Sample records for military culture state

  1. Cultural intelligence support for military operations

    SciTech Connect

    Guthormsen, Amy M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MacKerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merritt, Terence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgart, Ruth E [INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY

    2010-04-08

    It has long been recognized that military success relies on knowledge of the enemy. In the context of standard warfare, adequate knowledge of the enemy may be gained by analyzing observable, measurable data. In the context of modern counterinsurgency operations and the global war on terror, the task of predicting the behavior of the enemy is vastly more complex and difficult. Without an understanding of the ways individuals in the host nation interpret and react to events, no amount of objective information can provide the insight required to accurately predict behavior. US military doctrine has begun to recognize the importance of the many ways that local culture can affect operation success. Increasingly military decision makers use cultural information in the service of operation planning, and troops are provided with pre-deployment cultural training. However, no amount of training can cover the breadth and depth of potentially useful cultural information, and no amount of careful planning can avoid the need to adapt as situations develop. Therefore, a critical challenge is to provide useful tools to US personnel in their efforts to collect, analyze, and utilize cultural information. Essential functions for cultural support tools include the following: (1) to narrow down a broad range of available data and focus the user's attention on context-relevant information, (2) to present cultural information in an easily understood form, (3) to prompt the user to seek relevant information in the environment, (4) to synthesize information, and (5) to predict outcomes based on possible courses of operation. In this paper, we begin by reviewing the ways in which military operations can benefit from cultural intelligence. We then discuss frameworks for analyzing cultural information in the context of a military operation. We conclude with a demonstration of our current efforts to develop a tool that meets the aforementioned functional challenges.

  2. Understanding Military Culture: A Guide for Professional School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Rebekah F.

    2014-01-01

    School counselors must be knowledgeable about military culture in order to help military students and their families in a culturally competent manner. This article explores the nature of this unique culture, which is often unfamiliar to educators, including its language, hierarchy, sense of rules and regulations, self-expectations and…

  3. [Investigations on cordycepin production by solid culture of Cordyceps militaris].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hui-Ping; Ye, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Hua-Ying; Li, Xue-Gang; Zhong, Yun-Jun

    2008-10-01

    An efficient method to produce cordycepin by solid culture using Cordyceps militaris was investigated in this study. Firstly, the changes of cordycepin during various growing periods of solid culture using 5 strains of C. militaris were detected, the best strain and optimal growing period for cordycepin production were determined. Then, by experiments of quadratic rotation-orthogonal combination design and orthogonal design, the medium composition and growth conditions for high yield of cordycepin were optimized. With the optimized method to produce cordycepin, the content of cordycepin in the medium was increased to 0.60%, which was nearly 2 times higher than the highest yield reported. PMID:19165995

  4. Job Satisfaction and the Perceived Organizational Culture of U.S. Military and Military Affiliated Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diffenauer, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between demographic characteristics, level of job satisfaction, and current/preferred organizational culture in a sample of 139 off-campus military degree program participants. Responses were received from undergraduate students in the fields of engineering, applied sciences and arts, and education. "The Job…

  5. Isolation, purification and identification of polysaccharides from cultured Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongmin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Changxin; Zhao, Yu

    2004-12-01

    Four polysaccharides from the water extract of cultured Cordyceps militaris were isolated through ethanol precipitation, deproteination and gel-filtration chromatography. Their molecular weights were determined using gel-filtration chromatography. Among the four isolated polysaccharides, the structures of two of them (CPS-2 and CPS-3) were elucidated by sugar analysis, Smith degradation, IR and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:15567241

  6. Fingerprint analysis of fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps militaris by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongmin; Ye, Bin; Yan, Chunyan; Song, Liyan; Zhang, Zhang; Yang, Wei; Zhao, Yu

    2007-07-27

    We have developed and optimized a novel, efficient and accurate fingerprint method using high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) for the quality control of cultured Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link. The feasibility and advantages of the used chromatographic fingerprint were verified for the evaluation of cultured C. militaris by systematically comparing chromatograms with a professional analytical software recommended by State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) of PR China. The results revealed that the chromatographic fingerprint combining similarity evaluation could efficiently identify and distinguish cultured C. militaris from different sources. PMID:17512693

  7. 32 CFR 634.16 - Reciprocal state-military action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...16 Reciprocal state-military action. (a...official law enforcement communication relative to the suspension...or host nation for formal military reciprocity, the procedures...the absence of electronic communication technology, the...

  8. 32 CFR 634.16 - Reciprocal state-military action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...16 Reciprocal state-military action. (a...official law enforcement communication relative to the suspension...or host nation for formal military reciprocity, the procedures...the absence of electronic communication technology, the...

  9. 32 CFR 634.16 - Reciprocal state-military action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...16 Reciprocal state-military action. (a...official law enforcement communication relative to the suspension...or host nation for formal military reciprocity, the procedures...the absence of electronic communication technology, the...

  10. Optimization of solid state culture conditions for the production of adenosine, cordycepin, and D-mannitol in fruiting bodies of medicinal caterpillar fungus Cordyceps militaris (L.:Fr.) Link (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Lim, LekTeng; Lee, ChiaYen; Chang, EngThuan

    2012-01-01

    In general, Cordyceps sinensis is much more popular than C. militaris, though both species contain quite similar bioactive ingredients and exhibit medicinal activities. Many bioactive ingredients have been isolated from C. militaris, such as adenosine, cordycepin, D-mannitol, and exopolysaccharides. C. militaris is claimed to have extensive pharmacological properties, such as: anti-inflammatory; anti-fatigue; anti-bacterial; anti-diabetic; improve lung, liver, and kidney functions; to be beneficial for treating cancer as well as male and female sexual dysfunctions. C. militaris is fast gaining momentum for its so-called health benefits, and it is often used as a substitute for C. sinensis. In view of the growing popularity of C. militaris, nowadays C. militaris cultivation for stroma is also done. There is a great diversity of compounds from different strains of Cordyceps and different artificially cultivated products. This study is to determine the optimum culture parameters integrated with substrate of choice to bring the indoor-cultivated C. militaris to a higher and more consistent level of quality. To achieve the above objective, the resultant products after growth were analyzed for adenosine, cordycepin, and D-mannitol using the high-performance liquid chromatography method. The optimum culture condition to produce a high level of adenosine is by using millet as solid substrate. It must be cultivated in the dark for the first 7 days and harvested on day 40. The optimum culture condition to produce a high level of cordycepin is by using soybean as solid substrate. It must be cultivated in the dark for the first 14 days and harvested on day 50. While a high level of D-mannitol is achieved with millet as the solid substrate. It must be kept in the dark for the first 7 days and harvested on day 50. The adenosine level decreased and cordycepin increased from day 40 of culture to day 50 generally. PMID:22506578

  11. CENTER FOR ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT OF MILITARY LANDS Colorado State University

    E-print Network

    Ecology Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Philip N. Omi Professor of Fire Science Colorado StateCEMML TPS 99-9 CENTER FOR ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT OF MILITARY LANDS Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523-1500 December 1999 THECENTERforEcologicalManagementofMilitaryLands Andrew M. Beavers

  12. Cultural Conflict within Civil-Military Cooperation: A Case Study in Bosnia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tjallie A. M. Scheltinga; Sebastiaan J. H. Rietjens; Boer de Sirp J; Celeste P. M. Wilderom

    2006-01-01

    In peace-support operations, employees of international humanitarian organisations often clash with those of the military. A lack of familiarity with each other's practices and values, embedded in their respective organisational cultures, is often seen as the culprit. This article presents and illustrates a road map to manage such cultural differences between cooperating organisations. We found that the military culture, in

  13. Cultural Conflict within Civil-Military Cooperation: A Case Study in Bosnia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tjallie A. M. Scheltinga; Sebastiaan J. H. Rietjens; Sirp J. De Boer; Celeste P. M. Wilderom

    2005-01-01

    In peace-support operations, employees of international humanitarian organisations often clash with those of the military. A lack of familiarity with each other's practices and values, embedded in their respective organisational cultures, is often seen as the culprit. This article presents and illustrates a road map to manage such cultural differences between cooperating organisations. We found that the military culture, in

  14. United States military strategy in the Persian Gulf. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, E.E.

    1989-03-27

    The importance of Persian Gulf oil, in the context of United States national security has been demonstrated in recent political, economic, and military terms. Substantial United States military resources have been devoted to maintain national security interests in the Persian Gulf region. This paper analyzes the United States military strategy designed to insure the US and its allies continued access to Persian Gulf oil and to suggest alternatives for possible improvement. Although the focus is on US military strategy in the Persian Gulf, it also covers others aspects of US national security policy and strategy. US military policy in the Persian Gulf is derived from a complex process that inextricably links the elements of national strategy with the elements of national power. Conclusions about US policy and strategy in the Persian Gulf that are properly focused and logical require an understanding of US interests and their priorities; US strategies and their feasibility; plus US capabilities and their limitations.

  15. 78 FR 60266 - Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ...of Committee: United States Military Academy Board of Visitors...and Focus Areas; Academic, Military, and Physical Program Updates...Sexual Assault issues and training. This final update will include...DFO) at: United States Military Academy, Office of the...

  16. ‘Pounding Their Feet’: Israeli Military Culture as Reflected in Early IDF Combat History

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gil-li Vardi

    2008-01-01

    How did the Israel Defense Forces' (IDF) organisational and military culture shape their understanding of security threats, perceptions of warfare, and instinctive responses to security challenges? Israel's early military history is marked by the stubborn persistence of accepted patterns of thought and action. In the first twenty years of its existence, the IDF habitually came to sacrifice both political and

  17. Integrating Military and Veteran Culture in Social Work Education: Implications for Curriculum Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canfield, Julie; Weiss, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the conceptual question of how to best integrate military culture and issues into social work education. Military service members, veterans, and their families are returning to civilian communities with the ending of conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan and seeking community-based providers for health and mental health…

  18. 77 FR 31339 - Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ...of Committee: United States Military Academy Board of Visitors...Physical, Moral/Ethical and Military Programs, to include Summer Training; the Academic Program, Summer...budget, personnel, and ongoing military construction (MILCON)....

  19. 78 FR 32241 - Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA); Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...of Committee: United States Military Academy Board of Visitors...Graduation 2013, Class of 2017, Military Program (Summer Training), Summer Term Academic Program...Development (AIAD) and Civilian/Military Reductions, Budget and...

  20. First War Syndrome : military culture, professionalization, and counterinsurgency doctrine

    E-print Network

    Long, Austin G

    2010-01-01

    Counterinsurgency was a persistent and important challenge to military organizations in the second half of the 20th century and seems likely to continue to pose a challenge in the 21st century. This makes understanding how ...

  1. Armed forces, states and threats : civil-military institutions and military power in modern democracies

    E-print Network

    DeVore, Marc Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Two longstanding questions preoccupying political scientists, military officers and policymakers alike are how should and how do political leaders interact with military professionals? This thesis argues that historic ...

  2. Montana State University 1 Military Science -Air Force

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Montana State University 1 Military Science - Air Force ROTC The development and preparation of future Air Force officers is provided through the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps and junior years. Students not pursuing a commission in the Air Force may still enroll in any of the academic

  3. Proceedings of the 2002 American Society for Engineering Education Zone I Conference United States Military Academy

    E-print Network

    Military Academy H Experiences using Flying Models in Competitions and Coursework Robert P. Hansen , Lyle N. Long/ , Todd A. Dellert United States Military Academy/ / Pennsylvania State University Abstract States Military Academy and the Pennsylvania State University are described. Free-flight model gliders

  4. Adolescent Well-Being in Washington State Military Families

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Sarah C.; Edwards, Todd C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between parental military service and adolescent well-being. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in public school grades 8, 10, and 12 (n = 10 606). We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to test associations between parental military service and adolescent well-being (quality of life, depressed mood, thoughts of suicide). Results. In 8th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting thoughts of suicide among adolescent girls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19, 2.32) and higher odds of low quality of life (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.43, 3.10) and thoughts of suicide (OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.15, 2.67) among adolescent boys. In 10th and 12th grades, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting low quality of life (OR = 2.74; 95% CI = 1.79, 4.20), depressed mood (OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.02, 2.20), and thoughts of suicide (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.13, 2.38) among adolescent boys. Conclusions. Parental military deployment is associated with increased odds of impaired well-being among adolescents, especially adolescent boys. Military, school-based, and public health professionals have a unique opportunity to develop school- and community-based interventions to improve the well-being of adolescents in military families. PMID:21778477

  5. Effects of selenium and light wavelengths on liquid culture of Cordyceps militaris Link.

    PubMed

    Dong, J Z; Liu, M R; Lei, C; Zheng, X J; Wang, Y

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the effects of selenium and light wavelengths on the growth of liquid-cultured Cordyceps militaris and the main active components' accumulation, culture conditions as selenium selenite concentrations and light of different wavelengths were studied. The results are: adenosine accumulation proved to be significantly selenium dependent (R(2) = 0.9403) and cordycepin contents were determined to be not significantly selenium dependent (R(2) = 0.3845) but significantly enhanced by selenium except for 20 ppm; there were significant differences in cordycepin contents, adenosine contents, and mycelium growth caused by light wavelengths: cordycepin, blue light > pink light > daylight, darkness, red light; adenosine, red light > pink light, darkness, daylight, blue light; and mycelium growth, red light > pink light, darkness, daylight > blue light. In conclusion, light wavelength had a significant influence on production of mycelia, adenosine, and cordycepin, so lightening wavelength should be changed according to target products in the liquid culture of C. militaris. PMID:22434354

  6. "The Second American School of Arms": the Virginia Military Institute and the advent of state military education, 1835-1851

    E-print Network

    Wineman, Bradford Alexander

    2001-01-01

    in the antebellum South, including contributions of VMI to the region's burgeoning culture of violence. For example, in The Militant South, John Hope Franklin contends that Southern military schools of the antebellum period were outgrowths of a growing... the perceived threats to their honor while preparing for a possible conflict with the North or take action against potential slave uprisings. Franklin asserts that the schools' founders were "proud of the fact that in time of peace they had made formal...

  7. CIVIL-MILITARY GAP AND MILITARY EFFECTIVENESS: THE IMPACT OF IDEOLOGY AND MILITARY EXPERIENCE GAP ON DEFENSE SPENDING IN THE UNITED STATES, 1952-2000

    E-print Network

    Lee, Byeonggu

    2010-01-01

    -military gap for military effectiveness. This dissertation attempted to fill this void by examining the impact of ideology and military experience gap on defense spending, an element of military effectiveness. This study employed two measurements...

  8. Progressive vaccinia in a military smallpox vaccinee - United States, 2009.

    PubMed

    2009-05-22

    Progressive vaccinia (PV), previously known as vaccinia necrosum, vaccinia gangrenosum, or disseminated vaccinia, is a rare, often fatal adverse event after vaccination with smallpox vaccine, which is made from live vaccinia virus. During recent vaccination programs potential cases of PV were investigated, but none met standard case definitions. PV has not been confirmed to have occurred in the United States since 1987. On March 2, 2009, a U.S. Navy Hospital contacted the Poxvirus Program at CDC to report a possible case of PV in a male military smallpox vaccinee. The service member had been newly diagnosed with acute mylegenous leukemia M0 (AML M0). During evaluation for a chemotherapy-induced neutropenic fever, he was found to have an expanding and nonhealing painless vaccination site 6.5 weeks after receipt of smallpox vaccine. Clinical and laboratory investigation confirmed that the vaccinee met the Brighton Collaboration and CDC adverse event surveillance guideline case definition for PV. This report summarizes the patient's protracted clinical course and the military and civilian interagency governmental, academic, and industry public health contributions to his complex medical management. The quantities of investigational and licensed therapeutics and diagnostics used were greater than anticipated based on existing smallpox preparedness plans. To support future public health needs adequately, the estimated national supply of therapeutics and diagnostic resources required to care for smallpox vaccine adverse events should be reevaluated. PMID:19478722

  9. 76 FR 63188 - Hawaii State Plan; Change in Level of Federal Enforcement: Military Installations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1952 Hawaii State Plan; Change in Level of Federal...OSHA's approval of a change to the state of Hawaii's occupational safety [[Page 63189...military installations. The state of Hawaii, Department of Labor and Industrial...

  10. Cordycepin: selective growth inhibitor derived from liquid culture of Cordyceps militaris against Clostridium spp.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Y J; Park, S J; Lee, S G; Shin, S C; Choi, D H

    2000-07-01

    The growth responses of nine human intestinal bacteria to liquid culture of Cordyceps militaris Link. Pt. (Ascomycotina: Clavicipitaceae) collected from a pupa of Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) were examined using spectrophotometric and impregnated paper disk methods and compared to those of tetracycline and chloramphenicol, as well as those of Coptis japonica root-derived berberine chloride. The biologically active constituent of the cultures was characterized as cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) by spectroscopic analysis. This compound revealed potent growth-inhibiting activity toward Clostridium paraputrificum and Clostridium perfringens at 10 microgram/disk without adverse effects on the growth of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus casei, whereas tetracycline and chloramphenicol inhibited the growth of these lactic acid-producing bacteria, clostridia and Escherichia coli. However, C. militaris-derived materials revealed no growth stimulation on the bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. These results may be an indication of at least one of the pharmacological actions of C. militaris. As a naturally occurring antibacterial agent, cordycepin could be useful as a new preventive agent against various diseases caused by clostridia. PMID:10898616

  11. 48 CFR 225.770 - Prohibition on acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. 225.770 Section 225.770 Federal...acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. This section implements...

  12. Production of cordycepin and mycelia by submerged fermentation of Cordyceps militaris in mixture natural culture.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chun-yan; Gu, Zhen-xin; Fan, Gong-jian; Gu, Fei-rong; Han, Yong-bin; Chen, Zhi-gang

    2009-08-01

    The submerged fermentation of Cordyceps militaris for cordycepin production and mycelial growth was investigated in this study. Three natural materials of brown rice paste (BRP), beerwort (B), and soybean meal juice (SMJ) were used for fermentation of C. militaris in shaking flasks. The effects of the ratio of three natural materials on dry mycelium weight (DMW) and on cordycepin yield (CY) were analyzed. D-Optional mixture design was used to optimize the ratio of these materials. Compared with the signal culture, the higher mycelial growth and cordycepin production were obtained in mixture. The analysis of Design Expert 6.0 indicated that BRP, B, and SMJ very significantly influenced (P < 0.001) DMW and CY of C. militaris, respectively. The highest DMW (18.96 g/l) and CY (2.17 mg/g) were both obtained at a ratio of 53:6:42. The experiments' results indicated that the above mixture of these natural materials by D-optional mixture design can be used as a proper medium for the growth of mycelium and the production of cordycepin. PMID:19247587

  13. Medicinal uses of the mushroom Cordyceps militaris: current state and prospects.

    PubMed

    Das, Shonkor Kumar; Masuda, Mina; Sakurai, Akihiko; Sakakibara, Mikio

    2010-12-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a potential harbour of bio-metabolites for herbal drugs and evidences are available about its applications for revitalization of various systems of the body from ancient times. Amongst all the species, C. militaris is considered as the oldest source of some useful chemical constituents. Besides their popular applications for tonic medicine by the all stairs of the community, the constituents of C. militaris are now used extensively in modern systems of medicine. The current survey records the mysterious potentials of C. militaris are boosting up the present herbal treatments, as well as gearing up the green pharmacy revolution, in order to create a friendly environment with reasonable safety. Evidence showed that the active principles of C. militaris are beneficial to act as pro-sexual, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant/anti-aging, anti-tumour/anti-cancer/anti-leukemic, anti-proliferative, anti-metastatic, immunomodulatory, anti-microbial, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-protozoal, insecticidal, larvicidal, anti-fibrotic, steroidogenic, hypoglacaemic, hypolipidaemic, anti-angiogenetic, anti-diabetic, anti-HIV, anti-malarial, anti-fatigue, neuroprotective, liver-protective, reno-protective as well as pneumo-protective, let alone their other synergistic activities, which let it be marketable in the western countries as over-the-counter medicine. A number of culture techniques for this mushroom have been noticed, for example, storage/stock culture, pre-culture, popular/indigenous culture (spawn culture, husked rice culture and saw dust culture) and, special/laboratory culture (shaking culture, submerged culture, surface liquid culture and continuous/repeated batch culture). The prospects for herbal biotechnology regarding drug discovery using C. militaris delivering what it has promised are high, as the technology is now extremely more powerful than before. This study chiefly highlights the medicinal uses of the mushroom C. militaris including its culture techniques, also aiming to draw sufficient attention of the researchers to the frontier research needs in this context. PMID:20650308

  14. Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE Workshop on Information Assurance, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY,

    E-print Network

    Irvine, Cynthia E.

    Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE Workshop on Information Assurance, United States Military Academy Information Assurance educators. Index terms ­ Information Assurance, Education I. INTRODUCTION Computer nature of the threat and lack of awareness of information assurance technology's ability to offer better

  15. United States military involvement and the armed forces in the Dominican Republic, 1916 to 1966 

    E-print Network

    Jimenez, Luis Augusto

    1981-01-01

    UNITED STATES MILITARY INVOLVEMENT AND THE ARMED FORCES IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, 1916 TO 1966 A Thesis by LUIS AUGUSTO JIMENEZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1981 Major Subject: Sociology UNITED STATES MILITARY INVOLVEMENT AND THE ARMED FORCES IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, 1916 TO 1966 A Thesis by LUIS AUGUSTO JIMENEZ Approved as to style and content by: 17 )g (Chair...

  16. Mechanism of macrophage activation induced by polysaccharide from Cordyceps militaris culture broth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Seok; Kwon, Duck Soo; Lee, Ki Rim; Park, Jun Myoung; Ha, Suk-Jin; Hong, Eock Kee

    2015-04-20

    Mushroom-derived polysaccharides have been shown to stimulate immune responses. Our previous report showed that the novel polysaccharide PLCM isolated from the culture broth of Cordyceps militaris could induce nitric oxide production in the murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7. In this study, we show that PLCM enhances immunostimulatory activities such as the release of toxic molecules (nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species), secretion of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and phagocytic uptake in RAW264.7 macrophages. In addition, all the specific inhibitors against the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) (SN50, BAY11-7082, PD98059, SP600125 and SB203580) markedly suppressed the nitric oxide production and phagocytic uptake induced by PLCM. Moreover, antibodies specific to the extracellular domain of Toll-like receptor-2, Toll-like receptor-4 or the macrophage receptor Dectin-1 significantly attenuated PLCM-induced secretion of TNF-?. Our results indicate that the C. militaris polysaccharide activates macrophages through the MAPKs and NF-?B signaling pathways via Toll-like receptor 2, Toll-like receptor 4, and Dectin-1. PMID:25662684

  17. Model describing the effect of employment of the United States military in a complex emergency.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Donald S

    2005-01-01

    The end of the Cold War vastly altered the worldwide political landscape. With the loss of a main competitor, the United States (US) military has had to adapt its strategic, operational, and tactical doctrines to an ever-increasing variety of non-traditional missions, including humanitarian operations. Complex emergencies (CEs) are defined in this paper from a political and military perspective, various factors that contribute to their development are described, and issues resulting from the employment of US military forces are discussed. A model was developed to illustrate the course of a humanitarian emergency and the potential impact of a military response. The US intervention in Haiti, Northern Iraq, Kosovo, Somalia, Bosnia, and Rwanda serve as examples. A CE develops when there is civil conflict, loss of national governmental authority, a mass population movement, and massive economic failure, each leading to a general decline in food security. The military can alleviate a CE in four ways: (1) provide security for relief efforts; (2) enforce negotiated settlements; (3) provide security for non-combatants; and/or (4) employ logistical capabilities. The model incorporates Norton and Miskel's taxonomy of identifying failing states and helps illustrate the factors that lead to a CE. The model can be used to determine if and when military intervention will have the greatest impact. The model demonstrates that early military intervention and mission assignment within the core competencies of the forces can reverse the course of a CE. Further study will be needed to verify the model. PMID:16295164

  18. Study on macrophage activation and structural characteristics of purified polysaccharide from the liquid culture broth of Cordyceps militaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong Seok Lee; Jeong Seok Kwon; Dong Pil Won; Keun Eok Lee; Won Cheol Shin; Eock Kee Hong

    2010-01-01

    The water-soluble crude polysaccharides obtained from the liquid culture broth of Cordyceps militaris by ethanol precipitation were fractionated by DEAE cellulose and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. This fractionation process resulted in three polysaccharide fractions that were termed CPSN Fr I, CPSN Fr II, and CPSN Fr III. Of the fractions, CPSN Fr II was able to upregulate the functional events

  19. Military Spending and Economic Well-Being in the American States: The Post-Vietnam War Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borch, Casey; Wallace, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using growth curve modeling techniques, this research investigates whether military spending improved or worsened the economic well-being of citizens within the American states during the post-Vietnam War period. We empirically test the military Keynesianism claim that military spending improves the economic conditions of citizens through its use…

  20. Spontaneous and deliberate dissociative states in military personnel: relationships to objective performance under stress.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus K; Morgan, Charles A

    2014-09-01

    We recently distinguished between spontaneous and deliberate dissociative states in military personnel exposed to stressful survival training, demonstrating not only that a substantial subset of participants (13%) deliberately dissociate under intense stress but also that most deliberate dissociators (76%) find it helpful (facilitative) to coping. In this brief report, we examine the relationship between spontaneous and deliberate subtypes of dissociation, and objective military performance in Special Forces and non-Special Forces personnel enrolled in survival school. Inverse relationships between dissociation and military performance were observed in both Special Forces and general soldier subgroups. Military performance did not differ between spontaneous and deliberate dissociators, nor did it differ between those who appraised dissociative states as facilitative versus debilitative to stress coping. This study evolves our understanding of factors influencing human performance in the high-stakes survival context. PMID:25181711

  1. Salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities and structural changes of the polysaccharides from cultured Cordyceps Militaris.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Qiu, Peiju; Zhou, Zijing; Tang, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Zheng, Sha; Xu, Chenchen; Zhang, Xiuli; Yin, Pinghe; Jiang, Xiaolu; Lu, Hong; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps is a rare and exotic mushroom that grows out of the head of a mummified caterpillar. Many companies are cultivating Cordyceps to meet the increased demand for its medicinal applications. However, the structures and functions of polysaccharides, one of the pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps, are difficult to reproduce in vitro. We hypothesized that mimicking the salty environment inside caterpillar bodies might make the cultured fungus synthesize polysaccharides with similar structures and functions to that of wild Cordyceps. By adding either sodium sulfate or sodium chloride into growth media, we observed the salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities of the polysaccharides purified from the cultured C. Militaris. To correlate the activities with the polysaccharide structures, we performed the (13)C-NMR analysis and observed profound structural changes including different proportions of ? and ? glycosidic bonds and appearances of uronic acid signals in the polysaccharides purified from the culture after the salts were added. By coupling the techniques of stable (34)S-sulfate isotope labeling, aniline- and D5-aniline tagging, and stable isotope facilitated uronic acid-reduction with LC-MS analysis, our data revealed for the first time the existence of covalently linked sulfate and the presence of polygalacuronic acids in the polysaccharides purified from the salt added C. Militaris culture. Our data showed that culturing C. Militaris with added salts changed the biosynthetic scheme and resulted in novel polysaccharide structures and functions. These findings might be insightful in terms of how to make C. Militaris cultures to reach or to exceed the potency of wild Cordyceps in future. PMID:25203294

  2. Salinity-Induced Anti-Angiogenesis Activities and Structural Changes of the Polysaccharides from Cultured Cordyceps Militaris

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Qiu, Peiju; Zhou, Zijing; Tang, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Zheng, Sha; Xu, Chenchen; Zhang, Xiuli; Yin, Pinghe; Jiang, Xiaolu; Lu, Hong; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps is a rare and exotic mushroom that grows out of the head of a mummified caterpillar. Many companies are cultivating Cordyceps to meet the increased demand for its medicinal applications. However, the structures and functions of polysaccharides, one of the pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps, are difficult to reproduce in vitro. We hypothesized that mimicking the salty environment inside caterpillar bodies might make the cultured fungus synthesize polysaccharides with similar structures and functions to that of wild Cordyceps. By adding either sodium sulfate or sodium chloride into growth media, we observed the salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities of the polysaccharides purified from the cultured C. Militaris. To correlate the activities with the polysaccharide structures, we performed the 13C-NMR analysis and observed profound structural changes including different proportions of ? and ? glycosidic bonds and appearances of uronic acid signals in the polysaccharides purified from the culture after the salts were added. By coupling the techniques of stable 34S-sulfate isotope labeling, aniline- and D5-aniline tagging, and stable isotope facilitated uronic acid-reduction with LC-MS analysis, our data revealed for the first time the existence of covalently linked sulfate and the presence of polygalacuronic acids in the polysaccharides purified from the salt added C. Militaris culture. Our data showed that culturing C. Militaris with added salts changed the biosynthetic scheme and resulted in novel polysaccharide structures and functions. These findings might be insightful in terms of how to make C. Militaris cultures to reach or to exceed the potency of wild Cordyceps in future. PMID:25203294

  3. State of innovation in suicide intervention research with military populations.

    PubMed

    Conner, Kenneth R; Simons, Kelsey

    2015-06-01

    A systematic search was performed to identify active, externally funded randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that target suicidal ideation or behavior as a primary or secondary outcome among U.S. military service members, guard-reservists, and veterans. Twenty-three studies were identified, most funded by the U.S. Department of Defense or U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Several innovations were identified based on departures from or modernizations of usual practices and included the targeting of suicide deaths or attempts as primary outcome, delivery of interventions through technology and/or outside clinical settings, and examinations of rarely studied treatments. PMID:25348613

  4. The intersection of a military culture and indigenous peoples in conservation issues

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Military operations impose various positive and negative consequences on the environment. Three case studies are presented illuminating how local indigenous peoples as stakeholders may be vulnerable to being disenfranchised from important discussions concerning military activities. The study of ecological issues associated with sustaining a military footprint may be particularly useful for informing the global debate that pits strict conservation against human well-being. PMID:24567778

  5. Purification and biochemical characterization of a novel fibrinolytic enzyme from culture supernatant of Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolan; Kopparapu, Narasimha-kumar; Shi, Xi; Deng, Yongping; Zheng, Xiqun; Wu, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    A novel fibrinolytic enzyme from Cordyceps militaris was produced by submerged culture fermentation, purified, and biochemically characterized. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity, with an overall yield of 4.0% and a specific activity of 1682 U/mg. The molecular weight and pI of the enzyme were 32 kDa and 9.3 ± 0.2, respectively. The optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme were 7.4 and 37 °C, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited by Fe(2+), phenylmethane sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), aprotinin, and pepstatin but not by N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) and ethylenediamine tetracetic acid (EDTA). Three internal peptides of the enzyme, APQALTVAAVGATWAR, EKNVGSTVNLLSYDGNK, and TDATSVLLDGYNVSAVNDLVAK, were obtained. The enzyme could hydrolyze fibrin(ogen) directly and cleave the ?-chains more efficiently than ?- and ?-chains, suggesting that it is a plasmin like protein. It degraded thrombin, which indicated that it can act as an anticoagulant and prevent thrombosis. Intravascular thrombosis is one of the major reasons of cardiovascular diseases. On the basis of these results, the purified enzyme can be developed as a natural agent for oral fibrinolytic therapy or prevention of thrombosis. PMID:25664761

  6. Structural analysis and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from cultured Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoli; Wu, Guanghong; Huang, Zhuolie

    2013-07-01

    The polysaccharides extracted by hot water and precipitated by 50% ethanol from the fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps militaris (W-CBP50) were introduced. Antioxidant activities of W-CBP50, W-CBP50 I (obtained from W-CBP50 purified by Sephadex G-100 chromatography) and W-CBP50 II (obtained from W-CBP50I purified by Sephadex G-200 chromatography) were evaluated and structural features of W-CBP50 II were analyzed. The polysaccharide W-CBP50 II was able to scavenge the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhyrazyl (DPPH), while W-CBP50 and W-CBP50I could scavenge DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radical. Structural characteristics of W-CBP50 II were investigated using GPC, GC-MS, (1)H NMR and IR. The results showed that it was mainly composed of ?-glucose, ?-mannose, ?-galactose and ?-arabinose with ?-type glycosidic linkage and the molecular weight of its main component was 8.97 kD. PMID:23537797

  7. 26 CFR 301.7701-8 - Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States. 301.7701-8 Section...Definitions § 301.7701-8 Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States. The...

