequestering impacts cell function in the native ECM can instruct the design of soluble or insoluble GF sequestering moieties, which can then be used in a variety of bioengineering applications. This Feature Article provides an overview of the natural mechanisms of GF sequestering in the cell milieu, and reviews the recent bioengineering approaches that have sequestered GFs to modulate cell function. Results to date demonstrate that the cell response to GF sequestering depends on the affinity of the sequestering interaction, the spatial proximity of sequestering in relation to cells, the source of the GF (supplemented or endogenous), and the phase of the sequestering moiety (soluble or insoluble). We highlight the importance of context for the future design of biomaterials that can leverage endogenous molecules in the cell milieu and mitigate the need for supplemented factors. PMID:25182455

  12. Regulation of the polyamine metabolic pathway in the endometrium of cows during early diestrus.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Roney dos Santos; Mesquita, Fernando Silveira; D'Alexandri, Fabio L; Gonella-Diaza, Angela Maria; Papa, Paula de Carvalho; Binelli, Mario

    2014-07-01

    The timing and magnitude of exposure to preovulatory estradiol followed by post-ovulatory progesterone (periovulatory endocrine milieu) in cattle modulate endometrial gene expression, histotroph composition, and conceptus development, but the mechanisms underlying this regulation remain unknown. Using an experimental model based on the modulation of follicle growth, this work aimed to evaluate if the polyamine metabolic pathway is regulated by the periovulatory endocrine milieu. Nelore cows were manipulated to ovulate small (n = 15) or large (n = 15) follicles, then the profiles of polyamines and their synthetic enzymes were compared between groups. Transcripts for the enzymes of this pathway, ornithine decarboxylase 1 (ODC1; the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis) protein quantification, adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1 (AMD1) protein immunolocalization, and concentrations of the different polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) were respectively quantified by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in both the endometrium and uterine flushing. No differences in gene and protein expression or concentration of polyamines were observed between groups. There were significant correlations between the relative abundance of ODC1 and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1 (SAT1) transcripts as well as between antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1) and adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1 (AMD1) transcripts. In conclusion, our results show that the polyamine metabolic pathway is present and functional, but not regulated by the periovulatory endocrine milieu in the bovine endometrium. PMID:24659573

  13. Person--job match among frontline staff working in residential treatment centers: the impact of personality and child psychopathology on burnout experiences.

    PubMed

    Leon, Scott C; Visscher, Linn; Sugimura, Niwako; Lakin, Brittany L

    2008-04-01

    Prior research has shown that the personality variables extraversion and neuroticism predict burnout among frontline staff working in residential treatment centers. This study tested the hypothesis that the effect of personality on burnout would be moderated by the psychiatric characteristics of the youth served on the milieu. Two hundred and three frontline staff working in 21 residential treatment centers in Illinois serving troubled youth completed surveys regarding opinions about their jobs, the Big Five Inventory (BFI), a youth presenting problems scale for the entire milieu, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Results indicated that the effect of neuroticism on burnout is moderated by psychosis and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); high and moderate milieu ratings of psychosis and PTSD showed a positive relationship between neurosis and burnout, while low ratings of these conditions showed no relationship. These findings suggest that the optimal work setting is a function of the interaction between specific personality characteristics and specific work environments, with implications for personnel selection and future research on person-environment fit. PMID:18954187

  14. Increased number of islet-associated macrophages in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ehses, Jan A; Perren, Aurel; Eppler, Elisabeth; Ribaux, Pascale; Pospisilik, John A; Maor-Cahn, Ranit; Gueripel, Xavier; Ellingsgaard, Helga; Schneider, Marten K J; Biollaz, Gregoire; Fontana, Adriano; Reinecke, Manfred; Homo-Delarche, Francoise; Donath, Marc Y

    2007-09-01

    Activation of the innate immune system in obesity is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to investigate the notion that increased numbers of macrophages exist in the islets of type 2 diabetes patients and that this may be explained by a dysregulation of islet-derived inflammatory factors. Increased islet-associated immune cells were observed in human type 2 diabetic patients, high-fat-fed C57BL/6J mice, the GK rat, and the db/db mouse. When cultured islets were exposed to a type 2 diabetic milieu or when islets were isolated from high-fat-fed mice, increased islet-derived inflammatory factors were produced and released, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, chemokine KC, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha. The specificity of this response was investigated by direct comparison to nonislet pancreatic tissue and beta-cell lines and was not mimicked by the induction of islet cell death. Further, this inflammatory response was found to be biologically functional, as conditioned medium from human islets exposed to a type 2 diabetic milieu could induce increased migration of monocytes and neutrophils. This migration was blocked by IL-8 neutralization, and IL-8 was localized to the human pancreatic alpha-cell. Therefore, islet-derived inflammatory factors are regulated by a type 2 diabetic milieu and may contribute to the macrophage infiltration of pancreatic islets that we observe in type 2 diabetes. PMID:17579207

