Note: This page contains sample records for the topic military culture state from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Cultural intelligence support for military operations  

SciTech Connect

It has long been recognized that military success relies on knowledge of the enemy. In the context of standard warfare, adequate knowledge of the enemy may be gained by analyzing observable, measurable data. In the context of modern counterinsurgency operations and the global war on terror, the task of predicting the behavior of the enemy is vastly more complex and difficult. Without an understanding of the ways individuals in the host nation interpret and react to events, no amount of objective information can provide the insight required to accurately predict behavior. US military doctrine has begun to recognize the importance of the many ways that local culture can affect operation success. Increasingly military decision makers use cultural information in the service of operation planning, and troops are provided with pre-deployment cultural training. However, no amount of training can cover the breadth and depth of potentially useful cultural information, and no amount of careful planning can avoid the need to adapt as situations develop. Therefore, a critical challenge is to provide useful tools to US personnel in their efforts to collect, analyze, and utilize cultural information. Essential functions for cultural support tools include the following: (1) to narrow down a broad range of available data and focus the user's attention on context-relevant information, (2) to present cultural information in an easily understood form, (3) to prompt the user to seek relevant information in the environment, (4) to synthesize information, and (5) to predict outcomes based on possible courses of operation. In this paper, we begin by reviewing the ways in which military operations can benefit from cultural intelligence. We then discuss frameworks for analyzing cultural information in the context of a military operation. We conclude with a demonstration of our current efforts to develop a tool that meets the aforementioned functional challenges.

Guthormsen, Nay M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Kerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merritt, Terence [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgart, Ruth E [INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY

2010-01-01

2

Military Cultural Awareness: From Anthropology to Application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the mid-1990s, Marine General Anthony Zinni began making the case for the necessity of military cultural awareness as a force multiplier. General Zinni was then reacting to the challenge of resolving tribal conflict in Somalia and considering the poten...

J. W. Jandora

2006-01-01

3

Cultural heritage training in the US military.  

PubMed

Cultural competence is a vital component of many missions in today's military. Cultural competence enables one to further a mission, save resources, and save lives. Conversely, a lack of cultural competence may bring about challenges to mission completion, requirement for more resources, waste of resources, and destruction of lives. Cultural competence involves many components. One particular component is cultural heritage awareness and protection of cultural property. This study sought to assess current understanding of cultural property protection and determine the effectiveness of a training aimed at increasing cultural property protection awareness, knowledge, and comfort within the military setting. It was hypothesized that participants would vary in their level of awareness, knowledge, and comfort of cultural property protection, and that all would show a significant improvement in knowledge scores post training. Factors such as deployment experience were examined for potential correlation with measures such as awareness. A 14 question pre-read survey was developed to assess participants' demographics, awareness, knowledge, and comfort with cultural property protection. Awareness included value, laws, and procedures while knowledge examined "know how" such as how to bed down in a protected structure or communicate information about the structure. Comfort assessed one's comfort with engaging in the knowledge based tasks. A 24 question post read survey was administered to assess awareness, knowledge, and comfort, and to solicit additional feedback on the manual itself. The survey utilized a 1-5 rating scale with 1 representing no awareness, knowledge, or comfort and 5 representing absolute awareness, knowledge, and comfort with different aspects of cultural property protection. Cultural property protection value was highest pre and post training while knowledge regarding recovery of property was rated lowest pre and post training. Results are encouraging for the pursuit of cultural property education. Further studies should include knowledge assessment versus self rating as well as tracking of incidents and outcomes in the field. Implications for mission readiness and success are discussed. PMID:24741471

Svec, Leedjia

2014-01-01

4

Jewish Culture and the American Military.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study explores the Jewish experience within the American military. The history of military service by persons of the Jewish faith corresponds roughly to that of persons from many other ethnic or religious groups: military service has been a patriotic...

A. M. Goldberg

2006-01-01

5

Cultural Competence, Educators, and Military Families: Understanding the Military in a Department of Defense Dependent's School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Military members have a strong cultural identity, one that distinguishes them from civilians. This qualitative study sought to identify the cultural competencies needed for educators to better understand an American military constituency. Data were obtained through semistructured interviews, collection of documents, and observations of public…

Keegan, Danette; Hyle, Adrienne E.; Sanders, Vicki

2004-01-01

6

Design of Cross-Cultural Training for Military Advisors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Factors which make the advisor's assignment quite different from typical military assignments include the unusual physical and cultural setting, the unfamiliar functions to be performed, and the complex intercultural, international, interorganizational, a...

A. J. Hoehn

1966-01-01

7

The state of Japan's military art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has the world's third largest defense budget in the world, after the United States and Soviet Union. The author discusses how Japan acquires some of its weapons from the U.S. and how Japan is developing indigenous military technology. The article focuses on the Japanese codevelopment and coproduction of an advanced version of the F-16 fighter jet.

K. T. Chen

1989-01-01

8

Vicksburg National Military Park Cultural Landscape Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vicksburg National Military Park was established on February 21, 1899, to commemorate the campaign, siege, and defense of Vicksburg, Mississippi, and to preserve the history of the battles and operations of the siege and defense on the ground where they w...

2009-01-01

9

United States Military Strategy in the Persian Gulf.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The importance of Persian Gulf oil, in the context of United States national security has been demonstrated in recent political, economic and military terms. Substantial United States military resources have been devoted to maintain national security inte...

E. E. Whitehead

1989-01-01

10

United States military posture for FY 1989  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this statement on the military posture of the United States is to supplement testimony by the Chairman and other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff at congressional hearings in support of the FY 1989 Defense Budget. Chapter I is an overview that describes the main challenges to US national security, outlines objectives and elements of US military strategy, and highlights continuing efforts to field the best possible armed forces for the protection of US national interests. Chapter II compares US defense requirements and resource commitment with those of the Soviet Union. Chapter III provides an overview of the global military environment by comparing US and allied forces with Soviet and Warsaw Pact forces. Chapter IV assesses the current and projected capability of the US Armed Forces to meet the Soviet nuclear threat. Chapter V assesses the current and projected capability of the US Armed Forces, in concert with friends and allies, to meet the Soviet conventional military threat. This chapter deals primarily with joint perspectives that have increased the capabilities and efficiency of our forces. Chapter VI addresses other topics of interest. Unless otherwise noted, data shown in this report have used operational as opposed to treaty inventories for strategic weapon systems, a fiscal year cutoff date of 30 September 1987, and mobilized forces. Additionally, data have been developed based on a global as opposed to regional war scenario.

Not Available

1989-01-01

11

Job Satisfaction and the Perceived Organizational Culture of U.S. Military and Military Affiliated Personnel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between demographic characteristics, level of job satisfaction, and current/preferred organizational culture in a sample of 139 off-campus military degree program participants. Responses were received from undergraduate students in the fields of engineering, applied sciences and arts, and education. "The Job…

Diffenauer, Deborah A.

2010-01-01

12

Optimization of solid state culture conditions for the production of adenosine, cordycepin, and D-mannitol in fruiting bodies of medicinal caterpillar fungus Cordyceps militaris (L.:Fr.) Link (Ascomycetes).  

PubMed

In general, Cordyceps sinensis is much more popular than C. militaris, though both species contain quite similar bioactive ingredients and exhibit medicinal activities. Many bioactive ingredients have been isolated from C. militaris, such as adenosine, cordycepin, D-mannitol, and exopolysaccharides. C. militaris is claimed to have extensive pharmacological properties, such as: anti-inflammatory; anti-fatigue; anti-bacterial; anti-diabetic; improve lung, liver, and kidney functions; to be beneficial for treating cancer as well as male and female sexual dysfunctions. C. militaris is fast gaining momentum for its so-called health benefits, and it is often used as a substitute for C. sinensis. In view of the growing popularity of C. militaris, nowadays C. militaris cultivation for stroma is also done. There is a great diversity of compounds from different strains of Cordyceps and different artificially cultivated products. This study is to determine the optimum culture parameters integrated with substrate of choice to bring the indoor-cultivated C. militaris to a higher and more consistent level of quality. To achieve the above objective, the resultant products after growth were analyzed for adenosine, cordycepin, and D-mannitol using the high-performance liquid chromatography method. The optimum culture condition to produce a high level of adenosine is by using millet as solid substrate. It must be cultivated in the dark for the first 7 days and harvested on day 40. The optimum culture condition to produce a high level of cordycepin is by using soybean as solid substrate. It must be cultivated in the dark for the first 14 days and harvested on day 50. While a high level of D-mannitol is achieved with millet as the solid substrate. It must be kept in the dark for the first 7 days and harvested on day 50. The adenosine level decreased and cordycepin increased from day 40 of culture to day 50 generally. PMID:22506578

Lim, LekTeng; Lee, ChiaYen; Chang, EngThuan

2012-01-01

13

75 FR 65460 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; United States Military Academy Board...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...United States Military Academy Board of Visitors AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD...United States Military Academy Board of Visitors (hereafter referred to as the ``Board...United States Military Academy Board of Visitors membership about the Board's...

2010-10-25

14

United States military strategy in the Persian Gulf. Study project  

SciTech Connect

The importance of Persian Gulf oil, in the context of United States national security has been demonstrated in recent political, economic, and military terms. Substantial United States military resources have been devoted to maintain national security interests in the Persian Gulf region. This paper analyzes the United States military strategy designed to insure the US and its allies continued access to Persian Gulf oil and to suggest alternatives for possible improvement. Although the focus is on US military strategy in the Persian Gulf, it also covers others aspects of US national security policy and strategy. US military policy in the Persian Gulf is derived from a complex process that inextricably links the elements of national strategy with the elements of national power. Conclusions about US policy and strategy in the Persian Gulf that are properly focused and logical require an understanding of US interests and their priorities; US strategies and their feasibility; plus US capabilities and their limitations.

Whitehead, E.E.

1989-03-27

15

Antitumor activity of the fermentation broth of Cordyceps militaris cultured in the medium of Radix astragali  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used Radix astragali (RA) as the medium for culturing Cordyceps militaris to investigate the anti-tumor activity of the fermentation broth. It was found that the product from culturing C. militaris in RA medium had a better anti-tumor activity than that culturing in synthetic medium. The fermentation broth inhibited the growth of four tumor cells including human gastric cancer

Yu-Wei Lin; Been-Huang Chiang

2008-01-01

16

[Current state and prospects of military personnel health monitoring].  

PubMed

The current article is dedicated to some features of the Russian Federation Armed Forces military personnel health monitoring such as legal and informational provision, methodological basis of functioning, historical aspect of formation and development of the social and hygienic monitoring in the Russian Federation Armed Forces. The term "military personnel health monitoring" is defined as an analytical system of constant and long-term observation, analysis, assessment, studying of factors determined the military personnel health, these factors correlations, health risk factors management in order to minimize them. The current state of the military personnel health monitoring allows coming to the conclusion that the military health system does have forces and resources for state policy of establishing the population health monitoring system implementation. The following directions of the militarily personnel health monitoring improvement are proposed: the Russian Federation Armed Forces medical service record and report system reorganization bringing it closer to the civilian one, implementation of the integrated approach to the medical service informatisation, namely, military personnel health status and medical service resources monitoring. The leading means in this direction are development and introduction of a military serviceman individual health status monitoring system on the basis of a serviceman electronic medical record card. Also it is proposed the current Russian Federation Armed Forces social and hygienic monitoring improvement at the expense of informational interaction between the two subsystems on the basis of unified military medical service space. PMID:24734430

Rezvantsev, M V; Kuznetsov, S M; Ivanov, V V; Zakurdaev, V V

2014-01-01

17

Central Asian States: Defining Security Priorities and Developing Military Forces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the decisions made by each of the five Central Asian states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) to create their own national military forces since the demise of the Soviet Union. It also suggests some of ...

S. Clark

1993-01-01

18

The United States Military Assistance to Spain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the importance of Spain to the Free World, analyze the Military Assistance Program in Spain, determine its economic impact on the economy and life of Spain, and arrive at a proposed future course of action for the U...

R. M. Brown

1970-01-01

19

Significance of Religion as an Essential Component of the Military's Cultural Framework Strategy and Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For years, American diplomats have been trained to not discuss religion and have often excluded religious leaders from diplomacy. The United States military, to a lesser extent, has also tended to evade religion in conducting military operations and negot...

C. E. Reynolds

2010-01-01

20

Antidiabetic Activities of Dry Matters of Culture Broth of Cordyceps militaris in Submerged Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate the antihyperglycemic effects of the dry matter of culture broth of Cordyceps militaris (MCCM) in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mice. Animals were treated with different doses (250 and 500 mg\\/kg body weight) of MCCM orally for 35 days. Streptozotocin treatment (150 mg\\/kg body weight) induced the decrease of body weight, reduced glutathione level, hepatic

Zuo-fa Zhang; Guo-ying Lv; Hui-juan Pan; Lian-gen Shi; Shu-mei Liu; Lei-fa Fan

2011-01-01

21

Use of the Virginia Military Institute Corps of Cadets as a Military Unit before and during the War between the States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the Civil War, the Confederate Government passed legislation creating a national military academy and establishing the rank of Cadet. The national military college was unnecessary because the Confederacy already possessed numerous state military co...

M. M. Wallace

2006-01-01

22

Military Leadership and the Complexity of Combat and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article highlights the leadership challenges in today's irregular and counterinsurgency military missions. Sociocultural knowledge gaps in leader development are highlighted, as are prescriptions of the trait and situational approaches to leadership. Military leaders' dual responsibility for their own troops and the local population requires them to shift interpersonal relationships and leadership styles as the situation demands. Leaders are called

Janice H. Laurence

2011-01-01

23

United States Military in Central Asia: Beyond Operation Enduring Freedom.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. interests in Central Asia are far-reaching and varied. The arguments, both for and against a post Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) U.S. military presence in Central Asia are equally diverse. Publicly, the United States claims it has no plans to maint...

J. H. Lane

2009-01-01

24

Expectations and Integration of Organizational Military and Civilian Cultures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army has numerous types of organizations, some of which have primarily military personnel, while others have mostly civilian government employees. Both types of employees bring different but important skill sets to the organization, and both are ...

A. T. Lee S. L. Meirose

2010-01-01

25

76 FR 5143 - Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEFENSE Department of the Army Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy...United States Military Academy Board of Visitors. This is the 2011 Organizational Meeting of the USMA Board of Visitors. Members of the Board will be...

2011-01-28

26

75 FR 34989 - Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEFENSE Department of the Army Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA...United States Military Academy Board of Visitors. This is the 2010 Summer Meeting of the USMA Board of Visitors. Members of the Board will be...

2010-06-21

27

US and UK Military Cultural Relevance for Future Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The shape of warfare is evolving and brings with it significant challenges for western militaries who must adapt to a more diffuse battle space and shift from large-scale maneuver to a counterinsurgency style of warfare. This project examines the organiza...

R. G. Arundell

2009-01-01

28

Structural characterization of immunostimulating polysaccharide from cultured mycelia of Cordyceps militaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water soluble crude polysaccharide obtained from cultured mycelia of Cordyceps militaris (CPM) by hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation was fractionated by DEAE cellulose and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. This fractionation process resulted in four polysaccharide fractions that were termed CPMN Fr I, CPMN Fr II, CPMN Fr III, and CPMN Fr IV. Of these fractions, CPMN Fr

Jong Seok Lee; Jeong Seok Kwon; Jong Seok Yun; Jung Woon Pahk; Won Cheol Shin; Shin Young Lee; Eock Kee Hong

2010-01-01

29

Effects of selenium and light wavelengths on liquid culture of Cordyceps militaris Link.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of selenium and light wavelengths on the growth of liquid-cultured Cordyceps militaris and the main active components' accumulation, culture conditions as selenium selenite concentrations and light of different wavelengths were studied. The results are: adenosine accumulation proved to be significantly selenium dependent (R(2) = 0.9403) and cordycepin contents were determined to be not significantly selenium dependent (R(2) = 0.3845) but significantly enhanced by selenium except for 20 ppm; there were significant differences in cordycepin contents, adenosine contents, and mycelium growth caused by light wavelengths: cordycepin, blue light > pink light > daylight, darkness, red light; adenosine, red light > pink light, darkness, daylight, blue light; and mycelium growth, red light > pink light, darkness, daylight > blue light. In conclusion, light wavelength had a significant influence on production of mycelia, adenosine, and cordycepin, so lightening wavelength should be changed according to target products in the liquid culture of C. militaris. PMID:22434354

Dong, J Z; Liu, M R; Lei, C; Zheng, X J; Wang, Y

2012-04-01

30

United States Military Academy: 25 Years of Enlightening Research. 2012 Program Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Photonics Research Center has achieved its 25th year of service at the United States Military Academy. It was established at West Point in May of 1987 through a Memorandum of Understanding between the Superintendent of the United States Military Acade...

2012-01-01

31

Effects of culture conditions on the mycelial growth and bioactive metabolite production in submerged culture of Cordyceps militaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of initial pH value, various nitrogen sources, plant oils, and modes of propagation (shake-flask and static culture) on the production of biomass, exopolysaccharide (EPS), adenosine and, in particular, cordycepin, by Cordyceps militaris CCRC 32219 were investigated. Optimal conditions for mycelial growth, EPS and cordycepin production were observed at relatively low pH. Amongst organic sources, yeast extract (YE) was

Ing-Lung Shih; Kun-Lin Tsai; Chienyan Hsieh

2007-01-01

32

Enhanced production of cordycepin by surface culture using the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods for increasing the production of cordycepin (3?-deoxyadenosine), which is a kind of nucleoside analogue, were investigated by a surface culture of Cordyceps militaris NBRC 9787 using liquid medium. As a result of adding various compounds such as purine biosynthesis-related compounds, coenzymes and surfactant to the basal medium for the purpose of enhancing the cordycepin production, glycine, l-aspartic acid,

Mina Masuda; Eriko Urabe; Hiromitsu Honda; Akihiko Sakurai; Mikio Sakakibara

2007-01-01

33

China: Military Imports from the United States and the European Union since the 1989 Embargoes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In June 1989, the United States and the members of the European Union embargoed the sale of military items to China to protest China's massacre of demonstrators in Beijing's Tiananmen Squared. (1) The terms of the EU embargo and the extent of EU military ...

1998-01-01

34

Military Spending in the United States, Soviet Union, and the People's Republic of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military expenditures of the United States, the Soviet Union, and the People's Republic of China are examined from two perspectives: (1) a modification of the traditional Richardson arms race formulation and (2) the notion that the military budget is used by decision makers, in part, to respond to the domestic political and economic environment. These competing formulations are juxtaposed in

Thomas R. Cusack; Michael Don Ward

1981-01-01

35

Europe and the United States defense establishment: American military policy and strategy, 1815--1821  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the defeats and frustrations of the War of 1812, the United States undertook an extensive reformation of its defense establishment and a substantial build-up of its military and naval forces. Historians have often ascribed this unprecedented interest in a stronger military to the \\

Michael Stuart Fitzgerald

1990-01-01

36

Human Emotional State and its Relevance for Military VR Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Combat environments by their nature can produce a dramatic range of emotional responses in military personnel. When immersed in the emotional 'fog of war', the potential exists for optimal human decision-making and performance of goal-directed activities ...

A. Rizzo J. Pair J. Williams J. F. Morie J. G. Buckwalter

2005-01-01

37

Medicinal uses of the mushroom Cordyceps militaris: current state and prospects.  

PubMed

Cordyceps militaris is a potential harbour of bio-metabolites for herbal drugs and evidences are available about its applications for revitalization of various systems of the body from ancient times. Amongst all the species, C. militaris is considered as the oldest source of some useful chemical constituents. Besides their popular applications for tonic medicine by the all stairs of the community, the constituents of C. militaris are now used extensively in modern systems of medicine. The current survey records the mysterious potentials of C. militaris are boosting up the present herbal treatments, as well as gearing up the green pharmacy revolution, in order to create a friendly environment with reasonable safety. Evidence showed that the active principles of C. militaris are beneficial to act as pro-sexual, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant/anti-aging, anti-tumour/anti-cancer/anti-leukemic, anti-proliferative, anti-metastatic, immunomodulatory, anti-microbial, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-protozoal, insecticidal, larvicidal, anti-fibrotic, steroidogenic, hypoglacaemic, hypolipidaemic, anti-angiogenetic, anti-diabetic, anti-HIV, anti-malarial, anti-fatigue, neuroprotective, liver-protective, reno-protective as well as pneumo-protective, let alone their other synergistic activities, which let it be marketable in the western countries as over-the-counter medicine. A number of culture techniques for this mushroom have been noticed, for example, storage/stock culture, pre-culture, popular/indigenous culture (spawn culture, husked rice culture and saw dust culture) and, special/laboratory culture (shaking culture, submerged culture, surface liquid culture and continuous/repeated batch culture). The prospects for herbal biotechnology regarding drug discovery using C. militaris delivering what it has promised are high, as the technology is now extremely more powerful than before. This study chiefly highlights the medicinal uses of the mushroom C. militaris including its culture techniques, also aiming to draw sufficient attention of the researchers to the frontier research needs in this context. PMID:20650308

Das, Shonkor Kumar; Masuda, Mina; Sakurai, Akihiko; Sakakibara, Mikio

2010-12-01

38

Selection and Classification of United States Military Officers: A Fifty-Year Bibliography (1937-1986).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper provides a ready reference to studies, papers, reports, journal articles, and other printed media dealing with selection and classification of United States military officers. The report covers a 50-year time span (1937-1986) and lists material...

D. K. Cowan T. C. Sperl

1989-01-01

39

Current Status Of The United States Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research examines the status of the United States (U.S.) Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program within the context of the current ever-changing domestic and global security environment. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis w...

N. Jaafar A. A. Malallah M. A. Sharif

2004-01-01

40

Relationship of Soldier Load Carriage to Physiological Factors, Military Experience and Mood States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examined the relationship between performance of a heavy load carriage task and various physiological measurements, military experience and mood states. Eighty-four soldiers underwent a series of tests, then completed a maximal effort load carr...

J. Knapik J. Staab M. Bahrke J. O'Connor M. Sharp

1990-01-01

41

International Criminal Court: An Analysis and Implications for the United States Military.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper analyzes the International Criminal Court (ICC) and it's implications for the United States Military. The ICC is a permanent judicial body with worldwide jurisdiction to indict and try persons for violations of international humanitarian law, a...

W. E. Lippincott

2000-01-01

42

Native American Historic Context for the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Military Academy (USMA) is required by Federal laws, Executive Orders, and implementing regulations to conduct consultations with Native American tribes under specific circumstances. This historic context was prepared to support the prep...

D. K. Mann

2006-01-01

43

Compliance with antimalarial chemoprophylaxis recommendations for wounded United States military personnel admitted to a military treatment facility.  

PubMed

Malaria chemoprophylaxis is used as a preventive measure in military personnel deployed to malaria-endemic countries. However, limited information is available on compliance with chemoprophylaxis among trauma patients during hospitalization and after discharge. Therefore, we assessed antimalarial primary chemoprophylaxis and presumptive antirelapse therapy (primaquine) compliance among wounded United States military personnel after medical evacuation from Afghanistan (June 2009-August 2011) to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in Landstuhl, Germany, and then to three U.S. military hospitals. Among admissions at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, 74% of 2,540 patients were prescribed primary chemoprophylaxis and < 1% were prescribed primaquine. After transfer of 1,331 patients to U.S. hospitals, 93% received primary chemoprophylaxis and 33% received primaquine. Of 751 trauma patients with available post-admission data, 42% received primary chemoprophylaxis for four weeks, 33% received primaquine for 14 days, and 17% received both. These antimalarial chemoprophylaxis prescription rates suggest that improved protocols to continue malaria chemoprophylaxis in accordance with force protection guidelines are needed. PMID:24732457

Rini, Elizabeth A; Weintrob, Amy C; Tribble, David R; Lloyd, Bradley A; Warkentien, Tyler E; Shaikh, Faraz; Li, Ping; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Murray, Clinton K

2014-06-01

44

Reflections on the United States military 1941-1987.  

PubMed

This article, 'Reflections on the United States Military 1941-1987' written by my grandmother, Mary Mandels, illustrates her passion for life. Her outreach article was considered most appropriate for publication in this forum. Her career activities are outlined in the prior article 'Mary Elizabeth Hickox Mandels, 90, Bioenergy Leader' while her accomplishments were fully recognized, for instance, nationally through the American Chemical Society and through her induction into the Hall of Fame at the US Army Soldier Systems Center in Natick, Massachusetts. As illustrated, along with Dr Elwyn Reese at Natick's Pioneering Research Laboratory, she headed a bioengineering group that is particularly remembered for developing a process for the enzymatic conversion of waste cellulosic biomass into soluble sugars that could be fermented to ethanol for an alternate liquid fuel (gasohol). This technology remains a subject of interest with growing environmental concerns and an oil shortage crisis.Mary broke the promotional glass ceiling in her own field, all the more remarkable from the perspective that she was born 3 years before women gained the right to vote. Her talents as the family storyteller, enthralling her four siblings while growing up, later reflected her abilities as an outstanding mentor to young scientists. Mary's passions went beyond her career with a love of nature and the outdoors, taking frequent canoe, hiking, skiing, and camping trips. She had a broad fascination for science, foci including her encyclopedic knowledge of plants and wildlife. When not outdoors Mary enjoyed listening to music, from opera to 'Bobby' Dylan, as she called him. Her voracious appetite for books was apparent by the tomes that covered her coffee table. She was never shy to share her political opinions and would send long handwritten letters to politicians who did something to her disapproval. She was strong willed and passionate in everything that she did. In particular was her love of the nation and of the US Army, and this particular article reflects her passion. Mary was an inspiration to all of those who knew her. For me, she was not only my grandmother but also my friend and role model. I will forever miss her wisdom, spirit and passion for life.Susan Roche. PMID:19723297

Mandels, Mary; Eveleigh, Douglas E

2009-01-01

45

Comparing tobacco use among incoming recruits and military personnel on active duty in the United States  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To compare the tobacco use profile of recruits with that of military personnel on active duty to determine whether the military environment in some way induces service members to initiate tobacco use.?DESIGN AND SETTING—Cross-sectional survey of United States armed forces active duty and recruit personnel in 1994-95.?SUBJECTS—2711 military recruits and 4603 military personnel on active duty.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Comparative cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use prevalence between recruits and personnel on active duty controlling for age, sex, and race. Impact of demographic factors on the odds of smoking or using smokeless tobacco.?RESULTS—Increases in tobacco use in American military personnel occurred exclusively in men. The highest tobacco use resided with white men on active duty (43% cigarette smoking; 24% smokeless tobacco use) and represents a doubling of tobacco use seen among white male recruits. Among non-white men, tobacco use increased 2-4 times between recruits and personnel on active duty.?CONCLUSIONS—Efforts to reduce tobacco use by American military personnel on active duty should focus more on discouraging the initiation of tobacco use.???Keywords: tobacco use; military personnel; United States

Chisick, M.; Poindexter, F.; York, A.

1998-01-01

46

Comparing dental utilization of United States of America military recruits with their employed civilian cohorts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the dental utilization of United States of America (USA) military recruits with that of their employed\\u000a civilian cohorts. Military data were collected between February and June 1994 at one recruit in-processing site per service,\\u000a using self-administered questionnaires on a prestratified, systematic, random sample of 2369 Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marine\\u000a recruits. Women and blacks were oversampled.

Michael C. Chisick; Forrest R. Poindexter; Andrew K. York

1998-01-01

47

Endangered Species on Military Training Lands: Cooperation Between the Military Services and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interagency conflict occurs when endangered species thrive in habitat on military training lands. In these cases U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service biologists and military professionals must 'consult' under the federal Endangered Species Act. Several institut...

L. L. Creswell

1994-01-01

48

Comparing dental utilization of United States of America military recruits with their employed civilian cohorts.  

PubMed

This study compares the dental utilization of United States of America (USA) military recruits with that of their employed civilian cohorts. Military data were collected between February and June 1994 at one recruit in processing site per service, using self-administered questionnaires on a prestratified, systematic, random sample of 2369 Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marine recruits. Women and blacks were oversampled. Civilian data come from the most recent oral health survey of working adults in the USA. Results show that annual dental utilization rates of military recruits equal or are less than those of their employed civilian cohorts. Overall, 38% of recruits have seen a dentist in the past year, while 30% have not seen a dentist in 3 or more years. Such low consumption of dental care suggests that dental utilization habits prior to service entry do not contribute appreciably to the high dental utilization rates seen among active duty US military personnel. PMID:9555217

Chisick, M C; Poindexter, F R; York, A K

1997-12-01

49

Champion of Anzac: General Sir Brudenell White, the First Australian Imperial Force and the emergence of the Australian military culture 1914-18  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a curious fact that Brudenell White remains one of the least known and least analysed of Australia's military commanders. It is curious because White had a profound influence not only on the organisational culture of the First AIF but on the organisational history of the Australian military. This thesis examines White's influence from the perspective of organisational culture

John Bentley

2003-01-01

50

Characterization of culturable heterotrophic bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil from an alpine former military site.  

PubMed

We characterized the culturable, heterotrophic bacterial community in soil collected from a former alpine military site contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiologically active eubacterial community, as revealed by fluorescence-in situ-hybridization, accounted for 14.9 % of the total (DAPI-stained) bacterial community. 4.0 and 1.2 % of the DAPI-stained cells could be attributed to culturable, heterotrophic bacteria able to grow at 20 and 10 °C, respectively. The majority of culturable bacterial isolates (23/28 strains) belonged to the Proteobacteria with a predominance of Alphaproteobacteria. The remaining isolates were affiliated with the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Five strains could be identified as representatives of novel species. Characterization of the 28 strains demonstrated their adaptation to the temperature and nutrient conditions prevailing in the studied soil. One-third of the strains was able to grow at subzero temperatures (-5 °C). Studies on the effect of temperature on growth and lipase production with two selected strains demonstrated their low-temperature adaptation. PMID:24402300

Zhang, Dechao; Margesin, Rosa

2014-06-01

51

Framing Cultural Attributes for Human Representation in Military Training and Simulations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis provides insight to improve training of personnel that will support United States Security, Stability, Transformation and Reconstruction (SSTR) operations in the social and cultural context of the Middle East. SSTR operations require competenc...

T. A. Fears

2008-01-01

52

Citizenship and Compulsory Military Service: The Revolutionary Origins of Conscription in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to clarify the origins of citizen service in the United States. It departs from the premise that military service compelled by the state and performed as an obligation of citizenship may be understood as constitutive of citizen service. Based on this analytic distinction, the article develops one central argument. Citizen service was first realized in the United

Meyer Kestnbaum

2000-01-01

53

Study on macrophage activation and structural characteristics of purified polysaccharide from the liquid culture broth of Cordyceps militaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water-soluble crude polysaccharides obtained from the liquid culture broth of Cordyceps militaris by ethanol precipitation were fractionated by DEAE cellulose and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. This fractionation process resulted in three polysaccharide fractions that were termed CPSN Fr I, CPSN Fr II, and CPSN Fr III. Of the fractions, CPSN Fr II was able to upregulate the functional events

Jong Seok Lee; Jeong Seok Kwon; Dong Pil Won; Keun Eok Lee; Won Cheol Shin; Eock Kee Hong

2010-01-01

54

United States Military's Role in Combating Transnational Organized Crime.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This analysis looks at United States policy towards countering transnational organized crime and targeting transnational criminal networks that pose a clear and present danger to the United States, its allies, or key partner states. Using the President's ...

G. A. Boston

2013-01-01

55

Optimization of culture conditions and medium components for the production of mycelial biomass and exo-polysaccharides with Cordyceps militaris in liquid culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both crude exo-biopolymers and mycelial biomass, produced by liquid culture of Cordyceps species, are believed to possess several potential health benefits. As a result of its known biological activities, Cordyceps militaris has been extensively characterized in regards to potential medicinal applications. However, optimized liquid culture conditions\\u000a for enhanced polysaccharide productivity have yet to be developed, which is a necessary step

Jeong Seok Kwon; Jong Seok Lee; Won Cheol Shin; Keun Eok Lee; Eock Kee Hong

2009-01-01

56

The Sociology Program in a Professional School Setting: The United States Military Academy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that new sociology programs are more likely to be established in professional schools than in liberal arts curricula. Argues that the experience of the United States Military Academy, where a full sociology major was established in the context of a professional curriculum, provides lessons in how such development might take place.…

Segal, Mady Wechsler; And Others

1990-01-01

57

Effects of culture conditions on mycelium biomass and intracellular cordycepin production of Cordyceps militaris in natural medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of culture conditions on the growth of mycelium and the production of intracellular cordycepin ofCordyceps militaris were investigated in this study. The natural medium which is a mixture of 53% brown rice paste, 6% beerwort and 42% soybean\\u000a meal juice was used for the fermentation in shaking flasks. Fermentation temperature, pH and medium capacity, which had been\\u000a proved to

Chunyan Xie; Gaixia Liu; Zhenxin Gu; Gongjian Fan; Lei Zhang; Yingjuan Gu

2009-01-01

58

The United States, Western Europe and military intervention overseas  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics. The United States, Britain and out of area problems, The NATO allies and the Persian Gulf, France, NATO and regional conflict in Africa, Southern Africa and the west in the post Nkometi period; The case of Mozambique.

Coker, C. (London School of Economics (GB))

1988-01-01

59

Trends in Meningococcal Disease in the United States Military, 1971-2010  

PubMed Central

Meningococci have historically caused extensive illness among members of the United States military. Three successive meningococcal vaccine types were used from 1971 through 2010; overall disease incidence dropped by >90% during this period. During 2006–2010, disease incidence of 0.38 (cases per 100,000 person-years) among members of the US military was not significantly different from the incidence of 0.26 among the age-matched US general population. Of the 26 cases in the US military, 5 were fatal, 15 were vaccine failures (e.g., illness in a person who had been vaccinated), and 9 were caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup Y. Incidences among 17- to 19-year-old basic trainees and among US Marines were significantly higher than among comparison military populations (p<0.05). No apparent change in epidemiology of meningococcal disease was observed after replacement of quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine with conjugate vaccine in 2007. The data demonstrate that vaccination with meningococcal vaccine is effective.

Faix, Dennis J.; Hansen, Christian J.; Blair, Patrick J.

2012-01-01

60

Trends in meningococcal disease in the United States military, 1971-2010.  

PubMed

Meningococci have historically caused extensive illness among members of the United States military. Three successive meningococcal vaccine types were used from 1971 through 2010; overall disease incidence dropped by >90% during this period. During 2006-2010, disease incidence of 0.38 (cases per 100,000 person-years) among members of the US military was not significantly different from the incidence of 0.26 among the age-matched US general population. Of the 26 cases in the US military, 5 were fatal, 15 were vaccine failures (e.g., illness in a person who had been vaccinated), and 9 were caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup Y. Incidences among 17- to 19-year-old basic trainees and among US Marines were significantly higher than among comparison military populations (p<0.05). No apparent change in epidemiology of meningococcal disease was observed after replacement of quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine with conjugate vaccine in 2007. The data demonstrate that vaccination with meningococcal vaccine is effective. PMID:22932005

Broderick, Michael P; Faix, Dennis J; Hansen, Christian J; Blair, Patrick J

2012-09-01

61

Evaluating the trade?off between military spending and investment in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using tests of a single equation model and cointegration techniques, this paper finds no evidence of a long run trade?off, and some evidence of a short?run trade?off, between military spending and investment in post?World War II United States data. The short?run trade?off is confined to the 1949–1971 period, and may be the result of the sharp expansion and contraction of

David Gold

1997-01-01

62

[Syzran Military Hospital].  

