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1

World Culture and Military Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

World culture shapes the way states generate military power: norms of conventional warfare provide the template for military organization, and norms of humanitarian law define what is morally acceptable in military operations. Sometimes, however, local strategic circumstances can challenge these worldwide technical scripts and moral codes for military action. Accordingly, this article advances an approach—cultural adaptation theory—that accounts for the

Theo Farrell

2005-01-01

2

Organizational Culture and the Military.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project reviews key concepts of organizational culture and examines how our military culture may change as a result of various social and environmental influences. Military culture has always had a significant impact on operational effectiveness. But...

C. B. Breslin

2000-01-01

3

Military Culture. A Paradigm Shift?  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, Lt Col Karen O. Dunivin, USAF, examines social change in American military culture and explores the current struggle between the military's traditional and exclusionary combat, masculine-warrior (CMW) paradigm or belief system and the contr...

K. O. Dunivin

1997-01-01

4

Military Culture a Paradigm Shift.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines social change in American military culture. Briefly, the analysis explores the current battle between the military's traditional 'combat, masculine-warrior' (or CMW) paradigm of exclusion and the contradictory 'evolving' model of cultu...

K. O. Dunivin

1996-01-01

5

Cultural self-awareness as a crucial component of military cross-cultural competence.  

PubMed

The military forces in the United States represent a unique culture that includes many subcultures within their own military society. Acculturation into the military often deemphasizes the influence of personal narrative and thereby establishes the primacy of military culture over personal cultural influences. The authors make the argument that military personnel need to further develop an understanding and appreciation of personal cultural narrative as well as organizational culture. The increased integration of military personnel with interagency partners, along with cooperative efforts between relief organizations, and nongovernmental organizations in politically/economically unstable areas around the globe serves to make cross-cultural interaction unavoidable in the future. Military medical personnel are especially likely to interact with others who have culturally different values. These interactions can occur between organizations as easily as they can during patient care. They must be able to step outside of their military culture and develop cross-cultural competence that is grounded in cultural self-awareness. Without an appropriate level of cultural self-awareness, military and medical personnel run the risk of being unable to communicate across dissimilar cultures or worse, alienating key stakeholders in collaborative operations between military services, coalition partners, and nonmilitary organizations. It is the authors? contention that unless military personnel, especially those in the medical arena, are able to appropriately self-assess situations that are impacted by culture, both their own and the other personnel involved, the resulting cultural dissonance is more likely to derail any significant positive effect of such collaborations. PMID:24048992

Pappamihiel, Constantine J; Pappamihiel, Eleni

2013-01-01

6

The First Wave: Gender Integration and Military Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of sexual harassment scandals in the United States armed forces have come to public attention in recent years. Commentators on these scandals have suggested that the incidents are not anomalous, but reflect an institutional culture that generates hostility toward women. The military culture, it is supposed, fosters aggression that is turned against female service members. This article questions

Regina F. Titunik

2000-01-01

7

Cultural intelligence support for military operations  

SciTech Connect

It has long been recognized that military success relies on knowledge of the enemy. In the context of standard warfare, adequate knowledge of the enemy may be gained by analyzing observable, measurable data. In the context of modern counterinsurgency operations and the global war on terror, the task of predicting the behavior of the enemy is vastly more complex and difficult. Without an understanding of the ways individuals in the host nation interpret and react to events, no amount of objective information can provide the insight required to accurately predict behavior. US military doctrine has begun to recognize the importance of the many ways that local culture can affect operation success. Increasingly military decision makers use cultural information in the service of operation planning, and troops are provided with pre-deployment cultural training. However, no amount of training can cover the breadth and depth of potentially useful cultural information, and no amount of careful planning can avoid the need to adapt as situations develop. Therefore, a critical challenge is to provide useful tools to US personnel in their efforts to collect, analyze, and utilize cultural information. Essential functions for cultural support tools include the following: (1) to narrow down a broad range of available data and focus the user's attention on context-relevant information, (2) to present cultural information in an easily understood form, (3) to prompt the user to seek relevant information in the environment, (4) to synthesize information, and (5) to predict outcomes based on possible courses of operation. In this paper, we begin by reviewing the ways in which military operations can benefit from cultural intelligence. We then discuss frameworks for analyzing cultural information in the context of a military operation. We conclude with a demonstration of our current efforts to develop a tool that meets the aforementioned functional challenges.

Guthormsen, Nay M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Kerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merritt, Terence [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgart, Ruth E [INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY

2010-01-01

8

American Culture, Military Services' Cultures, and Military Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The knowledge of one's culture is critical for success in statecraft and strategy. Yet, perhaps because it is so pervasive, the influence of one's own culture on strategy, defense preparation, and the conduct of war tends to escape notice. The influence o...

P. D. Haynes

1998-01-01

9

Military Cultural Awareness: From Anthropology to Application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the mid-1990s, Marine General Anthony Zinni began making the case for the necessity of military cultural awareness as a force multiplier. General Zinni was then reacting to the challenge of resolving tribal conflict in Somalia and considering the poten...

J. W. Jandora

2006-01-01

10

Jewish Culture and the American Military.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study explores the Jewish experience within the American military. The history of military service by persons of the Jewish faith corresponds roughly to that of persons from many other ethnic or religious groups: military service has been a patriotic...

A. M. Goldberg

2006-01-01

11

Cultural Diversity in Military Teams: Which Factors Influence Effectiveness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To investigate whether cultural diversity in military teams enhances or decreases team effectiveness, taking into account different measures of cultural diversity, and controlling for team factors such as leadership, involvement and social support. Milita...

D. A. Van Hemert I. M. Wetzer

2008-01-01

12

United States-China Military Relations: Analysis and Chronology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This series of analyses and chronologies provides information on exchanges of military and military related delegations that have occurred between China and the United States since 1979. Military visits are defined as exchanges between officials of the U....

M. S. Roth

1986-01-01

13

The Importance of Understanding Military Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social workers can make a significant contribution to military service members and their families, but first it is essential that the worldview, the mindset, and the historical perspective of life in the military are understood. Unless we understand how the unique characteristics of the military impact the service members and their families, we cannot work effectively with them. In addition,

Lynn K. Hall

2011-01-01

14

Soldiers Working Internationally: Impacts of Masculinity, Military Culture, and Operational Stress on Cross-cultural Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the ramifications of masculinized military culture and operational stress on cross-cultural adaptation.\\u000a The author examines how characteristics of military culture may obstruct effective cross-cultural adaptation by promoting\\u000a a hypermasculinity that tends to oppose effective management of trauma, and thereby suppresses skills of social interaction\\u000a (e.g., adaptive emotional resilience, behavioral flexibility) that could assist military members with cross-cultural

Patrice A. Keats

2010-01-01

15

Soldiers Working Internationally: Impacts of Masculinity, Military Culture, and Operational Stress on Cross-Cultural Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores the ramifications of masculinized military culture and operational stress on cross-cultural adaptation. The author examines how characteristics of military culture may obstruct effective cross-cultural adaptation by promoting a hypermasculinity that tends to oppose effective management of trauma, and thereby suppresses skills…

Keats, Patrice A.

2010-01-01

16

The state of Japan's military art  

SciTech Connect

Japan has the world's third largest defense budget in the world, after the United States and Soviet Union. The author discusses how Japan acquires some of its weapons from the U.S. and how Japan is developing indigenous military technology. The article focuses on the Japanese codevelopment and coproduction of an advanced version of the F-16 fighter jet.

Chen, K.T.

1989-09-01

17

The state of Japan's military art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has the world's third largest defense budget in the world, after the United States and Soviet Union. The author discusses how Japan acquires some of its weapons from the U.S. and how Japan is developing indigenous military technology. The article focuses on the Japanese codevelopment and coproduction of an advanced version of the F-16 fighter jet.

K. T. Chen

1989-01-01

18

United States Military Strategy in the Persian Gulf.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The importance of Persian Gulf oil, in the context of United States national security has been demonstrated in recent political, economic and military terms. Substantial United States military resources have been devoted to maintain national security inte...

E. E. Whitehead

1989-01-01

19

United States military posture for FY 1989  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this statement on the military posture of the United States is to supplement testimony by the Chairman and other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff at congressional hearings in support of the FY 1989 Defense Budget. Chapter I is an overview that describes the main challenges to US national security, outlines objectives and elements of US military strategy, and highlights continuing efforts to field the best possible armed forces for the protection of US national interests. Chapter II compares US defense requirements and resource commitment with those of the Soviet Union. Chapter III provides an overview of the global military environment by comparing US and allied forces with Soviet and Warsaw Pact forces. Chapter IV assesses the current and projected capability of the US Armed Forces to meet the Soviet nuclear threat. Chapter V assesses the current and projected capability of the US Armed Forces, in concert with friends and allies, to meet the Soviet conventional military threat. This chapter deals primarily with joint perspectives that have increased the capabilities and efficiency of our forces. Chapter VI addresses other topics of interest. Unless otherwise noted, data shown in this report have used operational as opposed to treaty inventories for strategic weapon systems, a fiscal year cutoff date of 30 September 1987, and mobilized forces. Additionally, data have been developed based on a global as opposed to regional war scenario.

Not Available

1989-01-01

20

Isolation, purification and identification of polysaccharides from cultured Cordyceps militaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four polysaccharides from the water extract of cultured Cordyceps militaris were isolated through ethanol precipitation, deproteination and gel-filtration chromatography. Their molecular weights were determined using gel-filtration chromatography. Among the four isolated polysaccharides, the structures of two of them (CPS-2 and CPS-3) were elucidated by sugar analysis, Smith degradation, IR and 13C–NMR spectroscopy.

Rongmin Yu; Lei Wang; Hui Zhang; Changxin Zhou; Yu Zhao

2004-01-01

21

Military Culture, War Crimes and the Defence of Superior Orders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis seeks to examine the military culture of obedience and the standards that exist relating to the defence of superior orders. It will explore laws and practices for this defence that have been adopted nationally and internationally. It will also propose guidelines for differentiating legal from illegal orders.

Aziz Mohammed

2008-01-01

22

United States Military Academy Digital Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Military Academy Library is the oldest federal library in the United States. Recently, they have placed hundreds of rare items online on their very well-organized site. The site includes over twenty thematic collections, and visitors can also browse the collection by document type, such as books, manuscripts, maps, and photographs. There are some real gems here including an eighteen-minute silent movie on Army football, a collection of college yearbooks from the academy (the yearbook is appropriately named the "Howitzer"), and audio lectures from the West Point Distinguished Lecture Series. Finally, the site also includes 40 Civil War maps and a 21-minute film titled, "The MacArthur Story".

23

32 CFR 634.16 - Reciprocal state-military action.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Privileges § 634.16 Reciprocal state-military action. (a) Commanders...will recognize the interests of the states in matters of POV administration and driver...Statutory authority may exist within some states or host nations for...

2013-07-01

24

Optimization of solid state culture conditions for the production of adenosine, cordycepin, and D-mannitol in fruiting bodies of medicinal caterpillar fungus Cordyceps militaris (L.:Fr.) Link (Ascomycetes).  

PubMed

In general, Cordyceps sinensis is much more popular than C. militaris, though both species contain quite similar bioactive ingredients and exhibit medicinal activities. Many bioactive ingredients have been isolated from C. militaris, such as adenosine, cordycepin, D-mannitol, and exopolysaccharides. C. militaris is claimed to have extensive pharmacological properties, such as: anti-inflammatory; anti-fatigue; anti-bacterial; anti-diabetic; improve lung, liver, and kidney functions; to be beneficial for treating cancer as well as male and female sexual dysfunctions. C. militaris is fast gaining momentum for its so-called health benefits, and it is often used as a substitute for C. sinensis. In view of the growing popularity of C. militaris, nowadays C. militaris cultivation for stroma is also done. There is a great diversity of compounds from different strains of Cordyceps and different artificially cultivated products. This study is to determine the optimum culture parameters integrated with substrate of choice to bring the indoor-cultivated C. militaris to a higher and more consistent level of quality. To achieve the above objective, the resultant products after growth were analyzed for adenosine, cordycepin, and D-mannitol using the high-performance liquid chromatography method. The optimum culture condition to produce a high level of adenosine is by using millet as solid substrate. It must be cultivated in the dark for the first 7 days and harvested on day 40. The optimum culture condition to produce a high level of cordycepin is by using soybean as solid substrate. It must be cultivated in the dark for the first 14 days and harvested on day 50. While a high level of D-mannitol is achieved with millet as the solid substrate. It must be kept in the dark for the first 7 days and harvested on day 50. The adenosine level decreased and cordycepin increased from day 40 of culture to day 50 generally. PMID:22506578

Lim, LekTeng; Lee, ChiaYen; Chang, EngThuan

2012-01-01

25

Malaria prevention and control in the United States military.  

PubMed

Malaria continues to be a serious threat to deployed military forces in many areas of the World. United States experiences during, and lessons learned from, World War II, Viet Nam, and Somalia have significantly changed the way that military planners, medical and preventive medicine personnel are facing the malaria challenge. Currently, the US military has a powerful arsenal of educational courses and materials, personal protective measures, and malaria surveillance and control techniques in place to fight malaria. These new tools will hopefully reduce malaria morbidity and mortality during military deployments in the future. PMID:11584660

Robert, L L

2001-01-01

26

United States military strategy in the Persian Gulf. Study project  

SciTech Connect

The importance of Persian Gulf oil, in the context of United States national security has been demonstrated in recent political, economic, and military terms. Substantial United States military resources have been devoted to maintain national security interests in the Persian Gulf region. This paper analyzes the United States military strategy designed to insure the US and its allies continued access to Persian Gulf oil and to suggest alternatives for possible improvement. Although the focus is on US military strategy in the Persian Gulf, it also covers others aspects of US national security policy and strategy. US military policy in the Persian Gulf is derived from a complex process that inextricably links the elements of national strategy with the elements of national power. Conclusions about US policy and strategy in the Persian Gulf that are properly focused and logical require an understanding of US interests and their priorities; US strategies and their feasibility; plus US capabilities and their limitations.

Whitehead, E.E.

1989-03-27

27

Noninstructional Military Positions at the United States Air Force Academy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Senate Committee on Armed Services directed that the Inspector General, DoD, conduct an audit of the noninstructional military staff positions at the United States Air Force Academy (Academy) to determine which positions are directly involved either i...

W. F. Thomas H. M. Geyer R. A. Brown M. E. Niedringhaus S. Webb

1993-01-01

28

India's Military Aviation Market: Opportunities for the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

What are India's future aviation requirements and what political, military, and economic opportunities do they present to the United States. Three factors are important in understanding these two phenomena: * Indian policy makers are beginning to think in...

A. Gupta

2009-01-01

29

United States Military Presence in Central Asia: Implications of United States Basing for Central Asian Stability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examines the United States policy for establishing overseas military bases, particularly in Central Asia. The major transformational trends in improving U.S. military capabilities over the past two decades and the changing international securi...

J. L. Dockery

2006-01-01

30

Changes in the Turkish Security Culture and in the Civil-Military Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes dynamics of Turkish civil - military rela- tions starting from the year 2001. It aims at explaining both insti- tutional and cultural changes in the field. Analytical model applied assumes four main variables which are not deterministic: the EU - harmonization process as a major variable, the Turkish security culture, the civil-military related political culture and the

NILUFER NARLI

31

Significance of Religion as an Essential Component of the Military's Cultural Framework Strategy and Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For years, American diplomats have been trained to not discuss religion and have often excluded religious leaders from diplomacy. The United States military, to a lesser extent, has also tended to evade religion in conducting military operations and negot...

C. E. Reynolds

2010-01-01

32

United States-China Military Relations, 1979-86: Analysis and Chronology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project chronicles military and military-related exchanges between the United States and China. Military visits are defined as exchanges between officials of the US Department of Defense and the Chinese Ministry of National Defense and between number...

M. S. Roth

1986-01-01

33

Production of cordycepin by surface culture using the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production conditions of cordycepin (3?-deoxyadenosine), which is a kind of nucleoside analogue, were investigated by a surface culture using Cordyceps militaris NBRC 9787. About 98% of the cordycepin synthesized by Cordyceps militaris was secreted into the culture medium, and other nucleic acid-related compounds except for cordycepin and guanine were only slightly observed in the medium. The preferable nitrogen source

Mina Masuda; Eriko Urabe; Akihiko Sakurai; Mikio Sakakibara

2006-01-01

34

United States Military in Central Asia: Beyond Operation Enduring Freedom.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. interests in Central Asia are far-reaching and varied. The arguments, both for and against a post Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) U.S. military presence in Central Asia are equally diverse. Publicly, the United States claims it has no plans to maint...

J. H. Lane

2009-01-01

35

United States Military Space: Into the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the 42nd volume in the Occasional Paper series of the U.S. Air Force Institute for National Security Studies (INSS). This volume presents two important papers on United States military space. The first paper, 'What is Spacepower and Does It Consti...

P. L. Hays

2002-01-01

36

Retrograde of United States Military Equipment Out of Iraq.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States military has been in Iraq since its initial invasion in March of 2003 to commence Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Since that time units have deployed and redeployed in a continuous chain. With each deployment, units have brought in and, i...

M. A. Armstead

2009-01-01

37

Attitude of Military Personnel to the Challenge of Culture: Initial Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the attitudes of currently serving military personnel to the issues of cultural readiness in the military, we administered a survey instrument composed of a total of 33 unique items through the Defense Equal Opportunity Management Organizational Climate Survey (DEOCS). This survey was responded to by more than 50,000 participants who each reacted to only a limited

J. L. Szalma; P. A. Hancock; D. P. McDonald

38

Building Language Skills and Cultural Competencies in the Military: DOD's Challenge in Today's Educational Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is no doubt that foreign language skills and cultural expertise are critical capabilities needed by today's military to face the challenges of our present security environment. But, only a small part of today's military is proficient in a foreign la...

A. Hyde J. E. Kruse N. B. Bleicher S. McKenna T. E. Hawley

2008-01-01

39

Civilian Mariners of Military Sealift Command: Preliminary Assessment of Organizational Culture and Values.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis serves as a preliminary assessment of culture and values, and the resultant effect on performance and morale at Military Sealift Command (MSC), from the perspective of its largest subculture; the Civilian Mariners (CIVMARS). The study gathered...

L. R. Weigel

1997-01-01

40

Militariality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay argues that the US is in the midst of a transformation from governmentality to militariality, a transformation achieving normalization with the official passing-into-law of the post-9\\/11 Homeland Security Act and the USA Patriot Act, and the coming-to-actuality of preemptive warfare with the US declaration of war against Iraq. The political regime, progressively acting directly on the civil register,

Robert P. Marzec

2009-01-01

41

Anti-inflammatory and related pharmacological activities of cultured mycelia and fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to elucidate pharmacological activities of Cordyceps militaris. The 70% ethanolic extracts of cultured mycelia (CME) and fruiting bodies (FBE) of Cordyceps militaris were prepared. CME was able to directly scavenge the stable free radical diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), indicating its antioxidant activity. Both CME and FBE showed topical anti-inflammatory activity in the croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. CME

So-Young Won; Eun-Hee Park

2005-01-01

42

48 CFR 252.225-7007 - Prohibition on Acquisition of United States Munitions List Items from Communist Chinese Military...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...From Communist Chinese Military Companies (SEP 2006... Communist Chinese military company means any entity...People's Republic of China; or (2) Owned...People's Republic of China. United States Munitions...from a Communist Chinese military company....

2009-10-01

43

48 CFR 252.225-7007 - Prohibition on Acquisition of United States Munitions List Items from Communist Chinese Military...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...From Communist Chinese Military Companies (SEP 2006... Communist Chinese military company means any entity...People's Republic of China; or (2) Owned...People's Republic of China. United States Munitions...from a Communist Chinese military company....

2010-10-01

44

Military contracts to water transportation services in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long excluded from academic analysis, military expenditures on water transportation are a significant aspect of the industry, especially given the rapid increases in the U.S. military budget in the 1980s. This paper begins with an overview of military relations with the water transporation industry; next, it proceeds to a survey of the spatial dimensions of prime contracts awarded to water

Barney Warf

1994-01-01

45

Disciplining technology: Electronic reliability, Cold?War military culture and the topside ionogram  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay explores the relationship between cold?war military electronics and the material culture of space science. Focusing on the world's first ionospheric research satellite, designed and built by the Canadian Defence Research Telecommunications Establishment at the height of the Cold War, it seeks to situate the practices and beliefs that underwrote the reliability of this instrument within more profound changes

2000-01-01

46

Political Economy of the United States Military Market: 1963-2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This dissertation examines the economic and socio-political forces that influence behavior within military organizations. The tenets of Public Choice economic theory are utilized along with special emphasis on the institutional and cultural frameworks of ...

J. M. Fussell

2006-01-01

47

United States Strategic Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The notion that there is a connection between a society and its strategic culture has a long and distinguished pedigree. In his history of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides records that the Spartan king Archidamus and the Athenian strategos Pericles each ...

T. G. Mahnken

2006-01-01

48

48 CFR 225.770 - Prohibition on acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. 225.770 Section 225.770 Federal...acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. This section implements...

2009-10-01

49

48 CFR 225.770 - Prohibition on acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. 225.770 Section 225.770 Federal...acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. This section implements...

2010-10-01

50

Military Emergency Management Specialist (MEMS) Qualification and the Medical Units of the State Defense Force: It Just Makes Sense.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sponsored by the State Guard Association of the United States and the Military Emergency Management Specialist (MEMS) Academy, the Military Emergency Management Specialist is a qualification that is individually earned and that recognizes personal effort ...

J. L. Greenstone

2006-01-01

51

Examination of Factors Relating to Retention of United States Military Academy Graduates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Graduates of the United States Military Academy, who received concentrated professional and motivational training, have served traditionally as the backbone of the United States Officer Corps. The fact that numbers of these graduates resign after completi...

M. O. Edmonds

1972-01-01

52

Climate change and the military in China, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

National security agencies of four major powers—the United States, Russia, China, and the United Kingdom—see their militaries taking on additional roles in domestic disaster relief because of the effects of global climate change. Otherwise, national security actors show drastically different responses to climate change. The US and Russian militaries are planning for a thawing of the Arctic; but outside the

Michael Brzoska

2012-01-01

53

Effects of culture conditions on the mycelial growth and bioactive metabolite production in submerged culture of Cordyceps militaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of initial pH value, various nitrogen sources, plant oils, and modes of propagation (shake-flask and static culture) on the production of biomass, exopolysaccharide (EPS), adenosine and, in particular, cordycepin, by Cordyceps militaris CCRC 32219 were investigated. Optimal conditions for mycelial growth, EPS and cordycepin production were observed at relatively low pH. Amongst organic sources, yeast extract (YE) was

Ing-Lung Shih; Kun-Lin Tsai; Chienyan Hsieh

2007-01-01

54

Structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps militaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water-soluble crude polysaccharides were obtained from the fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps militaris by hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The polysaccharides were successively purified by chromatography on DEAE–cellulose-52 and Sephacryl S-100 HR columns, giving main three polysaccharide fractions termed P50-1, P70-1, and P70-2. Structural features of P70-1 were investigated by a combination of chemical and instrumental analysis,

Rongmin Yu; Wei Yang; Liyan Song; Chunyan Yan; Zhang Zhang; Yu Zhao

2007-01-01

55

Isolation and biological properties of polysaccharide CPS1 from cultured Cordyceps militaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polysaccharide from the water extract of cultured Cordyceps militaris was isolated through ethanol precipitation, deproteination and gel-filtration chromatography. Their molecular weight was determined using gel-filtration chromatography. The structure of polysaccharide CPS-1 was elucidated by sugar analysis, Smith degradation, IR and 13C–NMR spectroscopy. CPS-1 was shown to possess a significant antiinflammatory activity and suppressed the humoral immunity in mice but

Rongmin Yu; Liyan Song; Yu Zhao; Wen Bin; Lei Wang; Hui Zhang; Yihang Wu; Wencai Ye; Xinsheng Yao

2004-01-01

56

Enhanced production of cordycepin by surface culture using the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods for increasing the production of cordycepin (3?-deoxyadenosine), which is a kind of nucleoside analogue, were investigated by a surface culture of Cordyceps militaris NBRC 9787 using liquid medium. As a result of adding various compounds such as purine biosynthesis-related compounds, coenzymes and surfactant to the basal medium for the purpose of enhancing the cordycepin production, glycine, l-aspartic acid,

Mina Masuda; Eriko Urabe; Hiromitsu Honda; Akihiko Sakurai; Mikio Sakakibara

2007-01-01

57

All Our Eggs in a Broken Basket: How the Human Terrain System is Undermining Sustainable Military Cultural Competence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field-experienced warfighters and other experts have identified a range of weaknesses in military cultural training, education, and intelligence. Finding an effective and lasting solution to these shortcomings has framed ongoing debate over how to meet op...

B. Connable

2009-01-01

58

Rape rates and military personnel in the United States: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

This study involves a test of the cultural spillover hypothesis through a state-level analysis of the relationship between rape rates and the proportion of military personnel in the population. A statistically significant correlation not predicted by this hypothesis was found between rape rates and the proportion of Air Force personnel in the population. Further exploration revealed that this was largely because of the high correlation between the Air Force and the Indian population. Multivariate analyses revealed that the proportion of Indian women in the population was the main predictor of rape rates. Per capita alcohol consumption was also found to be positively correlated with both rape rates and Air Force personnel but was not significantly related to rape in the multivariate analysis. PMID:17704053

Rosen, Leora N

2007-09-01

59

Relationship of Soldier Load Carriage to Physiological Factors, Military Experience and Mood States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examined the relationship between performance of a heavy load carriage task and various physiological measurements, military experience and mood states. Eighty-four soldiers underwent a series of tests, then completed a maximal effort load carr...

J. Knapik J. Staab M. Bahrke J. O'Connor M. Sharp

1990-01-01

60

Guide to the Microform Collections of the USMA (United States Military Academy) Library.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide gives brief descriptions of the various holdings in the microform collection of the United States Military Academy Library. Directions are included as to their locations within the library. Instructions are also given for accessing the contents...

P. T. Nergelovic

1983-01-01

61

Current Status Of The United States Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research examines the status of the United States (U.S.) Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program within the context of the current ever-changing domestic and global security environment. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis w...

N. Jaafar A. A. Malallah M. A. Sharif

2004-01-01

62

Longitudinal Study of Sleep Patterns of United States Military Academy Cadets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study provided an opportunity to observe sleep patterns in a college-age population attending the United States Military Academy. This 4-year longitudinal study investigated sleep patterns of cadets. A stratified sample of 80 cadets had sleep patterns...

L. G. Shattuck N. L. Miller P. Matsangas

2010-01-01

63

United States Military Space Into the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: What is Spacepower and Does it Constitute a Revolution in Military Affairs; Space-Related Arms Control and Regulation to 2015: Precedents and Prospects (The ABMT Regime and Space-Based Defenses; Recent Space-Related Arms Control Developm...

P. L. Hays

2002-01-01

64

Reflections on the United States military 1941-1987.  

PubMed

This article, 'Reflections on the United States Military 1941-1987' written by my grandmother, Mary Mandels, illustrates her passion for life. Her outreach article was considered most appropriate for publication in this forum. Her career activities are outlined in the prior article 'Mary Elizabeth Hickox Mandels, 90, Bioenergy Leader' while her accomplishments were fully recognized, for instance, nationally through the American Chemical Society and through her induction into the Hall of Fame at the US Army Soldier Systems Center in Natick, Massachusetts. As illustrated, along with Dr Elwyn Reese at Natick's Pioneering Research Laboratory, she headed a bioengineering group that is particularly remembered for developing a process for the enzymatic conversion of waste cellulosic biomass into soluble sugars that could be fermented to ethanol for an alternate liquid fuel (gasohol). This technology remains a subject of interest with growing environmental concerns and an oil shortage crisis.Mary broke the promotional glass ceiling in her own field, all the more remarkable from the perspective that she was born 3 years before women gained the right to vote. Her talents as the family storyteller, enthralling her four siblings while growing up, later reflected her abilities as an outstanding mentor to young scientists. Mary's passions went beyond her career with a love of nature and the outdoors, taking frequent canoe, hiking, skiing, and camping trips. She had a broad fascination for science, foci including her encyclopedic knowledge of plants and wildlife. When not outdoors Mary enjoyed listening to music, from opera to 'Bobby' Dylan, as she called him. Her voracious appetite for books was apparent by the tomes that covered her coffee table. She was never shy to share her political opinions and would send long handwritten letters to politicians who did something to her disapproval. She was strong willed and passionate in everything that she did. In particular was her love of the nation and of the US Army, and this particular article reflects her passion. Mary was an inspiration to all of those who knew her. For me, she was not only my grandmother but also my friend and role model. I will forever miss her wisdom, spirit and passion for life.Susan Roche. PMID:19723297

Mandels, Mary; Eveleigh, Douglas E

2009-09-01

65

Reflections on the United States Military 1941-1987  

PubMed Central

This article, 'Reflections on the United States Military 1941-1987' written by my grandmother, Mary Mandels, illustrates her passion for life. Her outreach article was considered most appropriate for publication in this forum. Her career activities are outlined in the prior article 'Mary Elizabeth Hickox Mandels, 90, Bioenergy Leader' while her accomplishments were fully recognized, for instance, nationally through the American Chemical Society and through her induction into the Hall of Fame at the US Army Soldier Systems Center in Natick, Massachusetts. As illustrated, along with Dr Elwyn Reese at Natick's Pioneering Research Laboratory, she headed a bioengineering group that is particularly remembered for developing a process for the enzymatic conversion of waste cellulosic biomass into soluble sugars that could be fermented to ethanol for an alternate liquid fuel (gasohol). This technology remains a subject of interest with growing environmental concerns and an oil shortage crisis. Mary broke the promotional glass ceiling in her own field, all the more remarkable from the perspective that she was born 3 years before women gained the right to vote. Her talents as the family storyteller, enthralling her four siblings while growing up, later reflected her abilities as an outstanding mentor to young scientists. Mary's passions went beyond her career with a love of nature and the outdoors, taking frequent canoe, hiking, skiing, and camping trips. She had a broad fascination for science, foci including her encyclopedic knowledge of plants and wildlife. When not outdoors Mary enjoyed listening to music, from opera to 'Bobby' Dylan, as she called him. Her voracious appetite for books was apparent by the tomes that covered her coffee table. She was never shy to share her political opinions and would send long handwritten letters to politicians who did something to her disapproval. She was strong willed and passionate in everything that she did. In particular was her love of the nation and of the US Army, and this particular article reflects her passion. Mary was an inspiration to all of those who knew her. For me, she was not only my grandmother but also my friend and role model. I will forever miss her wisdom, spirit and passion for life. Susan Roche

Mandels, Mary; Eveleigh, Douglas E

2009-01-01

66

State culture and ethnicity in West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a study of state culture and ethnicity in West Africa, particularly Ghana, Liberia, and Nigeria. These countries represent the diverse cultures and major economies of the West African region. State culture is a polarizing political culture originally created to achieve national unity.The state culture is a distinctly evolved ethnic grouping of different sections of the society. While conditions

Lawrence Abraham

2001-01-01

67

Military Spending and Economic Well-Being in the American States: The Post-Vietnam War Era  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using growth curve modeling techniques, this research investigates whether military spending improved or worsened the economic well-being of citizens within the American states during the post-Vietnam War period. We empirically test the military Keynesianism claim that military spending improves the economic conditions of citizens through its use…

Borch, Casey; Wallace, Michael

2010-01-01

68

Military Responses to State-Sponsored Terrorism: Re-Thinking Deterrence and Coercion Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to explore one of these challenges, state-sponsored terrorism, and the range of military responses that might be used to deter states from sponsoring terrorism or coercing states into ceasing their sponsorship. This thesis us...