  8. 26 CFR 301.7701-8 - Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States. 301.7701-8 Section...Definitions § 301.7701-8 Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States. The...

  9. 26 CFR 301.7701-8 - Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States. 301.7701-8 Section...Definitions § 301.7701-8 Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States. The...

  10. 26 CFR 301.7701-8 - Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States. 301.7701-8 Section...Definitions § 301.7701-8 Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States. The...

  11. 26 CFR 301.7701-8 - Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States. 301.7701-8 Section...Definitions § 301.7701-8 Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States. The...

  12. Changes in LASSI Scores Among Reading and Study Skills Students at the United States Military Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Elizabeth J.; Priest, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Describes administration of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) to three groups of United States Military Academy students in order to evaluate changes in student performance as a result of taking a student-success course (RS101). LASSI measures students' affective growth upon completion of the RS101 course and their growth in…

  13. Mosquito Bite Protection Performance of Permethrin-Treated United States Military Uniforms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1991, permethrin-impregnation of combat uniforms has been standard practice by the United States Military. The incorporation of permethrin into uniforms has taken place mainly in the field using spray cans or Individual Dynamic Absorption (IDA) kits with factory-level permethrin treatment les...

  14. Paramilitary Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, James William

    1989-01-01

    Identifies the movie, "Rambo," and "Soldier of Fortune" magazine as artifacts of "paramilitary culture." Contends that they are a social phenomenon which helps legitimate the United States government's rapid escalation of military forces. (MS)

  15. 32 CFR 634.16 - Reciprocal state-military action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...by state or host nation authorities of a suspension or revocation, the person's OF 346 may also be suspended. (2) In CONUS, the host and issuing state licensing authority will be notified as soon as practical when a person's installation...

  16. 32 CFR 634.16 - Reciprocal state-military action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...by state or host nation authorities of a suspension or revocation, the person's OF 346 may also be suspended. (2) In CONUS, the host and issuing state licensing authority will be notified as soon as practical when a person's installation...

  17. STATE-OF-THE-ART: MILITARY EXPLOSIVES AND PROPELLANTS PRODUCTION INDUSTRY. VOLUME I. THE MILITARY EXPLOSIVES AND PROPELLANTS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study has surveyed the military explosives and propellant manufacturing industry, covering both 'GOGO' and 'GOCO' facilities. Sources of wastewater, volumes, and pollutant constituents have been reported where such data existed. Treatment technology currently in use at the v...

  18. Any Base USA: The Significance of Military Culture in the Construction of Identity

    E-print Network

    Girard, Jessica Nichole

    2014-05-02

    demands upon deployment can increase stress levels in military children (Petty 2009). In addition, non-deployed parents may suffer from poor mental health which can affect the military child’s performance as well (Chandra, Lara-Cinisomo, Jaycox et al... members, 44.1% of them are children and 86,000 children attend Department of Defense schools (De Pedro, Astor, Benbenishty, Estrada, Smith and Esqueda 2011). The 2009 Mental Health Advisory Team reported that positive family relationships are a source...

  19. Weapon carrying, physical fighting and gang membership among youth in Washington state military families.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sarah C; Bell, Janice F; Edwards, Todd C

    2014-10-01

    To examine associations between parental military service and school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership among youth. We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades of public schools (n = 9,987). Parental military service was categorized as none (reference group), without combat zone deployment, or deployed to a combat zone. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between parental military service and three outcomes: school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership. Standard errors were adjusted for the complex survey design. In 8th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting gang membership (OR = 1.8) among girls, and higher odds of physical fighting (OR = 1.6), and gang membership (OR = 1.9) among boys. In 10th/12th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting physical fighting (OR = 2.0) and gang membership (OR = 2.2) among girls, and physical fighting (OR = 2.0), carrying a weapon (OR = 2.3) among boys. Parental military deployment is associated with increased odds of reporting engagement in school-based physical fighting, school-based weapon carrying, and gang membership, particularly among older youth. Military, school, and public health professionals have a unique, collaborative opportunity to develop school- and community-based interventions to prevent violence-related behaviors among youth and, ultimately, improve the health and safety of youth in military families. Ideally, such programs would target families and youth before they enter eighth grade. PMID:24463984

  20. The United States, Western Europe and military intervention overseas

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, C. (London School of Economics (GB))

    1988-01-01

    This book covers the following topics. The United States, Britain and out of area problems, The NATO allies and the Persian Gulf, France, NATO and regional conflict in Africa, Southern Africa and the west in the post Nkometi period; The case of Mozambique.

  1. Catalog of the Orientalia Collection of the U.S. Military Academy Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pingkun; Kao, Angela H.H.

    This bibliography of the holdings of the United States Military Academy Library's Orientalia Collection as of January 1977 lists books and periodicals written mostly in Chinese, with a few words in Japanese and English. The major subjects include general and military history, history of military art and science, biography, culture, geography,…

  2. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Soldiers of the Military Police of Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Filho, Romário Teixeira Braga; D'Oliveira, Argemiro

    2013-11-26

    The mortality rate of men is generally higher than that of women, irrespective of the age group. Currently, a key concern for health care professionals is the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of individual risk factors for cardiovascular disease as well as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among men serving in the Military Police Corps of the state of Bahia, Brazil. This service employs mostly men, and they are known to experience high levels of occupational stress and professional victimization. We conducted a cross-sectional study among military police soldiers (n = 452) who were candidates for a military police training course in Bahia, Brazil. All candidates who attended the selection process were evaluated according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Panel III in order to assess the presence of medical disorders that could contribute to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The authors identified a high prevalence of hypertension (55.76%), hypertriglyceridemia (50.85%), waist circumference of >102 cm (31.76%), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (30.46%), and impaired fasting glucose (28.15%) in our subjects. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38.54%. The authors suggest that measures should be taken to ensure that military policemen receive continued medical care, both in their professional capacity and in their personal circumstances, and that attention be focused on intervention programs. PMID:24284379

  3. Military westernization and state repression in the post-Cold War era.

    PubMed

    Swed, Ori; Weinreb, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The waves of unrest that have shaken the Arab world since December 2010 have highlighted significant differences in the readiness of the military to intervene in political unrest by forcefully suppressing dissent. We suggest that in the post-Cold War period, this readiness is inversely associated with the level of military westernization, which is a product of the acquisition of arms from western countries. We identify two mechanisms linking the acquisition of arms from western countries to less repressive responses: dependence and conditionality; and a longer-term diffusion of ideologies regarding the proper form of civil-military relations. Empirical support for our hypothesis is found in an analysis of 2523 cases of government response to political unrest in 138 countries in the 1996-2005 period. We find that military westernization mitigates state repression in general, with more pronounced effects in the poorest countries. However, we also identify substantial differences between the pre- and post-9/11 periods. PMID:26188453

  4. Comparison of the structural characterization and biological activity of acidic polysaccharides from Cordyceps militaris cultured with different media.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengyao; Yan, Hui; Ma, Xiaoning; Jia, Junqiang; Zhang, Guozheng; Guo, Xijie; Gui, Zhongzheng

    2012-05-01

    Two acidic polysaccharide fractions, CM-jd-CPS2 and CM-jd(Y)-CPS2, were isolated from the fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps militaris grown on solid rice medium and silkworm pupa, respectively, by hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation and fractionation using ion-exchange column (DEAE-cellulose-52) and gel-filtration column (Sephadex G-100) chromatography. Their structural characterizations were performed by gas chromatography and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Some differences existed between their structures, which indicated that culture media could influence the structure of polysaccharides of C. militaris. The antioxidant activities of CM-jd-CPS2 and CM-jd(Y)-CPS2 were evaluated by various methods in vitro. They had strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ferrous ion-chelating capacity, but moderate reducing power. The antioxidant activities of CM-jd(Y)-CPS2 were slightly higher than those of CM-jd-CPS2. These two acidic fractions were evaluated for proliferation of mouse splenocyte activity in vitro. They both possessed does-dependent mitogenic effects on mouse splenocytes, and could synergistically promote murine T- and B-lymphocytes induced by Con A and LPS. CM-jd(Y)-CPS2 exhibited stronger stimulatory activities upon immunomodulation than CM-jd-CPS2. These results are beneficial for the interpretation of the connection between polysaccharide structures and their biological activities. PMID:22806024

  5. Production of cordycepin by a repeated batch culture of a Cordyceps militaris mutant obtained by proton beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Mina; Das, Shonkor Kumar; Fujihara, Shinya; Hatashita, Masanori; Sakurai, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) is one of the most versatile metabolites of Cordyceps militaris due to its broad spectrum of biological activity. In our previous study, the C. militaris mutant G81-3, which produces higher levels of cordycepin, was obtained by high-energy proton beam irradiation. In this study, the effects of adenosine on cordycepin production in a surface liquid culture of the mutant and the wild type strains were investigated. For the mutant strain, the optimum dose of adenosine yielded a 30% increase in cordycepin production; the maximum levels of production with adenosine and without adenosine were 8.6g/l and 6.7 g/l, respectively. In contrast, the increase due to adenosine supplementation for the wild type strain was only 15% (3.1g/l with adenosine and 2.7 g/l without adenosine). Furthermore, a repeated batch culture, an efficient production method, was carried out to eliminate the relatively long lag phase of the mutant culture. Over four cycles, both the mutant and the wild type strain maintained a production level of more than 85% of that of the initial cycle. As a result, the disadvantage of the mutant was successfully overcome, resulting in a productivity (0.48 g/(ld)) higher than that of the batch culture (0.29 g/(ld)). The productivity for cordycepin obtained in this study is the highest reported value to date, and this method could be applied to large-scale production of cordycepin at industrial levels. PMID:20863756

  6. Measuring Sense of Community in the Military: Cross-Cultural Evidence for the Validity of the Brief Sense of Community Scale and Its Underlying Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wombacher, Jorg; Tagg, Stephen K.; Burgi, Thomas; MacBryde, Jillian

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a German Sense of Community (SOC) Scale for use in military settings. The scale is based on the translation and field-testing of an existing U.S.-based measure of neighborhood SOC (Peterson, Speer, & McMillan, 2008). The methodological intricacies underlying cross-cultural scale development are highlighted, as…

  7. Chiropractic practice in military and veterans health care: The state of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Green, Bart N.; Johnson, Claire D.; Lisi, Anthony J.; Tucker, John

    2009-01-01

    Objective To summarize scholarly literature that describes practice, utilization, and/or policy of chiropractic services within international active duty and/or veteran health care environments. Data Sources PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Index to Chiropractic Literature were searched from their starting dates through June 2009. Review Methods All authors independently reviewed each of the articles to verify that each met the inclusion criteria. Citations of included papers and other pertinent findings were logged in a summary table. Results Thirteen articles were included in this study. Integration of chiropractic care into military or veteran health care systems has been described in 3 systems: the United States Department of Defense, the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Canadian Forces. Conclusion Chiropractic services seem to be included successfully within military and veteran health care facilities. However, there is a great need for additional written evaluation of the processes, policies, practices, and effectiveness of chiropractic services in these environments. PMID:19714234

  8. Challenges Faced by Military Families: Perceptions of United States Marine Corps School Liaisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Keith R.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    The global war on terror has placed a number of stressful demands on service members and their families. Although the military offers a wide range of services and supports to military families, not all families are willing or able to use them. For example, geographically dispersed families can find it challenging to connect with military support…

  9. PUBLIC FISH CULTURE UNITED STATES,

    E-print Network

    and rearing stations U2 111 #12;Steve Cocke Hatchery, Dawson, Georgia- -a Georgia State Game and Fish. But as advances are made, there are opened before us new vistas to be explored: new problems arise and old

  10. Optimization of Large-Scale Culture Conditions for the Production of Cordycepin with Cordyceps militaris by Liquid Static Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chao; Wen, Ting-Chi; Kang, Ji-Chuan; Meng, Ze-Bing; Li, Guang-Rong; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Cordycepin is one of the most important bioactive compounds produced by species of Cordyceps sensu lato, but it is hard to produce large amounts of this substance in industrial production. In this work, single factor design, Plackett-Burman design, and central composite design were employed to establish the key factors and identify optimal culture conditions which improved cordycepin production. Using these culture conditions, a maximum production of cordycepin was 2008.48?mg/L for 700?mL working volume in the 1000?mL glass jars and total content of cordycepin reached 1405.94?mg/bottle. This method provides an effective way for increasing the cordycepin production at a large scale. The strategies used in this study could have a wide application in other fermentation processes. PMID:25054182

  11. Optimization of large-scale culture conditions for the production of cordycepin with Cordyceps militaris by liquid static culture.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chao; Wen, Ting-Chi; Kang, Ji-Chuan; Meng, Ze-Bing; Li, Guang-Rong; Hyde, Kevin D

    2014-01-01

    Cordycepin is one of the most important bioactive compounds produced by species of Cordyceps sensu lato, but it is hard to produce large amounts of this substance in industrial production. In this work, single factor design, Plackett-Burman design, and central composite design were employed to establish the key factors and identify optimal culture conditions which improved cordycepin production. Using these culture conditions, a maximum production of cordycepin was 2008.48?mg/L for 700?mL working volume in the 1000?mL glass jars and total content of cordycepin reached 1405.94?mg/bottle. This method provides an effective way for increasing the cordycepin production at a large scale. The strategies used in this study could have a wide application in other fermentation processes. PMID:25054182

  12. Religious Education Reform under the US Military Occupation: The Interpretation of State Shinto in Japan and Nazism in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Masako

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the treatment of religion in Japanese education in the post-World War Two period. During the Allied Military Occupation, Japan adopted the principle of the separation of state and religion as a means to democratize the totalitarian, ethno-nationalistic education system of pre-1945. The case of Germany is also dealt with here…

  13. Structural characterization and biological activities of a novel polysaccharide from cultured Cordyceps militaris and its sulfated derivative.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yongshuai; Zhu, Jianhua; Liu, Ting; Bi, Sixue; Hu, Xianjing; Chen, Zhiyan; Song, Liyan; Lv, Wenjie; Yu, Rongmin

    2015-04-01

    A novel polysaccharide (CMPA90-1; compound 1) was isolated from the cultured fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris. The chemical structure of compound 1 was elucidated by acid hydrolysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, and methylation analysis, along with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and one-dimensional [(1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)] and two-dimensional NMR (heteronuclear single-quantum coherence and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation). Sulfation of compound 1 by the chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine (CSA-Pyr) method led to synthesis of its sulfated analogue (CMPA90-M1; compound 2). The ultrastructures of both compounds 1 and 2 were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The results of antioxidant assays showed that compounds 1 and 2 exhibited free-radical-scavenging effects, ferrous-ion-chelating ability, and reducing power. Also, in the cytotoxicity assay, compounds 1 and 2 showed inhibitory activity against A549 cells, with IC50 values of 39.08 and 17.33 ?g/mL, respectively. PMID:25785351

  14. Melanogenesis effect of Cordyceps militaris culture broth on the melanin formation of B16F0 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae-Young; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Park, Mi-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Tae; Moon, Hyung-In; Cho, Young-Su

    2011-10-13

    The effect of Cordyceps militaris culture broth (CMB) on melanogenesis in B16F0 melanoma cells was evaluated by measurement of the melanin concentration after 3 days of incubation. The B16F0 melanoma cells were treated with various concentrations of CMB 10-100 ?g/mL and arbutin of 200 ?M. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of CMB were also measured. Phenolic content of CMB was 3.28?mg/g. The DPPH radical scavenging and ferric ion donating activities were 79.64% and 0.16, respectively. The melanin concentration and cell viability of melanoma cells by arbutin treatment decreased to 43% and 91% of the control, respectively. The CMB treatment showed a significant inhibitory effect of melanin production by 29%, 50%, and 56% at 50, 80, and 100 ?g/mL concentration treatment, respectively, while over 90% of cells were viable. The CMB treatment at 50, 80, and 100 ?g/mL concentrations in cultivation decreased extracellular melanin release induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) treatment by 19%, 38%, and 48%, respectively. The CMB showed inhibitory activity against intracellular tyrosinase extracted from melanoma cells, while it had no inhibition on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase. The cellular glutathione contents were enhanced by CMB treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggested that CMB suppressed cellular tyrosinase activity and total melanin content in cultured B16F0 melanoma cells without any significant effects on cell proliferation and it might be candidate anti-melanogenic agent. PMID:21995600

  15. "The Second American School of Arms": the Virginia Military Institute and the advent of state military education, 1835-1851 

    E-print Network

    Wineman, Bradford Alexander

    2001-01-01

    years. While attending the Institute, cadets were also in charge of guarding the weapons stored in the arsenal from which the school was converted. VMI offered a multi-beneficial program in order to gain support from a state that was cynical...

  16. The new public management of security: the contracting and managerial state and the private military industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Ortiz

    2010-01-01

    Private military companies (PMCs) do not often figure as a case study alongside topics such as health and local government in the public management literature. However, this article shows that public management offers critical insights into the reasons why governments contract services to the private military industry. In particular, the article analyses the deep inroads that reforms inspired by new

  17. Development of New Repellents and Improved Permethrin-Treated Uniforms for the United States Military

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    History contains numerous examples of the impact of arthropod-borne illnesses on the outcome of military conflicts. Therefore, protection of our US military is paramount when they are deployed on missions throughout the world. Two components of the Department of Defense system for personal protect...

  18. Operation: Military Kids Volunteer and Citizenship Opportunities

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Operation: Military Kids Volunteer and Citizenship Opportunities Operation: Military Kids Program Overview The New Hampshire Operation: Military Kids (OMK) program partners with the military and community organizations across the state to raise awareness of the impact the deployment cycle has on military kids

  19. STATE-OF-THE-ART: MILITARY EXPLOSIVES AND PROPELLANTS PRODUCTION INDUSTRY. VOLUME III. WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study has surveyed the military explosives and propellant manufacturing industry, covering both 'GOGO' and 'GOCO' facilities. Sources of wastewater, volumes, and pollutant constituents have been reported where such data existed. Treatment technology currently in use at the v...

  20. STATE-OF-THE-ART: MILITARY EXPLOSIVES AND PROPELLANTS PRODUCTION INDUSTRY. VOLUME II. WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study has surveyed the military explosives and propellant manufacturing industry, covering both 'GOGO' and 'GOGO' facilities. Sources of wastewater, volumes, and pollutant constituents have been reported where such data existed. Treatment technology currently in use at the v...

  1. 32 CFR 9.2 - Establishment of Military Commissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.2 Establishment of Military Commissions. In accordance with the President's Military Order, the Secretary...

  2. Independent nuclear state: the United States, Britain and the military atom

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.

    1983-01-01

    Anglo-American relationships concerning nuclear weapons development from the World War II period up through the present are reviewed. The development of Great Britain as an independent nuclear state is examined in detail. The political factors affecting the cooperative efforts and alliances are discussed in detail as well as the trade in information and materials for reactor and weapons development.

  3. Demographic study of military selection in the state of Ohio, 1917-1919 

    E-print Network

    Saberian, Michael Reza

    2006-04-12

    of the Provost Marshal General to the Secretary of War: On the First Draft under the Selective-Service Act, 1917 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1918), 59. 7 CHAPTER II ETHNICITY AND MILITARY SELECTION In the past decade, research on World War... Americans and the World War: With Special emphasis on Ohio?s German Language Press (Columbus: F. S. Heer Printing Co., 1936). 7 Crowder, Report of the Provost Marshal General to the Secretary of War, 56. 8 suppose that in the event of a military...

  4. A Paranoid State: The American Public, Military Surveillance and the Espionage Act of 1917

    E-print Network

    Strauss, Lon Jeffrey

    2012-05-31

    built upon a history of espionage activities in the Philippines and in episodes of strikebreaking at the turn of the century. On a massive scale for the first time in U.S. history, agents of military intelligence conducted a campaign of surveillance upon...

  5. Music in the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Amanda

    1981-01-01

    Following a very brief history of military bands, the author describes the musical performance opportunities currently available in the United States Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force, and Coast Guard, for young musicians who may wish to enlist. (SJL)

  6. Military Law Review

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Library of Congress' Research Center of Military Legal Resources contains, among other publications, the Military Law Review. The Military Law Review has been published quarterly since 1958, and is meant to be used by military attorneys in their work and "'provides a forum for those interested in military law to share the products of their experience and research.'" Visitors should also note that most of the issues from 1958 to 2008 are available for general perusal. Each issue of the journal contains both articles and book reviews. An article in the Winter 2008 issue, entitled "Crossing the Line: Reconciling the Right to Picket Military Funerals With the First Amendment", is a very accessible article about the constitutionality of state and federal funeral picketing laws. Visitors interested in learning about the school that provides military legal education, and where the Military Law Review is published, should click on the link "The Judge Advocate General's Legal Center & School (JAGS), U.S. Army, Charlottesville, Virginia", in the first paragraph on the homepage

  7. Evaluation of metal ions and surfactants effect on cell growth and exopolysaccharide production in two-stage submerged culture of Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Nan

    2012-11-01

    During the two-stage submerged fermentation of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris, it was found that K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) were favorable to the mycelial growth. The EPS production reached the highest levels in the media containing Mg(2+) and Mn(2+). However, Ca(2+) and K(+) almost failed to increase significantly exopolysaccharides (EPS) production. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) significantly enhanced EPS production compared with that of without adding SDS when SDS was added on static culture stage of two-stage cultivation process. The presence of Tween 80 in the medium not only simulated mycelial growth but also increased EPS production. By response surface methods (RSM), EPS production reached its peak value of 3.28 g/L under optimal combination of 27.6 mM Mg(2+), 11.1 mM Mn(2+), and 0.05 mM SDS, which was 3.76-fold compared with that of without metal ion and surfactant. The results obtained were useful in better understanding the regulation for efficient production of EPS of C. militaris in the two-stage submerged culture. PMID:22956301

  8. Cultural Continuity and Change in Mexico and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Marion J.; Barnes, Buckley R.

    Culture is the main subject of this student material for a quarter or one-semester course on a comparative study of Mexico and the United States. The ongoing processes of continuity and change in culture and their relationship are emphasized. The first chapter is devoted to the concept of culture, the total way of life of a people from language…

  9. Title: Integrating Cultural Factors in Military Modeling and Simulation: Anecdotal Literature Review and Framework for Application Topic: Coalition Interoperability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    McNair Hall

    Effective and efficient culture cognition in the Future Force depends heavily upon orchestrating the cultural factors and patterns of battle information into effective cultural cognition models so that the appropriate context information is brought together at the appropriate time relative to the appropriate operational issues. At the heart of this problem lies the current inability of a commander (or his

  10. Sexual assault in the military.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carl Andrew; Kintzle, Sara; Schuyler, Ashley C; Lucas, Carrie L; Warner, Christopher H

    2015-07-01

    Military sexual assault is a pervasive problem throughout the military services, despite numerous initiatives to end it. No doubt the military's lack of progress stems from the complexity of sexual assaults, yet in order to develop effective strategies and programs to end sexual assault, deep understanding and appreciation of these complexities are needed. In this paper, we describe the root causes and numerous myths surrounding sexual assault, the military cultural factors that may unintentionally contribute to sexual assault, and the uncomfortable issues surrounding sexual assault that are often ignored (such as the prevalence of male sexual assault within the military). We conclude by offering a broad, yet comprehensive set of recommendations that considers all of these factors for developing effective strategies and programs for ending sexual assault within in the military. PMID:25980511

  11. Multi-Cultural Greek Council The Ohio State University

    E-print Network

    Multi-Cultural Greek Council The Ohio State University Constitution Article I - Name The name to Executive Board elections, Constitutional Amendments, or prospective membership in the MCGC of new of this organization shall be the Multi-Cultural Greek Council (MCGC) at The Ohio State University. Article II

  12. Adaptation to Stress: An Investigation into the Lives of United States Military Families with a Child Who Is Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Moira A.; Russo, Theresa J.

    2003-01-01

    This study surveyed 253 military families with children who have disabilities to determine if they experienced difficulties in adapting to military life. Responses indicated that 25 percent of children with disabilities were 3 years or younger and 75 percent were age 4 through 6 years. Twenty-one families reported not having adjusted to military

  13. Outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning from a military unit lunch party - United States, July 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-12-20

    On July 30, 2012, the emergency department at a military hospital was visited by 13 persons seeking care for gastrointestinal illness with onset 2-3 hours after a work lunch party. The hospital responded by opening up temporary evaluation and treatment capacity in primary-care clinics and a progressive-care unit and by diverting one patient to a local civilian hospital. An immediate outbreak investigation was conducted by local military public health personnel with assistance from CDC. Initial epidemiologic analysis implicated "perlo" (a chicken, sausage, and rice dish) and bacterial intoxication as the outbreak mechanism. This enabled public health personnel to 1) recommend no further consumption of perlo and 2) reassure appropriate authorities that no additional ill persons likely would be seeking care and advise that nothing more than supportive care of ill persons likely would be required. After interviewing party attendees, investigators found nine additional persons who met their case definition. Subsequent CDC laboratory analysis of a sample of perlo detected staphylococcal enterotoxin A, supporting the epidemiologic findings. Improper food handling and preparation measures were identified and addressed by the appropriate authorities, who provided additional detailed education on food preparation safety for the persons who prepared the meal. PMID:24352066

  14. Biofilms and persistent wound infections in United States military trauma patients: a case–control analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Complex traumatic injuries sustained by military personnel, particularly when involving extremities, often result in infectious complications and substantial morbidity. One factor that may further impair patient recovery is the persistence of infections. Surface-attached microbial communities, known as biofilms, may play a role in hindering the management of infections; however, clinical data associating biofilm formation with persistent or chronic infections are lacking. Therefore, we evaluated the production of bacterial biofilms as a potential risk factor for persistent infections among wounded military personnel. Methods Bacterial isolates and clinical data from military personnel with deployment-related injuries were collected through the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study. The study population consisted of patients with diagnosed skin and soft-tissue infections. Cases (wounds with bacterial isolates of the same organism collected 14 days apart) were compared to controls (wounds with non-recurrent bacterial isolates), which were matched by organism and infectious disease syndrome. Potential risk factors for persistent infections, including biofilm formation, were examined in a univariate analysis. Data are expressed as odds ratios (OR; 95% confidence interval [CI]). Results On a per infected wound basis, 35 cases (representing 25 patients) and 69 controls (representing 60 patients) were identified. Eight patients with multiple wounds were utilized as both cases and controls. Overall, 235 bacterial isolates were tested for biofilm formation in the case–control analysis. Biofilm formation was significantly associated with infection persistence (OR: 29.49; CI: 6.24-infinity) in a univariate analysis. Multidrug resistance (OR: 5.62; CI: 1.02-56.92), packed red blood cell transfusion requirements within the first 24 hours (OR: 1.02; CI: 1.01-1.04), operating room visits prior to and on the date of infection diagnosis (OR: 2.05; CI: 1.09-4.28), anatomical location of infected wound (OR: 5.47; CI: 1.65-23.39), and occurrence of polymicrobial infections (OR: 69.71; CI: 15.39-infinity) were also significant risk factors for persistent infections. Conclusions We found that biofilm production by clinical strains is significantly associated with the persistence of wound infections. However, the statistical power of the analysis was limited due to the small sample size, precluding a multivariate analysis. Further data are needed to confirm biofilm formation as a risk factor for persistent wound infections. PMID:24712544

  15. Prenatal care needs, availability, accessibility, use, and satisfaction: a comparison of military women within and outside the continental United States.

    PubMed

    Sylvia, B M; McMullen, P; Levine, E; Cruz, F B; Gagnon, D A; Malavakis, T L; Williams, L A; Schmelz, J; Runzel, A; Stevens, V; Wootten, A

    2001-05-01

    This article presents the results of a survey distributed to military women within and outside the continental United States (CONUS and OCONUS) who had received prenatal care and delivered at one of six Army, Navy, or Air Force military facilities. This comparative descriptive study was undertaken to determine from the mothers' perspective (1) their needs, availability, accessibility, use, satisfaction, and preferences for prenatal care services, and (2) if prenatal care and birth outcomes were significantly different for CONUS versus OCONUS women. Both groups reported a high degree of satisfaction with services, clinics/offices, and health care staff. Significant group differences were reported in transportation, length of travel time, and cost of traveling, with the CONUS group reporting greater problems with each. For both groups, quality and consistency of health care were the two most important factors in their preference of provider. More than 20% of the mothers reported receiving no information on some of the common concerns of pregnancy. There were no significant group differences with regard to infant birth weight or length of hospital stay. PMID:11370210

  16. Military communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torleiv Maseng; Randall Landry; Kenneth Young

    2009-01-01

    This feature topic on military communications includes five articles that deal primarily with wireless tactical networks, covering topics ranging from security to software defined radio design and mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) for covert battlefield operations.

  17. Explaining civil-military relations in Southeast Asia

    E-print Network

    Kwok, Jia-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Civil-military relations describe the interactions and balance of power between the civilians and the military in a nation state. Due to the organizational apparatus and capacity for forcible coercion that the military ...

  18. 20 CFR 614.21 - Findings of Federal military agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Findings of Federal military agency. 614.21 Section...Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...Responsibilities of Federal Military Agencies and State Agencies § 614.21 Findings of Federal military agency. (a) Findings...

  19. Understanding Ego States: A Prerequisite for Cross-Cultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hoon

    This paper argues that cross-cultural training aimed at improving cultural sensitivity and awareness is a must for students and management trainees pursuing careers with international businesses and for U.S. companies actively seeking strategic alliances with foreign partners. It further argues that understanding the ego states of the parties…

  20. Attachment and Culture: Security in the United States and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Fred; Weisz, John; Pott, Martha; Morelli, Gilda; Miyake, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Highlights evidence of cultural variations in child attachment, noting how western values and meanings permeate attachment theory. Comparisons of the United States and Japan emphasize the cultural relativity of three core hypotheses of attachment theory related to: caregiver sensitivity, child social competence, and a secure base for exploring the…

  1. 32 CFR 575.1 - Military Academy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Department of Tactics. (b) Mission. The mission of the United States Military...training. In accomplishing its mission, the Military Academy strives...sound education in the arts and sciences requisite for continued...

  2. 32 CFR 575.1 - Military Academy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Department of Tactics. (b) Mission. The mission of the United States Military...training. In accomplishing its mission, the Military Academy strives...sound education in the arts and sciences requisite for continued...

  3. 32 CFR 575.1 - Military Academy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Department of Tactics. (b) Mission. The mission of the United States Military...training. In accomplishing its mission, the Military Academy strives...sound education in the arts and sciences requisite for continued...