PubMed

In 2011 Central Military Hospital Syzran Military District--the former 417-th Syzransky garrison military hospital Russian Defense Ministry--celebrated the 65th anniversary. At different periods in the hospital were deployed 50, 100 and 150 beds in 3, 4 and 6 units, respectively. Currently Syzran Military Hospital, part of the Federal State Institution "354 District Military Clinical Hospital", the Russian Defense Ministry-- a multi-facility consisting of 6 diagnostic and treatment departments and offices. PMID:22329178

Domogarova, S V

2011-11-01

63

Etiological diagnosis of pneumonia in military conscripts by combined use of bacterial culture and serological methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined use of microbiological, serological and clinical laboratory methods was evaluated for etiological diagnosis of pneumonia in 106 military conscripts. Special attention was paid to rapid diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia and its differentiation from viral and mycoplasmal pneumonia. The microbial etiology could be established in 91 (86%) of the pneumonia patients. Pneumococcal etiology was definitely established in 32 (30%)

K. Lehtomäki; M. Leinonen; A. Takala; T. Hovi; E. Herva; M. Koskela

1988-01-01

64

Cigarette Prices in Military Retail: A Review and Proposal for Advancing Military Health Policy  

PubMed Central

Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States (US) and has been demonstrated to significantly harm the combat readiness of military personnel. Unfortunately, recent research demonstrated that cigarettes are sold at substantial discounts in military retail outlets. In fact, the military is the only retailer which consistently loses money on tobacco. Cheap tobacco prices have been identified by enlisted personnel and Department of Defense health policy experts as promoting a culture of tobacco use in the US Military. This paper provides an analysis of why current military tobacco pricing policy has failed to eliminate cheap tobacco prices as an incentive for use. A rationale for increasing tobacco prices also is presented along with recommendations for improved military tobacco control policy.

Haddock, Christopher K.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Poston, Walker S.C.; Williams, Larry N.

2013-01-01

65

Cigarette prices in military retail: a review and proposal for advancing military health policy.  

PubMed

Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States and has been shown to significantly harm the combat readiness of military personnel. Unfortunately, recent research showed that cigarettes are sold at substantial discounts in military retail outlets. In fact, the military is the only retailer that consistently loses money on tobacco. Cheap tobacco prices have been identified by enlisted personnel and Department of Defense health policy experts as promoting a culture of tobacco use in the U.S. Military. This article provides an analysis of why current military tobacco pricing policy has failed to eliminate cheap tobacco prices as an incentive for use. A rationale for increasing tobacco prices also is presented along with recommendations for improved military tobacco control policy. PMID:23756017

Haddock, Christopher K; Jahnke, Sara A; Poston, Walker S C; Williams, Larry N

2013-05-01

66

Optimization of culture medium for cordycepin production using Cordyceps militaris mutant obtained by ion beam irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of medium components on cordycepin production by Cordyceps militaris mutant obtained by ion beam irradiation was investigated. According to the response surface analysis using a central composite design for the prospective mutant G81-3, the predicted optimal concentrations of glucose as the carbon source and the yeast extract as the nitrogen source were 86.2g\\/l and 93.8g\\/l, respectively, and 6.84g\\/l

Shonkor Kumar Das; Mina Masuda; Masanori Hatashita; Akihiko Sakurai; Mikio Sakakibara

2010-01-01

67

Lightning-associated injuries and deaths among military personnel--United States, 1998-2001.  

PubMed

After flooding, lightning is the second leading cause of weather-related death in the United States; approximately 300 injuries and 100 deaths are associated annually with lightning strikes in the United States. To characterize lightning-associated injuries and deaths among U.S. Armed Forces personnel, the U.S. Army and CDC analyzed data from the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS). This that the highest lightning-related injury rates during 1998-2001 occurred among male U.S. military members who were aged <40 years, single, with a high school education or less, stationed near the Gulf of Mexico or the East Coast, and in the U.S. Army. The findings suggest that the risk for lightning-associated injury depends primarily on the frequency, timing, duration, and nature of outdoor exposure to thunderstorms. Military personnel should be aware of severe weather onset and take reasonable precautions to protect themselves and their companions from exposure to lightning. PMID:12363338

2002-09-27

68

Military Psychiatry: A Prototype of Social and Preventive Psychiatry in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An attempt is made to summarize the history of the development of the concepts of preventive and social psychiatry insofar as they have been pioneered since the first World War in military psychiatry. The cardinal principles of military psychiatry, immedi...

W. Hausman D. M. Rioch

1966-01-01

69

Analysis of Soviet Military Writing on United States Reentry Vehicle Technology, 1965-1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews Soviet military writing on U.S. reentry vehicle technology and analyzes this literature in light of what it reveals concerning the Soviet military's technology assessment process. A review of over 40 Soviet military books and journal a...

J. Checkel

1986-01-01

70

Challenges Faced by Military Families: Perceptions of United States Marine Corps School Liaisons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The global war on terror has placed a number of stressful demands on service members and their families. Although the military offers a wide range of services and supports to military families, not all families are willing or able to use them. For example, geographically dispersed families can find it challenging to connect with military support…

Aronson, Keith R.; Perkins, Daniel F.

2013-01-01

71

Military Pedagogy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The term 'military pedagogy' is defined in the 1966 Soviet 'Officer's Library' Dictionary of Basic Military Terms as 'a field of pedagogical and military science investigating and developing the most efficient methods of communist teaching, military educa...

1973-01-01

72

The yellow fever 17D vaccine and risk of malignant melanoma in the United States military.  

PubMed

Previous studies show that the tuberculosis and smallpox vaccine protect against melanoma because of sequence homologies they have with the melanoma antigen, HERV-K-MEL. The yellow fever 17D (YF 17D) vaccine is thought to have this property, so there is a possibility that the YF17D vaccine is able to protect against melanoma. This nested case-control study used the Defense Medical Surveillance System to assess the association between the YF17D vaccine and risk of malignant melanoma in active members of the United States military. Although point estimates hinted at a protective effect, none of the values reached a significant level. Therefore, this study concluded that in the ten year period following vaccination there is no association between the yellow fever 17D vaccine and risk of malignant melanoma in active members of the US armed forces. PMID:22561488

Hodges-Vazquez, Meredith; Wilson, James P; Hughes, Hayley; Garman, Patrick

2012-06-22

73

Differences between Black and White Military Offenders: A Study of Socioeconomic, Familial, Personality, and Military Characteristics of Inmates at the United States Disciplinary Barracks at Fort Leavenworth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examined antecedent variables that might be linked to incarceration offenses in the military. The author collected demographic, familial, personality, and military data on a random sample of 51 black and 51 white inmates taken from the files of...

S. B. Knouse

1993-01-01

74

Analysis of Cross-Cultural Behaviors for Military Advisors in the Middle East.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five-hundred-sixty-five externally sourced Transition Team advisors returning from Iraq and Afghanistan completed a survey to help identify the cross-cultural behaviors critical to advisor effectiveness in the current operating environment. Results indica...

B. D. McGowan C. L. Vowels K. A. Metcalf M. Beemer M. R. Zbylut

2008-01-01

75

Sexual Harassment in the United States Military: The Development of the DoD (Department of Defense) Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development of a survey instrument to assess the incidence and causes of sexual harassment in the United States Military. The report begins with a general description of the scope of the problem of sexual harassment across differ...

J. B. Pryor

1988-01-01

76

Hematological Parameters and Lipid Profiles Observed in Cadets at the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the Spring of 1979, a study was conducted to obtain information on the hematological parameters and lipid profiles of a group of cadets at the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York. The group studies consisted of 72 female cadets and 160...

H. E. Sauberlich J. H. Skala H. L. Johnson R. A. Nelson

1982-01-01

77

Exploratory Study of Pre-Admission Predictors of Hardiness and Retention for United States Military Academy Cadets Using Regression Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study uses regression techniques on United States Military Academy (USMA) cadet/candidate data in order to develop a hardiness-prediction model and explore retention during and after graduation from USMA. We created several data sets using 42 variabl...

A. J. Comeaux

2013-01-01

78

Energy Expenditure and Activity Patterns of Cadets at the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted in October, 1979, at the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York, to evaluate factors contributing to weight gain in cadets over the course of their academic career. This report presents the average daily energy expendit...

M. J. Kretsch M. O. O'Connor H. E. Sauberlich

1985-01-01

79

The fort lewis maternity care project: a pioneering program for enlisted military families in a prewar washington state community.  

PubMed

The Fort Lewis maternity project begun in Tacoma, Washington in 1941, was considered a pioneering project that met the identified maternal/child health care needs of enlisted military families. From the outset, local medical leaders as well as Children's Bureau advisors intended that the project would provide physician-managed pregnancy as well as hospital births and that public health nursing would play a critical role in this maternal/child initiative. The project proved so successful that the model of care established under this program was reinterpreted to meet similar needs for military families in other states as America entered World War II. PMID:24892858

Powell, Nena J

2014-01-01

80

Medicinal uses of the mushroom Cordyceps militaris: Current state and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cordyceps militaris is a potential harbour of bio-metabolites for herbal drugs and evidences are available about its applications for revitalization of various systems of the body from ancient times. Amongst all the species, C. militaris is considered as the oldest source of some useful chemical constituents. Besides their popular applications for tonic medicine by the all stairs of the community,

Shonkor Kumar Das; Mina Masuda; Akihiko Sakurai; Mikio Sakakibara

2010-01-01

81

Optimization of Large-Scale Culture Conditions for the Production of Cordycepin with Cordyceps militaris by Liquid Static Culture  

PubMed Central

Cordycepin is one of the most important bioactive compounds produced by species of Cordyceps sensu lato, but it is hard to produce large amounts of this substance in industrial production. In this work, single factor design, Plackett-Burman design, and central composite design were employed to establish the key factors and identify optimal culture conditions which improved cordycepin production. Using these culture conditions, a maximum production of cordycepin was 2008.48?mg/L for 700?mL working volume in the 1000?mL glass jars and total content of cordycepin reached 1405.94?mg/bottle. This method provides an effective way for increasing the cordycepin production at a large scale. The strategies used in this study could have a wide application in other fermentation processes.

Kang, Chao; Wen, Ting-Chi; Kang, Ji-Chuan; Meng, Ze-Bing; Li, Guang-Rong; Hyde, Kevin D.

2014-01-01

82

Cross-cultural and factorial validity of PTSD check list--military version (PCL-M) in Sinhalese language  

PubMed Central

Background There are currently no validated instruments to assess the burden of combat-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Sinhalese—the main spoken language in Sri Lanka. Objective The purpose of this research was to establish the cross-cultural and structural validity of the PTSD Check List—Military Version (PCL-M) translated into Sinhalese. Methods Expert committee consensus generation as well as translation–back translation approaches were used to establish the semantic, conceptual, and content equivalence of the Sinhalese and English versions of the PCL-M. Four translations of each item were made. In the absence of any “gold standard” psychometric instrument in Sinhalese to establish the criterion validity for the PCL-M (SIN), the study utilized more informal checks for assessment of validity and Sri Lankan cutoffs for caseness for PTSD to establish the psychometric strength of the translated instrument along with standard reliability analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on PCL-M scoring of a random sample of 1,586 soldiers to examine construct validity. Results Thirteen of the 17 items were selected by popular vote, and the remaining 4 through discussion and consensus. Reliability measured by Cronbach's-? was 0.944 for the total scale and 0.812, 0.869, and 0.895 for the three DSM-IV sub-scales (re-experiencing, avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal), respectively. The desired cutoff point for the translated instrument was determined to be 44. The five-factor model by Elhai et al. and the four-factor model by King et al. fitted best, demonstrating good fit to all three fit indices, while the four-factor model and the DSM-IV three-factor model by Simms et al. only had acceptable levels of fit for root mean squared error of approximation. ?2 difference test comparing the two better-fitting models suggests that the five-factor model by Elhai et al. has the better fit. Conclusion The PCL-M (SIN) version is suitable for use in the study of PTSD in the Sri Lankan military forces, as judged by cross-cultural and construct validity as well as reliability.

Semage, Saveen N.; Sivayogan, Sivagurunadan; Forbes, David; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Monaragala, Roshan M. M.; Lockwood, Emma; Dunt, David

2013-01-01

83

Health Status of Women in the U.S. (United States) Military.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report focused on the major health-related issues concerning women in the military: pregnancy-related conditions, physical injuries and capabilities, and stress-related disorders. The most frequent reason for being hospitalized among Navy women who e...

A. Hoiberg

1982-01-01

84

Descriptive Epidemiology of Bipolar I Disorder Among United States Military Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Psychiatric disorders in military members require substantial medical, administrative, and financial resources, and are among the leading causes of hospitalization and early discharge. We reviewed available data to better understand the incidence of bipol...

D. N. Cowan D. W. Niebuhr N. S. Weber S. A. Bedno

2010-01-01

85

Melanogenesis effect of Cordyceps militaris culture broth on the melanin formation of B16F0 melanoma cells.  

PubMed

The effect of Cordyceps militaris culture broth (CMB) on melanogenesis in B16F0 melanoma cells was evaluated by measurement of the melanin concentration after 3 days of incubation. The B16F0 melanoma cells were treated with various concentrations of CMB 10-100 ?g/mL and arbutin of 200 ?M. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of CMB were also measured. Phenolic content of CMB was 3.28?mg/g. The DPPH radical scavenging and ferric ion donating activities were 79.64% and 0.16, respectively. The melanin concentration and cell viability of melanoma cells by arbutin treatment decreased to 43% and 91% of the control, respectively. The CMB treatment showed a significant inhibitory effect of melanin production by 29%, 50%, and 56% at 50, 80, and 100 ?g/mL concentration treatment, respectively, while over 90% of cells were viable. The CMB treatment at 50, 80, and 100 ?g/mL concentrations in cultivation decreased extracellular melanin release induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) treatment by 19%, 38%, and 48%, respectively. The CMB showed inhibitory activity against intracellular tyrosinase extracted from melanoma cells, while it had no inhibition on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase. The cellular glutathione contents were enhanced by CMB treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggested that CMB suppressed cellular tyrosinase activity and total melanin content in cultured B16F0 melanoma cells without any significant effects on cell proliferation and it might be candidate anti-melanogenic agent. PMID:21995600

Cha, Jae-Young; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Park, Mi-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Tae; Moon, Hyung-In; Cho, Young-Su

2011-10-13

86

Antifibrotic effect of extracellular biopolymer from submerged mycelial cultures of Cordyceps militaris on liver Fibrosis induced by Bile duct ligation and scission in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifibrotic effects of hot water extract (WEC), intracellular biopolymer (IPC) and extracellular biopolymers (EPC) from\\u000a myceiial liquid culture ofCordyceps militaris on liver fibrosis were studied. Liver fibrosis was induced by a bile duct ligation and scission (BDL\\/S) operation, duration\\u000a of 4 weeks in rats. In BDL\\/S rats, the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase\\u000a (ALP),

Ji-Xing Nan; Eun-Jeon Park; Byung-Keun Yang; Chi-Hyun Song; Geonil Ko; Dong Hwan Sohn

2001-01-01

87

Strategic culture and ballistic missile defense: Russia and the United States. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis examines U.S. and Russian history and current policy debates to advance understanding of: (1) the strategic cultures of these nations, particularly with respect to BMD policies in the recent past; and (2) whether and how their strategic cultures and approaches to BMD are changing and how that may affect future strategic BMD developments and the status of the ABM Treaty. The development of BMD strategies, including policies concerning the ABM Treaty, within the framework of the established American and Russian strategic cultures is studied, with due attention to the Soviet experience and legacy in the Russian case. U.S. strategic culture does not seem to have changed significantly with the end of the Cold War, but U.S. BMD priorities have been redefined to reflect a higher priority attached to regional and theater-level defenses. It is apparent that the Soviet experience did have a significant impact on Russian strategic culture. Faced with major changes in its international status, domestic political-military arrangements, and scope of national security concerns, Russian strategic culture is nonetheless moving beyond the old Soviet culture. Future Russian policies regarding the transfer of BMD technology, sharing early warning data, and participating in a global protective system are heavily dependent on domestic political developments. United States, Russia, USSR, Strategic culture, Ballistic missile defense, National strategy, Nuclear strategy, Strategic defense, ABM Treaty, Arms control, Strategic stability.

Becker, M.D.

1993-06-01

88

75 FR 62439 - The Entire United States and U.S. Territories; Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Territories; Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loan AGENCY: U.S. Small Business...notice of the Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loan. Program (MREIDL...period for the Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loan Program (MREIDL)....

2010-10-08

89

Epidemiology of CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE infection among active duty United States military personnel (1998-2010)  

PubMed Central

Background Clostridium difficile associated disease (CDAD) has risen in incidence and the experience in the US military has not been described. Methods We evaluated the U.S. military’s database and identified CDAD cases and demographic characteristics among affected military personnel from 1998 to 2010. Results 2,423 cases were identified. CDAD incidence was 13.2 cases (95% CI: 12.7-13.7) per 100 K p-yr and increased over study years. CA-CDAD and HA-CDAD incidence was 5.5 (95% CI: 5.2, 5.9) per 100 K p-y and 1.3 (95% CI: 1.2, 1.4) per 1,000 hospitalizations respectively. Females comprised a larger proportion of CA-CDAD than HA-CDAD (25.5% vs. 19.3%; p?military personnel, with female cases more likely to be community associated. Gender, marital status and branch of service had the strongest association with CDAD subtype. Further work is needed to evaluate the epidemiologic factors that have led to these increased rates in otherwise low-risk populations and associated sequelae.

2013-01-01

90

Analysis of the Impact of Military Export Offsets on the United States Industrial Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to determine what effect the growth of offsets, as a condition of sale of military articles, has had on the U.S. defense industrial base. These effects are measured by assessing how this trade practice has impacted the employ...

D. G. McCord

1998-01-01

91

Sub-national cultural policy--where the action is: Mapping state cultural policy in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that cultural policy analysts should turn their analytical attention towards the cultural policies of sub-national levels of government. State level cultural policy has become an increasingly important locus of interest for those who are concerned with the health and stability of the arts, culture, and humanities in American life, and the same is undoubtedly true elsewhere. This

J. Mark Schuster

2002-01-01

92

Military GSM.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Military GSM (MGSM) is a term defined here to mean the redesigned and adapted use of civil Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) technology within military scenarios and isolated deployments. MGSM is a first step towards bringing the future benefi...

V. P. Scaffidi

1994-01-01

93

Russian Military's Role in Politics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the most crucial challenges that democratizing states face is that of redefining civil-military relations and transforming the military into a force loyal to the new democratic system. In order to prevent the military from becoming a threat, democr...

J. H. Brusstar E. Jones

1995-01-01

94

French military plans for Superphenix  

Microsoft Academic Search

France refuses to rule out military use of the plutonium produced by the planned breeder reactor Superphenix, although other nations, including the US, have contributed nuclear materials to it. US policy has been to separate military and civilian nuclear programs to set an example. France has not stated an intention to use Superphenix for military purposes, but is reserving the

Albright

1984-01-01

95

Factors influencing perceived need for dental care by United States military recruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores factors that influence perceived need for dental care among US military recruits. The data were collected\\u000a on a systematic random sample of 2711 US Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps recruits between February and July 1994.\\u000a Participants received a comprehensive oral examination from a dentist and answered perceived need queries on self-administered\\u000a questionnaires. Using bivariate and

Michael C. Chisick; Forrest R. Poindexter; Andrew K. York

1998-01-01

96

Staphylococcus aureus colonization of healthy military service members in the United States and Afghanistan  

PubMed Central

Background Staphylococcus aureus [methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible (MRSA/MSSA)] is a leading cause of infections in military personnel, but there are limited data regarding baseline colonization of individuals while deployed. We conducted a pilot study to screen non-deployed and deployed healthy military service members for MRSA/MSSA colonization at various anatomic sites and assessed isolates for molecular differences. Methods Colonization point-prevalence of 101 military personnel in the US and 100 in Afghanistan was determined by swabbing 7 anatomic sites. US-based individuals had received no antibiotics within 30 days, and Afghanistan-deployed personnel were taking doxycycline for malaria prophylaxis. Isolates underwent identification and testing for antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and pulsed-field type (PFT). Results 4 individuals in the US (4 isolates- 3 oropharynx, 1 perirectal) and 4 in Afghanistan (6 isolates- 2 oropharynx, 2 nare, 1 hand, 1 foot) were colonized with MRSA. Among US-based personnel, 3 had USA300 (1 PVL+) and 1 USA700. Among Afghanistan-based personnel, 1 had USA300 (PVL+), 1 USA800 and 2 USA1000. MSSA was present in 40 (71 isolates-25 oropharynx, 15 nare) of the US-based and 32 (65 isolates- 16 oropharynx, 24 nare) of the Afghanistan-based individuals. 56 (79%) US and 41(63%) Afghanistan-based individuals had MSSA isolates recovered from extra-nare sites. The most common MSSA PFTs were USA200 (9 isolates) in the US and USA800 (7 isolates) in Afghanistan. MRSA/MSSA isolates were susceptible to doxycycline in all but 3 personnel (1 US, 2 Afghanistan; all were MSSA isolates that carried tetM). Conclusion MRSA and MSSA colonization of military personnel was not associated with deployment status or doxycycline exposure. Higher S. aureus oropharynx colonization rates were observed and may warrant changes in decolonization practices.

2013-01-01

97

Attachment and Culture: Security in the United States and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attachment theorists maintain that cultural differences are relatively minor, and they focus on universals. Here the authors highlight evidence of cultural variations and note ways in which attachment theory is laden with Western values and meaning. Comparisons of the United States and Japan highlight the cultural relativity of 3 core hypotheses of attachment theory: that caregiver sensitivity leads to secure

Fred Rothbaum; John Weisz; Martha Pott; Kazuo Miyake; Gilda Morelli

2000-01-01

98

Military Space Station Implications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Justifying the relevancy of a Manned Military Space Station (MMSS) and subsequently proposing its deployment to capitalize upon the United States' national security interests is the essence and purpose of this group study project. The MMSS is intended to ...

G. D. Bourne G. D. Skirvin G. R. Wilson

1987-01-01

99

Music in the Military.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a very brief history of military bands, the author describes the musical performance opportunities currently available in the United States Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force, and Coast Guard, for young musicians who may wish to enlist. (SJL)

Young, Amanda

1981-01-01

100

Farm Tractors, Occupational Therapy, and Four-Wheel Drive: Transforming a Military Vehicle Into a Cultural Icon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The armed forces of World War II employed unprecedented numbers of mechanical transport vehicles, precipitating a spike in demand for automotive manufactures. Eager to capture a share of the less certain postwar automobile marketplace, defense contractors such as Willys-Overland pursued a diverse range of product development and advertising strategies, based on the foundation of their military output. This article considers

Andrew Iarocci

2010-01-01

101

United States military service members and their tattoos: a descriptive study.  

PubMed

To explore the characteristics of military service tattoos a descriptive study was conducted at Walter Reed Army Medical Center to collect information from a convenience sample. An investigator-developed questionnaire provided the data for this study. Over the ensuing 12 month-period the researchers collected 126 questionnaires. Typical respondents were enlisted men with at least one deployment to an area of combat operations. Among the respondents, 57% acquired their tattoos before their deployment. One-quarter of the respondents reported only one tattoo, leaving the majority with multiple tattoos. Men received their first tattoo at an earlier age than women. The most common tattoo listed a person's name. Respondents did not regret their tattoos and rarely acquired the body art under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Little evidence was found to support a connection between tattoos and deployment. Few regretted their decisions and most all approached the tattoo experience free of any mind-altering substance. All this seems to suggest that military tattoos are a well-accepted means of self-expression. PMID:23929056

Lande, R Gregory; Bahroo, Bhagwan A; Soumoff, Alyssa

2013-08-01

102

Evaluation of metal ions and surfactants effect on cell growth and exopolysaccharide production in two-stage submerged culture of Cordyceps militaris.  

PubMed

During the two-stage submerged fermentation of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris, it was found that K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) were favorable to the mycelial growth. The EPS production reached the highest levels in the media containing Mg(2+) and Mn(2+). However, Ca(2+) and K(+) almost failed to increase significantly exopolysaccharides (EPS) production. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) significantly enhanced EPS production compared with that of without adding SDS when SDS was added on static culture stage of two-stage cultivation process. The presence of Tween 80 in the medium not only simulated mycelial growth but also increased EPS production. By response surface methods (RSM), EPS production reached its peak value of 3.28 g/L under optimal combination of 27.6 mM Mg(2+), 11.1 mM Mn(2+), and 0.05 mM SDS, which was 3.76-fold compared with that of without metal ion and surfactant. The results obtained were useful in better understanding the regulation for efficient production of EPS of C. militaris in the two-stage submerged culture. PMID:22956301

Cui, Jian-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Nan

2012-11-01

103

A framework for developing management goals for species at risk with examples from military installations in the United States.  

PubMed

A decision framework for setting management goals for species at risk is presented. Species at risk are those whose potential future rarity is of concern. Listing these species as threatened or endangered could potentially result in significant restrictions to activities in resource management areas in order to maintain those species. The decision framework, designed to foster proactive management, has nine steps: identify species at risk on and near the management area, describe available information and potential information gaps for each species, determine the potential distribution of species and their habitat, select metrics for describing species status, assess the status of local population or metapopulation, conduct threat assessment, set and prioritize management goals, develop species management plans, and develop criteria for ending special species management where possible. This framework will aid resource managers in setting management goals that minimally impact human activities while reducing the likelihood that species at risk will become rare in the near future. The management areas in many of the examples are United States (US) military installations, which are concerned about potential restrictions to military training capacity if species at risk become regulated under the US Endangered Species Act. The benefits of the proactive management set forth in this formal decision framework are that it is impartial, provides a clear procedure, calls for identification of causal relationships that may not be obvious, provides a way to target the most urgent needs, reduces costs, enhances public confidence, and, most importantly, decreases the chance of species becoming more rare. PMID:19830479

Efroymson, Rebecca; Jager, Henriette; Dale, Virginia; Westervelt, James

2009-12-01

104

Diversity and distribution of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a military area in the state of Amazonas, Brazil  

PubMed Central

This study reports the distribution, ecotopes and fauna diversity of sandflies captured in five training bases on a military reserve in Manaus, state of Amazonas (AM). A total of 10,762 specimens were collected, which were distributed among 58 species, with the highest number recorded at Base Instruction 1 (BI1). A higher rate of species richness was found at the Base Instruction Boina Rajada and low levels of diversity associated with a high abundance index with the clear dominance of Lutzomyia umbratilis, Lutzomyia ruii and Lutzomyia anduzei were found at BI1. The abundance of Lu. umbratilis raises the possibility of outbreaks of American cutaneous leishmaniasis by the main vector of the disease in AM.

Gomes, Luis Henrique Monteiro; Albuquerque, Maria Ivonei Carvalho; da Rocha, Liliane Coelho; Pinheiro, Francimeire Gomes; Franco, Antonia Maria Ramos

2013-01-01

105

Persistence of serogroup C antibody responses following quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccination in United States military personnel.  

PubMed

Serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease accounts for one-third of all meningococcal cases and causes meningococcal outbreaks in the U.S. Quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (MenACYWD) was recommended in 2005 for adolescents and high risk groups such as military recruits. We evaluated anti-MenC antibody persistence in U.S. military personnel vaccinated with either MenACYWD or meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4). Twelve hundred subjects vaccinated with MenACYWD from 2006 to 2008 or MPSV4 from 2002 to 2004 were randomly selected from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Baseline serologic responses to MenC were assessed in all subjects; 100 subjects per vaccine group were tested during one of the following six post-vaccination time-points: 5-7, 11-13, 17-19, 23-25, 29-31, or 35-37 months. Anti-MenC geometric mean titers (GMT) were measured by rabbit complement serum bactericidal assay (rSBA) and geometric mean concentrations (GMC) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Continuous variables were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test and the proportion of subjects with an rSBA titer ?8 by chi-square. Pre-vaccination rSBA GMT was <8 for the MenACWYD group. rSBA GMT increased to 703 at 5-7 months post-vaccination and decreased by 94% to 43 at 3 years post-vaccination. GMT was significantly lower in the MenACWYD group at 5-7 months post-vaccination compared to the MPSV4 group. The percentage of MenACWYD recipients achieving an rSBA titer of ?8 decreased from 87% at 5-7 months to 54% at 3 years. There were no significant differences between vaccine groups in the proportion of subjects with a titer of ?8 at any time-point. GMC for the MenACWYD group was 0.14?g/mL at baseline, 1.07?g/mL at 5-7 months, and 0.66?g/mL at 3 years, and significantly lower than the MPSV4 group at all time-points. Anti-MenC responses wane following vaccination with MenACYWD; a booster dose is needed to maintain protective levels of circulating antibody. PMID:24837781

Patel, Manisha; Romero-Steiner, Sandra; Broderick, Michael P; Thomas, Cynthia G; Plikaytis, Brian D; Schmidt, Daniel S; Johnson, Scott E; Milton, Andrea S; Carlone, George M; Clark, Thomas A; Messonnier, Nancy E; Cohn, Amanda C; Faix, Dennis J

2014-06-24

106

Understanding Ego States: A Prerequisite for Cross-Cultural Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that cross-cultural training aimed at improving cultural sensitivity and awareness is a must for students and management trainees pursuing careers with international businesses and for U.S. companies actively seeking strategic alliances with foreign partners. It further argues that understanding the ego states of the parties…

Park, Hoon

107

Military Tobacco Policies: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly  

PubMed Central

The United States military has the legacy of a pro-tobacco culture and still has prevalence rates of tobacco use that are higher than their civilian counterparts. One tactic for decreasing use and the subsequent health problems is through effective tobacco control policies. We collected available tobacco control policies from all four branches of the military and, through qualitative analysis, identified policies that were unique either as providing more or less detail and restriction than peer group policies. Best and worst practice policies in the areas of enforcement, smoking cessation, smokeless tobacco use, environmental tobacco smoke, framing tobacco as non-normative, designated tobacco use areas, and monitoring of tobacco use are presented. Because policy making can be an effective tool for improving the health of military members, understanding what policy components are comparatively positive or negative is an important tool for health advocates both in the military and civilian settings.

Jahnke, Sara A.; Hoffman, Kevin M.; Haddock, C. Keith; Long, Mark A. D.; Williams, CAPT Larry N.; Lando, Harry A.; Carlos Poston, W. S.

2012-01-01

108

A Retrospective Review of Factors Associated with Vasovasostomies in United States Military Members  

PubMed Central

Background Men seeking a vasectomy should receive counseling prior to the procedure that includes discussion of later seeking a reversal. We sought to determine demographic factors that may predispose patients to possibly later seek a vasectomy reversal. Methods All U.S. Military electronic health records were searched between 2000 and 2009 for either a vasectomy or vasovasostomy procedure code. Aggregate demographic information was collected and statistical analysis performed. Result A total of 82,945 patients had a vasectomy of which 4,485 had a vasovasostomy resulting in a vasovasostomy-to-vasectomy rate of 5.04%. The average age at vasovasostomy was 34.9±5.0, with an average interval of 4.1±2.2 years. Men undergoing a vasectomy at a younger age were more likely to have a vasovasostomy. Various religions did have statistically significant differences. Within ethnic groups, only Native Americans [OR=1.39 (95% CI 1.198-1.614)] and Asians [OR=0.501 (95% CI 0.364-0.690)] had statistically significant differences when compared to Caucasians. Men with more children at the time of vasectomy were more likely to have a vasovasostomy. Conclusion Younger men, Native Americans, and men with more children at vasectomy were more likely to undergo a vasovasostomy. The reason for these differences is unknown, but this information may assist during pre-vasectomy counseling.

Masterson, J.; Avalos, E.; Santomauro, M.; Walters, R.; Marguet, C.; L'Esperance, J.; Drain, D.

2013-01-01

109

Managing military uranium and plutonium in the United States and the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Effective approaches to the management of plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)--the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons--are fundamental to controlling nuclear proliferation and providing the basis for deep, transparent, and irreversible reductions in nuclear weapons stockpiles. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the ongoing dismantlement of tens of thousands of nuclear weapons are creating unprecedented stresses on the systems for managing these materials, as well as unprecedented opportunities for cooperation to improve these systems. In this article, the authors summarize the technical background to this situation, and the current and prospective security challenges posed by military stockpiles of these materials in the US and Russia. They then review the programs in place to address these challenges, the progress of these programs to date, and the work remaining to be done, in five areas: (a) preventing theft and smuggling of nuclear warheads and fissile materials; (b) building a regime of monitored reductions in nuclear warhead and fissile material stockpiles; (c) ending further production of excess fissile materials; (d) reducing stockpiles of excess fissile materials; and (e) avoiding economic collapse in the nuclear cities where substantial fractions of these materials and their guardians reside. 128 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Bunn, M.; Holdren, J.P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-12-31

110

Privilege-Wise and Patent (and Trade-Secret)Foolish?: How the Courts' Misapplication of the Military and State Secrets Privilege Violates the Constitution and Endangers National Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is every inventor's nightmare: a valuable idea, stolen, with no legal recourse. Yet that is precisely what happened in Lucent v. Crater, where the Federal Circuit permitted the Federal Government to defeat the inventors' claims using the military and state secrets privilege. In light of the recent upsurge in the Government's invocation of this privilege, it is time to

Davida H. Isaacs; Robert M. Farley

2009-01-01

111

Use of the MBTI as a Predictor of Successful Academic and Military Performance at the United States Coast Guard Academy. Report 10-93.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study provides an analysis of a random sample of 100 cadets from the United States Coast Guard Academy class of 1993. Emphasis is placed on the cadets' academic achievements, their military performance, and their resignation status to determine whether the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) preferences can be used to predict success in these…

O'Connor, John C., III

112

Bibliography of Women: A Survey of Women Past and Present as Reflected by the Holdings of the United States Military Academy Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The publication of this bibliography on "Women" is an appropriate event in that it closely follows the passage of the law which for the first time permits women to enter the United States Military Academy in its 173 year history. Over 500 titles are presently extant in the USMA Library collection on the subject of women, representing woman's role…

Earl, Martha M., Comp.

113

Military issues.  

PubMed

This article reviews of some of the lessons in trauma psychiatry learned by the US military through wartime and other trauma experiences during the past century. Current practice in the military's employment of stress control teams is reviewed. The military's efforts to prevent and limit psychological casualties, to include the care of battle casualties and prisoners of war (POWs), are addressed. Recent experiences that have informed further, and are shaping the military's approach to managing the psychological aftermath of trauma (such as the Sept. 11, 2001, attack on the Pentagon and the current war with Iraq) are included. Guidelines developed after 9/11, and articulated in the "Mass Violence and Early Intervention" conference are presented. Finally, current ideas on preparation for and intervention after weapons of mass destruction will be outlined. PMID:15325487

Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Owens, Mark

2004-09-01

114

Military Exposures  

MedlinePLUS

... and environmental hazards during military service. Reports on Veterans' Health Care Use What are the most common diagnoses ... Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION ... Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. ...

115

Equal Protection Analysis of All-Male Military Schools Following "United States v. Commonwealth of Virginia".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the issue of whether a state may sponsor single-gender education without violating the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. Traces the history of "United States versus Virginia," discussing the arguments of both sides; and briefly explores the likely ramifications of the holding as the Supreme Court prepares to review the…

Journal of Law and Education, 1995

1995-01-01

116

United States Air Force Response to Problems of Child Abuse within the Military Community.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act became national law in the United States. This act authorized a National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect to compile information, operate a clearinghouse on programs showing promise of success in prevention, i...