T. E. Bellon

1999-01-01

69

European small states' military policies after the Cold War: from territorial to niche strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the evolution of European small states' military policies after the Cold War. Traditionally, small states faced a security dilemma between favouring influence and guaranteeing sovereignty. These security options were embodied by the strategy of alliance and the policy of neutrality. This article argues that in today's unipolar world small states' security policy must be cooperative either

Jean-Marc Rickli

2008-01-01

70

No One Leaves Unchanged: Insights for Civilian Mental Health Care Professionals Into the Military Experience and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to elucidate an understanding of military culture and experience, so as to better frame the services offered by civilian clinicians. Service members indoctrinated into such an influential culture can experience adjustment problems upon reentry into the larger society, and thus professional counselors and social workers must be ready to address the reintegration process with veteran clients. Furthermore,

Jose E. Coll; Eugenia L. Weiss; Jeffrey S. Yarvis

2011-01-01

71

No one leaves unchanged: insights for civilian mental health care professionals into the military experience and culture.  

PubMed

This article aims to elucidate an understanding of military culture and experience, so as to better frame the services offered by civilian clinicians. Service members indoctrinated into such an influential culture can experience adjustment problems upon reentry into the larger society, and thus professional counselors and social workers must be ready to address the reintegration process with veteran clients. Furthermore, this article highlights a few of the major mental health concerns that are prevalent in combat veterans, especially for those returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), and presents a brief overview of treatment modalities implemented both within and outside of the military. Practical therapeutic suggestions for clinicians with little or no knowledge of the military are discussed. The objective is to educate and prepare civilian mental health practitioners to administer culturally sensitive prevention and intervention services to meet the unique needs of this population. PMID:21846250

Coll, Jose E; Weiss, Eugenia L; Yarvis, Jeffrey S

2011-01-01

72

Virtual reality as a tool for cross-cultural communication: an example from military team training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major problem with communication across cultures, whether professional or national, is that simple language translation if often insufficient to communicate the concepts. This is especially true when the communicators come from highly specialized fields of knowledge or from national cultures with long histories of divergence. This problem becomes critical when the goal of the communication is national negotiation dealing with such high risk items as arms negotiation or trade wars. Virtual Reality technology has considerable potential for facilitating communication across cultures, by immersing the communicators within multiple visual representations of the concepts, and providing control over those representations. Military distributed team training provides a model for virtual reality suitable for cross cultural communication such as negotiation. In both team training and negotiation, the participants must cooperate, agree on a set of goals, and achieve mastery over the concepts being negotiated. Team training technologies suitable for supporting cross cultural negotiation exist (branch wargaming, computer image generation and visualization, distributed simulation), and have developed along different lines than traditional virtual reality technology. Team training de-emphasizes the realism of physiological interfaces between the human and the virtual reality, and emphasizes the interaction of humans with each other and with intelligent simulated agents within the virtual reality. This approach to virtual reality is suggested as being more fruitful for future work.

Downes-Martin, Stephen; Long, Mark; Alexander, Joanna R.

1992-06-01

73

Citizenship and Compulsory Military Service: The Revolutionary Origins of Conscription in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to clarify the origins of citizen service in the United States. It departs from the premise that military service compelled by the state and performed as an obligation of citizenship may be understood as constitutive of citizen service. Based on this analytic distinction, the article develops one central argument. Citizen service was first realized in the United

Meyer Kestnbaum

2000-01-01

74

‘Tactical athletes’: the United States Paralympic Military Program and the mobilization of the disabled soldier\\/athlete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the commencement of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, over 35,000 American military personnel have returned home with serious physical and psychological wounds, including amputations, traumatic brain injuries and paralysis. In 2004, amidst an increasingly militarized culture shaped by Bush-era wartime policies, the US Paralympics, a division of the US Olympic Committee, created the Paralympic Military Program (PMP) to

Callie Batts; David L. Andrews

2011-01-01

75

Cultural and Ethical Considerations When Working With Military Personnel and Veterans: A Primer for VA Training Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of predoctoral psychology interns are completing their internship within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. Individuals receiving mental health services in the VA constitute a distinct subculture with unique experiences reflected in their beliefs, norms, and language. Thus, interns need to increase their level of knowledge of military culture to effectively provide service to

Thad Q. Strom; Margaret E. Gavian; Elizabeth Possis; Jennifer Loughlin; Thao Bui; Eftihia Linardatos; Jennie Leskela; Wayne Siegel

2012-01-01

76

Anatomy of an airlift: United States military assistance to Israel during the 1973 war  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1973 war the United States flew 12,000 tons of military equipment to Israel, transferring advanced weaponry that it had hitherto withheld. In fact, Nixon and Kissinger had planned to strictly regulate the supply of arms to Israel, intending both to control its strategy during the fighting and heighten its dependence following the war. Yet the exigency of matching

Zach Levey

2008-01-01

77

Taking a Systematic Approach to the United States Military Academy Systems Engineering Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our group examined the United States Military Academy Systems Engineering (USMA SE) program from an internal perspective using the tools we learned in our program. The purpose of the project was to take a holistic system view of the SE program in support of the program assessment being conducted by our client, the SE Program Director. A major development in

S. Brown; J. Cho; N. Collier; N. Hill; M. J. Kwinn

2007-01-01

78

Rifle development, standardization, and procurement in the United States military 1950-1967  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conclusion of the Second World War found the American military questioning its current arsenal of small arms. The wide array of sub-machineguns, rifles, and carbines did not share any common parts or ammunition. The difficulties in supplying troops with parts and ammunition during the war, combined with perceived deficiencies in the designs motivated United States Army Ordnance to start

Robert Dale Hinrichs

2009-01-01

79

United States international policies and military strategies in the era of defunct aggressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the post-Soviet era, the United States (US) is expected to contribute its military forces and defense resources in the event of need for Regional Conflicts and Operations Other Than War (OOTW). Such contributions may not be forthcoming. The principal reasons for the possible absence to the US contributions to maintain the New World Order is the paucity in the

Ivars Gutmanis

1995-01-01

80

COMPARING POST-COLD WAR MILITARY CONVERSION IN THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the conventional wisdom, military conversion in Russia would be more difficult than in the United States because Russia does not have the developed market infrastructure and institutions that help western defense firms redeploy resources for civilian production. A closer look raises doubts about these arguments. Western defense firms have had difficulties with conversion because they cannot compete with

MICHAEL V. ALEXEEV; RAYMOND C. SIKORRA

1998-01-01

81

Korean Higher Education under the United States Military Government: 1945-1948  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study is to examine Korean higher education under the United States Military Government (1945-1948). In order to review this study, the author uses a descriptive analysis methodology. In addition, to research the study systematically, this paper first of all outlines the historic and political context of post-World War II in…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

2006-01-01

82

United States and NATO Military Cooperation with Kazakhstan: The Need for a New Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the formation of Kazakhstan's armed forces in the early 1990s, western countries have taken an increasingly active interest in providing military cooperation aimed at enhancing Kazakhstan's defence capabilities. This process was intensified in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on the United States on 11 September 2001 with Kazakhstan emerging as an important partner within Central Asia in the

Roger N. McDermott

2008-01-01

83

Circling the Earth: United States Plans for a Postwar Overseas Military Base System, 1942-1948.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Before World War II the United States possessed only a handful of overseas military installations. These included bases in the Philippine Islands, Guam in the Mariana Islands, Wake Island, Midway Island, and the Hawaiian Islands, all in the Pacific; and b...

E. V. Converse

2005-01-01

84

Carbohydrate-Electrolyte Solution during Military Training. Effects on Physical Performance, Mood State and Immune Function.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether CRO-E beverages improve mood state and performance of military tasks. A second purpose was to examine if CHO-E solutions alter immune cell responses. Twenty seven volunteers were randomly assigned to one ...

S. J. Montain R. L. Shippee W. J. Tharion T. R. Kramer

1995-01-01

85

Risk of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among U.S. Military Personnel Deployed Outside the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To deternaine whether military personnel deployed outside the United States are at increased risk of Helicobacter pylori infection, 1,000 male U.S. Navy and Marine Corps personnel (mean age 22 years) were evaluated. Study subjects included 200 recruits, 5...

K. C. Hyams D. N. Taylor G. C. Gray J. B. Knowles R. Hawkins

1995-01-01

86

Ceasefire capitalism: military–private partnerships, resource concessions and military–state building in the Burma–China borderlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since ceasefire agreements were signed between the Burmese military government and ethnic political groups in the Burma–China borderlands in the early 1990s, violent waves of counterinsurgency development have replaced warfare to target politically-suspect, resource-rich, ethnic populated borderlands. The Burmese regime allocates land concessions in ceasefire zones as an explicit postwar military strategy to govern land and populations to produce regulated,

Kevin Woods

2011-01-01

87

The United States, Western Europe and military intervention overseas  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics. The United States, Britain and out of area problems, The NATO allies and the Persian Gulf, France, NATO and regional conflict in Africa, Southern Africa and the west in the post Nkometi period; The case of Mozambique.

Coker, C. (London School of Economics (GB))

1988-01-01

88

Policy for Treatment of Detainees by the United States Military.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Public Law No. 109-148 was enacted in December 2005. This law prohibits torture and cruel, inhumane, and degrading treatment of detainees held by officials of the United States. Does this law establish the correct position on the treatment of detainees. W...

T. Weathersbee

2006-01-01

89

Structural analysis and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from cultured Cordyceps militaris.  

PubMed

The polysaccharides extracted by hot water and precipitated by 50% ethanol from the fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps militaris (W-CBP50) were introduced. Antioxidant activities of W-CBP50, W-CBP50 I (obtained from W-CBP50 purified by Sephadex G-100 chromatography) and W-CBP50 II (obtained from W-CBP50I purified by Sephadex G-200 chromatography) were evaluated and structural features of W-CBP50 II were analyzed. The polysaccharide W-CBP50 II was able to scavenge the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhyrazyl (DPPH), while W-CBP50 and W-CBP50I could scavenge DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radical. Structural characteristics of W-CBP50 II were investigated using GPC, GC-MS, (1)H NMR and IR. The results showed that it was mainly composed of ?-glucose, ?-mannose, ?-galactose and ?-arabinose with ?-type glycosidic linkage and the molecular weight of its main component was 8.97 kD. PMID:23537797

Chen, Xiaoli; Wu, Guanghong; Huang, Zhuolie

2013-03-25

90

United States cost of military force projection in the Persian Gulf, 1976–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first estimate of United States military cost for Persian Gulf force (CPGfp) derived entirely by a quantitative method. An activity-based cost (ABC) model uses geographic distribution of aircraft carriers as a proxy allocator of Department of Defense (DoD) baseline cost to regional operations. Allocation follows simply from DoD data that since 1990 no less than one

Roger J. Stern

2010-01-01

91

Evaluating the trade?off between military spending and investment in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using tests of a single equation model and cointegration techniques, this paper finds no evidence of a long run trade?off, and some evidence of a short?run trade?off, between military spending and investment in post?World War II United States data. The short?run trade?off is confined to the 1949–1971 period, and may be the result of the sharp expansion and contraction of

David Gold

1997-01-01

92

Fostering a Culture of Engagement. (Military Review, September-October 2009).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

WITH LESS THAN one half of one percent of the U.S. population in the Armed Forces, it is not surprising that many Americans know little about their military or the sacrifices military members and their families make for the Nation. The professional milita...

A. Menning I. W. Caldwell S. Stroud

2009-01-01

93

Tinted Blue: Air Force Culture and American Civil-Military Relations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

If war is an extension of politics by other means,1 then civil- military dialogue is the birthplace of that extension. The logical continuity of politics and war requires a functional continuity of effective civil-military exchange. This effectiveness hin...

J. Donnithorne

2010-01-01

94

Effects of culture conditions on mycelium biomass and intracellular cordycepin production of Cordyceps militaris in natural medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of culture conditions on the growth of mycelium and the production of intracellular cordycepin ofCordyceps militaris were investigated in this study. The natural medium which is a mixture of 53% brown rice paste, 6% beerwort and 42% soybean\\u000a meal juice was used for the fermentation in shaking flasks. Fermentation temperature, pH and medium capacity, which had been\\u000a proved to

Chunyan Xie; Gaixia Liu; Zhenxin Gu; Gongjian Fan; Lei Zhang; Yingjuan Gu

2009-01-01

95

Incidence and epidemiology of spinal cord injury within a closed American population: the United States military (2000–2009)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Cohort studyObjectives:The objective of this study was to characterize the incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) within the population of the United States military from 2000–2009. This investigation also sought to define potential risk factors for the development of SCI.Setting:The population of the United States military from 2000–2009.Methods:The Defense Medical Epidemiology Database was queried for the years 2000–2009 using

A J Schoenfeld; B McCriskin; M Hsiao; R Burks

2011-01-01

96

Catalog of the Orientalia Collection of the U.S. Military Academy Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bibliography of the holdings of the United States Military Academy Library's Orientalia Collection as of January 1977 lists books and periodicals written mostly in Chinese, with a few words in Japanese and English. The major subjects include general and military history, history of military art and science, biography, culture, geography,…

Lee, Pingkun; Kao, Angela H.H.

97

Beyond the Target State: Foreign Military Intervention and Neighboring State Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the abundance of research on the consequences of foreign military intervention for target countries, scant research has been devoted to the possible regional externalities of intervention. This article examines whether large-scale armed operations affect the likelihood of civil conflict onset in countries neighboring the target of intervention. We posit that interventions against the target regime reduce the government's ability

Dursun Peksen; Marie Olson Lounsbery

2012-01-01

98

Cigarette prices in military retail: a review and proposal for advancing military health policy.  

PubMed

Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States and has been shown to significantly harm the combat readiness of military personnel. Unfortunately, recent research showed that cigarettes are sold at substantial discounts in military retail outlets. In fact, the military is the only retailer that consistently loses money on tobacco. Cheap tobacco prices have been identified by enlisted personnel and Department of Defense health policy experts as promoting a culture of tobacco use in the U.S. Military. This article provides an analysis of why current military tobacco pricing policy has failed to eliminate cheap tobacco prices as an incentive for use. A rationale for increasing tobacco prices also is presented along with recommendations for improved military tobacco control policy. PMID:23756017

Haddock, Christopher K; Jahnke, Sara A; Poston, Walker S C; Williams, Larry N

2013-05-01

99

When Culture and Doctrine Collide: Military, Multi-Mission, Maritime Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A quiet evolution is underway...the U.S. Coast Guard, always best known for its humanitarian and life-saving efforts, is now squarely focused on its military and national defense mission. The events of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent increased nati...

M. R. Kelley

2002-01-01

100

Lightning-associated injuries and deaths among military personnel--United States, 1998-2001.  

PubMed

After flooding, lightning is the second leading cause of weather-related death in the United States; approximately 300 injuries and 100 deaths are associated annually with lightning strikes in the United States. To characterize lightning-associated injuries and deaths among U.S. Armed Forces personnel, the U.S. Army and CDC analyzed data from the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS). This that the highest lightning-related injury rates during 1998-2001 occurred among male U.S. military members who were aged <40 years, single, with a high school education or less, stationed near the Gulf of Mexico or the East Coast, and in the U.S. Army. The findings suggest that the risk for lightning-associated injury depends primarily on the frequency, timing, duration, and nature of outdoor exposure to thunderstorms. Military personnel should be aware of severe weather onset and take reasonable precautions to protect themselves and their companions from exposure to lightning. PMID:12363338

2002-09-27

101

Chiropractic practice in military and veterans health care: The state of the literature  

PubMed Central

Objective To summarize scholarly literature that describes practice, utilization, and/or policy of chiropractic services within international active duty and/or veteran health care environments. Data Sources PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Index to Chiropractic Literature were searched from their starting dates through June 2009. Review Methods All authors independently reviewed each of the articles to verify that each met the inclusion criteria. Citations of included papers and other pertinent findings were logged in a summary table. Results Thirteen articles were included in this study. Integration of chiropractic care into military or veteran health care systems has been described in 3 systems: the United States Department of Defense, the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Canadian Forces. Conclusion Chiropractic services seem to be included successfully within military and veteran health care facilities. However, there is a great need for additional written evaluation of the processes, policies, practices, and effectiveness of chiropractic services in these environments.

Green, Bart N.; Johnson, Claire D.; Lisi, Anthony J.; Tucker, John

2009-01-01

102

Permits for Oversize, Overweight, or Other Special Military Movements on Public Highways in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This regulation establishes procedures for evaluating requests and securing permits for the movement of military owned and operated vehicles..for commercial movements of military cargo exceeding legal weight or dimension limitations and for other special ...

1979-01-01

103

Rage against the machine: The university-military-industrial complex and contemporary American culture and democracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how five late twentieth and early twenty-first century authors – Don DeLillo, Rebekah Nathan, Richard Rodriguez, Jane Smiley, and Tom Wolfe – use one of their respective books to reflect on and shape what has come to be called the University-Military-Industrial Complex (UMIC). Specifically, it explores how different literary works interpret, instantiate, challenge and attempt to reconfigure

Andrew Karl Koch

2008-01-01

104

Case report: Military subcultural competency.  

PubMed

The military is comprised of numerous subcultures. These subcultures can dramatically impact perceptions of illness and care. Although efforts are currently underway to improve the military cultural competence of all health care providers, efforts to improve the subcultural competence of military providers require attention. Military providers, although part of the military culture, may not appreciate their patients' military subculture or be aware of the impact their own subculture plays on the encounter. To illustrate potential difficulties, a case is described where limited military subcultural competence disrupted care. As the military medical corps continues to integrate across service lines, this case underscores the importance of training military physicians to assess the influence of a service member's specific military subculture. PMID:23820363

Meyer, Eric

2013-07-01

105

Post-Military West: Globalization's Impact on U.S. Strategic Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Among sociologists, a commonly discussed aspect of globalization, beyond an inevitable clash of cultures, is the rise of a homogeneous or heterogeneous world culture. If such a phenomenon is occurring, the American strategic leader should be concerned wit...

T. W. Luscher

2009-01-01

106

Military Pedagogy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The term 'military pedagogy' is defined in the 1966 Soviet 'Officer's Library' Dictionary of Basic Military Terms as 'a field of pedagogical and military science investigating and developing the most efficient methods of communist teaching, military educa...

1973-01-01

107

Melancholy Reunion: A Report from the Future on the Collapse of Civil- Military Relations in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The year is 2017. The United States has suffered not only defeats in the High-Tech War of 2007 and the Second Gulf War of 2010, but also a military coup in 2012. That coup, engineered by a highly politicized officer corps that blamed these bloody losses o...

C. J. Dunlap

1996-01-01

108

Clerics, Exiles, and Academics: Opposition to the Brazilian Military Dictatorship in the United States, 1969-1974  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtually no one in the United States raised objections to the 1964 military takeover of the Brazilian civilian government. In the early 1970s, however, the Brazilian regime had become associated with torture and the arbitrary rule of law. By the end of that decade, compliance with human rights standards had developed into a yardstick for measuring U.S. foreign policy initiatives

James N. Green

2003-01-01

109

Religious Education Reform under the US Military Occupation: The Interpretation of State Shinto in Japan and Nazism in Germany  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the treatment of religion in Japanese education in the post-World War Two period. During the Allied Military Occupation, Japan adopted the principle of the separation of state and religion as a means to democratize the totalitarian, ethno-nationalistic education system of pre-1945. The case of Germany is also dealt with…

Shibata, Masako

2004-01-01

110

Coercion: A Credible and Capable United States Military Instrument of Power Key to Future US Foreign Policy Success.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To employ a successful foreign policy that protects United States interests in the post-Cold War environment, U.S. leadership will need to use a consistent, credible, and capable military instrument of power to apply coercion. Recent attempts to coerce ot...

J. G. Pierce

2012-01-01

111

TIME?VARYING CHARACTERISTICS OF SOUTH KOREA?UNITED STATES AND JAPAN?UNITED STATES MILITARY ALLIANCES UNDER CHINESE THREAT: A PUBLIC GOOD APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the nature of two military alliances under Chinese threat. The findings are as follows: First, South Korea does not consider China a significant threat while Japan and the United States have recognized China as a serious threat since the 1990s and the 2000s, respectively. Second, the relationship between South Korea and the United States is a true

2011-01-01

112

TIME-VARYING CHARACTERISTICS OF SOUTH KOREA-UNITED STATES AND JAPAN-UNITED STATES MILITARY ALLIANCES UNDER CHINESE THREAT: A PUBLIC GOOD APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the nature of two military alliances under Chinese threat. The findings are as follows: First, South Korea does not consider China a significant threat while Japan and the United States have recognized China as a serious threat since the 1990s and the 2000s, respectively. Second, the relationship between South Korea and the United States is a true

2012-01-01

113

Measuring Sense of Community in the Military: Cross-Cultural Evidence for the Validity of the Brief Sense of Community Scale and Its Underlying Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the authors present a German Sense of Community (SOC) Scale for use in military settings. The scale is based on the translation and field-testing of an existing U.S.-based measure of neighborhood SOC (Peterson, Speer, & McMillan, 2008). The methodological intricacies underlying cross-cultural scale development are highlighted, as…

Wombacher, Jorg; Tagg, Stephen K.; Burgi, Thomas; MacBryde, Jillian

2010-01-01

114

Muslims in the United States Military : A Role Theory Analysis of Conflict and Integration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis was to look for the existence of role conflict in Muslim military members. Both the military and Islam were argued to be 'greedy institutions' (Coser 1974) in that each demands its members to enact 'master statuses' (Hughes 1945...

G. D. Swanson

1999-01-01

115

Resistance to Organizational Cultural Change in the Military -- A JFO Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Change is hard but senior leaders must master the task of cultural change management to keep their organizations viable in the future. Leaders must realize that change will often be met with resistance by the organization because the organization strives ...

J. Kelly

2008-01-01

116

Cultural Anthropology of the Penn State Tragedy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essay uses the theoretical-methodological strategy of notes and listing (following the practices of Susan Sontag and Umberto Eco, among others) to illuminate particular, unique historical and cultural-anthropological aspects of the Jerry Sandusky-Penn State scandal\\/tragedy. Special attention is devoted in the essay to critique of depictions of the Catholic Church, ancient Greece, the “unsayable,” and social memory in regard to

Synthia Sydnor

2012-01-01

117

Military Advice and Civil-Military Relations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the United States leads the world into the 21st Century, military leaders must gain and maintain the trust of the President and the Secretary of Defense by understanding and influencing the manifold variables that affect the civilian-military relations...

D. W. Bennett

2010-01-01

118

Descriptive Epidemiology of Bipolar I Disorder Among United States Military Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Psychiatric disorders in military members require substantial medical, administrative, and financial resources, and are among the leading causes of hospitalization and early discharge. We reviewed available data to better understand the incidence of bipol...

D. N. Cowan D. W. Niebuhr N. S. Weber S. A. Bedno

2010-01-01

119

Building Language Skills and Cultural Competencies in the Military: DOD's Challenge in Today's Educational Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although challenges in Iraq and Afghanistan have certainly brought the importance of language and cultural competency to the fore, the lack of service member proficiency in critically-needed foreign languages is not a new problem. In fact, in World War II...

2008-01-01

120

Technology and Military Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

After decades of investment in technology, the capabilities of the U.S. mil- itary are without equal. While the consensus is that no state has the military power to prevent the United States from achieving its military objectives, the country may not be prepared for the lesser crises that may dominate this century. The con- flicts in Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, Serbia,

William C. Martel

121

Strategic culture and ballistic missile defense: Russia and the United States. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis examines U.S. and Russian history and current policy debates to advance understanding of: (1) the strategic cultures of these nations, particularly with respect to BMD policies in the recent past; and (2) whether and how their strategic cultures and approaches to BMD are changing and how that may affect future strategic BMD developments and the status of the ABM Treaty. The development of BMD strategies, including policies concerning the ABM Treaty, within the framework of the established American and Russian strategic cultures is studied, with due attention to the Soviet experience and legacy in the Russian case. U.S. strategic culture does not seem to have changed significantly with the end of the Cold War, but U.S. BMD priorities have been redefined to reflect a higher priority attached to regional and theater-level defenses. It is apparent that the Soviet experience did have a significant impact on Russian strategic culture. Faced with major changes in its international status, domestic political-military arrangements, and scope of national security concerns, Russian strategic culture is nonetheless moving beyond the old Soviet culture. Future Russian policies regarding the transfer of BMD technology, sharing early warning data, and participating in a global protective system are heavily dependent on domestic political developments. United States, Russia, USSR, Strategic culture, Ballistic missile defense, National strategy, Nuclear strategy, Strategic defense, ABM Treaty, Arms control, Strategic stability.

Becker, M.D.

1993-06-01

122

Content Analysis of Army Newspapers Based in the Continental United States (CONUS) to Determine Editorial Differences Between Military and Civilian Editors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A content analysis of four civilian enterprise Army newspapers published in the United States was conducted to determine if editorial differences in content and tone existed between military and civilian editors. Both hypotheses were supported by the find...

P. J. Swiergosz

1998-01-01

123

Impact of Religious and Political Affiliation on Strategic Military Decisions and Policy Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper analyzes the impact of a culturally homogeneous group on strategic decision making and policy recommendations. The United States military's organizational climate has shifted steadily to the right since the Viet Nam War. Today's Armed Forces ar...

W. Millonig

2006-01-01

124

Prospects for Russian Military RD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the Russian military's options for achieving weapons modernization and new weapons development through either a revitalized state military research and development (RD) sector or a robust civil scientific and technical (ST) sector. It...

S. Leiter

1996-01-01

125

32 CFR 9.2 - Establishment of Military Commissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.2 Establishment of Military Commissions. In accordance with the President's Military Order, the Secretary...

2013-07-01

126

Impact of Military Mission Growth on States and Local Educational Agencies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is in the midst of transforming our military to better address the needs and demands of the 21st century. In keeping with these goals, a number of bases across the nation are experiencing an enhancement of mission, an ...

2008-01-01

127

Predicting the Military Career Success of United States Air Force Academy Cadets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that best predicted the military career success (twenty years of service and the achievement of the rank of lieutenant colonel) of Air Force Academy cadets. The Department of Institutional Research at the Air Force Academy provided the data. The sample included admitted cadets between 1982 and 1990. Three hypotheses were

Jacob Rodriguez

2009-01-01

128

Coordinating Military Deployments on Roads and Highways: A Guide for State and Local Agencies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent world events have required a greater use of U. S. based military assets. The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), other government agencies, and commercial vendors have responded to this challenge by moving materiel and personnel rapidly and safely to...

D. Keever J. Soutuyo

2005-01-01

129

Anthrax Vaccination and Risk of Optic Neuritis in the United States Military, 1998-2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Numerous case reports have suggested a possible association between optic neuritis and receipt of several different vaccines. The most frequently iden- tified vaccines associated with optic neuritis in the lit- erature are influenza and hepatitis B, and a report de- scribing 2 US military cases suggests an association with the currently used anthrax vaccine (anthrax vac- cine adsorbed). Objective:Totestthehypothesisthatopticneuritismay

Daniel C. Payne; Charles E. Rose; John Kerrison; Aaron Aranas; Susan Duderstadt; Michael M. McNeil

2006-01-01

130

Back to the Future: Private Military Contractors and Political Theory in the Modern Democratic State  

Microsoft Academic Search

My theme is that while the use of private institutions to perform military and government functions for Western society is\\u000a nothing new, its relative prevalence — that is, its pattern of emergence, decline, and re-emergence as a prominent feature\\u000a of society — is positively aligned with certain arising international policy goals of a transformational sort combined with\\u000a particular domestic agendas.

Guntram F. A. Werther

131

Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) of Bad Kreuznach Military Community, United States Army. Executive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This summarizes the results of an Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) of the Bad Kreuznach Military Community. It was conducted by Kling-Lindquist Engineers, Inc. (K\\/L) for the Department of the Army, Europe Division of the Corps of Engineers under Contract No. DACA-90-82-0187. Kling-Lindquist, Inc., employed the services of Robert M. Houston GmbH (RMH), Frankfurt, Germany, to assist in the field

1984-01-01

132

Military Exposures  

MedlinePLUS

... exposed to a range of chemical, physical, and environmental hazards during military service. Camp Lejeune Veterans and Families ... assessment for possible health problems related to specific environmental hazards Compensation Monthly compensation for military service-connected injuries, ...

133

Cultural Exchanges between Communist Countries and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little scholarly work has been done on cultural exchanges between Communist countries and the United States. Despite the frustrations involved, such exchanges are regarded as useful by both sides. One of the great difficulties in the study of cultural exchanges is the conceptual problem of de fining their nature. It would appear that, in addition to the genuinely cultural aspects

Frederick C. Barghoorn

1967-01-01

134

Konrad Adenauer's Military Advisors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis poses the question: Why did Konrad Adenauer appoint former Wehrmacht generals Hans Speidel and Adolf Heusinger as his military advisors. The question is used to examine the political relationships between the army officer corps, state, and soc...

J. R. Pournelle

1989-01-01

135

The arbovirus carrier state in tissue cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.The methods employed for the establishment of latently infected arbovirus carrier cultures have been described.2.Once established the carrier cultures appeared to be similar to one another in their properties. These included the ability to resist superinfection with homologous and heterologous viruses, slower growth rates than uninfected cells, morphological similarity to uninfected cell populations, and low proportion of cells actually

T. Maguire; J. A. R. Miles

1965-01-01

136

United States military service members and their tattoos: a descriptive study.  