  4. Consequences of Making Weight: A Review of Eating Disorder Symptoms and Diagnoses in the United States Military

    PubMed Central

    Bodell, Lindsay; Forney, Katherine Jean; Keel, Pamela; Gutierrez, Peter; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious psychiatric illnesses associated with health problems. Such problems may compromise military performance, highlighting the need to establish the level of eating pathology that exists in military samples. This article qualitatively reviews prevalence estimates of eating disorder symptoms and diagnoses in military samples, providing nonmilitary estimates for context. Findings suggest that eating disorder symptoms are prevalent in cadets and active duty service members, especially when using self-report measures. The increased salience of weight in the military and increased exposure to trauma may influence risk for eating disorders. Alternatively, individuals at risk for eating disorders may self-select into the military. Overall, this review suggests that eating disorder symptoms are common in military samples and that further research is warranted. PMID:25642105

  5. A Retrospective Review of Factors Associated with Vasovasostomies in United States Military Members

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, J.; Avalos, E.; Santomauro, M.; Walters, R.; Marguet, C.; L'Esperance, J.; Drain, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Men seeking a vasectomy should receive counseling prior to the procedure that includes discussion of later seeking a reversal. We sought to determine demographic factors that may predispose patients to possibly later seek a vasectomy reversal. Methods All U.S. Military electronic health records were searched between 2000 and 2009 for either a vasectomy or vasovasostomy procedure code. Aggregate demographic information was collected and statistical analysis performed. Result A total of 82,945 patients had a vasectomy of which 4,485 had a vasovasostomy resulting in a vasovasostomy-to-vasectomy rate of 5.04%. The average age at vasovasostomy was 34.9±5.0, with an average interval of 4.1±2.2 years. Men undergoing a vasectomy at a younger age were more likely to have a vasovasostomy. Various religions did have statistically significant differences. Within ethnic groups, only Native Americans [OR=1.39 (95% CI 1.198-1.614)] and Asians [OR=0.501 (95% CI 0.364-0.690)] had statistically significant differences when compared to Caucasians. Men with more children at the time of vasectomy were more likely to have a vasovasostomy. Conclusion Younger men, Native Americans, and men with more children at vasectomy were more likely to undergo a vasovasostomy. The reason for these differences is unknown, but this information may assist during pre-vasectomy counseling. PMID:24917734

  6. Use of the MBTI as a Predictor of Successful Academic and Military Performance at the United States Coast Guard Academy. Report 10-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, John C., III

    This study provides an analysis of a random sample of 100 cadets from the United States Coast Guard Academy class of 1993. Emphasis is placed on the cadets' academic achievements, their military performance, and their resignation status to determine whether the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) preferences can be used to predict success in these…

  7. Cultivation of medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes), and production of cordycepin using the spent medium from levan fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang-Chen; Chen, Yi-Lin; Chang, Shu-Ming; Shih, Ing-Lung

    2013-01-01

    A process of tandem cultivation for the production of green and invaluable bioproducts (levan and Cordycepes militaris) useful for medical applications has been successfully developed. The process involves first cultivating Bacillus subtilis strain natto in sucrose medium to produce levan, followed by the subsequent cultivation of C. militaris in liquid- and solid-state cultures using the spent medium from levan fermentation as substrates. The factors affecting the cell growth and production of metabolites of C. militaris were investigated, and the various metabolites produced in the culture filtrate, mycelia, and fruiting body were analyzed. In addition, cordycepin was prepared from the solid waste medium of C. militaris. This is an excellent example in the development of cost effective biorefineries that maximize useful product formation from the available biomass. The preparation of cordycepin from solid waste medium of C. militaris using a method with high extraction efficiency and minimum solvent usage is also environmentally friendly. PMID:23796221

  8. SPECIES PROFILE: BACHMAN'S SPARROW (AIMOPHILA AESTIVALIS) ON MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bachman's sparrow (Aimophila aestivalis) is a small ground-nesting sparrow that is endemic to the southeastern United States. The former breeding range extended into the midwestern and northeastern States but has contracted to its current general limits of North Carolina, Ken...

  9. SPECIES PROFILE: HENSLOW'S SPARROW (AMMODRAMUS HENSLOWII) ON MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Henslow's sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii) is a small passerine bird that breeds in the eastern and midwestern United States and southern Canada and winters in the mid-Atlantic and Gulf Coast States. Its breeding range extends from New England and southern Ontario through the G...

  10. Liquid State Machines and Cultured Cortical Networks: The Separation Property

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    Liquid State Machines and Cultured Cortical Networks: The Separation Property Karl P. Dockendorf. A key requirement of the LSM architecture is that inputs into the liquid state must result in separable outputs based on the liquid's response (separation property). In this paper, high and low frequency multi

  11. JAPANESE FATHERS IN THE UNITED STATES: NEGOTIATING DIFFERENT CULTURAL EXPECTATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YUKA ABE

    Japanese fathers residing abroad have not been given much attention in Japanese scholarship. In this study, I examine how Japanese fathers in the United States negotiate between Japanese and American cultural expectations regarding fatherhood. Relying on a symbolic interactionist perspective, and through qualitative research involving in-depth interviews with 24 Japanese fathers who live in the United States for business, I

  12. Intermountain West Military Lands Planting Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This guide provides recommendations on plant materials for Department of Defense (DoD) land restoration at military facilties in the Intermountain West of the United States. These guidelines provide military land managers new options for revegetating military training lands. Most other guides for l...

  13. 75 FR 60159 - Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police Under the Department of State, Foreign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ...Determination shall be transmitted to the Congress and published in the Federal Register. Dated: September 17, 2010. Hillary Rodham Clinton, Secretary of State. [FR Doc. 2010-24418 Filed 9-28-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  14. Antifibrotic effect of extracellular biopolymer from submerged mycelial cultures of Cordyceps militaris on liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation and scission in rats.

    PubMed

    Nan, J X; Park, E J; Yang, B K; Song, C H; Ko, G; Sohn, D H

    2001-08-01

    The antifibrotic effects of hot water extract (WEC), intracellular biopolymer (IPC) and extracellular biopolymers (EPC) from mycelial liquid culture of Cordyceps militaris on liver fibrosis were studied. Liver fibrosis was induced by a bile duct ligation and scission (BDL/S) operation, duration of 4 weeks in rats. In BDL/S rats, the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin in serum and hydroxyproline content in liver were dramatically increased. The WEC or IPC treatment (30 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, p.o.) in BDL/S rats reduced the serum AST, ALT and ALP levels significantly (p<0.01). The EPC treatment (30 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, p.o.) reduced the serum ALT, AST and ALP levels significantly (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde contents in liver treated with WEC, IPC or EPC were significantly reduced (p<0.05). But Liver hydroxyproline content was decreased only in EPC treated BDL/S rats to 55% that of BDL/S control rats (p<0.01). The morphological characteristics and expression of alpha smooth muscle like actin in fibrotic liver, which appeared in BDL/S control group were improved in EPC treated fibrotic liver. These results indicate that EPC (30 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, p.o.) has an antifibrotic effect on fibrotic rats induced by BDL/S. PMID:11534766

  15. Assessing the state of organizational safety—culture or climate?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn J. Mearns; Rhona Flin

    1999-01-01

    This article explores the concepts of safety culture and safety climate in an attempt to determine which is the more useful\\u000a for describing an organization's “state of safety.” From a review of the literature purporting to measure safety culture or\\u000a safety climate, it is argued that, although the two terms are often interchangeable, they are actually distinct but related\\u000a concepts

  16. SPECIES PROFILE: SOUTHERN HOGNOSE SNAKE (HETERODON SIMUS) ON MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The southern hognose snake (Heterodon simus) is the smallest of the hognose snakes, occurring in the southeastern United States, from southeastern North Carolina to South & Central Florida and west to Southern Mississippi and Southeastern Louisiana. The species is a former candid...

  17. SPECIES PROFILE: EASTERN INDIGO SNAKE (DTYMARCHON CORAIS COUPERI) ON MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eastern indigo snake (Dtymarchon corais couperi) is an uncommon, large-bodied snake occurring in the southeastern United States, primarily in southern Alabama and Georgia and most of Florida. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the species as Federally threatened in 197...

  18. Military Music in the United States: A Historical Examination of Performance and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    As of 2014, the U.S. Department of Defense is the largest employer of musicians in the United States, with more than 6,000 musicians serving in active-duty, reserve, and National Guard bands. From its dual origins with drums and fifes in infantry units (foot soldiers) and trumpets in the cavalry (horse-mounted troops), music has served crucial…

  19. SPECIES PROFILE: WOOD STORK (MYCTERIA AMERICANA) ON MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The wood stork (Mycteria americana) is a large colonial wading bird that breeds in a variety of wetland habitats. Its current range extends from southern South Carolina through Florida and from Mexico to northern Argentina, but populations in the United States are disjunct from t...

  20. SPECIES PROFILE: LEAST TERN (STERNA ANTILLARUM), INTERIOR POPULATION, ON MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The least tern (Sterna antillarum) is a neotropical migrant species that primarily breeds along coastal waterways of the United States and winters in Central and South America. The interior population of the least tern was listed as Federally endangered in 1985 by the U.S. Fish a...

  1. [The policy of the United States Army Military Government in Korea toward public health and medicine in occupied South Korea].

    PubMed

    Shin, J S

    2000-12-01

    After the liberation from Japanese colonial rule in August 1945, the United States of America established Military Government in Korea(USAMGIK) south the 38th parallel. The public health and medical policy of the USAMGIK was defined by the USA's general policy toward Korea, and followed national interests of USA after the end of the World War II. The basic objectives of the early occupational period were two; the protection of the occupation troops, the prevention of acute epidemic diseases and unrest in the populace. However, after the switch of occupation policy to the establishment of pro-American anti-Communist nation in Korea since June 1946, the basic objectives turned into 'the establishment of the influence of American medicine in Korean medical system.' During the occupation period, USAMGIK trained several pro-American right - wing doctors who formed the clique of policy makers in the independent government, and established many quasi - American public health and medical systems in Korea. PMID:12194170

  2. THE ABONGO ABROAD: MILITARY INTERNATIONALISM, TRAVEL, TRAINING, AND PEACE IN GHANA AND THE UNITED STATES, 1960-1992

    E-print Network

    Clune, John Valentine

    2014-08-31

    This dissertation searches the global commodities of military education and training assistance and international peacekeeping missions between the 1960s and 1980s for the meaning people on both the sending and receiving ...

  3. Rules of Engagement: Considering Good Policy and Practice with Online Military Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr-Glass, David

    2015-01-01

    In online distance learning environments military learners may not stand out or be particularly distinctive from their non-military peers. However, military learners do possess a degree of difference that needs to be recognized. The military can be considered to possess a Janusian culture--two distinctive cultural patterns that emerge in different…

  4. Women in the South Korean Military

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doo-Seung Hong

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the changing role of women in the Korean armed forces and explores the issue of gender integration in the military. During the past half-century, the utilization of women in the armed forces has been limited in Korea due to constitutional and cultural restraints. Yet the expansion of utilizing females in the military is becoming a global trend.

  5. Cyber security on military deployed networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Mulazzani; Salvatore A. Sarcia

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on real information leakage occurred in a multinational mission. To investigate the nature of the leakage, we performed a survey among the military operators which showed that technical and cultural problems were key elements of the security shortfall. We also show that military deployed networks present some peculiarities with respect to infrastructure homeland networks. Therefore, the former

  6. Multiplying steady-state culture in multi-reactor system.

    PubMed

    Erm, Sten; Adamberg, Kaarel; Vilu, Raivo

    2014-11-01

    Cultivation of microorganisms in batch experiments is fast and economical but the conditions therein change constantly, rendering quantitative data interpretation difficult. By using chemostat with controlled environmental conditions the physiological state of microorganisms is fixed; however, the unavoidable stabilization phase makes continuous methods resource consuming. Material can be spared by using micro scale devices, which however have limited analysis and process control capabilities. Described herein are a method and a system combining the high throughput of batch with the controlled environment of continuous cultivations. Microorganisms were prepared in one bioreactor followed by culture distribution into a network of bioreactors and continuation of independent steady state experiments therein. Accelerostat cultivation with statistical analysis of growth parameters demonstrated non-compromised physiological state following distribution, thus the method effectively multiplied steady state culture of microorganisms. The theoretical efficiency of the system was evaluated in inhibitory compound analysis using repeated chemostat to chemostat transfers. PMID:24861314

  7. 77 FR 25737 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ...Repatriate Cultural Items: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ...SUMMARY: The Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, in consultation...cultural items may contact the Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona. DATES:...

  8. Characteristics of the Social Status of Students at Military Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlova, E. N.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the motivations of Russian college students in military training centers and military departments, and cadets enrolled in military service academies shows that the first two occupy a marginal position. This is reflected in the ambiguity of their status and the fact that they are at the interface between two cultures, manifested in…

  9. Military specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Philip

    1987-01-01

    The current situation relative to the military specification is that there is not one specific model of turbulence which people are using. Particular disagreement exists on how turbulence levels will vary with qualitative analysis. It does not tie one down to specifics. When it comes to flying quality specifications, many feel that one should stay with the definitions of the Cooper-Harper rating scale but allow the levels to shift depending on the level of turbulence. There is a ride quality specification in the MIL-SPEC having to do with flight control systems design that is related to a turbulence model. This spec (MIL-F8785C) and others are discussed.

  10. Child Care: How Do Military and Civilian Center Costs Compare? United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagnoni, Cynthia M.

    The Department of Defense's (DOD) child development program has been identified as a model for the rest of the nation. To provide a benchmark cost estimate for Congress as it addresses child care issues, this report identifies the objectives of the military child development program, describes its operation, determines the full costs of DOD…

  11. Translating sexual assault prevention from a college campus to a United States military installation: piloting the know-your-power bystander social marketing campaign.

    PubMed

    Potter, Sharyn J; Stapleton, Jane G

    2012-05-01

    One population that shares both similar and different characteristics with traditional college-age students is the U.S. Military. Similarities include a high concentration of 18- to 26-year-olds dealing with new found independence, peer pressure, and the presence of social norms that support violence and hypermasculinity. Sexual violence is a major public health problem in the United States, and because of the similarities in the age group of college and military populations, the problems regarding sexual violence in both constituencies have been well-documented. In the current pilot study we seek to add to both current knowledge about and promising practices of translating prevention strategies from one target audience to another. We describe how we translated, administered, and evaluated a bystander intervention social marketing campaign focused on sexual assault prevention that had been found to significantly affect attitude change on a college campus for a U.S. Army installation in Europe. In addition to demonstrating the process of translating prevention strategies across target audiences, findings from this pilot study contribute to the evaluation data on the effectiveness of sexual violence prevention strategies implemented with members of the U.S. Military. From our analysis, we see that research participants indicate that the degree to which the images resonate with them and the familiarity of the context (i.e., social self-identification) significantly effect the participants' personal responsibility for reducing sexual assault, confidence in acting as a bystander, and reported engagement as a bystander. PMID:22080576

  12. Fighting with Gender: Understanding the Contemporary Combat Experiences of Servicewomen and Servicemen in the United States Military

    E-print Network

    Serrato, Margie

    2013-05-03

    . Furthermore, many military women have no plans to become mothers. The belief that they do or should is an outdated ideological assumption. The ability for women to control reproduction through contraceptives enables them to train and deploy for combat... with significant reduction to the risk of becoming pregnant and diminishing unit readiness. But, the discussion of using female contraception has rarely been engaged. Possible reasons for the absence of this argument include dominant religious ideologies...

  13. Degraded Modes and the `Culture of Coping' in Military Operations: An Analysis of a Fatal Incident On-Board HMS Tireless on 20/21 March 2007

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Chris

    : This paper uses a recent case study to illustrate the impact of degraded modes on military operations was following Standard operating Procedures (SOPs) using Self Contained Oxygen Generators (SCOGs) to maintain the oxygen level in the vessel. SCOGs contain a mix of sodium chlorate and iron powder or of potassium

  14. Supporting Student Veterans: Utilizing Game-Based Role-Plays with Virtual Humans to Build Military Cultural Competency and Helping Behaviors in Faculty and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cate, Chris A.; Albright, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Veterans and military service members enter the classroom with valuable life and leadership experience; however, transitioning to student life represents unique challenges. Like the larger veteran population, student veterans may bring to campus the negative aftereffects of their combat experiences in the form of post-traumatic stress, substance…

  15. Supporting culture change: working toward smarter state nursing home regulation.

    PubMed

    Stone, Robyn I; Bryant, Natasha; Barbarotta, Linda

    2009-10-01

    The traditional nursing home regulatory approach, which uses survey and enforcement to achieve performance improvement, has created tensions between providers and surveyors. It has had limited success in improving quality overall and not necessarily allowed innovation to flourish. This has been the perception of many homes wanting to undergo transformative "culture change" reforms. To move toward a new model of nursing home regulation, the states and federal government must strike a balance between the traditional regulatory approach to weed out substandard facilities and a partnership model aimed at promoting high performance. This issue brief highlights the importance of how such a model is structured, as well as the need to adequately train and educate regulatory staff and providers about culture change. Regulators, providers, consumer groups, residents, and their families also will need to commit to the principles of person-centered care to ensure the success of the new collaborative approach. PMID:19839114

  16. Differences between traditional Chinese and Western military thinking and their philosophical roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Junbo; Yao Yunzhu

    1996-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a heated debate in the Chinese military academia about traditional strategic culture and its impact on modern military thinking. This article tries to analyze and explain the differences between Chinese and Western military traditions from a philosophical perspective. The authors generalize disparities in Chinese and Western military traditions in the following paradigms: ‘justice’ vs ‘interests’, ‘human

  17. New York Operation: Military Kids Afterschool Universe Cosmic Camps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaff, N.

    2010-08-01

    The Cornell Center for Radiophysics and Space Research education and public outreach program and the New York State Operation: Military Kids program partnered to plan four weekend "Cosmic Camps" for youth from military families using the NASA Afterschool Universe program.

  18. The military and the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kelty, Ryan; Kleykamp, Meredith; Segal, David R

    2010-01-01

    Ryan Kelty, Meredith Kleykamp, and David Segal examine the effect of military service on the transition to adulthood. They highlight changes since World War II in the role of the military in the lives of young adults, focusing especially on how the move from a conscription to an all-volunteer military has changed the way military service affects youths' approach to adult responsibilities. The authors note that today's all-volunteer military is both career-oriented and family-oriented, and they show how the material and social support the military provides to young servicemen and women promotes responsible membership in family relationships and the wider community. As a result, they argue, the transition to adulthood, including economic independence from parents, is more stable and orderly for military personnel than for their civilian peers. At the same time, they stress that serving in the military in a time of war holds dangers for young adults. The authors examine four broad areas of military service, focusing in each on how men and women in uniform today make the transition to adulthood. They begin by looking at the social characteristics of those who serve, especially at differences in access to the military and its benefits by socio-demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, race and ethnicity, social class, and sexual orientation. Military service also has important effects on family formation, including the timing of marriage and parenthood, family structure, and the influence of military culture on families. Family formation among servicemen and women, the authors observe, is earlier and more stable than among civilians of the same age. The authors then consider the educational and employment consequences of service. Finally, they scrutinize the dangers of military service during times of war and examine the physical and psychological effects of wartime military service. They also note the sexual trauma endured both by male and female military personnel and the physical and symbolic violence women can experience in a male-dominated institution. Kelty, Kleykamp, and Segal conclude by seeking policy lessons from the military's success in facilitating the transition to adulthood for young men and women in uniform. PMID:20364627

  19. Childhood Ideology in the United States: A Comparative Cultural View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Diane M.

    2003-03-01

    Childhood ideology functions in each nation as a complex of ideas about what children are like and how best to teach and socialise them. One important domain of childhood ideology concerns ideas and practices related to children's development and behaviour management. Drawing from an analysis of popular childrearing magazines and early childhood education materials in the United States, this cultural study describes contemporary American mainstream beliefs concerning children's early emotional and behavioural development. In particular, the paper explores themes of emotional expression, autonomy, individuality, power, and consumerism. Some comparisons with Japanese views on child development and emotional/behavioural socialisation are also made. The paper suggests that popular ideas and techniques of emotional and behavioural management in the United States in both families and early childcare environments reflect a dominant ideology of children that has potentially negative consequences for children's welfare. Furthermore, childhood ideologies, while retaining culturally specific values and ideas neither remain static nor exist in isolation from one another. The paper questions the global diffusion of a Western-style professionalised discourse of child psychology that may not be applicable to all nations and their children.

  20. LOCATIONS OF MILITARY WASTE SITES IN ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map shows locations of contaminated and non-contaminated military waste sites, Alaska Native Villages, Native Corporation boundaries, and Traditional Land-Use areas (Artic Slope region only). The entire state is shown plus identification of all military sites currently being...

  1. An aspect on the school culture in Turkey and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Semiha ?ahin

    The purpose of this study is to get a better understanding on school culture in the United States and Turkey. In this quantitative\\u000a investigation, data were collected using the “School Culture Inventory” from 157 teachers in ?zmir, Turkey and 161 teachers\\u000a in the United States. The findings show that both countries have a positive culture. A positive school culture enhances

  2. Implementing the CASPiE course-based research experience at the United States Military Academy: Affective responses and effects on critical thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Anthony Michael

    The Center for Authentic Science Practices in Education (CASPiE) pioneered a course-based research experience approach to teaching chemistry laboratory courses. The method had previously been studied in a variety of institutional settings. Recently, the United States Military Academy at West Point decided to develop CASPiE-style modules for the introductory honors chemistry course. This research setting presents clean experimental-control comparisons and a group of faculty who were completely new to the method. Equipping students with authentic research experiences early in their education is important regardless of the institution. However, cadets at a military academy must make decisions relatively early (the outset of their second year) as to what their career trajectory will be as eventual officers. In the new CASPiE-based experience, cadets are given the opportunity to select from one of three different modules (analytical chemistry, toxicology, and chemical engineering) in which to participate during the course. These three modules represent subsections of an overall Army waste-to-energy research project. Cadets generate unique hypotheses, real data, and research posters towards the advancement of the project. Posters are then presented in a session. that includes an audience of project stakeholders, course instructors, and other academy faculty and staff. Here, I will present my research methods, evaluative procedures, and findings in the affective domain, critical thinking, and laboratory content comprehension.

  3. Are Our Military Alliances Meaningful?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George S. McGovern

    1969-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1949, motivated by fear of world communism, the United States negotiated pacts which tied its defense posture to the military security of forty-two other nations. World conditions have changed radically since that time. The Sino-Soviet dispute and East European developments have shown that a monolithic Communist bloc does not exist. West Europe and Japan have recovered economically

  4. Functional Status after Blast-Plus-Impact Complex Concussive Traumatic Brain Injury in Evacuated United States Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Christine L.; Johnson, Ann M.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Werner, Nicole J.; Fang, Raymond; Flaherty, Stephen F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fundamental questions remain unanswered about the longitudinal impact of blast-plus-impact complex traumatic brain injuries (TBI) from wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This prospective, observational study investigated measures of clinical outcome in US military personnel evacuated to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC) in Germany after such “blast-plus” concussive TBIs. Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended assessments completed 6–12 months after injury indicated a moderate overall disability in 41/47 (87%) blast-plus TBI subjects and a substantial but smaller number (11/18, 61%, p=0.018) of demographically similar US military controls without TBI evacuated for other medical reasons. Cognitive function assessed with a neuropsychological test battery was not different between blast-plus TBI subjects and controls; performance of both groups was generally in the normal range. No subject was found to have focal neurological deficits. However, 29/47 (57%) of blast-plus subjects with TBI met all criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus 5/18 (28%) of controls (p=0.014). PTSD was highly associated with overall disability; 31/34 patients with PTSD versus 19/31 patients who did not meet full PTSD criteria had moderate to severe disability (p=0.0003). Symptoms of depression were also more severe in the TBI group (p=0.05), and highly correlated with PTSD severity (r=0.86, p<0.0001). Thus, in summary, high rates of PTSD and depression but not cognitive impairment or focal neurological deficits were observed 6–12 months after concussive blast-plus-impact complex TBI. Overall disability was substantially greater than typically reported in civilian non-blast concussive (“mild”) patients with TBI, even with polytrauma. The relationship between these clinical outcomes and specific blast-related aspects of brain injuries versus other combat-related factors remains unknown. PMID:24367929

  5. Military Camp 2 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    and Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (C4) a. Understand information and C4 concepts and how they relate. b. Demonstrate a thorough understanding of how information operations and C4 are integrated to support the National Military... the Strategist Construct from Military and Business Literature ................................................................ 2 Professional Military Education: Setting the Scene ................... 6 The Emergence of Requirements for Master Strategists...

  6. Explaining state-to-state differences in seat belt use: A multivariate analysis of cultural variables.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Lisa J; Eby, David W; Dasgupta, Kohinoor; Yang, Yang; Nair, Vijayan N; Pollock, Stephen M

    2012-07-01

    There is considerable variation in seat belt use within the United States despite extensive evidence that the use of seat belts saves lives. Previous studies have identified some important factors that affect belt use rates, including gender, age, race, vehicle type, seat-belt enforcement laws, and amount of fine for belt-use law violation. In this study, we examined the influence of additional socio-demographic factors on state-level use rates: education (percentage of high school educated population), racial composition (percentage White), median household income, political leaning (percentage Democrat), and a measure of religiosity. These variables, which collectively characterize the 'culture' of a state, have received little attention in seat-belt studies. The paper reports results from a multiple regression analysis of data from the 2008 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Many of the use rate patterns in FARS data were consistent with those found in other data sets, suggesting that conclusions based on FARS data are likely to hold for the population-at-large. Of the five cultural factors considered in the study, three were identified as important in explaining the differences in seat belt use at the state level: religiosity, race (percentage White), and political leaning (percentage Democrat). The other two variables - income and education - were not significant. Hold-out analyses confirmed that this conclusion was consistent across different subsets of data. The findings from this study are preliminary and have to be confirmed on other data sets. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the potential usefulness of cultural factors in explaining state-to-state variation in seat belt use rates. If factors such as religiosity are indeed important, they can be used to develop culturally appropriate programs for increasing belt use. PMID:22326413

  7. Complex issues of military capability: Measurement, assessment, simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. D. Miller; M. F. Sulcoski; B. A. Farmer

    1997-01-01

    The nonlinear science methodology behind the Military Capability Spectrum Project (PRISM) is presented. This project approaches assessments of military power of nations (worldwide) from the perspective that their military organizations are complex adaptive systems (CAS) locked in a threat\\/alliance coupled group that collectively evolves toward a self-organized critical state. Dissipative behavior can take the form of war and other forms

  8. Soviet Military Awards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    After the fall of the Soviet Union in the winter of 1991, thousands of items of Cold War paraphernalia found ready markets across the world, including the United States. High school and college students were now able to purchase the heavy wool jackets of Soviet and East German troops, and military buffs were able to acquire a number of patches, medals, and other items. The medals were often highly prized, and whether people understood the iconography and symbolism or not, they sought them out just the same. Fortunately for those interested in the wide world of Soviet military awards, there is this fine site which offers photographs and information about the various medals and their respective honors. With over 50 medals on the site, visitors can learn about the Order of October Revolution, the Pilot-Cosmonaut of USSR, and the rather curious Medal for Development of Virgin Lands, which commemorates the "young soviets" who relocated to Siberia, the Volga region, and northern Caucasus. For those whose interest is piqued by this material, there is also a newsletter that visitors can look through online.

  9. An Organizational Culture Assessment Using the Competing Values Framework: A Profile of Ohio State University Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrio, Angel A.

    2003-01-01

    Current and preferred culture of Ohio State University Extension was assessed by 297 extension staff categorized by gender, location, program area, title, age, and years employed. Most categories selected a Clan culture type as dominant in both the current and preferred situations. The Clan culture portrays an organization that concentrates on…

  10. The effect of sociocultural factors on the quality of relations of the United States with Hispaniola: analysis of the American military occupation of Haiti and the Dominican Republic (1915-1934) 

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Fausto B.

    1988-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF SOCIOCULTURAL FACTORS ON THE QUALITY OF RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES WITH HISPANIOLA: ANALYSIS OF THE AMERICAN MILITARY OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC (1915-1934) A Thesis By FAUSTO B. ALVAREZ Submitted... WITH HISPANIOLA: ANALYSIS OF THE AMERICAN MILITARY OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC (1915-1934) A Thesis by FAUSTO B. ALVAREZ Approved as to style and content by: C arrperson o Co ee) ames H. Copp (Member) Wm. Alex McIntosh (Member) James...

  11. Intermountain West Military Training Lands Planting Guide: Selecting Seed Mixtures for Actively Used Military Lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This guide provides recommendations on plant materials for Department of Defense (DoD) training land restoration at military facilities in the Intermountain West of the United States. These guidelines fill a gap in knowledge in the science of military land management; there are no other guides for ...

  12. 76 FR 58031 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ...Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY...SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), in consultation with the appropriate Indian...

  13. Operation: Military Kids Supporting Military Families in Minnesota

    E-print Network

    Amin, S. Massoud

    Operation: Military Kids Supporting Military Families in Minnesota Learning Circle Lesson - Leader Operation Military Kids Team 2006 The University of Minnesota is committed to the policy that all persons, or sexual orientation. #12;2 Operation: Military Kids Supporting Military Families in Minnesota Learning

  14. Cultural differences in patterns of mood states on board the International Space Station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer E. Boyd; Nick Kanas; Vadim I. Gushin; Stephanie Saylor

    2007-01-01

    Based on our previous studies of astronauts and cosmonauts, we hypothesized that the patterning of mood states among International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers would vary by culture, regardless of the overall frequency of these states in each cultural group. Russian clinicians recognize a pattern of distress known as asthenia. According to the asthenia model, depression should covary with fatigue. According

  15. Cognitive-Affective States Predict Military and Political Aggression and Risk TakingA Content Analysis of Churchill, Hitler, Roosevelt, and Stalin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason M. Satterfield

    1998-01-01

    The explanatory styles, integrative complexity, and pessimistic rumination scores of Winston Churchill, Adolf Hitler, Josef Stalin, and Franklin D. Roosevelt were derived from verbatim materials for time periods preceding military and political events. The events were rated on scales of aggression\\/passivity and risk\\/caution. Results suggest that increases in optimism and decreases in integrative complexity before military and political events predict

  16. Minor in Joint Military Studies Contact: Lieutenant Colonel Matthew S. McSwain, USAF

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    4/12 Minor in Joint Military Studies Contact: Lieutenant Colonel Matthew S. McSwain, USAF Office in Engineering Building, Room 409 Professor of Aerospace Studies 978-934-2252 The minor in Joint Military Studies instruments of power, the United States Military. There is no military commitment required for a student

  17. Cultural Television: Western Europe and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Emanuel

    1993-01-01

    Uncertainties within the French audiovisual sphere about the viability of ARTE, the Franco-German cultural television channel, crystallize the crisis in the legitimacy of cultural television within the European public service. Promoted by successive Mitterrand governments as compensation for deregulation and privatization, and as a tool for building Europe, ARTE is drawing very small audiences in France, and reviving accusations against

  18. Paradigm Change in Military Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Herbert H.; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    All branches of the U.S. military are moving toward education and training that is tailored to meet individuals' needs wherever they are and whenever they are ready to learn. The result will be a culture of continuous, personalized learning with learner progress that is based on proficiency and a greater emphasis on technology-enabled immersive…

  19. Postdeployment military mental health training: cross-national evaluations.

    PubMed

    Foran, Heather M; Garber, Bryan G; Zamorski, Mark A; Wray, Mariane; Mulligan, Kathleen; Greenberg, Neil; Castro, Carl Andrew; Adler, Amy B

    2013-05-01

    Deployments increase risk for adjustment problems in service members. To mitigate this increased risk, mental health training programs have been developed and implemented in several nations. As part of a coordinated effort, three nations adapted a U.S. mental health training program that had been validated by a series of group randomized trials demonstrating improvement in postdeployment adjustment. Implementation of evidence-based programs in a new context is challenging: How much of the original program needs to remain intact in order to retain its utility? User satisfaction rates can provide essential data to assess how well a program is accepted. This article summarizes service member ratings of postdeployment mental health training and compares ratings from service members across four nations. The participating nations (Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and the United States) administered mental health training to active duty military personnel in their respective nations. Following the training, military personnel completed an evaluation of the training. Overall, across the four nations, more than 70% of military personnel agreed or strongly agreed that they were satisfied with the mental health training. Although some differences in evaluations were observed across nations, components of training that were most important to overall satisfaction with the training were strikingly similar across nations. Fundamentally, it appears feasible that despite cultural and organizational differences, a mental health training program developed in one nation can be successfully adapted for use in other nations. PMID:23730961

  20. The Military Assistance Training Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernest W. Lefever

    1976-01-01

    The Military Assistance Training Program has been and is a low-cost, low-risk foreign policy instrument that has served the United States interest in interstate stability and has provided a valuable channel of communication and in fluence with a significant elite, especially in the Third World. In the past 25 years, the program has reached over 450,000 officers and men from

  1. 48 CFR 252.225-7007 - Prohibition on Acquisition of United States Munitions List Items from Communist Chinese Military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...commercial or defense industrial base of the People's Republic of China; or (2) Owned or controlled by, or affiliated with...the Government or armed forces of the People's Republic of China. United States Munitions List means the munitions...