H. L. Banks

1985-01-01

117

Elite and marginalised actors in toxic treadmills: challenging the power of the state, military, and economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical frameworks of the treadmill of production and the treadmill of destruction are used to explore how the expansionary dynamics of capitalism and militarism, along with a complicit state apparatus, harm the environment and human health. The treadmill analysis is extended beyond a structural explanation of the occurrence of environmental inequality by showing how elite shareholders interact with marginalised

Joshua Sbicca

2012-01-01

118

SPECIES PROFILE: LEAST TERN (STERNA ANTILLARUM), INTERIOR POPULATION, ON MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The least tern (Sterna antillarum) is a neotropical migrant species that primarily breeds along coastal waterways of the United States and winters in Central and South America. The interior population of the least tern was listed as Federally endangered in 1985 by the U.S. Fish a...

119

Cultivation of medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes), and production of cordycepin using the spent medium from levan fermentation.  

PubMed

A process of tandem cultivation for the production of green and invaluable bioproducts (levan and Cordycepes militaris) useful for medical applications has been successfully developed. The process involves first cultivating Bacillus subtilis strain natto in sucrose medium to produce levan, followed by the subsequent cultivation of C. militaris in liquid- and solid-state cultures using the spent medium from levan fermentation as substrates. The factors affecting the cell growth and production of metabolites of C. militaris were investigated, and the various metabolites produced in the culture filtrate, mycelia, and fruiting body were analyzed. In addition, cordycepin was prepared from the solid waste medium of C. militaris. This is an excellent example in the development of cost effective biorefineries that maximize useful product formation from the available biomass. The preparation of cordycepin from solid waste medium of C. militaris using a method with high extraction efficiency and minimum solvent usage is also environmentally friendly. PMID:23796221

Wu, Fang-Chen; Chen, Yi-Lin; Chang, Shu-Ming; Shih, Ing-Lung

2013-01-01

120

“Casualty Panic”: Military Recruitment Models, Civil-Military Gap and Their Implications for the Legitimacy of Military Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the issue of what defines “Casualty Panic,” which in recent years has impacted upon military policy in liberal-democratic states. The author claims that the hesitation to enter into military engagements for fear of incurring casualties is a consequence of “moral panic” among the political and military leadership. This moral panic is engendered by elite groups who have

Udi Lebel

2010-01-01

121

Military Authority.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores questions of military authority. The first article looks at the French Army mutinies in World War I and how the French Army dealt with them. The second article examines President Truman's firing of popular and powerful General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War. The final article looks at how…

Martz, Carlton; Hayes, Bill

2001-01-01

122

32 CFR 575.1 - Military Academy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...command of the Academy and the military post at West Point...mission of the United States Military Academy is to educate, train...shall have the character, leadership, and other attributes essential...include academic education and military training. In...

2010-07-01

123

Antifibrotic effect of extracellular biopolymer from submerged mycelial cultures of Cordyceps militaris on liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation and scission in rats.  

PubMed

The antifibrotic effects of hot water extract (WEC), intracellular biopolymer (IPC) and extracellular biopolymers (EPC) from mycelial liquid culture of Cordyceps militaris on liver fibrosis were studied. Liver fibrosis was induced by a bile duct ligation and scission (BDL/S) operation, duration of 4 weeks in rats. In BDL/S rats, the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin in serum and hydroxyproline content in liver were dramatically increased. The WEC or IPC treatment (30 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, p.o.) in BDL/S rats reduced the serum AST, ALT and ALP levels significantly (p<0.01). The EPC treatment (30 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, p.o.) reduced the serum ALT, AST and ALP levels significantly (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde contents in liver treated with WEC, IPC or EPC were significantly reduced (p<0.05). But Liver hydroxyproline content was decreased only in EPC treated BDL/S rats to 55% that of BDL/S control rats (p<0.01). The morphological characteristics and expression of alpha smooth muscle like actin in fibrotic liver, which appeared in BDL/S control group were improved in EPC treated fibrotic liver. These results indicate that EPC (30 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, p.o.) has an antifibrotic effect on fibrotic rats induced by BDL/S. PMID:11534766

Nan, J X; Park, E J; Yang, B K; Song, C H; Ko, G; Sohn, D H

2001-08-01

124

78 FR 13889 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Repatriate Cultural Items: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ...SUMMARY: The Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, in consultation...cultural items may contact the Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona. DATES:...

2013-03-01

125

77 FR 74866 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: New York State Museum, Albany, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Repatriate Cultural Items: New York State Museum, Albany, NY AGENCY: National Park Service...SUMMARY: The New York State Museum, in consultation with the appropriate...cultural items may contact the New York State Museum. DATES: Representatives of any...

2012-12-18

126

77 FR 25737 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Repatriate Cultural Items: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ...SUMMARY: The Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, in consultation...cultural items may contact the Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona. DATES:...

2012-05-01

127

United States Northern Command's Mission to Provide Military Support to Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies: The Challenge to Keep Homeland Security and Civil Liberty Dancing in Step with the Current Legal Music.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the Nation's Homeland Security, the recently formed United States Northern Command (NORTHCOM) has the mission to provide Military Support to Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies (MSCLEA). Depending on the circumstances and the law, NORTHCOM may pr...

M. W. Hoadley

2004-01-01

128

Criticism of American, British, European and Classical Authors: A Selective Bibliography of Books in the United States Military Academy Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this bibliography is to provide critical, literary commentaries on the works of American, British, and classical authors, found in general literature books. Selection of authors was accomplished on the basis of West Point military cadets' choices of topics for their annual English papers; alphabetical listings of citations (from…

Perry, Margaret, Comp.

129

Transformation Deja Vu. A Comparison of Military Improvements of Israel (1967-1973) and the United States (1990-2002).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1967, an outnumbered and outgunned Israeli military achieved a stunning and militarily decisive victory in six days. It decimated the Arab coalition forces, achieving destruction of 85 percent of the Egyptian air forces and 80 percent of their ground e...

W. A. Forkner T. L. Kelly R. S. Lamarre M. C. Sneeder

2002-01-01

130

Role of the United States Military in the Development of Vector Control Products, Including Insect Repellents, Insecticides, and Bed Nets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Arthropod-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, scrub typhus, and leishmaniasis continue to pose a significant threat to U.S. military forces deployed in support of operational and humanitarian missions. These diseases are transmitted by a variety of ar...

K. L. Lawrence L. W. Kitchen R. E. Coleman

2009-01-01

131

Characteristics of the Social Status of Students at Military Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the motivations of Russian college students in military training centers and military departments, and cadets enrolled in military service academies shows that the first two occupy a marginal position. This is reflected in the ambiguity of their status and the fact that they are at the interface between two cultures, manifested in…

Karlova, E. N.

2013-01-01

132

Military surgery: certification is long overdue.  

PubMed

Military surgery is a complex discipline that has progressed far beyond triage and the debridement of battle wounds. The evolution of modern warfare now demands that the combat surgeon be knowledgeable in military tactics, logistics, transport of personnel, trauma surgery, tropical medicine, public health, industrial medicine, and special weapons, as well as have a familiarity with the organizational structure and culture of the military services. This complexity qualifies military surgery as a subspecialty of surgery according to the criteria of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). Accreditation of military surgery as a defined specialty should be sought because that recognition will produce better care for our troops, improve education of military medical personnel, and stimulate research. PMID:7783928

Pories, W J

1995-03-01

133

Childhood Ideology in the United States: A Comparative Cultural View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Childhood ideology functions in each nation as a complex of ideas about what children are like and how best to teach and socialise them. One important domain of childhood ideology concerns ideas and practices related to children's development and behaviour management. Drawing from an analysis of popular childrearing magazines and early childhood education materials in the United States, this cultural study describes contemporary American mainstream beliefs concerning children's early emotional and behavioural development. In particular, the paper explores themes of emotional expression, autonomy, individuality, power, and consumerism. Some comparisons with Japanese views on child development and emotional/behavioural socialisation are also made. The paper suggests that popular ideas and techniques of emotional and behavioural management in the United States in both families and early childcare environments reflect a dominant ideology of children that has potentially negative consequences for children's welfare. Furthermore, childhood ideologies, while retaining culturally specific values and ideas neither remain static nor exist in isolation from one another. The paper questions the global diffusion of a Western-style professionalised discourse of child psychology that may not be applicable to all nations and their children.

Hoffman, Diane M.

2003-03-01

134

32 CFR 901.12 - Honor military and honor Naval schools-AFROTC and AFJROTC category.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Honor military and honor Naval schools-AFROTC and AFJROTC category. 901...THE AIR FORCE MILITARY TRAINING AND SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR...12 Honor military and honor Naval schoolsâAFROTC and AFJROTC category....

2013-07-01

135

An Aspect on the School Culture in Turkey and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to get a better understanding on school culture in the United States and Turkey. In this quantitative investigation, data were collected using the "School Culture Inventory" from 157 teachers in Izmir, Turkey and 161 teachers in the United States. The findings show that both countries have a positive culture. A…

Sahin, Semiha

2011-01-01

136

New York Operation: Military Kids Afterschool Universe Cosmic Camps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cornell Center for Radiophysics and Space Research education and public outreach program and the New York State Operation: Military Kids program partnered to plan four weekend "Cosmic Camps" for youth from military families using the NASA Afterschool Universe program.

Schaff, N.

2010-08-01

137

Functional status after blast-plus-impact complex concussive traumatic brain injury in evacuated United States military personnel.  

PubMed

Fundamental questions remain unanswered about the longitudinal impact of blast-plus-impact complex traumatic brain injuries (TBI) from wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This prospective, observational study investigated measures of clinical outcome in US military personnel evacuated to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC) in Germany after such "blast-plus" concussive TBIs. Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended assessments completed 6-12 months after injury indicated a moderate overall disability in 41/47 (87%) blast-plus TBI subjects and a substantial but smaller number (11/18, 61%, p=0.018) of demographically similar US military controls without TBI evacuated for other medical reasons. Cognitive function assessed with a neuropsychological test battery was not different between blast-plus TBI subjects and controls; performance of both groups was generally in the normal range. No subject was found to have focal neurological deficits. However, 29/47 (57%) of blast-plus subjects with TBI met all criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus 5/18 (28%) of controls (p=0.014). PTSD was highly associated with overall disability; 31/34 patients with PTSD versus 19/31 patients who did not meet full PTSD criteria had moderate to severe disability (p=0.0003). Symptoms of depression were also more severe in the TBI group (p=0.05), and highly correlated with PTSD severity (r=0.86, p<0.0001). Thus, in summary, high rates of PTSD and depression but not cognitive impairment or focal neurological deficits were observed 6-12 months after concussive blast-plus-impact complex TBI. Overall disability was substantially greater than typically reported in civilian non-blast concussive ("mild") patients with TBI, even with polytrauma. The relationship between these clinical outcomes and specific blast-related aspects of brain injuries versus other combat-related factors remains unknown. PMID:24367929

MacDonald, Christine L; Johnson, Ann M; Nelson, Elliot C; Werner, Nicole J; Fang, Raymond; Flaherty, Stephen F; Brody, David L

2014-05-15

138

Military sexual trauma.  

PubMed

Nurses' awareness of MST as a specific type of sexual assault within the military culture and sensitivity to the physical and psychological symptoms are important aspects of care. Nurses must treat the physical and emotional components of sexual assault in all settings; however, referral to the veterans administration programs and resources is key for the woman veteran to receive the specialized care developed by the healthcare system. Women veterans who have PTSD from MST and combat exposure are prone to depression, suicide and substance use/abuse. Nurses must not fear asking the woman if she is having suicidal thoughts or has a plan and intent to follow through with the plan. MST and PTSD may result in internalized anger, shame, self-blame, helplessness, hopelessness and powerlessness. Patient safety is of utmost importance. Assessing Patients for Sexual Violence, A Guide for Health Care Providers (2009) is a useful resource for nurses. The National Center for PTSD (2009) newsletter on the topic of MST includes a list of research studies. The work of Benedict (2007) and Corbett (2007) provide additional personal accounts of women soldiers who were in the Middle East conflicts. The nurse's referral to specialized services to treat MST and PTSD with evidence-based therapies is a crucial first step in the resiliency and well-being of these brave women who have served in all branches of the U.S. military. PMID:22359967

Wieland, Diane M; Haley, Jenna L; Bouder, Michelle

2011-12-01

139

Military space station implications. Study project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Justifying the relevancy of a Manned Military Space Station (MMSS) and subsequently proposing its deployment to capitalize upon the United States' national security interests is the essence and purpose of this group study project. The MMSS is intended to perform a two-fold purpose: (1) facilitate military peacetime operations while simultaneously supporting and promoting civilian space initiatives; and, (2) act as

G. D. Bourne; G. D. Skirvin; G. R. Wilson

1987-01-01

140

A World of Peace and Military Landscapes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines "peace landscapes" as areas having a virtual absence of conflict, such the border between the United States and Canada. Identifies "military landscapes" as those having intense military conflicts, as in the Iran-Iraq war. Examines the components of these landscapes and identifies the contributions geographers can make to better understand…

Brunn, Stanley D.

1987-01-01

141

LOCATIONS OF MILITARY WASTE SITES IN ALASKA  

EPA Science Inventory

This map shows locations of contaminated and non-contaminated military waste sites, Alaska Native Villages, Native Corporation boundaries, and Traditional Land-Use areas (Artic Slope region only). The entire state is shown plus identification of all military sites currently being...

142

The American Military and the Far East.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This highly selective bibliography was prepared for use at the Ninth Military History Symposium on 'The American Military and the Far East' held at the United States Air Force Academy, 1-3 October 1980. The resources cited were selected to try and show ba...

M. A. Robinson

1980-01-01

143

Comparative removal of bentazon by Ganoderma lucidum in liquid and solid state cultures.  

PubMed

Bentazon removal by Ganoderma lucidum cultured in liquid and solid state conditions was compared in this work. In solid state cultures, the fungus produced both ligninolytic enzymes, namely laccase and Mn peroxidase. In liquid cultures, the main ligninolytic enzyme produced was laccase. In both types of cultures bentazon improved the production of laccase without significant alteration in the production of Mn peroxidase. In solid state cultures, where high levels of both laccase and Mn peroxidase activities were found, the fungus was more resistant to the action of the herbicide (50 mM in solid state cultures against 20 mM in liquid cultures) and more efficient in removing bentazon (90% removal against 55% in liquid cultures after 10 days of cultivation). Furthermore, the solid state culture filtrates were more efficient in the in vitro degradation of bentazon than the liquid culture filtrates. These observations suggest that both enzymes, laccase and Mn peroxidase, are involved in bentazon degradation. The results further suggest that solid state cultures of Ganoderma lucidum could be useful in strategies designed to reduce environmental contamination by bentazon. PMID:19937032

da Silva Coelho, Jaqueline; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; de Oliveira, Andrea Luiza; Bracht, Adelar; Costa, Maria Aparecida Ferreira; Peralta, Rosane Marina

2010-05-01

144

Trends in HIV prevalence among white and African-American civilian applicants for United States Military Service, 1985 to 2003.  

PubMed

Data from 5,699,590 white and African-American civilian applicants who applied for service in the US military between 1985 and 2003 were used to analyze HIV prevalence trends. The overall HIV prevalence was 0.72/1000, which declined from 2.63/1000 in 1985 to 0.29/1000 in 1995, after which it remained stable until 2003 (0.30/1000). Larger and more significant declines in annual HIV prevalences were observed among the 4.5 million white applicants (-15.7% per year) compared with the 1.2 million African-American applicants (-10.0% per year). The HIV prevalence decline was also greater among male applicants (-12.4% per year) than female applicants (-7.1% per year). In the most recent 4 years study period, HIV prevalences increased among white applicants 25 to 29 years of age among African-American applicants 30 years of age or older. These data suggest that despite the overall consistent decreases in HIV prevalence from the 1980s to the late 1990s, an increase in HIV prevalence has taken place older African-American and white subgroups in more recent years. PMID:16763492

Bautista, Christian T; Sateren, Warren B; Singer, Darrell E; Carr, Jean K; Birx, Deborah L; Sanchez, Jose L

2006-05-01

145

Comparative Military Personnel Policies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report looks at the problems associated with the recruitment and employment of military personnel in Western industrialized society. It is particularly concerned with issues relating to the recruitment and retention within the military of homosexuals...

G. Harries-Jenkins

1994-01-01

146

ADHD and the Military  

MedlinePLUS

ADHD and the Military Can't find what you're looking for? Our health information specialists are ... 800-233-4050 or online . Can Individuals with ADHD Join the Military? Finding accurate information about whether ...

147

Military Sexual Trauma  

MedlinePLUS

... 8255 Military One Source 800-342-9647 Military Sexual Assault SafeHelpline 877-995-5247 18 reads Home Topics ... experienced a sexual trauma. Sexual trauma (harassment, assault, rape and associated violence) can trigger a range of ...

148

Fullfilling the Military Service Obligation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Directive reissues DoD Directive 1304.25, November 6, 1984, and implements sections 269, 511, and 651 of Title 10, United States Code by prescribing policy, procedures, and responsibilities with respect to fulfillment of the statutory military service...

J. Mowery

1986-01-01

149

32 CFR 552.69 - Application by companies to solicit on military installations in the United States, its...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...installations in the United States, its territories, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. 552.69 Section 552.69 National...installations in the United States, its territories, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Before a company may be...

2010-07-01

150

Illegal Immigration: Is the Use of Military Force in Policing the United states' Border with Mexico a Viable Option.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Illegal immigration across the United States' borders, in particular the Southern Border with Mexico, has been a continual problem confronting our local, state and national political decision makers. Over the years, numerous attempts at quelling this ille...

D. Lopez

2001-01-01

151

Foreign Language Instruction in New York State for the 1970's: "The Culture Question".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of teaching culture in language classes is reflected in the criticism directed to the current Part 4 section of the Regents foreign language examination given in the State of New York. This paper, the result of a panel discussion on culture, proposes changes in the examinations and proposes new directions in the study of culture.…

Glaude, Paul M.

152

The Army and the Economy Economic Aspects of Military Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for military reform has already been recognized at all levels of the political and military leadership. Unfortunately, however, its subsequent preparation has been protracted. The draft of the conception of military reform has not yet been made public. This question has not yet been discussed by the USSR Supreme Soviet Committee on Defense and State Security and by

V. Lopatin

1991-01-01

153

31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.511 Section...forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibition...forces of the United States and their coalition partners present in Iraq and...

2013-07-01

154

31 CFR 576.207 - Exemption for property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.207 Section...forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibitions...forces of the United States and their coalition partners present in Iraq and acting...

2013-07-01

155

Military Effectiveness: A Reappraisal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Military effectiveness is a common goal among military forces, but it is an ill-defined concept. Two divergent theories cover the ground of military effectiveness. One looks at the interaction of social structures, whereas the other looks at the effect or...

J. J. Bernasconi

2007-01-01

156

Infectious Mononucleosis at the United States Military Academy. A Prospective Study of a Single Class Over Four Years 1  

PubMed Central

A prospective study of EB virus infections was initiated in July, 1969 in the entering class of 1401 cadets, at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y. and continued over 4 yr. On entry 63.5% possessed EBV antibody and 36.5 lacked EBV antibody. The rate of antibody prevalence varied with the geographic area from which the cadet originated. Except in two cadets already ill on first bleeding no evidence of clinical infectious mononucleosis (I.M.) occurred over the 4 yr period in the 890 cadets entering the Academy with EBV antibody. Among 437 cadets without antibody on entry, 54 or 12.4% were infected (seroconverted) in the freshman year; 15 of these had clinical I.M., 12 had suggestive I.M., and 39 had no known mono-like illness. The annual infection rates in susceptible cadets in the second, third, and fourth years were 24.4, 15.1, and 30.8 per 100, respectively. Of 201 cadets infected with EBV over 4 yr only 26.4% were manifested by heterophile positive clinical infectious mononucleosis. Overall, 46% of the 437 cadets entering without EBV antibody became infected over 40 mo of serologic observation; definite clinical infectious mononucleosis developed in 53 cadets, a clinical attack rate of 12.1 per 100 for 4 yr. The EBV infection rate among exposed and susceptible roommates of known cases was no higher than in roommates not so exposed. Elevations of EBV-specific and total IgM occurred during acute illness and disappeared in late convalescence. Total IgG and IgA levels were less commonly elevated. EBV-specific-IgM antibody was demonstrable during the acute illness but was absent 12 mo later. Analysis of EBV infection rates revealed no difference among persons of different ABO blood groups.

Hallee, T. James; Evans, Alfred S.; Niederman, James C.; Brooks, Charles M.; Voegtly, John H.

1974-01-01

157

Is there a need for a new cultural policy strategy in the Nordic welfare state?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural policies have existed as a structural element of the Nordic welfare states from the very beginning. Today these policies are being re?evaluated, and there are some indications that they may be gradually dismantled. Local cultural politicians in municipalities (cultural boards) and professionals (e.g. cultural secretaries) have become uncertain and anxious about their future role and legitimacy.This new situation is

Anita Kangas

1996-01-01

158

76 FR 58031 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY...SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), in consultation with the appropriate Indian...

2011-09-19

159

Kinetics of the Steady State Bacterial Culture with Application to the Activated Sludge Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An activated sludge culture was developed which would operate at a steady state condition. At steady state the environment of the organisms remains essentially constant over a detention period. Numerous attempts were made to develop an environment which w...

S. S. Rao L. J. Hetling E. J. Martin

1965-01-01

160

Culture and the State: Manufacturing Traditions for Tourism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how Singapore's government influences the production and patterning of cultures through the policy of national tourism. Describes how a national culture is actively created and projected to the international polity and international mass market by advertising and manufacturing ethnic "traditions" of selected groups for the potential…

Leong, Wai-Teng

1989-01-01

161

Cognitive-Affective States Predict Military and Political Aggression and Risk TakingA Content Analysis of Churchill, Hitler, Roosevelt, and Stalin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explanatory styles, integrative complexity, and pessimistic rumination scores of Winston Churchill, Adolf Hitler, Josef Stalin, and Franklin D. Roosevelt were derived from verbatim materials for time periods preceding military and political events. The events were rated on scales of aggression\\/passivity and risk\\/caution. Results suggest that increases in optimism and decreases in integrative complexity before military and political events predict

Jason M. Satterfield

1998-01-01

162

Genomic Characterization of Adenovirus 21 Strains Associated With Outbreaks of Febrile Respiratory Illness in United States Military Recruit Training Centers Between 1996 and 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adenovirus type 21 (Ad21) is a well-known causative agent of acute respiratory disease among both military recruits and children. In an effort to characterize the molecular epidemiology of Ad21 infections in the military environment, genome-typing work wa...

A. E. Kajon D. Metzger J. M. Moseley K. L. Russell

2006-01-01

163

Cultural differences in patterns of mood states on board the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on our previous studies of astronauts and cosmonauts, we hypothesized that the patterning of mood states among International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers would vary by culture, regardless of the overall frequency of these states in each cultural group. Russian clinicians recognize a pattern of distress known as asthenia. According to the asthenia model, depression should covary with fatigue. According

Jennifer E. Boyd; Nick Kanas; Vadim I. Gushin; Stephanie Saylor

2007-01-01

164

Military psychiatry in India  

PubMed Central

Military personnel, because of the unique nature of their duties and services, are likely to be under stress which at times has no parallel in civilian life. The stress of combat and service in extreme weather conditions often act as major stressors. The modern practices in military psychiatry had their beginning during the two World Wars, more particularly, the IInd World War. The GHPU concept had the beginning in India with military hospitals having such establishments in the care of their clientele. As the nation gained independence, many of the military psychiatrists shifted to the civil stream and contributed immensely in the development of modern psychiatry in India. In the recent years military psychiatry has been given the status of a subspecialty chapter and the military psychiatrists have been regularly organizing CMEs and training programs for their members to prepare them to function in the special role of military psychiatrists.

Prabhu, H. R. A.

2010-01-01

165

Bionic Running for Unilateral Transtibial Military Amputees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A team from the United States Military Academy and Walter Reed Medical Center, in collaboration with private industry partner, SpringActive, Inc., have designed, built, and demonstrated a first of its kind motor powered, single board computer controlled, ...

A. Boehler J. Hitt J. Johnston J. Merlo M. Holgate

2010-01-01

166

Military Day Care--A Nationwide Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the hours of operation, age and ethnicity of participating children, staffing costs, and quality of United States military day care centers that are operated as nonappropriated fund instrumentalities. Some conclusions are drawn. (ED)

Nesenholtz, David

1976-01-01

167

Cultural Resources Management Plan for Walter S. Carpenter State Park,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the project was to develop a cultural resources management plan for the park and to obtain information which could be used in refining prehistoric settlement models for the White Clay Creek drainage of Delaware.

C. L. Wise

1985-01-01

168

USAWC (United States Army War College) Military Studies Program Paper. A Southwest Asia Basing Strategy for USCENTCOM.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since President Carter's declaration of U.S. vital interests in the Persian Gulf in his State of the Union Message of 1981, the RDJTF, and more recently USCENTCOM, have pursued forward basing in the Southwest Asian Region. A detailing of these efforts poi...

L. M. Laska

1986-01-01

169

An Investigation of the Scope, Purpose, and Effects of United States Foreign Military Sales to Saudi Arabia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Security Assistance Program has grown rapidly in the 1970s and Saudi Arabia has been an integral part of the growth. By 1976 Saudi Arabia became the largest purchaser of U.S. arms and equipment worldwide. The research analyzes the purpos...

B. L. Dycus J. A. Fiorillo

1977-01-01

170

Uniform culture in solid-state fermentation with fungi and its efficient enzyme production.  

PubMed

Solid-state fermentation (SSF) has attracted a lot of interest for carrying out high-level protein production in filamentous fungi. However, it has problems such as the fermentation heat generated during the culture in addition to the reduced mobility of substances. These conditions lead to a nonuniform state in the culture substrate and result in low reproducibility. We constructed a non-airflow box (NAB) with a moisture permeable fluoropolymer membrane, thereby making it possible to control and maintain uniform and optimal conditions in the substrate. For the NAB culture in Aspergillus oryzae, temperature and water content on/in the whole substrate were more consistent than for a traditional tray box (TB) culture. Total weight after the culture remained constant and dry conditions could be achieved during the culture. These data demonstrate the possibility of growing a uniform culture of the whole substrate for SSF. The NAB is advantageous because it allows for the control of exact temperature and water content in the substrate during the culture by allowing vapor with latent heat to dissipate out of the box. In addition, several enzymes in the NAB culture exhibited higher production levels than in the TB culture. We believe that culturing in the constructed NAB could become a standard technique for commercial SSF. PMID:21163699

Ito, Kazunari; Kawase, Tomoka; Sammoto, Hiroyuki; Gomi, Katsuya; Kariyama, Masahiro; Miyake, Tsuyoshi

2011-03-01

171

Immunization and military medicine.  

PubMed

This lecture, a memorial to Joseph E. Smadel, reviews the involvement of the military in the development and use of immunizing materials. Smallpox and smallpox immunization in the military and the development and present status of immunization against typhoid, cholera, yellow fever, typhus, tetanus, diphtheria, plague, influenza, adenovirus, meningitis, rubella, and malaria are reviewed. Dr. Smadel's personal contributions to the significant achievements of the military program to civilian practice are emphasized. PMID:6369477

Benenson, A S

1984-01-01

172

An Adjective Check List Scale to Predict Military Leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 300-item Adjective Check List is proposed as a useful device for cross-cultural research. This study evaluated the ACL as a predictor of leadership ratings in two Italian officer training programs and the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. Ns were 244, 415, and 523. A 50-item `Military Leadership Scale\\

Harrison G. Gough; Renato Lazzari; Mario Fioravanti; Massimiliano Stracca

1978-01-01

173

Group Treatment for Wife-Battering Military Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Isolation from extended family, frequent geographic relocation, living in foreign countries, prolonged separation of spouses, occupational stress, prevalent cross-cultural marriages, financial problems and dependence of the civilian spouse on the military member have been cited as pressures which could contribute to wife-battering by military

Waldo, Michael

174

Framing Culture: How "Culture" is Represented in Australian State and Territory Language Curriculum Frameworks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Views about the nature of culture and its relationship to language are constantly changing, and in relation to language learning, recent thinking has culminated in what is being termed "intercultural language learning." This orientation towards the teaching and learning of languages requires engagement with increasingly sophisticated views of…

Kohler, Michelle

2005-01-01

175

Cultural Trauma and Ethnic Identity Formation Among Iranian Immigrants in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspired mainly by Jeffery Alexander's concept of cultural trauma and Irving Goffman's analysis of stigma, this article examines the impact of the Iranian Revolution and the ensuing hostage crisis in 1979 on the formation of ethnic identity among Iranian immigrants in the United States. These events resulted in the loss of cultural and ethnic pride, the rise of anti-Islamic religious

Mohsen Mobasher

2006-01-01

176

Norway, the United States, and Commercial WhalingPolitical Culture and Social Movement Framing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norway has long tried to portray itself as one of the most environmentally responsible states. But it has consistently refused to support the moratorium against commercial whaling. This article offers a cultural explanation for this seeming contradiction, by examining the way the global antiwhaling movement framed the issue and the Norwegian environmental organizations reframed it. It argues that two cultural

Jennifer L. Bailey

2009-01-01

177

Focus in a Time of Change: Kent State Promotes a Quality Operations Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kent State University (Ohio) has focused on developing an organizational culture that expects and promotes quality. A college finance division statement, distributed to division staff, identifies its values and beliefs and emphasizes a culture in which planning, empowerment, and continuous improvement are key elements. (MSE)

Kelley, Lawrence R.

1994-01-01

178

The cigarette manufacturers' efforts to promote tobacco to the U.S. military.  

PubMed

This article describes findings from review of tobacco industry documents regarding promotion of tobacco to the military, and efforts to influence Department of Defense policies regarding the use and sale of tobacco products. The documents reveal that the industry has targeted the military for decades for reasons including: (1) the volume of worldwide military personnel; (2) the opportunity to attract young men who fit a specific socioeconomic and cultural profile; (3) potential carryover of profits to civilian markets; and (4) the unusual price structure of commissaries and exchanges. The industry used distinctive promotion methods such as in-store merchandising, sponsorships, and even brand development to target the military, both in the United States and abroad during times of conflict. Legislative activity to protect tobacco promotion to this vulnerable population was carried out in response to smoking policy changes proposed by the Department of Defense. The tobacco industry has contributed to the high prevalence of smoking in the military and among veterans. PMID:16435763

Joseph, Anne M; Muggli, Monique; Pearson, Kathryn C; Lando, Harry

2005-10-01

179

Arsenite maintains germinative state in cultured human epidermal cells  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic is a well-known carcinogen for human skin, but its mechanism of action and proximal macromolecular targets remain to be elucidated. In the present study, low micromolar concentrations of sodium arsenite maintained the proliferative potential of epidermal keratinocytes, decreasing their exit from the germinative compartment under conditions that promote differentiation of untreated cells. This effect was observed in suspension and in post-confluent surface cultures as measured by colony-forming ability and by proportion of rapidly adhering colony-forming cells. Arsenite-treated cultures exhibited elevated levels of {beta}1-integrin and {beta}-catenin, two proteins enriched in cells with high proliferative potential. Levels of phosphorylated (inactive) glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} were higher in the treated cultures, likely accounting for the increased levels of transcriptionally available {beta}-catenin. These findings suggest that arsenic could have co-carcinogenic and tumor co-promoting activities in the epidermis as a result of increasing the population and persistence of germinative cells targeted by tumor initiators and promoters. These findings also identify a critical signal transduction pathway meriting further exploration in pursuit of this phenomenon.

Patterson, Timothy J. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States); Reznikova, Tatiana V. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States); Phillips, Marjorie A. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States); Rice, Robert H. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States)]. E-mail: rhrice@ucdavis.edu

2005-08-22

180

Position Paper on Cultural and Heritage Tourism in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Position Paper on Cultural and Heritage Tourism in the United States was developed by PCAH with help from than more than 100 leaders representing travel, tourism, business, arts, humanities, natural resources and government and endorsed by the delegat...

2005-01-01

181

Assessing Public Opinion Toward the Military.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Opinions and attitudes of the US public toward its military have shifted over the years from strong admiration to fear and contempt. A number of historical and cultural events have helped shape public opinion. Although public opinion is not predicated sol...

C. H. Foster

1985-01-01

182

Cost as a Military Requirement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1916, Frederick Lanchester theorized that the power of a military force is proportional to the square of the number of its units. Despite technological advances in military weaponry, Lanchester s basic observation that quantity is essential to military...

J. S. Gansler W. Lucyshyn

2013-01-01

183

‘Non’ Mediated ImagesPublic Culture and (State) Television in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television has been a state privilege in Malaysia since independence from British rule in 1957 and instrumental in Malaysia’s attempt to fashion and display public culture. RTM (Radio Television Malaysia) has functioned as a state mouthpiece, since 1963, most often representing deep differences between ethnic groups, and in the process manufacturing sacred and non-sacred circuits of cultures. Under a one-party,

Umi Khattab

2006-01-01

184

Advising Transfer Military Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's students can come from a larger area than just high school. With the entire world's conflicts and today's society, more and more of our present day students may have come from the military ranks. Though we have not come to an actual draft system, more and more modern day students have served their time in the military, to keep America…

Bailey, Steven

2011-01-01

185

Radiometry in military applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Missiles guided using optoelectronic methods, optoelectronic imaging systems (thermal imaging systems, night vision devices, LLLTV cameras, TV cameras), and optoelectronic countermeasures (smoke screens, camouflage paints and nets, IR flares, decoys, jamming systems, warning systems) are one of the most important components of modern military armament. There are numerous military standards, some of them secret, that precise radiometric parameters to be

Krzysztof Chrzanowski

2001-01-01

186

Hebrew Military Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to give the military student a broad range of vocabulary on military subjects and a general understanding of the structure and operations of the Israel Defense Forces, this reader parallels advanced materials prepared for Foreign Service students of Hebrew and consists of short reading passages, each followed by a vocabulary list…

Abarbanel, Joel I.

187

Cultural determinism, Western hegemony & the efficacy of defective states  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that the notion of a defective state, including those designated as ‘weak’, ‘failed’ or ‘collapsed’, has a number of obvious advantages for the West. First and most obviously, it offers an explanation for the faults of the state in question that does not implicate outside forces. Second, it justifies external action to intervene in the internal affairs

Tim Jacoby

2005-01-01

188

Connecting Cultures via the Internet: The United States and Russia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Project Linking, a program developed at Iowa State University that involved collaboration between middle school teachers in Moscow and in the United States to develop an interdisciplinary curriculum that focused on social sciences and global education. Explains the theoretical framework and advantages of Internet-mediated learning.…

Koeppen, Kim E.; Andre, Thomas

2000-01-01

189

Implementation and dissemination of military informed and evidence-based interventions for community dwelling military families.  

PubMed

Community dwelling military families from the National Guard and Reserve contend with deployment-related stressors in relative isolation, living in communities where mental health providers may have little knowledge of military culture. When they are community residents, active duty service members and families tend to live in close proximity to their military installations. This article will focus primarily on the challenges to quality mental health care for reserve component (RC) families. Where studies of RC families are absent, those of active component (AC) families will be highlighted as relevant. Upon completion of a deployment, reintegration for RC families is complicated by high rates of symptomatology, low service utilization, and greater barriers to care relative to AC families. A paucity of providers skilled in evidence-based treatments (EBTs) limits community mental health capacity to serve RC military families. Several emergent programs illustrate the potential for better serving community dwelling military families. Approaches include behavioral health homes, EBTs and treatment components, structured resiliency and parent training, military informed schools, outreach methods, and technology-based coping, and psychoeducation. Methods from implementation science to improve clinical skill acquisition and spread and sustainability of EBTs may advance access to and quality of mental health treatment and are reviewed herein. Recommendations related to research methods, military knowledge and treatment competencies, and transition to a public health model of service delivery are discussed. PMID:23852335

Murphy, Robert A; Fairbank, John A

2013-12-01

190

Documents in Military History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited by Dave Stewart, assistant professor of history at Hillsdale College (Hillsdale, Michigan), Documents in Military History is an online collection of primary sources for military history. The collection emphasizes pre-twentieth-century European military history but also includes some documents that address American and non-Western histories. Currently, the collection contains 325 items in six major historical sections: Ancient, Medieval, Early Modern, French Revolution, Nineteenth Century, and Naval Warfare. Each major section is further divided into more specific subsections. The organized layout of the site promotes chronological browsing. The site also provides a keyword search facility (inoperable at the time of review).