PubMed

To explore the characteristics of military service tattoos a descriptive study was conducted at Walter Reed Army Medical Center to collect information from a convenience sample. An investigator-developed questionnaire provided the data for this study. Over the ensuing 12 month-period the researchers collected 126 questionnaires. Typical respondents were enlisted men with at least one deployment to an area of combat operations. Among the respondents, 57% acquired their tattoos before their deployment. One-quarter of the respondents reported only one tattoo, leaving the majority with multiple tattoos. Men received their first tattoo at an earlier age than women. The most common tattoo listed a person's name. Respondents did not regret their tattoos and rarely acquired the body art under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Little evidence was found to support a connection between tattoos and deployment. Few regretted their decisions and most all approached the tattoo experience free of any mind-altering substance. All this seems to suggest that military tattoos are a well-accepted means of self-expression. PMID:23929056

Lande, R Gregory; Bahroo, Bhagwan A; Soumoff, Alyssa

2013-08-01

137

Moral Leadership in an Increasingly Amoral Society: Is the United States Military Value System Suitable in Contemporary America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US military has a clear track record of how it has defined what is right and wrong behavior for its members. From military law to doctrine, regulations, and policies, the military establishment has exhibited and employed a relatively stable moral valu...

D. D. Jeter

1998-01-01

138

Farm Tractors, Occupational Therapy, and Four-Wheel Drive: Transforming a Military Vehicle Into a Cultural Icon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The armed forces of World War II employed unprecedented numbers of mechanical transport vehicles, precipitating a spike in demand for automotive manufactures. Eager to capture a share of the less certain postwar automobile marketplace, defense contractors such as Willys-Overland pursued a diverse range of product development and advertising strategies, based on the foundation of their military output. This article considers

Andrew Iarocci

2010-01-01

139

A Framework for Developing Management Goals for Species at Risk and Application to Military Installations in the United States  

SciTech Connect

A decision framework for setting management goals for species at risk is presented. Species at risk are those whose potential future rarity is of concern. Listing these species as threatened or endangered could potentially result in significant restrictions to activities in resource management areas in order to maintain those species. The management areas in the example application are United States (US) military installations, which are concerned about potential restrictions to military training capacity if species at risk become regulated under the US Endangered Species Act. The decision framework, designed to foster proactive management, has nine steps: identify species at risk on and near the management area, describe available information and potential information gaps for each species, determine the potential distribution of species and their habitat, select metrics for describing species status, assess the status of local population or metapopulation, conduct threat assessment, set and prioritize management goals, develop species management plans, and develop criteria for ending special species management where possible. This framework will aid resource managers in setting management goals that minimally impact human activities while reducing the likelihood that species at risk will become rare in the near future. The benefits of the proactive management set forth in this formal decision framework are that it is impartial, provides a clear procedure, calls for identification of causal relationships that may not be obvious, provides a way to target the most urgent needs, reduces costs, enhances public confidence, and, most importantly, decreases the chance of species becoming more rare.

Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Westervelt, James D. [ERDC-CERL

2009-01-01

140

Evaluation of metal ions and surfactants effect on cell growth and exopolysaccharide production in two-stage submerged culture of Cordyceps militaris.  

PubMed

During the two-stage submerged fermentation of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris, it was found that K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) were favorable to the mycelial growth. The EPS production reached the highest levels in the media containing Mg(2+) and Mn(2+). However, Ca(2+) and K(+) almost failed to increase significantly exopolysaccharides (EPS) production. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) significantly enhanced EPS production compared with that of without adding SDS when SDS was added on static culture stage of two-stage cultivation process. The presence of Tween 80 in the medium not only simulated mycelial growth but also increased EPS production. By response surface methods (RSM), EPS production reached its peak value of 3.28 g/L under optimal combination of 27.6 mM Mg(2+), 11.1 mM Mn(2+), and 0.05 mM SDS, which was 3.76-fold compared with that of without metal ion and surfactant. The results obtained were useful in better understanding the regulation for efficient production of EPS of C. militaris in the two-stage submerged culture. PMID:22956301

Cui, Jian-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Nan

2012-09-07

141

Managing military uranium and plutonium in the United States and the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Effective approaches to the management of plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)--the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons--are fundamental to controlling nuclear proliferation and providing the basis for deep, transparent, and irreversible reductions in nuclear weapons stockpiles. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the ongoing dismantlement of tens of thousands of nuclear weapons are creating unprecedented stresses on the systems for managing these materials, as well as unprecedented opportunities for cooperation to improve these systems. In this article, the authors summarize the technical background to this situation, and the current and prospective security challenges posed by military stockpiles of these materials in the US and Russia. They then review the programs in place to address these challenges, the progress of these programs to date, and the work remaining to be done, in five areas: (a) preventing theft and smuggling of nuclear warheads and fissile materials; (b) building a regime of monitored reductions in nuclear warhead and fissile material stockpiles; (c) ending further production of excess fissile materials; (d) reducing stockpiles of excess fissile materials; and (e) avoiding economic collapse in the nuclear cities where substantial fractions of these materials and their guardians reside. 128 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Bunn, M.; Holdren, J.P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-12-31

142

Attachment and Culture: Security in the United States and Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Highlights evidence of cultural variations in child attachment, noting how western values and meanings permeate attachment theory. Comparisons of the United States and Japan emphasize the cultural relativity of three core hypotheses of attachment theory related to: caregiver sensitivity, child social competence, and a secure base for exploring…

Rothman, Fred; Weisz, John; Pott, Martha; Morelli, Gilda; Miyake, Kazuo

2000-01-01

143

Language and Culture Acquisition among Iranians in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relationship between language use and second culture acquisition is examined in this study of first generation Iranian immigrants and exiles in the United States. The use of both Farsi and English is found to be instrumental in the process by which American culture is incorporated within the Iranian worldview. (AF)|

Hoffman, Diane M.

1989-01-01

144

Military Discrimination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that while a certain level of fairness is necessary in considering the equity of compulsory military service, the most important issue is that of "winning the war." Also asserts that sex, age, and race discrimination are more important than social class discrimination in military service. (Author/GC)

Hunter, Richard W.

1981-01-01

145

News Media and Military Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The military/media relationship is seriously degraded because of mistrust between the two entities. Sources of this mistrust are analyzed, to include: cultural differences; the perception of biased reporting; misunderstanding and ignorance; and speculatio...

M. P. Erdle

1991-01-01

146

Sisters in Arms: A case study of the experiences of women warriors in the United States Military  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000aPresently there are few studies that describe the current experiences of women warriors relative to issues such as sexual hostility, sexual harassment, and other uncommon experiences during their military careers. Very little is known about how being a woman in a male-dominated military may affect women warriors' choices between making the military a career or returning to civilian life. With

Carmen Teresa Stein-Mccormick

2011-01-01

147

Cultural Wage Differentials Among United States Immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

One ofthe most debated political and social issues in contemporary America is that of immigration. As a nation ofimmigrants and descendants ofimmigrants, the United States is grappling with the conflict over whether or not continued immigration will prove to be beneficial or detrimental to the economy and society. Immigration is an issue as old as the United States itself, yet

William J. Takahashi

1996-01-01

148

Clash of Military Traditions: Meritocracy, Modernization, and Neo- Traditional Challenges to the United States of America's Foreign Internal Defense (FID) Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the decades before, and with greater intensity since 1945, the United States of America engaged in numerous 'nation-building' efforts around the world; the focus of which was the creation, or the strengthening, of national military establishments in al...

D. R. Keller

2009-01-01

149

Privilege-Wise and Patent (and Trade-Secret)Foolish?: How the Courts' Misapplication of the Military and State Secrets Privilege Violates the Constitution and Endangers National Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is every inventor's nightmare: a valuable idea, stolen, with no legal recourse. Yet that is precisely what happened in Lucent v. Crater, where the Federal Circuit permitted the Federal Government to defeat the inventors' claims using the military and state secrets privilege. In light of the recent upsurge in the Government's invocation of this privilege, it is time to

Davida H. Isaacs; Robert M. Farley

2009-01-01

150

Bibliography of Women: A Survey of Women Past and Present as Reflected by the Holdings of the United States Military Academy Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The publication of this bibliography on "Women" is an appropriate event in that it closely follows the passage of the law which for the first time permits women to enter the United States Military Academy in its 173 year history. Over 500 titles are presently extant in the USMA Library collection on the subject of women, representing woman's role…

Earl, Martha M., Comp.

151

Assisting Children and Families with Military-Related Disruptions: The United States Marine Corps School Liaison Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Military families face a number of unique challenges, including frequent relocations and school transitions, as well as extended separations from loved ones. The military, schools, and communities have been working together to build the capacity of children, youth, and families to successfully cope with the stressors they encounter. Most branches…

Aronson, Keith R.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Pasch, Kenneth W.

2011-01-01

152

What Strategic Considerations Should Affect a Decision by the United States to Intervene with Military Force in Bosnia-Hercegovina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study begins by examining the pressures which might lead to a U.S. deployment of military force to Bosnia-Hercegovina. Concluding that U.S. military forces might well find themselves committed to Bosnia without an appropriate mission, the study seeks...

M. R. Seastrom

1993-01-01

153

Equal Protection Analysis of All-Male Military Schools Following "United States v. Commonwealth of Virginia".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the issue of whether a state may sponsor single-gender education without violating the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. Traces the history of "United States versus Virginia," discussing the arguments of both sides; and briefly explores the likely ramifications of the holding as the Supreme Court prepares to review the…

Journal of Law and Education, 1995

1995-01-01

154

Military Implications of Moral Objectives in the National Security Strategy of the United States of America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

President George W. Bush's 2002 National Security Strategy of the United States of America (NSS) insists America must 'stand firmly for the nonnegotiable demands of human dignity: the rule of law; limits on the absolute power of the state; free speech; fr...

B. A. Shevchuk

2005-01-01

155

22 CFR 126.6 - Foreign-owned military aircraft and naval vessels, and the Foreign Military Sales program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation Service (DTS). (b) Foreign military aircraft and naval...aircraft or naval vessels of any foreign state if no overhaul, repair...Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, Office of International Security Operations. (c) Foreign Military Sales...

2013-04-01

156

Political Communication Culture in the United States and Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the norms and communication roles that govern the interaction between political spokespeople and journalists in the center of the governmental systems in the United States and Germany. Using data from an exploratory study of political spokespeople and journalists, the empirical reconstruction of actors' attitudes points to a media-driven political communication culture in the United States and a

Barbara Pfetsch

2001-01-01

157

Underwater Cultural Heritage Policies of the United States Coastal Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic management of historic shipwrecks and other Underwater Cultural Heritage (UCH) resources located in the United States coastal zone is extensively fragmented and a portion of it has significant implications in terms of international law. In the United States coastal zone, UCH (largely historic shipwrecks) falls under one of three general regimes, depending on where the resource is located and

2006-01-01

158

Native American History, Culture Gaining Traction in State Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For decades, the Montana Constitution has made preservation of American Indian culture an explicit educational goal. Educators did little about it until 2004, when the state supreme court ruled that Montana had ignored its responsibility to teach about the state's seven tribes. That ruling jump-started an effort that has yielded curriculum…

Zehr, Mary Ann

2008-01-01

159

The United States of America: “A culture of war”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a discussion of the concept of war – its definitions, historical origins, 20th–21st century examples, and immediate and legacy costs and consequences – the question of the United States as an empire is explored. The evidence indicates the United States meets all qualifications to be considered an “empire,” specifically a global empire seeking hegemonic economic, political, and cultural control

Anthony J. Marsella

160

Species Profile: Southeastern Myotis (Myotis austroriparius) on Military Installations in the Southeastern United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius) is a medium-sized bat with grayish-brown, woolly fur. This species primarily is found in the southeastern United States. Its range extends from southeastern North Carolina south to peninsular Florida, west t...

L. A. Reynolds W. A. Mitchell

1998-01-01

161

United States Air Force Response to Problems of Child Abuse within the Military Community.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act became national law in the United States. This act authorized a National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect to compile information, operate a clearinghouse on programs showing promise of success in prevention, i...

H. L. Banks

1985-01-01

162

The garrison state revisited: civil–military implications of terrorism and security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lasswell’s original vision of the garrison state was spurred by the increasing militarization of states in the industrial age. The advent of the Cold War seemed to confirm Lasswell’s predictions. In the post-industrial age, conventional warfare and the attendant mobilization of societies seem less probable, but the changing threat of terrorism may lead to a variation of Lasswell’s construct. While

Matthew J. Morgan

2004-01-01

163

Military communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its introduction in the late 1990s, the concept of network-centric operations to enable information sharing has been a fundamental element of the vision of military organizations throughout the world. As the complexity of operational environments increases, military communications network technologies must provide key characteristics such as self-organization and decentralization, which will speed information flow and increase situational awareness. In

T. Maseng; R. Landry; K. Young

2010-01-01

164

The Role of Culture in Shaping Perceptions of Discrimination among Active Duty and Reserve Forces in the US Military  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizational culture allows workers in an organization to develop a shared understanding about events that occur within the organization. The US Army has developed its own culture, which allows it to pursue a variety of challenges that it must face. Today’s US Army relies heavily on citizen soldiers, consisting of the Army Reserve and the National Guard. These soldiers come

Jack L. Howard

2006-01-01

165

Military Operations Against Terrorist Groups Abroad: Implications for the United States Air Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The threat posed by international terrorists to Americans and their way of life has placed new demands on the national security apparatus of the United States. The purpose of this study is to help defense planners anticipate the types of demands that futu...

D. Ochmanek

2003-01-01

166

Elite and marginalised actors in toxic treadmills: challenging the power of the state, military, and economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical frameworks of the treadmill of production and the treadmill of destruction are used to explore how the expansionary dynamics of capitalism and militarism, along with a complicit state apparatus, harm the environment and human health. The treadmill analysis is extended beyond a structural explanation of the occurrence of environmental inequality by showing how elite shareholders interact with marginalised

Joshua Sbicca

2012-01-01

167

United States and Soviet Military Aid to Somalia: A Comparative Analysis of Security Assistance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States and Soviet Union recognize the importance of the Horn of Africa. A key to peace and stability on the Horn is Somalia. The US and USSR have both aided Somalia in an attempt to influence events on the Horn and support their national intere...

R. Kilmer

1985-01-01

168

3 CFR - Determination To Waive Military Coup-Related Provision of the Department of State, Foreign...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Appropriations Act, 2008, With Respect to Pakistan Presidential Documents Other Presidential...Appropriations Act, 2008, With Respect to Pakistan Memorandum for the Secretary of State...determine and certify, with respect to Pakistan, that a waiver of section 608 of the...

2009-01-01

169

SPECIES PROFILE: LEAST TERN (STERNA ANTILLARUM), INTERIOR POPULATION, ON MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The least tern (Sterna antillarum) is a neotropical migrant species that primarily breeds along coastal waterways of the United States and winters in Central and South America. The interior population of the least tern was listed as Federally endangered in 1985 by the U.S. Fish a...

170

SPECIES PROFILE: SOUTHEASTERN MYOTIS (MYOTIS AUSTRORIPARIUS) ON MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius) is a medium-sized bat with grayish-brown, woolly fur. This species primarily is found in the southeastern United States. Its range extends from southeastern North Carolina south to peninsular Florida, west to eastern Texas and Oklah...

171

SPECIES PROFILE: EASTERN INDIGO SNAKE (DTYMARCHON CORAIS COUPERI) ON MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The eastern indigo snake (Dtymarchon corais couperi) is an uncommon, large-bodied snake occurring in the southeastern United States, primarily in southern Alabama and Georgia and most of Florida. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the species as Federally threatened in 197...

172

The Record and Prospects of the All-Volunteer Military in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the onset of World War II until July 1973, the draft was a fact of life for male youth in the United States. Since then, America's armed forces have been staffed by volunteers. Recent recruiting difficulties have precipitated calls from some quarters for a return to conscription. This paper reviews the economic issues involved in the choice over conscription

John T. Warner; Beth J. Asch

2001-01-01

173

Counseling and Connecting with the Military Undergraduate: The Intersection of Military Service and University Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of military undergraduates at universities are National Guard and Reserve personnel and prior-service military veterans, all difficult to identify on campus. These students face unique cultural challenges. Though the academic literature primarily addresses disability services and administrative programs often focus on “wounded warriors,” most military undergraduates are not physically or psychologically disabled and can be stigmatized by the

Ted C. Bonar; Paula L. Domenici

2011-01-01

174

Nonlethality: Arming the postmodern military  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the term ‘revolution in military affairs’ has been widely bandied about following the end of the Cold War, Professor Gregory Foster here argues that in the United States at least, the conceptual and strategic atmosphere is anything but revolutionary, sticking to the Cold War status quo in thinking about military options. Using the example of developed and developing technologies

Gregory D. Foster

1997-01-01

175

Terrorism and the Military Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research memorandum discusses the terrorist threat to the United States, with emphasis on the fact that the US military has increasingly been a target of terrorist activity. Situations which may require the use of US military force are considered, an...

K. E. Roberts

1975-01-01

176

Military R&D Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Military research and development (R&D) in Western countries and the USSR are analyzed in terms of growth; self-perception of R&D personnel; relationships with industry and the state bureaucracy; reproduction schemes which result in war-oriented work; and worker training. Prospects are slim for the conversion of military production to civilian…

Albrecht, Ulrich

1983-01-01

177

United States military surgical response to modern large-scale conflicts: the ongoing evolution of a trauma system.  

PubMed

This article provides a brief description of the evolution of military trauma surgical care since Operation Desert Storm and the ongoing evolution of the trauma system in Operation Iraqi Freedom. PMID:16781277

Beekley, Alec C

2006-06-01

178

Mental Health and Resilience: Soldiers' Perceptions about Psychotherapy, Medications, and Barriers to Care in the United States Military.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research has reported perceived barriers to care in military populations, but there have not been any studies to date that demonstrate the degree to which subjective barriers translate into lack of utilization. Moreover, studies of mental health service u...

S. Southwick

2010-01-01

179

Effects of Attendance at Initial Professional Military Education on the Personal Values of United States Air Force Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary purpose of this research study was to determine if initial professional military education has any effect on personal values. More specifically, it was to determine if attendance at Squadron Officer School changes the personal values of junior...

J. L. Antenen

1986-01-01

180

Cultivation of medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes), and production of cordycepin using the spent medium from levan fermentation.  

PubMed

A process of tandem cultivation for the production of green and invaluable bioproducts (levan and Cordycepes militaris) useful for medical applications has been successfully developed. The process involves first cultivating Bacillus subtilis strain natto in sucrose medium to produce levan, followed by the subsequent cultivation of C. militaris in liquid- and solid-state cultures using the spent medium from levan fermentation as substrates. The factors affecting the cell growth and production of metabolites of C. militaris were investigated, and the various metabolites produced in the culture filtrate, mycelia, and fruiting body were analyzed. In addition, cordycepin was prepared from the solid waste medium of C. militaris. This is an excellent example in the development of cost effective biorefineries that maximize useful product formation from the available biomass. The preparation of cordycepin from solid waste medium of C. militaris using a method with high extraction efficiency and minimum solvent usage is also environmentally friendly. PMID:23796221

Wu, Fang-Chen; Chen, Yi-Lin; Chang, Shu-Ming; Shih, Ing-Lung

2013-01-01

181

Intermountain West Military Lands Planting Guide  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This guide provides recommendations on plant materials for Department of Defense (DoD) land restoration at military facilties in the Intermountain West of the United States. These guidelines provide military land managers new options for revegetating military training lands. Most other guides for l...

182

Suriname: A Military and Its Auxiliaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The official state military establishment of Suriname is small, numbering about 4,000 at its height in the mid-1980s. However, in order to consolidate their political power, sow terror, and gather intelligence, the military and its (then) left wing supporters augmented their forces with irregulars and auxiliaries. These were armed, funded, and coordinated by the military command, although not always answerable

Gary Brana-Shute

1996-01-01

183

Military Profession: What Happens When Values Collide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Military continues to stress the importance of values for all who don the uniform in voluntary military service. However values training and education has taken a back seat to the demands and operational tempo of current military operati...

J. J. Frazier

2006-01-01

184

Fungal solid state culture of palm kernel cake.  

PubMed

Palm kernel cake (PKC), an agro-industrial by-product used extensively in the animal feed industry, has limited use in fish feeds due to its high fiber and low protein contents. In this study, PKC was processed under solid state culture conditions with five fungal strains and the effect of this fungal culturing on the amino acid, fatty acid, cellulose and hemicellulose fractions was evaluated. Fungal strains used were Sclerotium rolfsii, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma longiobrachiatum, Trichoderma koninggi and Aspergillus niger. Fungal growth was carried out at 50% moisture level and 1% inoculum level for 7 days. A significant increase in protein content from 18.76% to 32.79% was obtained by growing T. longibrachiatum on PKC. Cellulose level decreased significantly from 28.31% to 12.11% for PKC cultured with T. longibrachiatum, and hemicellulose from 37.03% to 19.01% for PKC cultured with A. niger. Fungal culturing of PKC brought about an increase in the level of unsaturated- and a decrease in the level of the saturated-fatty acids. PMID:16216731

Iluyemi, F B; Hanafi, M M; Radziah, O; Kamarudin, M S

2005-04-19

185

Human Performance Modeling in Military Simulation: Current State of the Art and the Way Ahead (2002 TTCP HUM Group Meeting).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of modeling and simulation (M AND S) is pervasive throughout military establishments. M and S tools are used to support the development and acquisition of new systems, to evaluate existing operational plans, to develop new war-fighting concepts, a...

2004-01-01

186

Melancholy Reunion. A Report from the Future on the Collapse of Civil- Military Relations in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

I'd like to start by thanking the authorities for allowing me to address this 20th reunion of the Air University classes of 1997. As you may know, last year's Military Control Act makes assemblages of officers, even retired ones, illegal without special p...

J. C. Dunlap

1996-01-01

187

Military Civilian Relations in Post-Revolutionary Transition: The Transformation of East Asian States and the Future of Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several theories involving civil-military relations that have been established since the Cold War. Shaped by the political transitions of Europe and Latin America, how do these theories apply to the Third Wave of democratizations? How does a more contemporary analysis of theory help understand more contemporary insurgencies such as the Arab Spring?

Amy E. Frazee

2012-01-01

188

Child Care: How Do Military and Civilian Center Costs Compare? United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Requesters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Department of Defense's (DOD) child development program has been identified as a model for the rest of the nation. To provide a benchmark cost estimate for Congress as it addresses child care issues, this report identifies the objectives of the military child development program, describes its operation, determines the full costs of DOD…

Fagnoni, Cynthia M.

189

Evaluating US soft power in Asia: military, economic and sociopolitical relationships between Asia and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changing dynamics of international politics such as the expansion of the European Union, the growing importance of Asia, and the post-11 September environment have raised great concern about US soft power all over the world. At the governmental level, transpacific relationships may have encouraged military, economic and sociopolitical collaboration. The Asians' perceptions about US soft power at the individual

Myunghee Kim

2009-01-01

190

After Containment: The Functions of the Military Establishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

After World War II, the United States reconstituted its military policy for the third time in its history. A strategy of deterrence was adopted as the military counterpart to a foreign policy of containment. This strategy involved military alliances, overseas deployments, larger and diversified military forces, higher levels of readiness, and development of programs for strategic retaliation, continental defense, European

Samuel P. Huntington

1973-01-01

191

Translating sexual assault prevention from a college campus to a United States military installation: piloting the know-your-power bystander social marketing campaign.  

PubMed

One population that shares both similar and different characteristics with traditional college-age students is the U.S. Military. Similarities include a high concentration of 18- to 26-year-olds dealing with new found independence, peer pressure, and the presence of social norms that support violence and hypermasculinity. Sexual violence is a major public health problem in the United States, and because of the similarities in the age group of college and military populations, the problems regarding sexual violence in both constituencies have been well-documented. In the current pilot study we seek to add to both current knowledge about and promising practices of translating prevention strategies from one target audience to another. We describe how we translated, administered, and evaluated a bystander intervention social marketing campaign focused on sexual assault prevention that had been found to significantly affect attitude change on a college campus for a U.S. Army installation in Europe. In addition to demonstrating the process of translating prevention strategies across target audiences, findings from this pilot study contribute to the evaluation data on the effectiveness of sexual violence prevention strategies implemented with members of the U.S. Military. From our analysis, we see that research participants indicate that the degree to which the images resonate with them and the familiarity of the context (i.e., social self-identification) significantly effect the participants' personal responsibility for reducing sexual assault, confidence in acting as a bystander, and reported engagement as a bystander. PMID:22080576

Potter, Sharyn J; Stapleton, Jane G

2011-11-11

192

China and the Revolution in Military Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author of the first essay, 'China and the Revolution in Military Affairs: Assessing Economic and Socio-cultural Factors,' argues that, for a variety of reasons, China cannot seize the Revolution in Military Affairs. For example, China is missing a gen...

B. Gill L. Henley

1996-01-01

193

Women in the South Korean Military  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the changing role of women in the Korean armed forces and explores the issue of gender integration in the military. During the past half-century, the utilization of women in the armed forces has been limited in Korea due to constitutional and cultural restraints. Yet the expansion of utilizing females in the military is becoming a global trend.

Doo-Seung Hong

2002-01-01

194

Introduction to Military Medicine: A Brief Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military medicine encompasses the entire spectrum of health caredfrom prenatal to end-of-life care. World-class, cutting-edge research, equipment, facilities, and education are all part of the military health care system of the United States of America. What makes United States military medicine unique, however, is the ability to project and sustain this care to soldiers, sailors, airmen, and marines in virtually

Stephen P. Hetz

2006-01-01

195

Supporting culture change: working toward smarter state nursing home regulation.  

PubMed

The traditional nursing home regulatory approach, which uses survey and enforcement to achieve performance improvement, has created tensions between providers and surveyors. It has had limited success in improving quality overall and not necessarily allowed innovation to flourish. This has been the perception of many homes wanting to undergo transformative "culture change" reforms. To move toward a new model of nursing home regulation, the states and federal government must strike a balance between the traditional regulatory approach to weed out substandard facilities and a partnership model aimed at promoting high performance. This issue brief highlights the importance of how such a model is structured, as well as the need to adequately train and educate regulatory staff and providers about culture change. Regulators, providers, consumer groups, residents, and their families also will need to commit to the principles of person-centered care to ensure the success of the new collaborative approach. PMID:19839114

Stone, Robyn I; Bryant, Natasha; Barbarotta, Linda

2009-10-01

196

75 FR 434 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington...intent to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum),...

2010-01-05

197

Marketing the military  

Microsoft Academic Search

On October 23, 1983, two days before the invasion of Grenada, young men watching football all over the United States were interrupted by the tragic news of a surprise terrorist attack that killed 240 U.S. Marines in Beirut.The same football game also featured another kind of interruption—numerous paid commercials for the military services—Army, Navy, and Air Force as well as

Daniel A. Buford

1993-01-01

198

[Civilian-military coordination].  

PubMed

Current humanitarian emergencies create complex, mutidimensional situations that stimulate simultaneous responses from a wide variety of sources including governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO), United Nations agencies, and private individuals. As a result, it has become essential to establish a coherent framework in which each actor can contribute promptly and effectively to the overall effort. This is the role of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Regardless of the circumstances and level of coordination, cooperation and collaboration between humanitarian and military personnel, it is necessary to bear in mind their objectives. The purpose of humanitarian action is to reduce human suffering. The purpose of military intervention is to stop warfare. The author of this article will discuss the three major obstacles to civilian-military coordination (strategic, tactical, and operational). Operations cannot be conducted smoothly and differences cannot be ironed out without mutual respect between the two parties, an explicit definition of their respective duties and responsibilities, a clear understanding of their cultural differences, and the presence of an organization and facilities for coordination and arbitrage by a neutral referee. PMID:12534190

de Montravel, G

2002-01-01

199

WOMEN'S MILITARY ROLES CROSS-NATIONALLYPast, Present, and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines a theory of what affects the degree and nature of women's participation in the armed forces throughout history and across nations. Examining national security situations, military technology, military accession policies, demographic patterns, cultural values regarding gender, and structural patterns of gender roles, the article proposes a systematic theory of the conditions under which women's military roles expand

MADY WECHSLER SEGAL

1995-01-01

200

Communication in Civil-Military Cooperation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the end of the Cold War, Civil-Military Cooperation (CIMIC) units have become more frequently involved in peace support operations (PSOs). Moreover, they have become more deeply engaged with peoples of different national and organizational cultures....

J. Aniola

2007-01-01

201

New business with the new military.  

PubMed

A $200 billion market has appeared on your business horizon, but you may not have noticed it. It's the U.S. military--the new U.S. military. Virtually all aspects of the military are changing to ensure it can fight unpredictable threats while sustaining the infrastructure needed to support and train forces. The military is turning to non-traditional business partners to meet a wide range of needs, from health care to housing to information technology. The Defense Department is yielding its monopoly on every aspect of national security and adopting a more businesslike model in which the military's warfighting capabilities are supported through outsourcing and business alliances. Civilians are replacing military personnel in many noncombat roles. Military functions with corporate equivalents are candidates for outsourcing and privatization. Market standards are replacing the heavy customization that has locked many companies out of this marketplace. The authors have participated in the transformation process from different perspectives--one civilian, the other military. Together, they highlight the prospects that transformation is creating for companies outside the traditional defense industry and reveal paths to success in this complex market. They also present six principles for doing business with the military that require persistence, integrity, and a willingness to master the intricacies of a distinctive culture. By understanding the logic of military transformation, executives can identify and create vast new business opportunities. And by mastering the six principles, they can build profitable long-term relationships. PMID:15449854

Apgar, Mahlon; Keane, John M

2004-09-01

202

Childhood Ideology in the United States: A Comparative Cultural View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Childhood ideology functions in each nation as a complex of ideas about what children are like and how best to teach and socialise them. One important domain of childhood ideology concerns ideas and practices related to children's development and behaviour management. Drawing from an analysis of popular childrearing magazines and early childhood education materials in the United States, this cultural study describes contemporary American mainstream beliefs concerning children's early emotional and behavioural development. In particular, the paper explores themes of emotional expression, autonomy, individuality, power, and consumerism. Some comparisons with Japanese views on child development and emotional/behavioural socialisation are also made. The paper suggests that popular ideas and techniques of emotional and behavioural management in the United States in both families and early childcare environments reflect a dominant ideology of children that has potentially negative consequences for children's welfare. Furthermore, childhood ideologies, while retaining culturally specific values and ideas neither remain static nor exist in isolation from one another. The paper questions the global diffusion of a Western-style professionalised discourse of child psychology that may not be applicable to all nations and their children.

Hoffman, Diane M.

2003-03-01

203

Explaining state-to-state differences in seat belt use: A multivariate analysis of cultural variables.  