  15. Distinct Cell Clusters Touching Islet Cells Induce Islet Cell Replication in Association with Over-Expression of Regenerating Gene (REG) Protein in Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Aida, Kaoru; Saitoh, Sei; Nishida, Yoriko; Yokota, Sadanori; Ohno, Shinichi; Mao, Xiayang; Akiyama, Daiichiro; Tanaka, Shoichiro; Awata, Takuya; Shimada, Akira; Oikawa, Youichi; Shimura, Hiroki; Furuya, Fumihiko; Takizawa, Soichi; Ichijo, Masashi; Ichijo, Sayaka; Itakura, Jun; Fujii, Hideki; Hashiguchi, Akinori; Takasawa, Shin; Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2014-01-01

    Background Pancreatic islet endocrine cell-supporting architectures, including islet encapsulating basement membranes (BMs), extracellular matrix (ECM), and possible cell clusters, are unclear. Procedures The architectures around islet cell clusters, including BMs, ECM, and pancreatic acinar-like cell clusters, were studied in the non-diabetic state and in the inflamed milieu of fulminant type 1 diabetes in humans. Result Immunohistochemical and electron microscopy analyses demonstrated that human islet cell clusters and acinar-like cell clusters adhere directly to each other with desmosomal structures and coated-pit-like structures between the two cell clusters. The two cell-clusters are encapsulated by a continuous capsule composed of common BMs/ECM. The acinar-like cell clusters have vesicles containing regenerating (REG) Iα protein. The vesicles containing REG Iα protein are directly secreted to islet cells. In the inflamed milieu of fulminant type 1 diabetes, the acinar-like cell clusters over-expressed REG Iα protein. Islet endocrine cells, including beta-cells and non-beta cells, which were packed with the acinar-like cell clusters, show self-replication with a markedly increased number of Ki67-positive cells. Conclusion The acinar-like cell clusters touching islet endocrine cells are distinct, because the cell clusters are packed with pancreatic islet clusters and surrounded by common BMs/ECM. Furthermore, the acinar-like cell clusters express REG Iα protein and secrete directly to neighboring islet endocrine cells in the non-diabetic state, and the cell clusters over-express REG Iα in the inflamed milieu of fulminant type 1 diabetes with marked self-replication of islet cells. PMID:24759849

  16. Quantifying intra- and extracellular aggregation of iron oxide nanoparticles and its influence on specific absorption rate.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seongho; Hurley, Katie R; Bischof, John C; Haynes, Christy L; Hogan, Christopher J

    2016-09-21

    A promising route to cancer treatment is hyperthermia, facilitated by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). After exposure to an alternating external magnetic field, SPIONs generate heat, quantified by their specific absorption rate (SAR, in W g(-1) Fe). However, without surface functionalization, commercially available, high SAR SPIONs (EMG 308, Ferrotec, USA) aggregate in aqueous suspensions; this has been shown to reduce SAR. Further reduction in SAR has been observed for SPIONs in suspensions containing cells, but the origin of this further reduction has not been made clear. Here, we use image analysis methods to quantify the structures of SPION aggregates in the extra- and intracellular milieu of LNCaP cell suspensions. We couple image characterization with nanoparticle tracking analysis and SAR measurements of SPION aggregates in cell-free suspensions, to better quantify the influence of cellular uptake on SPION aggregates and ultimately its influence on SAR. We find that in both the intra- and extracellular milieu, SPION aggregates are well-described by a quasifractal model, with most aggregates having fractal dimensions in the 1.6-2.2 range. Intracellular aggregates are found to be significantly larger than extracellular aggregates and are commonly composed of more than 10(3) primary SPION particles (hence they are "superaggregates"). By using high salt concentrations to generate such superaggregates and measuring the SAR of suspensions, we confirm that it is the formation of superaggregates in the intracellular milieu that negatively impacts SAR, reducing it from above 200 W g(-1) Fe for aggregates composed of fewer than 50 primary particles to below 50 W g(-1) for superaggregates. While the underlying physical mechanism by which aggregation leads to reduction in SAR remains to be determined, the methods developed in this study provide insight into how cellular uptake influences the extent of SPION aggregation, and enable estimation of the

  17. NK-cell dysfunction in human renal carcinoma reveals diacylglycerol kinase as key regulator and target for therapeutic intervention.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Petra U; Mendler, Anna N; Brech, Dorothee; Masouris, Ilias; Oberneder, Ralph; Noessner, Elfriede