191

A Cross-Cultural Study of Teachers' Instructional Practices in Singapore and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-cultural study, utilizing a structured instructional behavior rating form, examined distinguishing and comparable teaching practices in secondary gifted classrooms in Singapore and the United States. Teachers from Singapore (n = 67) and teachers from the United States (n = 33) in 5 subject domains including math, science, English,…

VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; Feng, Annie; MacFarlane, Bronwyn; Heng, Mary Anne; Teo, Chua Tee; Wong, Marie Linda; Quek, Chwee G.; Khong, Beng Choo

2008-01-01

192

Academic and Military Programs of the Five Service Academies. Report to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The academic and military programs of the five service academies are reviewed and found generally to produce qualified officers, but several aspects of their program could be improved. It is noted that only the Naval and Merchant Marine Academies require a comprehensive examination to evaluate students' professional competence before graduation…

Staats, Elmer B.

193

Etiology of Acute Diarrhea among United States Military Personnel Deployed to South America and West Africa. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of acute diarrhea was conducted from 1985 to 1987 among U.S. military personnel participating in routine shipboard exercises in South America and West Africa and ground troops deployed to coastal Ecuador. An enteropathogen was identified in 146 (5...

A. L. Bourgeois C. H. Gardiner S. A. Thornton R. A. Batchelor D. H. Burr

1993-01-01

194

The role of the United States military in the development of vector control products, including insect repellents, insecticides, and bed nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arthropod-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, scrub typhus, and leishmaniasis continue to pose a significant threat to U.S. military forces deployed in support of operational and humanitarian missions. These diseases are transmitted by a variety of arthropods, including mosquitoes, ticks, chiggers, sand flies, and biting midges. In addition to disease threats, biting arthropods can cause dermatitis, allergic reactions, and sleep

Lynn W. Kitchen; Kendra L. Lawrence; Russell E. Coleman

195

Selection of Military Advisors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proper selection of advisory personnel for transition teams is critical to military advisory efforts in Iraq. The selection procedures currently in place have shortcomings that may be best adjusted through analyzing historical experiences and prior lesson...

T. J. Clark

2007-01-01

196

The Military's Monopsony Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The military, and society in general, can be made better off by moving to the competitive equilibrium, the Pareto optimal solution. However, even if the competitive solution is not politically possible, the present monopsony solution for the AVF is prefer...

A. Quester M. Nakada

1982-01-01

197

Professional Military Ethic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Understanding the professional military ethic (PME) first requires understanding the conceptual foundations upon which it stands. This foundation includes objective morality, the sociology of professions, professional ethics in general, and the profession...

J. D. Cazier

2012-01-01

198

Military Immunization Communication Handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Defense's (DoD) immunization program is an integral part of DoD's force protection program. One of the biggest challenges for the military immunization program involves maintaining a comprehensive communication effort to provide informat...

2005-01-01

199

Samuel Johnson's Military Writings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis contends that a consistent pattern of thought unites Johnson's moral and philological compositions (the Rambler and Idler essays, the Sermons) with his military writings--those works that have as their subjects soldiers or warfare. Specificall...

B. J. Hanley

1992-01-01

200

WAR & Military Mental Health  

PubMed Central

Involvement in warfare can have dramatic consequences for the mental health and well-being of military personnel. During the 20th century, US military psychiatrists tried to deal with these consequences while contributing to the military goal of preserving manpower and reducing the debilitating impact of psychiatric syndromes by implementing screening programs to detect factors that predispose individuals to mental disorders, providing early intervention strategies for acute war-related syndromes, and treating long-term psychiatric disability after deployment. The success of screening has proven disappointing, the effects of treatment near the front lines are unclear, and the results of treatment for chronic postwar syndromes are mixed. After the Persian Gulf War, a number of military physicians made innovative proposals for a population-based approach, anchored in primary care instead of specialty-based care. This approach appears to hold the most promise for the future.

Pols, Hans; Oak, Stephanie

2007-01-01

201

Psychology of Military Groups.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Ideology and social psychology: The subject of social psychology; Interdependence of ideology and social psychology; Class and national features of social psychology; Basic elements of social psychology. Study of the psychology of a military gro...

A. Campbell E. Fortunatov

1968-01-01

202

Military usage of connectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Military specifications with general purpose parameters and termination data covering flat connectors and flat cables are proposed. The material, design, coating, and insulation are discussed, and drafts of specifications for flat cables including quality assurance provisions, and inspection are presented.

Schade, R.

1972-01-01

203

OLED study for military applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presentation deals with some applications of OLED displays in military optronic systems, which are scheduled by SAGEM DS (Defence and Security). SAGEM DS, one of the largest group in the defence and security market, is currently investigating OLED Technologies for military programs. This technology is close from being chosen for optronic equipment such as future infantry night vision goggles, rifle-sight, or, more generally, vision enhancement systems. Most of those applications requires micro-display with an active matrix size below 1". Some others, such as, for instance, ruggedized flat displays do have a need for higher active matrix size (1,5" to 15"). SAGEM DS takes advantages of this flat, high luminance and emissive technology in highly integrated systems. In any case, many requirements have to be fulfilled: ultra-low power consumption, wide viewing angle, good pixel to pixel uniformity, and satisfactory behaviour in extreme environmental conditions.... Accurate measurements have been achieved at SAGEM DS on some micro display OLEDs and will be detailed: luminance (over 2000 cd/m2 achieved), area uniformity and pixel to pixel uniformity, robustness at low and high temperature (-40°C to +60°C), lifetime. These results, which refer to military requirements, provide a valuable feedback representative of the state of the art OLED performances.

Barre, F.; Chiquard, A.; Faure, S.; Landais, L.; Patry, P.

2005-07-01

204

Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

1997

205

Permanent Magnet Generators for Portable Military Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Army MERDC has a continuing program to develop and update a family of portable and/or mobile power generation sets for use by the United States military services. In the past decade, a number of new permanent magnet materials have been d...

E. F. Hammond A. E. King A. L. Jokl

1971-01-01

206

Generational equity in America: A cultural historian's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the issue of generational equity in America through the lenses of cultural history and social criticism. It argues that generational equity reflects broader problems of contemporary aging policy, whose troubles in turn reflect the decline of American military and economic power, the legitimation crisis of the liberal welfare state, and population aging. The question of justice between

Thomas R. Cole

1989-01-01

207

Suicide in Different Cultures: A Thematic Comparison of Suicide Notes From Turkey and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suicide is a global concern, hence, cross-cultural research ought to be central; yet, there is a paucity of cross-cultural study in suicidology. A thematic or theoretical-conceptual analysis of 60 suicide notes drawn from Turkey and the United States, matched for age and sex, was undertaken, based on Leenaars’s empirical-based multidimensional model of suicide. The results suggested that there were more

Antoon A. Leenaars; Asl?han Sayin; Selçuk Candansayar; Lindsey Leenaars; Taner Akar; Birol Demirel

2010-01-01

208

Cultural norms versus state law in treating incest: a suggested model for Arab families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This article examines problems of intervention in sexual abuse cases among collective societies and offers a culturally sensitive model of intervention.Method: The manuscript is based on cross-cultural literature and clinical cases within the Palestinian community in Israel.Results: Unlike Western societies in which the state takes responsibility for the needs of its citizens and has laws that aim to protect

Khawla Abu Baker; Marwan Dwairy

2003-01-01

209

Radiometry in military applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Missiles guided using optoelectronic methods, optoelectronic imaging systems (thermal imaging systems, night vision devices, LLLTV cameras, TV cameras), and optoelectronic countermeasures (smoke screens, camouflage paints and nets, IR flares, decoys, jamming systems, warning systems) are one of the most important components of modern military armament. There are numerous military standards, some of them secret, that precise radiometric parameters to be measured and the testing methods to be used. There is also much literature on the subject of testing of the systems mentioned above, although mostly on subject of testing of the thermal imaging systems. In spite of this apparently numerous literature, there still significant confusion in this area due to secrecy of some parameters and testing methods, differences in recommendations of different military standards, fast progress in military optoelectronics, and also due to enormous number of different types of optoelectronics systems used in the military armament. A review of testing methods of the three basic groups of optoelectronics systems used in modern military armament: the missiles guided using optoelectronics methods, the optoelectronic imaging systems, and the optoelectronic countermeasures is presented in this paper. Trends in the measuring sets.

Chrzanowski, Krzysztof

2001-08-01

210

State and parameter estimation of microalgal photobioreactor cultures based on local irradiance measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local photosynthetic photon flux fluence rate (PPFFR) determined by a submersible 4? quantum micro-sensor was used in developing a versatile on-line state estimator for stirred-tank microalgal photobioreactor cultures. A marine micro-alga Dunaliellasalina was used as a model organism in this study. On-line state estimation was realized using the extended Kalman filter (EKF), based on a state model of the photobioreactor

Wei Wen Su; Jian Li; Ning-Shou Xu

2003-01-01

211

Liquid state machines and cultured cortical networks: the separation property.  

PubMed

In vitro neural networks of cortical neurons interfaced to a computer via multichannel microelectrode arrays (MEA) provide a unique paradigm to create a hybrid neural computer. Unfortunately, only rudimentary information about these in vitro network's computational properties or the extent of their abilities are known. To study those properties, a liquid state machine (LSM) approach was employed in which the liquid (typically an artificial neural network) was replaced with a living cortical network and the input and readout functions were replaced by the MEA-computer interface. A key requirement of the LSM architecture is that inputs into the liquid state must result in separable outputs based on the liquid's response (separation property). In this paper, high and low frequency multi-site stimulation patterns were applied to the living cortical networks. Two template-based classifiers, one based on Euclidean distance and a second based on a cross-correlation were then applied to measure the separation of the input-output relationship. The result was over a 95% (99.8% when nonstationarity is compensated) input reconstruction accuracy for the high and low frequency patterns, confirming the existence of the separation property in these biological networks. PMID:18761392

Dockendorf, Karl P; Park, Il; He, Ping; Príncipe, José C; DeMarse, Thomas B

2009-02-01

212

United States and Brazil : Expanding Frontiers, Comparing Cultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extremely compelling website, dedicated to examining the interactions between Brazil and the United States from the 18th century to the present, grew out of discussions between Dr. James H. Billington, the Librarian of Congress, and the former President of Brazil, Fernando Hernrique Cardoso. Developed under the auspices of the Global Gateway program at the Library of Congress, the site contains an impressive amount of primary source materials, including maps, rare books, prints, photographs, and manuscripts. When completed, the project will contain materials organized around four primary themes, but currently only the theme of Historical Foundations is complete. As might be expected, the site is presented in both Portuguese and English, and a powerful multifaceted search engine will help guide users to particular documents of interest. Browsing through the Historical Foundations section of the site, visitors will find a timeline (complete with accompanying visual materials), and five separate sections dedicated to exploration, the colonial period, and so on.

Billington, James H.; Cardoso, Fernando H.

213

Effects of the Uniformed Services Former Spouses' Protection Act on Military Retirement Benefits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Uniformed Services Former Spouses' Protection Act (USFSPA) allows state courts to treat military retirement pay as property for possible division in matters of divorce. The problem is that several military and veterans' organizations believe this law ...

C. E. Altherr

2001-01-01

214

Optimization of nutrient concentration for citric acid production by solid-state culture of Aspergillus niger on polyurethane foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citric acid production from mussel processing effluents by Aspergillus niger in solid-state culture was studied using polyurethane foam particles soaked with the culture medium. Conditions were used that allowed comparison of the results with those obtained before in submerged culture and the attribution of the differences to the characteristics of solid-state culture.A screening of several strains gave different results than

J. Pintado; A. Torrado; M. P. González; M. A. Murado

1998-01-01

215

A First Amendment Analysis of Military Regulations Restricting the Wearing of Military Uniforms by Members of the Individual Ready Reserve Who Participate in Politically Themed Theatrical Productions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adam Kokesh, a veteran of the Iraq War and a member of the Individual Ready Reserve, performed a public reenactment of combat in Iraq while wearing elements of his military uniform. Although federal statutes permit the wearing of a military uniform during such expression, the United States Marine Corps punished Kokesh based on his violation of military regulations. This Note

Daniel McFadden

2008-01-01

216

An update of military robotics activities  

SciTech Connect

Military unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) are beginning to break new ground that will strongly affect the future development of robotics. Current and planned future demonstrations of new UGV technologies are aiding in the maturation of control and navigation technologies critical to remotely controlled, supervised, and autonomous robots. The United States and its allies are spending millions of dollars to develop UGVs for military applications. The first systems will be deployed by the year 2000. The United States is leading the way, and its program is focused on the tactical UGV (TUGV) for the US Army and Marine Corps.

Lovece, J.A. (L B Ltd., Washington, DC (United States))

1992-01-01

217

The work-family interface in the United States and Singapore: conflict across cultures.  

PubMed

This article examines the work-family interface in a cross-cultural comparison between two nationally representative samples from the United States (n = 1,860) and Singapore (n = 1,035) with emphasis on work-family conflict. Family-to-work conflict was negatively related to marital satisfaction in both Singapore and the United States, although the effect was stronger in the United States. Similarly, family-to-work conflict was positively related to job satisfaction in the United States but was negatively related in Singapore. As expected, schedule flexibility was negatively related to depression in the United States, but in Singapore the relationship was positive. These findings suggest that theoretical relationships in the work-family interface developed in the more culturally individualistic West may need to be adapted when studying populations in the more collectivist East. PMID:20954775

Galovan, Adam M; Fackrell, Tamara; Buswell, Lydia; Jones, Blake L; Hill, E Jeffrey; Carroll, Sarah June

2010-10-01

218

Realism, Culture and Grand Strategy: Explaining America's Peculiar Path to World Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

When and why do states adopt new grand strategies? According to a “neoclassical realist” model, changes in international conditions are the chief cause of long-term adjustments in grand strategy, while domestic political-military cultures help specify the precise grand strategies chosen by state officials. What results are outcomes that appear surprising or skewed from a realist perspective. I test the neoclassical

Colin Dueck

2005-01-01

219

The role of the United States military in the development of vector control products, including insect repellents, insecticides, and bed nets.  

PubMed

Arthropod-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, scrub typhus, and leishmaniasis continue to pose a significant threat to U.S. military forces deployed in support of operational and humanitarian missions. These diseases are transmitted by a variety of arthropods, including mosquitoes, ticks, chiggers, sand flies, and biting midges. In addition to disease threats, biting arthropods can cause dermatitis, allergic reactions, and sleep loss; therefore, monitoring of vector impact and integrated use of personal protective measures (PPM) and methods to reduce the vector populations are needed to protect service members. The U.S. military has played a vital role in vector identification tools and the development and testing of many of the most effective PPM and vector control products available today, including the topical repellent DEET and the repellent/insecticide permethrin, which is applied to clothing and bed nets. Efforts to develop superior products are ongoing. Although the U.S. military often needs vector control products with rather specific properties (e.g., undetectable, long-lasting in multiple climates) in order to protect its service members, many Department of Defense vector control products have had global impacts on endemic disease control. PMID:20836805

Kitchen, Lynn W; Lawrence, Kendra L; Coleman, Russell E

2009-06-01

220

Finding a Balance: Health Promotion Challenges of Military Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we explored what may determine, or predict, United States military women's health promotion behaviors. Using a descriptive correlational design grounded in Pender's Health Promotion model, 491 military women completed instruments measuring their demographic variables, perception of health, definition of health, self-efficacy, and interpersonal influences to determine the significant factors affecting participation in health promotion activities. The outcome

Janice Griffin Agazio; Kathleen M. Buckley

2010-01-01

221

Selected Procedural Safeguards in Federal, Military, and International Courts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Declaring it necessary to bring to justice those responsible for the terrorist attacks on the United States of September 11, 2001, President Bush signed a Military Order (M.O.) authorizing the trial by military commission of certain non-citizens. The orde...

J. K. Elsea

2006-01-01

222

Finding Dennis Hart Mahan: The Professor's Place in Military History.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper seeks to ascertain the 'place' of Dennis Hart Mahan, professor at the United States Military Academy from 1832-1871, within American military history. The research for this paper commenced with a premise that Mahan has a pervasive influence upo...

I. Hope

2008-01-01

223

Acute Respiratory Disease in U.S. Military.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acute respiratory disease has long been a problem among U.S. military forces. It is the most frequent cause of out- and in-patient morbidity in the United States military forces having a marked impact upon operational forces, especially those undergoing t...

G. C. Gray

1995-01-01

224

Suicides in the military: the post-modern combat veteran and the hemingway effect.  

PubMed

Suicides in the military have increased over the last ten years. Much effort has been focused on suicide prevention and treatment, as well as understanding the reasons for the sharp increase in military suicides. Despite this effort, the definitive causes of military suicides remain elusive. Further, highly effective suicide prevention and treatment approaches have not yet been developed. The purpose of this article is to present a short review of the current state of suicide prevention interventions within the context of the military. The root causes of suicidal behavior and the role of combat in the military are each discussed. Interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide and the military transition theory are introduced as guiding frameworks for understanding suicides and suicidal behavior amongst active military personnel and military veterans. The article concludes with a set of recommendations for moving forward in understanding and addressing suicides in the military. PMID:24930521

Castro, Carl Andrew; Kintzle, Sara

2014-08-01

225

Developing serious games for cultural heritage: a state-of-the-art review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the widespread use of gaming for leisure purposes has been well documented, the use of games to support cultural\\u000a heritage purposes, such as historical teaching and learning, or for enhancing museum visits, has been less well considered.\\u000a The state-of-the-art in serious game technology is identical to that of the state-of-the-art in entertainment games technology.\\u000a As a result, the field

Eike Falk Anderson; Leigh McLoughlin; Fotis Liarokapis; Christopher Peters; Panagiotis Petridis; Sara de Freitas

2010-01-01

226

Distance Higher Education Experiences of Arab Gulf Students in the United States: A Cultural Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a phenomenological research study that was undertaken to provide cultural understanding about the nature of distance education experiences of Arab graduate students pursuing degree programs in the United States. As a theoretical framework, Hofstede's international difference dimensions and Hall's concept of low and high…

Al-Harthi, Aisha S.

2005-01-01

227

The importance of the viable but non-culturable state in human bacterial pathogens  

PubMed Central

Many bacterial species have been found to exist in a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state since its discovery in 1982. VBNC cells are characterized by a loss of culturability on routine agar, which impairs their detection by conventional plate count techniques. This leads to an underestimation of total viable cells in environmental or clinical samples, and thus poses a risk to public health. In this review, we present recent findings on the VBNC state of human bacterial pathogens. The characteristics of VBNC cells, including the similarities and differences to viable, culturable cells and dead cells, and different detection methods are discussed. Exposure to various stresses can induce the VBNC state, and VBNC cells may be resuscitated back to culturable cells under suitable stimuli. The conditions that trigger the induction of the VBNC state and resuscitation from it are summarized and the mechanisms underlying these two processes are discussed. Last but not least, the significance of VBNC cells and their potential influence on human health are also reviewed.

Li, Laam; Mendis, Nilmini; Trigui, Hana; Oliver, James D.; Faucher, Sebastien P.

2014-01-01

228

Adolescent Girls' Need for Love in Two Cultures--Nigeria and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares a junior novel from the United States with one from Nigeria--Bette Greene's "Summer of My German Soldier" with Buchi Emecheta's "The Bride Price." Suggests that their similarity can inspire children from a variety of backgrounds to an awareness and appreciation of different cultures. (MM)

Osa, Osayimwense

1983-01-01

229

The Cultural-Economic Impact of the State University College at Oswego.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economic and cultural impact of the State University of New York (SUNY) at Oswego on the local economy is reviewed. The following areas are covered: the community in historical perspective (1861-1970); the college in historical perspective (1861-1970); changes in the size, nature, and structure of the community, 1950-70; and growth of the…

Garber, Herbert

230

National Culture-Management Practices: United States and Saudi Arabia Contrasted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful conduct of business in Saudi Arabia requires attitudes and skills significantly different from those needed in the United States. Distinct societal differences can turn winning practices in one culture into failures in another. Despite Saudi Arabia's recent emergence as a wealthy marketplace, traditional values and a unique lifestyle…

Hashmi, Mahmud S.

231

"Their Little Wooden Bricks": A History of the Material Culture of Kindergarten in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the material culture of kindergarten in the United States in relation to the production and consumption of materials and kindergarten theory and pedagogy. The focus is on Friedrich Froebel's building gifts as they were manufactured and sold by the Milton Bradley Company from 1869 to 1939. A review of trade catalogues over the…

Prochner, Larry

2011-01-01

232

Blood Culture Contamination in Tanzania, Malawi, and the United States: a Microbiological Tale of Three Cities?  

PubMed Central

We conducted retrospective, comparative analyses of contamination rates for cultures of blood obtained in the emergency rooms of Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Lilongwe Central Hospital (LCH) in central Malawi; and the Duke University Medical Center (DUMC) in the United States. None of the emergency room patients had indwelling intravascular devices at the time that the blood samples for cultures were obtained. In addition, we reviewed the contamination rates for a cohort of patients already hospitalized in the DUMC inpatient medical service, most of whom had indwelling intravascular devices. The bloodstream infection rates among the patients at MNH (n = 513) and LCH (n = 486) were similar (?28%); the contamination rates at the two hospitals were 1.3% (7/513) and 0.8% (4/486), respectively. Of 54 microorganisms isolated from cultures of blood collected in the DUMC emergency room, 26 (48%) were identified as skin contaminants. Cultures of blood collected in the DUMC emergency room were significantly more likely to yield growth of contaminants than the cultures of blood collected in the emergency rooms at MNH and LCH combined (26/332 versus 11/1,003; P < 0.0001) or collected in the DUMC inpatient medical service (26/332 versus 7/283; P < 0.01). For the MNH and LCH blood cultures, lower contamination rates were observed when skin was disinfected with isopropyl alcohol plus tincture of iodine rather than isopropyl alcohol plus povidone-iodine. In conclusion, blood culture contamination was minimized in sub-Saharan African hospitals with substantially limited resources through scrupulous attention to aseptic skin cleansing and improved venipuncture techniques. Application of these principles when blood samples for culture are obtained in U.S. hospital emergency rooms should help mitigate blood culture contamination rates and the unnecessary microbiology workup of skin contaminants.

Archibald, Lennox K.; Pallangyo, Kisali; Kazembe, Peter; Reller, L. Barth

2006-01-01

233

Inter-American Beginnings of U.S. Cultural Diplomacy, 1936-1948. Cultural Relations Programs of the U.S. Department of State: Historical Studies, Number 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing upon the role of the United States government in furthering educational and cultural relations with other nations, the book presents a history of cooperative exchange between the United States and Latin America from 1936-48. The report, based upon primary source material in the form of communications between the Department of State and…

Espinosa, J. Manuel

234

Cultural reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military autocracy is more deeply rooted in German culture than in Italian. A change toward democracy is not a political matter but involves a complete change in values, family, and group life. If the form of government is left to the people, power groups will rapidly impose autocracy on war-torn Europe, but democracy will develop more slowly and only under

K. Lewin

1943-01-01

235

Face and Facework in Conflict: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of China, Germany, Japan, and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates face and facework during conflicts among undergraduate students across four national cultures: China, Germany, Japan, and the United States. Presents major findings concerning self-construals; power distance; individualistic, small-power distance cultures; large-power distance cultures; and relational closeness and status. Discusses…

Oetzel, John; Ting-Toomey, Stella; Masumoto, Tomoko; Yokochi, Yumiko; Pan, Xiaohui; Takai, Jiro; Wilcox, Richard

2001-01-01

236

Comparative International Military Personnel Policies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report looks at the problems associated with the recruitment and employment of military personnel in Western industrialized society. It is particularly concerned with issues relating to the recruitment and retention within the military of homosexuals...

G. Harries-Jenkins

1998-01-01

237

Military Nurses Perceptions of Autonomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Military nurses sustain the health of deployed soldiers in a variety of contingencies. Autonomy is considered by nurses to affect both job satisfaction and the delivery of effective patient care. Previous studies showed that military nurses perceptions of...

D. M. Lyons

2002-01-01

238

Blogs and Military Information Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article explores the possibility of incorporating blogs and blogging into military information strategy, primarily as a tool for influence. Towards that end, the authors examine the value of blogs as targets of and/or platforms for military influence...

D. E. Denning J. B. Kinniburgh

2006-01-01

239

Women in the Military Cockpit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Historically women have demonstrated the capacity to be successful aviators. Recent participation of women in combat roles and in military aviation has, however, aroused controversy. The scientific literature pertinent to the role of women in military avi...

T. J. Lyons

1991-01-01

240

Military Retirement: Major Legislative Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The military retirement system includes benefits for retirement after an active or reserve military career, disability retirement, and survivor benefits for eligible survivors of deceased retirees. The proposed change to the system that has generated the ...

R. L. Goldich

2004-01-01

241

Mexican Military and Political Transition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis assesses the future of Mexican civil-military relations. Mexico is unique among Latin American nations for its professionalized and depoliticized military. While the Mexican Armed Forces have shunned an active role in politics since 1940, they...

R. C. Bedingfield

1992-01-01

242

Advanced MRI in Acute Military TBI.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the project is to test two advanced MRI methods, DTI and resting-state fMRI correlation analysis, in military TBI patients acutely after injury and correlate findings with TBI-related clinical outcomes 6-12 months later. An additional obj...

D. L. Brody

2012-01-01

243

Tobacco Use Cessation Intervention in Military Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tobacco use is the single most important preventable cause of disease, death, and disability in the United States as a whole, and in the military (Wright, Knapik, Bielenda & Zoltick, 1994). In the U.S. population at large, smoking accounts for one in ever...

K. F. Bushnell

1995-01-01

244

Maintain Stability Operations Capability During Military Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Today, the United States has approximately 148,000 service members deployed or forward stationed in nearly 150 countries to support our nation s strategic political / military objectives. U.S. response to emerging megatrends of the 21st Century along with...

L. Terranova

2013-01-01

245

Military implications of a satellite power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

If a satellite power system (SPS), such as is described in the NASA Reference Design Report, were to be undertaken to provide significant quantities of power to the United States and perhaps to other countries as well, significant military implications would ensue. These would arise, first, from the possible uses of such satellites and supporting systems as weapons or as

J. P. Vajk; R. D. Stutzke; R. Salkeld; G. W. Driggers; G. H. Stine

1981-01-01

246

Outsourcing: Reforms Imperative to Restoring Military Capabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Overreliance on outsourcing Department of Defense (DoD) functions to private contractors is undermining the organic strength and capabilities of the United States military. Since the end of the Cold War there has been a steady rise in the use of private b...

M. M. Williams

2008-01-01

247

Military implications of global warming. Strategy research project  

SciTech Connect

The 1998 National Security Strategy repeatedly cites global environmental issues as key to the long-term security of the United States. Similarly, US environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current US Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate change. It discusses related economic factors and environmental concerns. It assesses current White House policy as it relates to the US military. It reviews the Department of Defense strategy for energy conservation and reduction of greenhouse gases. Finally, it offers recommendations and options for military involvement to reduce global warming. Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the US military. As the United States leadership in environmental matters encourages global stability, the US military will be able to focus more on readiness and on military training and operations.

Greene, P.E.

1999-05-20

248

Mainstreaming Military Compensation: Problems and Prospects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Changes to the military retirement system in the 1980's and attention by law makers, military leadership, and service members to pay comparability between the private sector and the military indicate that current military compensation policies may be inad...

D. J. MacDonald

1998-01-01

249

Private Military Industry: Economic Analysis, Uses & Considerations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Different customers in different ages have used private military members as part of their military operations. After the Cold War era, a new form of Private Military Industry emerged. Companies serving in both military support and offensive operations and...

E. Sokmen

2007-01-01

250

Agency Theory View of the Military Advisor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An understanding of civil-military relations provides insight for the military strategist into the interplay between politics and military art. A framework of how civilian leadership and the military relate in formulating national security objectives may ...

G. E. Petrina

2005-01-01

251

Clinical and Epidemiologic Characteristics of an Outbreak of Novel H1N1 (Swine Origin) Influenza A Virus among United States Military Beneficiaries  

PubMed Central

Background A novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus was identified in March 2009 and subsequently caused worldwide outbreaks. The San Diego region was an early focal point of the emerging pandemic. We describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of this novel strain in a military population to assist in future outbreak prevention and control efforts. Methods We performed an epidemiologic evaluation of novel H1N1 virus infections diagnosed in San Diego County among 96,258 local US military beneficiaries. The structured military medical system afforded the ability to obtain precise epidemiologic information on the impact on H1N1 virus infection in a population. The novel H1N1 virus was confirmed using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Results From 21 April through 8 May 2009, 761 patients presented with influenza-like illness and underwent rRT-PCR testing. Of these patients, 97 had confirmed novel H1N1 virus infection, with an incidence rate of 101 cases per 100,000 persons. The median age of H1N1 patients with H1N1 virus infection was 21 years (interquartile range, 15–25 years). Fever was a universal symptom in patients with H1N1 virus infection; other symptoms included cough (present in 96% of patients), myalgia or arthralgia (57%), and sore throat (51%). Sixty-eight (70%) of our patients had an identifiable epidemiologic link to another confirmed patient. The largest cluster of cases of H1N1 virus infection occurred on a Navy ship and involved 32 (8%) of 402 crew members; the secondary attack rate was 6%–14%. The rapid influenza testing that was used during this outbreak had a sensitivity of 51% and specificity of 98%, compared with rRT-PCR. Only 1 patient was hospitalized, and there were no deaths. Conclusions A novel H1N1 influenza A virus caused a significant outbreak among military beneficiaries in San Diego County, including a significant cluster of cases onboard a Navy ship. The outbreak described here primarily affected adolescents and young adults and resulted in a febrile illness without sequelae.

Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.; Blair, Patrick J.; Faix, Dennis; Arnold, John; Echols, Sara; Sherman, Sterling S.; Tueller, John E.; Warkentien, Tyler; Sanguineti, Gabriela; Bavaro, Mary; Hale, Braden R.

2010-01-01

252

Nutrition research in the military.  

PubMed

Military research performed in an operational environment involves mission-specific considerations. The Institute of Naval Medicine was tasked in 2008 by the Surgeon General to investigate the nutritional status of deployed British military personnel, and how this might affect body composition, physical fitness and operational capability. This paper briefly describes the logistic and technical issues specific to military research that were encountered by the study team, how these issues were overcome and how this research has influenced military practice. PMID:24434764

Hill, Neil E; Fallowfield, J L; Delves, S K; Wilson, D R

2014-06-01

253

Movies and the Military.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Whether you call them 'movies' or 'films' is not important. What is important is that movies both reflect and have a strong impact on our society, thus they should not be taken lightly. The way a film depicts a military officer can have enormous impact on...

W. A. Greynolds

1972-01-01

254

PUTIN AND MILITARY REFORM  

Microsoft Academic Search

V ladimir Putin was faced with a military that was in a mess when he took over. Morale was at rock bottom, junior officers were leaving in droves, equipment and weapons were failing, soldiers were deserting, the draft was a joke, crime was on the rise, planes were crashing, and most important, Chechnya remained a major distraction. Putting the Russian

DALE R. HERSPRING

255

Military Space Robotics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Autonomous systems based on robotics will be essential for future U.S. military programs in space, and new emphasis and priorities for research and development of robotics technology should be adopted now to meet the needs of these programs. A plan of res...

D. R. Brown W. T. Park

1987-01-01

256

Why Military History?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in military history is as strong as it has ever been--except on American college campuses. Lt. Gen. Josiah Bunting III examines why today's undergraduates need to study the facts of war, and why knowing its causes and consequences remain a vital part of our common knowledge.

Bunting, Josiah, III

2008-01-01

257

Failures in military aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severe operating conditions for components in military aircraft lead to a wide range of failure modes and introduce many factors which can influence those failures. As a result, the accident investigator or failure analyst may need to explore issues more widely than might be the case with systems operating in more benign or controlled environments. Complicating factors are the

Graham Clark

2005-01-01

258

Civil-Military Crisis. Tocqueville's Theory of Civil-Military Relations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent years have seen a flood of scholarly and popular debate over the declining state of civil-military relations in the United States. Much of this debate suggests deterioration of those relations is in some way related to contemporary geopolitical dev...

M. Neubauer

1998-01-01

259

Clash of Cultures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The history of U.S. military operations is replete with examples of major errors made due to cultural misunderstandings. This paper examines three cases (Korean War, Vietnam War, Kosovo) that illustrate the consequences of past failings to understand cult...

S. D. Chowning

2003-01-01

260

Does culture affect divorce? evidence from European immigrants in the United States.  

PubMed

This article explores the role of culture in determining divorce by examining country-of-origin differences in divorce rates of immigrants in the United States. Because childhood-arriving immigrants are all exposed to a common set of U.S. laws and institutions, we interpret relationships between their divorce tendencies and home-country divorce rates as evidence of the effect of culture. Our results are robust to controlling for several home-country variables, including average church attendance and gross domestic product (GDP). Moreover, specifications with country-of-origin fixed effects suggest that immigrants from countries with low divorce rates are especially less likely to be divorced if they reside among a large number of coethnics. Supplemental analyses indicate that divorce culture has a stronger impact on the divorce decisions of females than of males, pointing to a potentially gendered nature of divorce taboos. PMID:23322379

Furtado, Delia; Marcén, Miriam; Sevilla, Almudena

2013-06-01

261

Culture and Difference. Critical Perspectives on the Bicultural Experience in the United States. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching and politics of cultural difference and identity are explored in these essays, which examine the possibilities of living with cultural differences through new ethical and pedagogical frameworks. The following chapters are included: (1) "Introduction. The Politics of Biculturalism: Culture and Difference in the Formation of 'Warriors…

Darder, Antonia, Ed.

262

Resilient Military Systems and the Advanced Cyber Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States cannot be confident that our critical Information Technology (IT) systems will work under attack from a sophisticated and well-resourced opponent utilizing cyber capabilities in combination with all of their military and intelligence cap...

2013-01-01

263

Optimum Selection of Clustered Conservation Areas Within Military Installations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Suitable habitat areas for many rare, threatened, or endangered species in the United States are found inside the boundaries of military installations. Because these same lands are also needed for conventional and emerging training requirements, there is ...