PubMed

There is considerable variation in seat belt use within the United States despite extensive evidence that the use of seat belts saves lives. Previous studies have identified some important factors that affect belt use rates, including gender, age, race, vehicle type, seat-belt enforcement laws, and amount of fine for belt-use law violation. In this study, we examined the influence of additional socio-demographic factors on state-level use rates: education (percentage of high school educated population), racial composition (percentage White), median household income, political leaning (percentage Democrat), and a measure of religiosity. These variables, which collectively characterize the 'culture' of a state, have received little attention in seat-belt studies. The paper reports results from a multiple regression analysis of data from the 2008 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Many of the use rate patterns in FARS data were consistent with those found in other data sets, suggesting that conclusions based on FARS data are likely to hold for the population-at-large. Of the five cultural factors considered in the study, three were identified as important in explaining the differences in seat belt use at the state level: religiosity, race (percentage White), and political leaning (percentage Democrat). The other two variables - income and education - were not significant. Hold-out analyses confirmed that this conclusion was consistent across different subsets of data. The findings from this study are preliminary and have to be confirmed on other data sets. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the potential usefulness of cultural factors in explaining state-to-state variation in seat belt use rates. If factors such as religiosity are indeed important, they can be used to develop culturally appropriate programs for increasing belt use. PMID:22326413

Molnar, Lisa J; Eby, David W; Dasgupta, Kohinoor; Yang, Yang; Nair, Vijayan N; Pollock, Stephen M

2012-02-09

204

Cross-Cultural Education: Its Relevance and Implications in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper analyzes the relevance and implications of cross-cultural education for citizens of the United States and foreigners, and provides several definitions of culture. Educators must get closer to the foreign culture they are interested in learning or teaching. In that way they would discover how members of other cultures learn and could…

Padgett, Carmen H. A.

205

Military Disaster Response: Strategy, Leadership, and Actions- Closing the Gap.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Military represents America's most capable organization for massive short-notice response to natural and manmade disasters yet an effective and coordinated military response remains elusive. Primary responsibility for disaster response r...

J. K. Ring

2008-01-01

206

American Military Ethics: Stalwart in a Changing Society.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph explores the American media's influence on ethical military policy and attempts to understand the complex relationship between the United States' military, the American media, and U.S. policy makers in the context of a changing society. The...

J. R. Meyer

2011-01-01

207

Terminating Peace: Military Flexibility During Bosnian Reconstruction and Stabilization Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper explores military experiences in Bosnia as a case study in designing a strategy for termination of military reconstruction and stabilization (RS) operations and transition to civil authority within a rehabilitated state. As the 15-year-old Repu...

J. T. Jenkins

2010-01-01

208

An Aspect on the School Culture in Turkey and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to get a better understanding on school culture in the United States and Turkey. In this quantitative investigation, data were collected using the "School Culture Inventory" from 157 teachers in Izmir, Turkey and 161 teachers in the United States. The findings show that both countries have a positive culture. A…

Sahin, Semiha

2011-01-01

209

Indian History of New York State. Part I: Pre-Iroquoian Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is reported that the New York State Indians, descendants of Asiatic immigrants, participated in leading cultural episodes of the eastern United States. Since their remains illustrate processes of cultural growth, the New York prehistoric cultures are described in terms of archaeological findings under 3 major stages of development: the…

Ritchie, William A.

210

An Aspect on the School Culture in Turkey and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study is to get a better understanding on school culture in the United States and Turkey. In this quantitative investigation, data were collected using the "School Culture Inventory" from 157 teachers in Izmir, Turkey and 161 teachers in the United States. The findings show that both countries have a positive culture. A…

Sahin, Semiha

2011-01-01

211

Military, masculinity and mediated representations: (con)fusing the real and the reel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I argue that it is time to rethink the military within Management and Organization Theory. The starting point for this discussion is a juxtaposition of the (lack of) study of the military within Management and Organization Theory compared with the recent (and sustained) interest in depicting war, the military and the military subject within popular culture. I

Richard Godfrey

2009-01-01

212

Differences between traditional Chinese and Western military thinking and their philosophical roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed a heated debate in the Chinese military academia about traditional strategic culture and its impact on modern military thinking. This article tries to analyze and explain the differences between Chinese and Western military traditions from a philosophical perspective. The authors generalize disparities in Chinese and Western military traditions in the following paradigms: ‘justice’ vs ‘interests’, ‘human

Zhang Junbo; Yao Yunzhu

1996-01-01

213

From the battlefields to the states: the road to recovery. The role of Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in US military casualty care.  

PubMed

The transformation of the modern battlefield with respect to weaponry, modes of transportation, enemy capabilities and location, as well as technological advances, has greatly altered the tactical approach to the mission. Combat casualty care must continually evolve in response to the differences in types of injury, the number and triage of casualties, timing of treatment, and location of care. These battlefield changes have been demonstrated on a large scale in the global war on terrorism, which includes the military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. The medical response has kept pace with this 21st-century conflict. Even in the new environment of armed conflict and with the advent of new technologies, the principles of managing orthopaedic combat casualties remain clear: preservation of life and limb, skeletal stabilization, and aggressive wound débridement. For United States service members wounded in the current conflicts, Landstuhl Regional Medical Center is a crucial stop along the road to recovery. PMID:17003206

Tenuta, Joachim J

2006-01-01

214

The American Military and the Far East.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This highly selective bibliography was prepared for use at the Ninth Military History Symposium on 'The American Military and the Far East' held at the United States Air Force Academy, 1-3 October 1980. The resources cited were selected to try and show ba...

M. A. Robinson

1980-01-01

215

Revolution in Military Affairs and Jointness  

Microsoft Academic Search

OVERVIEW Militaries of major states in the international system have been responding to the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) debate, mainly to the technological and operational concepts propounded by the US, even though most of them particularly in Asia continue to grapple with its full import. First off the blocks in Asia has been China. Given the salience of the

Arun Sahgal; Vinod Anand

216

Military service, governance and the African Diaspora  

Microsoft Academic Search

During World War II black soldiers who served in the United States Army and in the Caribbean colonial forces of the British military performed their duties within the constraints of a racialized governmentality. When black soldiers served in the military forces of either nation, they were regulated by policies meant to control and contain their participation. The institutional racism within

Maggi M. Morehouse

2011-01-01

217

Geographic Proximity and Foreign Military Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proceeding from assumptions about interests and costs, two basic questions about the relation of foreign military intervention and geographic proximity are examined: (1) whether various types of intervening countries usually send troops to distant or nearby states; (2) whether certain types of military intervention are more likely to occur near to or far from the intervener. Data on categories of

Frederic S. Pearson

1974-01-01

218

The Military History of the American Revolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The highly selective bibliography was prepared for use at the Sixth Military History Symposium on 'The Military History of the American Revolution,' held at the United States Air Force Academy 10-11 October 1974. Selections have been made primarily for th...

1974-01-01

219

A World of Peace and Military Landscapes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Defines "peace landscapes" as areas having a virtual absence of conflict, such the border between the United States and Canada. Identifies "military landscapes" as those having intense military conflicts, as in the Iran-Iraq war. Examines the components of these landscapes and identifies the contributions geographers can make to better understand…

Brunn, Stanley D.

1987-01-01

220

Military Chaplains and Joint Professional Military Education: Why am I Here.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The joint operations culture, birthed in the Petri dish of the Goldwater-Nichols Act, continues to develop with its own unique doctrine, dialect, and planning ritual. Analysis indicates that military chaplains assigned to this environment are unequipped t...

B. W. Scott

2007-01-01

221

The military and the transition to adulthood.  

PubMed

Ryan Kelty, Meredith Kleykamp, and David Segal examine the effect of military service on the transition to adulthood. They highlight changes since World War II in the role of the military in the lives of young adults, focusing especially on how the move from a conscription to an all-volunteer military has changed the way military service affects youths' approach to adult responsibilities. The authors note that today's all-volunteer military is both career-oriented and family-oriented, and they show how the material and social support the military provides to young servicemen and women promotes responsible membership in family relationships and the wider community. As a result, they argue, the transition to adulthood, including economic independence from parents, is more stable and orderly for military personnel than for their civilian peers. At the same time, they stress that serving in the military in a time of war holds dangers for young adults. The authors examine four broad areas of military service, focusing in each on how men and women in uniform today make the transition to adulthood. They begin by looking at the social characteristics of those who serve, especially at differences in access to the military and its benefits by socio-demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, race and ethnicity, social class, and sexual orientation. Military service also has important effects on family formation, including the timing of marriage and parenthood, family structure, and the influence of military culture on families. Family formation among servicemen and women, the authors observe, is earlier and more stable than among civilians of the same age. The authors then consider the educational and employment consequences of service. Finally, they scrutinize the dangers of military service during times of war and examine the physical and psychological effects of wartime military service. They also note the sexual trauma endured both by male and female military personnel and the physical and symbolic violence women can experience in a male-dominated institution. Kelty, Kleykamp, and Segal conclude by seeking policy lessons from the military's success in facilitating the transition to adulthood for young men and women in uniform. PMID:20364627

Kelty, Ryan; Kleykamp, Meredith; Segal, David R

2010-01-01

222

Military sexual trauma.  

PubMed

Nurses' awareness of MST as a specific type of sexual assault within the military culture and sensitivity to the physical and psychological symptoms are important aspects of care. Nurses must treat the physical and emotional components of sexual assault in all settings; however, referral to the veterans administration programs and resources is key for the woman veteran to receive the specialized care developed by the healthcare system. Women veterans who have PTSD from MST and combat exposure are prone to depression, suicide and substance use/abuse. Nurses must not fear asking the woman if she is having suicidal thoughts or has a plan and intent to follow through with the plan. MST and PTSD may result in internalized anger, shame, self-blame, helplessness, hopelessness and powerlessness. Patient safety is of utmost importance. Assessing Patients for Sexual Violence, A Guide for Health Care Providers (2009) is a useful resource for nurses. The National Center for PTSD (2009) newsletter on the topic of MST includes a list of research studies. The work of Benedict (2007) and Corbett (2007) provide additional personal accounts of women soldiers who were in the Middle East conflicts. The nurse's referral to specialized services to treat MST and PTSD with evidence-based therapies is a crucial first step in the resiliency and well-being of these brave women who have served in all branches of the U.S. military. PMID:22359967

Wieland, Diane M; Haley, Jenna L; Bouder, Michelle

2011-12-01

223

Illegal Immigration: Is the Use of Military Force in Policing the United states' Border with Mexico a Viable Option.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Illegal immigration across the United States' borders, in particular the Southern Border with Mexico, has been a continual problem confronting our local, state and national political decision makers. Over the years, numerous attempts at quelling this ille...

D. Lopez

2001-01-01

224

32 CFR 552.69 - Application by companies to solicit on military installations in the United States, its...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...United States, its territories, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. 552.69 Section 552.69 National Defense ...United States, its territories, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Before a company may be accredited to...

2013-07-01

225

Why Some States Participate in UN Peace Missions While Others Do Not: An Analysis of Civil-Military Relations and Its Effects on Latin America's Contributions to Peacekeeping Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do some states deploy troops to support UN missions while others do not? Although short from war, peacekeeping entails a military dimension of foreign policy in which uniformed personnel is deployed to accomplish diplomatic and political means. As such, decisions to commit troops to UN operations must have the implicit support of the armed forces in order to take

Arturo C. Sotomayor Velázquez

2010-01-01

226

The association of state per capita income and military service deaths in the Vietnam and Iraq wars  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the United States, social burdens including war casualties are often distributed unequally across groups of individuals, communities, and states. The purpose of this report was to examine the association between war deaths and per capita income in the 50 states and District of Columbia during the Vietnam and Iraq wars. METHODS: The numbers of deaths by the home

Charles Maynard

2009-01-01

227

Wrangling in the Shadows: The Use of United States Special Forces in Covert Military Operations in the War on Terror  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001, the United States Senate granted the use of all necessary and appropriate force to prevent any future acts of international terrorism against the country. As part of this campaign against global terrorism, the United States Department of Defense sought an expanded role for Special Forces soldiers in covert

Michael McAndrew

2006-01-01

228

From ‘business culture’ to ‘brand state’: conceptions of nation and culture in business literature on cultural difference  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines changing conceptions of culture and nation in business literature from the early 1990s to the present. In the early 1990s the growth of literature concerned with depicting the cultural differences between national varieties of capitalism and business systems seemingly betokened an interest in diversity in the business world. This seeming interest in cultural diversity, however, concealed an

Robert Halsall

2008-01-01

229

Are Our Military Alliances Meaningful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1945 and 1949, motivated by fear of world communism, the United States negotiated pacts which tied its defense posture to the military security of forty-two other nations. World conditions have changed radically since that time. The Sino-Soviet dispute and East European developments have shown that a monolithic Communist bloc does not exist. West Europe and Japan have recovered economically

George S. McGovern

1969-01-01

230

High Technology Military Postal Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mail to military personnel overseas is delivered essentially in the same way it was during World War I. The use of electronic mail has been growing in private industry and the United States Postal Service recently began an international application of ele...

W. E. Duey

1983-01-01

231

Distribution of Power, Power Transitions and Military R & D Effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

States seeking greater security in a risky international environment have available to them a limited array of options to pursue. They can seek the protections of allies, they can engage in military and armament build-ups, and they can pursue the advantages in developing superior military technology. To some extent then military research and development is substitutable for arms acquisition. What

Vally Koubi; David Lalman

232

TRICARE: Understanding The Military's Changing Health Care System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research paper is to examine the background of how military medicine was available to beneficiaries in the past, significant changes in military health care, the current state of the Military Health Services System (MHSS), and a look a...

C. N. Posehn

1997-01-01

233

Operational Capabilities and Legal Implications of a Military Space Plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential challenges for the United States military in this upcoming century may require new types of capabilities only achievable through the application of new technologies. One of these potential capabilities includes a Military Space Plane (MSP). An MSP is a concept to use reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technologies in a system to provide the military global access and reach

A. Charania

2002-01-01

234

Cultural Influences on Managerial Choice: An Empirical Study of Employee Benefit Plans in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to determine the effect of culture on the provision of employee benefits. Cultural influences have been investigated from a variety of perspectives, but not in the context of pension and welfare benefits. Using unique data, this study analyzes the level of coverage of employee benefits in the United States. Results indicate that culture does

Elizabeth Goad Oliver; Karen S. Cravens

1999-01-01

235

Brand Personality Structures in the United States and Korea: Common and Culture-Specific Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symbolic meaning of commercial brands (often called brand personality) can represent the values and beliefs of a culture. When a set of global brands were rated on the same personality attributes in the United States and Korea, 6 common dimensions of brand personality and 2 fac- tors unique to each culture were observed. The 2 culture-specific factors in Korea

Yongjun Sung; Spencer F. Tinkham

2005-01-01

236

Cultural Differences and Similarities in Television Commercials in the Arab World and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the nature and influences of cultural differences is central to international marketing. This article investigates cultural differences in television advertising between the United States and a select group of countries in the Arab world on the cultural dimensions of contextualization, individualism\\/collectivism, time orientation, and human perception of nature. The results indicate that while there are many differences between the

Morris Kalliny; Anshu Saran; Salma Ghanem; Caroline Fisher

2011-01-01

237

Culturally Competent HIV Prevention Strategies for Women of Color in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies suggest that aspects of culture be included in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) education efforts in the United States. Few, however, clearly identify specific strategies that respond to the unique cultural issues of women of color. This article reviews the literature for culturally competent HIV prevention efforts for women of color—Latina, African American, Asian Pacific Islander, and Native American—and

KARLA D. SCOTT; AISHA GILLIAM; KAREN BRAXTON

2005-01-01

238

ART FRONTS: VISUAL CULTURE AND RACE POLITICS IN THE MID-TWENTIETH-CENTURY UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

ART FRONTS: VISUAL CULTURE AND RACE POLITICS IN THE MID-TWENTIETH-CENTURY UNITED STATES Erin Park Cohn Supervisor: Kathy Peiss Art Fronts argues that visual culture played a central and understudied role in the African American freedom struggle in the middle part of the twentieth century. In particular, it traces the political lives and cultural productions of a generation of visual artists,

Erin P Cohn

2010-01-01

239

ADHD and the Military  

MedlinePLUS

ADHD and the Military Can't find what you're looking for? Our health information specialists are ... 800-233-4050 or online . Can Individuals with ADHD Join the Military? Finding accurate information about whether ...

240

Engagement of Military Voice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Distinctive operational competencies from the civilian and military sectors provide usable knowledge to both. When military voice (in the form of counsel, advice, guidance, and suggestions) is given appropriate credence, unique capabilities flow easily ba...

B. E. Coates C. D. Allen

2010-01-01

241

Warrior culture, spirituality, and prayer.  

PubMed

Research has shown an increase in suicides by military veterans and law enforcement officers in the United States. Etiologic research elucidates warrior culture and subculture as contributing factors of this pathology. This paper examines the idiosyncratic nature and influence of warrior culture and subculture and offers recommendations to promote culture change. Faith-based spirituality and prayer are examined as adjunct modalities for stress management and emotional healing. Further research is recommended to assess the associated hidden cost factors and long-term financial impact of warrior culture on society. PMID:23430532

Malmin, Mark

2013-09-01

242

76 FR 58031 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2253-665] Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington...SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum),...

2011-09-19

243

78 FR 50109 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington...SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

2013-08-16

244

An Examination of Aboriginal - State Relations in Canada and Their Possible Implications for Aboriginal Participation in the Canadian Armed Forces Prepared for the Royal Military College, Kingston, Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canadian state. In doing so I highlight specific episodes and grievances that have long festered in this relationship and which, when taken in sum, might be considered to affect the willingness of aboriginal persons to enlist in the armed forces. In addition, I raise cultural issues as well as disproportionate aboriginal representation in the Canadian penal system and their much

Hugh Shewell

245

The Extensive Side of Nineteenth-Century Military Economy: The Tent Industry in the Northern United States during the Civil War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because most histories of military-industrial relations have rested on the examples of arms production and shipbuilding, balanced accounts of military procurement and technologies during the nine- teenth century are difficult to find. In fact, weapons and ships accounted for a relatively small fraction of all the goods and services consumed by nineteenth-century armed forces. This article, which describes the tent

MARK R. WILSON

2001-01-01

246

The New Triangle: Russia, Japan, the People's Republic of China and the United States Security Role.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic question is what role should the United States maintain as a peacekeeping force in East Asia over the next decade. The political, economic, military and cultural interactions between nations were examined toward identifying a plausable United St...

W. C. Chamberlain

1975-01-01

247

Gender and the Military  

Microsoft Academic Search

The military is an important social institution, with effects on other institutions and on people's lives, both directly and indirectly. Despite this, the military is a relatively ne­ glected area of study within sociology. Further, though the military has a gender-defming tradition and gender is endemic in the institution, central works on the sociology of gender usually omit analysis of

Mady Wechsler Segal

248

Culture and the State: Manufacturing Traditions for Tourism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how Singapore's government influences the production and patterning of cultures through the policy of national tourism. Describes how a national culture is actively created and projected to the international polity and international mass market by advertising and manufacturing ethnic "traditions" of selected groups for the potential…

Leong, Wai-Teng

1989-01-01

249

Is there a need for a new cultural policy strategy in the Nordic welfare state?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural policies have existed as a structural element of the Nordic welfare states from the very beginning. Today these policies are being re?evaluated, and there are some indications that they may be gradually dismantled. Local cultural politicians in municipalities (cultural boards) and professionals (e.g. cultural secretaries) have become uncertain and anxious about their future role and legitimacy.This new situation is

Anita Kangas

1996-01-01

250

Satellite vegetation index data as a tool to forecast population dynamics of medically important mosquitoes at military installations in the continental United States.  

PubMed

The United States faces many existing and emerging mosquito-borne disease threats, such as West Nile virus and Rift Valley fever. An important component of strategic prevention and control plans for these and other mosquito-borne diseases is forecasting the distribution, timing, and abundance of mosquito vector populations. Populations of many medically important mosquito species are closely tied to climate, and historical climate-population associations may be used to predict future population dynamics. Using 2003-2005 U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine mosquito surveillance data, we looked at populations of several known mosquito vectors of West Nile virus, as well as possible mosquito vectors of Rift Valley fever virus, at continental U.S. military installations. We compared population changes with concurrent patterns for a satellite-derived index of climate (normalized difference vegetation index) and observed instances of population changes appearing to be direct responses to climate. These preliminary findings are important first steps in developing an automated, climate-driven, early warning system to flag regions of the United States at elevated risk of mosquito-borne disease transmission. PMID:18700603

Britch, Seth C; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Anyamba, Assaf; Tucker, Compton J; Pak, Edwin W; Maloney, Francis A; Cobb, Kristin; Stanwix, Erin; Humphries, Jeri; Spring, Alexandra; Pagac, Benedict; Miller, Melissa

2008-07-01

251

[The future of Croatian military medicine].  

PubMed

Health care quality in military forces in peacetime is a major national interest. Military health care organization together with civil health care should be the carrier of health protection through the integrated health service system during war and other emergency situations. Answer to the question of the need of military medicine maintaining and further development in Croatia should be searched through a few elements. These are health service experiences from the war in Croatia and their expert scientific evaluation. The development of the Croatian state and Croatian Army as member of international military integrations is an undisputable element which speaks for further development of military medicine. The pending danger from not only natural disasters but terrorism as well calls for an appropriate answer by all countries, including Croatia, considering the position of military medicine. The importance of further military medicine strengthening through an integrated health system, the role of which especially increases in emergency situations, is indicated in all these reasons. The integration is needed to achieve a more economical use of all health service potentials, which means unique planning and coordinated action based on the unique principles. Integrated health care system does not mean organizational joining of civilian and military health care service into one service but each of these has a distinct working area, responsibilities and command. PMID:17048780

Prgomet, Drago

2006-09-01

252

Pending crisis in Russian civil military relations  

SciTech Connect

A key issue in the study of civil-military relations has been how to create a military sufficiently strong to ensure security from external threats while simultaneously preventing the military from using its preponderance of power in the domestic arena. This dilemma arises from the fear engendered by a large armed force created to combat foreign threats, but which is also inherently a threat to the society that created it. In Russia, however, the question is not how the civilian leadership can keep the military out of politics, but how the military can keep the leadership from politicizing the armed forces. The Russian military has no interest in resolving Russia`s domestic political problems. It is a professional military that prefers to leave politics to the politicians, and to carry out its mission of defending the nation against external attack. But the lack of responsible central leadership and the poor state of the economy are driving the military toward involvement in domestic politics if for no other reason than to ensure its own survival.

Ball, D.Y.

1997-10-01

253

An Investigation of the Scope, Purpose, and Effects of United States Foreign Military Sales to Saudi Arabia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Security Assistance Program has grown rapidly in the 1970s and Saudi Arabia has been an integral part of the growth. By 1976 Saudi Arabia became the largest purchaser of U.S. arms and equipment worldwide. The research analyzes the purpos...

B. L. Dycus J. A. Fiorillo

1977-01-01

254

Looking at African Value System through Cultural Dimensions: How Do African Countries Culturally Differ Among Themselves and from the United States?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study through a variety of cultural dimensions, measures the cultural differences and similarities of four different African countries: Cameroon, Ethi opia, Nigeria and South Africa. The national cultures of the four African countries are analyzed through a methodology for systematically assessing cultural differences. The African countri es are compared with that of the United States of America. The output

Habte G. Woldu

255

International survey of military mental health professionals.  

PubMed

This paper reports on data from a survey of international military mental health professionals. In a series of open-ended questions, respondents were asked to describe their country in terms of the field of military psychology, the role of mental health professionals on deployment, the degree to which the field of mental health is accepted in the military, and their contact with their international counterparts. The survey was mailed to 44 different countries from July 1995 through July 1996. The data are based on 30 individual responses from 23 different countries. Cultural differences included the role of psychologists in the military and on deployment, the degree of professional isolation, and specific services provided by psychologists. Cultural similarities included the ambivalent response to the mental health field by military leaders, the use of psychology as a prevention tool, and the degree of interest in international contact and exchange. The discussion focuses on three obstacles to the acceptance of the mental health field and possible avenues for greater exchange of information among military professionals working in psychology-related fields. PMID:10578590

Adler, A B; Bartone, P T

1999-11-01

256

Military Unionism and the Volunteer Military System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The issue of military unionization poses a major security question for the next decade. Consistent with the growth of the union movement in America especially more recent developments involving the unionization of large numbers of employees in the public ...

P. B. Lane E. S. Krendel

1977-01-01

257

Barack Obama, Resort to Force, and U.S. Military Hegemony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Just War Theorists have neglected that a lack of “just military preparedness” on the side of a country seriously undermines its capability to resort justly to military force. In this paper, I put forth five principles of “just military preparedness” and show that since the new Obama administration will seek to maintain the United States’ dominant military position in the

Harry van der Linden

2009-01-01

258

Civil-Military Thing: How Does a Soldier Get It Right.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subject of civil-military relations is worthy of study by military and civilian leaders. Many individuals have attacked the current state of U.S. civil-military relations. Due to the foundational nature of civilian supremacy over the military in our A...

S. M. Sittnick

1999-01-01

259

EXPLAINING MILITARY COUPS D'ETAT: BLACK AFRICA, 1957-1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military coups and related problems of political control in Third World countries present a major obstacle to economic and social development. We evaluate a synthetic theory of military coups derived from political development theory, military centrality arguments, several theories of ethnic antagonism, and economic dependency theory. Using data on military interventions in 33 Black African states between 1957 and 1984,

J. CRAIG JENKINS; AUGUSTINE J. KPOSOWA

260

Former military officers from the Republic of Vietnam now living in the united states (US): exploring their perceptions of the US healthcare system.  

PubMed

Few studies have focused on perceptions of healthcare among Vietnamese who came to the United States (US) as refugees. A 48-item survey that included information on demographics, health status, and satisfaction with healthcare [including the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-18 (PSQ-18)] was sent to 49 former Vietnamese military officers, who are now living in the US, based on their current geographic residence. A total of 22 of 49 delivered questionnaires were completed and returned, yielding a response rate of 45%. The survey was sent in Vietnamese and English, and all except one was completed in Vietnamese. In response to "Language barriers have prevented me from accessing health care when I need it," 77% of respondents acknowledged that this was "sometimes" the case even today. Most respondents otherwise viewed the healthcare system favorably, but cost concerns were an issue: 28% strongly agreed or agreed with the statement, "I have to pay for more of my medical care than I can afford." In contrast, only 9% described that they would have strongly agreed or agreed to this statement upon first arriving to the US. Write-in comments revealed themes that centered on language barriers, favorable impressions of healthcare in the US, financial concerns, and patriotism towards the US. Further study of this aging population of Vietnamese Americans might help shed light on concerns faced by other refugee populations who have arrived more recently. PMID:21461762

Stephens, Elisabeth K; Nguyen, Phuong L; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen; Jatoi, Aminah

2011-12-01

261

Former Military Officers from the Republic of Vietnam Now Living in the United States (US): Exploring their Perceptions of the US Healthcare System  

PubMed Central

Few studies have focused on perceptions of healthcare among Vietnamese who came to the United States (US) as refugees. A 48-item survey that included information on demographics, health status, and satisfaction with healthcare [including the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-18 (PSQ-18)] was sent to 49 former Vietnamese military officers, who are now living in the US, based on their current geographic residence. A total of 22 of 49 delivered questionnaires were completed and returned, yielding a response rate of 45%. The survey was sent in Vietnamese and English, and all except one was completed in Vietnamese. In response to “Language barriers have prevented me from accessing health care when I need it,” 77% of respondents acknowledged that this was “sometimes” the case even today. Most respondents otherwise viewed the healthcare system favorably, but cost concerns were an issue: 28% strongly agreed or agreed with the statement, “I have to pay for more of my medical care than I can afford.” In contrast, only 9% described that they would have strongly agreed or agreed to this statement upon first arriving to the US. Write-in comments revealed themes that centered on language barriers, favorable impressions of healthcare in the US, financial concerns, and patriotism towards the US. Further study of this aging population of Vietnamese Americans might help shed light on concerns faced by other refugee populations who have arrived more recently.

Stephens, Elisabeth K.; Nguyen, Phuong L.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

2011-01-01

262

Cultural values and the risky shift: A cross-cultural test in Uganda and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the hypothesis that the risky shift is a function of a cultural value favoring risk. Group and individual decisions of 279 male ugandan and 108 male united states students were compared on 2 tasks. On both tasks the individual decisions of the ugandans were more conservative, supporting the premise that the ugandans are less favorably disposed to risk taking

Julia A. Carlson; Clive M. Davis

1971-01-01

263

Complex issues of military capability: Measurement, assessment, simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear science methodology behind the Military Capability Spectrum Project (PRISM) is presented. This project approaches assessments of military power of nations (worldwide) from the perspective that their military organizations are complex adaptive systems (CAS) locked in a threat/alliance coupled group that collectively evolves toward a self-organized critical state. Dissipative behavior can take the form of war and other forms of geopolitical instability. Measurement tools for assessing the characteristics of military organizations are presented and methodologies for displaying the resulting spectrum of worldwide military power are discussed. Tools for regional stability/instability analysis are suggested that rely upon time history data.

Miller, L. D.; Sulcoski, M. F.; Farmer, B. A.

1997-05-01

264

Alliance Participation And Foreign Policy Influence: The Military's Role  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article assesses the impact of defense alliances on the foreign policy attitudes of the military of member states. The study employs as examples two NATO members (Greece and Portugal), two Warsaw Pact participants (Poland and Czechoslovakia), and two neutral states (Egypt and India). After examining these states' foreign policies-and the role of the military in shaping them-it was concluded

Constantine P. Danopoulos

1985-01-01

265

The Questioning Culture: Perpetual State of the Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes characteristics of a questioning culture in organizational development. Addresses questions on leading; learning; and information access as leverage. Lists fundamental employee questions that exist in every organization, and describes two positive effects that occur when these fundamental questions are recognized and become the overall…

Buchen, Irving H.; Rowley, Lincoln

2000-01-01

266

Cellulase production by a solid state culture system  

SciTech Connect

Production of cellulase using solid culture systems of Trichoderma reesei QM9414 and Sporotrichum cellulophilum on wheat bran was studied. By using moisture-controlled solid culture equipment, the effect of water content of wheat bran on cell growth and cellulase production was investigated. Cellular biomass grown on solid substrate was estimated by measuring oxygen consumption rate and glucosamine content the cells. These parameters were shown to have a good linear correlation with the specific growth rate. This reliable method of estimating the cell growth rate enabled us to simulate the enzyme production in a solid culture system by means of multiple linear regression analysis which takes into account of the water content, cell mass, and the oxygen consumption rate as variables. The cell growth and cellulase production were maximized at different water content of the medium. A high water content, 57% for T. reesei and 70% for S. cellulophilum, favored mycelial growth, while the maximum cellulase activity was obtained at a lower water content such as 50% for both fungi. It was observed that cellulase production by T. reesei depended on the culture conditions that support the optimal growth rate for the maximum enzyme production. 14 references.

Kim, J.H.; Hosobuchi, M.; Kishimoto, M.; Seki, T.; Yoshida, T.; Taguchi, H.; Ryu, D.D.Y.