  2. Fighting with Gender: Understanding the Contemporary Combat Experiences of Servicewomen and Servicemen in the United States Military 

    E-print Network

    Serrato, Margie

    2013-05-03

    Since the integration of women into the United States armed forces, servicemen have been expected to be the fighters while servicewomen largely occupied safe or nurturing support roles as dictated by American society at ...

  3. Mechanism for multiplicity of steady states with distinct cell concentration in continuous culture of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Yongky, Andrew; Lee, Jongchan; Le, Tung; Mulukutla, Bhanu Chandra; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2015-07-01

    Continuous culture for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins offers the possibility of steady state operations and thus more consistent product quality and increased productivity. Under some conditions, multiplicity of steady states has been observed in continuous cultures of mammalian cells, wherein with the same dilution rate and feed nutrient composition, steady states with very different cell and product concentrations may be reached. At those different steady states, cells may exhibit a high glycolysis flux with high lactate production and low cell concentration, or a low glycolysis flux with low lactate and high cell concentration. These different steady states, with different cell concentration, also have different productivity. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the occurrence of steady state multiplicity and devising a strategy to steer the culture toward the desired steady state is critical. We establish a multi-scale kinetic model that integrates a mechanistic intracellular metabolic model and cell growth model in a continuous bioreactor. We show that steady state multiplicity exists in a range of dilution rate in continuous culture as a result of the bistable behavior in glycolysis. The insights from the model were used to devise strategies to guide the culture to the desired steady state in the multiple steady state region. The model provides a guideline principle in the design of continuous culture processes of mammalian cells. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 1437-1445. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25676211

  4. The glucoamylase-encoding gene (glaB) is expressed in solid-state culture with a low water content.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Akiko; Sano, Motoaki; Oda, Ken; Hisada, Hiromoto; Hata, Yoji; Ohashi, Shinichi

    2007-07-01

    Solid-state culture encourages high-level enzyme secretion by Aspergillus oryzae. Using the real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, we confirmed that expression of the glucoamylase-encoding gene in A. oryzae cultured in solid-state culture depends on the water content of the culture. PMID:17617703

  5. Rhetoric and the Death of a Top Gun: Technology, Gender, and the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Tori

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the author's ongoing research analyzing several sites of discourse related to a military training accident that resulted in the death of the first female military pilot assigned to a combat position. Contributes to scholarship discussing interactions of technology, gender, and military culture. Explores how language influences…

  6. Early Childhood Military Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelo, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Does the country's national security rely on top-quality early childhood education? Yes, say the military leaders of Mission: Readiness, an organization led by retired military commanders that promotes investment in education, child health, and parenting support. Actually, the generals are right, but for all the wrong reasons. The generals' aim is…

  7. Corruption and military spending

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjeev Gupta; Luiz de Mello; Raju Sharan

    2001-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence relates corruption with high levels of military spending. This paper tests empirically whether such a relationship exists. The empirical analysis is based on data from four different sources for up to 120 countries during 1985–1998. The association between military spending and corruption is investigated by using cross-section and panel regression techniques. The results suggest that corruption is associated

  8. Military Social Work: Opportunities and Challenges for Social Work Education

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, Nikki R.

    2015-01-01

    Military social work is a specialized field of practice spanning the micro-macro continuum and requiring advanced social work knowledge and skills. The complex behavioral health problems and service needs of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans highlight the need for highly trained social work professionals who can provide militarily-relevant and culturally-responsive evidence-informed services. Responding to the military behavioral health workforce and service needs of recently returned veterans presents both opportunities and challenges for military social work education. This article discusses the rationale for a military social work specialization, the need for military social work education, and opportunities and challenges for social work education. An integrated model of intellectual capital is proposed to guide strategic planning for future military social work education.

  9. 76 FR 6509 - Notice of Certification; Foreign Military Financing, and International Military Education and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ...International Military Education and Training; Guatemala AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION...International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG) by granting access to CICIG...International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG) by granting access to...

  10. Former Military Officers from the Republic of Vietnam Now Living in the United States (US): Exploring their Perceptions of the US Healthcare System

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Elisabeth K.; Nguyen, Phuong L.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have focused on perceptions of healthcare among Vietnamese who came to the United States (US) as refugees. A 48-item survey that included information on demographics, health status, and satisfaction with healthcare [including the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-18 (PSQ-18)] was sent to 49 former Vietnamese military officers, who are now living in the US, based on their current geographic residence. A total of 22 of 49 delivered questionnaires were completed and returned, yielding a response rate of 45%. The survey was sent in Vietnamese and English, and all except one was completed in Vietnamese. In response to “Language barriers have prevented me from accessing health care when I need it,” 77% of respondents acknowledged that this was “sometimes” the case even today. Most respondents otherwise viewed the healthcare system favorably, but cost concerns were an issue: 28% strongly agreed or agreed with the statement, “I have to pay for more of my medical care than I can afford.” In contrast, only 9% described that they would have strongly agreed or agreed to this statement upon first arriving to the US. Write-in comments revealed themes that centered on language barriers, favorable impressions of healthcare in the US, financial concerns, and patriotism towards the US. Further study of this aging population of Vietnamese Americans might help shed light on concerns faced by other refugee populations who have arrived more recently. PMID:21461762

  11. PEARL CULTURE UNITED STATES DEPAR'lMENT OF THE nrTF,RIOR

    E-print Network

    PEARL CULTURE IN JAPAN UNITED STATES DEPAR'lMENT OF THE nrTF,RIOR FIS.tI AND WILDLIFE SERVICE'AN TABLE OF CO TE ITS Fron tispiece Sumcary · · · In troduc t10n. Hi story of Pearl Cul ture . 1. Gener nl. · · 2. Pearl Culture in J~pan . 3. Pearl Culturs in Souto Pacific Area l. 4. Development of P~8rl 18rml

  12. Cross-Cultural Issues of Office Technology Management: Comparing Canada and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattiker, Urs E.; And Others

    Although the internationalization of business makes cross-cultural research on workers' attitudes toward computer-based technology valuable to management, cross-cultural studies are rare. A study was conducted to determine whether employees in the United States differ from Canadian employees in their evaluation of computer-based technology due to…

  13. The Economic Impact of the Cultural Industry on the State of South Carolina

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    The Economic Impact of the Cultural Industry on the State of South Carolina Prepared for The SC pleased to work with the South Carolina Arts Commission to update the 1992 study of the economic impact of the cultural industry in South Carolina. The Division of Research is especially grateful to Dr. Morgan

  14. World Film Studies Minor DEPARTMENT OF WORLD LANGUAGES & CULTURES --IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    Mayfield, John

    World Film Studies Minor DEPARTMENT OF WORLD LANGUAGES & CULTURES -- IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY The World Film Studies minor is an interdisciplinary, cross-cultural program in the department of World of the non-English-speaking world. A student seeking a minor in World Film Studies must successfully complete

  15. Documents in Military History

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edited by Dave Stewart, assistant professor of history at Hillsdale College (Hillsdale, Michigan), Documents in Military History is an online collection of primary sources for military history. The collection emphasizes pre-twentieth-century European military history but also includes some documents that address American and non-Western histories. Currently, the collection contains 325 items in six major historical sections: Ancient, Medieval, Early Modern, French Revolution, Nineteenth Century, and Naval Warfare. Each major section is further divided into more specific subsections. The organized layout of the site promotes chronological browsing. The site also provides a keyword search facility (inoperable at the time of review).

  16. Cultural policy, state politics, and rural economic development : lessons from Maine

    E-print Network

    Christmas, Shannon Stewart

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores how political actors utilize studies of the arts' impact on state economies to boost -the significance of cultural policy within a given political environment. Specifically, this thesis explains how ...

  17. Cultural impacts on public perceptions of agricultural biotechnology: comparison between South Korea and the United States 

    E-print Network

    Nader, Richard Harrison

    2007-04-25

    transfer and exchange, increasingly requires people in different cultures to make choices about accepting or rejecting artifacts of science and technology such as genetically modified (GM) foods, which originate primarily from the United States...

  18. Culture and Whistleblowing An Empirical Study of Croatian and United States Managers Utilizing Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Tavakoli; John P. Keenan; B. Cranjak-Karanovic

    2003-01-01

    Leaders and managers of today's multinational corporations face a plethora of problems and issues directly attributable to the fact that they are operating in an international context. With work-sites, plants and\\/or customers based in another country, or even several countries, representing a vast spectrum of cultural differences, international trade and offshore operations, coupled with increased globalisation in respect to political,

  19. The Intersection of Cultures: Multicultural Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spring, Joel

    Designed to be used in courses devoted to the study of multicultural education, this book aims to outline conceptual foundations of multicultural education and to discuss differences in cultural perspectives. The book is divided into two parts. Part one provides the foundation of multicultural education; part two focuses on the perspectives on…

  20. Military Expenditure % of GDP

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bar chart ranking countries by military expenditures as a percentage of GDP. Shows the militarization of the Middle East and Africa. The chart, perhaps obviously, is dominated by small countries with small GDPs.

  1. WAR & Military Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Pols, Hans; Oak, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Involvement in warfare can have dramatic consequences for the mental health and well-being of military personnel. During the 20th century, US military psychiatrists tried to deal with these consequences while contributing to the military goal of preserving manpower and reducing the debilitating impact of psychiatric syndromes by implementing screening programs to detect factors that predispose individuals to mental disorders, providing early intervention strategies for acute war-related syndromes, and treating long-term psychiatric disability after deployment. The success of screening has proven disappointing, the effects of treatment near the front lines are unclear, and the results of treatment for chronic postwar syndromes are mixed. After the Persian Gulf War, a number of military physicians made innovative proposals for a population-based approach, anchored in primary care instead of specialty-based care. This approach appears to hold the most promise for the future. PMID:17971561

  2. Veterans and Military Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Military service members and veterans face some different health issues than civilians. During combat, the main health concerns are life-threatening injuries. These include Shrapnel and gunshot wounds Lost ...

  3. Mental Health: Military

    MedlinePLUS

    Home > Mental Health > People > Military Let's Talk Facts Brochures Understanding Mental Disorders: Your Guide to DSM-5 Healthy Minds, Healthy ... Parity Healthy Minds TV What is a psychiatrist Mental Health Check-up Coping with Disasters Links for more ...

  4. Assessing cultural competence at a local hospital system in the United States.

    PubMed

    Polacek, Georgia N L J; Martinez, Rubén

    2009-01-01

    Cultural competence in health care has come to the forefront with the changing demographics in the United States. Standards have been created by the Office of Minority Health for culturally appropriate health care. This article presents the findings of one hospital system's cultural competency assessment. Employee surveys and patient and physician focus groups were conducted to gain insight into cultural differences and challenges encountered in this system. Statistically significant effects of ethnicity and gender on language skills and awareness, as well as differences in awareness and knowledge by the respondent's employment position, were found. Patient concerns included access to care and respect from staff. The need for cross-cultural education and training for all health care delivery personnel was reinforced. Cultural competency will not be achieved if education, attention to diversity, trained interpreters, and the understanding that social factors have a profound influence on health and health outcomes are not considered. PMID:19433927

  5. Radiometry in military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, Krzysztof

    2001-08-01

    Missiles guided using optoelectronic methods, optoelectronic imaging systems (thermal imaging systems, night vision devices, LLLTV cameras, TV cameras), and optoelectronic countermeasures (smoke screens, camouflage paints and nets, IR flares, decoys, jamming systems, warning systems) are one of the most important components of modern military armament. There are numerous military standards, some of them secret, that precise radiometric parameters to be measured and the testing methods to be used. There is also much literature on the subject of testing of the systems mentioned above, although mostly on subject of testing of the thermal imaging systems. In spite of this apparently numerous literature, there still significant confusion in this area due to secrecy of some parameters and testing methods, differences in recommendations of different military standards, fast progress in military optoelectronics, and also due to enormous number of different types of optoelectronics systems used in the military armament. A review of testing methods of the three basic groups of optoelectronics systems used in modern military armament: the missiles guided using optoelectronics methods, the optoelectronic imaging systems, and the optoelectronic countermeasures is presented in this paper. Trends in the measuring sets.

  6. Experiences Using OWL in Military Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Lacy; Gabriel Aviles; Karen Fraser; William Gerber; Alice M. Mulvehill; Robert Gaskill

    2005-01-01

    Abstract. The United States military is continuing to research and is beginning toemploy,OWL-related information ,representation technologies. The ,Joint Explosive Ordnance Disposal (JEOD) Decision Support System (DSS) is using OWL to present ,relevant procedural information to warfighters. The ,United States Air Force (USAF) is experimenting with representing portions of the Foreign Clearance Guide (FCG) in OWL to support automated ,planning ,for

  7. Experiences with using OWL in Military Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee W. Lacy; Gabriel Aviles; Karen Fraser; William Gerber; Alice Mulvehill; Robert Gaskill

    The United States military is continuing to research and is beginning to employ OWL-related information representation technologies. The Joint Explosive Ordnance Disposal (JEOD) Decision Support System (DSS) is using OWL to present relevant procedural information to warfighters. The United States Air Force (USAF) is experimenting with representing portions of the Foreign Clearance Guide (FCG) in OWL to support automated planning

  8. Multivitamin and protein supplement use is associated with positive mood states and health behaviors in US Military and Coast Guard personnel.

    PubMed

    Austin, Krista G; McGraw, Susan M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 60% of Armed Forces personnel regularly consume dietary supplements (DSs). We investigated the association of mood and health behaviors with multiple classes of DSs in military and Coast Guard personnel (N = 5536). Participants completed a survey of DS use and the Quick Mood Scale to assess mood domains of wakeful-drowsiness, relaxed-anxious, cheerful-depressed, friendly-aggression, clearheaded-confused, and well coordinated-clumsy. Supplements were categorized as multivitamin/minerals (MVM), individual vitamin/minerals, protein/amino acid supplements (PS), combination products (C), herbals (H), purported steroid analogs, (S) and other (O). One-way analyses of covariance assessed associations of DSs and perceived health behavior with mood controlling for age. Logistic regression determined associations between DS use and health behavior. Users of MVM and PS reported feeling significantly (P < 0.05) more awake, relaxed, cheerful, clearheaded, and coordinated. Participants using PS and S reported feeling less friendly (more aggressive, P < 0.02). Users of MVM and PS were more likely to report their general health, eating habits, and fitness level as excellent/good (P < 0.05). Participants reporting health behaviors as excellent/good were more (P < 0.01) awake, relaxed, cheerful, friendly, clearheaded, and coordinated. As no known biological mechanisms can explain such diverse effects of MVM and PS use on multiple mood states, health, eating habits, and fitness, we hypothesize these associations are not causal, and DS intake does not alter these parameters per se. Preexisting differences in mood and other health-related behaviors and outcomes between users versus nonusers of DSs could be a confounding factor in studies of DSs. PMID:25122181

  9. State Political Culture, Higher Education Spending Indicators, and Undergraduate Graduation Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Ronald H.; Lam, Wendy S.; Thomas, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Issues concerning higher education today (e.g., rising costs, declining public trust, changing state economics) have created new demands for postsecondary institutions to demonstrate their productivity. We examine whether differences in states' political cultures (i.e., underlying traditions, values, and public policy choices) are reflected…

  10. A cross-cultural comparison of business ethics: cases of Russia, Slovenia, Turkey, and United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Hisrich; Branko Bucar; Sevgi Oztark

    2003-01-01

    Presents the empirical findings regarding the ethical attitudes of business people in four culturally and economically different countries (Russia, Slovenia, Turkey, and the United States) based on the assumptions of integrative social contracts theory. Given the quality of institutions in the four surveyed countries and the quality of economic interactions, it was anticipated that the United States would rank the

  11. Chinese Culture in the United States of America; An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Alberto R., Comp.

    Materials on the Chinese in the United States are listed and briefly reviewed. Works cited include bibliographies, general literature on the origin of Chinese culture and on the Chinese in the United States, and specialized works dealing with various aspects of Chinese American life. Entries for these specialized works are listed under the…

  12. Academic and Military Programs of the Five Service Academies. Report to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staats, Elmer B.

    The academic and military programs of the five service academies are reviewed and found generally to produce qualified officers, but several aspects of their program could be improved. It is noted that only the Naval and Merchant Marine Academies require a comprehensive examination to evaluate students' professional competence before graduation…

  13. Aerospace and military

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J.A.; Esch, K

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews military and aerospace developments of 1989. The Voyager spacecraft returned astounding imagery from Neptune, sophisticated sensors were launched to explore Venus and Jupiter, and another craft went into earth orbit to explore cosmic rays, while a huge telescope is to be launched early in 1990. The U.S. space shuttle redesign was completed and access to space has become no longer purely a governmental enterprise. In the military realm, events within the Soviet bloc, such as the Berlin Wall's destruction, have popularized arms control. Several big treaties could be signed within the year. Massive troop, equipment, and budget reductions are being considered, along with a halt or delay of major new weapons systems. For new missions, the U.S. military is retreating to its role of a century ago - patrolling the nation's borders, this time against narcotics traffickers.

  14. Golden Eagle Indifference to Heli-Skiing and Military Helicopters

    E-print Network

    Golden Eagle Indifference to Heli-Skiing and Military Helicopters in Northern Utah TERYL G. GRUBB,1-Skiing and Military Helicopters in Northern Utah TERYL G. GRUBB,1 United States Forest Service, Rocky Mountain, Utah, USA, we recorded 303 helicopter passes between 0 m and 3,000 m (horizontal distance) near L 30

  15. American Military History, Social Studies: 6416.15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John A.

    Military institutions in the United States are examined from a historical perspective by students in grades 10 through 12 in this quinmester social studies course. Objectives are for students to identify pertinent information about selected wars; describe factors that have influenced the development of American military policy and the organization…

  16. A Methodology for Evaluating Military Systems in a Counterproliferation Role

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley Stafira Jr.; Gregory S. Parnell; James T. Moore

    1997-01-01

    This paper illustrates a methodology to evaluate how dissimilar military systems support the accomplishment of the United States' counterproliferation objectives. The key questions in evaluating counterproliferation systems are identified. By using decision analysis, an influence diagram model is developed that represents military activities in the counterproliferation process. A value model is developed that enables systems to be evaluated against common

  17. 78 FR 13890 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ...Cultural Items: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA...SUMMARY: The San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, in consultation with...may contact the San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program. DATES:...

  18. [Optimum of polysaccharide distillation on scrap Cordyceps militaris medium].

    PubMed

    Ren, Shu-Yu; Zhao, Chun-Yan; Song, Hui-Yi; Zhao, Hao-Lu; Sun, Jun-De

    2008-03-01

    A mass of scrap Cordyceps militaris solid culture medium could not be utilized better. In this test, using orthogonal design the optimal technique parmeter of extracting polysaccharide was 80 degrees C, two times, in twenty times of water, and 120 minutes each time. Temperature was the most important factor. The referenced data could be provided to depurative production of Cordyceps militaris and resource utilization. PMID:18619235

  19. Washington State Administrative Certification and Cultural Diversity Requirements. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Gail Chase; Sagor, Richard D.

    Most of the school districts in Washington State are small, rural, and contain a low percentage of minorities. However, the Hispanic student population has increased from 3.9 percent in 1985-86 to 6 percent in 1991-92, mostly due to migrant students. The percentage of other minority students has remained relatively stable. Consequently, there is…

  20. Calcite saturation state effects on cultured benthic foraminiferal trace-element distribution coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, C. J.; Shaw, T. J.; Chandler, G. T.; McCorkle, D. C.; Bernhard, J. M.; Blanks, J. K.

    2006-12-01

    Field studies have suggested that calcite saturation states (Ømega) near and below saturation alter trace element distribution coefficients in benthic foraminifera. Recent benthic foraminiferal culture experiments at the University of South Carolina investigated the response of trace element signatures to three different calcite saturation seawater environments by manipulating total alkalinity (TA). Starting with near-surface Gulf Stream water (Ømega = 3, TA=2380 ?eq kg-1), two seawater reservoirs were titrated with HCl to lower their calcite saturation states (Ømega = 2, TA = 1910 ?eq kg-1; Ømega = 1.1, TA = 1320 ?eq kg-1). Mixed-species foraminiferal assemblages, with the calcite-specific fluorescent label calcein, were inoculated into 13 total culture chambers evenly distributed among the control and 2 treatment seawater reservoirs. These cultures were maintained at 7.2 ± 0.1 °C temperature and 36.6 ± 0.4 ‰ salinity for 8 months. Total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon, measured biweekly, characterized the carbonate system and verified that the calcite saturation state remained stable over the culture duration. Trace element concentrations were also measured biweekly. Foraminiferal reproduction ( Bulimina marginata) was observed in each seawater chemistry. These individuals were utilized for trace element and stable isotope (data not presented here) analysis. Additionally, terminal chambers precipitated in alkalinity-adjusted cultures were identified by the absence of the pre-culture calcein label used on all inoculated foraminifera. These cultured chambers were separated by laser microdissection and analyzed for trace element content by isotope dilution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We present the initial results of these trace element distribution coefficients measured in cultured benthic foraminifera from three different Ømega. This research was funded by National Science Foundation grants OCE-0351029 and OCE-0437366.

  1. Vibrio cholerae Classical Biotype Is Converted to the Viable Non-Culturable State when Cultured with the El Tor Biotype

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Subhra; Mallick, Sanjaya K.; Chowdhury, Rukhsana

    2013-01-01

    A unique event in bacterial epidemiology was the emergence of the El Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae O1 and the subsequent rapid displacement of the existing classical biotype as the predominant cause of epidemic cholera. We demonstrate that when the El Tor and classical biotypes were cocultured in standard laboratory medium a precipitous decline in colony forming units (CFU) of the classical biotype occurred in a contact dependent manner. Several lines of evidence including DNA release, microscopy and flow cytometric analysis indicated that the drastic reduction in CFU of the classical biotype in cocultures was not accompanied by lysis, although when the classical biotype was grown individually in monocultures, lysis of the cells occurred concomitant with decrease in CFU starting from late stationary phase. Furthermore, uptake of a membrane potential sensitive dye and protection of genomic DNA from extracellular DNase strongly suggested that the classical biotype cells in cocultures retained viability in spite of loss of culturability. These results suggest that coculturing the classical biotype with the El Tor biotype protects the former from lysis allowing the cells to remain viable in spite of the loss of culturability. The stationary phase sigma factor RpoS may have a role in the loss of culturability of the classical biotype in cocultures. Although competitive exclusion of closely related strains has been reported for several bacterial species, conversion of the target bacterial population to the viable non-culturable state has not been demonstrated previously and may have important implications in the evolution of bacterial strains. PMID:23326443

  2. Nanosilver induces a non-culturable but metabolically active state in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Königs, Alexa M.; Flemming, Hans-Curt; Wingender, Jost

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have raised expectations for the protection of medical devices and consumer products against biofilms. The effect of silver on bacteria is commonly determined by culture-dependent methods. It is as yet unknown if silver-exposed bacteria can enter a metabolically active but non-culturable state. In this study, the efficacy of chemically synthesized AgNPs and silver as silver nitrate (AgNO3) against planktonic cells and biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AdS was investigated in microtiter plate assays, using cultural as well as culture-independent methods. In liquid medium, AgNPs and AgNO3 inhibited both planktonic growth and biofilm formation. The efficacy of AgNPs and AgNO3 against established, 24 h-old biofilms and planktonic stationary-phase cells was compared by exposure to silver in deionized water. Loss of culturability of planktonic cells was always higher than that of the attached biofilms. However, resuspended biofilm cells became more susceptible to AgNPs and AgNO3 than attached biofilms. Thus, the physical state of bacteria within biofilms rendered them more tolerant to silver compared with the planktonic state. Silver-exposed cells that had become unculturable still displayed signs of viability: they contained rRNA, determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization, as an indicator for potential protein synthesis, maintained their membrane integrity as monitored by differential live/dead staining, and displayed significant levels of adenosine triphosphate. It was concluded that AgNPs and AgNO3 in concentrations at which culturability was inhibited, both planktonic and biofilm cells of P. aeruginosa were still intact and metabolically active, reminiscent of the viable but non-culturable state known to be induced in pathogenic bacteria in response to stress conditions. This observation is important for a realistic assessment of the antimicrobial properties of AgNPs. PMID:25999929

  3. Terrorism and military theory: An historical perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Everett L. Wheeler

    1991-01-01

    Late twentieth?century terrorism should be viewed as a form of war and falls within the framework of military theory. Terrorism, like guerrilla warfare a form of unconventional warfare, represents a revival of primitive (or pre?state) warfare. Distinctions of terrorism from guerrilla warfare are formalistic and ignore options to conduct and actual practice. The historical roots of contemporary terrorism are examined.

  4. Military jet activity and Sonoran pronghorn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Krausman; Lisa K. Harris

    2002-01-01

    Summary Forty percent of the habitat for the endangered Sonoran pronghorn (Antilocapra americana sonoriensis) in the United States is on the Barry M. Goldwater Range (BMGR), a bombing and gunnery range located in southwestern Arizona, USA. Wildlife and land managers have expressed concerns that military aircraft activity may be detrimental to Sonoran pronhom. We observed the response of Sonoran pronghorn

  5. Military Sexual Trauma Research: A Proposed Agenda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn B. Allard; Sarah Nunnink; Amber M. Gregory; Bridget Klest; Melissa Platt

    2011-01-01

    Military sexual trauma (MST) is a widespread problem associated with negative psychological and physical health problems. This article presents the current state of MST research and highlights specific areas in need of more focused study. Areas that have produced the greatest body of knowledge include MST prevalence and psychological and physical health correlates. We propose a research agenda based on

  6. The Utilization of Women in the Military

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Goldman

    1973-01-01

    In the decade of the 1970s there will be an increase in the number and percent of women in the United States military. Trends indicate that this rise will move steadily but gradually from less than 2 percent women in the armed services to approximately 4 percent. Although the number and percent of women in uniform will remain small, their

  7. US Military space policy 1945–92

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Mowthorpe

    2002-01-01

    This article uses space power theory to analyse the military space policy of the United States during the Cold War period up to the demise of the Soviet Union. It examines the consensus that emerged during this period which sought to prevent the weaponization of space. This consensus was called into question during the latter period with the announcement of

  8. PUTIN AND MILITARY REFORM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DALE R. HERSPRING

    V ladimir Putin was faced with a military that was in a mess when he took over. Morale was at rock bottom, junior officers were leaving in droves, equipment and weapons were failing, soldiers were deserting, the draft was a joke, crime was on the rise, planes were crashing, and most important, Chechnya remained a major distraction. Putting the Russian

  9. Failures in military aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham Clark

    2005-01-01

    The severe operating conditions for components in military aircraft lead to a wide range of failure modes and introduce many factors which can influence those failures. As a result, the accident investigator or failure analyst may need to explore issues more widely than might be the case with systems operating in more benign or controlled environments. Complicating factors are the

  10. Technical Education in the Military

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Charles O.

    1974-01-01

    Cooperation between military and civilian technical training institutions has included evaluation and accreditation of five military training schools by a civilian evaluation team, which was impressed by the level, completeness and quality of the instruction. Additional cooperation and improved communications between military and civilian training…

  11. 27 CFR 447.57 - U.S. military defense articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false U.S. military defense articles. 447.57 Section...Miscellaneous Provisions § 447.57 U.S. military defense articles. (a)(1) Notwithstanding...parts 478 or 479 of this chapter, no military defense article of United States...

  12. 27 CFR 447.57 - U.S. military defense articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false U.S. military defense articles. 447.57 Section...Miscellaneous Provisions § 447.57 U.S. military defense articles. (a)(1) Notwithstanding...parts 478 or 479 of this chapter, no military defense article of United States...

  13. 27 CFR 447.57 - U.S. military defense articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true U.S. military defense articles. 447.57 Section...Miscellaneous Provisions § 447.57 U.S. military defense articles. (a)(1) Notwithstanding...parts 478 or 479 of this chapter, no military defense article of United States...

  14. 27 CFR 447.57 - U.S. military defense articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false U.S. military defense articles. 447.57 Section...Miscellaneous Provisions § 447.57 U.S. military defense articles. (a)(1) Notwithstanding...parts 478 or 479 of this chapter, no military defense article of United States...

  15. Geography’s underworld: The military–industrial complex, mathematical modelling and the quantitative revolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor J. Barnes

    2008-01-01

    The Second World War marked an epochal change in the relation of geographers to war and the military. The military had long utilised the skills of geographers, but from World War II the relation changed at least in the United States, and the military began less drawing upon existing geographical knowledge than directing a new kind that was increasingly formal,

  16. Contact and Connection: A Cross-Cultural Look at Parenting Styles in Bali and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestenberg-Amighi, Janet

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that a culturally approved style of nonverbal parent-infant interaction influences the unfolding parent-child relationship and the child's social development. The author, an anthropologist, compares parenting styles in the "low-contact" culture of the United States with parenting in the "high-contact" culture of Bali. The…

  17. Bamako's Woodcarvers as Pariahs of Cultural Heritage: Between Marginalization and State Representation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristiana Panella

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I propose to view the acts of production behind tourist art as indicators of adaptation strategies paramount to innovation and cultural reprocessing. From this perspective, I examine the principle of materiality associated with UNESCO selection criteria, including a spatial-temporal conception that rejects the contemporaneity between objects and their acts of production. The Malian state's \\

  18. Distance Higher Education Experiences of Arab Gulf Students in the United States: A Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Harthi, Aisha S.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a phenomenological research study that was undertaken to provide cultural understanding about the nature of distance education experiences of Arab graduate students pursuing degree programs in the United States. As a theoretical framework, Hofstede's international difference dimensions and Hall's concept of low and high…

  19. Culture and Self-Perception in Japan and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven D. Cousins

    1989-01-01

    I examined the influence of cultural meaning systems on the perception of self among Japanese and American (United States) college students. Given the importance of social context to the Japanese self as compared with the U.S. self, I used two types of free-response format: the noncontextualized Twenty Statements Test (TST), and a contextualized questionnaire asking subjects to describe themselves in

  20. CAPOST-PASTEURIAN CULTURES: The Microbiopolitics of Raw-Milk Cheese in the United States

    E-print Network

    Seager, Sara

    CAPOST-PASTEURIAN CULTURES: The Microbiopolitics of Raw-Milk Cheese in the United States HEATHER blame colds on germs, demand antibiotics from doctors, and drink ultra-pasteurized milk and juice, while unpasteurized milk (Altiok 2006; Johnston 2006). Others produce, or pay premium price for, the gustatory

  1. Developing serious games for cultural heritage: a state-of-the-art review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eike Falk Anderson; Leigh McLoughlin; Fotis Liarokapis; Christopher Peters; Panagiotis Petridis; Sara de Freitas

    2010-01-01

    Although the widespread use of gaming for leisure purposes has been well documented, the use of games to support cultural\\u000a heritage purposes, such as historical teaching and learning, or for enhancing museum visits, has been less well considered.\\u000a The state-of-the-art in serious game technology is identical to that of the state-of-the-art in entertainment games technology.\\u000a As a result, the field

  2. Providing care to military personnel and their families: how we can all contribute.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Todd D; Hemmer, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    Providing medical care to members of the military and their families remains a societal duty carried out not only by military physicians but also, and in large part, by civilian providers. As many military families are geographically dispersed, it is probable that all physicians at some point in their training or careers will care for this unique patient population. Understanding the military culture can help physicians provide the best care possible to our military families, and inclusion of military cultural competency curricula in all medical schools is a first step in advancing this understanding. The authors review the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that all health professionals should acquire to be able to care for those who serve and offer recommendations for developing these among all students and trainees. PMID:24979291

  3. Tobacco Promotion to Military Personnel: “The Plums Are Here to Be Plucked”

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Elizabeth A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    Smoking rates among military personnel are high, damaging health, decreasing short- and long-term troop readiness, and costing the Department of Defense (DOD). The military is an important market for the tobacco industry, which long targeted the military with cigarette promotions. Internal tobacco industry documents were examined to explore tobacco sponsorship of events targeted to military personnel. Evidence was found of more than 1,400 events held between 1980 and 1997. In 1986, the DOD issued a directive forbidding such special promotions; however, with the frequently eager cooperation of military personnel, they continued for more than a decade, apparently ceasing only because of the restrictions of the Master Settlement Agreement. The U.S. military collaborated with the tobacco industry for decades, creating a military culture of smoking. Reversing that process will require strong policy establishing tobacco use as unmilitary. PMID:19743733

  4. Kentucky Military Treasures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Funded by the Kentucky Veterans Trust Fund and the Kentucky Historical Society Foundation, the Kentucky Military Treasures site profiles the stories and experiences of veterans from the 18th century all the way up to the current day. The stories bring together artifacts, primary documents, and photographs to help enrich these unique stories. First-time visitors should peruse the timeline to get a sense of the ways in which Kentuckians have contributed to military conflicts large and small across the globe. In the "Signature Stories" area, visitors can learn about Richard M. Johnson of Beargrass, Kentucky. He was known for his leadership at the Battle of the Thames in 1813, and his story his told through four artifacts, including a powder horn and a cannon from the period. The "Curator's Corner" features an introduction from director of the Kentucky Historical Society, Kent Whitworth, and other comments on flags and weapons from curators at the Society. [KMG

  5. Military Medics--Will We Use Their Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Patricia

    1974-01-01

    The greates obstacles medics face in negotiating the passage between military and civilian health jobs are created by civilian hiring standards. Civilian employers rely on licensure by a State agency or accreditation by a professional organization. (Author/AJ)

  6. Partnering with the Military

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    sites on the fort?s primary tank maneuver training area. ?We needed to know that the compost applied on Fort Hood?s land is not causing nutrient problems in PARTNERING WITH THE MILITARY the water and demonstrate that nutrients in compost can... is impairing that watershed. tx H2O | pg. 2 Agriculture uses compost to restore Fort Hood?s training lands --------------------------------------------- Tanks within two armored divisions at Fort Hood have left some of the training land eroded, compacted...