H. Onal H. E. Balbach J. D. Westervelt S. T. Dissanayake

2011-01-01

264

Simulation of airlift bioreactors: Steady-state performance of continuous culture processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tanks-in-series model was applied for mathematical modeling of the steady-state performance of continuous cultures in an airlift bioreactor. In the present computational algorithm, non-linear algebraic equations for the material balances of micro-organism, substrate and dissolved oxygen around the hypothetical well-mixed stages with backflow in the riser and downcomer were solved simultaneously using the Newton-Raphson technique. The concentration profiles of

T. Kanai; T. Uzumaki; Y. Kawase

1996-01-01

265

Smoking cross-culturally: Risk perceptions among young adults in Denmark and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research examining smokers’ understanding of their smoking risk reveals that smokers acknowledge some risk but often deny or minimize personal risk. We examined risk perceptions of lung cancer among smokers and non-smokers in a smoking-lenient (Denmark) and a smoking-prohibitive (the United States) culture. Participants were 275 Danish students attending trade schools (mean age 22.6 years) and 297 US students attending

Marie Helweg-Larsen; Gert A. Nielsen

2009-01-01

266

Russian military in the year 2000. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

Through the use of content analysis, this paper attempts to paint a picture of the Russian military in the year 2000 and its impact on the US national security strategy. The research begins by defining the origin of Russian national security policy and how that translates into military policy and doctrine. A framework for evaluating Russian military doctrines is provided with a chronology of the military reform process and the related doctrinal reforms that has its birth in the 1987 announcement of a defensive-defense. Following from the doctrinal variant framework the new strategic missions of the 1992 draft military doctrine are presented with an analysis that shows they are a clear departure from the past and truly represent a defensive-defense type doctrine. Additionally, a comparison is made with the current military reform ongoing in Russia with the historical precedent of the Russian military reform of 1924-25. A rough outline of the separate branches of the Russian military both present and future is provided based on the ongoing trends in the reform process. This thumbnail sketch of the Russian military then assists in the analysis and conclusion that even after a possible 50% cutback in US military spending, in the year 2000 the Russian military will not pose a threat to US national security. The major caveat to this conclusion is in the realm of nuclear weapons and this issue is therefore discussed in some length....Former Soviet Union, Russia, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Conventional Forces in Europe treaty (CFE), European Security, New National Security Strategy, Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear Strategy.

McIlmail, J.F.; Jaworski, J.L.

1992-12-01

267

Women in Military Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

American women have participated in and made significant contributions to the defense of this nation during both war and peace times. Their contributions, however, have gone largely unacknowledged and unrewarded. The history of women serving in defense of our nation began more than 220 years ago with women who served in the American Revolution and continues with those who serve today. The Women's Memorial Web site is dedicated to recognizing the achievements of women who have served in the military and also honors other women who have served in direct support of the US armed forces, particularly during times of war or conflict. The site offers historical data on valiant women who served in America's military as well as educational resources for teachers and students. It also provides information on how to plan a trip to the Women's Memorial at Arlington National Cemetery, where the women who have served in this country's armed forces are individually and collectively honored.

1997-01-01

268

Kentucky Military Treasures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Funded by the Kentucky Veterans Trust Fund and the Kentucky Historical Society Foundation, the Kentucky Military Treasures site profiles the stories and experiences of veterans from the 18th century all the way up to the current day. The stories bring together artifacts, primary documents, and photographs to help enrich these unique stories. First-time visitors should peruse the timeline to get a sense of the ways in which Kentuckians have contributed to military conflicts large and small across the globe. In the "Signature Stories" area, visitors can learn about Richard M. Johnson of Beargrass, Kentucky. He was known for his leadership at the Battle of the Thames in 1813, and his story his told through four artifacts, including a powder horn and a cannon from the period. The "Curator's Corner" features an introduction from director of the Kentucky Historical Society, Kent Whitworth, and other comments on flags and weapons from curators at the Society. [KMG

269

Military display performance parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

2012-05-01

270

Competence, risk, and resilience in military families: conceptual commentary.  

PubMed

This commentary highlights conceptual themes in the opening section of this special issue on military families in relation to a new synthesis of developmental systems theory that emerged from developmental, ecological, and family systems theory, as well as developmental psychopathology and risk/resilience frameworks. Articles in this special issue draw on these concepts to characterize and guide the burgeoning research on military families. This perspective emphasizes that multiple dynamic systems interact across levels to shape individual development, as well as the function of families and military units. Developmental timing is important for understanding how challenges of military life may impact individuals and families. Cascade effects are noted, where stress experienced by one family or service member can influence the function of other individuals or larger systems. Capacity for resilience is distributed across systems, including families and cultures, as well as resources or supports provided by military organizations to foster adaptive responses or recovery. These systems include schools and educational programs that play key roles in fostering and supporting resilience for children. Overall, developmental system concepts have considerable utility for guiding research with military families, particularly in regard to promoting resilience. Moreover, lessons learned from military families and programs may have much broader implications for many other nonmilitary children, families, and organizations that share similar goals and challenges. PMID:23877370

Masten, Ann S

2013-09-01

271

State and parameter estimation of microalgal photobioreactor cultures based on local irradiance measurement.  

PubMed

Local photosynthetic photon flux fluence rate (PPFFR) determined by a submersible 4pi quantum micro-sensor was used in developing a versatile on-line state estimator for stirred-tank microalgal photobioreactor cultures. A marine micro-alga Dunaliella salina was used as a model organism in this study. On-line state estimation was realized using the extended Kalman filter (EKF), based on a state model of the photobioreactor and on-line local PPFFR measurement. The dynamic state model for the photobioreactor was derived based on mass-balance equations of the relevant states. The measurement equation was established based on an empirical correlation between the microalgal biomass concentration and the local PPFFR measured at a fixed point inside the photobioreactor. An internal model approach was used to estimate the specific growth rate without the need of state-based kinetic expression. The estimator was proven to be capable of estimating biomass concentration and specific growth rate, as well as phosphate and dissolved oxygen concentrations in a photobioreactor illuminated with either fixed or time-varying incident radiation. The quantum sensor was shown to be robust and able to quickly respond to dynamic changes in local PPFFR. In addition, the quantum sensor outputs were not affected by bubble aeration or agitation within the typical operating range. The strong filtering capacity of EKF gives the state estimator superior performance compared to direct calculation from the empirical biomass/local PPFFR correlation. This state estimation system makes use of inexpensive and reliable sensor hardware to report key process dynamics of microalgal photobioreactor cultures on-line, enabling improved operation of such a process. PMID:14511917

Su, Wei Wen; Li, Jian; Xu, Ning-Shou

2003-10-01

272

Ancient Paradigms and Modern Expectations: Is the United States acting like a normal state?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not since the Roman Empire has any nation had as much economic, cultural and military power as the United States does today. In light of the session's concern to appreciate the relevance of history to understanding current international affairs, this paper will discuss the regularly noticed but under conceptualized behavioral pattern of the American presidency that strongly influences the shaping

Chris Stadler

273

Biodegradation of Palm Kernel Cake by Cellulolytic and Hemicellulolytic Bacterial Cultures through Solid State Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Four cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacterial cultures were purchased from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Two experiments were conducted; the objective of the first experiment was to determine the optimum time period required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC), whereas the objective of the second experiment was to investigate the effect of combinations of these cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria on the nutritive quality of the PKC. In the first experiment, the SSF was lasted for 12 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC to moisture ratios. In the second experiment, fifteen combinations were created among the four microbes with one untreated PKC as a control. The SSF lasted for 9 days, and the samples were autoclaved, dried, and analyzed for proximate analysis. Results showed that bacterial cultures produced high enzymes activities at the 4th day of SSF, whereas their abilities to produce enzymes tended to be decreased to reach zero at the 8th day of SSF. Findings in the second experiment showed that hemicellulose and cellulose was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, whereas the amount of reducing sugars were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the fermented PKC (FPKC) compared with untreated PKC.

Alshelmani, Mohamed Idris; Loh, Teck Chwen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Lau, Wei Hong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

2014-01-01

274

Biodegradation of Palm Kernel Cake by Cellulolytic and Hemicellulolytic Bacterial Cultures through Solid State Fermentation.  

PubMed

Four cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacterial cultures were purchased from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Two experiments were conducted; the objective of the first experiment was to determine the optimum time period required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC), whereas the objective of the second experiment was to investigate the effect of combinations of these cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria on the nutritive quality of the PKC. In the first experiment, the SSF was lasted for 12 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC to moisture ratios. In the second experiment, fifteen combinations were created among the four microbes with one untreated PKC as a control. The SSF lasted for 9 days, and the samples were autoclaved, dried, and analyzed for proximate analysis. Results showed that bacterial cultures produced high enzymes activities at the 4th day of SSF, whereas their abilities to produce enzymes tended to be decreased to reach zero at the 8th day of SSF. Findings in the second experiment showed that hemicellulose and cellulose was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, whereas the amount of reducing sugars were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the fermented PKC (FPKC) compared with untreated PKC. PMID:25019097

Alshelmani, Mohamed Idris; Loh, Teck Chwen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Lau, Wei Hong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

2014-01-01

275

Synchronous environmental and cultural change in the prehistory of the northeastern United States.  

PubMed

Climatic changes during the late Quaternary have resulted in substantial, often abrupt, rearrangements of terrestrial ecosystems, but the relationship between these environmental changes and prehistoric human culture and population size remains unclear. Using a database of archaeological radiocarbon dates alongside a network of paleoecological records (sedimentary pollen and charcoal) and paleoclimatic reconstructions, we show that periods of cultural and demographic change in the northeastern United States occurred at the same times as the major environmental-climatic transitions of that region. At 11.6, 8.2, 5.4, and 3.0 kyr BP (10(3) calendar years before present), changes in forest composition altered the distribution, availability, and predictability of food resources which triggered technological adjustments manifested in the archaeological record. Human population level has varied in response to these external changes in ecosystems, but the adoption of maize agriculture during the late Holocene also resulted in a substantial population increase. This study demonstrates the long-term interconnectedness of prehistoric human cultures and the ecosystems they inhabited, and provides a consolidated environmental-cultural framework from which more interdisciplinary research and discussion can develop. Moreover, it emphasizes the complex nature of human responses to environmental change in a temperate region. PMID:21135208

Munoz, Samuel E; Gajewski, Konrad; Peros, Matthew C

2010-12-21

276

[Clinical military hospital in 1892].  

PubMed

The article is devoted to the circumstances of visit of Alexander III to Clinical hospital of Military-Medical Academy in 1892. It is detailed about the situation in hospital: direct care, instruction and economic aspects. Representations of imperial authority in Russia in XIX century with respect to military-medical institutions are characterized. "Episode 3Match 1892" is important for Military-Medical Academy because in that day the put on hold reconstruction got a crucial impulse. PMID:23808205

Poddubny?, M V

2013-02-01

277

[Cross-cultural study on loneliness of students at the University of the Free State].  

PubMed

Many young people today are lonely and hopeless, and feel that life has no meaning. The existing literature indicates that this phenomenon is taking on near-epidemic proportions in industrialised Western countries. A considerable amount of cross-cultural investigations have already been conducted overseas between different population groups, in order to determine what the causes of this phenomenon are and whether culture plays an important role in the development of loneliness. As far as this type of research is concerned South Africa is currently far behind the rest of the world. Serious efforts shall have to be made to determine whether loneliness is taking on the same proportions locally and if certain population groups are more vulnerable than others, because it could have far-reaching consequences on their physical as well as psychological health. South Africa has a rich population variety which could enable researchers to investigate emotional constructs like loneliness that could contribute to the unravelling of this multifaceted phenomenon. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to determine whether students from different cultural backgrounds at the University of the Free State differ from each other, as far as their experience of loneliness is concerned. Questionnaires were distributed among students and 270 respondents, of which 122 were white and 148 black, took part in this study. A factorial analysis of variance was applied on the data, with loneliness as dependent variable, and cultural background, gender and age as independent variables. The results firstly show that cultural background is a very important variable as far as loneliness is concerned. Black students are significantly more lonely than white students while no gender and age differences between the groups were found. PMID:15974015

le Roux, A

2004-05-01

278

Cultural scripts for a good death in Japan and the United States: similarities and differences.  

PubMed

Japan and the United States are both post-industrial societies, characterised by distinct trajectories of dying. Both contain multiple "cultural scripts" of the good death. Seale (Constructing Death: the Sociology of Dying and Bereavement, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998) has identified at least four "cultural scripts", or ways to die well, that are found in contemporary anglophone countries: modern medicine, revivalism, an anti-revivalist script and a religious script. Although these scripts can also be found in Japan, different historical experiences and religious traditions provide a context in which their content and interpretation sometimes differ from those of the anglophone countries. To understand ordinary people's ideas about dying well and dying poorly, we must recognise not only that post-industrial society offers multiple scripts and varying interpretive frameworks, but also that people actively select from among them in making decisions and explaining their views. Moreover, ideas and metaphors may be based on multiple scripts simultaneously or may offer different interpretations for different social contexts. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in both countries, this paper explores the metaphors that ordinary patients and caregivers draw upon as they use, modify, combine or ignore these cultural scripts of dying. Ideas about choice, time, place and personhood, elements of a good death that were derived inductively from interviews, are described. These Japanese and American data suggest somewhat different concerns and assumptions about human life and the relation of the person to the wider social world, but indicate similar concerns about the process of medicalised dying and the creation of meaning for those involved. While cultural differences do exist, they cannot be explained by reference to 'an American' and 'a Japanese' way to die. Rather, the process of creating and maintaining cultural scripts requires the active participation of ordinary people as they in turn respond to the constraints of post-industrial technology, institutions, demographics and notions of self. PMID:14732605

Long, Susan Orpett

2004-03-01

279

Stem cell applications in military medicine  

PubMed Central

There are many similarities between health issues affecting military and civilian patient populations, with the exception of the relatively small but vital segment of active soldiers who experience high-energy blast injuries during combat. A rising incidence of major injuries from explosive devices in recent campaigns has further complicated treatment and recovery, highlighting the need for tissue regenerative options and intensifying interest in the possible role of stem cells for military medicine. In this review we outline the array of tissue-specific injuries typically seen in modern combat - as well as address a few complications unique to soldiers - and discuss the state of current stem cell research in addressing each area. Embryonic, induced-pluripotent and adult stem cell sources are defined, along with advantages and disadvantages unique to each cell type. More detailed stem cell sources are described in the context of each tissue of interest, including neural, cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal and sensory tissues, with brief discussion of their potential role in regenerative medicine moving forward. Additional commentary is given to military stem cell applications aside from regenerative medicine, such as blood pharming, immunomodulation and drug screening, with an overview of stem cell banking and the unique opportunity provided by the military and civilian overlap of stem cell research.

2011-01-01

280

Quebec and the United States: A Cross-Cultural Case Study of International Trade and International Business Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper comments on the lack of attention given to cross-cultural relationships between the United States and Quebec, Canada despite the growing trade relationship, and offers information on Quebec to use as cross-cultural examples in international business communication classes. The paper dispels myths concerning Quebec and its inhabitants,…

Loughrin-Sacco, Steven J.

281

Ethos of Independence across Regions in the United States: The Production-Adoption Model of Cultural Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary U.S. culture has a highly individualistic ethos. Nevertheless, exactly how this ethos was historically fostered remains unanalyzed. A new model of dynamic cultural change maintains that sparsely populated, novel environments that impose major threats to survival, such as the Western frontier in the United States during the 18th and…

Kitayama, Shinobu; Conway, Lucian Gideon, III; Pietromonaco, Paula R.; Park, Hyekyung; Plaut, Victoria C.

2010-01-01

282

Joint-Service Integration: An Organizational Culture Study of the United States Department of Defense Voluntary Education System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the descriptive case study with a multiple case framework was to (a) describe the organizational cultures of education programs and leaders in the United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) voluntary education system on Oahu, Hawaii; (b) determine if an overlapping common organizational culture exists; and (c) assess the…

Benson, Martin K.

2010-01-01

283

A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Factors Associated with School Bullying in Japan and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers in both Japan and in the United States have documented that bullying is a common and potentially damaging form of violence among children. The authors' review highlights distinct cross-cultural patterns of personal, family, peer, and school characteristics that predict gender differences in bullying and victimization. Cross-cultural

Hilton, Jeanne M.; Anngela-Cole, Linda; Wakita, Juri

2010-01-01

284

"Attraction, Attention, and Desire": Consumer Culture as Pedagogical Paradigm in Museums in the United States, 1900-1930  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urged on by a young generation of reform-minded professionals, museums in the United States adopted the premises and practices of consumer culture in the early twentieth century. This article argues that this turn towards consumer culture resulted from a new institutional commitment to public education and a radical re-conception of visual…

Cain, Victoria

2012-01-01

285

"CultureGrams[TM]" and "StateGrams[TM]": Making Places and People Relevant to Elementary Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes "CultureGrams" and "StateGrams", sources that provide practical cultural information including attitudes, appearances, greetings, gestures, dating, family life, transportation, health, and education. Focuses on the edition suitable for elementary school students, explaining specific features and suggesting assignments and class…

Safford, Barbara Ripp

2002-01-01

286

Burns and military clothing.  

PubMed

Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military burn casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate burns, or complicate burn management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683

McLean, A D

2001-02-01

287

Military applications of hyperspectral imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical imaging, including infrared imaging, generally has many important applications, both civilian and military. In recent years, technological advances have made multi- and hyperspectral imaging a viable technology in many demanding military application areas. The aim of the CEPA JP 8.10 program has been to evaluate the potential benefit of spectral imaging techniques in tactical military applications. This unclassified executive summary describes the activities in the program and outlines some of the results. More specific results are given in classified reports and presentations. The JP 8.10 program started in March 2002 and ended in February 2005. The participating nations were France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and United-Kingdom, each with a contribution of 2 man-years per year. Essential objectives of the program were to: 1) analyze the available spectral information in the optronic landscape from visible to infrared; 2) analyze the operational utility of multi- and hyperspectral imaging for detection, recognition and identification of targets, including low-signature targets; 3) identify applications where spectral imaging can provide a strong gain in performance; 4) propose technical recommendations of future spectral imaging systems and critical components. Finally, a stated objective of the JP 8.10 program is to "ensure the proper link with the image processing community". The presentation is organized as follows. In a first step, the two trials (Pirrene and Kvarn) are presented including a summary of the acquired optical properties of the different landscape materials and of the spectral images. Then, a phenomenology study is conducted analyzing the spectral behavior of the optical properties, understanding the signal at the sensor and, by processing spectroradiometric measurements evaluating the potential to discriminate spectral signatures. Cameo-Sim simulation software is presented including first validation results and the generation of spectral synthetic images. Results obtained on measured and synthetic images are shown and discussed with reference to two main classes of image processing tasks: anomaly detection and signature based target detection. Furthermore, preliminary works on band selection are also presented which aim to optimize the spectral configuration of an image sensor. Finally, the main conclusions of the WEAG program CEPA JP8.10 are given.

Briottet, X.; Boucher, Y.; Dimmeler, A.; Malaplate, A.; Cini, A.; Diani, M.; Bekman, H.; Schwering, P.; Skauli, T.; Kasen, I.; Renhorn, I.; Klasén, L.; Gilmore, M.; Oxford, D.

2006-06-01

288

Recruits' Military Preferences and Their Accommodation by the Military Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research report provides information on recruits' military occupational preferences, match of military assignments to recruits' preferences, and changes that occur in these preferences between service entry and completion of basic training. Questionnaires were administered to recruits from four services just before classification interviewing…

Hoehn, Arthur J.; And Others

289

Keeping Boumediene Off the Battlefield: Examining Potential Implications of the Boumediene v. Bush Decision to the Conduct of United States Military Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In its June 2008 decision, Boumediene v. Bush, the United States Supreme Court granted constitutional habeas corpus rights to foreign enemy combatants detained at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. For the first time in United States history, foreign fighters detained...

F. K. Ford

2009-01-01

290

Cultural impacts on public perceptions of agricultural biotechnology: A comparison of South Korea and the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to Millar (1996), the gulf between science and society is growing. Technologies are tools cultures develop to solve society's problems. The rapid dispersion of science and technology across cultural borders through trade, technology transfer and exchange, increasingly requires people in different cultures to make choices about accepting or rejecting artifacts of science and technology such as genetically modified (GM) foods, which originate primarily from the United States. These issues challenge policy makers and scientists to account for the affects of different cultural perspectives on controversial scientific issues. Given the controversy across cultures over acceptance or rejection of genetically modified (GM) foods, GM foods are an excellent example with which to begin to reveal how culture impacts public perceptions of the risk and benefits of science and technology in different societies. This research will: (1) Define public awareness and understanding of science, specifically GM foods; (2) Examine culture's impact on knowledge, including different cultural approaches to research; and (3) Compare recent findings of a bi-national public opinion survey on GM comparing in South Korea and the United States. The proposed research outlines two research questions: (1) How and in what ways do South Koreans and Americans differ in their opinions about GMOs? This question is important for gathering current points of contrast about how the two cultures may differ; and (2) What role does culture play on opinion formation about GM foods? Through grounded theory, the researcher will investigate how cultural differences help explain opinion on public perceptions of GM foods. Is it possible to identify common cultural factors that impact public perceptions of GM foods between South Koreans and Americans? The study will utilize both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Higher education is a major producer of new science and technology. The study is significant for higher education administrators who must understand cultural factors impacting science internationally and globalization of the academic enterprise.

Nader, Richard Harrison

291

[Arkhangelsk Military Hospital celebrates 200th anniversary].  

PubMed

Military hospital in Arkhangelsk is the branch No 1 of 1469 naval clinical hospital of Northern Fleet. This hospital is the basic medical and preventive treatment facility and also clinical, training centre for students of Northern state medical university. Annually 3, 5 thousand people receive treatment in the hospital. The hospital has governmental licenses for 56 types of medical activities. There are 2 department of surgery, 1 surgery block. Patients can receive the therapeutic treatment in 4 medical departments. PMID:21488361

Korovin, R A; Shevchenko, A G; Khankevich, Iu R

2010-12-01

292

Military Capabilities and American Foreign Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can the availability of a rapid response capability lead the United States to intervene militarily in situations where, without those ready forces, the U.S. government would decide that military intervention was not required? Secretary of Defense McNamara said no; Senator Richard Russell said yes. After examining the basic approaches to weapons selection that led McNamara and Russell to opposite conclusions,

Graham T. Allison

1973-01-01

293

Military Campaign Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as part of the American Memory Collection at the Library of Congress, this fine digital archive brings together thousands of maps that offer great detail about major military conflicts, including such information as troop movements, defensive structures and groundworks, campsites, local buildings, topography and vegetation. On the site, visitors can also learn about how the maps were digitized, along with specific information about the various technical equipment used to capture the full content of each document. The archive of documents here is not solely historically focused, as there are maps of more contemporary conflict sites, such as Iraq and Afghanistan. The entire contents of the archive may be searched in a variety of methods, including through the use of keywords, browsing through a subject list, a creator index, and a geographic location index. From some rather interesting maps of the Brandywine to a Dutch map showing locations of military importance in Pennsylvania and New York, this site will be of interest to historians, cartographers, and many others.

294

War, the Military Revolution(s) Controversy, and Army ExpansionA Test of Two Explanations of Historical Influences on European State Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

One school of thought on European state making argues that discontinuous change in weapons and tactics led to the expansion of armies, and, therefore, states. Others argue that decision makers expanded state organizations to make war for its own sake, not simply because the tools of war changed. Although this controversy is not easily resolved, the empirical evidence indicates that

WILLIAM R. THOMPSON; KAREN RASLER

1999-01-01

295

Respiratory Disease Surveillance and Vaccine Studies in Military Dependent Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The HPV-77 strain of rubella virus attenuated by duck embryo cell culture passage was administered to l80 children included in l53 families, mostly dependents of military personnel at Keesler Air Force Base, Mississippi from February l968 through July l96...

W. J. Mogabgab

1969-01-01

296

Soldiering with Substance: Substance and Steroid Use among Military Personnel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The military provides a unique social environment given the organization and culture of the institution. Understanding substance use by those inside this institution provides insight into both the population as well as substance use in general. Using data collected from in-depth interviews, this article explores the nature and extent of substance…

Bucher, Jacob

2012-01-01

297

The Place of the Humanities at a Military Academy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, a captain in the U.S. Coast Guard and professor of English at the Coast Guard Academy in New London, Connecticut, argues in this article that, contrary to images perpetuated in popular culture, military officers do not eschew the arts as exemplified in such films as "Platoon" and "Full Metal Jacket" where the audience is expected to…

Flammang, Lucretia A.

2007-01-01

298

Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 46th state, Oklahoma, presents its unusual history with the online version of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. The Encyclopedia was prepared by over 500 "university-based scholars and independent historians and scholars," and was a joint effort by The Oklahoma Historical Society and Oklahoma State University Library Electronic Publishing Center. Visitors can click on the "Table of Contents" link near the bottom of the homepage to "Browse Entries Alphabetically", "Browse Entries Chronologically", or "Browse Entries by Subject". Browsing via chronology introduces visitors to Oklahoma starting with the "Precontact Era", through the "Westward Expansion" and on to "Twentieth Century to Present". Subject categories include "African Americans", "Farming", "Military", and "Petroleum". When searching, visitors will be taken to the Electronic Publishing Center Search Page, so they will need to choose the specific collection, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, from the drop down box, to confine the search to the Encyclopedia.

299

Engineering geosciences and military operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest recorded use of geology for the terrain assessment of the battlefield occurred at Katzback in 1813 and contributed to the defeat of Napoleon's Army. Ever since, most major military operations have utilized geologic counsel to evaluate the terrain and features or execute battle actions. The value of geologic insight was recognized in books on the military applications of

George A. Kiersch

1998-01-01

300

INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS TO MILITARY PERSONNEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The industrial chemical health threat to the US military is growing. The increasing threat is due both to the more frequent use of industrial chemicals and infrastructure as weapons of war and opportunity, and to recent military operations in urban and industrial environments where accidents or terrorism may cause large-scale chemical releases. Using traditional single-scenario modeling techniques, it is difficult

D. P. Bacon; R. M. Garrett; P. L. Liotta; D. E. Mays; T. E. Miller

2005-01-01

301

Origins and destinies: Immigration to the United States since World War II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary immigration to the United States and the formation of new ethnic groups are the complex and unintended social consequences of the expansion of the nation to its post-World War II position of global hegemony. Immigrant communities in the United States today are related to a history of American military, political, economic, and cultural involvement and intervention in the sending

Rubén G. Rumbaut

1994-01-01

302

An Archeological Survey of Selected Areas of the Fort Benning Military Reservation, Alabama and Georgia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes an archaeological survey made of historic and prehistoric cultural resources of the Fort Benning Military Reservation. This survey included limited subsurface testing. Four smaller non-contiguous areas being considered for development...

T. Kohler

1980-01-01

303

The Effects of Rifampin on the Nasopharyngeal Carriage of 'Neisseria meningitidis' in a Military Population.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of rifampin on nasopharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis was studied in a relatively closed population of approximately 1,600 military trainees at a time when the rate of carriage among subpopulations ranged between 43% and 86%. Culture...

W. E. Beam N. R. Newberg L. F. Devine W. E. Pierce J. A. Davies

1971-01-01

304

Building military influenza surveillance capacity in West Africa.  

PubMed

Militaries are especially susceptible to operationally important outbreaks of acute respiratory infections such as pandemic and seasonal influenza. In addition, militaries play important roles for State Parties working to meet International Health Regulations 2005, particularly in developing countries. In 2009, the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 joined with the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research and the armed forces of Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Côte d'Ivoire to create or improve influenza surveillance capacities within the militaries. This article describes the process undertaken to achieve this goal. In the Ghana Armed Forces, influenza surveillance for outpatients was instituted at seven medical stations throughout the country and for inpatients at the tertiary referral hospital in Accra. As a result, military sites now contribute around half of the influenza cases detected in Ghana and reported weekly to the World Health Organization. Samples were also collected by the militaries of Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso, although political instability slowed progress. This effort is part of an ongoing strategy to build influenza surveillance capacity within West African militaries in support of military services, global outbreak investigations, International Health Regulations-2005, and the development of country-specific pandemic preparedness plans. PMID:23707118

Kronmann, Karl C; Ampofo, William; Nzussouo, Talla; Wasfy, Momtaz O; Agbenohevi, Prince; Carroll, John; Diabate, Mory; Sourabie, Seydou; Puplampu, Naiki; Clemens, Michaela; Oyofo, Buhari A

2013-03-01

305

Increasing military social work knowledge: an evaluation of learning outcomes.  

PubMed

Service members and veterans face a myriad of health, mental health, and social challenges stemming from the combat and operational stressors experienced during deployment and the challenges ofreintegration to civilian life. To intervene effectively with this population, social workers must be knowledgeable about these issues and the cultural context within which they occur. Although schools of social work across the country are developing course work in military social work, little is known about the learning outcomes of these courses. This article describes a military social work course that was developed to increase student preparedness to work with a military or veteran population and the learning outcomes achieved. Using a quasi-experimental pre-post design, this study compared the learning outcomes of students enrolled in the course with a group of students who had not taken the course. To measure this knowledge, the authors developed a 50-item Military Social Work Knowledge Scale for the study. Significant differences between pre- and posttest scores were found for the social work students enrolled in the course. Specific areas of knowledge that increased for the class participants included knowledge about cultural sensitivity to military populations and knowledge about service and advocacy frameworks. PMID:24693599

Forgey, Mary Ann; Young, Sharon L

2014-02-01

306

ACQUISITION AND RETENTION OF CROSS-CULTURAL INTERACTION SKILLS THROUGH SELF-CONFRONTATION. FINAL REPORT APR 1965-SEP 1965.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AN EXPERIMENT TESTED THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO TECHNIQUES FOR TRAINING UNITED STATES AIR FORCE MILITARY ADVISORS IN CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS. RETENTION OF SKILLS OVER TIME AND EFFECTS OF ATTITUDE ON LEARNING WERE ALSO STUDIED. SUBJECTS PLAYED THE ROLE OF AN AIR FORCE CAPTAIN INTERACTING WITH A FOREIGN COUNTERPART, PLAYED BY A…

EACHUS, HERBERT T.; KING, PHILIP H.

307

Sleep and Academic Performance in U.S. Military Training and Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review examines the effects of military training regimes, which might include some degree of sleep deprivation, on sleep-wake schedules. We report a 4-year longitudinal study of sleep patterns of cadets at the United States Military Academy and the consequences of an extension of sleep from 6 to 8 hr per night at the United States Navy's…

Miller, Nita Lewis; Shattuck, Lawrence G.; Matsangas, Panagiotis; Dyche, Jeff

2008-01-01

308

Comparative Strategic Cultures Curriculum Project: Assessing Strategic Culture as a Methodological Approach to Understanding WMD Decision-Making by States and Non-State Actors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This syllabus is intended to introduce the concept of strategic culture to upper division undergraduates seeking to deepen their understanding of international relations and security studies, and broaden their theoretical and methodological tool sets. Our...

J. A. Larsen J. L. Johnson

2006-01-01

309

Continued growth for military PAs.  

PubMed

The US military physician assistant (PA) originated from the corpsmen and medics of the army, navy, air force, and Coast Guard. PAs have been present in every military campaign since 1980 and serve in a wide variety of medical roles. Their combat role has expanded so that in many instances the PA has replaced the physician as the front-line care provider. All have moved from warrant officer into the commissioned officer ranks, a change that has enabled them to rise into command and administrative positions. Narrowing of the pay differential between military and civilian PAs has contributed to their retention. PMID:12434494

Salyer, Steven W

2002-10-01

310

Immunological activity of ginseng is enhanced by solid-state culture with Ganoderma lucidum mycelium.  

PubMed

Fresh ginseng was fermented with Ganoderma lucidum mycelium (GL) in solid-state culture to enhance its immunomodulatory activity. When crude polysaccharide (FG-GL-CP) was fractionated from lyophilized fermented ginseng (FG-GL), FG-GL-CP showed significantly higher mitogenic, macrophage stimulating, and intestinal immune system modulating activity (1.52-, 1.52- and 1.46-fold, respectively) than those of crude polysaccharide from nonfermented ginseng (NG-CP, 1.36-, 1.37- and 1.32-fold) and G. lucidum mycelium alone (GL-CP, 1.48-, 1.40- and 1.31-fold). After FG-GL-CP was further fractionated into two active carbohydrate-rich fractions (FG-GL-CP-II and III) on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B (Cl? form), the most active polysaccharide (FG-GL-CP-III-1) was purified as a single peak with a molecular weight of 71 kDa. FG-GL-CP-III-1 mainly consists of Ara, Man, Gal, and Glc (molar ratio: 0.85:1.00:0.81:0.76) in addition to a small amount of uronic acid. Methylation analysis indicates that FG-GL-CP-III-1 is composed mainly of terminal/4- or 5-linked Ara(f), terminal/4-linked Man, terminal/3,6-branched Gal, and terminal/4-linked Glc. NaIO? oxidation of FG-GL-CP-III significantly decreased its activity (64.0-79.2%). These results suggest that solid-state culture of ginseng with G. lucidum may enhance the immunomodulatory activity and that neutral polysaccharides containing Ara, Man, Gal, and Glc may be important for the activity of fermented ginseng. PMID:24456366

Kim, Hoon; Suh, Hyung Joo; Kang, Choong-Min; Lee, Kyung-Haeng; Hwang, Jong-Hyun; Yu, Kwang-Won

2014-01-01

311

Influence of the carbon and nitrogen sources on keratinase production by Myrothecium verrucaria in submerged and solid state cultures.  

PubMed

Myrothecium verrucaria is a nondermatophytic filamentous fungus able to grow and to produce keratinase in submerged (93.0 +/- 19 U/ml) and solid state (98.8 +/- 7.9 U/ml) cultures in which poultry feather powder (PFP) is the only substrate. The purpose of the present work was to verify how different carbon and nitrogen sources can influence the production of keratinase by this fungus. Addition of carbohydrates, such as glucose and sucrose, caused only slight improvements in keratinase production, but the addition of starch caused a significant improvement (135.0 +/- 25 U/ml). The highest levels of keratinase activity, however, were obtained by supplementing the PFP cultures with cassava bagasse, 168.0 +/- 28 U/ml and 189.0 +/- 26 U/ml in submerged and solid state cultures, respectively. Contrarily, the supplementation of PFP medium with organic or inorganic nitrogen sources, such as casein, soy bean protein, gelatin, ammonium nitrate and alanine, decreased the production of keratinase in both types of cultures (around 20 U/ml), showing that the production of keratinase by M. verrucaria is repressed by nitrogen sources. The results obtained in this work suggest that the association of the two residues PFP plus cassava bagasse could be an excellent option as a cheap culture medium for the production of keratinase in submerged and solid state cultures. PMID:19229574

da Gioppo, Nereida Mello Rosa; Moreira-Gasparin, Fabiana G; Costa, Andréa M; Alexandrino, Ana Maria; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Peralta, Rosane M

2009-05-01

312

Numerical modeling of complex military platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern military platforms are crucially dependent on electromagnetic (EM) systems. The electromagnetic interactions generalized (EIGER) code is a computational electromagnetic code capable of EM design evaluation of military platforms. The numerical modeling process and canonical validation are presented. Some modeling results of complex military platforms are presented. These military platforms include a predator UAV, HMMWV, Abrams tank, Arleigh Burke destroyer,

D. E. Hurdsman; W. M. Massey; J. H. Meloling; J. W. Rockway; G. J. Burke; N. J. Champagne; R. M. Sharpe

2003-01-01

313

Changing Families in a Changing Military System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, the military system has begun to feel the impact of the military family. Whenever sudden dramatic changes or transitions occur, crises may result either for the individual or for the institution. At present both the military system and the military family are in a period of rapid transition. Perhaps one of the most important changes that…

Hunter, Edna J., Ed.

314

Informed Question Paper - Polish Military.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Poland's military reform plan, embodied in the 'Technical Modernisation of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland 2001-2006,' includes significant changes to the structure of the Polish armed forces, armaments, infrastructure, operational procedures, ...

E. Kim-Mitchell

2002-01-01

315

Substance Abuse in the Military  

MedlinePLUS

... among personnel who have been exposed to combat. Suicides and Substance Use Suicide rates in the military were traditionally lower than ... the same age range, but in 2004 the suicide rate in the U.S. Army began to climb, ...