1985-10-01

267

Maintenance and propagation of Chinese culture in a Malay state: the roles of the Chinese associations in Kuala Terengganu  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the roles of seven Chinese associations in Kuala Terengganu in maintaining and propagating Chinese culture within a Malay state. These associations have played significant roles in maintaining and propagating Chinese culture as far as the range of cultural activities hosted by them is concerned. There is also a reasonable level of state cultural leadership, though lacking in

Tan Yao Sua; Thock Ker Pong; Kamarudin Ngah; Goh Soo Khoon

2012-01-01

268

The cultural barriers to renewable energy and energy efficiency in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to make the social dimensions of energy conversion and use more visible, this article investigates the cultural barriers to energy efficiency technologies and devices and renewable power generators in the United States. To discover the cultural impediments to these technologies, the author conducted 181 formal, semi-structured interviews at more than 82 institutions (including electric utilities, regulatory agencies,

Benjamin K. Sovacool

2009-01-01

269

Cultural Trauma and Ethnic Identity Formation Among Iranian Immigrants in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspired mainly by Jeffery Alexander's concept of cultural trauma and Irving Goffman's analysis of stigma, this article examines the impact of the Iranian Revolution and the ensuing hostage crisis in 1979 on the formation of ethnic identity among Iranian immigrants in the United States. These events resulted in the loss of cultural and ethnic pride, the rise of anti-Islamic religious

Mohsen Mobasher

2006-01-01

270

Arsenite maintains germinative state in cultured human epidermal cells  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic is a well-known carcinogen for human skin, but its mechanism of action and proximal macromolecular targets remain to be elucidated. In the present study, low micromolar concentrations of sodium arsenite maintained the proliferative potential of epidermal keratinocytes, decreasing their exit from the germinative compartment under conditions that promote differentiation of untreated cells. This effect was observed in suspension and in post-confluent surface cultures as measured by colony-forming ability and by proportion of rapidly adhering colony-forming cells. Arsenite-treated cultures exhibited elevated levels of {beta}1-integrin and {beta}-catenin, two proteins enriched in cells with high proliferative potential. Levels of phosphorylated (inactive) glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} were higher in the treated cultures, likely accounting for the increased levels of transcriptionally available {beta}-catenin. These findings suggest that arsenic could have co-carcinogenic and tumor co-promoting activities in the epidermis as a result of increasing the population and persistence of germinative cells targeted by tumor initiators and promoters. These findings also identify a critical signal transduction pathway meriting further exploration in pursuit of this phenomenon.

Patterson, Timothy J. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States); Reznikova, Tatiana V. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States); Phillips, Marjorie A. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States); Rice, Robert H. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States)]. E-mail: rhrice@ucdavis.edu

2005-08-22

271

Multiple stable states and hysteresis in continuous, oscillating cultures of budding yeast.  

PubMed

The conditions that precede the onset of autonomous oscillations in continuous yeast cultures were studied in three different types of experiments. It was found that the final state of the culture depended on the protocol used to start up the reactor. Batch cultures, switched to continuous operation at different stages of the batch growth curve, all exhibited similar dynamics-ethanol depletion followed by autonomous oscillations. Small perturbations of the distribution of states in the reactor, achieved by addition of externally grown cells, were able to quench the oscillatory dynamics. Reaching the desired operating point by slow dilution rate changes gave rise to different final states, two oscillatory states and one steady state, depending on the rate of change in dilution rate. The multiplicity of stable states at a single operating point is not explained by any current distributed model and points toward a segregated mechanism of these oscillations. PMID:11590603

Zamamiri, A Q; Birol, G; Hjortsø, M A

2001-11-01

272

78 FR 36242 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: New York State Museum, Albany, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Items: New York State Museum, Albany, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior...3122 Cultural Education Center, Albany, NY 12230, telephone (518) 486- 2020. SUPPLEMENTARY...located in Lansingburg, Rensselaer County, NY, by Reverend O.C. Auringer of...

2013-06-17

273

77 FR 74866 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: New York State Museum, Albany, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Items: New York State Museum, Albany, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior...3122 Cultural Education Center, Albany, NY 12230, telephone (518) 486- 2020. SUPPLEMENTARY...the Seneca National Museum in Salamanca, NY, and one wampum belt is housed at the...

2012-12-18

274

Position Paper on Cultural and Heritage Tourism in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Position Paper on Cultural and Heritage Tourism in the United States was developed by PCAH with help from than more than 100 leaders representing travel, tourism, business, arts, humanities, natural resources and government and endorsed by the delegat...

2005-01-01

275

How welfare states care : Culture, gender and citizenship in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's employment patterns changed drastically the last decades. But they are still different across Europe. Welfare state scholars often presume that diversity and change in women's employment across Europe is based on financial (dis) incentive structures embedded in welfare states (Esping-Andersen 1990, 1999, 2002; Sainsbury 1996, 1990; O'Connor et al. 1999; Lewis 1992, 1997). In other words: if childcare is

Monique Kremer

2005-01-01

276

Cultural determinism, Western hegemony & the efficacy of defective states  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that the notion of a defective state, including those designated as ‘weak’, ‘failed’ or ‘collapsed’, has a number of obvious advantages for the West. First and most obviously, it offers an explanation for the faults of the state in question that does not implicate outside forces. Second, it justifies external action to intervene in the internal affairs

Tim Jacoby

2005-01-01

277

Military Contractors & the American Way of War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contractors are deeply intertwined with the American military and U.S. foreign policy. Over half of the personnel the United States has deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan since 2003 have been con- tractors. Their relationship with the U.S. government, the public, and domestic and international law differs from that of military personnel, and these differences pose both bene½ts and risks. America's

Deborah D. Avant; Renée de Nevers

2011-01-01

278

Ellagic Acid Production from Biodegradation of Creosote Bush Ellagitannins by Aspergillus niger in Solid State Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Aspergillus niger GH1 in converting creosote bush ellagitannins into ellagic acid (EA) was evaluated in solid state culture. Creosote bush\\u000a leaves were used to extract the ellagitannins fraction, which was impregnated in polyurethane foam used as support of solid\\u000a state culture. Ellagitannins content, EA accumulation, and the related enzymatic activities were evaluated. A. niger GH1 was able

Antonio Aguilera-Carbo; Juan S. Hernández; Christopher Augur; Lilia A. Prado-Barragan; Ernesto Favela-Torres; Cristóbal N. Aguilar

2009-01-01

279

Globalisation, Identity, and Cultural Dynamics in a Multiethnic State: Multiculturalism in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultural aspects of globalisation are often overshadowed by its economic impact, although both impinge upon the pattern\\u000a of interaction among national and ethnic cultures within the state (see Smolicz & Secombe, 2005; Zajda, 2005, 2007, Zajda\\u000a et al. 2008). In this chapter, Australia is taken as an example of a multi-ethnic state which is in the process of building

Jerzy Smolicz; Margaret Secombe

280

French Thought and the American Military Mind:A History of French Influence on the American Way of War from 1814 through 1941  

Microsoft Academic Search

The French Revolution had a tremendous impact on the social, political, and cultural development of the western world. Similarly, it had a revolutionary impact on warfare in both Europe and the United States. Although the U.S. had a distinctly British military tradition through the War of 1812, in the span of a single year, the U.S. Army adopted the French

Michael Andrew Bonura

2008-01-01

281

Morphological, Cultural, Biochemical, and Serological Comparison of Japanese Strains of Vibrio parahemolyticus with Related Cultures Isolated in the United States  

PubMed Central

Morphological, cultural, biochemical, and serological characteristics of 79 strains of Vibrio parahemolyticus isolated from patients suffering from gastroenteric disease in Japan were compared with 17 suspected V. parahemolyticus cultures isolated from wound infections and 14 nonpathogenic vibrios isolated from an estuarine environment in the United States. These groups were differentiated on the basis of several key reactions which included: the range of growth temperature and salt tolerance; the production of catalase and acetoin; the hydrolysis of starch; the fermentation and utilization as single carbon source of sucrose, cellobiose, and arabinose; and the ability to swarm on 1% agar. The separation of the groups on the basis of cultural and biochemical analyses was confirmed by means of slide agglutinations with specific anti-K antisera. The results of this study strongly suggest that the wound infection isolates are V. parahemolyticus species which are easily distinguished from the nonpathogenic estuarine vibrios.

Twedt, Robert M.; Spaulding, Procter L.; Hall, Herbert E.

1969-01-01

282

76 FR 6509 - Notice of Certification; Foreign Military Financing, and International Military Education and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Military Education and Training; Guatemala AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION...International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG) by granting access to CICIG...International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG) by granting access to...

2011-02-04

283

State of Delaware-Division of Historical and Cultural Affairs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Delaware is a state rich in history and tradition, and this website provides curious parties and individuals with a smattering of resources on the Blue Hen State. On the homepage, visitors can make their way through eight sections, including "Museums", "Exhibits", "Education", and "Multimedia". First up, the "Museums" area provides information on current exhibits on display at the state's historic properties, along with a collection of selected items. Visitors looking for a more interactive and immersive experience will want to click on the "Multimedia" area, where they will find videos of the Old State House and 360 degree panorama views of the Delaware Archaeology Museum and the John Dickinson Plantation. Finally, the site is rounded out with its fine "Education" section. Here visitors can view online educational resource materials, including a guide to Native American projectile points and links to The Heritage Education Network.

284

Assessing Public Opinion Toward the Military.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Opinions and attitudes of the US public toward its military have shifted over the years from strong admiration to fear and contempt. A number of historical and cultural events have helped shape public opinion. Although public opinion is not predicated sol...

C. H. Foster

1985-01-01

285

Early Childhood Military Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does the country's national security rely on top-quality early childhood education? Yes, say the military leaders of Mission: Readiness, an organization led by retired military commanders that promotes investment in education, child health, and parenting support. Actually, the generals are right, but for all the wrong reasons. The generals' aim is…

Pelo, Ann

2011-01-01

286

Women and the military  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debates about the relationship between women and the military have become common within Western societies. These debates primarily centre on the issue of the place, fitness and desirability of a female presence within institutions designed for national war making. There are those who claim that equality betwen the sexes demands the full integration of women into national militaries, including in

2000-01-01

287

Vaccines for military use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccines have long been used by military forces in order to prevent communicable diseases and thereby preserve the fighting force. A tradition that began with the mass vaccination of the Continental Army against smallpox during the War of the American Revolution in the late 18th century continues today with routine and deployment-based vaccination of military forces against potential pathogens of

Andrew. W. Artenstein

2009-01-01

288

Arms and oil: US military strategy and the Persian Gulf  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the oil-rich Persian Gulf, a region crucial to the world's security and economic health, the United States confronts major challenges to its military and diplomatic skills. The Iranian revolution, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and unpredictable turbulence have contributed to declining US influence in the area. In the United States, military questions about force size and strategy have sparked

McNaugher; Thomas L. McNaugher

1985-01-01

289

The Cultural Life of Capital Punishment: Surveying the Benefits of a Cultural Analysis of Law, Reviewing Austin Sarat, 'When the State Kills: Capital Punishment and the American Condition'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austin Sarat's 'When the State Kills' seeks to explore the interrelationship between capital punishment and American culture. Utilizing scholarly approaches drawn from sociology, literary criticism, cultural studies, and political science, Sarat illuminates the ways in which the official legal regime of capital punishment creates, reflects, and reinforces broader cultural attitudes about crime and punishment. Moreover, he argues that the destructive

Paul Schiff Berman

2002-01-01

290

Ambivalence: The Resiliency of Legal Culture in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Law schools tell a pretty cheerful story, which goes something like this: In 1789, the United States came into being, and its constitution—the Constitution—has framed and constrained legal developments ever since. While there have been a few bumps along the way (such as slavery, the Civil War, and the race riots of the twentieth century), we (as in \\

Judith Resnik

1993-01-01

291

Zuni farming and united states government policy: The politics of biological and cultural diversity in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous Zuni farming, including cultural values, ecological and biological diversity, and land distribution and tenure, appears to have been quite productive and sustainable for at least 2000 before United States influence began in the later half of the 18th century. United States Government Indian agriculture policy has been based on assimilation of Indians and taking of their resources, and continues

David A. Cleveland; Fred Bowannie; Donald F. Eriacho; Andrew Laahty; Eric Perramond

1995-01-01

292

Chinese Culture in the United States of America; An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Materials on the Chinese in the United States are listed and briefly reviewed. Works cited include bibliographies, general literature on the origin of Chinese culture and on the Chinese in the United States, and specialized works dealing with various aspects of Chinese American life. Entries for these specialized works are listed under the…

Sanchez, Alberto R., Comp.

293

The Biological and Cultural Impact of Blacks on the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the history of Blacks in the United States since their importation as slaves beginning in the fifteenth century. Underscores the great impact the Black presence has had, and continues to have, on the cultural, biological, political, and economic development of the United States. (MK)

Diggs, Irene

1980-01-01

294

Army Posts in American Culture: A Historical Geography of Army Posts in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Army posts in the United States can be divided into three distinct groups. Stone and masonry coastal forts came to America from Europe. They reflected the close cultural ties between the United States and Europe, while at the same time they reflected effo...

D. W. Rhyne

1979-01-01

295

Culture and politics in Africa: Legitimizing ethnicity, rehabilitating the post?colonial state  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the interconnections between culture and politics in the context of the ongoing crisis of the post?colonial African state. It seeks to reassess the role of ethnicity in the debate on the rehabilitation of that state. It starts from the premise that ethnicity, the most effective socio?political agent in African politics, cannot be suppressed. It argues that

Mordechai Tamarkin

1996-01-01

296

PRINCIPALS' LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR AND SCHOOL LEARNING CULTURE IN EKITI STATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of principal's leadership behaviour on school learning culture in some selected secondary schools in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. A descriptive survey design was employed. The study population comprised all the secondary schools in Ekiti State. 65 schools were randomly selected out of 161 secondary schools in the state. The instrument used to collect data was questionnaire tagged

Olayele Florence OLUREMI

297

Popular culture, discourse and divergent identities: reconstructing South Africa as an African state  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do state elites discursively popularize official representations of world politics and the state's location within it? If the broad public holds contrasting, or at least more sceptical, views, how can these gradually be supplanted or even ultimately obfuscated? Drawing on the role of narratives, this article underlines the significance of popular culture in relation to the construction of national

Janis van der Westhuizen

2008-01-01

298

20 Years Later: Professional Military Education. Testimony before the Sub-Committee on Oversight and Investigations, Armed Services Committee, United States House of Representatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"The Pentagon is currently undertaking a congressionally mandated Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) of strategy, force structure, missions, and resources. One issue that should be on the table is defining professional military education requirements. The current system is inadequate. The Department of Defense (DOD) should restructure it to…

Carafano, James

2009-01-01

299

Translating Sexual Assault Prevention from a College Campus to a United States Military Installation: Piloting the Know-Your-Power Bystander Social Marketing Campaign  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One population that shares both similar and different characteristics with traditional college-age students is the U.S. Military. Similarities include a high concentration of 18- to 26-year-olds dealing with new found independence, peer pressure, and the presence of social norms that support violence and hypermasculinity. Sexual violence is a…

Potter, Sharyn J.; Stapleton, Jane G.

2012-01-01

300

The Proceedings of the War and Morality Symposium held at United States Military Academy, West Point, New York on 1-2 May 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are two major questions about the morality of nuclear warfare. One is: Under what conditions is it morally acceptable to become involved in military combat of such seriousness that the use of nuclear weapons might be considered. If the answer to thi...

R. A. Rains M. J. McRee

1980-01-01

301

Language Fluency and the Evaluation of Cultural Faux Pas: Russians Interviewing for Jobs in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How are nonnatives evaluated when committing cultural faux pas, and how does their fluency in the language of the foreign culture affect the evaluation of their culturally inappropriate behavior? I address these questions in the context of Russian professionals learning to interview for jobs in the United States, an arena of strong cultural

Molinsky, Andrew

2005-01-01

302

A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Ethical Attitudes of Business Managers: India Korea and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culture has been identified as a significant determinant of ethical attitudes of business managers. This research studies the impact of culture on the ethical attitudes of business managers in India, Korea and the United States using multivariate statistical analysis. Employing Geert Hofstede's cultural typology, this study examines the relationship between his five cultural dimensions (individualism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity,

P. Maria Joseph Christie; Ik-Whan G. Kwon; Philipp A. Stoeberl; Raymond Baumhart

2003-01-01

303

Culture and home health care policy implementation: A comparative study of the United States and Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines home health care programs formulated in an Anglo dominated American culture when they are implemented in two settings with distinct cultural traditions, Puerto Rico and Indiana. Puerto Rico is a predominantly Hispanic territory of the United States that is subject to American national laws, and Indiana is a Midwestern state that is immersed in American culture, mostly

Minerva Cruz

2008-01-01

304

A Smaller Military To Fight the War on Terror  

Microsoft Academic Search

The defense budget can be reduced and the U.S. military downsized because (1) the nation-state threat environment is markedly different than it was during the Cold War, and (2) a large military is not necessary to combat the terrorist threat. In fact, the Islamist terrorist threat is relatively undeterred by the U.S. military presence abroad, and U.S. forces abroad, particularly

Charles V. Peña

2006-01-01

305

Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Terrorists: An In-Depth Analysis of the Government's Right to Classify United States Citizens Suspected of Terrorism as Enemy Combatants and Try those Enemy Combatants by Military Comission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Comment explores the government's right to treat citizens as enemy combatants and whether their trials should be by military commissions or by the non-military criminal justice system. It gives background information and explains the source of the government's right to determine enemy combatant status and to use military commissions. This Comment also describes the distinctions between a military trial

Amanda Schaffer

2003-01-01

306

The Work–Family Interface in the United States and Singapore: Conflict Across Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the work–family interface in a cross-cultural comparison between two nationally representative samples from the United States (n = 1,860) and Singapore (n = 1,035) with emphasis on work–family conflict. Family-to-work conflict was negatively related to marital satisfaction in both Singapore and the United States, although the effect was stronger in the United States. Similarly, family-to-work conflict was

Adam M. Galovan; Tamara Fackrell; Lydia Buswell; Blake L. Jones; E. Jeffrey Hill; Sarah June Carroll

2010-01-01

307

19th Century United States Historical, Literary and Cultural Studies Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Studies Program of Washington State University offers this online directory to Websites and resources on the literary and cultural history of the US in the nineteenth century. The directory presents a subject overview followed by a dozen or more subtopic headings which lead to annotated listings further broken down by subheadings. The site is frequently updated and provides a wealth of links for studying the last two centuries from a cultural studies viewpoint. The 19th Century United States Historical, Literary and Cultural Studies Online directory is particularly well-stocked with useful links to historical documents; resources on nineteenth-century authors and texts; as well as links to maps, photographs, posters, and other examples of the visual culture of the time.

308

Permanent Magnet Generators for Portable Military Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Army MERDC has a continuing program to develop and update a family of portable and/or mobile power generation sets for use by the United States military services. In the past decade, a number of new permanent magnet materials have been d...

E. F. Hammond A. E. King A. L. Jokl

1971-01-01

309

Cultural framework, anger expression, and health status in Russian immigrant women in the United States.  

PubMed

We investigated the role of anger expression and cultural framework in predicting Russian immigrant women's physical and psychological health status. One hundred Russian immigrant women between the ages of 30 and 65 completed questionnaires assessing anger expression, cultural framework, and health status. All research questions were addressed using hierarchical regression procedures. The results are discussed in terms of implications for understanding immigration experiences of Russian women who migrate from countries that are more collectivistic and less individualistic than the United States. PMID:23311909

Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Edmondson, Christine B

2013-01-01

310

Suicide in Different Cultures: A Thematic Comparison of Suicide Notes From Turkey and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suicide is a global concern, hence, cross-cultural research ought to be central; yet, there is a paucity of cross-cultural study in suicidology. A thematic or theoretical-conceptual analysis of 60 suicide notes drawn from Turkey and the United States, matched for age and sex, was undertaken, based on Leenaars’s empirical-based multidimensional model of suicide. The results suggested that there were more

Antoon A. Leenaars; Asl?han Sayin; Selçuk Candansayar; Lindsey Leenaars; Taner Akar; Birol Demirel

2010-01-01

311

State-dependent calcium mobilization by urotensin-II in cultured human endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human endothelial cells express urotensin-II (U-II) as well as its receptor GPR14. Using microfluorimetric techniques, the effect of human U-II on cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations [Ca2+]i in cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) loaded with Fura-2 was evaluated in static or flow conditions. Under the static state, U-II (100nM) abolished spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations, which occurred in a population of cultured HAEC.

Eugen Brailoiu; Xiaohua Jiang; G. Cristina Brailoiu; Jun Yang; Jaw Kang Chang; Hong Wang; Nae J. Dun

2008-01-01

312

Deconstructing the Turkish Military's Popularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is the military so popular in Turkish society? By using World Values Survey data, this study explores the impact of several political, social, and personal factors on societal confidence in the military. Empirical results indicate that there is a significant variance in confidence in the military across certain political groups. Although the military's popularity is high among nationalists, it

Zeki Sarigil

2009-01-01

313

Honduran Ministry of Health Perceptions of US Military Medical Civic Assistance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

United States military medical personnel have provided humanitarian medical care in Honduras for over 20 years. Despite the long and extensive history of US Military medical activities in Honduras, the opinion of host nation health officials regarding the...

D. A. Lougee D. Mondragon

2003-01-01

314

American Military Advisor: Dealing with Senior Foreign Officials in the Islamic World.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book entitled 'The American Military Advisor: Dealing with Senior Foreign Officials in the Islamic World' is a comprehensive guide for American military officers assigned as advisors to regional officials in places very different from the United State...

M. J. Metrinko

2008-01-01

315

Proportionality for Military Leaders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite its preeminent position in just war tradition, the concept of proportionality is not well understood by military leaders. Especially lacking is a realization that there are four distinct types of proportionality. In determining whether a particula...

G. D. Brown

2000-01-01

316

Slowing Military Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph looks at the development of military technology in recent years. It examines three major platforms: fighter aircraft, tanks, and cruisers, examining the gaps between generations as well as the capability gains of each succeeding type. While...

Z. J. Alach

2008-01-01

317

Military Suicide Research Consortium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second year of the MSRC included funding ten research projects, supporting three postdoctoral pilot grants, and offering a $2000 dissertation award to expert and future leaders in the field of military suicide research. The Denver staff continues to c...

P. M. Gutierrez

2012-01-01

318

Military Whistleblower Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Directive reissues DoD Directive 7050.6 dated September 3, 1992, to updated policy and responsibilities for military whistleblower protection under Section 1034 of Title 10, USC; include complaints of sexual harassment or unlawful discrimination as '...

D. Gibson

1995-01-01

319

WAR & Military Mental Health  

PubMed Central

Involvement in warfare can have dramatic consequences for the mental health and well-being of military personnel. During the 20th century, US military psychiatrists tried to deal with these consequences while contributing to the military goal of preserving manpower and reducing the debilitating impact of psychiatric syndromes by implementing screening programs to detect factors that predispose individuals to mental disorders, providing early intervention strategies for acute war-related syndromes, and treating long-term psychiatric disability after deployment. The success of screening has proven disappointing, the effects of treatment near the front lines are unclear, and the results of treatment for chronic postwar syndromes are mixed. After the Persian Gulf War, a number of military physicians made innovative proposals for a population-based approach, anchored in primary care instead of specialty-based care. This approach appears to hold the most promise for the future.

Pols, Hans; Oak, Stephanie

2007-01-01

320

Diseases of Military Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Beginning with George Washington’s decision to immunize his army against smallpox during the War of the American Revolution,\\u000a vaccines have traditionally been used as a primary strategy for the prevention of infectious diseases in military settings\\u000a (Artenstein et al. 2005). This chapter will highlight two vaccine histories involving diseases of military importance. The\\u000a history of epidemic typhus, caused by rickettsial

Alan Cross; Phil Russell

321

Radiometry in military applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Missiles guided using optoelectronic methods, optoelectronic imaging systems (thermal imaging systems, night vision devices, LLLTV cameras, TV cameras), and optoelectronic countermeasures (smoke screens, camouflage paints and nets, IR flares, decoys, jamming systems, warning systems) are one of the most important components of modern military armament. There are numerous military standards, some of them secret, that precise radiometric parameters to be measured and the testing methods to be used. There is also much literature on the subject of testing of the systems mentioned above, although mostly on subject of testing of the thermal imaging systems. In spite of this apparently numerous literature, there still significant confusion in this area due to secrecy of some parameters and testing methods, differences in recommendations of different military standards, fast progress in military optoelectronics, and also due to enormous number of different types of optoelectronics systems used in the military armament. A review of testing methods of the three basic groups of optoelectronics systems used in modern military armament: the missiles guided using optoelectronics methods, the optoelectronic imaging systems, and the optoelectronic countermeasures is presented in this paper. Trends in the measuring sets.

Chrzanowski, Krzysztof

2001-08-01

322

An update of military robotics activities  

SciTech Connect

Military unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) are beginning to break new ground that will strongly affect the future development of robotics. Current and planned future demonstrations of new UGV technologies are aiding in the maturation of control and navigation technologies critical to remotely controlled, supervised, and autonomous robots. The United States and its allies are spending millions of dollars to develop UGVs for military applications. The first systems will be deployed by the year 2000. The United States is leading the way, and its program is focused on the tactical UGV (TUGV) for the US Army and Marine Corps.

Lovece, J.A. (L B Ltd., Washington, DC (United States))

1992-01-01

323

Military Careers: A Guide to Military Occupations and Selected Military Career Paths, 1992-1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book was developed to help educators and youth learn about career opportunities in the military. It is a compendium of military occupational, training, and career information and is designed for use by students interested in the military. The first section, military occupations, contains descriptions of 197 enlisted and officer occupations.…

Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

324

Marriage of military and commercial RECCE products for surveillance applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent years, in order to meet increased demands for aerial surveillance data and due to decreased availability of support from military tactical reconnaissance organizations, many state and federal agencies have begun to expand their organic reconnaissance capabilities. Agencies have attempted to minimize system costs by procuring excess military sensors, only to find that adaptation of existing military sensor control and data annotation systems, or development of application specific systems, is cost prohibitive. One proposed solution to this dilemma, as presented within this paper, is user integrated reconnaissance systems which can include excess military sensors, but which also make extensive use of cost effective commercially procurable reconnaissance management system (RMS) components.

Regan, Brendan P.

1994-10-01

325

A Longitudinal Study Exploring Value Changes During the Cultural Assimilation of Japanese Student Pilot Sojourners in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored longitudinally the value changes of Japanese student pilot sojourners attending pilot training in the United States for two years. Throughout their stay in the United States they are exposed to the United States Western culture, and assimilate some of that culture, because in order to achieve equilibrium, they will change some of their values, attitudes and behaviors

Edward F. Murphy; Thomas L. Anderson

2003-01-01

326

Guide to Military-Loan Film (16mm).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 1,400 16 millimeter films are listed which are available from United States military organizations. They are free of charge for public, non-profit exhibition and cover a widely diverse range of subjects including vocational education, military history, industrial safety, transportation, and public works. The guide lists these films in…

1969

327

China as an Economic and Military Superpower: A Dangerous Combination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

China's economic and military power make it one of the most important nations to the United States as well as other Pacific Rim nations in 1995. It has one of the fastest growing economies in the world as well as one of the largest military machines. Toge...

M. B. Uckert

1995-01-01

328

THE U.S. MILITARY CHAPLAINCY, THEN AND NOW  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. military chaplains have engaged persons of diverse faith groups in various ways throughout American history. Before the American Revolution, chaplains tried to convert Native Americans to Christianity. As the United States military became more pluralistic and more engaged in conflicts around the world, chaplains sought to win the hearts and minds of the people in the area of operations.

John W. Brinsfield

2009-01-01

329

U.S.-China Military Contacts: Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This CRS report, updated as warranted, discusses policy issues regarding military-to-military (mil-to-mil) contacts with the People s Republic of China (PRC) and provides a record of major contacts and crises since 1993. The United States suspended milita...

S. A. Kan

2013-01-01

330

Will China's Rise Remain Peaceful. (Military Threat or Economic Competitor).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

China has begun a single-minded mission to become the supreme military power in the Asian-Pacific rim while the United States is unwittingly strengthening China's economy, ultimately leading to a credible military threat. China has become the world's 2nd ...

J. A. Benson

2008-01-01

331

Vitamin D status in female military personnel during combat training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for maintaining bone health. Recent data suggest that vitamin D and calcium supplementation might affect stress fracture incidence in military personnel. Although stress fracture is a health risk for military personnel during training, no study has investigated changes in vitamin D status in Soldiers during United States (US) Army basic combat training (BCT). This

Nancy E Andersen; J Philip Karl; Sonya J Cable; Kelly W Williams; Jennifer C Rood; Andrew J Young; Harris R Lieberman; James P McClung

2010-01-01

332

A cross-cultural comparison of clinical supervision in South Korea and the United States.  

PubMed

We investigated similarities and differences in clinical supervision in two cultures: South Korea and the United States The study had two parts: (1) a test of the cross-cultural equivalence of four supervision measures; and (2) a test of two competing models of cultural differences in the relations among supervisory style, role difficulties, supervisory working alliance, and satisfaction with supervision. Participants were 191 South Korean and 187 U.S. supervisees currently engaged in clinical supervision. The U.S. measures demonstrated sufficient measurement equivalence for use in South Korea. Cultural differences moderated the relations among supervisory styles, role difficulties, supervisory working alliance, and supervision satisfaction. Specifically, the relations among these variables were significantly stronger for U.S. than for South Korean supervisees. Implications for theory, research, and practice were discussed. PMID:23773080

Son, Eunjung; Ellis, Michael V

2013-06-01

333

Developing serious games for cultural heritage: a state-of-the-art review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the widespread use of gaming for leisure purposes has been well documented, the use of games to support cultural\\u000a heritage purposes, such as historical teaching and learning, or for enhancing museum visits, has been less well considered.\\u000a The state-of-the-art in serious game technology is identical to that of the state-of-the-art in entertainment games technology.\\u000a As a result, the field

Eike Falk Anderson; Leigh McLoughlin; Fotis Liarokapis; Christopher Peters; Panagiotis Petridis; Sara de Freitas

2010-01-01

334

Effects of polyurethane matrices on fungal tannase and gallic acid production under solid state culture*  

PubMed Central

The influence of the physical structure of polyurethane matrix as a support in a solid state culture in tannase production and gallic acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger Aa-20 was evaluated. Three different polyurethane matrices were used as the support: continuous, semi-discontinuous and discontinuous. The highest tannase production at 2479.59 U/L during the first 12 h of culture was obtained using the discontinuous matrix. The gallic acid was accumulated at 7.64 g/L at the discontinuous matrix. The results show that the discontinuous matrix of polyurethane is better for tannase production and gallic acid accumulation in a solid state culture bioprocess than the continuous and semi-discontinuous matrices.