  7. Military Fault Tolerant Requirements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy P. Monaghan

    The DoD is entering a radically new era of weapon systems procurement. The Cold War is over and new scenarios and new force\\u000a structures are changing the requirements of the next generation of weapon systems. The major drivers shaping this new era\\u000a of weapon system procurement are: decreasing military budgets, stretched out development cycles, an emphasis on prototypes\\u000a and demonstrations,

  8. 76 FR 49525 - Delegation by the Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs of Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Delegation of Authority 339] Delegation by the Assistant Secretary of State for Educational...Educational and Cultural Affairs, including by Delegation of Authority No. 236-3 (August 28,...

  9. Competence, risk, and resilience in military families: conceptual commentary.

    PubMed

    Masten, Ann S

    2013-09-01

    This commentary highlights conceptual themes in the opening section of this special issue on military families in relation to a new synthesis of developmental systems theory that emerged from developmental, ecological, and family systems theory, as well as developmental psychopathology and risk/resilience frameworks. Articles in this special issue draw on these concepts to characterize and guide the burgeoning research on military families. This perspective emphasizes that multiple dynamic systems interact across levels to shape individual development, as well as the function of families and military units. Developmental timing is important for understanding how challenges of military life may impact individuals and families. Cascade effects are noted, where stress experienced by one family or service member can influence the function of other individuals or larger systems. Capacity for resilience is distributed across systems, including families and cultures, as well as resources or supports provided by military organizations to foster adaptive responses or recovery. These systems include schools and educational programs that play key roles in fostering and supporting resilience for children. Overall, developmental system concepts have considerable utility for guiding research with military families, particularly in regard to promoting resilience. Moreover, lessons learned from military families and programs may have much broader implications for many other nonmilitary children, families, and organizations that share similar goals and challenges. PMID:23877370

  10. Cross-cultural effects of casualties on foreign policy decision making: South Korea and the United States 

    E-print Network

    Park, Nam Tae

    2009-06-02

    of two culturally different states, South Korea and the United States. The two cultural factors are (1) the level of individualism vs. collectivism, and (2) the degree of ambiguity intolerance. I argue that the two factors will possibly affect the public...

  11. [State-of-the-art and prospects of high-tech medical aid to patients with cardiac arrhythmia based at military medical facilities].

    PubMed

    Steklov, V I

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of provision of high-tech medical aid to patients with cardiac arrhythmia based at military medical facilities showed that the available means and workforce are sufficient for the purpose. In order to facilitate access to high-tech medical aid it is necessary to equip arrhythmologic departments with up-to-date-instruments and set up cabinets of electrocardiostimulation in regional (naval) hospitals for implantation of temporary and permanent pacemakers. A program is pending for education (primary specialization) and advanced training of specialists in clinical cardiac electrophysiology, interventional and surgical arrhythmology. PMID:25269209

  12. Distribution and in vitro Fruiting of Cordyceps militaris in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Won-Ho; Choi, Seong-Keun; Lee, Je-O; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2005-12-01

    Cordyceps militaris specimens were continuously collected by Entomopathogenic Fungal Culture Collection (EFCC), Kangwon National University from different mountains, national parks and recreation parks of Korea from 1986 to 2002, mainly from late May to October of each year. Dry specimens of C. militaris along with their isolates have been preserved in EFCC. Fruiting of C. militaris was induced from single ascospore isolates as well as their combinations in brown rice medium. Fruiting experiments showed that combinations of single ascospore isolates produced fertile fruiting bodies, but single isolates could not produce any fruiting bodies. It was shown that two isolates of the opposite mating types were required to produce fertile stromata. However, combinations of the same mating type isolates produced no fruiting body, showing that C. militaris is a bipolar, heterothallic fungus. PMID:24049497

  13. Dr. Frances Coln Deputy Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State

    E-print Network

    Kazama, Hokto

    Dr. Frances Colón Deputy Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State Reinventing Diplomacy Through Science, Technology and Innovation Abstract: The United States Department of State has range of tools at our disposal ­ diplomatic, economic, military, political, legal, and cultural

  14. A Cross-cultural Comparison of Objectivity in Childhood Games: Iran and the United States.

    PubMed

    Rastegarpour, Ali

    2011-07-01

    Games have been introduced as a means for studying cross-cultural differences and societies. This paper presents a case study in analogous games played by children in two different countries with two different cultures - Iran and the United States. Four examples are presented to demonstrate that games played by Iranian children are subject to less objectivity in their rules. Therefore, nonobjectivity may be a phenomenon that has roots in the society and the many differences between the two societies may very well be the results of this fundamental difference. If the presence of objectivity in childhood game rules could be, in actuality, indicative of objectivity in social and civil interactions in the everyday lives of the people, the direction of causality remains to be established. In other words, it remains unclear whether the games influence the culture or are influenced by the mandates of the society. PMID:22345851

  15. Culture and Difference. Critical Perspectives on the Bicultural Experience in the United States. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darder, Antonia, Ed.

    The teaching and politics of cultural difference and identity are explored in these essays, which examine the possibilities of living with cultural differences through new ethical and pedagogical frameworks. The following chapters are included: (1) "Introduction. The Politics of Biculturalism: Culture and Difference in the Formation of 'Warriors…

  16. Center for Environmental Management of Military Lands (970) 491-2748 cemml@cemml.colostate.edu

    E-print Network

    Center for Environmental Management of Military Lands (970) 491-2748 · cemml is accomplished by applying best management practices consistent with continued military use. Training Area Design areas and ranges to minimize hazards to soldiers, equipment, and natural and cultural resources while

  17. Military Dollars and Public Sense: Do Big Defense Budgets Help the Economy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Cassidy; Kevin B. Bean

    1991-01-01

    This section explores the link between the continued American commitment to large-scale military spending and the apparent decline of the American economy. Indeed the assumption that war preparation benefits everyone has been a fundamental part of American political culture throughout the Cold War. Military spending raises three problematical issues for the U.S. economy. This is what critics call the opportunity

  18. Approaches to death and dying: a cultural comparison of Turkey and the United States.

    PubMed

    Beaty, Darla D

    2015-01-01

    Three principles that guide the bioethics movement in the United States and other Western societies apply to the approaches of death and dying in both the United States and Turkey. These three principles, Autonomy, Beneficence, and justice, are reflected in the practices of people in both countries. The issue of autonomy is of greater concern to those in the United States, while decisions are made entirely with family and physician involvement in Turkey. Beneficence and Justice can be identified as ethical issues in both countries. Similarities with end-of-life experiences are linked by faith-based beliefs of Islam and Christianity. Differences in sociocultural influences, such as policies about advance directives in the United States, account for differences in end-of-life decision making. This article examines the spiritual, cultural, legal, and political factors that inform the experience of people in Turkey and in the United States when death is at hand. PMID:26036057

  19. Burns and military clothing.

    PubMed

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military burn casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate burns, or complicate burn management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683

  20. 78 FR 5717 - Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...waters of Suisun Bay near Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA in support of military...

  1. Evolution of Clinical Military Psychology Ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carrie H. Kennedy; Bret A. Moore

    2007-01-01

    Ethical quandaries for military psychologists are a challenge. Effective military mental health providers must have a thorough understanding of their ethics code, pertinent military instructions, military law, and the mental health laws of the countries in which they practice. This article traces the evolution of clinical military psychology ethics from World War II to present day and serves to introduce

  2. Inter-Korean military confidence building after 2003

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Tae-woo; Adriane C. Littlefield; Michael Geoffrey Vannoni; Kim Sang-beom; Jennifer Gay Koelm; John Norman Olsen; Kim Myong-jin; Shin Sung-tack

    2003-01-01

    Tensions on the Korean Peninsula remain high despite a long-term strategy by South Korea to increase inter-Korean exchanges in economics, culture, sports, and other topics. This is because the process of reconciliation has rarely extended to military and security topics and those initiatives that were negotiated have been ineffective. Bilateral interactions must include actions to reduce threats and improve confidence

  3. Military Education Benefits Information Military Education Benefits Office

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Military Education Benefits Information Military Education Benefits Office Mellencamp Hall, Room veteran students who wish to receive educational benefits under a federal GI Bill program must complete a VA Benefits Request form and submit it to our office. It is to your advantage to register for your

  4. Recruits' Military Preferences and Their Accommodation by the Military Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoehn, Arthur J.; And Others

    The research report provides information on recruits' military occupational preferences, match of military assignments to recruits' preferences, and changes that occur in these preferences between service entry and completion of basic training. Questionnaires were administered to recruits from four services just before classification interviewing…

  5. Puritan Military Justice: American War Crimes and the Global War on Terrorism 

    E-print Network

    Lorenzo, Ronald

    2012-07-16

    Exploring Puritanical cultural habits in the 21st century American military, the following study focuses on U.S. Army courts-martial in the Global War on Terrorism. The study uses Emile Durkheim's original sociological ...

  6. State and parameter estimation of microalgal photobioreactor cultures based on local irradiance measurement.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei Wen; Li, Jian; Xu, Ning-Shou

    2003-10-01

    Local photosynthetic photon flux fluence rate (PPFFR) determined by a submersible 4pi quantum micro-sensor was used in developing a versatile on-line state estimator for stirred-tank microalgal photobioreactor cultures. A marine micro-alga Dunaliella salina was used as a model organism in this study. On-line state estimation was realized using the extended Kalman filter (EKF), based on a state model of the photobioreactor and on-line local PPFFR measurement. The dynamic state model for the photobioreactor was derived based on mass-balance equations of the relevant states. The measurement equation was established based on an empirical correlation between the microalgal biomass concentration and the local PPFFR measured at a fixed point inside the photobioreactor. An internal model approach was used to estimate the specific growth rate without the need of state-based kinetic expression. The estimator was proven to be capable of estimating biomass concentration and specific growth rate, as well as phosphate and dissolved oxygen concentrations in a photobioreactor illuminated with either fixed or time-varying incident radiation. The quantum sensor was shown to be robust and able to quickly respond to dynamic changes in local PPFFR. In addition, the quantum sensor outputs were not affected by bubble aeration or agitation within the typical operating range. The strong filtering capacity of EKF gives the state estimator superior performance compared to direct calculation from the empirical biomass/local PPFFR correlation. This state estimation system makes use of inexpensive and reliable sensor hardware to report key process dynamics of microalgal photobioreactor cultures on-line, enabling improved operation of such a process. PMID:14511917

  7. Social and Cultural Influences on Tobacco-Related Health Disparities among South Asians in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjea, Arnab; Morgan, Patricia A.; Snowden, Lonnie R.; Ling, Pamela M.; Ivey, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore and understand key cultural contexts of tobacco use among South Asian communities in the United States. DESIGN Focus groups, with homogenous compositions of gender, generational status, and length of time in the United States, were conducted in two distinct South Asian ethnic enclaves. Focus group findings were triangulated with observational data regarding availability of culturally-specific tobacco from commercial ethnic outlets and cultural events. SUBJECTS Respondents included 88 men and women of South Asian descent, aged 18 to 65 years, immigrant and native born, representing diversity of religion, socioeconomic status, and region of origin, with use of at least one culturally-specific tobacco product in previous 24 months. RESULTS A large number of culturally-specific products are commonly used by community members. Knowledge of product-specific health risks was lacking or inaccurate. Many culturally-specific tobacco products were considered to have beneficial properties. South Asian tobacco items were used to preserve cultural traditions and express ethnic identity in a new dominant culture. The social and cultural value ascribed to use helped distinguish community members from mainstream society and from other minority populations. CONCLUSIONS Many cultural factors govern tobacco use among diverse global populations. Especially for migrants with a common regional origin, the role of ethnic identity may strongly influence culturally-specific tobacco patterns. Qualitative inquiry helps elucidate such culturally-framed behaviors in culturally-diverse populations. These cultural contexts should be integrated into research and practice. Understanding multidimensional factors influencing non-traditional tobacco use is key to ensuring that comprehensive tobacco control strategies address tobacco-related disparities. PMID:21708814

  8. Military technology: an historical perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Perry

    2004-01-01

    Throughout history, nations have endeavored to develop new and more advanced technologies with the goal of achieving military advantage. New technologies resulted in new weapons and brought dramatic change in military tactics. The increase in the destructive power of soldiers in the Civil War and the resulting horror and futility of the frontal assault ushered in a change to trench

  9. Economic Conditions of Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosek, James; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors found that the economic circumstances of military families are good, certainly much improved compared with even a decade ago. The military context is nonetheless challenging, with long hours, dangerous work, frequent transfers, and stressful absences during deployment. Service members receive relatively high pay and…

  10. OLED study for military applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Barre; A. Chiquard; S. Faure; L. Landais; P. Patry

    2005-01-01

    The presentation deals with some applications of OLED displays in military optronic systems, which are scheduled by SAGEM DS (Defence and Security). SAGEM DS, one of the largest group in the defence and security market, is currently investigating OLED Technologies for military programs. This technology is close from being chosen for optronic equipment such as future infantry night vision goggles,

  11. Engineering geosciences and military operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Kiersch

    1998-01-01

    The earliest recorded use of geology for the terrain assessment of the battlefield occurred at Katzback in 1813 and contributed to the defeat of Napoleon's Army. Ever since, most major military operations have utilized geologic counsel to evaluate the terrain and features or execute battle actions. The value of geologic insight was recognized in books on the military applications of

  12. Synchronous environmental and cultural change in the prehistory of the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Samuel E; Gajewski, Konrad; Peros, Matthew C

    2010-12-21

    Climatic changes during the late Quaternary have resulted in substantial, often abrupt, rearrangements of terrestrial ecosystems, but the relationship between these environmental changes and prehistoric human culture and population size remains unclear. Using a database of archaeological radiocarbon dates alongside a network of paleoecological records (sedimentary pollen and charcoal) and paleoclimatic reconstructions, we show that periods of cultural and demographic change in the northeastern United States occurred at the same times as the major environmental-climatic transitions of that region. At 11.6, 8.2, 5.4, and 3.0 kyr BP (10(3) calendar years before present), changes in forest composition altered the distribution, availability, and predictability of food resources which triggered technological adjustments manifested in the archaeological record. Human population level has varied in response to these external changes in ecosystems, but the adoption of maize agriculture during the late Holocene also resulted in a substantial population increase. This study demonstrates the long-term interconnectedness of prehistoric human cultures and the ecosystems they inhabited, and provides a consolidated environmental-cultural framework from which more interdisciplinary research and discussion can develop. Moreover, it emphasizes the complex nature of human responses to environmental change in a temperate region. PMID:21135208

  13. Biodegradation of Palm Kernel Cake by Cellulolytic and Hemicellulolytic Bacterial Cultures through Solid State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Alshelmani, Mohamed Idris; Loh, Teck Chwen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Lau, Wei Hong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2014-01-01

    Four cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacterial cultures were purchased from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Two experiments were conducted; the objective of the first experiment was to determine the optimum time period required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC), whereas the objective of the second experiment was to investigate the effect of combinations of these cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria on the nutritive quality of the PKC. In the first experiment, the SSF was lasted for 12 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC to moisture ratios. In the second experiment, fifteen combinations were created among the four microbes with one untreated PKC as a control. The SSF lasted for 9 days, and the samples were autoclaved, dried, and analyzed for proximate analysis. Results showed that bacterial cultures produced high enzymes activities at the 4th day of SSF, whereas their abilities to produce enzymes tended to be decreased to reach zero at the 8th day of SSF. Findings in the second experiment showed that hemicellulose and cellulose was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, whereas the amount of reducing sugars were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the fermented PKC (FPKC) compared with untreated PKC. PMID:25019097

  14. 78 FR 43796 - Indebtedness of Military Personnel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...Army 32 CFR Part 513 Indebtedness of Military Personnel AGENCY: Department of the...regulations concerning indebtedness of military personnel. The regulations are being...32 CFR Part 112, ``Indebtedness of Military Personnel,'' and DoD Financial...

  15. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF ACQUIRING CROSS-CULTURAL INTERACTION SKILLS THROUGH SELF-CONFRONTATION. FINAL REPORT JUL 1964-AUG 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EACHUS, HERBERT T.; HAINES, DONALD B.

    AN EXPERIMENT CARRIED OUT TO ASSESS THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO METHODS OF TRAINING UNITED STATES AIR FORCE MILITARY ADVISORS IN CROSS-CULTURAL SKILLS REQUIRED SUBJECTS TO PLAY THE ROLE OF AN AMERICAN AIR FORCE CAPTAIN WHO HAD TO INTERACT, IN SPECIFIED WAYS, WITH A FOREIGN COUNTERPART PLAYED BY AN ACTOR. A LIST OF 34 BEHAVIORS APPROPRIATE TO…

  16. Building military influenza surveillance capacity in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Kronmann, Karl C; Ampofo, William; Nzussouo, Talla; Wasfy, Momtaz O; Agbenohevi, Prince; Carroll, John; Diabate, Mory; Sourabie, Seydou; Puplampu, Naiki; Clemens, Michaela; Oyofo, Buhari A

    2013-03-01

    Militaries are especially susceptible to operationally important outbreaks of acute respiratory infections such as pandemic and seasonal influenza. In addition, militaries play important roles for State Parties working to meet International Health Regulations 2005, particularly in developing countries. In 2009, the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 joined with the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research and the armed forces of Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Côte d'Ivoire to create or improve influenza surveillance capacities within the militaries. This article describes the process undertaken to achieve this goal. In the Ghana Armed Forces, influenza surveillance for outpatients was instituted at seven medical stations throughout the country and for inpatients at the tertiary referral hospital in Accra. As a result, military sites now contribute around half of the influenza cases detected in Ghana and reported weekly to the World Health Organization. Samples were also collected by the militaries of Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso, although political instability slowed progress. This effort is part of an ongoing strategy to build influenza surveillance capacity within West African militaries in support of military services, global outbreak investigations, International Health Regulations-2005, and the development of country-specific pandemic preparedness plans. PMID:23707118

  17. Cross-cultural examination of online shopping behavior: A comparison of Norway, Germany, and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Smith; George Deitz; Marla B. Royne; John D. Hansen; Marko Grünhagen; Carl Witte

    While the rise of the commercial Internet has promoted many brands to a globally ubiquitous status, convergent demand for certain goods and services masks many culture-bound differences in consumer shopping behaviors. Adopting the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), this research examines the role of culture in influencing online shopping use, comparing differences across three countries: Germany, Norway, and the United States.

  18. "CultureGrams[TM]" and "StateGrams[TM]": Making Places and People Relevant to Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2002-01-01

    Describes "CultureGrams" and "StateGrams", sources that provide practical cultural information including attitudes, appearances, greetings, gestures, dating, family life, transportation, health, and education. Focuses on the edition suitable for elementary school students, explaining specific features and suggesting assignments and class…

  19. "Attraction, Attention, and Desire": Consumer Culture as Pedagogical Paradigm in Museums in the United States, 1900-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Urged on by a young generation of reform-minded professionals, museums in the United States adopted the premises and practices of consumer culture in the early twentieth century. This article argues that this turn towards consumer culture resulted from a new institutional commitment to public education and a radical re-conception of visual…

  20. Joint-Service Integration: An Organizational Culture Study of the United States Department of Defense Voluntary Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Martin K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the descriptive case study with a multiple case framework was to (a) describe the organizational cultures of education programs and leaders in the United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) voluntary education system on Oahu, Hawaii; (b) determine if an overlapping common organizational culture exists; and (c) assess the…

  1. Decolorization of synthetic dyes by solid state cultures of Lentinula ( Lentinus) edodes producing manganese peroxidase as the main ligninolytic enzyme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cinthia Gandolfi Boer; Larissa Obici; Cristina Giatti Marques de Souza; Rosane M. Peralta

    2004-01-01

    The ability of the white-rot fungus Lentinula (Lentinus) edodes to decolorize several synthetic dyes was investigated using solid state cultures with corn cob as substrate. Cultures, containing amido black, congo red, trypan blue, methyl green, remazol brilliant blue R, methyl violet, ethyl violet and Poly R478 at 200 ppm, were completely decolorized after 18 days of incubation. Partial decolorization was

  2. IS THE DEFENCE MARKET CONTESTABLE? THE CASE OF MILITARY AEROSPACE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cedric Laguerre

    2009-01-01

    I demonstrate the existence of two sources of contestability in the military aerospace market, within producing and export countries, through the State’s triple role as unique buyer, regulator and seller. For the producing countries, I introduce the new concept, ‘sovereignty price’; that is, the profit a State agrees to grant to its defence firms to perpetuate their domestic activities. This

  3. HIV in military.

    PubMed

    1996-05-31

    The House of Representatives approved a defense authorization bill that requires the Pentagon to discharge service members who test positive for HIV antibodies. This is the second measure of its kind. Last year, Rep. Robert K. Dornan (R-CA) pushed through Congress a similar measure that was repealed after encountering public opposition. President Clinton said he will veto the defense bill in its current form. The bill provides $13 billion in spending beyond the amount the Pentagon requested, resurrects plans for the Star Wars missile defense system, and rescinds Clinton's don't ask, don't tell policy toward gay men and lesbians in the military. Rep. Peter Torkildsen (R-MA) is confident that the HIV provision can be stricken when the bill goes to a House-Senate conference committee in a few weeks. PMID:11363494

  4. Toxicology and military anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Nicholson-Roberts, T C

    2010-12-01

    The combination of trauma and poisoning is a situation likely to be faced by a deployed force at some point. This article provides practical advice on how to deal with poisoned patients without deviating from the concept of damage control resuscitation. The constraints of limited diagnostics, both at the scene and clinically, and lack of antidotal therapy are fundamental to the practice of clinical toxicology. Some of the specific therapies such as atropine and oximes were not evaluated prior to their introduction and there are few randomised controlled trials of poisoned patients. Most of the diagnoses will be made on clinical grounds and most of the therapy will be supportive; this article aims to reassure military anaesthetists in the process of dealing with the poisoned trauma patient. PMID:21302652

  5. A Prospective Study of Acute Diarrhea in a Cohort of United States Military Personnel on Deployment to the Multinational Force and Observers, Sinai, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Mark S.; Rockabrand, David M.; Schlett, Carey; Monteville, Marshall R.; Frenck, Robert W.; Romine, Marcy; Ahmed, Salwa F.; Sanders, John W.

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the epidemiology of diarrhea in deployed personnel to the Middle East, a prospective cohort study of travelers' diarrhea (TD) was conducted between May 2004 and January 2005 at the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) camp in the southern Sinai. A baseline entry questionnaire and stool specimen was provided on study entry, and volunteers were followed every 6 weeks. Of 211 volunteers, 145 (68.7%) completed one or more follow-up visits. In total, 416 follow-up surveys were completed, which described an overall incidence of 25.2 episodes per 100 person months (95% confidence interval = 21.2–30.0). Additionally, stools were collected in 72 of 77 diarrhea-associated clinic visits, with bacterial pathogens most commonly isolated (enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in 30 [42%] samples and Campylobacter jejuni in 7 [10%] samples) Despite modern preventive methods, diarrhea is still a common problem for deployed US military personnel in Egypt, frequently resulting in diminished ability to work. PMID:21212203

  6. Origins and destinies: Immigration to the United States since World War II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rubén G. Rumbaut

    1994-01-01

    Contemporary immigration to the United States and the formation of new ethnic groups are the complex and unintended social consequences of the expansion of the nation to its post-World War II position of global hegemony. Immigrant communities in the United States today are related to a history of American military, political, economic, and cultural involvement and intervention in the sending

  7. Relationship between Hippocampal Volume changes and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder following Traumatic Brain Injury in US Military Personnel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toby Emanuel

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is one of the most common, and serious injuries suffered by United States servicemen in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Compared to roughly 2% of the civilian population, nearly 20% of military personnel returning from current military operations in the Middle East have been diagnosed with TBI. Additionally, an increasing number of military personnel returning

  8. Tobacco use policy in military housing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Rojo, Rachel; Malone, Ruth E

    2015-06-01

    Secondhand smoke and thirdhand smoke (e.g., smoke residues found on walls and floors) are known to pose health hazards. Some landlords and cities have therefore established smoke-free policies for multiunit housing. The military is in effect the largest landlord in the United States, with approximately 630,000 units of housing. We reviewed the service-level tobacco control policies of the Army, the Air Force, and the Navy and Marine Corps (which share a policy) for references to housing, to see if personnel are adequately protected from secondhand and thirdhand smoke. Policies covering most family housing and all housing for single enlisted personnel fail to fully protect residents from secondhand or thirdhand smoke. The current review of tobacco control policy in the military should recommend a consistent policy of tobacco-free living quarters. PMID:26032376

  9. Modesty matters: cultural sensitivity and cervical cancer prevention in muslim women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Mary Elizabeth; Salman, Khlood

    2013-01-01

    Muslim women represent a growing minority in the United States, and sensitivity to their cultural and religious values (modesty, in particular) is important, because lack of sensitivity to modesty is a barrier for Muslim women to obtain cervical cancer screening and prevention. This article presents current recommendations for screening, highlights the need for prevention strategies for children (e.g., HPV vaccination), addresses the limited amount of research on this population and suggests strategies to discuss and encourage cervical cancer screening and prevention among Muslim women. PMID:23773193

  10. Stephen F. Austin State University Stephen F. Austin

    E-print Network

    Long, Nicholas

    Flynn Associate Dean John Goodall 10/25/2013 #12;Stephen F. Austin State University College of Forestry Conservation Center (PWCC) Co-Directors David & Jo Treadaway Associate Dean Hans Williams 10/25/2013 #12 East Texas Historical Association Scott Sosebee Military Science Ltc. David Miller Languages, Cultures

  11. Conversion of yellow wine lees into high-protein yeast culture by solid-state fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuanliang; Pan, Lina; Dun, Yaohao; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang; Zhao, Shumiao

    2014-01-01

    This study is focussed on the possibility of producing a yeast culture with yellow wine lees as a substrate by solid-state fermentation (SSF). Results showed that a yeast count of 1.58 × 109 CFU/g was achieved by signal factor and orthogonal experiments. After fermentation, the starch content in the yeast culture reduced from 32.2% ± 0.5% to 7.5% ± 0.2%, and the contents of crude protein and peptide increased from 36.1% ± 0.8% to 48.0% ± 1.0% and 3.9% ± 0.2% to 7.2% ± 0.4%, respectively. Additionally, large amounts of short peptides and free amino acids were detected by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). These results suggest that yellow wine lees are a suitable substrate for the production of yeast cultures. It can serve as a growth-promoting factor and help reduce the shortage of protein feed in the animal industry. This research provides a potential way for the utilization of agro-industrial residues. PMID:26019568

  12. Dilemmas and controversies within civilian and military organizations in the execution of humanitarian aid in Iraq: a review.

    PubMed

    Morton, Melinda J; Burnham, Gilbert M

    2010-01-01

    Civilian humanitarian assistance organizations and military forces are working in a similar direction in many humanitarian operations around the world. However, tensions exist over the role of the military in such operations. The purpose of this article is to review cultural perspectives of civilian and military actors and to discuss recent developments in civil-military humanitarian collaboration in the provision of health services in Iraq for guiding such collaborative efforts in postconflict and other settings in future. Optimal collaborative efforts are most likely to be achieved through the following tenets: defining appropriate roles for military forces at the beginning of humanitarian operations (optimally the provision of transportation, logistical coordination, and security), promoting development of ongoing relationships between civilian and military agencies, establishment of humanitarian aid training programs for Department of Defense personnel, and the need for the military to develop and use quantitative aid impact indicators for assuring quality and effectiveness of humanitarian aid. PMID:21319556

  13. Military Takeover Complete in Pakistan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    de Nie, Michael Willem.

    General Pervez Musharraf assumed the position of chief executive of Pakistan early this morning, completing a very quick and bloodless coup that began on Tuesday night. General Musharraf declared a state of emergency, suspending the constitution and the national and provincial assemblies, dismissing the provincial governments and governors, and banning the Supreme Court from challenging his authority. Reaction to the coup has been rather muted within Pakistan and abroad. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, who is now in custody, was increasingly unpopular in Pakistan because of the country's dire economic situation, his handling of the conflict with India in Kashmir, and what some saw as his systematic efforts to undermine the authority of rival political parties and branches of government. Foreign officials and editorials have criticized the military and called for the restoration of civilian rule as soon as possible. However, many have also acknowledged Sharif's poor record and some have even called for a transitional "technocratic" government to revive the economy and fight corruption. While the crucial question of foreign aid and loans to Pakistan is still very much up in the air, it does appear that at least some nations, most notably arch-rival India, are prepared to do business with Pakistan's new leaders, at least for the short term.

  14. Substance Abuse in the Military

    MedlinePLUS

    ... among personnel who have been exposed to combat. Suicides and Substance Use Suicide rates in the military were traditionally lower than ... the same age range, but in 2004 the suicide rate in the U.S. Army began to climb, ...