316

Traction Modeling of Military Lubricants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Traction behavior of military lubricants is investigated by examining both classical Newtonian and more recently postulated visco-elastic effects in the experimental traction data. An estimate of the relevant rheological parameters is derived by curve fit...

P. K. Gupta

1989-01-01

317

Measuring Underemployment Among Military Spouses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is it like to be a military spouse? It can present some rather unique challenges including underemployment. This 111-page report by researchers Nelson Lim and David Schulker on underemployment among military spouses was sponsored by the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the work was conducted in the RAND National Defense Research Institute. The work examines the extent and causes of underemployment among military spouses, and it also looks at their "look-alikes", who in this case happen to be a group of similar civilian wives. Their research indicates that military wives are much more likely not to be in the labor force, and they are also more likely to have relatively high levels of education for their jobs when compared to their civilian counterparts. Visitors will want to read over all seven chapters of the report, and they can also consult the indices, graphs, and helpful charts.

318

Military Examples of Coastal Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coastal engineering is required for military ports and harbors and across-the-beach amphibious operations. Examples are given for operations during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam Conflict, one very large (Normandy, France), and some small. ...

R. L. Wiegel

1999-01-01

319

Military fathers' perspectives on involvement.  

PubMed

Military fathers endure repeated separations from their children. In this qualitative study we describe military fathers' range of involvement with their children, paying special attention to the implications of deployment separation and reintegration. We discuss father involvement using three overlapping major domains of functioning: cognitive, affective, and behavioral. Additionally, we consider how types of father involvement differ vis-à-vis child age. Data were gathered via focus groups conducted with 71 fathers at 14 U.S. military installations. Descriptions of involvement were rich and varied. Involvement with children was a major concern for fathers, despite or perhaps because of the challenges of military careers. We discuss factors that help explain variations in involvement and offer insights about the conceptualization of father involvement for occupations requiring prolonged absences from home. PMID:21707173

Willerton, Elaine; Schwarz, Rona L; Wadsworth, Shelley M Macdermid; Oglesby, Mary Schultheis

2011-08-01

320

Military Engagement with Social Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The military has a tremendous opportunity to strategically communicate with its members, allies, and even its enemies through a simple concept called 'social media.' There has never been a better opportunity for an organization to instantly communicate wi...

J. H. Lehman

2011-01-01

321

Military Wages War on Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A military base is like a city, and must deal with many of the same environmental, social and economic problems. Just like civilian communities, Department of Defense facilities must live within the same environmental laws and regulations and must comply ...

R. A. Young

1983-01-01

322

Conceptual approaches to switching in future military networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents conceptual approaches to the synthesis of switching functions in future military networks. The special requirements of military communications are shown to favor the implementation of integrated networks which provide all services (voice, data, imagery) within a single unified network structure. Transparent and transactional methods are defined as contrasting approaches to the realization of the required switching functions. The conceptual approaches to switching in future military networks are presented in the context of cultural differences which appear to exist between the differing perceptions of the adherents of circuit switching and packet switching. Special consideration is devoted to the issue of software engineering and the impact of current trends in DoD procurement policy.

Coviello, G. J.; Lyons, R. E.

1980-09-01

323

The rise of Chinese military medicine: opportunity for mercy ship, not gunboat, diplomacy.  

PubMed

Recent exchanges between the United States and China at the presidential and cabinet level have emphasized the need for an enhanced military-to-military relationship to further mutual understanding and promote cooperation. This article explores the historic context of military medical relations between the two nations as well as the rationale and opportunities for increased interaction through medical diplomacy. Specific areas for potential collaboration are discussed with recommendations for future action. PMID:21987964

Chambers, James A

2011-09-01

324

Skin disease in military personnel.  

PubMed

Skin disease, disease of the musculoskeletal system, and respiratory infections are the most frequent reasons for military personnel to seek medical care. The Oslo Military Clinic serves all of the military personnel in Oslo and the surrounding region, including officers and civilian employees. From September 1996 to May 1997, 1,360 patients were diagnosed and treated by the author, and the data are included in the following study. Upper respiratory disease was the primary reason for seeking medical attention in 26% of the patients, 21% visited the clinic because of disease or pain in the musculoskeletal system, and 16% suffered from a skin disease. Apart from the low number of female patients, the patient population and the disease spectrum observed in the military clinic are very similar to those in a general medical practice. Among the 222 patients suffering from a cutaneous disease, eczema (42 patients), allergy (excluding dermatitis) (34 patients), acne vulgaris (23 patients), and sexually transmitted diseases (28 patients) were the most prevalent processes. Other less prevalent skin diseases were fungal infections, herpes simplex infection, nevi, common warts, and superficial bacterial skin infections. Skin diseases seen in one patient only included erysipelas, herpes zoster, dermatitis herpetiformis, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Good clinical skills in dermatology are of paramount importance in military medicine, and if possible, the military should appoint a dermatologist to its medical team to rapidly diagnose and treat the large number of patients with skin disorders. PMID:10741081

Selvaag, E

2000-03-01

325

Overweight and obesity in military personnel: sociodemographic predictors.  

PubMed

In the United States, nationally representative civilian studies have shown that BMI is associated with select sociodemographic characteristics. Active-duty military personnel are not included in these surveys and the persistence of these associations in military personnel is unknown. Data from the worldwide, representative 2002 and 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Surveys of Health-Related Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel were used to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and, the association of BMI with sociodemographic characteristics. The final response bases included 12,756 (2002) and 16,146 (2005) personnel. Results indicated that the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity in military personnel increased to an all-time high in 2005 (60.5%) with higher prevalence of obesity in 2005 compared to 2002 (12.9% vs. 8.7, respectively, P ? 0.01). Holding other variables constant, regression analysis indicated that women were significantly less likely than men to be overweight or obese in both survey years (P ? 0.0001), which is contrary to civilian data. Similar to civilian data, the prevalence of obesity was significantly associated with increased age, black or Hispanic/Latino race/ethnicity, and being married (P ? 0.01). US military personnel are not immune to the US obesity epidemic. Demographic characteristics associated with being overweight should be considered when developing military-sponsored weight management programs. PMID:22314620

Smith, Tracey J; Marriott, Bernadette P; Dotson, Laura; Bathalon, Gaston P; Funderburk, Leslee; White, Alan; Hadden, Louise; Young, Andrew J

2012-07-01

326

Effect of phorbol esters on contractile state and calcium flux in cultured chick heart cells  

SciTech Connect

Phorbol esters are potent tumor promoters that have been widely used in studies of transmembrane signaling because of their ability to activate protein kinase C. To study the effect of phorbol esters (and indirectly, the role of protein kinase C) on the cardiac muscle contractility, the authors examined the effects of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) on contractile state, transmembrane /sup 45/Ca fluxes, and cytosolic free Ca concentration ((Ca)/sub i/) using spontaneously contracting cultured chick ventricular cells. PMA produced a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in the amplitude of cell motion (half maximum inhibitory concentration) with maximal effect observed at 1 ..mu..M. PMA (1 ..mu..M) reduced /sup 45/Ca uptake rate by 16 /plus minus/ 4% and the size of the rapidly exchangeable Ca pool by 11 /plus minus/ 2%, but did not alter the /sup 45/Ca efflux rate. In fura-2-loaded cells. PMA produced a decrease in (Ca)/sub i/ from 96 /plus minus/ 7 to 72 /plus minus/ 5 nM with a time course similar to that of alteration in contractile amplitude. These results indicate that PMA influences transsarcolemmal Ca uptake, and thus the excitation-contraction process, and suggest that protein kinase C may modulate myocardial Ca homeostassis and contractile state.

Leatherman, G.F.; Kim, D.; Smith, T.W.

1987-07-01

327

M. tuberculosis Gene Expression during Transition to the "Non-Culturable" State  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the gene expression profile under specific conditions during reversible transition of M. tuberculosis cells to the "non-culturable" (NC) state in a prolonged stationary phase. More than 500 genes were differentially regulated, while 238 genes were upregulated over all time points during NC cell formation. Approximately a quarter of these upregulated genes belong to insertion and phage sequences indicating a possible high intensity of genome modification processes taking place under transition to the NC state. Besides the high proportion of hypothetical/conserved hypothetical genes in the cohort of upregulated genes, there was a significant number of genes belonging to intermediary metabolism, respiration, information pathways, cell wall and cell processes, and genes encoding regulatory proteins. We conclude that NC cell formation is an active process involved in the regulation of many genes of different pathways. A more detailed analysis of the experimental data will help to understand the precise molecular mechanisms of dormancy/latency/persistence of M. tuberculosis in the future. The list of upregulated genes obtained in this study includes many genes found to be upregulated in other models of M. tuberculosis persistence. Thirteen upregulated genes, which are common for different models, can be considered as potential targets for the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs directed mainly against latent tuberculosis.

Salina, E.G.; Kaufmann, S.H.E.; Kaprelyants, A.S.

2009-01-01

328

Filamentous fungi and media for cellulase production in solid state cultures.  

PubMed

Cellulase production was evaluated in two reference strains (T. reesei Rut-C30 and T. reesei QM9414), two strains isolated from a sugarcane cultivation area (Trichoderma sp. IPT778 and T. harzianum rifai IPT821) and one strain isolated in a program for biodiversity preservation in São Paulo state (Myceliophthora thermophila M77). Solid state cultures were performed using sugarcane bagasse (C), wheat bran (W) and/or soybean bran (S). The highest FPA was 10.6 U/gdm for M77 in SC (10:90) at 80% moisture, which was 4.4 times higher than production in pure W. C was a strong inducer of cellulase production, given that the production level of 6.1 U/gdm in WC (40:60) was 2.5 times higher than in pure W for strain M77; T. reesei Rut-C30 did not respond as strongly with about 1.6-fold surplus production. S advantageously replaced W, as the surplus production on SC (20:80) was 2.3 times relative to WC (20:80) for M77. PMID:24948946

Kilikian, B V; Afonso, L C; Souza, T F C; Ferreira, R G; Pinheiro, I R

2014-01-01

329

Filamentous fungi and media for cellulase production in solid state cultures  

PubMed Central

Cellulase production was evaluated in two reference strains (T. reesei Rut-C30 and T. reesei QM9414), two strains isolated from a sugarcane cultivation area (Trichoderma sp. IPT778 and T. harzianum rifai IPT821) and one strain isolated in a program for biodiversity preservation in São Paulo state (Myceliophthora thermophila M77). Solid state cultures were performed using sugarcane bagasse (C), wheat bran (W) and/or soybean bran (S). The highest FPA was 10.6 U/gdm for M77 in SC (10:90) at 80% moisture, which was 4.4 times higher than production in pure W. C was a strong inducer of cellulase production, given that the production level of 6.1 U/gdm in WC (40:60) was 2.5 times higher than in pure W for strain M77; T. reesei Rut-C30 did not respond as strongly with about 1.6-fold surplus production. S advantageously replaced W, as the surplus production on SC (20:80) was 2.3 times relative to WC (20:80) for M77.

Kilikian, B.V.; Afonso, L.C.; Souza, T.F.C.; Ferreira, R.G.; Pinheiro, I.R.

2014-01-01

330

The Role of State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems in Promoting Cultural Competence and Effective Cross-Cultural Communication. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, Number 8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If early childhood systems are to be effective at the population level then they must be able to provide family-centered care to all the racial, ethnic and cultural groups that they serve. Despite major policy driven and technological advances in healthcare, health disparities across different races and ethnicities persist. For example, the infant…

Sareen, Harvinder; Visencio, Diane; Russ, Shirley; Halfon, Neal

2005-01-01

331

The Impact of Cultural Diversity on Special Education Provision in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural background influences one's understanding of intellectual and/or developmental disabilities. More specifically, the cultural perspectives of parents and special education professionals may affect decision-making in providing appropriate services for children with disabilities. Therefore, cultural distinctions may present a unique…

Palawat, Manisara; May, Michael E.

2012-01-01

332

Cultural factors of visitors' understanding of United States National Park Service natural resource messages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current trends in the demographic structure of the US population indicate increasing cultural diversity. Culturally-diverse populations have varying beliefs, views and understandings of natural resource use and management. This study concentrates on understanding how messages pertaining to natural resources concepts and associated management decisions are communicated to and received by culturally-diverse audiences. This is particularly relevant to land managing agencies,

Sunita Claire Hilton

2002-01-01

333

A Comparison of Safety Culture Associated with Three Engineered Systems in Japan and the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internationally reported nuclear criticality accident at JCO in Tokaimura, Japan has further eroded public confidence in nuclear energy, its related facilities and the (Japanese) government’s ability to handle such a crisis. The JCO accident marked the sixth nuclear-related incident since 1995. The existing state of “safety culture” is being questioned and re-evaluated at a national level. In this work the safety culture associated with engineered systems (ES) such as the automobile, commercial airplane and nuclear power plants (NPP) are evaluated based on a scale-analysis (SA), via proposition of two fundamental parameters called eigenmetrics. The identified eigenmetrics are time- (?) and number-scales (N) describing both ES and human factors, at the individual and/or societal levels. The SA approach is appropriate because human perception of risk (POR), perception of benefit (POB) and level of (technology) acceptance (LOA) are inherently subjective, therefore “fuzzy” and rarely quantifiable in exact magnitude. POR expressed in terms of the psychometric factors “dread risk” and “unknown risk”, contain both time- and number-scale elements. The JCO accident, as well as auto-fatalities, commercial airline accidents and hypothetical NPP accidents are characterized in terms of ?, N and two additional derived parameters of relevance, N? and N/?. We contend that LOA infers a POB at least two orders of magnitude larger than POR. The “amplification” influence of mass-media is also deduced as being 100 to 1000 fold the actual number of fatalities/serious injuries in a nuclear-related accident.

Tokuhiro, Akira

334

Drug Abuse in the Military. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session on Reviewing the Problem of Drug Abuse in the Military.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains transcripts of testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the effects of illicit drug use and alcoholism on military personnel. Following statements by Senators Hawkins, Grassley, and Kerry, testimonies from representatives of the Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force, and Coast Guard are…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

335

Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for cultural heritage management: state of art and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-invasive diagnostic tools able to provide information on the materials and preservation state of artworks are crucial to help conservators, archaeologists and anthropologists to plan and carry out their tasks properly. In this frame, technological solutions exploiting Terahertz (THz) radiation, i.e., working at frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 10 THz, are currently deserving huge attention as complementary techniques to classical analysis methodologies based on electromagnetic radiations from X-rays to mid infrared [1]. The main advantage offered by THz spectroscopy and imaging systems is referred to their capability of providing information useful to determine the construction modality, the history life and the conservation state of artworks as well as to identify previous restoration actions [1,2]. In particular, unlike mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy, which provides fingerprint absorption spectra depending on the intramolecular behavior, THz spectroscopy is related to the structure of the molecules of the investigated object. Hence, it can discriminate, for instance, the different materials mixed in a paint [1,2]. Moreover, THz radiation is able to penetrate several materials which are opaque to both visible and infrared materials, such as varnish, paint, plaster, paper, wood, plastic, and so on. Accordingly, it is useful to detect hidden objects and characterize the inner structure of the artwork under test even in the direction of the depth, while avoiding core drillings. In this frame, THz systems allow us to discriminate different layers of materials present in artworks like paints, to obtain images providing information on the construction technique as well as to discover risk factors affecting the preservation state, such as non-visible cracks, hidden molds and air gaps between the paint layer and underlying structure. Furthermore, adopting a no-ionizing radiation, THz systems offer the not trivial benefit of negligible long term risks to the molecular stability of the exposed objects and humans. Recently, the interest on THz technology is also growing up thanks to the development of flexible and compact commercial systems having source and detector probes coupled by means of optical fiber cables and that do not require complex optical alignments. These features allow us to reconfigure the measurement configuration easily; thus transmission, normal reflection and oblique reflection data can be collected according to the constrains and objective of the survey to be performed. Moreover, they open the way to on field applications. An example of last generation THz systems is the Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain System (FICO) marketed by Z-Omega and available at the Institute of Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment. Such a system is designed to perform both transmission and reflection spectroscopy and imaging measurements in the range from 60GHz to 3THz; with a waveform acquisition speed up to 500Hz. A review of the literature assessing potentialities and open challenges of THz spectroscopy and imaging in the frame of cultural heritage preservation will be provided at the conferences, with a specific focus on the diagnostic capabilities of last generation systems. REFERENCES [1] K. Fukunaga, I. Hosako, Innovative non-invasive analysis techniques for cultural heritage using terahertz technology, C. R. Physique, vol. 11, pp.519-526, 2010. [2] G.Fillippidis, M. Massaouti, A. Selimis, E.J. Gualda, J.M. Manceau, S. Tzortzakis, Nonlinear imaging and THz diagnostic tools in the service of Cultural Heritage, Appl. Phys. A, vol.106, pp.257-263, 2012.

Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

2014-05-01

336

Environment, People, and Culture. New Mexico State University: A Land-Grant Institution. Vol. 1, Parts 1 and 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tri-dimensional mandate of the land-grant institution--to teach, to research, and to serve--finds a common meeting place at the New Mexico State University. The New Mexico State University has tri-cultural concerns arising from the special needs of the population that it serves. The age-old problem of water in an arid land, the new challenge…

Rodwell, David, Ed.; And Others

337

Pedagogical Transformations of "Religion" into "Culture" in Danish State Mass Schooling from the 1900s to the 1930s  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Particularly after the Danish political system changed to parliamentarism in 1901, a growing interest in, and expanded meaning of, culture as a pedagogical category developed in relation to state schooling, on the road to a comprehensive school system for "the whole population". This article elaborates on the role played by theological scholars in…

Buchardt, Mette

2013-01-01

338

Living in the United States. A Brief Introduction to the Culture for Visitors, Students and Business Travelers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide provides a brief introduction to the culture and language of the United States, and is designed for visitors, students, and business travelers. It offers practical information on various aspects of daily living, including: money and banks; food; restaurants; drinking and smoking laws; hotels; postal and telecommunications services;…

Hawkinson, Anni; Clark, Raymond C.

339

Influence of Some Physicochemical Stresses on the Survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 at Non-Culturable State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival study of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 Classical Inaba and El Tor Ogawa biotypes was carried out in artificial microcosm without any nutrients under stressed physiochemical conditions. The organisms were found to undergo viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state, which was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique using primers that flank a specific fragment of the cholera toxin gene (ctx).

M Mahfuzul Haque; Sirajul Islam Khan; Chowdhury Rafiqul Ahsan

2007-01-01

340

A Window into Different Cultural Worlds: Young Children's Everyday Activities in the United States, Brazil, and Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A powerful means to understand young children's normative development in context is to examine their everyday activities. The daily activities of 79 children (3 years old) were observed, for 20 hr each, in their usual settings. Children were selected from 4 cultural groups: European American and African American (Greensboro, United States), Luo…

Tudge, Jonathan R. H.; Doucet, Fabienne; Odero, Dolphine; Sperb, Tania M.; Piccinini, Cesar A.; Lopes, Rita S.

2006-01-01

341

Culture and Continuing Bonds: A Prospective Comparison of Bereavement in the United States and the People's Republic of China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been an increased interest and debate regarding the adaptiveness of continuing bonds with the deceased. The authors used data from a cross-cultural study of 61 participants from the United States (US) and 58 participants from the People's Republic of China (PRC) who completed measures of continuing bonds and adjustment at 4 and 18 months…

Lalande, Kathleen M.; Bonanno, George A.

2006-01-01

342

The Concept of Culture and Sojourner Assimilation into the Host Environment: An Example of Foreign Students in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accepting a definition of culture as "the total accumulation of an identifiable group's beliefs, norms, activities, institutions, and communication patterns," this paper, in an extensive literature review, conjectures that the environment has a far-reaching impact on the performance of the foreign student in the United States. The paper notes that…

Okoli, Emeka Jonathan

343

Is Longing Only for Germans? A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Sehnsucht in Germany and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Sehnsucht", the longing or yearning for ideal yet seemingly unreachable states of life, is a salient topic in German culture and has proven useful for understanding self-regulation across adulthood in a German sample (e.g., Scheibe, Freund, & Baltes, 2007). The current study tested whether findings for German samples could be generalized to the…

Scheibe, Susanne; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Wiest, Maja; Freund, Alexandra M.

2011-01-01

344

Sex Differences in Jealousy in Evolutionary and Cultural Perspective: Tests From the Netherlands, Germany, and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

As predicted by models derived from evohttionary psychology. men within the United States have been shown to exhibit greater psychological and physiological distress to sex- ual than to emotional infidelity of their partner, and wotnen have been shown to exhibit more distress lo emotional than to sexual infidelity. Because cross-cultural tests are critical for evolutionary hypotheses, we examined these sex

Bram P. Buunk; Alois Angleitner; Viktor Oubaid; D. M. Buss

1996-01-01

345

Amylase production by solid state culture of Aspergillus oryzae on polyurethane foams. Some mechanistic approaches from an empirical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using systems formed by particles of polyurethane foam of different densities soaked in an amylaceous effluent, the production of amylases by Aspergillus oryzae in solid state culture was studied by a complete factorial plan with four variables — support density, particle diameter, volume of liquid phase and substrate concentration. The empirical model obtained is consistent and allows a simple control

M. A. Murado; M. P. González; A. Torrado; L. M. Pastrana

1997-01-01

346

FAST on operational military deployment  

PubMed Central

Background and objective: Handheld ultrasound, because of its light weight, size, rugged design, and relative simplicity of use is ideal for use on operational military deployment. These machines have been used in the diagnosis of a range of traumatic conditions including abdominal, thoracic, and extremity trauma in the hospital environment, yet few data exist on their use during military operations. This paper presents experience of handheld focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) on operational military deployment. Method: Over a two month period, handheld FAST was performed by a single surgeon during the circulation phase of the primary survey in trauma patients presenting to the British Military Hospital in Iraq. Results: Fifteen from casualties underwent a FAST examination. Ten were victims of blunt trauma, two had received injuries anti-personnel mines, and three had penetrating injuries from ballistic trauma. There was one positive FAST, confirmed at laparotomy as bleeding from a liver injury. Thirteen scans were negative and remained negative on repeat FAST at 6 hours. One further patient with a negative FAST underwent laparotomy because of transectory, there was no intra-abdominal blood or fluid at surgery. Conclusion: Handheld FAST is a valuable technique for investigating abdominal or thoracic bleeding in single or multiple casualty events on operational military deployment.

Brooks, A; Price, V; Simms, M

2005-01-01

347

[Prospective concepts of the military field therapy development].  

PubMed

The authors suggested the main problems solved by the military field therapy: development, scientific rationale, systematic improvement and practical application of the organizational form of first aid for the wounded in conditions of combat actions; research on the etiology, pathogenesis and clinical picture of states caused by effect of weapon of mass destruction (nuclear weapon, chemical weapon, etc); development of methods of diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of the abovementioned states; research of the pattern, clinical progression and treatment of somatization disorders in conditions of combat and casual activity of troops, analysis of morbidity among the troops and development of prophylaxis;formulation of military-medical questionnaire and development of the system of rehabilitation for the wounded. Searching for innovative methods for solving the problems of military field therapy is the current problem. Modern warfare changed the concept of delivery of health care, effectiveness of evacuative actions, training of medical personnel and medical maintaining. The authors came to conclusion that qualitative technology breakthrough in development of military medicine and military field therapy would not happen without strategic understanding and learning of prospect technologies. PMID:24000636

Khalimov, Iu Sh; Matveev, S Iu; Kuz'min, V G; Vetriakov, O V

2013-06-01

348

Photoreactivation, Photoproduct Formation, and Deoxyribonucleic Acid State in Ultraviolet-Irradiated Sporulating Cultures of Bacillus cereus  

PubMed Central

Photoreactivation of ultraviolet-irradiated Bacillus cereus T declined markedly during the development of stage IV forespores. During ultraviolet irradiation of a culture containing early and late stage IV forespores, both vegetative- and spore-type photoproducts were formed. The formation of vegetative-type photoproducts (mainly thymine dimers) decreased to nearly half during late stage IV, remaining constant until lysis of the mother cells began, when it fell to zero. Spore-type photoproducts were first observed during late stage IV and increased with the increase in numbers of late stage IV forespores. The occurrence of spore-type photoproducts preceded the development of refractile forespores by about 1 h. At stage III the nuclear material occupied a central position, and the ribosomes were at the periphery of the forespore protoplast. During stage IV the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) occurred in a peripheral position, and bundles of fibers (“transition” DNA) could be seen. By stage V, all of the DNA appeared to be of the spore type and was peripheral, and the forespore protoplast center was packed with ribosomes. Forespore stages II, III, and IV were classified by light and electron microscopy. The curve for electron microscope classifications preceded that for light microscope classifications by approximately one stage. The formation of spore-type photoproducts preceded differentiation of DNA by about 1 h, the latter coinciding with the development of refractility. Spore-type photoproducts have been associated with DNA in the A state, and the progressive change of the forespore DNA into this state is discussed in relation to the spore differentiation process. Images

Baillie, Elizabeth; Germaine, G. R.; Murreli, W. G.; Ohye, D. F.

1974-01-01

349

Sleep and Academic Performance in U.S. Military Training and Education Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This review examines the effects of military training regimes, which might include some degree of sleep deprivation, on sleep-wake schedules. We report a 4-year longitudinal study of sleep patterns of cadets at the United States Military Academy and the c...

J. Dyche L. G. Shattuck N. L. Miller P. Matsangas

2008-01-01

350

U.S. Military/Security Assistance for Saudi Arabia Strategic Implications for the 1990s.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the 1950s the United States has had a strong Military/Security Assistance program with Saudi Arabia. This paper looks at the history of this program in some detail. Additionally, the paper looks at the dynamics of military balance among the nations ...

L. R. Mayes

1990-01-01

351

History of U.S. Military Contributions to the Study of Diarrheal Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Diarrhea, a scourge upon humanity since preliterate times, has been the particular nemesis of military forces. The Armed Forces of the United States have been in the forefront in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diarrheal illness. U.S. military...

M. L. Lim

2005-01-01

352

The Success of a National Dialogue on Sustainable Military Range Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Military munitions are the silent giant of hazardous waste management and cleanup in the United States. Toward the end of the first Clinton administration, the Navy and Air Force prevailed upon the Army--the armed service with the biggest ordnance problem--to consider co-sponsoring a formal dialogue on military munitions facilitated by the…

Siegel, Lenny

2003-01-01

353

8 CFR 316.6 - Physical presence for certain spouses of military personnel.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Physical presence for certain spouses of military...REQUIREMENTS FOR NATURALIZATION § 316.6 Physical presence for certain spouses of military...citizen resides abroad will be treated as physical presence in any State or...

2014-01-01

354

The Proud Story of Military Child Care: An Exchange Trend Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an interview with Barbara Thompson, the Director of the Office of Family Policy/Children and Youth in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. In the interview, Thompson talks about trends in military child care in the United States. She shares when the military got into the business of providing child care. She also talks…

Neugebauer, Roger

2011-01-01

355

Private Education in Chile under the Military Regime (1973-1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the development of private education in Chile since the military coup of 1973, in the context of the military regime's neoconservative political and ideological aims. Despite these professed aims, copious evidence is presented to suggest that the need of an authoritarian state to maintain "national security" by suppressing all…

Magendzo, Abraham; And Others

356

Studies on batch and continuous cultures of Botryococcus braunii: hydrocarbon production in relation to physiological state, cell ultrastructure, and phosphate nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of the hydrocarbon-rich alga Botryococcus braunii was studied under air-lift conditions using batch and continuous cultures. Large variations in the physiological state of B. braunii were achieved in batch cultures and in continuous cultures with various dilution rates. The possible effects of these variations upon hydrocarbons (nature, relative abundance, location, level, productivity) and also on the production of

E. Casadevall; D. Dif; C. Largeau; C. Gudin; D. Chaumont; O. Desanti

1985-01-01

357

Isolation of culturable microorganisms from free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the southeastern United States.  

PubMed

Reports of diseases in marine mammals are increasing worldwide, however our understanding of the microorganisms associated with marine mammals is still limited. In this study, we cultured bacteria and fungi isolated from the upper respiratory tract (blowhole), gastric fluid and anus of 180 wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from two estuarine locations along the southeastern Atlantic Coast of the United States. A total of 339 and 491 isolates from Charleston, SC (CHS) and Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL) dolphins, respectively, were cultured from gastric (70 CHS/82 IRL), fecal (141 CHS/184 IRL), and blowhole (128 CHS/225 IRL) swabs on selective media used for routine clinical microorganisms of human concern. The most frequently cultured Gram-negative bacteria from all sample and study types were Plesiomonas shigelloides, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Among the Gram-positive bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus sp., and Staphylococcus Coag. Neg were the predominant organisms. For fungi, the most abundant species were Candida glabrata, budding yeasts, and Candida tropicalis. Of concern, the MRSA strain of Staphylococcus aureus was detected in the blowhole and gastric swabs from CHS dolphins. In general, a greater prevalence of bacteria and fungi (four-fold increase) were cultured from IRL than CHS animals. Together, these culture-dependent studies, coupled to on-going culture-independent approaches, should help establish a baseline of microorganisms associated with bottlenose dolphins and aid in the identification of organisms responsible for infectious diseases(s) in these animals. PMID:20888150

Morris, Pamela J; Johnson, Wesley R; Pisani, John; Bossart, Gregory D; Adams, Jeff; Reif, John S; Fair, Patricia A

2011-03-24

358

Military service and lung disease.  

PubMed

Military personnel can be exposed to toxicants and conditions that can contribute to lung diseases. This article describes what is known about these exposures and diseases, focusing on the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Adverse lung health outcomes have been reported in US military personnel deployed to Iraq and/or Afghanistan. Most studies to date have been hindered by limited deployment-specific exposure assessment, lack of baseline lung health information, and variable medical evaluations and case definitions. Further research is warranted. Medical surveillance has been recommended for returning troops, but the challenges are substantial. PMID:23153610

Rose, Cecile S

2012-12-01

359

Military Career Guide: Employment and Training Opportunities in the Military.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This copiously illustrated guide is a single reference source for the diverse employment and training opportunities in the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. It is divided into two major sections. The first section contains descriptions of 134 enlisted military occupations and provides information regarding the aptitudes needed…

Military Entrance Processing Command (DOD), North Chicago, IL.

360

Suicide, social integration, and masculinity in the U.S. military.  

PubMed

Reports indicate that suicide in the U.S. military has increased significantly in recent years. This increase has been attributed to a number of factors, including more frequent deployments, more relaxed screening of recruits, combat trauma, economic difficulty amongst soldiers, and the breakdown of interpersonal relationships. In this article, we add an element that we believe is crucial to an understanding of military suicide: the socio-cultural environment of the military itself. In particular, we examine the role that the masculine ideologies governing military life play in the internalization of individual frustrations and in suicidal behavior. Suicide investigators often have ignored the role of masculine ideologies in military suicide because of the assumption that suicide results from social disintegration. In contrast, we argue that military suicide is driven largely by excessive social integration. From this perspective, current explanations of military suicide are constrained by gender and etiological assumptions. Finally, this paper suggests the implications of these findings for designing more effective prevention programs for military suicide. PMID:21036443

Braswell, Harold; Kushner, Howard I

2012-02-01

361

Teaching Cross-Cultural Aging: Using Literary Portrayals of Elders from Chile and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literary texts are cultural artifacts revealing a society's values and attitudes; reading literature about elders and old age can change readers' ageist attitudes. Beginning with these assumptions, I discuss ways of teaching cross-cultural aging in undergraduate literature courses, using Chilean texts paired with American texts. Students learn how…

Waxman, Barbara

2005-01-01

362

Toward the Computational Representation of Individual Cultural, Cognitive, and Physiological State: The Sensor Shooter Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents an exploratory FY 00 LDRD project that sought to demonstrate the first steps toward a realistic computational representation of the variability encountered in individual human behavior. Realism, as conceptualized in this project, required that the human representation address the underlying psychological, cultural, physiological, and environmental stressors. The present report outlines the researchers' approach to representing cognitive, cultural,

ELAINE M. RAYBOURN; JAMES C. FORSYTHE

2001-01-01

363

Managerial Values Across Cultures: Australia, Hong Kong and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between personal managerial values and a range of important organisational variables has increasingly been recognised. Personal values are shaped by the wider cultural milieu in which the individual is socialised. Managers from different cultural contexts may therefore be expected to possess different work and business-related values. However, exposure to a more universalistic managerial ethos may also generate a

Robert I. Westwood; Barry Z. Posner

1997-01-01

364

Military space station implications. Study project  

SciTech Connect

Justifying the relevancy of a Manned Military Space Station (MMSS) and subsequently proposing its deployment to capitalize upon the United States' national security interests is the essence and purpose of this group study project. The MMSS is intended to perform a two-fold purpose: (1) facilitate military peacetime operations while simultaneously supporting and promoting civilian space initiatives; and, (2) act as a force multiplier for space and terrestrial force operations in the event of conventional, theater nuclear, and/or strategic nuclear war. Data to support the future value of the MMSS was obtained from individual and group research using unclassified sources such as professional journals, books, US Air Force Staff College reference material, and information from the US Air Force space coordinating staff in Washington, DC. The importance of space to our future and especially of a MMSS by America's national leaders and its people has yet to be fully appreciated and/or realized. The significance of space and its nexus to the United States' national security has been growing dramatically in importance since the launching of the Sputnik in 1957 by Russian. Space, as the forth dimension, cannot and should not be understated in importance as it relates to commercialism, deterrence to war, and to the stability of world order.

Bourne, G.D.; Skirvin, G.D.; Wilson, G.R.

1987-03-23

365

Enhancing Mental Readiness in Military Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we explore how the psychological literature on stress and coping might inform military training programs to enhance 'mental readiness' as a method to develop the baseline psychological resiliency of military personnel. Accordingly, mental re...

D. R. McCreary M. M. Thompson

2006-01-01

366

Optimal Military Transportation in a Korean Theater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Due to their high dependency on highway transportation, Republic of Korea's (ROK's) military and industry suffer from congestion, shortfall of means (convoys in the military case), high cost and increase in environmental damage. Our research develops an o...

Y. Jeong

2006-01-01

367

Lighweight and Compostable Fiberboard for the Military.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Novel lightweight fiberboard structures have been researched and developed to replace the existing military fiberboard containers with the ultimate goal to reduce the amount of solid waste for the military. The research effort utilized a three prong appro...

J. A. Ratto K. Dagnon N. D'Souza R. Farrell S. Sun

2012-01-01

368

Military Information Networks as Complex Adaptive Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New information technology now permits a vastly increased degree of connectivity in military communication networks. This more connected architecture should result in faster response times and greater efficiencies in military operations. A potential downs...

L. D. Miller

2001-01-01

369

Breaking Ranks: Dissent and the Military Professional.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are circumstances under which a military officer is not only justified but also obligated to disobey a legal order. In supporting this assertion, I discuss where the tipping point lies between the military officer's customary obligation to obey and ...

A. R. Milburn

2010-01-01

370

Bulgaria and NATO's Military Intervention in Yugoslavia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examines Bulgarian political and economic issues regarding NATO's military intervention in Yugoslavia in 1999. It studies: Bulgarian policy regarding Kosovo crisis; the domestic political attitudes and discussions over NATO's military interven...

D. I. Roussev

2000-01-01

371

Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Android Smartphone devices provide a mobile, powerful, versatile and relatively inexpensive computing platform that is potentially well suited for use by the military. Applications ('apps') are relatively easy to develop and deploy for tailored military u...