    2014-10-15

    The relevance of NK cells in tumor control is well established in mouse models and human hematologic malignancies; however, their contribution to the control of human solid tumors remains disputed due to problems with in situ detection and reports of functional inactivity in the tumor milieu. In this study, we established a reliable in situ detection method for NK cells. Moreover, we performed analysis to elucidate mechanisms that impair NK-cell function in the tumor milieu and thereby identify therapeutic targets that allow recovery of NK-cell functionality. It was observed that NK cells from clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), compared to NK cells from nontumor kidney and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), displayed conjoint phenotypic alterations and dysfunction induced by the tumor milieu, which were associated mechanistically with high levels of signaling attenuator diacylglycerol kinase (DGK)-α and blunted mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation (ERK1/2, Jun kinase). Reinstating NK-cell functionality was possible by DGK inhibition or brief IL-2 culture, interventions that de-repressed the ERK pathway. The extent of alteration and magnitude of recovery could be linked to NK-cell frequency within ccRCC-infiltrating lymphocytes, possibly explaining the observed survival benefit of patients with NK(high) tumors. In conclusion, DGK-mediated dampening of the ERK pathway ensuing in NK-cell dysfunction was identified as an important escape mechanism in ccRCC. DGK and the ERK pathway thus emerge as promising therapeutic targets to restore suppressed NK-cell activity for the improvement of antitumor immunity. PMID:24615391

  18. Hybridization behavior of mixed DNA/alkylthiol monolayers on gold: characterization by surface plasmon resonance and 32P radiometric assay.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ping; Lee, Chi-Ying; Gamble, Lara J; Castner, David G; Grainger, David W

    2006-05-15

    Nucleic acid assay from a complex biological milieu is attractive but currently difficult and far from routine. In this study, DNA hybridization from serum dilutions into mixed DNA/mercaptoundecanol (MCU) adlayers on gold was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Immobilized DNA probe and hybridized target densities on these surfaces were quantified using 32P-radiometric assays as a function of MCU diluent exposure. SPR surface capture results correlated with radiometric analysis for hybridization performance, demonstrating a maximum DNA hybridization on DNA/MCU mixed adlayers. The maximum target surface capture produced by MCU addition to the DNA probe layer correlates with structural and conformational data on identical mixed DNA/MCU adlayers on gold derived from XPS, NEXAFS, and fluorescence intensity measurements reported in a related study (Lee, C.-Y.; Gong, P.; Harbers, G. M.; Grainger, D. W.; Castner, D. G.; Gamble, L. J. Anal. Chem. 2006, 78, 3316-3325.). MCU addition into the DNA adlayer on gold also improved surface resistance to both nonspecific DNA and serum protein adsorption. Target DNA hybridization from serum dilutions was monitored with SPR on the optimally mixed DNA/MCU adlayers. Both hybridization kinetics and efficiency were strongly affected by nonspecific protein adsorption from a complex milieu even at a minimal serum concentration (e.g., 1%). No target hybridization was detected in SPR assays from serum concentrations above 30%, indicating nonspecific protein adsorption interference of DNA capture and hybridization from complex milieu. Removal of nonsignal proteins from nucleic acid targets prior to assay represents a significant issue for direct sample-to-assay nucleic acid diagnostics from food, blood, tissue, PCR mixtures, and many other biologically complex sample formats. PMID:16689533

  19. Macrophage-epithelial interactions in pulmonary alveoli.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Jahar; Westphalen, Kristin

    2016-07-01

    Alveolar macrophages have been investigated for years by approaches involving macrophage extraction from the lung by bronchoalveolar lavage, or by cell removal from lung tissue. Since extracted macrophages are studied outside their natural milieu, there is little understanding of the extent to which alveolar macrophages interact with the epithelium, or with one another to generate the lung's innate immune response to pathogen challenge. Here, we review new evidence of macrophage-epithelial interactions in the lung, and we address the emerging understanding that the alveolar epithelium plays an important role in orchestrating the macrophage-driven immune response. PMID:27170185

  20. On the nature of replication origins in higher eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, J L; Dijkwel, P A

    1995-04-01

    Establishing whether DNA replication in higher eukaryotic cells is regulated by genetic replicators has been one of the more challenging problems in cell biology. Several important replicon-mapping techniques have been developed in the past decade that have opened up new windows on replication origins. In the past few years, the application of these strategies has identified a large number of origins in a variety of different loci and organisms. Comparison of sequence motifs and chromosomal milieu, as well as genetic manipulation, should begin to uncover the secrets of these illusive regulatory elements. PMID:7613083