Trevino, Lucia; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C.; Rodriguez-Herrera, Raul; Aguilar, Cristobal Noe

2007-01-01

335

Effects of polyurethane matrices on fungal tannase and gallic acid production under solid state culture.  

PubMed

The influence of the physical structure of polyurethane matrix as a support in a solid state culture in tannase production and gallic acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger Aa-20 was evaluated. Three different polyurethane matrices were used as the support: continuous, semi-discontinuous and discontinuous. The highest tannase production at 2479.59 U/L during the first 12 h of culture was obtained using the discontinuous matrix. The gallic acid was accumulated at 7.64 g/L at the discontinuous matrix. The results show that the discontinuous matrix of polyurethane is better for tannase production and gallic acid accumulation in a solid state culture bioprocess than the continuous and semi-discontinuous matrices. PMID:17910122

Trevino, Lucia; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raul; Aguilar, Cristóbal Noé

2007-10-01

336

Temporal and steady state acoustic field in a cell culture well: simulation.  

PubMed

The present study was to understand the true power irradiated to the cell line cultured on a culture well, in relation to the nominal power from ultrasonic transducer, and to characterize the temporal variations of the acoustic pressure exerted on the cell. Numerical simulation was carried out for a typical culture well exposed to 1 MHz continuous ultrasound generated by a circular transducer contact underneath the well. The results showed that the ultrasonic pressure exposed to the cell layer in the well was 6.7 times larger than the nominal pressure of the ultrasonic transducer. The ultrasonic pressure in the transient period rose rapidly and was widely variable, and the temporal peak was even greater than that of the steady state period. This suggests that the cells undergo characteristically different ultrasonic exposure between the transient and the steady state period. PMID:24110092

Choi, Min Joo; Kang, Gwan Suk; Kodama, Tetsuya; Coleman, Andrew J

2013-07-01

337

Culture and Dental Health among African Immigrant School-Aged Children in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The paper examines African immigrant parents' views on dental decay and whether such views affect their decision to obtain dental insurance for their children. The paper also examines the cultural underpinnings of the immigrants' oral health care practices. Design/methodology/approach: The data for the study were collected in the states

Obeng, Cecilia S.

2007-01-01

338

Perception and Evaluation of Polish Cultural Femininity in Poland, the United States, Finland, and the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culture perception was examined in the domain of gender roles. Three video clips containing an example of typically Polish gender role behavior (displaying much respect and courtesy of men toward women) were shown to female and male university undergraduates in Poland (n = 88), the United States (n = 91), Finland (n = 60), and the Netherlands (n = 60).

Pawel Boski; Helena Hurme; Jolanta Miluska

1999-01-01

339

United States National Hospital Survey of Anaerobic Culture and Susceptibility Methods, II  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the status of clinical anaerobic bacteriology in the United States, we surveyed (by means of a questionnaire) 120 hospitals selected at random with bed capacities of 200-1000, and we received responses from 78 (65%), all of which performed some degree of clinical anaerobic microbiology. Separate anaerobic blood culture bottles were used by 73 labs (94%) (median, 450 specimens\\/mo):

Ellie J. C. Goldstein; Diane M. Citron; Ronald J. Goldman; Marina C. Claros; Sharon Hunt-Gerrado

1995-01-01

340

Employing a Modified Positive Peer Culture Treatment Approach in a State Youth Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents concepts and philosophies of positive peer culture (PPC) treatment approach and describes implementation of PPC approach in state youth center. Notes PPC can be effective behavior management tool. Considers PPC not easy to implement and develop, yet sees implementation as worthwhile for both students and staff. (NB)

Tannehill, Ronald L.

1987-01-01

341

Politeia: The cultural and philosophical underpinnings of the ancient Greek idea of the state  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the perspective of contemporary Western societies an awareness of democratic practices almost seems self-evident. Yet contemplating the nature of human society and of the state not only took shape in a different era of Western civilization since the initial conceptions found in ancient Greece did not really succeed in transcending a totalitarian idea of the Politeia. The cultural–historical setting

D. F. M. Strauss

2005-01-01

342

Separation of the components of pectolytic complex produced by Tubercularia vulgaris in solid state culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Tubercularia vulgaris produces extracellular pectolytic activity in solid state culture using citrus pulp pellets as a carbon source. Five peaks containing hydrolase activities were separated by ion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephacel). Two enzymatic forms, PG II and PG III, were purified about 8 and 10 fold, respectively. The molecular weight of PG II was similar to that of PG III

M. J. Vieira Fonseca; A. C. Cropanese Spadaro; S. Said

1991-01-01

343

Review of South Dakota Non-State Trunk Road Inventory and Cultural Inventory. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Government Research Bureau (GRB) at the University of South Dakota provided an assessment of South Dakota's Non-State Trunk Road Inventory (NSTRI) and Cultural Inventory (CI) databases. The first stage of the project involved a review of South Dakota ...

A. D. Molina C. Gonsor S. A. Nordyke W. D. Anderson

2010-01-01

344

"Their Little Wooden Bricks": A History of the Material Culture of Kindergarten in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores the material culture of kindergarten in the United States in relation to the production and consumption of materials and kindergarten theory and pedagogy. The focus is on Friedrich Froebel's building gifts as they were manufactured and sold by the Milton Bradley Company from 1869 to 1939. A review of trade catalogues over…

Prochner, Larry

2011-01-01

345

Technology and Teaching Culture: Results of a State Survey of Foreign Language Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Findings from a state survey on technology and teaching culture indicated that teachers in general made little use of computer facilities such as the World Wide Web and e-mail. Although the teachers made considerable use of video materials, especially foreign films, they made little use of interactive media such as CD-ROMs and videodiscs even when these ma- terials were part

Zena Moore; Betsy Morales; Sheila Carel

346

Aerospace and military  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews military and aerospace developments of 1989. The Voyager spacecraft returned astounding imagery from Neptune, sophisticated sensors were launched to explore Venus and Jupiter, and another craft went into earth orbit to explore cosmic rays, while a huge telescope is to be launched early in 1990. The U.S. space shuttle redesign was completed and access to space has become no longer purely a governmental enterprise. In the military realm, events within the Soviet bloc, such as the Berlin Wall's destruction, have popularized arms control. Several big treaties could be signed within the year. Massive troop, equipment, and budget reductions are being considered, along with a halt or delay of major new weapons systems. For new missions, the U.S. military is retreating to its role of a century ago - patrolling the nation's borders, this time against narcotics traffickers.

Adam, J.A.; Esch, K

1990-01-01

347

Analyzing the Contrastion of the Campus BBS in Campus Culture Constructing between China and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the new carrier of the campus culture in online environment, campus BBS has played an important role in harmonious culture constructing. The paper analyses the contrastion of the campus BBS in campus culture constructing between China and The United States, including Chinese college students suffer shackles from the school and home more than American college students, and they have

Qiong Zhou

2009-01-01

348

The redox state of recombinant human serum albumin and its optimal concentration for mouse embryo culture.  

PubMed

Albumin has multiple physiological functions in embryo culture, such as a chelator of heavy metals, free radical scavenger, pH and osmotic regulator, a stabilizer, growth factor carrier, a surfactant, and a nutrient. However, the commercially available human serum albumin (HSA) products may not be completely safe since they could be contaminated with viruses and prions. Recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) has been reported to be as efficient as commercial HSA for fertilization and embryo development. Despite the possible benefits of rHSA, it has not been widely used for embryo culture due to its high cost of production. Our objective was to analyze the redox state of different types of HSA products and rHSA to define oxidative status batch variations of HSA and rHSA and to evaluate the optimal concentration of rHSA for mouse embryo culture. The redox state of the HSA and rHSA used in embryo culture media was found to vary widely. Redox variations were found among different HSA batches as well as among rHSA batches. The highest blastocyst development and hatching rates were obtained with rHSA used at a concentration of 0.05 mg/mL. We showed that very low concentrations of rHSA were most favorable for advanced mouse embryo development in culture. PMID:23050831

Otsuki, Junko; Nagai, Yasushi; Matsuyama, Yukie; Terada, Tomoyoshi; Era, Seiichi

2012-10-10

349

Mediated Military Leadership: A Narrative Analysis of Military Leadership Training Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Military leadership is a subject that has beguilled military and civilian researchers for decades. Despite extensive study, much of which was funded by the military, military leadership remains an enigma. Further, the military still faces nagging criticis...

P. J. Hutchison

1988-01-01

350

Military, the Media, and International Terrorism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After a brief respite in 1983 and 1984--with the notable exception of the bombing of the Marine Corps barracks in Beirut in October 1983--United States military facilities overseas have once again become prime targets for terrorists. Terrorist groups such...

P. W. Leon

1986-01-01

351

Success in Mexico Requires a Military Solution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Violence caused by Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) has increased in Mexico in recent years, calling into question the stability of the state itself. In an attempt to get security under control, the Government of Mexico has relied on the military to ...

J. S. Bury

2011-01-01

352

African military spending: Defence versus development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to extract empirical regularities from the extensive but often contentious econometric literature on the relationship between military expenditure (‘milex’) and socioeconomic development in the Third World, with special reference to Africa. It finds that African states invest in defence at low levels by global standards, and their defence burdens correspond to political, security, and economic realities. Security

Joseph P Smaldone

2006-01-01

353

Military Tribunals and the Separation of Powers  

Microsoft Academic Search

On November 13, 2001, President George W. Bush issued an executive order which provided for the creation of military tribunals for the trial of persons responsible for terrorist attacks against the United States and its overseas agencies. The order was in response to the attacks on September 11, 2001 on the World Trade Center in New York City and the

Gerard J. Clark

2002-01-01

354

The Orwellian Military Commissions Act of 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three decisions in 2004 and 2006, the Supreme Court of the United States rejected the sweeping claims by President Bush that his role as Commander in Chief entitled him to detain persons indefinitely and, if he chose, to subject them to war crimes trials before military commissions that did not have all of the procedural protections of courts martial.

Michael C. Dorf

2007-01-01

355

Morality, Duty and the Professional Military Officer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Society in the United States is undergoing vast changes as to views on moral standards, commonly known as ethical conduct. The professional military officer, a segment of that society, is no exception. This discussion examines the basic codes of ethical h...

W. M. Dalton

1971-01-01

356

The Utilization of Women in the Military  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the decade of the 1970s there will be an increase in the number and percent of women in the United States military. Trends indicate that this rise will move steadily but gradually from less than 2 percent women in the armed services to approximately 4 percent. Although the number and percent of women in uniform will remain small, their

Nancy Goldman

1973-01-01

357

Military Sexual Trauma Research: A Proposed Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military sexual trauma (MST) is a widespread problem associated with negative psychological and physical health problems. This article presents the current state of MST research and highlights specific areas in need of more focused study. Areas that have produced the greatest body of knowledge include MST prevalence and psychological and physical health correlates. We propose a research agenda based on

Carolyn B. Allard; Sarah Nunnink; Amber M. Gregory; Bridget Klest; Melissa Platt

2011-01-01

358

Terrorism and military theory: An historical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late twentieth?century terrorism should be viewed as a form of war and falls within the framework of military theory. Terrorism, like guerrilla warfare a form of unconventional warfare, represents a revival of primitive (or pre?state) warfare. Distinctions of terrorism from guerrilla warfare are formalistic and ignore options to conduct and actual practice. The historical roots of contemporary terrorism are examined.

Everett L. Wheeler

1991-01-01

359

The American Military and the Western Idea  

Microsoft Academic Search

American military leaders have a wide array of responsi- bilities that, at times, may seem difficult to reconcile. They are expected to win wars, to secure America's place in the world arena, and to fulfill their moral responsibilities to their soldiers, fellow officers, and the American public. I am going to argue that the continued success of the United States

Maj Thomas; J. Begines

360

Military implications of global warming. Strategy research project  

SciTech Connect

The 1998 National Security Strategy repeatedly cites global environmental issues as key to the long-term security of the United States. Similarly, US environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current US Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate change. It discusses related economic factors and environmental concerns. It assesses current White House policy as it relates to the US military. It reviews the Department of Defense strategy for energy conservation and reduction of greenhouse gases. Finally, it offers recommendations and options for military involvement to reduce global warming. Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the US military. As the United States leadership in environmental matters encourages global stability, the US military will be able to focus more on readiness and on military training and operations.

Greene, P.E.

1999-05-20

361

Chivalry in the Military  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chivalry is a word that is often been used in the context of the military. Yet, the meaning attached to chivalry differs.\\u000a Here are some examples:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In his Memorial Address of 20 July 1966 in memory of the military resistance against Adolf Hitler the Bundeswehr’s former\\u000a Lieutenant General Hans Speidel quotes a section of a speech Colonel General Ludwig

Gerhard Kümmel

362

77 FR 48532 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: San Diego State University, San Diego, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Program at the address below by September 13, 2012. ADDRESSES: Jaime Lennox, Interim Director, San Diego State University Archaeology...affiliated with the objects of cultural patrimony should contact Jaime Lennox, Interim Director, San Diego State University...

2012-08-14

363

Consequences of Social Science Research on the U.S. Military  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than four decades there has been extensive social science analysis of the U.S. military establishment. Since the end of the draft in June 1973 there has been continuing and increasing soul searching about the politico-military posture of the United States. But a question of importance to the study of the military is, what has been the significance of

Morris Janowitz

1982-01-01

364

Reengineering Gender Relations in Modern Militaries: An Evolutionary Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an evolutionary framework for understanding the sexual assault of women in the military. We specify the evolutionary underpinnings of tensions among heterosexual males, among heterosexual females, and between males and females and discuss how these tensions have played out in the strongly gendered context of warrior culture. In the absence of cultural interventions that take into account

Rebecca J. Hannagan; Holly Arrow

2011-01-01

365

Psychiatry and the military: an update.  

PubMed

The United States has historically been concerned about the successful adjustment of its military members returning from war. These concerns are based on the recognition that war-zone exposures may have considerable negative emotional or behavior consequences. As the global war on terror continues, the United States military medical system will be required to address issues at the interface of psychiatry and the law. Despite clinical advances within the theater of war and at tertiary facilities in the United States, some military members will develop chronic and disabling mental illness as a result of traumatic exposure and exacerbated by the demands of the austere and dangerous operational environment. The extent to which violent and aggressive behavior in the aftermath of deployment can be attributed to combat experience remains an area of debate and ongoing investigation. However, experience suggests that a very small subgroup of the hundreds of thousands of war veterans deployed in conjunction with the current conflict in Iraq has already been involved in violent crimes. For this group, military forensic psychiatrists will be called on to make determinations of competency and criminal responsibility and to inform the courts about the potential contributions of war-related distress or disorder to criminal behavior. Though the overwhelming majority of war veterans will not be involved in criminal proceedings, a minority will develop career-ending (and in rare instances, life-ending) disabilities as a result of mental illness. For those who are no longer fit for duty, the military Physical Disability Evaluation System must make determinations of the extent to which future military performance and future civilian social and occupational function have been compromised. For a small yet highly visible minority of returning veterans, questions about the cause, precipitants, and manner of death will necessitate psychological autopsies. This article highlighted recent updates in military forensic psychiatry and the mechanisms through which answers to questions of disability and criminal culpability, and motivation underpinning self-injurious behavior, are determined within the United States military. As the global war on terror progresses, further experience and study of our country's judicial processes, disability system, and the policies and procedures governing psychological autopsies must evolve to meet these increasing demands. PMID:16904506

Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Benedek, David; Malone, Ricky; Carr-Malone, Rosemary

2006-09-01

366

Exploring the ambiguities of masculinity in accounts of emotional distress in the military among young ex-servicemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the experiences and perspectives of ex-military servicemen in the UK. It focuses specifically on the complex links between emotional distress and various constructions of ‘masculinity’ in a military context. Aspects of military culture that exacerbate vulnerability and also those that are protective to mental health are identified and discussed with reference to the theoretical constructs relating to

Gill Green; Carol Emslie; Dan O’Neill; Kate Hunt; Steven Walker

2010-01-01

367

Women in the Military Cockpit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Historically women have demonstrated the capacity to be successful aviators. Recent participation of women in combat roles and in military aviation has, however, aroused controversy. The scientific literature pertinent to the role of women in military avi...

T. J. Lyons

1991-01-01

368

Mexican Military and Political Transition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis assesses the future of Mexican civil-military relations. Mexico is unique among Latin American nations for its professionalized and depoliticized military. While the Mexican Armed Forces have shunned an active role in politics since 1940, they...

R. C. Bedingfield

1992-01-01

369

Military Influence in Russian Politics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tradition of the Russian and Soviet militaries has made them important elements in the political balance of power at this turning, point of history. The same tradition, however, requires that the military's political intervention be legitimized by a c...

M. Tsypkin

1992-01-01

370

Blogs and Military Information Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article explores the possibility of incorporating blogs and blogging into military information strategy, primarily as a tool for influence. Towards that end, the authors examine the value of blogs as targets of and/or platforms for military influence...

D. E. Denning J. B. Kinniburgh

2006-01-01

371

Blogs and Military Information Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph explores the possibility of incorporating blogs and blogging into military information strategy, primarily as a tool for influence. Towards that end, the authors examine the value of blogs as targets of and/or platforms for military influen...

D. Denning J. Kinniburgh

2006-01-01

372

Private Military Industry: Economic Analysis, Uses & Considerations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Different customers in different ages have used private military members as part of their military operations. After the Cold War era, a new form of Private Military Industry emerged. Companies serving in both military support and offensive operations and...

E. Sokmen

2007-01-01

373

Department of Defense Military Manpower Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents (List of Tables): Section 1 -- Active Duty Military Manpower Statistics - Summary of Military Personnel, DoD Manpower Comparison, Total Active Duty Military Personnel by Service, Active Duty Officer Personnel and Percent of Total Military Personn...

1981-01-01

374

Agency Theory View of the Military Advisor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An understanding of civil-military relations provides insight for the military strategist into the interplay between politics and military art. A framework of how civilian leadership and the military relate in formulating national security objectives may ...

G. E. Petrina

2005-01-01

375

Pathways to the All-Volunteer Military  

PubMed Central

Objectives The present study investigates the role of a disadvantaged background, the lack of social connectedness, and behavioral problems in channeling young men to the opportunities of the all-volunteer military instead of to college and the labor market. Methods Data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in the United States. The analytic sample consists of 6,938 white, black, and other males. Results The greatest likelihood of military service versus college and the labor force occurs when young men of at least modest ability come from disadvantaged circumstances, experience minimal connectedness to others, and report a history of adolescent fighting. Discussion Findings suggest the importance of access to post-high school education and worklife opportunities as a military service incentive for less advantaged young men in the all volunteer era.

Elder, Glen H.; Wang, Lin; Spence, Naomi J.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Brown, Tyson H.

2011-01-01

376

Military implications of a satellite power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If a satellite power system (SPS), such as is described in the NASA Reference Design Report, were to be undertaken to provide significant quantities of power to the United States and perhaps to other countries as well, significant military implications would ensue. These would arise, first, from the possible uses of such satellites and supporting systems as weapons or as supportive elements of other military systems, and, second, from the necessity of ensuring the security of such important economic assets in space. This paper summarizes some of the highlights of an extensive assessment of the military threats posed by SPS, the vulnerabilities of the Reference Design SPS, and potential safeguards against these threats and vulnerabilities. It is found that no threat issues have been revealed which cannot be mitigated by a judicious combination of safeguards.

Vajk, J. P.; Stutzke, R. D.; Salkeld, R.; Driggers, G. W.; Stine, G. H.

377

Technology in military strategy: a realistic assessment  

SciTech Connect

Today the Military Reform Movement strongly criticizes the United States military for being mesmerized by technology to the detriment of other, including human, factors. Only in this century have writers given great attention to war technologies. In contrast to strategic thinkers like Sun-Tsu, Machiavelli, Clausewitz, Moltke, and Mahan, post-World War I theorists like fuller, Liddell Hart, Douhet, and Mitchell made technology a key to their strategic concepts. Nuclear war theorists like Brodie, Kahn, and Wohlstetter made technology a centrality, while limited war theorists like Osgood and Kissinger gave it considerable, but less, stress. The reformers place more weight on teh art of using military forces than on weapons, emphasizing mobility and historical lessons, rather than technology. Nuclear war theories rely too heavily on technological dimensions to expect a shift. Somewhat more attention could profitably be paid to nontechnological aspects of conventional war, but any violent pendulum swing should be avoided.

Sanders, R.

1983-01-01

378

Projecting the Nation through Sport and Culture: Ireland, Aonach Tailteann and the Irish Free State, 1924-32  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the attempt by the newly-independent Irish state to stage a major sporting and cultural event, Aonach Tailteann, in the 1920s and 1930s. The event has to be understood in the context of a new nation trying to promote itself on the world stage by defining, through sporting and cultural happenings, those ideals which the state would embrace.

Mike Cronin

2003-01-01

379

Toward a Positive Military Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the role of positive psychology–based research and application in advancing the science and practice of military psychology. The role of positive psychology in military training, clinical application, and enhancing the welfare and well-being of military spouses and children is reviewed. Early research suggests that positive psychology–derived constructs may offer substantial advances across the spectrum of military psychology.

Michael D. Matthews

2008-01-01

380

Does culture affect divorce? evidence from European immigrants in the United States.  

PubMed

This article explores the role of culture in determining divorce by examining country-of-origin differences in divorce rates of immigrants in the United States. Because childhood-arriving immigrants are all exposed to a common set of U.S. laws and institutions, we interpret relationships between their divorce tendencies and home-country divorce rates as evidence of the effect of culture. Our results are robust to controlling for several home-country variables, including average church attendance and gross domestic product (GDP). Moreover, specifications with country-of-origin fixed effects suggest that immigrants from countries with low divorce rates are especially less likely to be divorced if they reside among a large number of coethnics. Supplemental analyses indicate that divorce culture has a stronger impact on the divorce decisions of females than of males, pointing to a potentially gendered nature of divorce taboos. PMID:23322379

Furtado, Delia; Marcén, Miriam; Sevilla, Almudena

2013-06-01

381

A Cross-cultural Comparison of Objectivity in Childhood Games: Iran and the United States  

PubMed Central

Games have been introduced as a means for studying cross-cultural differences and societies. This paper presents a case study in analogous games played by children in two different countries with two different cultures – Iran and the United States. Four examples are presented to demonstrate that games played by Iranian children are subject to less objectivity in their rules. Therefore, nonobjectivity may be a phenomenon that has roots in the society and the many differences between the two societies may very well be the results of this fundamental difference. If the presence of objectivity in childhood game rules could be, in actuality, indicative of objectivity in social and civil interactions in the everyday lives of the people, the direction of causality remains to be established. In other words, it remains unclear whether the games influence the culture or are influenced by the mandates of the society.

Rastegarpour, Ali

2011-01-01

382

HIV ban in military.  

PubMed

The Defense Department has written into its budget a proposal to discharge all HIV-positive members of the armed services. The House Committee on National Security has approved the fiscal 1996 defense budget with the ban included. Rep. Robert K. Dornan, R- Calif., contends that having HIV-positive service members in the military compromises the nation's readiness because, under Defense Department policy, they cannot be stationed abroad. However, only one-fifth of all service members on limited assignment have HIV, the others have diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. This shows the military's readiness to discriminate against HIV-positive individuals, according to William J. Freeman of the National Association of People with AIDS. Currently all recruits are tested for HIV; if they test positive, they are denied entry to the armed services. All service members are tested annually for HIV antibodies. In anticipation of cutbacks in military-related AIDS research due to the Republican control of Congress, the military has begun to eliminate most of the AIDS research it conducts. PMID:11362530

1995-06-16

383

Challenging Joint Military Intelligence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Military intelligence was shaped over four decades by the Soviet threat, emerging weapons systems, and increasing defense budgets. A sea change began with the demise of the old Soviet empire, the crisis in the Persian Gulf, and growing involvement in Unit...

J. J. Clapper

1994-01-01

384

Classification of Military Offenders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this detailed clinical study of 20 military offenders participating in the Air Force retraining program, three types of offenders were identified: (1) neurotic; (2) immature yet socially conforming; and (3) antisocial. Findings suggest a continuity between personality patterns exhibited by juvenile delinquents and the patterns in adult…

Caensbauer, Theodore J.; Lazerwitz, Jerrold L.

1979-01-01

385

Anticipating military nanotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to some military visionaries, warriors will wield rifles that fire small self-guided missiles, dispatch flying mini-robots and micro-sensor nets as scouts and sentries, and carry devices that can gather water in any environment. They will be networked to tactical command through helmets that provide an \\

JÜRGEN ALTMANN; MARK GUBRUD

2004-01-01

386

Safeguarding Military Critical Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the basic characteristics of virtually every system in the U.S. military is the utilization of superior technology. Technology allows our systems to see farther, be more accurate, process more information, and shorten the decision making cycle. Tec...

B. S. Goda

2005-01-01

387

National Military Family Association  

MedlinePLUS

... for parents created by the Department of Defense. Shutdown is Over - What's Next for Military Families Just hours after Congress passed the measure with broad bipartisan support, President Obama signed a bill to reopen the government & extend the debt ceiling. Find out what's next ...

388

Why Military History?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in military history is as strong as it has ever been--except on American college campuses. Lt. Gen. Josiah Bunting III examines why today's undergraduates need to study the facts of war, and why knowing its causes and consequences remain a vital part of our common knowledge.

Bunting, Josiah, III

2008-01-01

389

Chinas Search for Military Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

How much military power does China ultimately desire? A close look at Chinese texts on military doctrine over the last decade reveals that Beijing’s objectives for the use of military power are more certain than many policy analysts maintain.

M. Taylor Fravel

2008-01-01

390

Microchemostat array with small-volume fraction replenishment for steady-state microbial culture.  

PubMed

A chemostat is a bioreactor in which microorganisms can be cultured at steady-state by controlling the rate of culture medium inflow and waste outflow, thus maintaining media composition over time. Even though many microbial studies could greatly benefit from studying microbes in steady-state conditions, high instrument cost, complexity, and large reagent consumption hamper the routine use of chemostats. Microfluidic-based chemostats (i.e. microchemostats) can operate with significantly smaller reagent consumption while providing accurate chemostatic conditions at orders of magnitude lower cost compared to conventional chemostats. Also, microchemostats have the potential to significantly increase the throughput by integrating arrays of microchemostats. We present a microchemostat array with a unique two-depth culture chamber design that enables small-volume fraction replenishment of culture medium as low as 1% per replenishment cycle in a 250 nl volume. A system having an array of 8 microchemostats on a 40 × 60 mm(2) footprint could be automatically operated in parallel by a single controller unit as a demonstration for potential high throughput microbial studies. The model organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, successfully reached a stable steady-state of different cell densities as a demonstration of the chemostatic functionality by programming the dilution rates. Chemostatic functionality of the system was further confirmed by quantifying the budding index as a function of dilution rate, a strong indicator of growth-dependent cell division. In addition, the small-volume fraction replenishment feature minimized the cell density fluctuation during the culture. The developed system provides a robust, low-cost, and higher throughput solution to furthering studies in microbial physiology. PMID:23986263

Park, Jaewon; Wu, Jianzhang; Polymenis, Michael; Han, Arum

2013-10-01

391

Army Special Operations Forces Professional Military Education for the Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One way to educate United States Army Special Operators is by allowing organizational design and individual competencies to form the nucleus of a professional military education curriculum routinely evaluated against assessment variables such as the emerg...

B. M. Burris

2010-01-01

392

Methodology for Evaluating Military Systems in a Counterproliferation Role.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis develops a methodology to evaluate how dissimilar military systems support the accomplishment of the United States. counterproliferation objectives. The overall scope is to develop a model of the counterproliferation decision process that enab...

S. Stafira

1995-01-01

393

Military Review, Volume 74, Number 11, November 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Military Review is the professional journal of the United States army. Partial Contents of the November 1994 issue include: Public Affairs in America's 21st Century Army; Information Operations--Force XXI Operations; Battle Command: A XXI Imperative; Harn...

1994-01-01

394

Body-Composition Methodology in Military Nutrition Surveys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of nutrition surveys were carried out on troops living in military camps throughout the United States, under varied conditions of temperature and environment (heat, cold, and altidude), and on troops performing light, moderate, and heavy physical...

H. J. Krzywicki C. F. Consolazio

1967-01-01

395

Administrative History: Gettysburg National Military Park and National Cemetary, Pennsylvania.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The administrative history has been prepared to satisfy in part the research needs as stated in the task directive concerning Gettysburg National Military Park and Gettysburg National Cemetery, Administrative History under MARO Package No. 250. The purpos...

H. D. Unrau

1991-01-01

396

Optimization of the production of rhamnolipids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa UFPEDA 614 in solid-state culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, biosurfactants have attracted attention because of their low toxicity, high biodegradability, and good ecological\\u000a acceptability. However, their production in submerged liquid culture is hampered by the severe foaming that occurs. Solid-state\\u000a cultivation can avoid this problem. In the current work, we optimized the production of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant by Pseudomonas aeruginosa UFPEDA 614, grown on a solid

Doumit Camilios Neto; Joel Alexandre Meira; Janete Magali de Araújo; David Alexander Mitchell; Nadia Krieger

2008-01-01

397

The "new" immigration and the politics of cultural diversity in the United States and Japan.  

PubMed

"Certain parallels between the recent experience of Japan and that of the United States with immigration from Third World countries are increasingly evident. In this discussion, I shall focus on these key similarities rather than the obvious differences between the two countries, in terms of culture, economy, political system, and 'immigration profile'." Aspects considered include the structural nature of the demand for foreign labor, the composition of immigrant stocks and flows, public tolerance, and contradictions in government policies. PMID:12318586

Cornelius, W A

1993-01-01

398

State and trait anxiety: A cross-cultural comparison of Chinese and Caucasian students in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese people immigrating to North America are subject to specific Stressors in moving to a new country, and, furthermore,\\u000a these factors interact with their cultural background to produce higher levels of anxiety than are commonly believed to exist.\\u000a The present study compared the responses of 60 Chinese and 60 Caucasian Canadian students to questionnaires measuring multidimensional\\u000a trait and state anxiety.

Merry C. Lin; Norman S. Endler; Nancy L. Kocovski

2001-01-01

399

Measuring cultural climate in a uniformed services medical center.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the employee perceptions of the cultural climate at a large uniformed service medical center in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The analyses are based on the responses of 1,751 medical center employees, whose demographic characteristics were representative of the medical center population. Analyses indicate the existence of systematic perceptual differences between: (1) the medical center and Department of Defense personnel, and (2) the following cultural groups: (a) male and female personnel, (b) military and civilian personnel, and (c) majority and minority personnel. Recommendations are provided for future areas of research that need to be conducted with respect to the phenomenon of cultural diversity and the development of positive cultural climates within both the military and civilian medical settings. PMID:10091494

Brannen, S J; Brannen, K R; Colligan, T W

1999-03-01

400

Culture and Difference. Critical Perspectives on the Bicultural Experience in the United States. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching and politics of cultural difference and identity are explored in these essays, which examine the possibilities of living with cultural differences through new ethical and pedagogical frameworks. The following chapters are included: (1) "Introduction. The Politics of Biculturalism: Culture and Difference in the Formation of 'Warriors…

Darder, Antonia, Ed.