D. Sauter

2011-01-01

372

Intrusion Analysis in Military Networks--An Introduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report gives an introduction to the intrusion analysis field, specifically studying military networks. The report presents the results from the first of three planned years of research in the 'Warfare in the IT domain' project. The state-of-the-art o...

M. Karresand

2004-01-01

373

Survey of Speech Articulation Disorders Among Military Dependent Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported was a study involving 20,000 (army) military dependent children (MDC) attending 75 schools in seven school systems throughout the continental United States during 1971. Testing of 412 randomly selected MDC using the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation revealed a significant correlation and associative factor between MDC speech…

Gordon, Don E.

374

What's different about the hardware in tactical military systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent special issue of the Proceedings of the IEEE on computer communications' provides an excellent state-of-the-art report on the burgeoning field of digital telecommunications and computer networks. Included are papers on terminals, modems, errors and error control, multiplexing, processors and computer communication networks. Many of the system elements and system concepts in Tactical Military data processing systems are similar

Edward C. Svendsen; Donald L. Ream

1973-01-01

375

The Permeability of Territorial Space: Some Evidence from Military Warfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated military invasions (N=58) of the territorial boundaries of nation-states, and attempted to document empirically the territorial space permeability function. Results showed that the function relating intrusion to discomfort was found to be conspicuously similar to the personal space permeability function described by Hayduk (1981).…

Khoury, Robert M.

1984-01-01

376

Concept design of a new generation military vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of an advanced concept for a next generation military vehicle based on state of the art technologies. The vehicle's platform will be directly suitable for high mobility applications for instance: Special Forces missions, Marine reconnaissance missions, and commercial racing in events such as Bajas and the Paris - Dakar. The platform will be a 10000

Codrin-Gruie Cantemir; Gabriel Ursescu; Lorenzo Serrao; Giorgio Rizzoni; James Bechtel; Thomas Udvare; Mike Letherwood

2006-01-01

377

Good Ideas: Leveling the Field for Children of Military Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information from a forum designed to: create awareness of unique challenges facing military or mobile families in obtaining appropriate public education and educate families and others in Alaska on state education mandates and procedures. Forum recommendations include: align the high school curriculum with the high school exit exam,…

Kuersten, Joan

2002-01-01

378

Programmed Instruction in Military Training in the NATO Nations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The state of programed instruction utilization in military training within the separate North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) nations is briefly assessed in this report. Only the programs of NATO countries which have not been covered in detail elsewhere are included: Netherlands, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Canada, France, Belgium,…

Nagay, John A.

379

Evaluating the Impacts of Technology Education on Military Maintenance Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States Air Force (USAF) provides career and technical education (CTE) to a wide variety of specialty career fields. Training airmen to carry out the mission while honoring the USAF core values of integrity first, service before self, and excellence in all we do is the top priority of military leaders and trainers. Vehicle maintenance is…

Jordan, Jeremy D.; Curtis, Christopher

2010-01-01

380

Shouldering the Soldiering: Democracy, Conscription, and Military Casualties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the American death toll in Iraq surpassed 1,900, some international research scholars may have been perplexed. Only a few years ago, foreign policy makers in Western democracies, including the United States, were described as being extremely sensitive to the risk of military combat casualties. Among the factors that influence the number of…

Vasquez, Joseph Paul, III

2005-01-01

381

Liminal Cultural Work in Family Childcare: Latino Immigrant Family Childcare Providers and Bicultural Childrearing in the United States, 2002-2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Immigrants find themselves in a liminal state of limbo between two societies. In this zone, competing cultural ideas coexist. This essay examines how Latino immigrant family childcare providers in the United States questioned US norms of childrearing and how they engaged in liminal cultural work to produce a bicultural childrearing. They are…

Uttal, Lynet

2010-01-01

382

Reexamining some management lessons from military history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military history has provided a number of useful metaphors for management, such as positioning, blue ocean strategy, defensible\\u000a perimeters, and fighting the last war, among others. In spite of this rich tradition and the detailed writings on the military,\\u000a management research has actually made a rather truncated use of military history. This includes the selective use of military\\u000a metaphors, and

David Ahlstrom; David Lamond; Zhujun Ding

2009-01-01

383

Cross-cultural Temperamental Differences in Infants, Children, and Adults in the United States of America and Finland  

PubMed Central

Cross-cultural differences in temperament were investigated between infants (n = 131, 84 Finns), children (n = 653, 427 Finns), and adults (n = 759, 538 Finns) from the United States of America and Finland. Participants from both cultures completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, Childhood Behavior Questionnaire, and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Across all ages, Americans received higher ratings on temperamental fearfulness than Finnish individuals, and also demonstrated higher levels of other negative affects at several time points. During infancy and adulthood, Finns tended to score higher on positive affect and elements of temperamental effortful control. Gender differences consistent with prior studies emerged cross-culturally, and were found to be more pronounced in the U.S. during childhood and in Finland during adulthood.

Gaias, Larissa M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Putnam, Samuel P.; Raikkonen, Katri; Komsi, Niina

2012-01-01

384

Alcohol Use and Military Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An international comparison of armed forces personnel reveals that military use of alcohol exceeds civilian rates. In this perspective, air force personnel do not tend to consume as much alcohol as personnel from other armed services. From a 2006 survey o...

M. Meijer N. Verrall

2009-01-01

385

Cognitive Science and Military Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four new military training systems offer the opportunity for the application of cognitive science. They are the following: (1) a family of memorization games; (2) a simulator with a graphic, schematic student interface; (3) a system for solving problems of relative motion; and (4) a method of building cognitive skills for air-intercept control.…

Halff, Henry M.; And Others

1986-01-01

386

The Polaris Military Essentiality System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the major requirements for military systems has been the need for a measure of the relative importance of stocking one item rather than another. The present study develops one such system which has been implemented for the Polaris weapons system. C...

M. Denicoff J. Fennell S. E. Haber W. H. Marlow F. W. Segel

1964-01-01

387

The Polaris Military Essentiality System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the major requirements for military systems has been the need for a measure of the relative importance of stocking one item rather than another. The study develops one such system which has been implemented for the Polaris weapons system. Considera...

M. Denicoff J. Fennell S. E. Haber W. H. Marlow F. W. Segel

1964-01-01

388

Fall 1997 Russian Military Draft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper will examine the Fall 1997 conscription effort by the Russian military and use it as a prism to highlight some of the current problems within the Russian armed forces. The Russian government continues to rely upon conscription to staff its mili...

R. C. Finch

1998-01-01

389

Soviet military strategy in space  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the Soviet military space effort from its infancy in the 1950s to the spy craft and anti-satellite systems of today. It describes in detail the Soviet equivalents of the U.S. Star Wars program and explains technical and political issues in laymen's terms. A full text of major arms control agreements completes the volume.

Johnson, N.L.

1987-01-01

390

The Caltech Political Military Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Caltech political military exercise (PME) is a game in which players assume roles of leaders of various countries and attempt to act as they think these leaders would in a time of international crises. The main purposes of the exercise are (1) to provide students with an experience in crisis diplomacy and policy formation, and (2) to provide a…

Munger, E. S.; And Others

391

Automated Military Blood Typing System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study was to implement an automated military blood typing system designed to reduce the extent of the manual tasks and at the same time enhance the accuracy and reliability of the blood typing process. The major features of the autom...

F. R. Camp J. A. Stein J. F. Lewis N. F. Conte V. R. Coley

1973-01-01

392

Non-Citizen in Today's Military.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the Revolutionary War U.S. legal permanent residents have been eligible to enlist in the military. Today, about 35,000 non-citizens serve in the military and about 8,000 enlist every year. As the military continues to face recruiting challenges, an ...

A. U. Hattiangadi A. O. Quester G. Lee D. S. Lien I. D. MacLeod

2005-01-01

393

Women in the Military: A Selected Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Women in the Military: A Selected Bibliography was compiled to show the changing roles of women in the military and ongoing concerns relating to their integration in the military. Most of what is included was published after 1996, continuing the selection...

2000-01-01

394

Suicide and the Military Justice System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that U.S. military policies emphasize humanitarian approach to issue of suicide, yet military law may view suicidal behavior as deviant and may prosecute suicide attempters. Cites convictions of soldiers for attempted and assisted suicides. Reviews recent court decisions and suggests revisions in military law. (Author/NB)

Lande, Raymond G.

1992-01-01

395

Design and test of military cockpits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IT revolution is dramatically affecting modern military cockpit design. Modern displays add multiple dimensions that contribute to being able to provide more information to the pilot. The abundance of information now available to the military pilot can easily overwhelm him. Whereas automating cockpit functions reduces the pilot workload, automation reduces the flexibility that the military pilot requires. Automation complicates

S. Bruce; C. Rice; R. Hepp

1998-01-01

396

GIS interoperability: current activities and military implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic information systems (GIS) are gaining importance in military operations because of their capability to spatially and visually integrate various kinds of information. In an era of limited resources, geospatial data must be shared efficiently whenever possible. The military-initiated Global Geospatial Information and Services (GGI&S) Project aims at developing the infrastructure for GIS interoperability for the military. Current activities in

Sylvia Lam

1997-01-01

397

Limits of Military Power for National Security.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the post World War II nuclear-military arms race and claims that it is possible to define significant limits of military power for national security. Topics discussed include public opinion regarding the arms race, constraints on military power, conventional forces, checkmating conventional strategy, and the seriousness of nuclear false…

Melman, Seymour

1981-01-01

398

Obesity and the US Military Family  

PubMed Central

Objective This review discusses the current knowledge and future directions regarding obesity within the US military family (i.e., active-duty servicemembers, as well as military spouses, children, retirees, and veterans). The increasing rates of overweight and obesity within the US military adversely impact military readiness, limit recruitment, and place a significant financial burden on the Department of Defense. Design and Methods The following topics are reviewed: 1) The prevalence of and the financial, physical, and psychological costs associated with overweight in military communities; 2) military weight regulations, and challenges faced by the military family related to overweight and disordered eating; 3) the continued need for rigorous program evaluations and new intervention development. Results Overweight and its associated sequelae impact the entire military family. Military families share many similarities with their civilian counterparts, but they face unique challenges (e.g., stress related to deployments and relocations). Although the military has weight management resources, there is an urgent need for rigorous program evaluation and the development of enhanced obesity prevention programs across the lifespan of the military family–several of which are proposed herein. Conclusions Interdisciplinary and collaborative research efforts and team-based interventions will continue to inform understanding of obesity treatment and prevention within military and civilian populations.

Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Sbrocco, Tracy; Theim, Kelly R.; Cohen, L. Adelyn; Mackey, Eleanor R.; Stice, Eric; Henderson, Jennifer L.; McCreight, Sarah J.; Bryant, Edny J.; Stephens, Mark B.

2014-01-01

399

Inter-Korean military confidence building after 2003.  

SciTech Connect

Tensions on the Korean Peninsula remain high despite a long-term strategy by South Korea to increase inter-Korean exchanges in economics, culture, sports, and other topics. This is because the process of reconciliation has rarely extended to military and security topics and those initiatives that were negotiated have been ineffective. Bilateral interactions must include actions to reduce threats and improve confidence associated with conventional military forces (land, sea, and air) as well as nuclear, chemical, and biological activities that are applicable to developing and producing weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The purpose of this project is to develop concepts for inter-Korean confidence building measures (CBMs) for military and WMD topics that South Korea could propose to the North when conditions are right. This report describes the historical and policy context for developing security-related CBMs and presents an array of bilateral options for conventional military and WMD topics within a consistent framework. The conceptual CBMs address two scenarios: (1) improved relations where construction of a peace regime becomes a full agenda item in inter-Korean dialogue, and (2) continued tense inter-Korean relations. Some measures could be proposed in the short term under current conditions, others might be implemented in a series of steps, while some require a higher level of cooperation than currently exists. To support decision making by political leaders, this research focuses on strategies and policy options and does not include technical details.

Tae-woo, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Littlefield, Adriane C.; Vannoni, Michael Geoffrey; Sang-beom, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Koelm, Jennifer Gay; Olsen, John Norman; Myong-jin, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Sung-tack, Shin (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea)

2003-08-01

400

Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 20: Solid State Power Supplies; 20T: Electron Tube Power Supplies. Study Booklet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of individualized learning modules on power supplies is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Two modules are included in the…

Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

401

Isolation of viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae O1 from environmental water samples in Kolkata, India, in a culturable state  

PubMed Central

Previously, we reported that viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae was converted into a culturable state by coculture with several eukaryotic cell lines including HT-29 cells. In this study, we found that a factor converting VBNC V. cholerae into a culturable state (FCVC) existed in cell extracts of eukaryotic cells. FCVC was nondialyzable, proteinase K-sensitive, and stable to heating at <60°C for 5 min. We prepared thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose (TCBS) plates with FCVC (F-TCBS plates). After confirming that VBNC V. cholerae O1 and O139 formed typical yellow colonies on F-TCBS plates, we tried to isolate cholera toxin gene-positive VBNC V. cholerae from environmental water samples collected in urban slum areas of Kolkata, India and succeeded in isolating V. cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains harboring a gene for the cholera toxin. The possible importance of VBNC V. cholerae O1 as a source of cholera outbreaks is discussed.

Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Ghosh-Banerjee, Jayeeta; Mizuno, Tamaki; Shinoda, Sumio; Miyoshi, Shin-ichi; Hamabata, Takashi; Nair, G Balakrish; Takeda, Yoshifumi

2014-01-01

402

Culture Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Culture Machine is a new, refereed, electronic journal encompassing cultural studies and cultural theory. The international editorial board of the interactive journal aims to "generat[e] research in culture and theory" by promoting and publishing "the most provocative of new work." The theme of the inaugural issue is Taking Risks with the Future. Content includes articles such as Life After Death of the Text by Johan Fornas, Cultural Studies in the Clouds: Mourning for Detail by Tadeusz Slawek, and The Future States of Politics by Kenneth Surin. Culture Machine is hosted by the University of Teesside, England.

403

Demonstration of chlamydial RNA and DNA during a culture-negative state.  

PubMed Central

Trachoma is a common blinding disease of humans caused by ocular infections with Chlamydia trachomatis. The cynomolgus monkey is a valuable primate model for the detection, pathobiology, and treatment of this infection. We have used this model system to compare the relative ability of tissue culture, direct fluorescence cytology, a modified polymerase chain reaction, and RNA blotting to detect C. trachomatis following primary infection and reinfection over 34 weeks. Six cynomolgus monkeys were given a primary ocular chlamydia infection, and 20 weeks later they were reinoculated with the same organism. All animals showed brisk inflammatory responses to the primary infection and milder inflammatory reactions to reinfection. All four diagnostic techniques detected chlamydia at 1 week after primary infection, but both nucleic acid detection methods suggested that organisms were present longer after primary infection than did either tissue culture or direct fluorescence cytology (16 weeks for RNA blotting versus 12 weeks for tissue culture). Following reinoculation at 20 weeks, the period of C. trachomatis detection by tissue culture or direct fluorescence cytology (4 weeks) was much shorter than after primary infection. In contrast, nucleic acid detection was positive for up to 5 weeks longer than tissue culture or direct fluorescence cytology. Both polymerase chain reaction and RNA blotting, which involved no amplification step, indicated the presence of organisms during the culture-negative period. These data suggest that live chlamydiae may remain at a site of infection and produce inflammation beyond the time at which standard microbiological techniques are able to detect them.

Holland, S M; Hudson, A P; Bobo, L; Whittum-Hudson, J A; Viscidi, R P; Quinn, T C; Taylor, H R

1992-01-01

404

Long-Term Temperature Acclimation of Photosynthesis in Steady-State Cultures of the Polar Diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultures of the obligate psychrophilic diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus (Grunow) were grown for 4 months under steady-state conditions at ?1 °C and +7 °C (50 ?mol photons m?2 s?1) prior to measurements in order to investigate long-term acclimation of photosynthesis to both temperatures. No differences in maximum intrinsic quantum yield of PS II (FV\\/FM) and relative electron transport rates could be detected at either temperature after

Thomas Mock; Nikolai Hoch

2005-01-01

405

Management practices influencing new product success and failure in the United States and Scandinavia: a cross-cultural comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comparative cross-cultural study of United States (U.S.) and Scandinavian telecommunications products found both similarities and differences in the successful new product development (NPD) management practices within the U.S. and Scandinavia. Proficiencies in conducting development, marketing, and customer service activities were identified as important to NPD success in both Scandinavia and the U.S. However, differences between the U.S. and Scandinavia

Wm. E Souder; Svenn Are Jenssen

1999-01-01

406

Electronic Word-of-Mouth in Social Networking Sites: A Cross-Cultural Study of the United States and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in social networking sites (SNSs) is crucial as consumers have potential to reach global audiences quickly and easily. This article presents the first cross-cultural study on eWOM in SNSs by examining social relationship variables between the United States and China. Specifically, social capital, tie strength, trust, and interpersonal influence were examined as potential predictors of eWOM

Shu-Chuan Chu; Sejung Marina Choi

2011-01-01

407

‘PEOPLE OR PRAIRIE CHICKENS’ REVISITED: STATED PREFERENCES WITH EXPLICIT NON?MARKET TRADE?OFFS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban sprawl has led to increasing prevalence of endangered species on military training facilities throughout the United States. Provisions of the Endangered Species Act imply encroachment interrupts military training activities and may affect military readiness. Endangered species protection and military training are competing non?market goods. This paper reports the estimates of public valuation of military training activities incorporating explicit trade?offs

Jeffrey S. Smith; Michael McKee

2007-01-01

408

Postwar Radio Astronomy and the US Military  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The course of radio astronomy in the United States during the period 1945-60 was greatly influenced by the funding and requirements of the US military. The scientific researchers and their military patrons continued the intimate relationship that had been so successful for the development of radar and communications during World War II. The result was a very high level of funding that led to large-scale projects, a concentration on the microwave portion of the radio spectrum, and primary interest in the sun, moon, and planets. These effects, however, ironically significantly contributed to the lag in US radio astronomy relative to that in Australia and England. Unlike the American approach, the strategy of the groups in Sydney, Cambridge and Jodrell Bank, reasoned that the most fruitful way to approach the radio sky at the time was with relatively simple equipment (largely revamped war surplus) operating at the lower frequencies. Other factors, such as the strength of optical astronomy in the US, also played important roles. By the mid-1960s, the microwave expertise that had been developed in the US finally paid off such that US radio astronomy was at last able to assume a position of more parity. Some similarities in the development of postwar Soviet radio astronomy will also be discussed.

Sullivan, W. T., III

1993-12-01

409

Military Education and Research Library Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The official Web presence of the military education libraries in the United States and Europe, MERLN links together the holdings and electronic information resources of fourteen libraries, collectively the "largest and most comprehensive collections of military information resources in the world." Users can select a Topic Area (or create a custom topic) or a specific catalog, and then search by title, author, subject heading, or advanced options. The databases are also browseable by author, title, subject, or year. A sample search under title keyword for all libraries for "carpet bombing" produced 74 hits, while "Antietam" produced 266. Hits for each library are listed in a frame on the left-hand side, while basic bibliographic information on each title is listed on the right, with links to more detailed information. Users can repeat previous searches and combine them with other searches using the History option and also save and email selected search returns. Please note that at present the library catalogs for the Marine Corps University Research Center, the Marshall Center, the US Coast Guard Academy, and the US Naval Academy cannot be directly searched from MERLN, but efforts are underway to correct the problem. Users can access the homepages of these libraries, and all of the others linked through MERLN, from the main page.

2000-01-01

410

Military applications for heterostructure microelectronics technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Military systems, whether radar, communications, electronic warfare (EW) or smart munitions, require superior device and IC performance. The performance advantages of heterostructure devices over standard Si CMOS, Si bipolar transistors or GaAs MESFETs has motivated major aerospace firms in the United States to develop Si, GaAs and InP-based heterojunction bipolar (HBT) and high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) technologies. In response to advanced system performance requirements, technology efforts are being pushed toward devices which can yield {T}/{R} modules with octave bandwidths, noise figures under 3 dB, output power of 20 W and power greater than 30%. Device technology development for satellite communications is being driven in part by the need for ultra low noise high output power with high power added efficiency with high MMTF. For these systems as well as EW applications, designers want to digitize the signal as close to the front end as possible. This is driving the development of a 100 GHz IC technology for A/D converters, synthesizers, MUX/DEMUXs, DDSs. and PRNs. Requirements for A/D converters with 16 bits @ 100-200 MHz up to 8-10 bits @ 10 GHz are appearing for advanced radars and EW systems. The military system requirements continue to drive the development of the newer, better and higher performance heterostructure device technologies.

Greiling, Paul; Kirkpatrick, Conilee; Valentine, Gary

1995-09-01

411

Arms and oil: US military strategy and the Persian Gulf  

SciTech Connect

In the oil-rich Persian Gulf, a region crucial to the world's security and economic health, the United States confronts major challenges to its military and diplomatic skills. The Iranian revolution, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and unpredictable turbulence have contributed to declining US influence in the area. In the United States, military questions about force size and strategy have sparked controversy over the proper US role in the Gulf. In this book Thomas L. McNaugher offers a military strategy for the Gulf that seeks to balance the risks of overinvolvement against the risks of neglect. The author, a research associate in the Brookings Foreign Policy Studies program, believes that the United States must cultivate the traditional security mechanisms of the states on the Arabian Peninsula, and he encourages cooperation with allies like Great Britain and France that historically have been involved in Gulf security. He argues that the United States should focus on protecting the Gulf states from external attack and on deterring further Soviet encroachment in the region, leaving internal security largely to the states themselves. 19 figs., 13 tabs.

McNaugher, T.L.

1985-01-01

412

Cloning of a novel tyrosinase-encoding gene (melB) from Aspergillus oryzae and its overexpression in solid-state culture (Rice Koji).  

PubMed

We have cloned a novel tyrosinase-encoding gene (melB) specifically expressed in solid-state culture of Aspergillus oryzae. A tyrosinase-encoding gene (melO) from A. oryzae was already cloned and the protein structures of its catalytic and copper binding domains were investigated. However, our recent results revealed that the melO gene was highly expressed in submerged culture but not in solid-state culture. Because tyrosinase activity was also detected in solid-state culture, we assumed that another tyrosinase gene other than melO is expressed in solid-state culture. Another tyrosinase gene was screened using the expressed sequence tag (EST) library. One redundant cDNA clone homologous with the tyrosinase gene was found in the collection of wheat bran culture. Northern blot analysis revealed that the gene corresponding to the cDNA clone was specifically expressed in solid-state culture (koji making), but not in submerged culture. Molecular cloning showed that the gene carried six exons interrupted by five introns and had an open reading frame encoding 616 amino acid residues. This gene was designated as melB. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene had weak homology (24%-33%) with MelO and other fungal tyrosinases but the sequences of the copper binding domains were highly conserved. When the melB gene was expressed under the control of the glaB promoter in solid-state culture, tyrosinase activity was markedly enhanced and the culture mass was browned with the melanization by MelB tyrosinase. These results indicated that the melB gene encodes a novel tyrosinase associated with melanization in solid-state culture. PMID:16233650

Obata, Hiroshi; Ishida, Hiroki; Hata, Yoji; Kawato, Akitsugu; Abe, Yasuhisa; Akao, Takeshi; Akita, Osamu; Ichishima, Eiji

2004-01-01

413

The zone of social abandonment in cultural geography: on the street in the United States, inside the family in India.  

PubMed

This essay examines the spaces across societies in which persons with severe mental illness lose meaningful social roles and are reduced to "bare life." Comparing ethnographic and interview data from the United States and India, we suggest that these processes of exclusion take place differently: on the street in the United States, and in the family household in India. We argue that cultural, historical, and economic factors determine which spaces become zones of social abandonment across societies. We compare strategies for managing and treating persons with psychosis across the United States and India, and demonstrate that the relative efficiency of state surveillance of populations and availability of public social and psychiatric services, the relative importance of family honor, the extent to which a culture of psychopharmaceutical use has penetrated social life, and other historical features, contribute to circumstances in which disordered Indian persons are more likely to be forcefully "hidden" in domestic space, whereas mentally ill persons in the United States are more likely to be expelled to the street. However, in all locations, social marginalization takes place by stripping away the subject's efficacy in social communication. That is, the socially "dead" lose communicative efficacy, a predicament, following Agamben, we describe as "bare voice." PMID:22547245

Marrow, Jocelyn; Luhrmann, Tanya Marie

2012-09-01

414

Fast Transients: Closing the Loop on Air Force Professional Military Education.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The father of modern military strategy, Carl Von Clausewitz, believed that an appropriate investment in the education of an officer would yield dividends on the battlefield. This belief holds true today. A 2010 House Armed Services Committee report stated...

D. Gorman D. Ivy J. Hamilton M. Hammerle W. Darnell

2013-01-01

415

Catalog of the Orientalia Collection of the U.S. Military Academy Library.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography of the holdings of the United States Military Academy Library's Orientalia Collection as of January 1977 lists books and periodicals written mostly in Chinese, with a few words in Japanese and English. The major subjects include general ...

P. Lee A. H.H. Kao

1977-01-01

416

Civil Wars in Britain, 1640-1646 Military Revolution on Campaign.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The military organization of nation states and their employment of armies are central aspects of early modern European history. The seventeenth century was particularly a period of transformation that witnessed drastic change in armies preparation for and...

B. T. Gericke

2001-01-01

417

Prototyping the Use of Dispersion Models to Predict Ground Concentrations During Burning of Deployed Military Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

United States military forces in Iraq and Afghanistan have often used open burning of solid waste as a means to achieve volume reduction and to minimize vector borne illnesses. Assessing exposures to burn pit emissions has proven challenging, requiring si...

V. Oppenheimer

2012-01-01

418

Review of the Biomedical Effects of Marihuana on Man in the Military Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The review documents in detail the current state of knowledge of the effects of marihuana on man. The study examines the relationships between marihuana use and performance of the man in a military environment and identifies opportunities for future resea...

1970-01-01

419

Youth Smoking in the Country and in the Military: Findings and Ideas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This briefing examines the rising number of youth smoking in the United States, the effects smoking has on bootcamp performance, the success of cessation programs in the military, and proposes several ideas for future research. The report argues that beca...

A. O. Quester

1999-01-01

420

Using the Information Instrument to Leverage Military Force: A Need for Deliberate Interagency Coordination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

No modern military strategist discounts the contribution that effective communication with allies, neutral nations, and the enemy populace and forces can make to victory. Despite this acknowledgement of the importance of information, the United States has...

C. G. Efird J. C. Sahlin

1994-01-01

421

Negotiating Military Alliances: Legal Systems and Alliance Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do domestic legal systems affect states' propensity to form military alliances? This article, building upon the existing research in international relations, adopts a socio-legal approach to understanding international treaty making. By focusing on the essence of international negotiations—communication between states' representatives—I argue that negotiating parties who share a common legal language have a common a priori understanding concerning concepts under

Emilia Justyna Powell

2010-01-01

422

Changes in Russia's Military and Nuclear Doctrine  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, the Russian Federation set out a new military doctrine that would determine the direction of its armed forces until President Putin set out the next doctrine in 2000. The Russian Federation creating the doctrine was new; the USSR had recently collapsed, Gorbachev - the creator of the predecessor to this doctrine in 1987 - was out of office, and the new Russian military had only been formed in May, 1992.1 The analysis of the 1993 doctrine is as follows: a definition of how doctrine is defined; a short history of Russian military doctrine leading up to the 1993 doctrine (officially the Basic Provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation); and finally, what the doctrine established. An overview of the 1993 doctrine is: (1) Russia's 1993 doctrine was a return to older, more aggressive doctrine as a result of stability concerns surrounding the recent collapse of the USSR; (2) Russia turned from Gorbachev's 'defensive defense' in the 1987 doctrine to aggressive defense with the option of preempting or striking back against an aggressor; (3) Russia was deeply concerned about how nationalism would affect the former Soviet Republics, particularly in respect to the ethnic Russians still living abroad; and (4) Nuclear doctrine pledged to not be the first to use nuclear weapons but provided for the potential for escalation from a conventional to a nuclear war. The 2000 doctrine (officially the Russian Federation Military Doctrine) was created in a more stable world than the 1993 doctrine was. The Russian Federation had survived independence and the 'threat of direct military aggression against the Russian Federation and its allies' had diminished. It had secured all of the nuclear weapons from its neighbors Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, and had elected a new president, Vladimir Putin, to replace Boris Yeltsin. Yet, even as the doctrine took more defensive tones than the 1993 doctrine, it expanded its nuclear options. Below are a new definition of what doctrine meant in 2000 and an outline of the 2000 doctrine. An overview of the 2000 doctrine is: (1) The 2000 doctrine was a return to a more defensive posture; the threat of nuclear retaliation, rather than that of preemptive force, would be its deterrence; (2) In order to strengthen its nuclear deterrence, Russia extended and redefined the cases in which nuclear weapons could be used to include a wider range of conflict types and a larger spectrum of attackers; and (3) Russia's threats changed to reflect its latest fear of engaging in a limited conflict with no prospect of the use of nuclear deterrence. In 2006, the defense minister and deputy prime minister Sergei Ivanov announced that the government was starting on a draft of a future doctrine. Four years later, in 2010, the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation was put into effect with the intent of determining Russian doctrine until 2020. The 2010 doctrine, like all previous doctrines, was a product of the times in which it was written. Gone were many of the fears that had followed Russia for the past two decades. Below are an examination of the 2010 definition of doctrine as well as a brief analysis of the 2010 doctrine and its deviations from past doctrines. An overview of the 2010 doctrine is: (1) The new doctrine emphasizes the political centralization of command both in military policy and the use of nuclear weapons; (2) Nuclear doctrine remains the same in many aspects including the retention of first-use; (3) At the same time, doctrine was narrowed to using nuclear weapons only when the Russian state's existence is in danger; to continue strong deterrence, Russia also opted to follow the United States by introducing precision conventional weapons; (4) NATO is defined as Russia's primary external threat because of its increased global presence and its attempt to recruit states that are part of the Russian 'bloc'; and (5) The 2000 doctrine's defensive stance was left out of the doctrine; rumored options for use of nuclear weapons in local wars and in preemptive strikes were also left out.

Wolkov, Benjamin M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balatsky, Galya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-26

423

Military vaccines in today's environment  

PubMed Central

The US military has a long and highly distinguished record of developing effective vaccines against pathogens that threaten the armed forces. Many of these vaccines have also been of significant benefit to civilian populations around the world. The current requirements for force protection include vaccines against endemic disease threats as well as against biological warfare or bioterrorism agents, to include novel or genetically engineered threats. The cost of vaccine development and the modern regulatory requirements for licensing vaccines have strained the ability of the program to maintain this broad mission. Without innovative vaccine technologies, streamlined regulatory strategies, and coordinating efforts for use in civilian populations where appropriate, the military vaccine development program is in jeopardy.

Schmaljohn, Connie S.; Smith, Leonard A.; Friedlander, Arthur M.

2012-01-01

424

Grape seeds: the best lignocellulosic waste to produce laccase by solid state cultures of Trametes hirsuta.  

PubMed

Grape seeds were used by Trametes hirsuta as a substrate for laccase production giving 23 kU l(-1), which was 10-fold the value attained in the cultures with no lignocellulosic waste addition. The dyes, Indigo Carmine and Bromophenol Blue, were easily decolourised (100% in 24 h) by the extracellular liquid obtained in such cultures, whereas Methyl Orange (65% in 24 h) and Phenol Red (36% in 24 h) were more resistant to degradation. This shows the specificity of laccase towards different dye structures. PMID:12882277

Moldes, D; Gallego, P P; Rodríguez Couto, S; Sanromán, A

2003-03-01

425

Militares medici in nummis repraesentati: the heritage of military medicine in coins and medals.  

PubMed

Coins and commemorative medals constitute one special repository of the history of military medicine. The numismatic record has proven to be the most enduring, albeit one of the most selective, records of the progress of history. Matters of health, and especially of military medicine, have been central to the endeavors and indeed the survival of many cultures and societies. Many such themes in the national and international history of military medicine are preserved in the medallic record. Coins and medallions thus constitute one record of the chronology of this profession, one parallel to that of the more traditional history to be found in oral and written records. This account presents a four-part classification of medical coins and medals of military interest. These examples include (1) medals that portray military surgeons and physicians; (2) medals that commemorate special events of military medicine: (3) coins that portray the themes of the discipline of military medicine and health; and (4) a miscellaneous group that includes such examples as disease "touch pieces" and the militarily worn medals of such bodies as the International Red Cross and the Order of St. John, the latter of which are awarded inter alia for contributions to prehospital care in the field. A representative photo archive of such exemplars is included in this account. PMID:11799805

Pearn, John

2002-01-01

426

76 FR 14049 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: California State University, Sacramento...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...objects (2 bags of baked clay, 1 bead, 2 bags of carbonized material, 13 bags of faunal material, 1 piece of jasper, 1 quartz crystal, 2 unidentified rocks, and 1 stone tool) are missing. In 1971, cultural items were removed during a salvage...

2011-03-15

427

Culture, job satisfaction and organizational commitment in India and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the roles of culture and job satisfaction as antecedents to organizational commitment in both a Western context (the US) and in India. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Responses come from a questionnaire distributed to engineers in India. Construct equivalence of measures is established, while hierarchical regression analysis is used to assess

Catherine T. Kwantes

2009-01-01

428

Culture and entrepreneurship? African American and immigrant self-employment in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the evolution of African American entrepreneurship by comparing the patterns of development of African American entrepreneurship and immigrant entrepreneurship. Whereas most literature focuses on African American culture as the reason for limited entrepreneurial success compared to certain immigrant groups, this paper examines how social, economic, and political forces have adversely influenced the development of Black entrepreneurship compared

Vicki Bogan; William Darity Jr.

2008-01-01

429

A Cross-cultural Investigation of Leadership in the United States and Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the administration of Kouzes and Posner's (1995) Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) to 28 graduate students in educational administration at a university in the Southwest of the USA and 28 graduate students at a university in Mexico. A rationale for the importance of cross-cultural study in educational administration is presented. The results of this study indicate that the

Charles Slater; Mike Boone; Larry Price; Dyanna Martinez; Isaias Alvarez; Carlos Topete; Elia Olea

2002-01-01

430

Cross-Cultural Structure of Interests: Mexico and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of Strong Interest Inventory Scores from 205 Mexican and 342 U.S. male engineering students/professionals had the following results: (1) interest structure was similar across cultures; (2) Holland's calculus assumption was supported; and (3) a circular rather than an equilateral hexagonal structure was supported. (SK)

Fouad, Nadya A.; Dancer, L. Suzanne

1992-01-01

431

Exploring Cultural Differences in Classroom Expectations of Students from the United States and Taiwan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 265 U.S. and 247 Taiwanese college students' expectations of teachers and students showed significant differences related to cultural values such as collectivism/individualism, power distance, and egalitarianism. Ways to improve learning in multicultural classrooms were suggested by the findings. (Contains 18 references.) (SK)

Niehoff, Brian P.; Turnley, William H.; Yen, Hsiu Ju Rebecca; Sheu, Chwen

2001-01-01

432

Toward The Computational Representation of Individual Cognitive, Emotional, and Cultural State: A Peacekeeping Scenario Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper outlines an approach to representing cognitive, cultural, and physiological variability in the computational representation an individual U.S. peacekeeper as he interacts with an unexpected target (two young Iraqi girls) in an ambiguous situation while faced with a high-consequence decision that will greatly impact subsequent events. This project sought to demonstrate steps toward a realistic computational representation of

Elaine M. Raybourn

2001-01-01

433

The Spelling Achievement of Third Culture Children Compared to United States Norms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spelling is a critical component to literacy development. Teachers of American children living overseas as well as adult "Third Culture Kids" (TCKs) have reported that spelling is especially challenging for the TCK population. This study investigated whether a difference existed in TCK spelling achievement compared to U.S. norms, as well as the…

Cuidon, Lauren Jayne Berry

2009-01-01

434

Influence of Clerkship on Attitudes of Medical Students toward Psychiatry across Cultures: United States and Qatar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assure adequate treatment for patients with mental illness worldwide, medical schools must impart positive attitudes toward psychiatry. The authors examined the effect of culture on changes in attitudes toward psychiatry among medical students receiving the same psychiatry clerkship curriculum in two different countries. Methods: A…

Burgut, F. Tuna; Polan, H. Jonathan

2013-01-01

435

Methodological issues in cross-cultural marketing research : A state-of-the-art review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Notes that methodological problems are hampering the growth of cross-cultural marketing research and presents a review of methodological issues to address these problems. Organizes these issues around a six-step framework which includes elements such as problem definition, the development of an approach and research design formulation. Notes that the marketing research problem can be defined by comparing the phenomenon or

Naresh K. Malhotra; James Agarwal; Mark Peterson

1996-01-01

436

Solid-state cultures of Fusarium oxysporum transform aromatic components of olive-mill dry residue and reduce its phytotoxicity.  