  15. Changing Families in a Changing Military System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Edna J., Ed.

    Recently, the military system has begun to feel the impact of the military family. Whenever sudden dramatic changes or transitions occur, crises may result either for the individual or for the institution. At present both the military system and the military family are in a period of rapid transition. Perhaps one of the most important changes that…

  16. Satellite Power System (SPS) military implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    The military implications of the reference satellite power system (SPS) were examined is well as important military related study tasks. Primary areas of investigation were the potential of the SPS as a weapon, for supporting U.S. military preparedness, and for affecting international relations. In addition, the SPS's relative vulnerability to overt military action, terrorist attacks, and sabotage was considered.

  17. Measuring the Cohesion of Military Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peggy Mcclure; Walter Broughton

    2000-01-01

    Several trends affecting the military make the cohesion of installations increasingly problematic. At the same time, recent work in military sociology contends that greater attention should be paid to the integration of military units within the larger social entities that contain them. We report the results of a pretest conducted among 325 military personnel and spouses at an East Coast

  18. A Longitudinal Analysis of Cigarette Prices in Military Retail Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Christopher Keith; Hyder, Melissa L.; Poston, Walker S.?C.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Williams, Larry N.; Lando, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a longitudinal assessment of tobacco pricing in military retail outlets, including trends within each service branch. Methods. We determined the price of a single pack of Marlboro Red cigarettes at military retail stores located in the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii and at their nearest Walmarts in spring 2011 and 2013 (n?=?128 for pairs available at both assessments). Results. The average difference between cigarettes sold in military retail outlets and Walmarts decreased from 24.5% in 2011 to 12.5% in 2013. The decrease was partially attributable to significant price decreases at Walmarts. The largest increases in cigarette prices occurred on naval installations. Potential savings at stores on several installations remained substantial in 2013; the largest approached $6 per pack. Stores on 17 military installations decreased cigarette prices during the study period. Conclusions. Tobacco can be purchased in military retail stores at substantial savings over civilian stores. If tobacco pricing is to cease to be an incentive for use among personnel, a revised military tobacco pricing policy is needed. PMID:24524503

  19. Assessing public opinion toward the military. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, C.H.

    1985-05-01

    Opinions and attitudes of the US public toward its military have shifted over the years from strong admiration to fear and contempt. A number of historical and cultural events have helped shape public opinion. Although public opinion is not predicated solely on what happens in an historical and cultural sense, it should be analyzed and documented on the premise that public opinion affects national power, and those things which affect national power are within the realm of interest of the military and national government. A perhaps frightening aspect of the dynamics of shifting public opinion is the dynamics of shifting public opinion is the uncontrolled nature of the shifts and the resultant impact on national power. Also influencing public opinion are developments in weapons and military technology, the massive Soviet propaganda effort, and the mass communications media. This paper is written with the purpose of raising the level of awareness of military and national leaders to the threat to national power which, although lying subtly out of view because it does not pose and immediate threat to our security, nonetheless offers a formidable challenge now. A broad proposal would lay the foundation for proper research and development. (Author)

  20. Culture Change Practice in U.S. Nursing Homes: Prevalence and Variation by State Medicaid Reimbursement Policies

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To estimate the prevalence of culture change practice in U.S. nursing homes (NHs) and examine how state Medicaid policies may be associated with this prevalence. Design and Methods: In 2009/2010, we conducted a survey of a stratified proportionate random sample of NH directors of nursing (DONs) and administrators (NHAs) at 4,149U.S. NHs; contact was achieved with 3,695. Cooperation rates were 62.6% for NHAs and 61.5% for DONs. Questions focused on NH (physical) environment, resident-centered care, and staff empowerment domains. Domain scores were created and validated, in part, using qualitative interviews from 64 NHAs. Other NH covariate data were from Medicare/Medicaid surveys (Online Survey, Certification and Reporting), aggregated resident assessments (Minimum Data Set), and Medicare claims. Medicaid policies studied were a state’s average NH reimbursement rate and pay-for-performance (P4P) reimbursement (including and not including culture change performance measures). Multivariate generalized ordered logit regressions were used. Results: Eighty-five percent of DONs reported some culture change implementation. Controlling for NH attributes, a $10 higher Medicaid rate was associated with higher NH environment scores. Compared with NHs in non-P4P states, NHs in states with P4P including culture change performance measures had twice the likelihood of superior culture change scores across all domains, and NHs in other P4P states had superior physical environment and staff empowerment scores. Qualitative interviews supported the validity of survey results. Implications: Changes in Medicaid reimbursement policies may be a promising strategy for increasing culture change practice implementation. Future research examining NH culture change practice implementation pre-post P4P policy changes is recommended. PMID:23514674

  1. Economic conditions of military families.

    PubMed

    Hosek, James; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid

    2013-01-01

    For military children and their families, the economic news is mostly good. After a period of steady pay increases, James Hosek and Shelley MacDermid Wadsworth write, service members typically earn more than civilians with a comparable level of education. Moreover, they receive many other benefits that civilians often do not, including housing allowances, subsidized child care, tuition assistance, and top-of-the-line comprehensive health care. Of course, service members tend to work longer hours than civilians do, and they are exposed to hazards that civilians rarely, if ever, face. The extra pay they receive when they are deployed to combat zones helps their families cope financially but cannot alleviate the stress. Though service members are relatively well paid, the military lifestyle takes a toll on the earnings of their spouses. Chiefly because the military requires service members to move frequently, spouses' careers are regularly interrupted, and employers are hesitant to offer them jobs that require a large investment in training or a long learning curve. More military spouses than comparable civilian spouses are either unemployed or work fewer hours than they would like, and military spouses overall tend to earn less than their civilian counterparts. Despite the military's relatively high pay, some service members and their families--particularly among the junior enlisted ranks--report financial distress, and a handful even qualify for food stamps. Moreover, precisely because military pay tends to be higher than civilian pay, families may see a drop in income when a service member leaves the armed forces. Finally, the pay increases of recent years have slowed, and force cutbacks are coming; both of these factors will alter the financial picture for service members, possibly for the worse. PMID:25518691

  2. Viable but non-culturable Vibrio cholerae O1 revert to a cultivable state in the human intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Colwell; P. Brayton; D. Herrington; B. Tall; A. Huq; M. M. Levine

    1996-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 can enter a state in which they remain viable but are non-culturable. Presumably, such bacteria can be pathogenic if they retain the capacity to proliferate in the human intestine following ingestion. Two groups of volunteeers were given inocula containing viable but non-culturable V. cholerae O1 of the attenuated vaccine strain CVD 101 (viable CVD 101 organisms readily

  3. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...receiving flight training. (2) Has passed the military competency aeronautical...undergraduate pilot training school and received...qualification as a military pilot. (3...graduated from a military undergraduate pilot training school from...

  4. l-asparaginase production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in solid-state culture: evaluation and optimization of culture conditions using factorial designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasser R Abdel-Fattah; Zakia A Olama

    2002-01-01

    Statistically-based experimental designs were applied to optimize a solid-state fermentation for the production of l-asparaginase by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 50071. Fifteen culture conditions were examined for their significance on enzyme production and specific activity using Plackett–Burman factorial design. pH, casein hydrolysate and corn steep liquor were the most significant factors improving enzyme production process. The second optimization step was to identify

  5. Satellite vegetation index data as a tool to forecast population dynamics of medically important mosquitoes at military installations in the Continental United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States faces many existing and emerging mosquito-borne disease threats such as West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever (RVF). An important component of strategic prevention and control plans for these and other mosquito-borne diseases is forecasting the distribution, timing, and abund...

  6. Funeral Processions, Street Urchins, Education, and Surveillance--The Relationship between Education, State Building, Vagrancy, and Cultural Change in Stockholm, Sweden in the Latter Half of the Seventeenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandin, Bengt

    2003-01-01

    A modernization of the educational system was an important priority for the government. Sweden emerged as a dominant military power during the 17th century. The new schools were then established in the midst of a social, political, and cultural transformation with fundamental effects on the school system. The new schools had difficulties freeing…

  7. Attitudes to diversity: A cross-cultural study of education students in Spain, England, and the United States

    E-print Network

    Stough, Laura

    2010-01-01

    ://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713421837 Attitudes to diversity: a cross-cultural study of education students in Spain, England and the United States M. Cristina Cardona Moltóa; Lani Florianb; Martyn Rouseb; Laura M. Stoughc a Faculty of Education, University of Alicante, Alicante, Spain... , Florian, Lani , Rouse, Martyn and Stough, Laura M.(2010) 'Attitudes to diversity: a cross-cultural study of education students in Spain, England and the United States', European Journal of Teacher Education, 33: 3, 245 — 264 To link to this Article: DOI...

  8. Tuition Rates Charged Foreign Governments for Military Training Should Be Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The United State provides military training on a grant or sales basis to foreign governments. Under the Foreign Assistance Act of l96l, as amended, the Congress makes grants available to foreign governments for training through the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program. The Arms Export Control Act, as amended, authorizes the…

  9. Methodology for evaluating military systems in a counterproliferation role. Master`s thesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stafira

    1995-01-01

    This thesis develops a methodology to evaluate how dissimilar military systems support the accomplishment of the United States. counterproliferation objectives. The overall scope is to develop a model of the counterproliferation decision process that enables systems to be evaluated against common criteria. By using decision analysis, a influence diagram model is developed which represents military activities in the counterproliferation process.

  10. International Military Education and Training: An Assessment. McNair Paper 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, John A.

    This report presents results of a study team's analysis of the extent to which International Military Education and Training (IMET) serves U.S. interests. It describes whether IMET has done the following: (1) facilitated access to senior military and political leaders and promoted communication between the United States and recipient countries;…

  11. Bite protection analysis of permethrin-treated U.S. Military uniforms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, combat casualties from diseases have greatly outnumbered battle injuries received from actual combat during military operations. Since 1951, United States military combat uniforms have been treated within insecticides to protect personnel from arthropod attack. In the 1970s and 1980s,...

  12. Military vehicle trafficking impacts vegetation and soil bulk density at Fort Benning, Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential increases in wind erosion that might be brought about by military vehicles travelling off-road during training are of concern to the United States military. Field studies were conducted in the summer of 2012 at Fort Benning, Georgia. The objective of the experiment was to assess the traffi...

  13. A Professional Development School in Action: Meeting the Needs of Military-Connected Students and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risberg, Sandy; Curtis, Laurie; Shivers, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    In the fall of 2011, an undergraduate student who is also a military spouse and mother of school-aged children, shared with the College of Education (COE) at Kansas State University faculty her concerns about the necessity of intentional preparation of teachers and counselors regarding the unique needs of military-connected children. From that…

  14. Windchill index and military applications.

    PubMed

    Santee, William R

    2002-07-01

    A new Windchill Apparent Temperature (WCT) has been introduced to replace the Windchill Index (WCI) and Windchill Equivalent Temperature (WCET) used to quantify cold exposure. From the time of its introduction the WCI has been criticized on scientific grounds. Despite a history of criticism, the WCI and the derived WCET have been adopted by military and civilian organizations to characterize the hazards presented by exposure to cold environments. However, the military has specific needs that differ from those of the civilian population. Thus, additional weather products and devices, including thermoregulatory models, environmental monitors, and personal physiological status monitors, are available to supplement the revised WCT. PMID:12137109

  15. Drug Abuse in the Military. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session on Reviewing the Problem of Drug Abuse in the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document contains transcripts of testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the effects of illicit drug use and alcoholism on military personnel. Following statements by Senators Hawkins, Grassley, and Kerry, testimonies from representatives of the Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force, and Coast Guard are…

  16. Potassium availability triggers Mycobacterium tuberculosis transition to, and resuscitation from, non-culturable (dormant) states.

    PubMed

    Salina, Elena G; Waddell, Simon J; Hoffmann, Nadine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Butcher, Philip D; Kaprelyants, Arseny S

    2014-10-01

    Dormancy in non-sporulating bacteria is an interesting and underexplored phenomenon with significant medical implications. In particular, latent tuberculosis may result from the maintenance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in non-replicating states in infected individuals. Uniquely, growth of M. tuberculosis in aerobic conditions in potassium-deficient media resulted in the generation of bacilli that were non-culturable (NC) on solid media but detectable in liquid media. These bacilli were morphologically distinct and tolerant to cell-wall-targeting antimicrobials. Bacterial counts on solid media quickly recovered after washing and incubating bacilli in fresh resuscitation media containing potassium. This resuscitation of growth occurred too quickly to be attributed to M. tuberculosis replication. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling through adaptation to, and resuscitation from, this NC state revealed a switch to anaerobic respiration and a shift to lipid and amino acid metabolism. High concordance with mRNA signatures derived from M. tuberculosis infection models suggests that analogous NC mycobacterial phenotypes may exist during disease and may represent unrecognized populations in vivo. Resuscitation of NC bacilli in potassium-sufficient media was characterized by time-dependent activation of metabolic pathways in a programmed series of processes that probably transit bacilli through challenging microenvironments during infection. PMID:25320096

  17. Potassium availability triggers Mycobacterium tuberculosis transition to, and resuscitation from, non-culturable (dormant) states

    PubMed Central

    Salina, Elena G.; Waddell, Simon J.; Hoffmann, Nadine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Butcher, Philip D.; Kaprelyants, Arseny S.

    2014-01-01

    Dormancy in non-sporulating bacteria is an interesting and underexplored phenomenon with significant medical implications. In particular, latent tuberculosis may result from the maintenance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in non-replicating states in infected individuals. Uniquely, growth of M. tuberculosis in aerobic conditions in potassium-deficient media resulted in the generation of bacilli that were non-culturable (NC) on solid media but detectable in liquid media. These bacilli were morphologically distinct and tolerant to cell-wall-targeting antimicrobials. Bacterial counts on solid media quickly recovered after washing and incubating bacilli in fresh resuscitation media containing potassium. This resuscitation of growth occurred too quickly to be attributed to M. tuberculosis replication. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling through adaptation to, and resuscitation from, this NC state revealed a switch to anaerobic respiration and a shift to lipid and amino acid metabolism. High concordance with mRNA signatures derived from M. tuberculosis infection models suggests that analogous NC mycobacterial phenotypes may exist during disease and may represent unrecognized populations in vivo. Resuscitation of NC bacilli in potassium-sufficient media was characterized by time-dependent activation of metabolic pathways in a programmed series of processes that probably transit bacilli through challenging microenvironments during infection. PMID:25320096

  18. Determining the Oxidation States of Manganese in NT2 Cells and Cultured Astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter,K.; Aschner, M.; Miller, L.; Eliseev, R.; Salter, J.; Andersen, K.; Gunter, T.

    2006-01-01

    Excessive brain manganese (Mn) can produce a syndrome called 'manganism', which correlates with loss of striatal dopamine and cell death in the striatum and globus pallidus. The prevalent hypothesis for the cause of this syndrome has been oxidation of cell components by the strong oxidizing agent, Mn{sup 3+}, either formed by oxidation of intracellular Mn{sup 2+} or transported into the cell as Mn{sup 3+}. We have recently used X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) to determine the oxidation states of manganese complexes in brain and liver mitochondria and in nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced and non-induced PC12 cells. No evidence was found for stabilization or accumulation of Mn{sup 3+} complexes because of oxidation of Mn{sup 2+} by reactive oxygen species in these tissues. Here we extend these studies of manganese oxidation state to cells of brain origin, human neuroteratocarcinoma (NT2) cells and primary cultures of rat astrocytes. Again we find no evidence for stabilization or accumulation of any Mn{sup 3+} complex derived from oxidation of Mn{sup 2+} under a range of conditions.

  19. Filamentous fungi and media for cellulase production in solid state cultures.

    PubMed

    Kilikian, B V; Afonso, L C; Souza, T F C; Ferreira, R G; Pinheiro, I R

    2014-01-01

    Cellulase production was evaluated in two reference strains (T. reesei Rut-C30 and T. reesei QM9414), two strains isolated from a sugarcane cultivation area (Trichoderma sp. IPT778 and T. harzianum rifai IPT821) and one strain isolated in a program for biodiversity preservation in São Paulo state (Myceliophthora thermophila M77). Solid state cultures were performed using sugarcane bagasse (C), wheat bran (W) and/or soybean bran (S). The highest FPA was 10.6 U/gdm for M77 in SC (10:90) at 80% moisture, which was 4.4 times higher than production in pure W. C was a strong inducer of cellulase production, given that the production level of 6.1 U/gdm in WC (40:60) was 2.5 times higher than in pure W for strain M77; T. reesei Rut-C30 did not respond as strongly with about 1.6-fold surplus production. S advantageously replaced W, as the surplus production on SC (20:80) was 2.3 times relative to WC (20:80) for M77. PMID:24948946

  20. Mortality salience, martyrdom, and military might: the great satan versus the axis of evil.

    PubMed

    Pyszczynski, Tom; Abdollahi, Abdolhossein; Solomon, Sheldon; Greenberg, Jeff; Cohen, Florette; Weise, David

    2006-04-01

    Study 1 investigated the effect of mortality salience on support for martyrdom attacks among Iranian college students. Participants were randomly assigned to answer questions about either their own death or an aversive topic unrelated to death and then evaluated materials from fellow students who either supported or opposed martyrdom attacks against the United States. Whereas control participants preferred the student who opposed martyrdom, participants reminded of death preferred the student who supported martyrdom and indicated they were more likely to consider such activities themselves. Study 2 investigated the effect of mortality salience on American college students' support for extreme military interventions by American forces that could kill thousands of civilians. Mortality salience increased support for such measures among politically conservative but not politically liberal students. The roles of existential fear, cultural worldviews, and construing one's nation as pursing a heroic battle against evil in advocacy of violence were discussed. PMID:16513804

  1. U. S. Military Documentary Films: A Chronological Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Robert K.; Larson, Timothy L.

    After presenting a chronological account of United States military documentary films from World War I through the Vietnam War, this paper reports on a study that compared the effectiveness of films prepared during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. The first section, the chronological account, touches on such subjects as the…

  2. Brave new world: The transformation of the South African military

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garth Shelton; Chris Alden

    1998-01-01

    The transformation of the South African armed forces required the unprecedented integration of formerly adversary armies. The White Paper, completed in May 1996, established the framework for the new Department of Defense (incorporating civilian control of the military) and identified the security of the people (rather than “state security\\

  3. Stress fracture injury in young military men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Armstrong; John-Paul H. Rue; John H. Wilckens; Frank J. Frassica

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 5% of all military recruits incur stress fracture injuries during intense physical training, predominately in the lower extremity. We compared young men and women with stress fracture injury (subjects) to a matched group of uninjured volunteers (controls) during a summer training program at the United States Naval Academy to identify possible risk factors for stress fracture injury. The subject

  4. NASA's Role in Aeronautics: A Workshop. Volume II - Military Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    The central task of a 1980 workshop on the role of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in aeronautics was to examine the relationship of NASA's research capabilities to the state of U.S. aviation and to make recommendations about NASA's future role in aeronautics. The findings and recommendations of the Panel on Military

  5. Good Ideas: Leveling the Field for Children of Military Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuersten, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Presents information from a forum designed to: create awareness of unique challenges facing military or mobile families in obtaining appropriate public education and educate families and others in Alaska on state education mandates and procedures. Forum recommendations include: align the high school curriculum with the high school exit exam,…

  6. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Light Frame Construction II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This training manual for a secondary-postsecondary level course in light frame construction II is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Purpose stated for the fifty-five hour course is for students to interpret construction…

  7. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Light Frame Construction I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This training manual for a secondary-postsecondary-level course in light frame construction I is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Purpose stated for the fifty-hour course is for students to develop the skills required in…

  8. Free Speech in the Military: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard A.

    Two recent decisions of the United States Supreme Court have emasculated First Amendment guarantees for military personnel. In the first case, Parker v. Levy, an Army captain urged enlisted Special Forces personnel at his post to refuse to go to Viet Nam, claiming that "Special Forces personnel are liars and thieves and killers of peasants and…

  9. Chemical means of protecting US military personnel from mosquito bites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1942, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has examined over 30,000 repellents and insecticides for the U.S. military. The repellent research has focused on discovery of repellents that work on clothing, skin, and at a distance (spatial repellents). Borne out of this research is...

  10. Evaluating the Impacts of Technology Education on Military Maintenance Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Jeremy D.; Curtis, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The United States Air Force (USAF) provides career and technical education (CTE) to a wide variety of specialty career fields. Training airmen to carry out the mission while honoring the USAF core values of integrity first, service before self, and excellence in all we do is the top priority of military leaders and trainers. Vehicle maintenance is…

  11. Plastic packaging for military contractors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Hill

    1996-01-01

    How does one change the Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuit (PEM) paradigm for a Military contractor? First, one must understand why PEMs should be used, and how they differ from their ceramic counterparts. Next, reliable assembly and mounting techniques must be understood, customer approval for their use must be obtained, and any hidden requirements or risks must be identified. This study demonstrated

  12. Military Deployments: Evaluating Teacher Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed method study examined the possible influence of a military deployment online tutorial on teacher knowledge. DoDEA and public school teachers were the two groups used for the study. From this exploratory study, the researcher also wanted to explore if teachers would find professional development provided in an online tutorial relevant…

  13. Military Education: Models from Antiquity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Unlike Westerners today, the Greeks and Romans put military training at the heart of their educational system. Examining the ancients' preoccupation with the inculcation of soldierly skills and disciplines, Professor Strauss asks whether we can find profit in their example. (Contains 7 footnotes.)

  14. The Caltech Political Military Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munger, E. S.; And Others

    The Caltech political military exercise (PME) is a game in which players assume roles of leaders of various countries and attempt to act as they think these leaders would in a time of international crises. The main purposes of the exercise are (1) to provide students with an experience in crisis diplomacy and policy formation, and (2) to provide a…

  15. Soviet military strategy in space

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.L.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the Soviet military space effort from its infancy in the 1950s to the spy craft and anti-satellite systems of today. It describes in detail the Soviet equivalents of the U.S. Star Wars program and explains technical and political issues in laymen's terms. A full text of major arms control agreements completes the volume.

  16. Cognitive Science and Military Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halff, Henry M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Four new military training systems offer the opportunity for the application of cognitive science. They are the following: (1) a family of memorization games; (2) a simulator with a graphic, schematic student interface; (3) a system for solving problems of relative motion; and (4) a method of building cognitive skills for air-intercept control.…

  17. Finding a balance: health promotion challenges of military women.

    PubMed

    Agazio, Janice Griffin; Buckley, Kathleen M

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we explored what may determine, or predict, United States military women's health promotion behaviors. Using a descriptive correlational design grounded in Pender's Health Promotion model, 491 military women completed instruments measuring their demographic variables, perception of health, definition of health, self-efficacy, and interpersonal influences to determine the significant factors affecting participation in health promotion activities. The outcome indicated that self-efficacy and interpersonal influences were the most influential in determining health promotion. This research illuminates some of the challenges working women face in meeting health promotion activities and how best to support their ability to participate in healthy behaviors. PMID:20677041

  18. Reexamining some management lessons from military history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Ahlstrom; David Lamond; Zhujun Ding

    2009-01-01

    Military history has provided a number of useful metaphors for management, such as positioning, blue ocean strategy, defensible\\u000a perimeters, and fighting the last war, among others. In spite of this rich tradition and the detailed writings on the military,\\u000a management research has actually made a rather truncated use of military history. This includes the selective use of military\\u000a metaphors, and

  19. Culture and Continuing Bonds: A Prospective Comparison of Bereavement in the United States and the People's Republic of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalande, Kathleen M.; Bonanno, George A.

    2006-01-01

    There has been an increased interest and debate regarding the adaptiveness of continuing bonds with the deceased. The authors used data from a cross-cultural study of 61 participants from the United States (US) and 58 participants from the People's Republic of China (PRC) who completed measures of continuing bonds and adjustment at 4 and 18 months…

  20. She Is My Language Broker: How Does Cultural Capital Benefit Asian Immigrant Children in the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Md-Yunus, Sham'ah

    2011-01-01

    Cultural capital benefits Asian immigrant children when they become language brokers. This skill can also benefit their parents and families in the United States. Language brokering may shape and possibly enhance students' academic performance and can further children's linguistic and academic achievement. (Contains 2 figures and 1 table.)

  1. Living in the United States. A Brief Introduction to the Culture for Visitors, Students and Business Travelers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Anni; Clark, Raymond C.

    The guide provides a brief introduction to the culture and language of the United States, and is designed for visitors, students, and business travelers. It offers practical information on various aspects of daily living, including: money and banks; food; restaurants; drinking and smoking laws; hotels; postal and telecommunications services;…

  2. Creating and Sustaining a Military Women's Health Research Interest Group.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Candy; Trego, Lori; Rychnovsky, Jacqueline; Steele, Nancy; Foradori, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, four doctorate military nurse scientists representing the triservices (Army, Navy, and Air Force) identified a common interest in the health and care of all women in the armed forces. For 7 years, the team's shared vision to improve servicewomen's health inspired them to commit to a rigorous schedule of planning, developing, and implementing an innovative program that has the capability of advancing scientific knowledge and influencing health policy and practice through research. The ultimate goal of the Military Women's Health Research Interest Group (MWHRIG) is to support military clinicians and leaders in making evidence-based practice and policy decisions. They developed a 4-pronged approach to cultivate the science of military women's healthcare: evaluate the existing evidence, develop a research agenda that addresses gaps in knowledge, facilitate the collaboration of multidisciplinary research, and build the bench of future researchers. The MWHRIG has been a resource to key leaders; its value has been validated by multiservice and multidisciplinary consultations. However, the journey to goal attainment has only been achieved by the enduring commitment of these MWHRIG leaders and their passion to ensure the health and wellbeing of the many women who serve in the United States military. This article describes their journey of dedication. PMID:26101911

  3. Inter-Korean military confidence building after 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Tae-woo, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Littlefield, Adriane C.; Vannoni, Michael Geoffrey; Sang-beom, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Koelm, Jennifer Gay; Olsen, John Norman; Myong-jin, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Sung-tack, Shin (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea)

    2003-08-01

    Tensions on the Korean Peninsula remain high despite a long-term strategy by South Korea to increase inter-Korean exchanges in economics, culture, sports, and other topics. This is because the process of reconciliation has rarely extended to military and security topics and those initiatives that were negotiated have been ineffective. Bilateral interactions must include actions to reduce threats and improve confidence associated with conventional military forces (land, sea, and air) as well as nuclear, chemical, and biological activities that are applicable to developing and producing weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The purpose of this project is to develop concepts for inter-Korean confidence building measures (CBMs) for military and WMD topics that South Korea could propose to the North when conditions are right. This report describes the historical and policy context for developing security-related CBMs and presents an array of bilateral options for conventional military and WMD topics within a consistent framework. The conceptual CBMs address two scenarios: (1) improved relations where construction of a peace regime becomes a full agenda item in inter-Korean dialogue, and (2) continued tense inter-Korean relations. Some measures could be proposed in the short term under current conditions, others might be implemented in a series of steps, while some require a higher level of cooperation than currently exists. To support decision making by political leaders, this research focuses on strategies and policy options and does not include technical details.

  4. TRICARE Military Treatment Facilities (MTF) Locator

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Find a Military Hospital or Clinic Need Larger Text? Find a Military Hospital or Clinic Military hospitals ... styleMaker1 = new StyledMarker({ styleIcon: new StyledIcon(StyledIconTypes.MARKER, { text: facility_number }, styleIconClass), position: new google.maps.LatLng( ...

  5. Support for Military Families and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshmand, Lisa Tsoi; Hoshmand, Andrea L.

    2007-01-01

    This is a call for community psychologists to engage in research, consultation, and program development and evaluation in supporting military families and communities. Barriers to such involvement are identified and discussed. It is argued that the needs of military families and communities cannot be ignored when military and civilian communities…

  6. Suicide and the Military Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lande, Raymond G.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that U.S. military policies emphasize humanitarian approach to issue of suicide, yet military law may view suicidal behavior as deviant and may prosecute suicide attempters. Cites convictions of soldiers for attempted and assisted suicides. Reviews recent court decisions and suggests revisions in military law. (Author/NB)

  7. 5 CFR 831.301 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Military service. 831.301 Section 831... Credit for Service § 831.301 Military service. (a) Service of an individual...The employee or Member is not receiving military retired pay awarded for reasons...

  8. 5 CFR 842.306 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Military service. 842.306 Section 842... Credit for Service § 842.306 Military service. (a) Except as provided...of 1986, an employee's or Member's military service is creditable if it was...

  9. 5 CFR 831.301 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Military service. 831.301 Section 831... Credit for Service § 831.301 Military service. (a) Service of an individual...The employee or Member is not receiving military retired pay awarded for reasons...

  10. OPTIMIZING MILITARY AIRLIFT STEVEN F. BAKER

    E-print Network

    Morton, David

    OPTIMIZING MILITARY AIRLIFT STEVEN F. BAKER Department of Management, U.S. Air Force Academy, USAF-scale military deployment, including aerial refueling, tactical (intracontinental) aircraft shuttles of airfields. In a large-scale military deployment, massive amounts of equipment and large numbers of personnel

  11. University of Utah REQUEST FOR MILITARY LEAVE

    E-print Network

    Provancher, William

    1/07 University of Utah REQUEST FOR MILITARY LEAVE Employee Information Name: Empl ID #: Home Address: City: ST: ZIP: Email Address: Phone: Type of Military Leave Dates of Leave Annual Reservist Training Military Duty Begin Date Expected End Date _____/_____/_____ _____/_____/_____ Certification

  12. 5 CFR 842.306 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Military service. 842.306 Section 842... Credit for Service § 842.306 Military service. (a) Except as provided...of 1986, an employee's or Member's military service is creditable if it was...

  13. 5 CFR 842.306 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Military service. 842.306 Section 842... Credit for Service § 842.306 Military service. (a) Except as provided...of 1986, an employee's or Member's military service is creditable if it was...

  14. 31 CFR 29.333 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military service. 29.333 Section 29.333...PROGRAMS Split Benefits § 29.333 Military service. (a) For employees who...on or before June 30, 1997, and whose military service was performed prior to that...

  15. 31 CFR 29.333 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Military service. 29.333 Section 29.333...Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.333 Military service. (a) For employees who...on or before June 30, 1997, and whose military service was performed prior to that...

  16. Mental health considerations for military humanitarian aid personnel.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Julie; Everly, George S

    2010-01-01

    Mental health services for veterans of humanitarian assistance (HA) missions is a critical and growing need within the United States military. The mental health impacts of such missions are both similar to and different from those experienced on combat missions, and may have an equally significant impact on the health and wellness of our troops. As the US military increasingly deploys humanitarian teams on both peacetime and contingency missions, this need can be expected to grow and must be addressed with more research and more attention to prevention, screening, and treatment. In this paper we will present a brief summary of the possible mental health effects of military HA missions, and propose remedies to address the adverse conditions that may arise in the pre-deployment, deployment, and redeployment settings. PMID:21473369

  17. US Military Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training Programs and Careers of Military Child Psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Weston, Christina G; Dougherty, Joseph G; Nelson, Suzie C; Baker, Matthew J; Chow, Jennifer C

    2015-08-01

    Military child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) fellowship programs offer educational experiences universal to all civilian training programs in the USA. They also offer unique training opportunities not found in civilian CAP fellowships in order to prepare graduates to serve the needs of military families. Military-specific curricula and exposures prepare trainees to address various issues faced by military families, in contending with frequent military moves, parental deployments, and disrupted social ties. Curricula are also designed to provide the psychiatrist with a greater understanding of the rigors of military service. CAP training and subsequent assignments prepare military psychiatrists for diverse career paths in the military environment. CAP military careers often include duties in addition to treating patients. Administrative roles, academic teaching positions, as well as school consultation positions are all career options available to military CAP. PMID:25804354

  18. Dangerous Drafts? A Time-Series, Cross-National Analysis of Conscription and the Use of Military Force, 1946—2001

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Pickering

    2011-01-01

    Conscription has been claimed to both increase leaders’ propensity to use military force abroad and constrain them from doing so. The author sheds new light on this longstanding controversy by presenting the first time-series, cross-national quantitative analysis of the impact that state military manpower systems (either conscription or volunteerism) have on the initiation of both traditional, belligerent military missions and

  19. Ribbon reign: 20 years of postmodern influence on a cultural phenomenon 

    E-print Network

    Spillane, Debra L.