401

A Civilization and Its Discontents: United States National Literature and Culture Departments and French Metropolitan Cultural Resistance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses how study of French language and culture has increasingly become integrated into introductory language sequences and advanced undergraduate study. The study of the new France, with its cultural and linguistic diversity expands the possibilities for research, teaching, and learning. Interests in French-speaking cultures within and…

Sharpley-Whiting, T. Denean

2002-01-01

402

Russian military in the year 2000. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

Through the use of content analysis, this paper attempts to paint a picture of the Russian military in the year 2000 and its impact on the US national security strategy. The research begins by defining the origin of Russian national security policy and how that translates into military policy and doctrine. A framework for evaluating Russian military doctrines is provided with a chronology of the military reform process and the related doctrinal reforms that has its birth in the 1987 announcement of a defensive-defense. Following from the doctrinal variant framework the new strategic missions of the 1992 draft military doctrine are presented with an analysis that shows they are a clear departure from the past and truly represent a defensive-defense type doctrine. Additionally, a comparison is made with the current military reform ongoing in Russia with the historical precedent of the Russian military reform of 1924-25. A rough outline of the separate branches of the Russian military both present and future is provided based on the ongoing trends in the reform process. This thumbnail sketch of the Russian military then assists in the analysis and conclusion that even after a possible 50% cutback in US military spending, in the year 2000 the Russian military will not pose a threat to US national security. The major caveat to this conclusion is in the realm of nuclear weapons and this issue is therefore discussed in some length....Former Soviet Union, Russia, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Conventional Forces in Europe treaty (CFE), European Security, New National Security Strategy, Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear Strategy.

McIlmail, J.F.; Jaworski, J.L.

1992-12-01

403

Military and Civilian Undergraduates: Attitudes Toward Women, Masculinity, and Authoritarianism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of civilian and military college environments and undergraduates' sex on gender role attitudes and authoritarianism was investigated. Three hundred thirteen male and 69 female, primarily white middle-class students at the United States Naval Academy, United States Air Force Academy, Reserve Officer Training Corps, and a civilian university participated. Approximately 7% were Hispanic, 6% African-American, and 5% Asian-American. Military

Sharon E. Robinson Kurpius; A. Leigh Lucart

2000-01-01

404

Increasing Efficiency in Military Learning: Theoretical Considerations and Practical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the fundamental importance of higher-order cognitive skills for military personnel, increasing learning efficiency during training is paramount. The current article expands upon the state-based information-loss processing model, a comprehensive framework elucidating the processes involved in acquiring higher-order cognitive skills, to enumerate best practices for military training. Emphasis is placed on identifying empirically supported, state-of-the-art learning efficiency strategies and methodologies

Jennifer J. Vogel-Walcutt; Teresa Marino Carper; Clint Bowers; Denise Nicholson

2010-01-01

405

Validation of the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation (MACE) for In- Theater Evaluation of Combat-Related Traumatic Brain Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been widely considered the 'signature injury' among United States military personnel involved in combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. The Military Acute Concussion Evaluation (MACE) was designed by DVBIC and civilian brain inju...

K. Guskiewicz K. Helmick M. Jaffee M. McCrea S. Doncevic

2009-01-01

406

Validation of the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation (MACE) for In- Theater Evaluation of Combat-Related Traumatic Brain Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been widely considered the 'signature injury' among United States military personnel involved in combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. The Military Acute Concussion Evaluation (MACE) was designed by DVBIC and civilian brain inju...

K. Guskiewicz K. Helmick M. McCrea S. Doncevic

2010-01-01

407

Reengineering gender relations in modern militaries: an evolutionary perspective.  

PubMed

This article presents an evolutionary framework for understanding the sexual assault of women in the military. We specify the evolutionary underpinnings of tensions among heterosexual males, among heterosexual females, and between males and females and discuss how these tensions have played out in the strongly gendered context of warrior culture. In the absence of cultural interventions that take into account deep-seated conceptions of women in the military as unwelcome intruders, sexual resources for military men, or both, military women operate in an environment in which sexual assault may be deployed to enact and defend traditional military structures. We discuss how unit norms are likely to affect the choice of strategies by men and by women and how the resulting behaviors-including celibacy, consensual sex, and sexual assault-should affect horizontal and vertical unit cohesion. The framework is intended to guide future data collection in theoretically coherent ways and to inform the framing and enforcement of policies regarding both consensual and non-consensual sex among military personnel. PMID:21534098

Hannagan, Rebecca J; Arrow, Holly

2011-01-01

408

Women in the Military  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of women in the military has a long history. Leaving aside the long and never-ending discussion about the question\\u000a in the past, we can conveniently approach the topic by means of scientific tools, offered by empirical sociological research.\\u000a Research on the subject is so far rather abundant, and it is feasible here to organize the discussion about the

Marina Nuciari

409

Military display performance parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

2012-05-01

410

Military Healthcare Battlefield Immunity.  

PubMed

The combatant soldier on the battlefield remains protected from any claim in negligence by the doctrine of combat immunity for any negligent act or omission they may make when fighting. In other words, the combatant soldier does not owe a fellow soldier a duty of care on the battlefield, as the duty of care is non-justiciable. However, the non-combatant Military Healthcare Professional, although sometimes operating in the same hostile circumstances as the fighting soldier, is unlikely to benefit from combat immunity for any clinical negligence on the battlefield. This is because they continue to owe their patient a duty of care, although this has not been tested in the courts. This paper considers if any military healthcare professional could ever benefit from combat immunity, which is unlikely due to their non-combatant status. Instead, this paper suggests that a modified form of immunity; namely, Military Healthcare Battlefield Immunity could be a new, unique and viable doctrine, however, this could only be granted in rare circumstances and to a much lesser degree than combat immunity. PMID:23402067

Kelly, J C

2012-12-01

411

Synchronous environmental and cultural change in the prehistory of the northeastern United States.  

PubMed

Climatic changes during the late Quaternary have resulted in substantial, often abrupt, rearrangements of terrestrial ecosystems, but the relationship between these environmental changes and prehistoric human culture and population size remains unclear. Using a database of archaeological radiocarbon dates alongside a network of paleoecological records (sedimentary pollen and charcoal) and paleoclimatic reconstructions, we show that periods of cultural and demographic change in the northeastern United States occurred at the same times as the major environmental-climatic transitions of that region. At 11.6, 8.2, 5.4, and 3.0 kyr BP (10(3) calendar years before present), changes in forest composition altered the distribution, availability, and predictability of food resources which triggered technological adjustments manifested in the archaeological record. Human population level has varied in response to these external changes in ecosystems, but the adoption of maize agriculture during the late Holocene also resulted in a substantial population increase. This study demonstrates the long-term interconnectedness of prehistoric human cultures and the ecosystems they inhabited, and provides a consolidated environmental-cultural framework from which more interdisciplinary research and discussion can develop. Moreover, it emphasizes the complex nature of human responses to environmental change in a temperate region. PMID:21135208

Munoz, Samuel E; Gajewski, Konrad; Peros, Matthew C

2010-12-06

412

Military sexual trauma: a silent syndrome.  

PubMed

This article examines an age-old problem-sexual assault-through the lens of its occurrence within the military culture. Specific cases as well as U.S. Department of Defense responses to better handle these issues are offered to educate psychiatric-mental health nurses of the potential differences in symptomatology and presentation of military sexual trauma (MST). This appears to be an increasing problem with the predicted cohort of returning veterans appearing both in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs system as well as in civilian locations, hospitals, community centers, and especially the workplace. It will be critical to develop training materials and pursue further research to identify this silent syndrome of MST to better meet the needs of our returning veterans. PMID:23330799

Burgess, Ann W; Slattery, Donna M; Herlihy, Patricia A

2013-01-18

413

Distribution and in vitro Fruiting of Cordyceps militaris in Korea  

PubMed Central

Cordyceps militaris specimens were continuously collected by Entomopathogenic Fungal Culture Collection (EFCC), Kangwon National University from different mountains, national parks and recreation parks of Korea from 1986 to 2002, mainly from late May to October of each year. Dry specimens of C. militaris along with their isolates have been preserved in EFCC. Fruiting of C. militaris was induced from single ascospore isolates as well as their combinations in brown rice medium. Fruiting experiments showed that combinations of single ascospore isolates produced fertile fruiting bodies, but single isolates could not produce any fruiting bodies. It was shown that two isolates of the opposite mating types were required to produce fertile stromata. However, combinations of the same mating type isolates produced no fruiting body, showing that C. militaris is a bipolar, heterothallic fungus.

Shrestha, Bhushan; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Won-Ho; Choi, Seong-Keun; Lee, Je-O

2005-01-01

414

Sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea.  

PubMed

This research is about sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea. The authors investigated the frequencies, causes, and circumstances surrounding sexual violence and looked for characteristic features of sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea. They found a high frequency of physical sexual violence and a high level of repetition of sexual violence. Of perpetrators, 81.7% had themselves been victimized. However, the soldiers tended to minimize sexual violence, preferred not to address the issue if possible, criticized or ignored the victims, and did not trust the reporting procedures in place. The authors found that sexual violence was mobilized as a tool in the military to control hierarchy and to create certain masculinities. Regarding the relevance of masculinity, as a salient feature of militaries in general, they believed it might emerge as a common feature across national and cultural differences. PMID:17709808

Kwon, Insook; Lee, Dong-Ok; Kim, Elli; Kim, Hyun-Young

2007-08-01

415

End state copying by humans (Homo sapiens): implications for a comparative perspective on cumulative culture.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that the uniqueness of human cumulative culture may be attributable to humans' greater orientation toward copying the process of behavior (imitation), as compared with the products (emulation), resulting in particularly high fidelity transmission. Following from previous work indicating that adult human participants can exhibit cumulative learning on the basis of product copying alone, we now investigate whether such learning involves high fidelity transmission. Eighty adult human (Homo sapiens) participants were presented with a task previously shown to elicit cumulative learning under experimental conditions, which involved building a tower from spaghetti and modeling clay. Each participant was shown two completed towers, ostensibly built by previous participants, but actually built to prespecified designs by the experimenter. This end state information was provided either in the form of photographs, or the presence of actual towers. High fidelity matching to these end states was apparent in both demonstration conditions, even for a design that was demonstrably suboptimal with regard to the goal of the task (maximizing tower height). We conclude that, although high fidelity transmission is likely to be implicated in cumulative culture, action copying is not always necessary for this to occur. Furthermore, since chimpanzees apparently copy behavioral processes and well as products, and also transmit behavior with high fidelity, the stark absence of unequivocal examples of cumulative culture in nonhumans may be attributable to factors other than imitative ability. PMID:22468937

Caldwell, Christine A; Schillinger, Kerstin; Evans, Cara L; Hopper, Lydia M

2012-04-02

416

Darfur: As a failure of the nation-state model in Sudan: Education, Law, and Military: the apparatuses of hegemony and oppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In post-colonial Sudan, issues of violent conflicts, development, and state formation have been discussed extensively from by activists and scholars. Yet, fewer scholars had approached the issue of the state formation in the context of colonial effects. The state formation in Sudan was based on the euro-centric nation-state model. This nation-state model has contributed greatly to policies of marginalization and

Elsadig Elsheikh

2008-01-01

417

A Prospective Study of Acute Diarrhea in a Cohort of United States Military Personnel on Deployment to the Multinational Force and Observers, Sinai, Egypt  

PubMed Central

To better understand the epidemiology of diarrhea in deployed personnel to the Middle East, a prospective cohort study of travelers' diarrhea (TD) was conducted between May 2004 and January 2005 at the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) camp in the southern Sinai. A baseline entry questionnaire and stool specimen was provided on study entry, and volunteers were followed every 6 weeks. Of 211 volunteers, 145 (68.7%) completed one or more follow-up visits. In total, 416 follow-up surveys were completed, which described an overall incidence of 25.2 episodes per 100 person months (95% confidence interval = 21.2–30.0). Additionally, stools were collected in 72 of 77 diarrhea-associated clinic visits, with bacterial pathogens most commonly isolated (enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in 30 [42%] samples and Campylobacter jejuni in 7 [10%] samples) Despite modern preventive methods, diarrhea is still a common problem for deployed US military personnel in Egypt, frequently resulting in diminished ability to work.

Riddle, Mark S.; Rockabrand, David M.; Schlett, Carey; Monteville, Marshall R.; Frenck, Robert W.; Romine, Marcy; Ahmed, Salwa F.; Sanders, John W.

2011-01-01

418

A qualitative analysis of the tobacco control climate in the U.S. military  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Rates of tobacco use in the U.S. military have traditionally been higher than in the general U.S. population. While the military has experienced decreases in tobacco use over the past two decades, recent surveys suggest a trend of increased use. Given the negative impact of tobacco on both the readiness and the long-term health of military members, it is important to understand what factors may be related to the increased use rates. It has been suggested that there is a culture that supports tobacco use in the military. Methods: We examined perceptions about the climate of tobacco control among military installation Tobacco Control Managers and Service Policy Leaders from all four branches of the military (n = 52) using semistructured interviews. Results: The primary strength of the military's tobacco control program, according to the participants, was mandating the provision of treatment services on every military installation. Any military member can receive both counseling and pharmacotherapy for tobacco. Opinions vary on the most promising new strategies for tobacco control. Many have pushed for a completely tobacco-free Department of Defense, including requiring troops to be tobacco-free and banning tobacco sales on military installations. However, a number of tobacco control experts within the military worry about unintended consequences of a complete ban. Discussion: While several benefits of the current tobacco control program were identified, opportunities for improvement were identified at both the installation and service level.

Haddock, C. Keith; Poston, Walker S. C.; Hoffman, Kevin M.; Hughey, Joseph; Lando, Harry A.

2010-01-01

419

Stem cell applications in military medicine  

PubMed Central

There are many similarities between health issues affecting military and civilian patient populations, with the exception of the relatively small but vital segment of active soldiers who experience high-energy blast injuries during combat. A rising incidence of major injuries from explosive devices in recent campaigns has further complicated treatment and recovery, highlighting the need for tissue regenerative options and intensifying interest in the possible role of stem cells for military medicine. In this review we outline the array of tissue-specific injuries typically seen in modern combat - as well as address a few complications unique to soldiers - and discuss the state of current stem cell research in addressing each area. Embryonic, induced-pluripotent and adult stem cell sources are defined, along with advantages and disadvantages unique to each cell type. More detailed stem cell sources are described in the context of each tissue of interest, including neural, cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal and sensory tissues, with brief discussion of their potential role in regenerative medicine moving forward. Additional commentary is given to military stem cell applications aside from regenerative medicine, such as blood pharming, immunomodulation and drug screening, with an overview of stem cell banking and the unique opportunity provided by the military and civilian overlap of stem cell research.

2011-01-01

420

Ethos of Independence Across Regions in the United States: The Production-Adoption Model of Cultural Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary U.S. culture has a highly individualistic ethos. Nevertheless, exactly how this ethos was historically fostered remains unanalyzed. A new model of dynamic cultural change maintains that sparsely populated, novel environments that impose major threats to survival, such as the Western frontier in the United States during the 18th and 19th centuries, breed strong values of independence, which in turn

Shinobu Kitayama; Lucian Gideon Conway; Paula R. Pietromonaco; Victoria C. Plaut

2010-01-01

421

Joint-Service Integration: An Organizational Culture Study of the United States Department of Defense Voluntary Education System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the descriptive case study with a multiple case framework was to (a) describe the organizational cultures of education programs and leaders in the United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) voluntary education system on Oahu, Hawaii; (b) determine if an overlapping common organizational culture exists; and (c) assess the…

Benson, Martin K.

2010-01-01

422

Attitudes to multiculturalism, immigration and cultural diversity: Comparison of dominant and non-dominant groups in three Australian states  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents research on the attitudes to multiculturalism, immigration, and cultural diversity of dominant and non-dominant groups in three Australian states. The study utilized an adaptation of the original International Study of Attitudes toward Immigration and Settlement (ISATIS) instrument developed by John Berry and colleagues. Results from our quantitative and qualitative data demonstrated favorable attitudes toward cultural diversity and

Justine Dandy; Rogelia Pe-Pua

2010-01-01

423

Ethos of Independence across Regions in the United States: The Production-Adoption Model of Cultural Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contemporary U.S. culture has a highly individualistic ethos. Nevertheless, exactly how this ethos was historically fostered remains unanalyzed. A new model of dynamic cultural change maintains that sparsely populated, novel environments that impose major threats to survival, such as the Western frontier in the United States during the 18th and…

Kitayama, Shinobu; Conway, Lucian Gideon, III; Pietromonaco, Paula R.; Park, Hyekyung; Plaut, Victoria C.

2010-01-01

424

Decolorization of synthetic dyes by solid state cultures of Lentinula ( Lentinus) edodes producing manganese peroxidase as the main ligninolytic enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the white-rot fungus Lentinula (Lentinus) edodes to decolorize several synthetic dyes was investigated using solid state cultures with corn cob as substrate. Cultures, containing amido black, congo red, trypan blue, methyl green, remazol brilliant blue R, methyl violet, ethyl violet and Poly R478 at 200 ppm, were completely decolorized after 18 days of incubation. Partial decolorization was

Cinthia Gandolfi Boer; Larissa Obici; Cristina Giatti Marques de Souza; Rosane M. Peralta

2004-01-01

425

"Attraction, Attention, and Desire": Consumer Culture as Pedagogical Paradigm in Museums in the United States, 1900-1930  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Urged on by a young generation of reform-minded professionals, museums in the United States adopted the premises and practices of consumer culture in the early twentieth century. This article argues that this turn towards consumer culture resulted from a new institutional commitment to public education and a radical re-conception of visual…

Cain, Victoria

2012-01-01

426

Military Liaison Committee to the Department of Energy. Directive  

SciTech Connect

The Directive reissues DoD Directive 5148.1, January 7, 1959, to redefine the functions and authority of the Military Liaison Committee and the relationship of the Committee with the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Military Departments, the Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Defense Agencies and with the Department of Energy. The Directive implements section 27 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 as amended, Title 42, United States Code 2037(1976), which establishes the Military Liaison Committee.

Reid, J.

1979-01-24

427

Social and Cultural Influences on Tobacco-Related Health Disparities among South Asians in the United States  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To explore and understand key cultural contexts of tobacco use among South Asian communities in the United States. DESIGN Focus groups, with homogenous compositions of gender, generational status, and length of time in the United States, were conducted in two distinct South Asian ethnic enclaves. Focus group findings were triangulated with observational data regarding availability of culturally-specific tobacco from commercial ethnic outlets and cultural events. SUBJECTS Respondents included 88 men and women of South Asian descent, aged 18 to 65 years, immigrant and native born, representing diversity of religion, socioeconomic status, and region of origin, with use of at least one culturally-specific tobacco product in previous 24 months. RESULTS A large number of culturally-specific products are commonly used by community members. Knowledge of product-specific health risks was lacking or inaccurate. Many culturally-specific tobacco products were considered to have beneficial properties. South Asian tobacco items were used to preserve cultural traditions and express ethnic identity in a new dominant culture. The social and cultural value ascribed to use helped distinguish community members from mainstream society and from other minority populations. CONCLUSIONS Many cultural factors govern tobacco use among diverse global populations. Especially for migrants with a common regional origin, the role of ethnic identity may strongly influence culturally-specific tobacco patterns. Qualitative inquiry helps elucidate such culturally-framed behaviors in culturally-diverse populations. These cultural contexts should be integrated into research and practice. Understanding multidimensional factors influencing non-traditional tobacco use is key to ensuring that comprehensive tobacco control strategies address tobacco-related disparities.

Mukherjea, Arnab; Morgan, Patricia A.; Snowden, Lonnie R.; Ling, Pamela M.; Ivey, Susan L.

2011-01-01

428

Origins and destinies: Immigration to the United States since World War II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary immigration to the United States and the formation of new ethnic groups are the complex and unintended social consequences of the expansion of the nation to its post-World War II position of global hegemony. Immigrant communities in the United States today are related to a history of American military, political, economic, and cultural involvement and intervention in the sending

Rubén G. Rumbaut

1994-01-01

429

A Determination to Remember: Helen Clark and New Zealand's Military Heritage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helen Clark has done more to promote and preserve New Zealand's military heritage than any other of her Prime Ministerial predecessors. As Minister of Arts, Culture, and Heritage from 1999 to 2008, Clark was instrumental in providing government support to military heritage projects both at home and abroad. From being the first New Zealand Prime Minister to meet with a

Graham Hucker

2010-01-01

430

Effect of aeration rate on the mycelial morphology and exo-biopolymer production in Cordyceps militaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of aeration rate on Cordyceps militaris morphology and exo-biopolymer production was investigated in a 5-l jar fermentor. The mycelial morphology of C. militaris was characterized by image analysis, which included mean diameter, circularity, roughness, and compactness of the pellets. Cells were observed to form mainly pellets during the entire culture period irrespective of aeration conditions. There existed a

Jong Pil Park; Young Mi Kim; Sang Woo Kim; Hye Jin Hwang; Youn Jeung Cho; Yong Se Lee; Chi Hyun Song; Jong Won Yun

2002-01-01

431

Biological Effects in Cell Cultures of Fullerene C 60 : Dependence on Aggregation State  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The mechanisms of biological action of various fullerene preparations – water-soluble C60\\/polyvinylpyrrolidone (C60\\/PVP) complex and solid-state pristine fullerene C60 (fullerene on the surfaces [FoS]), in cell-free system and in different cell cultures were studied. In the cell-free system\\u000a the C60\\/PVP complex showed the pro-oxidant activity. On the other hand, FoS in the darkness proved to be antioxidant (AO) and was

Levon B. Piotrovsky; Mikhail Yu. Eropkin; Elena M. Eropkina; Marina A. Dumpis; Oleg I. Kiselev

432

The state of nursing science - cultural and lifespan issues in depression: part I: focus on adults.  

PubMed

Depression is a devastating disorder, affecting approximately 17 million persons within the United States. The manifestation of depressive phenomena is a complex, dynamic, biopsychosocial process involving lifespan and cultural aspects. Unless appropriately treated, depression persists over time having a significant negative effect on life and increasing the risk of suicide. Psychiatric mental health (PMH) nurses are uniquely positioned to address this epidemic health concern. This manuscript is Part I of the review of current nursing literature on adult depression. This review can be used to enhance PMH nurses' knowledge of current nursing research and their efforts in addressing prevention, early intervention, education and treatment of adults who experience depression. PMID:17654108

Warren, Barbara Jones; Lutz, Wilma J

2007-07-01

433

Evolution of Clinical Military Psychology Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical quandaries for military psychologists are a challenge. Effective military mental health providers must have a thorough understanding of their ethics code, pertinent military instructions, military law, and the mental health laws of the countries in which they practice. This article traces the evolution of clinical military psychology ethics from World War II to present day and serves to introduce

Carrie H. Kennedy; Bret A. Moore

2007-01-01

434

Isolation of a novel promoter for efficient protein expression by Aspergillus oryzae in solid-state culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel promoter from a hemolysin-like protein encoding the gene, hlyA, was characterized for protein overexpression in Aspergillus oryzae grown in solid-state culture. Using endo-1,4-?-glucanase from A. oryzae (CelA) as the reporter, promoter activity was found to be higher than that of the ?-amylase (amyA) and manganese superoxide dismutase (sodM) genes not only in wheat bran solid-state culture but also

Hiroki Bando; Hiromoto Hisada; Hiroki Ishida; Yoji Hata; Yoshio Katakura; Akihiko Kondo

435

Burns and military clothing.  

PubMed

Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military burn casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate burns, or complicate burn management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683

McLean, A D

2001-02-01

436

Military Capabilities and American Foreign Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can the availability of a rapid response capability lead the United States to intervene militarily in situations where, without those ready forces, the U.S. government would decide that military intervention was not required? Secretary of Defense McNamara said no; Senator Richard Russell said yes. After examining the basic approaches to weapons selection that led McNamara and Russell to opposite conclusions,

Graham T. Allison

1973-01-01

437

Cultural impacts on public perceptions of agricultural biotechnology: A comparison of South Korea and the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to Millar (1996), the gulf between science and society is growing. Technologies are tools cultures develop to solve society's problems. The rapid dispersion of science and technology across cultural borders through trade, technology transfer and exchange, increasingly requires people in different cultures to make choices about accepting or rejecting artifacts of science and technology such as genetically modified (GM) foods, which originate primarily from the United States. These issues challenge policy makers and scientists to account for the affects of different cultural perspectives on controversial scientific issues. Given the controversy across cultures over acceptance or rejection of genetically modified (GM) foods, GM foods are an excellent example with which to begin to reveal how culture impacts public perceptions of the risk and benefits of science and technology in different societies. This research will: (1) Define public awareness and understanding of science, specifically GM foods; (2) Examine culture's impact on knowledge, including different cultural approaches to research; and (3) Compare recent findings of a bi-national public opinion survey on GM comparing in South Korea and the United States. The proposed research outlines two research questions: (1) How and in what ways do South Koreans and Americans differ in their opinions about GMOs? This question is important for gathering current points of contrast about how the two cultures may differ; and (2) What role does culture play on opinion formation about GM foods? Through grounded theory, the researcher will investigate how cultural differences help explain opinion on public perceptions of GM foods. Is it possible to identify common cultural factors that impact public perceptions of GM foods between South Koreans and Americans? The study will utilize both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Higher education is a major producer of new science and technology. The study is significant for higher education administrators who must understand cultural factors impacting science internationally and globalization of the academic enterprise.

Nader, Richard Harrison

438

Where Do They Go from Here?— Retired Military in America  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one heritage of an armed era, the United States will have for the foreseeable future a large—currently, almost one million—and growing population of retired military professionals. One resulting problem involves the sheer cost of military retired pay—$4.8 billion in 1973 and rising rapidly. These costs would be even higher save for the assumption that most retirees can sustain themselves

Albert D. Biderman

1973-01-01

439

Recruits' Military Preferences and Their Accommodation by the Military Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research report provides information on recruits' military occupational preferences, match of military assignments to recruits' preferences, and changes that occur in these preferences between service entry and completion of basic training. Questionnaires were administered to recruits from four services just before classification interviewing…

Hoehn, Arthur J.; And Others

440

Technology of military conflict, military spending, and war  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies how the technology of military conflict affects the allocation of resources in military spending (“guns”) and productive investment (“butter”). We first identify the fundamental property of conflict technology which the two commonly used contest success functions, the difference and ratio forms, share. Using this property, named the constant elasticity of augmentation, we construct a new class of

Sung-Ha Hwang

2012-01-01

441

Military Pedagogy. A Soviet View. Soviet Military Thought Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A constant theme running throughout this book is that the principles of Soviet military instruction are fundamentally different from the principles of training in western military establishments. The overriding concern of this theme is that purposefulness and the Communist Party approach are the essence of the entire Soviet educational process.…

Danchenko, A. M., Ed.; Vydrin, I. F., Ed.

442

Building military influenza surveillance capacity in West Africa.  

PubMed

Militaries are especially susceptible to operationally important outbreaks of acute respiratory infections such as pandemic and seasonal influenza. In addition, militaries play important roles for State Parties working to meet International Health Regulations 2005, particularly in developing countries. In 2009, the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 joined with the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research and the armed forces of Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Côte d'Ivoire to create or improve influenza surveillance capacities within the militaries. This article describes the process undertaken to achieve this goal. In the Ghana Armed Forces, influenza surveillance for outpatients was instituted at seven medical stations throughout the country and for inpatients at the tertiary referral hospital in Accra. As a result, military sites now contribute around half of the influenza cases detected in Ghana and reported weekly to the World Health Organization. Samples were also collected by the militaries of Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso, although political instability slowed progress. This effort is part of an ongoing strategy to build influenza surveillance capacity within West African militaries in support of military services, global outbreak investigations, International Health Regulations-2005, and the development of country-specific pandemic preparedness plans. PMID:23707118

Kronmann, Karl C; Ampofo, William; Nzussouo, Talla; Wasfy, Momtaz O; Agbenohevi, Prince; Carroll, John; Diabate, Mory; Sourabie, Seydou; Puplampu, Naiki; Clemens, Michaela; Oyofo, Buhari A

2013-03-01

443

Fresh Whole Blood Transfusions in Coalition Military, Foreign National, and Enemy Combatant Patients during Operation Iraqi Freedom at a U.S. Combat Support Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  United States military doctrine permits the use of fresh whole blood (FWB), donated by U.S. military personnel on site, for\\u000a casualties with life-threatening injuries at combat support hospitals. U.S. Military Medical Department policy dictates that\\u000a all patients treated at military facilities during combat (coalition military personnel, foreign nationals, and enemy combatants)\\u000a are to be treated equally. The objectives of this

Philip C. Spinella; Jeremy G. Perkins; Kurt W. Grathwohl; Thomas Repine; Alec C. Beekley; James Sebesta; Donald Jenkins; Kenneth Azarow; John B. Holcomb

2008-01-01

444

Neurologic adverse events associated with smallpox vaccination in the United States – response and comment on reporting of headaches as adverse events after smallpox vaccination among military and civilian personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Accurate reporting of adverse events occurring after vaccination is an important component of determining risk-benefit ratios for vaccinations. Controversy has developed over alleged underreporting of adverse events within U.S. military samples. This report examines the accuracy of adverse event rates recently published for headaches, and examines the issue of underreporting of headaches as a function of civilian or military

Walter R Schumm

2006-01-01

445

History and Significance of Military Packaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work deals with the logistics doctrine of military packaging. Military packaging came about because military planners overlooked the need to protect materiel from the storage and transportation stresses first encountered during World War II. These ex...

J. C. Maloney

1996-01-01

446

Effectiveness and Efficiencies of Private Military Corporations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigates private military corporations (PMCs) to examine their effectiveness and efficiency as a substitute for traditional military forces. The PMC consists of a for profit firm that provides military services that range from combat operat...

R. A. Burge

2008-01-01

447

Abortion Services and Military Medical Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1993, President Clinton modified military policy on providing abortions at military medical facilities. Under the change, military medical facilities were allowed to perform abortions if paid for entirely by non-DOD funds (i.e., privately funded). Alth...

D. F. Burrelli

2010-01-01

448

Conceptual Approach for Military Data Fusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Military operations become more and more complex. Information overload, and uncompleted and uncertain data made military information system design a challenge that would confer or withhold information superiority. The latter could represent military super...

L. Pigeon

2002-01-01

449

74 FR 43685 - Military Leadership Diversity Commission  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Military Leadership Diversity Commission AGENCY: Office...advisory committee meeting of the Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC) will take...for the commissioners of the Military Leadership Diversity Commission to discuss...