PubMed

The present study mainly investigated the ability of solid-state cultures of the non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain BAFC 738 to transform aromatic components to reduce the phytotoxicity in olive-mill dry residue (DOR), the waste from the two-phase manufacturing process. Lignin, hemicellulose, fats and water-soluble extractives contents of DOR colonized by the fungus for 20 weeks were reduced by 16%, 25%, 71% and 13%, respectively, while the cellulose content increased by 25%. In addition, the ethyl acetate-extractable phenolic fraction of the waste was reduced by 65%. However, mass-balance ultra-filtration and size-exclusion chromatography experiments suggested that the apparent removal of that fraction, mainly including 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl alcohol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl alcohol, was due to polymerization. Mn-peroxidase and Mn-independent peroxidase activities were found in F. oxysporum solid-state cultures, while laccase and aryl alcohol oxidase activities were not detected. Tests performed with seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.), soybean (Glycine maximum Merr.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grown on soils containing 6% (w/w) of bioconverted DOR (kg soil)(-1) showed that the waste's phytotoxicity was removed by 20 weeks-old fungal cultures. By contrast, the same material exhibited a high residual toxicity towards lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). PMID:17207620

Sampedro, Inmaculada; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Ocampo, Juan A; Stazi, Silvia R; García-Romera, Inmaculada

2007-12-01

437

78 FR 50109 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY...The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke Museum), in consultation with the appropriate...

2013-08-16

438

Family issues associated with military deployment, family violence, and military sexual trauma.  

PubMed

Today's military has a greater percentage of families and children in comparison with previous generations. There are many, and unique, demands on military families made by the ongoing conflicts, and military life can be stressful. The presence of an increasing number of stressors is associated with an increased likelihood of domestic violence in military families and sexual trauma in service members. In this article, literature and research are presented to provide an overview of military deployment and families, and the effect of deployment on families; this is followed by a review of research on family violence and military sexual trauma. PMID:22055902

Fraser, Cira

2011-12-01

439

Generally applicable fed-batch culture concept based on the detection of metabolic state by on-line balancing.  

PubMed

In many microorganisms, flux limitations in oxidative metabolism lead to the formation of overflow metabolites even under fully aerobic conditions. This can be avoided if the specific growth rate is controlled at a low enough value. This is usually accomplished by controlling the substrate feeding profile in a fed-batch process. The present work proposes a control concept which is based on the on-line detection of metabolic state by on-line calculation of mass and elemental balances. The advantages of this method are: 1) the check of measurement consistency based on all of the available measurements, 2) the minimum requirement of a priori knowledge of metabolism, and 3) the exclusive use of simple and established on-line techniques which do not require direct measurement of the metabolite in question. The control concept has been linked to a simple adaptive controller and applied to fed-batch cultures of S. cerevisiae and E. coli, organisms which express different overflow metabolites, ethanol and acetic acid, respectively. Oxidative and oxidoreductive states of S. cerevisiae and E. coli cultures were detected with high precision. As demonstrated by the formation of acetic acid in E. coli cultures, metabolic states could be correctly distinguished for systems for which traditional methods, such as respiratory quotient (RQ), are insensitive. Hence, it could be shown that the control concept allowed avoidance of overflow metabolite formation and operation at maximum oxidative biomass productivity and oxidative conversion of substrate into biomass. Based on mass and elemental balances, the proposed method additionally provides a richness of additional information, such as yield coefficients and estimation of concentrations and specific conversion rates. These data certainly help the operator to additionally evaluate the state of the process on-line. PMID:12673762

Jobé, Anna Marya; Herwig, Christoph; Surzyn, Martin; Walker, Bernhard; Marison, Ian; von Stockar, Urs

2003-06-20

440

Military training and personality trait development: does the military make the man, or does the man make the military?  

PubMed

Military experience is an important turning point in a person's life and, consequently, is associated with important life outcomes. Using a large longitudinal sample of German males, we examined whether personality traits played a role during this period. Results indicated that personality traits prospectively predicted the decision to enter the military. People lower in agreeableness, neuroticism, and openness to experience during high school were more likely to enter the military after graduation. In addition, military training was associated with changes in personality. Compared with a control group, military recruits had lower levels of agreeableness after training. These levels persisted 5 years after training, even after participants entered college or the labor market. This study is one of the first to identify life experiences associated with changes in personality traits. Moreover, our results suggest that military experiences may have a long-lasting influence on individual-level characteristics. PMID:22275337

Jackson, Joshua J; Thoemmes, Felix; Jonkmann, Kathrin; Lüdtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich

2012-03-01

441

How Much are Health Websites Influenced by Culture? Content Analysis of Online Diet Programs in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the content of diet websites in the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), and Korea from a cross-cultural perspective using two cultural typologies: Hofstede's individualism-collectivism and Hall's low-high context. The results show a balance of the universal features and culture specific characteristics in the websites. Interestingly, the UK was in the middle between the US and Korea

Jay Yu; Karen Whitehill King; Hye Jun Yoon

2010-01-01

442

Military line leadership and tobacco control: perspectives of military policy leaders and tobacco control managers.  

PubMed

Despite progress in policy changes, tobacco use rates are still high in the military. Little is known about the views of those who create and implement tobacco control policies within the Department of Defense. These individuals determine what policy initiatives will be developed, prioritized, and implemented. We conducted key informant interviews with 16 service-level policy leaders (PLs) and 36 installation-level tobacco control managers (TCMs). PLs and TCMs believed that line leadership view tobacco control as a low priority that has minimal impact on successful mission completion. They also identified cultural factors that perpetuate tobacco use, such as low cost and easy accessibility to tobacco, smoke breaks, and uneven or unknown enforcement of current tobacco policies. PMID:20968274

Poston, Walker S C; Suminski, Richard R; Hoffman, Kevin M; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Hughey, Joseph; Lando, Harry A; Winsby, Amelia; Haddock, Keith

2010-10-01

443

Military Line Leadership and Tobacco Control: Perspectives of Military Policy Leaders and Tobacco Control Managers  

PubMed Central

Despite progress in policy changes, tobacco use rates are still high in the military. Little is known about the views of those who create and implement tobacco control policies within the Department of Defense. These individuals determine what policy initiatives will be developed, prioritized, and implemented. We conducted key informant interviews with 16 service-level policy leaders (PLs) and 36 installation-level tobacco control managers (TCMs). PLs and TCMs believed that line leadership view tobacco control as a low priority that has minimal impact on successful mission completion. They also identified cultural factors that perpetuate tobacco use, such as low cost and easy accessibility to tobacco, smoke breaks, and uneven or unknown enforcement of current tobacco policies.

Poston, Walker S. C.; Suminski, Richard R.; Hoffman, Kevin M.; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Hughey, Joseph; Lando, Harry A.; Winsby, Amelia; Haddock, Keith

2011-01-01

444

H. R. 1972: A bill to amend title 38, United States Code, with respect to benefits for veterans who may have been exposed to ionizing radiation during military service, and for other purposes, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, April 22, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on April 22, 1991 to amend title 38, United States Code. This legislation involves benefits for veterans who may have been exposed to ionizing radiation during military service. Individual sections address the following: expansion of presumption of service connection for certain radiation-exposed reservists; expansion of list of diseases presumed to be service-connected for certain radiation-exposed veterans and elimination of latency-period limitations; and adjudication of claims based on exposure to ionizing radiation.

Not Available

1991-01-01

445

Bacillus coagulans tolerance to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids in aqueous and solid-state thermophilic culture.  

PubMed

The use of ionic liquids (ILs) to disrupt the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose and make polysaccharides accessible to hydrolytic enzymes is an emerging technology for biomass pretreatment in lignocellulosic biofuel production. Despite efforts to reclaim and recycle IL from pretreated biomass, residual IL can be inhibitory to microorganisms used for downstream fermentation. As a result, pathways for IL tolerance are needed to improve the activity of fermentative organisms in the presence of IL. In this study, microbial communities from compost were cultured under high-solids and thermophilic conditions in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ILs to enrich for IL-tolerant microorganisms. A strain of Bacillus coagulans isolated from an IL-tolerant community was grown in liquid and solid-state culture in the presence of the ILs 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim][Cl]) to gauge IL tolerance. Viability and respiration varied with the concentration of IL applied and the type of IL used. B. coagulans maintained growth and respiration in the presence of 4 wt% IL, a concentration similar to that present on IL-pretreated biomass. In the presence of both [C2mim][OAc] and [C2mim][Cl] in liquid culture, B. coagulans grew at a rate approximately half that observed in the absence of IL. However, in solid-state culture, the bacteria were significantly more tolerant to [C2mim][Cl] compared with [C2mim][OAc]. B. coagulans tolerance to IL under industrially relevant conditions makes it a promising bacterium for understanding mechanisms of IL tolerance and discovering IL tolerance pathways for use in other microorganisms, particularly those used in bioconversion of IL-pretreated plant biomass. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:311-316, 2014. PMID:24376258

Simmons, Christopher W; Reddy, Amitha P; Vandergheynst, Jean S; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W

2014-03-01

446

The Representation of Other Cultures in Award-Winning Picture Books from the United States, Australia, and Great Britain (1960-2009)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the representation of other cultures in award-winning picture books from the United States, Australia, and Great Britain between 1960 and 2009. Not only was the cultural content of children's literature over the past fifty years investigated, but the protocol created to evaluate the books was a newly…

Hall, Virginia

2011-01-01

447

Explorations of National Culture and Word-of-Mouth Referral Behavior in the Purchase of Industrial Services in the United States and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors examine how national culture affects referral behavior for industrial services such as ad- vertising, banking, and accounting. The authors collected data using interviews with managers of small- and medi- um-sized companies in the United States and Japan. The results show that national culture has a strong effect on the number of referral sources consulted and

R. Bruce Mone; Mary C. Gill; John L. Graham

448

Changing Ecological and Cultural States and Preferences of Nature Conservation Policy: The Case of Nature Values Trade in South-Western Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a rural Finnish case of nature conservation called the nature values trade (NVT) as an example of the process of changing ecological and cultural states and preferences of environmental policy. We emphasise the importance of local ecological and cultural circumstances for the formulation of environmental policy. The study shows how…

Paloniemi, Riikka; Vilja, Varho

2009-01-01

449

Russian Military at the Dawn of the Millennium. The Collins Center Update. Special Edition 1, March 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In February, the Army War College brought together nearly 20 specialists from academia and government in the United States and Western Europe and over 30 individuals from the policy and intelligence communities to examine the state of the Russian military...

M. Crutcher

2000-01-01

450

Changes in steady state on introduction of a Lactobacillus contaminant to a continuous culture ethanol fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus paracasei   was introduced as a contaminant into a multistage continuous culture ethanol fermentation system at ratios of 1:100, 1:1,\\u000a and 70:1 with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but failed to overtake the yeast. None of the inoculation ratios allowed L. paracasei to affect S. cerevisiae in the first fermentor in the multistage system. S. cerevisiae remained constant at ?3?107 CFU\\/ml regardless of

D Bayrock; W M Ingledew

2001-01-01

451

Research on 6R Military Logistics Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The building of military logistics network is an important issue for the construction of new forces. This paper has thrown out a concept model of 6R military logistics network model based on JIT. Then we conceive of axis spoke y logistics centers network, flexible 6R organizational network, lean 6R military information network based grid. And then the strategy and proposal for the construction of the three sub networks of 6Rmilitary logistics network are given.

Jie, Wan; Wen, Wang

452

15TH Conference on Military Medicine, 'A Challenge to Readiness: Maintaining Currency in Military Education'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USHUS) is proud to offer this report of the 5th Conference on Military Medicine, 'A challenge to Readiness: Maintaining Currency in Military Medical Education.' These Proceedings serve as a record ...

C. C. Cloonan J. Palma

2002-01-01

453

Military exceptionalism or tobacco exceptionalism: how civilian health leaders' beliefs may impede military tobacco control efforts.  

PubMed

Smoking impairs the readiness and performance of military personnel, yet congressional opposition has thwarted military tobacco control initiatives. Involvement of civilian organizations might alter this political dynamic. We interviewed 13 leaders of national civilian public health and tobacco control organizations to explore their perspectives on military tobacco control, inductively analyzing data for themes. Leaders believed that military tobacco use was problematic but lacked specific knowledge. Most supported smoke-free policies and prohibiting smoking in uniform; however, they opposed banning tobacco use, arguing that it would violate smokers' rights. Most leaders inappropriately applied civilian models of policy development to the military context. A tobacco-free military is unlikely to be achieved without military-civilian partnerships that include educating civilian health leaders about military policy development and implementation. PMID:23409898

Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E

2013-04-01

454

Satellite Power System (SPS) military applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential military role, both offensive and defensive, of a Satellite Power System (SPS) is examined. A number of potential military support possibilities are described. An SPS with military capabilities may have a strong negative impact on international relations if it is not internationalized. The SPS satellite would be vulnerable to military action of an enemy with good space capability, but would experience little or no threat from saboteurs or terrorists, except via the ground controls. The paper concludes with an outline of some of the key issues involved, and a number of recommendations for future study, including some areas for long term efforts.

Ozeroff, M. J.

1978-01-01

455

76 FR 68609 - Military Family Month, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Military Family Month, 2011 Proclamation 8744--National Adoption Month, 2011 Proclamation 8745--National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, 2011 Proclamation 8746--National Diabetes Month, 2011 Proclamation...

2011-11-04

456

Correlates of life satisfaction among military wives.  

PubMed

Military life includes constant change. This study explored the relationship of life satisfaction among military wives with the individual attitudinal and personality variables of perceived social support, locus of control, and temperament. Sixty wives of noncommissioned military personnel were selected as participants. Life satisfaction was found to be related to high levels of perceived social support from family and from friends, to an internal locus of control, and to low levels of emotionality-stress and emotionality-fear. The results supported the role of individual resources for mediating adjustment and enhancing life satisfaction during the changes inherent in military life. Implications for identifying and helping high-risk women emerged. PMID:2585351

Klein, H A; Tatone, C L; Lindsay, N B

1989-09-01

457

Military applications evolution and future. [meteorological satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program is described with particular emphasis on the military applications of METSAT data. Satellite operational support, data processing and image quality requirements are discussed.

Kaehn, A. J., Jr.

1982-01-01

458

Touchscreen displays for military cockpits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To be successful, the implementation and mechanization of an infrared (IR) touchscreen display for military cockpit applications requires close attention to all aspects of integration, optics, display format design and system processing hardware and software. The F/A-18E/F program has incorporated a monochrome AMLCD touchscreen display into the cockpit to replace the mechanical pushbutton control panel. The new display provides the pilot with the versatility of a much more capable control panel and a new video display surface. This paper addresses the design considerations starting from concept development through integration and flight test, and finally to successful deployment of the Up- Front Control Display (UFCD) into production aircraft.

Hoener, Steven J.; Hardy, Gregory J.

1999-08-01

459

Challenges in military remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the more challenging goals set for future defence systems require a paradigm shift in remote sensing technology. Some of these arise because of changes in the nature of conflict, whilst others are due to the increased emphasis in the use of unmanned platforms, especially in relation to the provision of persistent surveillance. Sensors are required to span the entire electromagnetic spectrum and the UK's Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Centre (EMRS DTC) is concerned with research in all relevant areas aimed at developing new military capabilities. This paper explains how the EMRS DTC is meeting many of these requirements, using examples derived from its own programme

Lewis, Keith

2007-10-01

460

Culture and Learning at Home and School: A Study in Kosrae State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Home and School Learning Contexts Study was conducted in Kosrae State (Federated States of Micronesia) by the Pacific Region Educational Laboratory to obtain data on learning styles at home and in the primary grades, to develop recommendations for integrating home and school learning styles, to implement the recommendations in the primary…

Kawakami, Alice J.; And Others

461

New York State Appalachian Resource Studies; Recreation and Culture, Phase I: Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On August 18, 1965, some 13 counties of southern New York State were declared eligible for participation in the Appalachian Regional Development Program. Another county was added in 1967. Initial state responsibility of the Office of Planning Coordination centered on formulation of a comprehensive development plan for the 11,858-square-mile…

Williams, Henry G., Jr.; Belden, William M.

462

Civilian and military genetics: nondiscrimination policy in a post-GINA world.  

PubMed

Evidence is emerging of a growing societal consensus about appropriate and inappropriate uses of genetic information. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 provides new legal protections to Americans by prohibiting the discriminatory use of genetic information by health insurers and employers. Additionally, the United States military recently created new policies for fair use of genetic information in the determination of benefits for servicemen and servicewomen leaving military service. Although critical issues remain, such as the potential for genetic information to be used to deny people other forms of insurance, and how the military will use genetic medicine overall, significant progress has been made. PMID:18940308

Baruch, Susannah; Hudson, Kathy

2008-10-01

463

Civilian and Military Genetics: Nondiscrimination Policy in a Post-GINA World  

PubMed Central

Evidence is emerging of a growing societal consensus about appropriate and inappropriate uses of genetic information. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 provides new legal protections to Americans by prohibiting the discriminatory use of genetic information by health insurers and employers. Additionally, the United States military recently created new policies for fair use of genetic information in the determination of benefits for servicemen and servicewomen leaving military service. Although critical issues remain, such as the potential for genetic information to be used to deny people other forms of insurance, and how the military will use genetic medicine overall, significant progress has been made.

Baruch, Susannah; Hudson, Kathy

2008-01-01

464

Teaching About the Military in American History: A History Institute for Teachers. Footnotes. Volume 12, Number 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On March 24-25, 2007 FPRI's Marvin Wachman Fund for International Education hosted 44 teachers from 23 states across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching about the Military in U.S. history. The Institute was held at and co-sponsored by the Cantigny First Division Museum. Sessions included: (1) War and the Military in American…

Kuehner, Trudy

2007-01-01

465

Arms and the University: Military Presence and the Civic Education of Non-Military Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alienation between the U.S. military and society has grown in recent decades. Such alienation is unhealthy, as it threatens both sufficient civilian control of the military and the long-standing ideal of the "citizen soldier." Nowhere is this issue more predominant than at many major universities, which began turning their backs on the military

Downs, Donald Alexander; Murtazashvili, Ilia

2012-01-01

466

Altering the biochemical state of individual cultured cells and organelles with ultramicroelectrodes  

PubMed Central

We describe an efficient technique for the selective chemical and biological manipulation of the contents of individual cells. This technique is based on the electric-field-induced permeabilization (electroporation) in biological membranes using a low-voltage pulse generator and microelectrodes. A spatially highly focused electric field allows introduction of polar cell-impermeant solutes such as fluorescent dyes, fluorogenic reagents, and DNA into single cells. The high spatial resolution of the technique allows for design of, for example, cellular network constructions in which cells in close contact with each other can be made to possess different biochemical, biophysical, and morphological properties. Fluorescein, and fluo-3 (a calcium-sensitive fluorophore), are electroporated into the soma of cultured single progenitor cells derived from adult rat hippocampus. Fluo-3 also is introduced into individual submicrometer diameter processes of thapsigargin-treated progenitor cells, and a plasmid vector cDNA construct (pRAY 1), expressing the green fluorescent protein, is electroporated into cultured single COS 7 cells. At high electric field strengths, observations of dye-transfer into organelles are proposed.

Lundqvist, J. Anders; Sahlin, Frida; ?berg, Maria A. I.; Stromberg, Anette; Eriksson, Peter S.; Orwar, Owe

1998-01-01

467

PREPARING FOR MASS REFUGEE FLOWS - THE CORPORATE MILITARY SECTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

upheaval. Meanwhile, military think-tanks, especially in the United States, are planning sophisticated new area and perimeter denial technologies and deployment rationales and strategies under the catch-all diktat of preparing for the asymmetrical 'war against terror'. These developments have come about because of a coalition of co- incidences rather than a pre-planned response to climate change. Nevertheless, with current estimates of

STEVE WRIGHT

468

Declining population immunity to mumps among Israeli military recruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population-based seroepidemologic data on mumps have not been available in Israel since 1987, and the effects of mass immigration from the Commonwealth of Independent States during the 1990s have not been investigated. We conducted a seroprevalence study of mumps antibodies among 353 Israeli military recruits aged 18–19, based on a representative sample of sera collected in 1999. The overall seroprevalence

Michael Huerta; Nadav Davidovitch; Yair Aboudy; Omer E. Ankol; Ran D. Balicer; Salman Zarka; Itamar Grotto

2006-01-01

469

Isolation of viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae O1 from environmental water samples in Kolkata, India, in a culturable state.  

PubMed

Previously, we reported that viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae was converted into a culturable state by coculture with several eukaryotic cell lines including HT-29 cells. In this study, we found that a factor converting VBNC V. cholerae into a culturable state (FCVC) existed in cell extracts of eukaryotic cells. FCVC was nondialyzable, proteinase K-sensitive, and stable to heating at <60°C for 5 min. We prepared thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose (TCBS) plates with FCVC (F-TCBS plates). After confirming that VBNC V. cholerae O1 and O139 formed typical yellow colonies on F-TCBS plates, we tried to isolate cholera toxin gene-positive VBNC V. cholerae from environmental water samples collected in urban slum areas of Kolkata, India and succeeded in isolating V. cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains harboring a gene for the cholera toxin. The possible importance of VBNC V. cholerae O1 as a source of cholera outbreaks is discussed. PMID:24574069

Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Ghosh-Banerjee, Jayeeta; Mizuno, Tamaki; Shinoda, Sumio; Miyoshi, Shin-Ichi; Hamabata, Takashi; Nair, G Balakrish; Takeda, Yoshifumi

2014-04-01

470

Chronic pain management in the active-duty military  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As in the general population, chronic pain is a prevalent and burdensome affliction in active-duty military personnel. Painful conditions in military members can be categorized broadly in terms of whether they arise directly from combat injuries (gunshot, fragmentation wound, blast impact) or whether they result from non-combat injuries (sprains, herniated discs, motor vehicle accidents). Both combat-related and non-combat-related causes of pain can further be classified as either acute or chronic. Here we discuss the state of pain management as it relates to the military population in both deployed and non-deployed settings. The term non-battle injury (NBI) is commonly used to refer to those conditions not directly associated with the combat actions of war. In the history of warfare, NBI have far outstripped battle-related injuries in terms not only of morbidity, but also mortality. It was not until improvements in health care and field medicine were applied in World War I that battle-related deaths finally outnumbered those attributed to disease and pestilence. However, NBI have been the leading cause of morbidity and hospital admission in every major conflict since the Korean War. Pain remains a leading cause of presentation to military medical facilities, both in and out of theater. The absence of pain services is associated with a low return-to-duty rate among the deployed population. The most common pain complaints involve the low-back and neck, and studies have suggested that earlier treatment is associated with more significant improvement and a higher return to duty rate. It is recognized that military medicine is often at the forefront of medical innovation, and that many fields of medicine have reaped benefit from the conduct of war.

Jamison, David; Cohen, Steven P.

2012-05-01

471

Effects of Diversity Education on College Students in Military Sponsored Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central purpose of this study was to determine if teaching the subject matter of diversity or social psychology to military sponsored college students would change the level of sensitivity (behavior and attitude) to diversity as measured by an instrument called The Inventory of Cross Cultural Sensitivity developed by Kenneth Cushner (1986).…

Stewart, Orbie L.

2010-01-01

472

Divorce, Race, and Military Service: More than Equal Pay and Equal Opportunity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several researchers have suggested that the persistently higher rate of divorce among Blacks may be due to hard-to-measure concepts such as culture or norms. To attack this problem, we use data from the NLSY-79 to examine the risk of divorce among enlisted active-duty military servicemen where economic differences and the negative effects of…

Teachman, Jay D.; Tedrow, Lucky

2008-01-01

473

76 FR 49525 - Delegation by the Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs of Certain...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...section 102 of the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange...for a wide variety of educational and cultural exchanges...Secretary for Management and Resources, and the Assistant Secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs...

2011-08-10

474

Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Executive Summary; Introduction; Physical and Chemical Properties of Military Fuels; Toxicokinetics of Military Fuels; Fuel Exposures, Toxicity Testing, and Air Monitoring in Naval Operations; Effects of Military Fuel Vapors on the Kidney; Effec...

1996-01-01

475

A network evaluation of attitudes toward gays and lesbians among U.S. military cadets.  

PubMed

The U.S. military's ban on open homosexuality has become an increasingly salient issue since its implementation in 1993 and its repeal in 2011. The military is an organization with a unique professional and social organization. Evaluating military attitudes from a network perspective may offer insight into the role of formal and informal leadership in engendering attitudinal change and cultural tolerance around homosexuality. This study evaluates the role of network centrality and network exposure across formal (command networks) and informal (friendship and perceived leadership networks) structures on attitudes toward homosexuality in the military. This work analyzes survey data from a single cadet company within the U.S. Military Academy (n = 139) prior to the repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell. Results indicate that popular students tend to show tolerance toward homosexuality, whereas those who hold command leadership positions are more likely to have personal and professional opposition to homosexuality. In addition, formal superior-subordinate relationships are somewhat more likely to suggest social contagion compared to informal leadership and friendship relationships. Recommendations offer guidance for training strategies particularly with respect to a military leaders and socialization. Future research should monitor these issues relative to the post-DADT environment. PMID:24147587

Coronges, Kathryn A; Miller, Katherine A; Tamayo, Christina I; Ender, Morten G

2013-11-01

476

Regulation of ketogenesis, gluconeogenesis and the mitochondrial redox state by dexamethasone in hepatocyte monolayer cultures.  

PubMed Central

The effects of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone on fatty acid and pyruvate metabolism were studied in rat hepatocyte cultures. Parenchymal hepatocytes were cultured for 24 h with nanomolar concentrations of dexamethasone in either the absence or the presence of insulin (10 nM) or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (1 microM BcAMP). Dexamethasone (1-100 nM) increased the rate of formation of ketone bodies from 0.5 mM-palmitate in both the absence and the presence of BcAMP, but inhibited ketogenesis in the presence of insulin. Dexamethasone increased the proportion of the palmitate metabolized that was partitioned towards oxidation to ketone bodies, and decreased the cellular [glycerol 3-phosphate]. The latter suggests that the increased partitioning of palmitate to ketone bodies may be associated with decreased esterification to glycerolipid. The Vmax. of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) and the affinity of CPT for palmitoyl-CoA were not affected by dexamethasone, indicating that the increased ketogenesis was not due to an increase in enzymic capacity for long-chain acylcarnitine formation. Dexamethasone and BcAMP, separately and in combination, increased gluconeogenesis. In the presence of insulin, however, dexamethasone inhibited gluconeogenesis. Changes in gluconeogenesis thus paralleled changes in ketogenesis. Dexamethasone decreased the [3-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio, despite increasing the rate of ketogenesis and presumably the mitochondrial production of reducing equivalents. The more oxidized mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ redox couple with dexamethasone is probably due either to an increased rate of electron transport or to increased transfer of mitochondrial reducing equivalents to the cytoplasm.

Agius, L; Chowdhury, M H; Alberti, K G

1986-01-01

477

Adult Attitudes Toward the Military: Poll Three.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of the third adult poll in a series that looked at images of occupations, advice given to youth about options after high school, favorability of the military and knowledge of the military. The audience profiled in this sur...

A. K. Wang, J. A. Hoskins, M. E. Strackbein, A. R. Lancaster, B. J. George

2002-01-01

478

Military Training: Potential Roles for Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines potential roles vocational education could play to assist the military in meeting its training responsibilities within the context of three major military and training issues: survival of the All Volunteer Force, use of the Total Force Management concept, and demands of high technology. Discussion is divided into three…

Ruff, Richard R.; And Others

479

Challenging Policy: Confronting the Military Professional's Dilemma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a study about the dilemma of the senior military professional who is faced with a decision as to whether and how to challenge national policy. These military professionals find themselves in a precarious position, being pulled by both their loyalt...

A. M. Mueller

1999-01-01

480

Military Expenditure: Threats, Aid, and Arms Races  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using global data for the period 1960?99, Collier and Hoeffler estimate neighborhood arms races. They find that the level of military expenditure is strongly influenced by the expenditure of neighbors. The authors estimate an ?arms race multiplier,? finding that an initial exogenous increase in military expenditure by one country is more than doubled in both the originating country and its

Paul Collier; Anke Hoeffler

2002-01-01

481

Military Expenditure in Post-Conflict Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-conflict situations face a high risk of reversion to conflict. We investigate the effect of military expenditure by the government during the first decade post-conflict on the risk of reversion. We contrast two theories as to the likely effects. In one, military spending deters conflict by reducing the prospects of rebel success. In the other it acts as a signal

Paul Collier; Anke Hoeffler

2004-01-01

482

Military expenditure in post-conflict societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-conflict situations face a high risk of reversion to conflict. We investigate the effect of military expenditure by the government during the first decade post-conflict on the risk of reversion. We contrast two theories as to the likely effects. In one, military spending deters conflict by reducing the prospects of rebel success. In the other it acts as a signal

Paul Collier; Anke Hoeffler

2006-01-01

483

Future of the Military - Media Relationship.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major purpose of this study was to determine the relationship, between the military and the media, as viewed by middle grade Army officers. This study also examined what the military view of the relationship would be during combat and the middle grade...

P. A. Darcy

1993-01-01

484

Father Absence Effects on Military Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of father absence on military children were studied by use of a questionnaire and personal interviews. The sample consisted of U.S. military officers and their dependents stationed at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. The study focu...

D. J. Curran

1981-01-01

485

Fiber system for the military environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military telecommunications applications and specialized military applications of guided wave optics are discussed. Examples include long-haul time-domain multiplexers for tactical command control and communications, detector devices for plasma diagnostics and nuclear testing applications, fiber-guided weapons systems, fiber-optic interferometric hydrophones, and integrated-optic spectrum analyzers.

M. K. Barnoski

1980-01-01

486

Fiber system for the military environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Military telecommunications applications and specialized military applications of guided wave optics are discussed. Examples include long-haul time-domain multiplexers for tactical command control and communications, detector devices for plasma diagnostics and nuclear testing applications, fiber-guided weapons systems, fiber-optic interferometric hydrophones, and integrated-optic spectrum analyzers.

Barnoski, M. K.

1980-10-01

487

Active and Passive Smoking in Military Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite a recent decline in smoking by military personnel, military members and their dependents continue to smoke at rates that are higher than their civilian counterparts. The purpose of the original study was to test of a model active and passive smoki...

J. Agazio

1997-01-01

488

Engaging Military Partners: Supporting Connections to Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current Overseas Contingency Operation (OCO), families and communities have been impacted by multiple deployments. This is particularly challenging for families that are geographically isolated from military installations and resources typically available near these facilities. Operation Military Kids (OMK) is a national partnership…

Edwards, Harriett C.

2009-01-01

489

Contemporary Professionalism and Future Military Leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once again the military establishment faces adjustment to peacetime. The process this time will be unusual, for several reasons. There is some evidence that the international environment is changing, and a large military force structure will not be needed. Domestic pressures to reduce defense budgets are stronger than they have been in the past. The situation facing the services may

Edwin A. Deagle

1973-01-01

490

RETHINKING MILITARY LEADERSHIP FROM A SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 have presented some fundamental issues about the new challenges for military leadership in this Journal. Among them, that military leadership is now facing an increasingly complex world where previously taken-for-granted ideas about war and peace, technology, multinational coalitions, etc., do not hold anymore. They rightfully concluded that a \\

Eric Ouellet

2009-01-01

491

Military Expenditure and Socio-Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between military expenditure and the stimulation of aggregate demand, inflation, investment, trade balance, foreign exchange, the improvement of taxation, and employment creation and industrialization in the Third World is analyzed. To some extent military expenditure does promote economic growth, but it does not automatically…

Ball, Nicole

1983-01-01

492

Tax Advantage Retirement Savings for the Military.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The erosion of the military retirement system is a contributing cause to readiness problems in the Air Force. It is time to change the retirement system to one, which provides more to the military member than the current plan implemented under the Militar...

M. R. Fenton

1999-01-01

493

Optimal Compensating Wages for Military Personnel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current U.S. military pay structure offers inequitable and inefficient wages across locations. Military personnel are paid less competitive wages in high-cost and/or low-amenity locations compared to low-cost and/or high-amenity locations. This pay system results in unequal reenlistment rates across locations, which leads to production…

Carrell, Scott E.; West, James E.

2005-01-01

494

Physical Training in the USSR Military.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The physical fitness program for the USSR is strictly controlled throughout the Soviet military and civilian society. The civilian defense program (GTO) is designed to control the physical education of all citizens from ages 10-60. The focus of GTO is on preparing youth for military service. (JN)

Drews, Fred

1981-01-01

495

On the Military Significance of Language Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that facility in a foreign language contributes to the nation's military capability in command, intelligence, operations, logistics, survival skills and in community and official relations. After reviewing relevant historical episodes, suggests that an effort should be made to improve U.S. military personnel language skills. (MES)

Muller, Kurt E.

1981-01-01

496

Civilian-Military Relations in Latin America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For some time now, there has been debate in academic circles about just how much civilian politicians in Latin America need to know, and do, to control their militaries. David Pion-Berlin, a highly regarded scholar on Latin American civil-military relatio...

J. R. Goetze, T. C. Bruneau

2006-01-01

497

Satellite power system (SPS) military implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the potential military role, both offensive and defensive, of a Satellite Power System (SPS). The very large orbital power source of the SPS could have a number of potential military applications. Perhaps the most arresting, but certainly one in the very distant future is the possibility of developing an anti-ballistic defense weapon utilizing laser or particle beams.

Ozeroff

1978-01-01

498

Military Deployment and Elementary Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the impact that military deployment has upon academic achievement of elementary school students. TerraNova test scores of 137 fourth and fifth grade students in two elementary schools with a high proportion of military dependent children were examined for two consecutive years. Although the academic test performance fell…

Phelps, Terri; Dunham, Mardis; Lyons, Robert

2010-01-01

499

Revolution in Military Affairs: Allied Perspectives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The revolution in military affairs (RMA) is an American concept that frames a debate about the restructuring of American military forces in the period of globalization of the American economy. A core task for U.S. allies is to seek to understand the Ameri...

R. F. Laird H. H. Mey

1999-01-01

500

The Demographics of Military Children and Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the advent of the all-volunteer force in the 1970s, marriage, parenthood, and family life have become commonplace in the U.S. military among enlisted personnel and officers alike, and military spouses and children now outnumber service members by a ratio of 1.4 to 1. Reviewing data from the government and from academic and nonacademic…

Clever, Molly; Segal, David R.

2013-01-01