    2004-09-30

    1992: 26). What did change, however, was their staying power after the hostages were released. As the United States presence and interest in the Persian Gulf increased, and involvement in a military conflict with Iraq was imminent, the ribbon...- directed society, symbols were interconnected throughout all aspects of culture. The symbolism of the yellow ribbon, beginning with the 1991 Persian Gulf War, has decidedly become ambiguous. Support for American hostages is customary, support...

  20. Role of daptomycin in the induction and persistence of the viable but non-culturable state of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    PubMed

    Pasquaroli, Sonia; Citterio, Barbara; Cesare, Andrea Di; Amiri, Mehdi; Manti, Anita; Vuotto, Claudia; Biavasco, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that antibiotic pressure can induce the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Since dormant bacterial cells can undermine anti-infective therapy, a greater understanding of the role of antibiotics of last resort, including daptomycin, is crucial. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus 10850 biofilms were maintained on non-nutrient (NN) agar in the presence or absence of the MIC of daptomycin until loss of culturability. Viable cells were monitored by epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry for 150 days. All biofilms reached non-culturability at 40 days and showed a similar amount of viable cells; however, in biofilms exposed to daptomycin, their number remained unchanged throughout the experiment, whereas in those maintained on NN agar alone, no viable cells were detected after 150 days. Gene expression assays showed that after achievement of non-culturability, 16S rDNA and mecA were expressed by all biofilms, whereas glt expression was found only in daptomycin-exposed biofilms. Our findings suggest that low daptomycin concentrations, such as those that are likely to obtain within biofilms, can influence the viability and gene expression of non-culturable S. aureus cells. Resuscitation experiments are needed to establish the VBNC state of daptomycin-exposed biofilms. PMID:25438023

  1. Role of Daptomycin in the Induction and Persistence of the Viable but Non-Culturable State of Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Pasquaroli, Sonia; Citterio, Barbara; Di Cesare, Andrea; Amiri, Mehdi; Manti, Anita; Vuotto, Claudia; Biavasco, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that antibiotic pressure can induce the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Since dormant bacterial cells can undermine anti-infective therapy, a greater understanding of the role of antibiotics of last resort, including daptomycin, is crucial. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus 10850 biofilms were maintained on non-nutrient (NN) agar in the presence or absence of the MIC of daptomycin until loss of culturability. Viable cells were monitored by epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry for 150 days. All biofilms reached non-culturability at 40 days and showed a similar amount of viable cells; however, in biofilms exposed to daptomycin, their number remained unchanged throughout the experiment, whereas in those maintained on NN agar alone, no viable cells were detected after 150 days. Gene expression assays showed that after achievement of non-culturability, 16S rDNA and mecA were expressed by all biofilms, whereas glt expression was found only in daptomycin-exposed biofilms. Our findings suggest that low daptomycin concentrations, such as those that are likely to obtain within biofilms, can influence the viability and gene expression of non-culturable S. aureus cells. Resuscitation experiments are needed to establish the VBNC state of daptomycin-exposed biofilms. PMID:25438023

  2. Reverse micellar extraction of fungal glucoamylase produced in solid-state fermentation culture.

    PubMed

    Paraj, Aliakbar; Khanahmadi, Morteza; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-12-28

    Partial purification of glucoamylase from solid-state fermentation culture was, firstly, investigated by reverse micellar extraction (RME). To avoid back extraction problems, the glucoamylase was kept in the original aqueous phase, while the other undesired proteins/ enzymes were moved to the reverse micellar organic phase. The individual and interaction effects of main factors (i.e., pH and NaCl concentration in the aqueous phase, and concentration of sodium bis-2-ethyl-hexyl-sulfosuccinate (AOT) in the organic phase) were studied using response surface methodology. The optimum conditions for the maximum recovery of the enzyme were pH 2.75, 100 mM NaCl, and 200 mM AOT. Furthermore, the optimum organic to aqueous volume ratio (Vorg/Vaq) and appropriate number of sequential extraction stages were 2 and 3, respectively. Finally, 60% of the undesired enzymes including proteases and xylanases were removed from the aqueous phase, while 140% of glucoamylase activity was recovered in the aqueous phase and the purification factor of glucoamylase was found to be 3.0-fold. PMID:25112315

  3. Photoreactivation, photoproduct formation, and deoxyribonucleic acid state in ultraviolet-irradiated sporulating cultures of Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Baillie, E; Germaine, G R; Murrell, W G; Ohye, D F

    1974-10-01

    Photoreactivation of ultraviolet-irradiated Bacillus cereus T declined markedly during the development of stage IV forespores. During ultraviolet irradiation of a culture containing early and late stage IV forespores, both vegetative- and spore-type photoproducts were formed. The formation of vegetative-type photoproducts (mainly thymine dimers) decreased to nearly half during late stage IV, remaining constant until lysis of the mother cells began, when it fell to zero. Spore-type photoproducts were first observed during late stage IV and increased with the increase in numbers of late stage IV forespores. The occurrence of spore-type photoproducts preceded the development of refractile forespores by about 1 h. At stage III the nuclear material occupied a central position, and the ribosomes were at the periphery of the forespore protoplast. During stage IV the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) occurred in a peripheral position, and bundles of fibers ("transition" DNA) could be seen. By stage V, all of the DNA appeared to be of the spore type and was peripheral, and the forespore protoplast center was packed with ribosomes. Forespore stages II, III, and IV were classified by light and electron microscopy. The curve for electron microscope classifications preceded that for light microscope classifications by approximately one stage. The formation of spore-type photoproducts preceded differentiation of DNA by about 1 h, the latter coinciding with the development of refractility. Spore-type photoproducts have been associated with DNA in the A state, and the progressive change of the forespore DNA into this state is discussed in relation to the spore differentiation process. PMID:4214215

  4. Liminal Cultural Work in Family Childcare: Latino Immigrant Family Childcare Providers and Bicultural Childrearing in the United States, 2002-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttal, Lynet

    2010-01-01

    Immigrants find themselves in a liminal state of limbo between two societies. In this zone, competing cultural ideas coexist. This essay examines how Latino immigrant family childcare providers in the United States questioned US norms of childrearing and how they engaged in liminal cultural work to produce a bicultural childrearing. They are…

  5. Military Education and Research Library Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The official Web presence of the military education libraries in the United States and Europe, MERLN links together the holdings and electronic information resources of fourteen libraries, collectively the "largest and most comprehensive collections of military information resources in the world." Users can select a Topic Area (or create a custom topic) or a specific catalog, and then search by title, author, subject heading, or advanced options. The databases are also browseable by author, title, subject, or year. A sample search under title keyword for all libraries for "carpet bombing" produced 74 hits, while "Antietam" produced 266. Hits for each library are listed in a frame on the left-hand side, while basic bibliographic information on each title is listed on the right, with links to more detailed information. Users can repeat previous searches and combine them with other searches using the History option and also save and email selected search returns. Please note that at present the library catalogs for the Marine Corps University Research Center, the Marshall Center, the US Coast Guard Academy, and the US Naval Academy cannot be directly searched from MERLN, but efforts are underway to correct the problem. Users can access the homepages of these libraries, and all of the others linked through MERLN, from the main page.

  6. Arms and oil: US military strategy and the Persian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    McNaugher, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    In the oil-rich Persian Gulf, a region crucial to the world's security and economic health, the United States confronts major challenges to its military and diplomatic skills. The Iranian revolution, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and unpredictable turbulence have contributed to declining US influence in the area. In the United States, military questions about force size and strategy have sparked controversy over the proper US role in the Gulf. In this book Thomas L. McNaugher offers a military strategy for the Gulf that seeks to balance the risks of overinvolvement against the risks of neglect. The author, a research associate in the Brookings Foreign Policy Studies program, believes that the United States must cultivate the traditional security mechanisms of the states on the Arabian Peninsula, and he encourages cooperation with allies like Great Britain and France that historically have been involved in Gulf security. He argues that the United States should focus on protecting the Gulf states from external attack and on deterring further Soviet encroachment in the region, leaving internal security largely to the states themselves. 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. The Roman Military Sites of Britain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peter Green, a military history enthusiast, has created The Roman Military Sites of Britain to provide location information and background material on the history of the Roman Army's occupation of Britain. This handsome site contains five gazetteers, organized by region, which summarize important Roman military sites and link to detailed maps. A collection of contemporary photographs provides visitors with a view of the physical surroundings of the sites. In addition to the historic geographic information, this site also introduces the organization of the Roman Army from the first century to the fifth century, explains Roman military terms and unit names, describes typical Roman military sites, and summarizes major military events in Britain during the Roman occupation. For visitors who desire more information, Green supplies a general reading list about the history of Britain and its relation to the Roman army as well as an extensive Roman military bibliography of Britain.

  8. [Volgograd military hospital--70 years].

    PubMed

    Novikov, V Ia; Alborov, Z Ts

    2012-01-01

    History of the Volgograd military hospital dates back to July 24, 1941, when on the basis of the regional children's bone tuberculosis sanatorium in Krasnodar was transformed into 2150th military hospital consisted of 240 beds. Since May 1944 relocated in the city of Stalingrad became a garrison hospital. Today the hospital is a multidisciplinary health centre of the Russian Defense Ministry. Annually, the hospital performed at least 3000 surgical procedures, including more than 37%--are complex. In surgery, improved endovideosurgical direction, over 31% of emergency operations performed using this method. Since December 2009 the hospital became a structural division of the District Hospital in 1602 in Rostov on Don. The close connection between the branch and district hospital allows for complex diagnostic situations to consult leading experts, including consultation, thus ensuring the most effective treatment results. PMID:22545455

  9. Cross-cultural Temperamental Differences in Infants, Children, and Adults in the United States of America and Finland

    PubMed Central

    Gaias, Larissa M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Putnam, Samuel P.; Räikkönen, Katri; Komsi, Niina

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in temperament were investigated between infants (n = 131, 84 Finns), children (n = 653, 427 Finns), and adults (n = 759, 538 Finns) from the United States of America and Finland. Participants from both cultures completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, Childhood Behavior Questionnaire, and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Across all ages, Americans received higher ratings on temperamental fearfulness than Finnish individuals, and also demonstrated higher levels of other negative affects at several time points. During infancy and adulthood, Finns tended to score higher on positive affect and elements of temperamental effortful control. Gender differences consistent with prior studies emerged cross-culturally, and were found to be more pronounced in the U.S. during childhood and in Finland during adulthood. PMID:22428997

  10. DOD Dictionary of Military Terms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Defense Technical Information Center (U.S.)

    The US Department of Defense Defense Technical Information Center provides this handy dictionary, derived from Joint Publication 1-02, "DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms." Users can browse the dictionary alphabetically or search it. Definitions are terse but clear. Cross references are provided but, unfortunately, not hyperlinked at this time. The dictionary also contains both terms and acronyms & abbreviations. The latter two can be browsed or searched separately from a link on the dictionary page.

  11. Military Applications of Reserve Batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Ritchie

    1996-01-01

    Reserve batteries are batteries which do not give power until activated. They have a long storage life and high power capabilities which makes them useful for numerous military applications. Designs of reserve batteries include those based on movement of electrolyte (sea water, energizers and reserve silver-zinc or lithium-thionyl chloride) and thermal batteries, which are high-temperature batteries activated by heating using

  12. Culture Industry Policy in China and the United States: A Comparative Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guan Ping Qin; Hao Wei; Xi Wang

    2009-01-01

    It is a consensus that culture industry is assuming a more important economic development function in most countries of the world today. As a result of this consensus, the purpose of this paper is to investigate, through a comparative analysis, how China can improve its existing public policies to nurture an environment where culture industry develops and prospers. The paper

  13. Teaching Cross-Cultural Aging: Using Literary Portrayals of Elders from Chile and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Literary texts are cultural artifacts revealing a society's values and attitudes; reading literature about elders and old age can change readers' ageist attitudes. Beginning with these assumptions, I discuss ways of teaching cross-cultural aging in undergraduate literature courses, using Chilean texts paired with American texts. Students learn how…

  14. Cultural Negotiations: Puerto Rican Intellectuals in a State-Sponsored Community Education Project, 1948-1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennerley, Cati Marsh

    2003-01-01

    Explains the work of the Puerto Rican government's educational agency in promoting the first governor's ideas about culture and democratic citizenship. Sets these initiatives within the context of Puerto Rico's ambiguous political status and discusses the role of government-sponsored cultural projects. (Contains 86 references.) (SK)

  15. The state of play: protocols as children’s cultural policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilary Glow; Katya Johanson

    2012-01-01

    Opportunities for children to experience the arts are burgeoning around the world, and many nations have put into place cultural policies that foster these opportunities. In Australia, an existing children’s cultural policy has been overshadowed by the 2009 Protocols for Artists Working with Children: a political response to a public controversy around a photography exhibition featuring naked girls. This article

  16. The state of play: protocols as children’s cultural policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilary Glow; Katya Johanson

    2011-01-01

    Opportunities for children to experience the arts are burgeoning around the world, and many nations have put into place cultural policies that foster these opportunities. In Australia, an existing children’s cultural policy has been overshadowed by the 2009 Protocols for Artists Working with Children: a political response to a public controversy around a photography exhibition featuring naked girls. This article

  17. Montana State University 1 Military Science -Army

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    ROTC scholarship is given to students pursuing degrees in nursing, engineering, the physical sciences an undergraduate degree in the field in which the scholarship is awarded. High Technology in Today's Army Today in the Advanced Course. Army ROTC Scholarships and Financial Assistance Army ROTC scholarships for two, three

  18. Review of mobile health technology for military mental health.

    PubMed

    Shore, Jay H; Aldag, Matt; McVeigh, Francis L; Hoover, Ronald L; Ciulla, Robert; Fisher, Ashley

    2014-08-01

    Mental health problems pose challenges for military veterans, returning service members, and military family members including spouses and children. Challenges to meeting mental health needs include improving access to care and improving quality of care. Mobile Health, or "mHealth," can help meet these needs in the garrison and civilian environments. mHealth brings unique capabilities to health care provision through the use of mobile device technologies. This report identifies high-priority mHealth technology development considerations in two categories. First, priority considerations specific to mental health care provision include safety, privacy, evidence-based practice, efficacy studies, and temperament. Second, priority considerations broadly applicable to mHealth include security, outcomes, ease of use, carrier compliance, hardware, provider perspectives, data volume, population, regulation, command policy, and reimbursement. Strategic planning for the advancement of these priority considerations should be coordinated with stated Department of Defense capability needs to maximize likelihood of adoption. This report also summarizes three leading, military programs focused on mHealth projects in mental health, The Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, The Military Operational Medicine Research Program, United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, and The National Center for Telehealth and Technology. PMID:25102529

  19. A Peace Dividend for North Korea? The Political Economy of Military Spending, Conflict Resolution, and Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard Seliger

    \\u000a Among the most striking and menacing features of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) is the extreme worship\\u000a for the military and militarization. Not only is North Korea a totalitarian state, but it is a state where the military, uniquely\\u000a in the world, officially has the upper hand in all functions and issues. This is the principle enshrined

  20. The Effect of Military Personnel Requirements on the Future Supply of Scientists and Engineers in the United States. Papers and a Conference Report (Washington, D.C., June 10, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Human Resources.

    This document contains two papers commissioned by the Human Resources Commission of the National Research Council to explore the potential effects of military personnel requirements on the supply of scientists and engineers, and reaction to the papers from a one-day seminar of invited participants. The first paper, by Dr. Dael Wolfle, considers…

  1. Purification and characterization of two arabinofuranosidases from solid-state cultures of the fungus Penicillium capsulatum.

    PubMed Central

    Filho, E X; Puls, J; Coughlan, M P

    1996-01-01

    Two arabinofuranosidases, termed Ara I and Ara II, from solid-state cultures of Penicillium capsulatum were purified to apparent homogeneity as judged by electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. Each enzyme is a single subunit glycoprotein, and they have M(r)s and pIs of 64,500 and 4.15 (Ara I) and 62,700 and 4.54 (Ara II), respectively. Ara I is most active at pH 4.0 and 60 degrees C, while Ara II exhibits optimal activity at pH 4.0 and 55 degrees C. Ara I is the more thermostable, with its half-life at 70 degrees C and pH 4.0 being 17.5 min. By contrast, the half-life of Ara II is only 9 min at 60 degrees C and pH 4.0. Ara I has the lower Km and higher catalytic constant values with p-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside being used as the substrate. Arabinose, a competitive inhibitor (Ki, 16.4 mM) of Ara II, has no effect on Ara I activity at concentrations of up to 40 mM. Each enzyme catalyzes the release of arabinose from pectin, araban, and certain arabinose-containing xylans. The last activity is enhanced by pretreatment of the relevant substrates with xylanase, ferulic acid esterase, or combinations of these enzymes. Thus, arabinoxylooligosaccharides in which arabinose is the sole side chain substituent appear to be the preferred substrates. On the basis of the evidence cited above, each enzyme has been classified as an alpha-L-arabinofuranoside arabinofuranohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.79). PMID:8572693

  2. Lessons learned from modern military surgery.

    PubMed

    Beekley, Alec C; Starnes, Benjamin W; Sebesta, James A

    2007-02-01

    The era of global terrorism and asymmetric warfare heralded by the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States have blurred the traditional lines between civilian and military trauma. The lessons learned by physicians in the theaters of war, particularly regarding the response to mass casualties, blast and fragmentation injuries, and resuscitation of casualties in austere environments, likely resonate strongly with civilian trauma surgeons in the current era. The evolution of a streamlined trauma system in the theaters of operations, the introduction of an in-theater institution review board process, and dedicated personnel to collect combat casualty data have resulted in improved data capture and realtime, on-the-scene research. PMID:17127127

  3. Purification and characterization of a pectin lyase produced by Curvularia inaequalis NRRL 13884 on orange peels waste, solid state culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. AFIFI; E. M. FAWZI; M. A. FOAAD

    Utilization of orange peels as an agroindustrial waste for production of pectin lyase (PL) (E.C.4.2.2.10) by Curvularia inaequalis (Shear) Boedijn NRRL 13884 was investigated using solid state culture (SSC). The highest level of extracellular pectin lyase was detected with this waste as an inducing substrate. The enzyme was purified using Sephadex G-100 and DEAE-Cellulose column chromatography. It was purified about

  4. 77 FR 74866 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: New York State Museum, Albany, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ...eight cultural items described above are specific ceremonial objects needed by traditional Native American religious leaders for the practice of traditional Native American religions by their present-day adherents. Pursuant to 25...

  5. Cultural factors of visitors' understanding of United States National Park Service natural resource messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Sunita Claire

    Current trends in the demographic structure of the US population indicate increasing cultural diversity. Culturally-diverse populations have varying beliefs, views and understandings of natural resource use and management. This study concentrates on understanding how messages pertaining to natural resources concepts and associated management decisions are communicated to and received by culturally-diverse audiences. This is particularly relevant to land managing agencies, such as the US National Park Service (NPS), that rely on a high degree of public contact and support. Failure to consider cultural-diversity has the potential to interfere with this agency's success at communicating its mission and management decisions. The study took place in three US National Parks; Grand Canyon National Park (North Rim), Guadalupe Mountains National Park, and Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Visitors were asked to complete an on-site anonymous questionnaire. Data were collected at various locations including trailheads, scenic overlooks, at visitor centers, and after interpretive programs. Total number of participants was 549, Grand Canyon National Park n = 156, Guadalupe Mountains National Park n = 153, and Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park n = 240. Results indicate that visitors were knowledgeable about the resources they were visiting. Visitors to NPS sites have achieved a high level of formal education. Certain aspects of culture, religion/spirituality seem to have a greater role in how visitors identify themselves, as opposed to ethnicity/cultural heritage. However when visitors are in a park they seem display similar cultural characteristics, which may come to the forefront while in the park setting as opposed to home setting. Methodological challenges of studying culture in a national park setting are also discussed.

  6. Current trends in military microelectronic component packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence G. Vettraino; Subhash H. Risbud

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) has historically relied on the use of hermetically-sealed ceramic and metal component packages for the reliability and integrity of military hardware. During the last twenty years, military electronics have become a very small segment of the total electronic market. Within this time frame, military research, development and standards have fallen behind private industry innovation

  7. Culture Contents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    Successful relations between the United States and United Kingdom may require more attention to their internal ethnic and cultural diversity. This political-linguistic culture is subdivided into two contradictory yet complementary streams. The political approach for those favoring an English-speaking union may be greater ecumenism within the…

  8. Military Bases and Conservation Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Ankeny

    2007-09-01

    Over time, DoD is likely to be one of the largest buyers and sellers in a water quality trading market. The Department of Defense (DoD) operates military bases that resemble small cities in infrastructure. As units redeploy, bases are likely to find themselves well within their environmental limits at the originating base and potentially bumping against limits such as nitrate and phosphate loading at the destination base. Stricter rules and heavier loadings in growing watersheds also present challenges to local bases and municipalities as regulators clamp down on loadings from existing Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) to meet water quality standards.

  9. Satellite Power System (SPS) military applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozeroff, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The potential military role, both offensive and defensive, of a Satellite Power System (SPS) is examined. A number of potential military support possibilities are described. An SPS with military capabilities may have a strong negative impact on international relations if it is not internationalized. The SPS satellite would be vulnerable to military action of an enemy with good space capability, but would experience little or no threat from saboteurs or terrorists, except via the ground controls. The paper concludes with an outline of some of the key issues involved, and a number of recommendations for future study, including some areas for long term efforts.

  10. How Much are Health Websites Influenced by Culture? Content Analysis of Online Diet Programs in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay Yu; Karen Whitehill King; Hye Jun Yoon

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the content of diet websites in the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), and Korea from a cross-cultural perspective using two cultural typologies: Hofstede's individualism-collectivism and Hall's low-high context. The results show a balance of the universal features and culture specific characteristics in the websites. Interestingly, the UK was in the middle between the US and Korea

  11. The Recipe for Being a Good Military Wife: How Military Wives Managed OIF\\/OEF Deployment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Aducci; Joyce A. Baptist; Jayashree George; Patricia M. Barros; Briana S. Nelson Goff

    2011-01-01

    Interviews with 25 military wives to elicit their lived experience of Operation Iraqi Freedom\\/Operation Enduring Freedom deployment found two main themes: the recipe for being a good military wife and managing split loyalties. Military wives' experience reflected a disenfranchised existence. Their stress was exacerbated by the reality of the composition of their marital relationship—a couple–military threesome—that they bore in silence.

  12. Applications of discrete event simulation modeling to military problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond R. Hill; J. O. Miller; Gregory A. McIntyre

    2001-01-01

    The military is a big user of discrete event simulation models. The use of these models range from training and wargaming their constructive use in important military analyses. In this paper we discuss the uses of military simulation, the issues associated with military simulation to include categorizations of various types of military simulation. We then discuss three particular simulation studies

  13. Arms and the University: Military Presence and the Civic Education of Non-Military Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Donald Alexander; Murtazashvili, Ilia

    2012-01-01

    Alienation between the U.S. military and society has grown in recent decades. Such alienation is unhealthy, as it threatens both sufficient civilian control of the military and the long-standing ideal of the "citizen soldier." Nowhere is this issue more predominant than at many major universities, which began turning their backs on the military

  14. Training MSSW Students for Military Social Work Practice and Doctoral Students in Military Resilience Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuMars, Tyler; Bolton, Kristin; Maleku, Arati; Smith-Osborne, Alexa

    2015-01-01

    The demand for social workers with military-related practice and research experience exceeds the current supply. To advance military social work education, we developed an interlevel master's of science in social work (MSSW) field practicum and doctoral research practicum that provides military social work field experiences and contributes to…

  15. Test Consumers in the Military: Use of the Military Career Exploration Program in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurence, Janice H.

    The military offers education, training, and employment to novices to the workforce, our nations youth. The military continues to be a trailblazer with regard to testing and human resource assessment. The author maintains that no compendium on career counseling would be complete without mentioning the military. This chapter provides a condensed…

  16. HOW KNOWLEDGE CAN ENHANCE ACTION COMPETENCE IN THE MILITARY HIGHER EDUCATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiza KRAFT

    2009-01-01

    One of the aims of the paper is to stress out the imperative of training military language learners as people meant to become intercultural ‘speakers' as well as ‘mediators’ in order to be successful not only in communicating information in foreign languages, but also in developing a human relationship with people of other languages and cultures. The prime objective of

  17. Divorce, Race, and Military Service: More than Equal Pay and Equal Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay D.; Tedrow, Lucky

    2008-01-01

    Several researchers have suggested that the persistently higher rate of divorce among Blacks may be due to hard-to-measure concepts such as culture or norms. To attack this problem, we use data from the NLSY-79 to examine the risk of divorce among enlisted active-duty military servicemen where economic differences and the negative effects of…

  18. The Representation of Other Cultures in Award-Winning Picture Books from the United States, Australia, and Great Britain (1960-2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the representation of other cultures in award-winning picture books from the United States, Australia, and Great Britain between 1960 and 2009. Not only was the cultural content of children's literature over the past fifty years investigated, but the protocol created to evaluate the books was a newly…

  19. Comment on Bachmann et al. (2013): A nonrepresentative sample cannot describe the extent of cultural eutrophication of natural lakes in the United States

    E-print Network

    Lottig, Noah R.

    2013-01-01

    of cultural eutrophication of natural lakes in the United States In their recent paper, Bachmann et al. (2013 eutrophication since Europe- an settlement, using paleolimnological data collected during the 2007 National Lakes the prevalence of culturally eutrophic lakes (Finlayson and D'Cruz 2005; Carpenter et al. 2011), the conclusion

  20. Cell yields and fermentation responses of a Salmonella Typhimurium poultry isolate at different dilution rates in an anaerobic steady state continuous culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of these studies were to determine cell yield and fermentation responses of a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium poultry isolate using various dilution rates in steady state continuous culture incubations. S. enterica Typhimurium cells were propagated in continuous cultures with ...

  1. Changing Ecological and Cultural States and Preferences of Nature Conservation Policy: The Case of Nature Values Trade in South-Western Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paloniemi, Riikka; Vilja, Varho

    2009-01-01

    We present a rural Finnish case of nature conservation called the nature values trade (NVT) as an example of the process of changing ecological and cultural states and preferences of environmental policy. We emphasise the importance of local ecological and cultural circumstances for the formulation of environmental policy. The study shows how…

  2. Collaborative visualization for military planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Timothy; Butler, Sean

    2001-07-01

    So that a military commander has precise command, control, and planning information available for a given mission, information must be tailored for a particular area of operation, for a specific level of command, and for a specific time period. The commander must be able to quickly understand the information, query related information, and analyze the information in collaboration with others to plan and control a military operation. To provide such tailored information, we envision an environment in which customized agents traverse a diverse, distributed, frequently changing information space to identify relevant data. Once aware of the data, visual interfaces facilitate understanding and navigation. Geographically separated users manipulate a customized view to access a common information framework in which they can interactively collaborate with other users. We propose an architecture for achieving this vision that is well suited to implementation with Jini networking technologies. As a first step toward achieving this architecture we have developed a collaborative visualization framework that enables multiple distributed users to interact using shared visual interface components while simultaneously communicating via a text-based chat window. Our framework provides communications management and messaging support and well-defined Java class interfaces for integrating visualization components. Initial results indicate significant benefits for application development through reuse and extensibility. We achieved interactive performance and synchronized collaboration using JavaSpaces as the underlying distributed technology.

  3. 32 CFR 9.9 - Protection of State secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.9 Protection of State secrets. Nothing in this part shall be construed to authorize disclosure of state...

  4. Teaching About the Military in American History: A History Institute for Teachers. Footnotes. Volume 12, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2007-01-01

    On March 24-25, 2007 FPRI's Marvin Wachman Fund for International Education hosted 44 teachers from 23 states across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching about the Military in U.S. history. The Institute was held at and co-sponsored by the Cantigny First Division Museum. Sessions included: (1) War and the Military in American…

  5. 77 FR 14006 - Record of Decision for the Military Housing Privatization Initiative Hurlburt Field and Eglin Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Record of Decision for the Military...Initiative Hurlburt Field and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, Final Environmental...February 6, 2012, the United States Air Force signed the ROD for the Military...

  6. Avioptics - The application of fiber optics in a military aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William P. Walsh Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper focuses on current military work to develop fiber-optic standards and systems for enhancements to existing aircraft platforms and the implementation of state-of-the-art avionics and airborne sensor systems in next-generation fighters. Aircraft applications of fiber optics presently focus on the technology's ability to provide enhanced physical characteristics, greater bandwidth, and better channel integrity. The lighter weight and smaller size

  7. Application of military uncooled infrared sensors to homeland defense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Hornberger

    2002-01-01

    During the early 1990's, uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging technology began a journey from Government and corporate laboratories to practical application in addressing military, Government, and commercial customer needs. Today, that transition could arguably be considered complete, punctuated by BAE SYSTEMS' delivery of the 10,000th microbolometer camera on 12 February 2002. While microbolometer developmental research continues to advance the state-of-the-art at

  8. Mobile small aperture satellite terminals for military communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijitha Weerackody; Lino Gonzalez

    2007-01-01

    The United States Army is currently developing a satellite-based network-centric waveform. Mobile terminals that are small and compact are highly desirable for the military. This article gives an overview of the technical challenges and performance issues when mobile small aperture satellite terminals are connected to a network- centric communication system. The specific issues addressed are regulatory limits on off-axis emissions,

  9. Development of military lasers for optical countermeasures in the mid-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sijan, Andrew

    2009-09-01

    The utility of military mid-IR lasers, particularly in the area of countermeasures, is well understood and practical laser systems have been fielded which currently provide protection to a wide number of military platform types. Technical performance, efficiency and power for these lasers, has driven current production designs to utilise diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSSLs) with wavelength conversion through non-linear crystals. In this paper, we review the development of laser technologies which have potential to form the basis of the next generation of IRCM lasers, in particular, fibrepumped solid state lasers, optically pumped semiconductor lasers (OPSLs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). Moreover, this review will focus on the relative merits of the technologies for engineering and productionisation of a military laser system, and address those issues most relevant for design and manufacture for the military environment. These include not only technical performance, power and efficiency, but also thermal management, mass, volume, cost and overall complexity for manufacture.

  10. A cross-cultural comparison of leadership skills across the United States, the United Kingdom and Italy: a quantitative design using internet technology 

    E-print Network

    Moro, Fabio

    2005-11-01

    This study focused on cross-cultural leadership styles between the United States, the United Kingdom and the Republic of Italy to determine if any significant statistical differences in leadership style exist. It is a ...

  11. Suppression of adipocyte differentiation by Cordyceps militaris through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Tsuyoshi; Hiramatsu, Nobuhiko; Kasai, Ayumi; Mukai, Mai; Okamura, Maro; Yao, Jian; Huang, Tao; Tamai, Minori; Takahashi, Shuhei; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Kitamura, Masanori

    2008-10-01

    Mycelial extracts have a wide range of biological activities that modulate functions of mammalian cells. In this report, we sought to identify antiadipogenic mycelia with the use of 3T3-L1 cells and found that the extract of Cordyceps militaris exclusively suppressed differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into mature adipocytes without affecting cell viability. This inhibitory effect was dose dependent, reversible, and associated with 1) a decrease in lipid accumulation, 2) blunted induction of adipocyte markers including adiponectin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha, and 3) sustained expression of a preadipocyte marker, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. C. militaris also significantly decreased accumulation of lipid and hypertrophy in mature adipocytes and preserved their response to insulin (phosphorylation of Akt) during prolonged culture. Subsequent experiments revealed that C. militaris has the potential to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In 3T3-L1 cells, treatment with AhR agonists including benzo[a]pyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene reproduced the antiadipogenic effect of C. militaris. Furthermore, dominant-negative inhibition of AhR abrogated the suppressive effect of C. militaris on adipocyte differentiation. These results suggest that C. militaris has the potential to interfere with adipocyte differentiation through activation of AhR. PMID:18664595

  12. Chronic pain management in the active-duty military

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamison, David; Cohen, Steven P.