2009-08-27

450

The Military: Purveyor of Fine Skills and Comportment for a Few Good Men. EQW Working Papers WP25.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The military is the largest educational and training institution in the United States and perhaps the world. Tangible benefits tied to military service include competitive pay, health care, paid vacation, and other perquisites. Compared to the civilian sector, the military has relatively more technicians, operators, mechanics, repairers, and…

Laurence, Janice H.

451

Soldiering with Substance: Substance and Steroid Use among Military Personnel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The military provides a unique social environment given the organization and culture of the institution. Understanding substance use by those inside this institution provides insight into both the population as well as substance use in general. Using data collected from in-depth interviews, this article explores the nature and extent of substance…

Bucher, Jacob

2012-01-01

452

The Place of the Humanities at a Military Academy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author, a captain in the U.S. Coast Guard and professor of English at the Coast Guard Academy in New London, Connecticut, argues in this article that, contrary to images perpetuated in popular culture, military officers do not eschew the arts as exemplified in such films as "Platoon" and "Full Metal Jacket" where the audience is expected to…

Flammang, Lucretia A.

2007-01-01

453

Inter-Korean military confidence building after 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tensions on the Korean Peninsula remain high despite a long-term strategy by South Korea to increase inter-Korean exchanges in economics, culture, sports, and other topics. This is because the process of reconciliation has rarely extended to military and security topics and those initiatives that were negotiated have been ineffective. Bilateral interactions must include actions to reduce threats and improve confidence

Kim Tae-woo; Adriane C. Littlefield; Michael Geoffrey Vannoni; Kim Sang-beom; Jennifer Gay Koelm; John Norman Olsen; Kim Myong-jin; Shin Sung-tack

2003-01-01

454

Respiratory Disease Surveillance and Vaccine Studies in Military Dependent Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The HPV-77 strain of rubella virus attenuated by duck embryo cell culture passage was administered to l80 children included in l53 families, mostly dependents of military personnel at Keesler Air Force Base, Mississippi from February l968 through July l96...

W. J. Mogabgab

1969-01-01

455

Effect of pH on contractile state and transsarcolemmal Ca flux in cultured heart cells  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of pH-induced changes in cardiac contractile state was investigated using spontaneously beating cultured chick embryo ventricular cells. Cells were equilibrated in HEPES-buffered medium at pH 7.4 and then exposed to pH 6.0, 7.4 or 8.8 medium. pH-induced changes in Ca uptake were insensitive to 1 ..mu..M verapamil but were sensitive to changes in Na gradient. pH 6.0 inhibited and pH 8.8 stimulated Na/sub i/-dependent Ca uptake. Replacement of Na in the efflux medium with choline during /sup 45/Ca efflux did not affect the pH-induced changes in Ca efflux, suggesting that pH alters Ca efflux via sarcolemmal Ca-ATPase. Intracellular alkalinization or acidification produced by NH/sub 4/Cl (20 mM) altered contractile state by +140% or -60%, respectively, but failed to alter significantly the /sup 45/Ca influx or efflux rates. The authors conclude that pH-induced alteration in contractile state is due in part to changes in transsarcolemmal Ca movement via Na/Ca exchange as well as sarcolemmal Ca pump activity. pH/sub i/-induced alteration in contractile state is due to changes in Ca movements within the cell and/or in Ca sensitivity of myofibrils.

Kim, D.; Smith, T.W.

1986-03-05

456

Military Withdrawal From Government Responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typically, military coups occur in crisis situations. No matter whether the resulting military regimes can solve the problems which provided them the opportunity to intervene, or fail to do so, they will-almost inevitably-suffer legitimacy crises over periods of time. This dilemma forces them either to broaden the basis of their regime by sharing power with nonmilitary circles, or to retreat

Ulf Sundhaussen

1984-01-01

457

OLED study for military applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presentation deals with some applications of OLED displays in military optronic systems, which are scheduled by SAGEM DS (Defence and Security). SAGEM DS, one of the largest group in the defence and security market, is currently investigating OLED Technologies for military programs. This technology is close from being chosen for optronic equipment such as future infantry night vision goggles,

F. Barre; A. Chiquard; S. Faure; L. Landais; P. Patry

2005-01-01

458

Military Justice Procedure Study Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The term 'procedure' is used at the Naval Justice School to refer generally to the rules, regulations, and laws which exist for the administration of the military justice system. The purpose of the procedure course is to enable a military lawyer to unders...

1983-01-01

459

Claire Lee Chennault: Military Genius.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The military genius is a rare and valued individual. Carl von Clausewitz wrote extensively on the necessity for and determinants of the military genius. Specifically he wrote of the need for an inquiring mind, a comprehensive approach, and a calm head. Cl...

P. N. Brown

1995-01-01

460

Outlook for Military Operations Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document surveys developments in warfare and military operations research, to see what lessons these may hold for the future. Specifically, the author assesses two possibilities: (1) that there is a need to reform military O.R. to purge it of accumul...

T. E. Anger

1983-01-01

461

New Soviet Military District Formed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fifteen military districts into which the Soviet Union is divided have recently been increased by the addition of one more-a sixteenth. This is the Central Asian Military District, the territory of which was taken from the extremely expansive Turkesta...

1970-01-01

462

Sino-Soviet Military Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military relations between the Soviet Union and Communist China were never as close as many have assumed, and since 1960 they have been virtually nonexistent. The Chinese have accepted a penalty to their military power as part of the cost of challenging Moscow's leadership in the Com munist world. For the Soviets, the cost has been slight, though they have

Raymond L. Garthoff

1963-01-01

463

Sources of Perceptions Military Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data from the Youth Attitude Tracking Study (YATS) indicate that perceptions of military Service are dominated by word-of-mouth communications with others, particularly persons who are or have been in the military, and by the media -- primarily movies. Ea...

J. Lehnus M. Wilson

1999-01-01

464

INDIVIDUAL NEEDS AND MILITARY TURNOVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to review individual differences factors that are likely to play a role in the process of military withdrawal. Four broad categories of factors relevant to military turnover have been identified. These are unmet expectations, work-family concerns, job related attitudes, and person-job fit. Unmet expectations expressed in the form of post- entry experiences concerning more

Hayriye Canan Sümer

465

Military Fathers' Perspectives on Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military fathers endure repeated separations from their children. In this qualitative study we describe military fathers' range of involvement with their children, paying special attention to the implications of deployment separation and reintegration. We discuss father involvement using three overlapping major domains of functioning: cognitive, affective, and behavioral. Additionally, we consider how types of father involvement differ vis-à-vis child age.

Elaine Willerton; Rona L. Schwarz; Shelley M. MacDermid Wadsworth; Mary Schultheis Oglesby

2011-01-01

466

Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 46th state, Oklahoma, presents its unusual history with the online version of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. The Encyclopedia was prepared by over 500 "university-based scholars and independent historians and scholars," and was a joint effort by The Oklahoma Historical Society and Oklahoma State University Library Electronic Publishing Center. Visitors can click on the "Table of Contents" link near the bottom of the homepage to "Browse Entries Alphabetically", "Browse Entries Chronologically", or "Browse Entries by Subject". Browsing via chronology introduces visitors to Oklahoma starting with the "Precontact Era", through the "Westward Expansion" and on to "Twentieth Century to Present". Subject categories include "African Americans", "Farming", "Military", and "Petroleum". When searching, visitors will be taken to the Electronic Publishing Center Search Page, so they will need to choose the specific collection, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, from the drop down box, to confine the search to the Encyclopedia.

467

Military Families Considering Adoption  

MedlinePLUS

... Centered Casework Practice Family Group Decision-Making Engaging Communities to Support Families Creating a Family-Centered Agency Culture Child Abuse & Neglect Child Abuse & Neglect Home Overview ...

468

War and Military Power Reconstructed - The Revolution in Military Affairs and the Global War on Terror as American Projects to Reconstruct the Constitutive Elements of War and Military power  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the demise of the Cold War the traditional sedimented foundations of estimating and generating military power within the international system became challenged. Simi- larly, the very 'essence' of war has undergone a change during the last two decades. As the probability of large-scale military invasion decreased significantly at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s, states had to come

Jyri Raitasalo

469

‘An American soldier-poet’: Alan Seeger and war culture in the United States, 1914–1918  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the issue of ‘war culture’ in the United States. It focuses on the American poet-soldier, Alan Seeger, who fought with the French Foreign Legion from 1914 until his death in 1916, and wrote various articles to newspapers in the United States in addition to his posthumous Poems (1916) and Letters and Diary (1917). Focusing on these documents,

Alisa Miller

2010-01-01

470

The importance of militaries from developing countries in global infectious disease surveillance.  

PubMed

Military forces from developing countries have become increasingly important as facilitators of their government's foreign policy, taking part in peacekeeping operations, military exercises and humanitarian relief missions. Deployment of these forces presents both challenges and opportunities for infectious disease surveillance and control. Troop movements may cause or extend epidemics by introducing novel agents to susceptible populations. Conversely, military units with disease surveillance and response capabilities can extend those capabilities to civilian populations not served by civilian public health programmes, such as those in remote or post-disaster settings. In Peru and Thailand, military health organizations in partnership with the military of the United States use their laboratory, epidemiological, communications and logistical resources to support civilian ministry of health efforts. As their role in international affairs expands, surveillance capabilities of militaries from developing countries should be enhanced, perhaps through partnerships with militaries from high-income countries. Military-to-military and military-to-civilian partnerships, with the support of national and international civilian health organizations, could also greatly strengthen global infectious disease surveillance, particularly in remote and post-disaster areas where military forces are present. PMID:17486207

Chretien, Jean-Paul; Blazes, David L; Coldren, Rodney L; Lewis, Michael D; Gaywee, Jariyanart; Kana, Khunakorn; Sirisopana, Narongrid; Vallejos, Victor; Mundaca, Carmen C; Montano, Silvia; Martin, Gregory J; Gaydos, Joel C

2007-03-01

471

The importance of militaries from developing countries in global infectious disease surveillance.  

PubMed

Military forces from developing countries have become increasingly important as facilitators of their government's foreign policy, taking part in peacekeeping operations, military exercises and humanitarian relief missions. Deployment of these forces presents both challenges and opportunities for infectious disease surveillance and control. Troop movements may cause or extend epidemics by introducing novel agents to susceptible populations. Conversely, military units with disease surveillance and response capabilities can extend those capabilities to civilian populations not served by civilian public health programmes, such as those in remote or post-disaster settings. In Peru and Thailand, military health organizations in partnership with the military of the United States use their laboratory, epidemiological, communications and logistical resources to support civilian ministry of health efforts. As their role in international affairs expands, surveillance capabilities of militaries from developing countries should be enhanced, perhaps through partnerships with militaries from high-income countries. Military-to-military and military-to-civilian partnerships, with the support of national and international civilian health organizations, could also greatly strengthen global infectious disease surveillance, particularly in remote and post-disaster areas where military forces are present. PMID:18405198

Chretien, Jean-Paul; Blazes, David L; Coldren, Rodney L; Lewis, Michael D; Gaywee, Jariyanart; Kana, Khunakorn; Sirisopana, Narongrid; Vallejos, Victor; Mundaca, Carmen C; Montano, Silvia; Martin, Gregory J; Gaydos, Joel C

2007-01-01

472

The Role of Private Military Companies in US-Africa Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the increasing use of private military companies (PMCs) in United States’ security policy in Africa, and examines this phenomenon in relation to the US’ various military training programmes on the continent. We argue that the increasing use of PMCs in US security policy has evolved due to two critical and mutually dependent developments; African state weakness and

Kwesi Aning; Thomas Jaye; Samuel Atuobi

2008-01-01

473

Sleep and Academic Performance in U.S. Military Training and Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review examines the effects of military training regimes, which might include some degree of sleep deprivation, on sleep-wake schedules. We report a 4-year longitudinal study of sleep patterns of cadets at the United States Military Academy and the consequences of an extension of sleep from 6 to 8 hr per night at the United States Navy's…

Miller, Nita Lewis; Shattuck, Lawrence G.; Matsangas, Panagiotis; Dyche, Jeff

2008-01-01

474

Sleep and Academic Performance in U.S. Military Training and Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This review examines the effects of military training regimes, which might include some degree of sleep deprivation, on sleep-wake schedules. We report a 4-year longitudinal study of sleep patterns of cadets at the United States Military Academy and the consequences of an extension of sleep from 6 to 8 hr per night at the United States Navy's…

Miller, Nita Lewis; Shattuck, Lawrence G.; Matsangas, Panagiotis; Dyche, Jeff

2008-01-01

475

Coordinating medical civil military operations in Multinational Division-North.  

PubMed

Medical civil military operations (MCMO) are part of military civil capacity-building efforts within the full spectrum of military operations, from war to military operations other than war. In 2008-2009 during Operation Iraqi Freedom, the Division Surgeon's Section (DSS) of the 25th Infantry Division (25ID) and Multinational Division-North developed an innovative MCMO program in northern Iraq. The program centered on understanding and mapping key relationships, empowering brigade-level programs, and leveraging technology to identify and share best practices. The DSS mapped the critical relationships within and between the three entities affecting MCMO: the government of Iraq (GOI), Department of State (DOS), and the Department of Defense (DOD). A division MCMO working group was then created along with processes to facilitate MCMO project execution and program management. The structure and organization of the 25ID MCMO program lend themselves to other operational environments requiring synchronization of medical capacity-building efforts. PMID:21121489

Smyrski, John A; Rainey, McKinley; Roach, Shane; Stevens, Mark; Hernandez, Gloria; Vargo, Ruth

2010-11-01

476

[Military medical service and international humanitarian law (literature review)].  

PubMed

Three periods of the development of military medical service management in Ukraine can be outlined according to the findings of the conducted study, they are the following: formation (1992-1994), consolidation and development (the end of 1994-2003), functional and structural transformation (2004). Leading tendencies of the formation of the management of medical military service in the period are shown in the article to be democratization and structural order of units of the system of the management of military service, integration of efforts and resources of medical military service in one medically covered area of the state, introduction and intensive expansion in army prophylactic and treatment institutions of wide spectrum of requiring payment medical service, rendering out-patient medical service to armed forces personnel and pensioner of Ministry of Defense by family physicians, orientation toward effective management. PMID:15771081

Radysh, Ia F; Mehed', V P; Badiuk, M I; Mel'nyk, O M; Andriienko, O Ia

2004-12-01

477

Toxicology and military anaesthesia.  

PubMed

The combination of trauma and poisoning is a situation likely to be faced by a deployed force at some point. This article provides practical advice on how to deal with poisoned patients without deviating from the concept of damage control resuscitation. The constraints of limited diagnostics, both at the scene and clinically, and lack of antidotal therapy are fundamental to the practice of clinical toxicology. Some of the specific therapies such as atropine and oximes were not evaluated prior to their introduction and there are few randomised controlled trials of poisoned patients. Most of the diagnoses will be made on clinical grounds and most of the therapy will be supportive; this article aims to reassure military anaesthetists in the process of dealing with the poisoned trauma patient. PMID:21302652

Nicholson-Roberts, T C

2010-12-01

478

Modeling and predicting community responses to events using cultural demographics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a novel capability for modeling and predicting community responses to events (specifically military operations) related to demographics. Demographics in the form of words and/or numbers are used. As an example, State of Alabama annual demographic data for retail sales, auto registration, wholesale trade, shopping goods, and population were used; from which we determined a ranked estimate of the sensitivity of the demographic parameters on the cultural group response. Our algorithm and results are summarized in this paper.

Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Hicklen, Michael L.

2007-05-01

479

Comparative Strategic Cultures Curriculum Project: Assessing Strategic Culture as a Methodological Approach to Understanding WMD Decision-Making by States and Non-State Actors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This syllabus is intended to introduce the concept of strategic culture to upper division undergraduates seeking to deepen their understanding of international relations and security studies, and broaden their theoretical and methodological tool sets. Our...

J. A. Larsen J. L. Johnson

2006-01-01

480

The nature of safety culture: A survey of the state-of-the-art  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the literature on safety culture, placing particular focus on research undertaken from 1998 onwards. The term culture is clarified as it is typically applied to organizations, to safety, and particularly to construction safety. Some clarification in terms of positive safety culture, safety culture models, levels of aggregation and safety performance is provided by presenting appropriate empirical evidence

Rafiq M. Choudhry; Dongping Fang; Sherif Mohamed

2007-01-01

481

Safety culture: a survey of the state-of-the-art  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the evolution of the term ‘safety culture’ and the perceived relationship between safety culture and safety of operations in nuclear power generation and other hazardous technologies. There is a widespread belief that safety culture is an important contributor to safety of operations. Empirical evidence that safety culture and other management and organizational factors influence operational safety is

J. N. Sorensen

2002-01-01

482

Late Holocene Climate and Cultural Changes in the Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Columnar stalagmites in caves of the Guadalupe Mountains during the late Holocene record a 4000-year annually resolved climate history for the southwestern United States. Annual banding, hiatuses, and high-precision uranium-series dating show a present day-like climate from 4000 to 3000 years ago, following a drier middle Holocene. A distinctly wetter and cooler period from 3000 to 800 years ago was followed by a period of present day-like conditions, with the exception of a slightly wetter interval from 440 to 290 years before the present. The stalagmite record correlates well with the archaeological record of changes in cultural activities of indigenous people. Such climate change may help to explain evidence of dwelling abandonment and population redistribution.

Polyak, Victor J.; Asmerom, Yemane

2001-10-01

483

Satellite Vegetation Index Data as a Tool to Forecast Population Dynamics of Medically Important Mosquitoes at Military Installations in the Continental United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States faces many existing and emerging mosquito-borne disease threats, such as West Nile virus and Rift Valley fever. An important component of strategic prevention and control plans for these and other mosquito-borne diseases is forecasting t...

A. Anyamba C. J. Tucker E. W. Pak K. J. Linthicum S. C. Britch

2008-01-01

484

Satellite vegetation index data as a tool to forecast population dynamics of medically important mosquitoes at military installations in the Continental United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The United States faces many existing and emerging mosquito-borne disease threats such as West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever (RVF). An important component of strategic prevention and control plans for these and other mosquito-borne diseases is forecasting the distribution, timing, and abund...

485

An Analysis of the Relationships between Job Satisfaction/Enrichment Factors and Demographic Variables for United States Air Force Professional Military Education Faculty.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study has focused upon an application of job motivation/satisfaction theory to the faculty of the United States Air Force Air University. The study was limited to the three major college faculties within Air University. Two hundred and twenty subject...

R. H. Reely

1976-01-01

486

Military psychologists and the Partnership for Peace program in Albania.  

PubMed

A team of two military psychologists (the authors) traveled to Albania to provide training to Albanian military sociologists in psychological issues associated with peacekeeping deployment in connection with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's Partnership for Peace program. The training, based on research conducted by the authors, emphasize the typical problems faced by peacekeepers. The information presented was adjusted to better meet the particular needs of the Albanians. Topics of primary interest to the Albanians are discussed with an emphasis on the Albanian cultural context. General lessons for future Partnership for Peace training are also presented. PMID:9232981

Adler, A B; Bartone, P T

1997-07-01

487

Changes in steady state on introduction of a Lactobacillus contaminant to a continuous culture ethanol fermentation.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus paracasei was introduced as a contaminant into a multistage continuous culture ethanol fermentation system at ratios of 1:100, 1:1, and 70:1 with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but failed to overtake the yeast. None of the inoculation ratios allowed L. paracasei to affect S. cerevisiae in the first fermentor in the multistage system. S. cerevisiae remained constant at approximately 3x10(7) CFU/ml regardless of the bacterial inoculation level, and even at the 70:1 inoculation ratio, glucose, ethanol, and lactic acid concentrations did not change from the steady-state concentrations seen before bacterial inoculation. However, L. paracasei decreased steadily from its initial inoculation level of approximately 2.2x10(9) CFU/ml and stabilized at 3.7x10(5) CFU/ml after 10 days of steady-state operation. Both organisms then persisted in the multistage system at an approximate L. paracasei/S. cerevisiae ratio of 1:100 which confirms that, in continuous fuel ethanol production, it would be difficult to eliminate this bacterium. Only when the pH was controlled at 6.0 in fermentor 1 (F1) were changes seen which would affect the multistage system. Ethanol concentration then decreased by 44% after 4 days of pH-controlled operation. This coincided with an increase in L. paracasei to >10(10) CFU/ml, and a 4x increase in lactic acid concentration to 20 g/l. When the clarified contents from other fermentors (F2-F5) in the multistage system were used as growth media, L. paracasei was not able to grow in batch culture. This indicated that the first fermentor in the multistage system was the only fermentor capable of supporting the growth of L. paracasei under the described conditions. PMID:11598809

Bayrock, D; Ingledew, W M

2001-07-01

488

Organizational characteristics that foster early adoption of cultural and linguistic competence in outpatient substance abuse treatment in the United States.  

PubMed

Recent years have seen an increased interest in developing culturally and linguistically responsive systems of care in substance abuse treatment in the United States. This study examines the extent to which external and internal organizational pressures contributed to the degree of adoption of culturally and linguistically responsive practices in the nation's outpatient substance abuse treatment system early in the period of development of this system of care. Findings show that a higher degree of adoption of culturally competent practices was most likely in treatment programs with high dependence on external funding and regulation. Internally, programs with a larger number of professionals were associated with the lowest degree of adoption, while managers' cultural sensitivity contributed significantly to a high degree of adoption of these responsive practices. Considering the passage of recent legislation enforcing the use of cultural and linguistic competence in health care, implications of these baseline findings on early adoption patterns are discussed for future research and health care policy evaluation. PMID:21949458

Guerrero, Erick G

2012-02-01

489

A cross-cultural comparison of reports by German Shepherd owners in Hungary and the United States of America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-cultural comparisons of dog behavior and dog-keeping practices are limited. The current study compared the questionnaire responses of German Shepherd owners in Hungary and the United States of America (USA). Owners provided information about their dog-keeping practices, as well as reports of their own German Shepherds’ behavior and temperament. Cross-cultural differences and similarities were revealed using multivariate regression. Owners from

Michele Wan; Enik? Kubinyi; Ádám Miklósi; Frances Champagne

2009-01-01

490

Viable but non-culturable Vibrio cholerae O1 revert to a cultivable state in the human intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae O1 can enter a state in which they remain viable but are non-culturable. Presumably, such bacteria can be pathogenic if they retain the capacity to proliferate in the human intestine following ingestion. Two groups of volunteeers were given inocula containing viable but non-culturable V. cholerae O1 of the attenuated vaccine strain CVD 101 (viable CVD 101 organisms readily

R. R. Colwell; P. Brayton; D. Herrington; B. Tall; A. Huq; M. M. Levine

1996-01-01

491

Clinical Effectiveness of the LE 3 AN Program: A Military Healthy Lifestyle Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several decades, obesity has been a major health concern within the general population of the United States as well as\\u000a within the unique military population. Unlike the civilian sector, military service requires individuals to meet weight and\\u000a body fat standards. In order to assist overweight military personnel return to standards, Tripler Army Medical Center initiated\\u000a the LE3AN Program. LE3AN

Jay E. Earles; Burton Kerr; Larry C. James; Raymond A. Folen

2007-01-01

492

Dilemmas and controversies within civilian and military organizations in the execution of humanitarian aid in Iraq: a review.  

PubMed

Civilian humanitarian assistance organizations and military forces are working in a similar direction in many humanitarian operations around the world. However, tensions exist over the role of the military in such operations. The purpose of this article is to review cultural perspectives of civilian and military actors and to discuss recent developments in civil-military humanitarian collaboration in the provision of health services in Iraq for guiding such collaborative efforts in postconflict and other settings in future. Optimal collaborative efforts are most likely to be achieved through the following tenets: defining appropriate roles for military forces at the beginning of humanitarian operations (optimally the provision of transportation, logistical coordination, and security), promoting development of ongoing relationships between civilian and military agencies, establishment of humanitarian aid training programs for Department of Defense personnel, and the need for the military to develop and use quantitative aid impact indicators for assuring quality and effectiveness of humanitarian aid. PMID:21319556

Morton, Melinda J; Burnham, Gilbert M

493

The differential impact of training stress and final examination stress on herpesvirus latency at the United States Military Academy at West Point.  

PubMed

In this study, we searched for evidence for reactivation of three latent herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), in West Point cadets experiencing two different stressors. Blood samples were obtained from cadets before and after a 6-week training period known as "Cadet Basic Training" (CBT), at a baseline prior to final examinations, and then once again during the week of final examinations. Antibody titers to latent HSV-1, EBV, and HHV-6 were determined as a measure of the steady-state expression of latent virus. EBV virus capsid antigen (VCA) IgG antibody titers were unchanged in blood samples obtained prior to and immediately after CBT. However, EBV antibody titers were significantly higher in the blood sample obtained during examination week than in the baseline period before examination; they were also higher than antibody titers before/after CBT. None of the serum samples were positive for EBV VCA IgM antibodies, indicating that the changes in antibody titers to EBV were not associated with recent EBV infections in the class. No significant changes in antibody titers to HSV-1 or HSV-6 were found over the identical time periods, including examination week. Academic stress but not CBT modulated the steady-state expression of latent EBV, resulting in the reactivation of latent virus. The same stressors, however, did not affect the steady-state expression of latent HSV-1 or HSV-6, at least as measured by changes in antibody titers. The data provide additional evidence of the impact of different psychological stressors on the steady-state expression of latent herpesviruses. PMID:10469525

Glaser, R; Friedman, S B; Smyth, J; Ader, R; Bijur, P; Brunell, P; Cohen, N; Krilov, L R; Lifrak, S T; Stone, A; Toffler, P

1999-09-01

494

The Military and Society Beyond the Postmodern Era  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree to which the international security environment had changed after the Cold War became evident with the attacks on September 11. As a result, military forces in the United States (and perhaps in the West generally) are evolving from their Cold War and immediate post-Cold War perspectives to confront transnational and subnational non-state dangers. These changes have significant implications

John Allen Williams

2008-01-01

495

Temperature and pH optima of enzyme activities produced by cellulolytic thermophilic fungi in batch and solid-state cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The temperature and pH optima of cellulolytic activities produced by thermophilic fungi in liquid and solid-state cultures were established. Some differences in optimal conditions for enzyme activities, which depended on culture methods, were confirmed.

W. Grajek

1986-01-01

496

Study of Insect Pollinators Associated With DoD TER-S Flowering Plants, Including Identification of Habitat Types Where They Co-Occur by Military Installation in the Southeastern United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project provides information on new biological and pollination ecology for military natural resource managers to employ when managing their natural resources in accordance with their Integrated Natural Resource Management Plan (INRMP) as per the Sike...

A. D. Howell J. Tsang L. D. Adams S. Buchmann

2010-01-01

497

Isolation of a novel promoter for efficient protein expression by Aspergillus oryzae in solid-state culture.  

PubMed

A novel promoter from a hemolysin-like protein encoding the gene, hlyA, was characterized for protein overexpression in Aspergillus oryzae grown in solid-state culture. Using endo-1,4-?-glucanase from A. oryzae (CelA) as the reporter, promoter activity was found to be higher than that of the ?-amylase (amyA) and manganese superoxide dismutase (sodM) genes not only in wheat bran solid-state culture but also in liquid culture. Expression of the A. oryzae endoglucanase CelB and two heterologous endoglucanases (TrEglI and TrEglIII from Trichoderma reesei) under the control of the hlyA promoter were also found to be stronger than under the control of the amyA promoter in A. oryzae grown in wheat bran solid-state culture, suggesting that the hlyA promoter may be useful for the overproduction of other proteins as well. In wheat bran solid-state culture, the productivity of the hlyA promoter in terms of protein produced was high when the cultivation temperature was 30°C or 37°C, when the water content was 0.6 or 0.8 ml/g wheat bran, and from 48 to 72 h after inoculation. Because A. oryzae sporulated actively under these conditions and because hemolysin has been reported to play a role in fungal fruiting body formation, high-level expression of hlyA may be related to sporulation. PMID:21732241

Bando, Hiroki; Hisada, Hiromoto; Ishida, Hiroki; Hata, Yoji; Katakura, Yoshio; Kondo, Akihiko

2011-07-06

498

Military Takeover Complete in Pakistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

General Pervez Musharraf assumed the position of chief executive of Pakistan early this morning, completing a very quick and bloodless coup that began on Tuesday night. General Musharraf declared a state of emergency, suspending the constitution and the national and provincial assemblies, dismissing the provincial governments and governors, and banning the Supreme Court from challenging his authority. Reaction to the coup has been rather muted within Pakistan and abroad. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, who is now in custody, was increasingly unpopular in Pakistan because of the country's dire economic situation, his handling of the conflict with India in Kashmir, and what some saw as his systematic efforts to undermine the authority of rival political parties and branches of government. Foreign officials and editorials have criticized the military and called for the restoration of civilian rule as soon as possible. However, many have also acknowledged Sharif's poor record and some have even called for a transitional "technocratic" government to revive the economy and fight corruption. While the crucial question of foreign aid and loans to Pakistan is still very much up in the air, it does appear that at least some nations, most notably arch-rival India, are prepared to do business with Pakistan's new leaders, at least for the short term.

De Nie, Michael W.

499

Trust in Culturally Diverse Teams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the Canadian Forces is becoming more culturally diverse and personnel are increasingly involved in complex multinational coalition operations, a critical issue is how military teams will be able to work efficiently and effectively despite the challenge...

A. L. Brown B. D. Adams C. L. Karthaus J. J. Famewo

2008-01-01

500

Effect of phorbol esters on contractile state and calcium flux in cultured chick heart cells  

SciTech Connect

Phorbol esters are potent tumor promoters that have been widely used in studies of transmembrane signaling because of their ability to activate protein kinase C. To study the effect of phorbol esters (and indirectly, the role of protein kinase C) on the cardiac muscle contractility, the authors examined the effects of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) on contractile state, transmembrane /sup 45/Ca fluxes, and cytosolic free Ca concentration ((Ca)/sub i/) using spontaneously contracting cultured chick ventricular cells. PMA produced a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in the amplitude of cell motion (half maximum inhibitory concentration) with maximal effect observed at 1 ..mu..M. PMA (1 ..mu..M) reduced /sup 45/Ca uptake rate by 16 /plus minus/ 4% and the size of the rapidly exchangeable Ca pool by 11 /plus minus/ 2%, but did not alter the /sup 45/Ca efflux rate. In fura-2-loaded cells. PMA produced a decrease in (Ca)/sub i/ from 96 /plus minus/ 7 to 72 /plus minus/ 5 nM with a time course similar to that of alteration in contractile amplitude. These results indicate that PMA influences transsarcolemmal Ca uptake, and thus the excitation-contraction process, and suggest that protein kinase C may modulate myocardial Ca homeostassis and contractile state.

Leatherman, G.F.; Kim, D.; Smith, T.W.

1987-07-01