    2012-06-01

    As in the general population, chronic pain is a prevalent and burdensome affliction in active-duty military personnel. Painful conditions in military members can be categorized broadly in terms of whether they arise directly from combat injuries (gunshot, fragmentation wound, blast impact) or whether they result from non-combat injuries (sprains, herniated discs, motor vehicle accidents). Both combat-related and non-combat-related causes of pain can further be classified as either acute or chronic. Here we discuss the state of pain management as it relates to the military population in both deployed and non-deployed settings. The term non-battle injury (NBI) is commonly used to refer to those conditions not directly associated with the combat actions of war. In the history of warfare, NBI have far outstripped battle-related injuries in terms not only of morbidity, but also mortality. It was not until improvements in health care and field medicine were applied in World War I that battle-related deaths finally outnumbered those attributed to disease and pestilence. However, NBI have been the leading cause of morbidity and hospital admission in every major conflict since the Korean War. Pain remains a leading cause of presentation to military medical facilities, both in and out of theater. The absence of pain services is associated with a low return-to-duty rate among the deployed population. The most common pain complaints involve the low-back and neck, and studies have suggested that earlier treatment is associated with more significant improvement and a higher return to duty rate. It is recognized that military medicine is often at the forefront of medical innovation, and that many fields of medicine have reaped benefit from the conduct of war.

  13. BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 235 68.--(lARP CULTURE I N UILINA.

    E-print Network

    silk-worms and then goats." That work, however, on fish-culture was not by Pauli; it appears to have from silk districts its excellence is the mulberry leaf. t I'his refers to a belief that this prolific

  14. Culturally Diverse Literature: Enriching Variety in an Era of Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Fenice B.; Causey, Lauren L.; Galda, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The authors argue for the overwhelming importance of finding and including culturally diverse literature into the curricula teachers are authorized to teach. They discuss the implications of use and offer ideas on how to identify quality literature to include in classroom and school libraries.

  15. Research Review: Teens as Authors of Web Culture [and] The State of Arts Education in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susannah, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    In this Research Review, the authors first look at a recent study of online content creation by teens in America conducted by the Pew Internet & American Life Project ("Teens as Authors of Web Culture," Review by Keidra Chaney). The study both confirms and challenges some common beliefs about teens and technology, and raises questions about how…

  16. Methodological issues in cross-cultural marketing research : A state-of-the-art review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naresh K. Malhotra; James Agarwal; Mark Peterson

    1996-01-01

    Notes that methodological problems are hampering the growth of cross-cultural marketing research and presents a review of methodological issues to address these problems. Organizes these issues around a six-step framework which includes elements such as problem definition, the development of an approach and research design formulation. Notes that the marketing research problem can be defined by comparing the phenomenon or

  17. Contraceptive Use Among Adolescent Latinas Living in the United States: The Impact of Culture and Acculturation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra P. Sterling; Lois S. Sadler

    2009-01-01

    Although adolescent pregnancies have declined steadily during the past decade, Latina adolescents continue to have disproportionately high pregnancy rates. For nurse practitioners to effectively counsel this group of women concerning contraceptive use and sexual health, a basic understanding of the unique sociocultural factors influencing Latina adolescents' sexual activity is important. This article reviews recent literature concerning the effects of culture,

  18. Equipment MIS in military industrial enterprises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Jichun; Yin Haiping; Jiang Xuying

    2000-01-01

    With the advent of the information society, information technology is widely used in many fields. Especially in the military field, it has become a key factor in deciding the result of a war. The information system for equipment management in a military industrial enterprise is a specific application of the computer in equipment management. The paper, based on the requirement

  19. Italian Contrasts in Regional Military Industrial Conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giulio Perani

    2000-01-01

    In the 1990s, because of falling arms exports and stagnant military spending, Italian military production fell significantly. The national government failed to design or fund a conversion strategy, leaving the conversion challenge to the regions. This article reviews strikingly different initiatives in three regions—the industrial north (Lombardia), the underdeveloped south (Abruzzi), and the “third Italy” (Toscana). Each confronted unique adjustment

  20. Study on military shortwave frequency planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Sun; Hao Liu; Fangsheng Li

    2011-01-01

    Starting from analyzing the necessity of military shortwave frequency planning, this paper illustrates its usable frequency set planning, working frequency subset planning and frequency pattern planning. It also studies the relative planning ways that have theoretical significance for realizing dynamic frequency management of military shortwave.

  1. Thoughts on military spectrum relocation strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathon Cheah; Rich North

    2011-01-01

    A move has begun by the government to relocate incumbent military radio frequency bands to accommodate the expanding broadband wireless industry. This move potentially poses tremendous challenges to the Department of Defense (DoD) in cost, disruption in service and degradation to the existing military communication infrastructures [1], [2]. New thoughts on a usage characteristics centric spectrum management concept are discussed

  2. Military Applications for Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Nasipuri, Asis

    1 Military Applications for Wireless Sensor Networks Presented by: Joshua Henderson Cory Engel 1 Military WSN Challenges[Lee'09] · Rapid Deployment · Low Probability of Detection · Self] · Hitachi SH4 7751 Processor running Linux · 8 Miniature Rocket Engines · Two 2.4-GHz ISM band frequency

  3. Veterans' Education extension.uci.edu/military

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    Veterans' Education Benefits extension.uci.edu/military UC Irvine Extension Welcomes Veterans! We you get the most out of your veterans' educational benefits and to make a successful transition for military veterans · Dedicated support staff to assist you through every stage of your education experience

  4. WSN research activities for military application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Hussain; P. khan; Kwak kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSNs) offers great promise for information capture and processing for different application, which inherits military applications excessively. Military is using this concept rigorously for their advancement in warfare and field. This work is compilation of some recent work of ldquomilitary application using WSNrdquo.

  5. Strengthen Military Academy's Information Security Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Qingguo; Zhang Wei

    2009-01-01

    Information techniques give support to the teaching theory, teaching plans, teaching mode, teaching measures and teaching management. However, problems on information security and its management are increasing. It is of great significance to research into those information security plans and management methods which are suitable for military academy. Based on the situation of military academy's information security management, this thesis

  6. FUTURE MILITARY FORCE POSSIBILITIES Korea Australia Japan

    E-print Network

    FUTURE MILITARY FORCE POSSIBILITIES STUDY 2001­2021 Korea ­ Australia ­ Japan ­­­­­­­ A Strategic of Masters Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Future Military Force Possibilities Study, 2001-2021: Korea responsibility for her own defense. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 917 14. SUBJECT TERMS strategic planning "surprise free

  7. Military Expenditure and Socio-Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Nicole

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between military expenditure and the stimulation of aggregate demand, inflation, investment, trade balance, foreign exchange, the improvement of taxation, and employment creation and industrialization in the Third World is analyzed. To some extent military expenditure does promote economic growth, but it does not automatically…

  8. Military Deployment and Elementary Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Terri; Dunham, Mardis; Lyons, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact that military deployment has upon academic achievement of elementary school students. TerraNova test scores of 137 fourth and fifth grade students in two elementary schools with a high proportion of military dependent children were examined for two consecutive years. Although the academic test performance fell…

  9. Adapting commercial satellites to military communication needs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. B. Jocic; S. A. Hovanessian; J. K. Kreng; M. D. Schultz

    1996-01-01

    Increased reliance on commercial equipment by the military is necessary in today's defense environment. Potential cost reductions due to leveraging off the commercial satellite communication (satcom) base are a strong factor in planning for future military satcom (milsatcom) systems. Commercial satcom services are being extended to the “Ka” frequency band (30\\/20 GHz) to accommodate increasing demands for higher throughput and

  10. Sociological Research in a Military School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ignat'ev, V. V.

    2008-01-01

    What is the content of a system of sociological support for the administration of a higher military educational institution, and what problems are involved? From October 2006 to February 2007, instructors in the department of the humanities and the social-economic disciplines at Eisk F. M. Komarov Higher Military Aviation School (EVVAU) carried…

  11. 75 FR 26055 - Military Spouse Appreciation Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ...this important responsibility. As we mark Military Spouse Appreciation Day, we reaffirm our...Forces, servicemembers' spouses keep our military families on track. They balance family life, military life, and their careers-- all...

  12. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 ...Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police Codes (MPC). (a...DAPM-MPD-LE) when assigned or attached military police units are notified for...

  13. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644.522 National...Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be contaminated...

  14. 76 FR 77552 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...Service [4400-SZM] Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission AGENCY: National...September 6, 2012 of the Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission. DATES: The...Education Center in the Gettysburg National Military Park Museum and Visitor Center,...

  15. 32 CFR 809a.10 - Military commanders' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military commanders' responsibilities. 809a...and Disaster Assistance § 809a.10 Military commanders' responsibilities. ...restrictive measures to be enforced by the military. These will be announced by...

  16. 76 FR 70483 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ...Service [4400-SZM] Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission AGENCY: National...September 6, 2012 of the Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission. DATES: The...Education Center in the Gettysburg National Military Park Museum and Visitor Center,...

  17. 5 CFR 846.303 - Crediting military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crediting military service. 846.303 Section 846.303 Administrative...Become Subject to FERS § 846.303 Crediting military service. (a) Military service performed before the effective...

  18. Fibre Optic Data Links For Military Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coden, Michael H.; Blott, Paul A.

    1984-08-01

    Fibre optics provide many advantages in conventional strategic, tactical, ground base and airbourne military situations. These include security, small size and light weight of both cable and electronics, lower power consumption of electronics and immunity to EMI, EMP and RFI just as in the commercial uses of fibre optics. In many military applications the advantages of fibre optics may be critical to mission performance. A major stumbling block has been the development of fibre optic components and systems that meet the environmental, reliability and maintainability requirements of military equipment. Bearing these requirements in mind, this paper identifies some of the techniques used and recent advances made by Codenoll Technology in producing fibre optic data links suitable for military use. Some general tactical and strategic military applications involving these data links will then be discussed.

  19. PTSD in the military: special considerations for understanding prevalence, pathophysiology and treatment following deployment

    PubMed Central

    Yehuda, Rachel; Vermetten, Eric; McFarlane, Alexander C.; Lehrner, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Given the unique context of warzone engagement, which may include chronic threat, multiple and lengthy deployments, and loss, there is a need to understand whether and to what extent knowledge about PTSD derived from studies of civilian trauma exposure is generalizeable to the military. This special issue on PTSD in the military addresses a range of issues and debates related to mental health in military personnel and combat veterans. This article provides an overview of the issues covered in selected contributions that have been assembled for a special volume to consider issues unique to the military. Several leading scholars and military experts have contributed papers regarding: 1) prevalence rates of PTSD and other post-deployment mental health problems in different NATO countries, 2) the search for biomarkers of PTSD and the potential applications of such findings, and 3) prevention and intervention approaches for service members and veterans. The volume includes studies that highlight the divergence in prevalence rates of PTSD and other post-deployment mental health problems across nations and that discuss potential causes and implications. Included studies also provide an overview of research conducted in military or Veteran's Affairs settings, and overarching reviews of military-wide approaches to research, promotion of resilience, and mental health interventions in the Unites States and across NATO and allied ISAF partners. PMID:25206950

  20. 78 FR 50109 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY...The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke Museum), in consultation with the appropriate...

  1. Problems Faced by Military Personnel in Pursuing Higher Education Programs: A Study with Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David W.; And Others

    This document contains five reports from a study that collected survey data on the practices and state trends affecting military personnel attending proprietary, private, and public postsecondary education institutions in 11 states and on the practices related to student transcript evaluation. The contents include "Introduction, State and…

  2. Power Triangle: Military, Security, and Politics in the Shaping of the Egyptian, Iranian, and Turkish Regimes

    E-print Network

    Kandil, Hazem Khaled

    2012-01-01

    rights violations and state terrorism” that characterizedterrorism makes all citizens suspected militants, and thus justifies the creation of military-dominated “fortress-like states”terrorism from the 1980s onwards has undermined all constitutional checks on the rise of the security-oriented state.

  3. Environmental information for military planning.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Victoria; Croft, Darryl; Knight, Ashley

    2013-07-01

    A study was conducted to consider the implications of presenting Environmental Information (EI; information on current environmental features including weather, topography and visibility maps) for military planning to the growing audience of non-technical users; to provide guidance for ensuring usability and for development of a suitable EI interface, and to produce an EI concept interface mock-up to demonstrate initial design ideas. Knowledge was elicited from current EI users and providers regarding anticipated use of EI by non-specialists. This was combined with human factors and cognition expertise to produce guidance for data usability and development of an EI interface. A simple mock-up of an EI concept interface was developed. Recommendations for further development were made including application of the guidance derived, identification of a user test-bed and development of business processes. PMID:23290260

  4. A Study of the Life and Culture of Young Korean Students Studying in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Doo Hyoo

    2010-01-01

    The number of young Korean students studying abroad--many moving to English-speaking countries--has increased. This article describes the lives of young Korean students studying in the United States. For data collection, unstructured interviews were conducted with young Korean students studying in the Northwestern states of the United States.…

  5. 33 CFR 165.1198 - Safety zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Safety zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA. 165.1198 Section...District § 165.1198 Safety zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1198 - Safety zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Safety zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA. 165.1198 Section...District § 165.1198 Safety zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun...

  7. State of the Science: A Cultural View of Native Americans and Diabetes Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Karethy (Kay); Patchell, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of the literature on diabetes type 2 prevention interventions for Native American populations. The interrelation of the cultural role of food in Native American diets, educational policies related to food, outcomes of federal policies, and the historical background of diabetes are addressed. In addition, published studies of diabetes prevention interventions with Native American populations are examined. Lastly, exemplars of programs that represent best practices in the prevention of diabetes are described. PMID:20640191

  8. Headstart German Program. Cultural Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This module provides cultural information that will be helpful to military personnel in understanding some aspects of the German way of life. The topics covered in the booklet are: housing, postal services, forms of address, courtesies, getting around, driving, hotels, restaurants, beer and wine, recreation, entertainment, health spas, shopping,…

  9. PROTECTING CULTURAL MONUMENTS AGAINST TERRORISM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno S. Frey; Dominic Rohner

    2007-01-01

    Famous cultural monuments are often regarded as unique icons, making them an attractive target for terrorists. Despite huge military and police outlays, terrorist attacks on important monuments can hardly be avoided. We argue that an effective strategy to discourage terrorist attacks on iconic monuments is for a government to show a firm commitment to swift reconstruction. Using a simple game?theoretic

  10. Impact of gender on reactions to military sexual assault and harassment.

    PubMed

    Bell, Margret E; Turchik, Jessica A; Karpenko, Julie A

    2014-02-01

    Research has shown that experiences ofmilitary sexual assault and harassment can have a negative impact on veterans' health and functioning, even years or decades later, thus clearly identifying this as an important area of concern for social workers. In addition to understanding the scope and general impact of military sexual assault and harassment, social workers also must thoroughly understand how different cultural factors may intersect with veterans' experiences. To this end, this article reviews the current knowledge base on how veterans' life experiences related to gender can affect their experience of and recovery from military sexual assault and harassment, highlights common gender-specific issues, and discusses implications for practice. PMID:24693601

  11. The Cultural Worlds of Marco Polo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas T. Allsen

    2001-01-01

    In the thirteenth century, the Mongols created a vast, transcontinental empire that intensified commercial and cultural contact throughout Eurasia. As with other forms of booty generated by conquest, the Mongolian elite systematically identified, and shared out, the cultural resources oftheir more sedentary subjects. Thus, the Mongols military-political dominance ofthe continent was accompanied byeven accomplished throughcultural dependence. As a product ofthis

  12. Military technical revolution: A structural framework. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, J.; Ederington, B.

    1993-03-01

    The new security environment has a number of distinguishing characteristics. The formerly dominant bipolar power structure now exists only artificially, in the nuclear balance. By every measure of usable power, economic and political as well as military, the world is at a thoroughly multilateral stage, albeit with a single and unquestioned lead actor: the United States. But more and more states in the developing world have the ability to challenge U.S. and allied military forces, a fact demonstrated repeated by Saddam Hussein's Iraq. From an intense focus on a single global threat, Western defense planning has moved to the more complex and varied task of analyzing and preparing for regional crises and wars involving a kaleidoscopic variety of potential aggressors and victims. In part it has done so because such operations may be more likely today than during the cold war, when the risk of escalation to superpower war lurked in all regional conflicts. This shift demands, among other things, forces that are more flexible and agile than those deployed during the cold war. It also requires better intelligence on the developing world, where most immediate military missions lie.

  13. Family systems and ecological perspectives on the impact of deployment on military families.

    PubMed

    Paley, Blair; Lester, Patricia; Mogil, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    The scope of sustained military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan has placed great demands on the Armed Forces of the United States, and accordingly, military families have been faced with deployments in more rapid succession than ever before. When military parents fulfill occupational duties during wartime, military children and families face multiple challenges, including extended separations, disruptions in family routines, and potentially compromised parenting related to traumatic exposure and subsequent mental health problems. Such challenges can begin to exert a significant toll on the well-being of both individuals and relationships (e.g., marital, parent-child) within military families. In order to respond more effectively to the needs of military families, it is essential that mental health clinicians and researchers have a better understanding of the challenges faced by military families throughout the entire deployment experience and the ways in which these challenges may have a cumulative impact over multiple deployments. Moreover, the mental health field must become better prepared to support service members and families across a rapidly evolving landscape of military operations around the world, including those who are making the transition from active duty to Veteran status and navigating a return to civilian life and those families in which parents will continue to actively serve and deploy in combat zones. In this article, we utilize family systems and ecological perspectives to advance our understanding of how military families negotiate repeated deployment experiences and how such experiences impact the well-being and adjustment of families at the individual, dyadic, and whole family level. PMID:23760926

  14. Clinical trial of remote radiologist services for a military installation.

    PubMed

    Mendel, J; Linares, R; Gomori, J; Fields, S; Yago, M M

    1990-02-01

    It is often difficult to provide continuity of professional radiological services at U.S. military facilities located at a distance from major metropolitan areas. To address this problem, we have designed and evaluated a program to send x-ray films from a U.S. Army hospital to a remote site for expert radiological interpretation. Nine hundred and forty-two x-ray studies were sent by U.S. Express Mail from the Radiology Department of a U.S. Army Hospital over a 2-month period. The typed reports were sent back to the hospital through the use of a computer-to-computer telephone link within 72 hours of film transport. No studies were lost and security of all studies was maintained. This program offers a cost-effective, otherwise unavailable means to provide high quality professional radiological services to U.S. military facilities both inside the United States and in foreign countries. PMID:2106649

  15. Military consensus behind Soviet arms control proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Weickhardt, G.C.

    1987-09-01

    For nearly two years General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has tried to entice the West with a spectacular array of arms control proposals and initiatives. On issues such as on-site inspections and European missile reductions, he has made such significant concessions over previous Soviet positions that questions have been raised, and not satisfactorily answered, about how much support Gorbachev's diplomacy enjoys among the Soviet military. For example, have Gorbachev's proposals been a bold personal gamble to achieve agreement without the prior approval of the Soviet military bureaucracy. Or does his arms control diplomacy represent a broad consensus among the military leadership and a realignment of Soviet military doctrine and grand strategy. A careful examination of recent Soviet military thought shows that such a consensus exists. A broad and stable coalition of key military leaders supports the General Secretary's policies. Moreover, recent Soviet concessions are not, as commonly argued, a stopgap ploy to halt the US Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars. Rather, the military's support for Gorbachev's arms-control diplomacy is based on some serious strategic analysis and stems from broad, fundamental, and enduring changes in Soviet national security policy.

  16. How Culture Influences the "Social" in Social Media: Socializing and Advertising on Smartphones in India and the United States.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Sidharth; La Ferle, Carrie; Sung, Yongjun

    2015-06-01

    The importance of the mobile phone is evidenced by predictions that there will be 1.76 billion smartphone users worldwide at the start of 2015. A country that is spearheading this movement toward the digital era is India. To illustrate this, India is expected to surpass the United States in 2015 and record the second highest smartphone sales globally. Despite the rising penetration and adoption of smartphones, there is limited advertising research that sheds light on the Indian smartphone user. The current study aims to fill that void by cross-culturally comparing a national online panel of smartphone users from India (n=158) with users from the United States (n=114). Findings reveal that entertainment impacts Indians' attitudes toward smartphone advertising while informativeness is stronger for the American sample. Collectivism was found to be the driving force behind socializing activities on social networking sites for Indian consumers. Implications are discussed. PMID:25977980

  17. [Characteristics of urinary tract infections in military personnel in military service in Far North].

    PubMed

    Sergienko, H F; Vasil'chenko, M I; Plekhanov, V N

    2010-12-01

    For the purpose of improvement of the effectiveness of the treatment of urinary tract infections in military personnel in condition of High North were studied 505 clinical records of military personnel took the treatment from 1998 till 2009. It is established that the part of urinary tract infections from the urologic pathology in contract military personnel is higher than in draft military personnel. Among urinary tract infections prevails pyelonephritis associated with urolithiasis and abnormal development of kidneys. The main type of contamination under the acute pyelonephritis in military personnel is ascending. For this type dysuria, leukocyturia and bacteriuria are characteristic. For the hematogenous contamination pain in lumbar region, imperceptible leukocyturia, proteinuria are characteristic. Kidney carbuncles are higher in 2.5 times in draft military personnel. The main pathogen is aurococcus. "Gates" of this infection are furunculuses of different localization. PMID:21488355

  18. The history of military cranioplasty.

    PubMed

    Bonfield, Christopher M; Kumar, Anand R; Gerszten, Peter C

    2014-04-01

    There is evidence that the neurosurgical procedure of cranioplasty is as ancient as its better-known counterpart, trephination. With origins in pre-Incan Peru, cranioplasty remains an important reconstructive procedure for modern craniofacial surgery teams to master. Solutions to the often challenging problem of repairing skull defects continue to evolve to improve patient outcomes. Throughout recorded history, advances in cranioplasty have paralleled major military conflicts due to survivorship after trephination or decompressive craniectomy. Primitive skull coverings used in Peru were later replaced during the Middle Ages by grafts obtained in animals and humans. Improved survivorship secondary to advances in anesthesia and battlefield medicine during the Crimean War and the American Civil War allowed the use of tantalum and acrylic cranioplasty to evolve during World Wars I and II. In the modern era of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts, greater survivorship after cranial injury due to improvements in protective armor, medical evacuation, and early "far-forward" neurosurgical treatment have occurred. Consequently, the last decade has seen great advancement in cranial defect reconstruction, including custom-fabricated alloplast implants and the emergence of regenerative cranial treatments such as distraction osteogenesis, protected bone regeneration, and free tissue transfers. Comprehensive rehabilitation after neurotrauma has emerged as the new standard of care. PMID:24684330

  19. Native American Heritage Month Events -Fall 2013 Native American Cultural Center, Colorado State University

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    and the Associated Students of Colorado State University). Friday October 25th Frybread Sale, Drum Group Indians along Big Sandy Creek, 160 miles southeast of Denver. Over 150 mostly women, children and elderly

  20. Decolourisation of industrial dyes by solid-state cultures of Pleurotus pulmonarius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovana Kirst Tychanowicz; Adriana Zilly; Cristina Giatti Marques de Souza; Rosane Marina Peralta

    2004-01-01

    A solid-state system to obtain rapid in vivo industrial dye decolourisation by the white-rot fungus Pleurotus pulmonarius is proposed. When cultivated on glucose\\\\ammonium tartrate–corncob solid-state medium, P. pulmonarius decolourised structurally different synthetic dyes (including azo, triphenylmethane, heterocyclic and polymeric dyes). Amido black, congo red, trypan blue, methyl green, remazol brilliant blue R (RBB), methyl violet, ethyl violet and brilliant cresyl

  1. Military and aerospace applications of FCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, C.

    1972-01-01

    Military and NASA programs are discussed in which FCC were used. Included are Saturn 4, Pegasus satellites solar, array for Skylab orbital workshop, Poseidon missiles, MK 48 torpedo fire control, and Lunar Surveyor.

  2. Military Dog Training for Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Lou E.

    1977-01-01

    Describes five courses involved in the intensive training that dogs and their handlers go through in the Military Dog Studies Branch at Lackland Air Force Base (San Antonio, Texas) in preparation for duties in law enforcement. (HD)

  3. Information friction : information technology and military performance

    E-print Network

    Lindsay, Jon Randall

    2011-01-01

    Militaries have long been eager to adopt the latest technology (IT) in a quest to improve knowledge of and control over the battlefield. At the same time, uncertainty and confusion have remained prominent in actual experience ...

  4. Production and in vitro antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharide by a mutant, Cordyceps militaris SU5-08.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rongshan; Liu, Honghong; Wu, Suqian; Pang, Lifei; Jia, Mengshi; Fan, Keming; Jia, Shouhua; Jia, Le

    2012-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris SU5-08 was derived from an initial strain (C. militaris SU5) by ultraviolet mutagenesis of protoplasts, and the extraction parameters for C. militaris SU5-08 exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced during submerged culture were optimized. The extraction rate of EPS was 1919.16±165.27 mg/l, which was 120.38±11.36% higher than that of C. militaris SU5. The in vitro scavenging effects of EPS of C. militaris SU5-08 on hydroxyl, superoxide anion and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals at a dosage of 5 g/l were 63.64±3.52%, 75.27±5.16%, and 6.46±5.03%, respectively. The reducing power of EPS of C. militaris SU5-08 was 0.21±0.01. The results suggest that the EPS of C. militaris SU5-08 can be used as a potential antioxidant which enhances adaptive immune responses. PMID:22542852

  5. Tuition Assistance Usage and First-Term Military Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddin, Richard; Kapur, Kanika

    Tuition Assistance (TA) is a military-sponsored program that reimburses military members for 75% of the tuition costs of college classes while on active duty in the hope of making military service more attractive to young people and encouraging them to remain in the military. TA's effectiveness was examined by using two models--a bivariate probit…

  6. Fighting Women: The Military, Sex, and Extrajudicial Constitutional Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill Elaine Hasday

    2008-01-01

    The Supreme Court in Rostker v. Goldberg (1981) upheld male-only military registration, and endorsed male-only conscription and combat positions. Few cases have challenged restrictions on women's military service since Rostker, and none have reached the Supreme Court. Federal statutes continue to exclude women from military registration and draft eligibility, and military regulations still ban women from some combat positions. Yet

  7. A new era? Military space policy enters the mainstream

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alasdair McLean

    2000-01-01

    A military dimension to the use of space has existed since the earliest days of space activity. Historically, military space policy has been somewhat peripheral, but the ever increasing use of space in support of military objectives has now driven it into the mainstream of military planning. This has resulted in new consideration being given, particularly in the USA, to

  8. Psoriatic arthritis in a military aviator.

    PubMed

    Sulit, Daryl J; Clarke, Jonathan E

    2005-07-01

    Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic spondyloarthropathy whose pathogenesis is unknown. We present a case of a naval flight officer who presented with chronic psoriatic arthritis, which ultimately became well controlled with etanercept treatment. The naval flight officer was granted military aeromedical waivers for psoriatic arthritis, cutaneous psoriasis, and chronic medication use. We also review the medical literature on psoriatic arthritis disease and etanercept and discuss their aeromedical implications in military aviation. PMID:16018354

  9. The US Military and Hydrogen in Missouri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Tupper

    The US military is a heavy user of energy both in mobile applications and for its large infrastructure base. One US installation,\\u000a Fort Leonard Wood, is a training center for all the US services (Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine, and Coast Guard) as well as\\u000a a school center for the Corps of Engineers, Military Police, and “Chemical” (read as chemical,

  10. The characteristics of patient safety culture in Japan, Taiwan and the United States

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quality and safety issues are receiving growing attention. Patient safety culture (PSC) plays an important role in patient safety. The characteristics of PSC in various countries, each with a different set of values, have not been determined sufficiently. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of PSC in Japan, Taiwan and the U.S. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Japan and Taiwan using the Hospital Survey on PSC (HSOPS) questionnaire developed by the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Data from Japan and Taiwan were also compared with the U.S. “2010 HSOPS Comparative Database” provided by AHRQ. Results Valid response rates in Japan, Taiwan and the U.S. were 66.5% (6,963/10,466), 85.7% (10,019/11,692) and 35.2% (291,341/827,424), respectively. The proportion of respondents with some experience of event reporting during the past 12 months was highest in Japan. In general, U.S. healthcare workers were likely to evaluate their PSC higher than that in Japan or Taiwan. The attitude of continuous improvement in Japan and event reporting of near misses in Taiwan were rated as low. In the U.S., staffing was rated as high. Conclusions The results suggest that PSC varies among different countries, and the cultural setting of each country should be given special consideration in the development of effective intervention plans to improve PSC. Additional investigations with improved methodology and a common protocol are required to accurately compare PSCs among countries. PMID:23316872

  11. Blue whales respond to simulated mid-frequency military sonar.

    PubMed

    Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Southall, Brandon L; DeRuiter, Stacy L; Calambokidis, John; Friedlaender, Ari S; Hazen, Elliott L; Falcone, Erin A; Schorr, Gregory S; Douglas, Annie; Moretti, David J; Kyburg, Chris; McKenna, Megan F; Tyack, Peter L

    2013-08-22

    Mid-frequency military (1-10 kHz) sonars have been associated with lethal mass strandings of deep-diving toothed whales, but the effects on endangered baleen whale species are virtually unknown. Here, we used controlled exposure experiments with simulated military sonar and other mid-frequency sounds to measure behavioural responses of tagged blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) in feeding areas within the Southern California Bight. Despite using source levels orders of magnitude below some operational military systems, our results demonstrate that mid-frequency sound can significantly affect blue whale behaviour, especially during deep feeding modes. When a response occurred, behavioural changes varied widely from cessation of deep feeding to increased swimming speed and directed travel away from the sound source. The variability of these behavioural responses was largely influenced by a complex interaction of behavioural state, the type of mid-frequency sound and received sound level. Sonar-induced disruption of feeding and displacement from high-quality prey patches could have significant and previously undocumented impacts on baleen whale foraging ecology, individual fitness and population health. PMID:23825206

  12. Sonoran pronghorn habitat use on landscapes disturbed by military activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krausman, P.R.; Harris, L.K.; Haas, S.K.; Koenen, K.K.G.; Devers, P.; Bunting, D.; Barb, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Sonoran pronghorn (Antilocapra americana sonoriensis) population in the United States declined to ???33 animals in January 2003. Low population numbers and unstable recruitment are concerns for biologists managing this subspecies. We examined habitat use by pronghorn from 1999 to 2002 on a portion of the Barry M. Goldwater Range (BMGR) used for military exercises. We overlaid locations of pronghorn (n= 1,203) on 377 1-km2 blocks within the North (NTAC) and South Tactical Ranges (STAC), BMGR; we classified vegetation associations and disturbance status (e.g., airfields, targets, roads) for each block. Locations of pronghorn were distributed in proportion to vegetation associations on NTAC and STAC. Sightings of pronghorns were biased toward disturbed blocks, with 73% of locations of pronghorn occurring in proximity to mock airfields, high-explosive hills (e.g., targets for live high-explosive bombs and rockets), other targets, and roads. Disturbed landscapes on the BMGR may attract Sonoran pronghorn by creating favorable forage. Habitat manipulations simulating the effects of military disturbances on the landscape (e.g., improved forage) may improve remaining Sonoran pronghorn habitat. Antilocapra americana sonoriensis, Barry M. Goldwater Air Force Range, disturbed habitat, habitat availability, habitat use, military activity, Sonoran pronghorn.

  13. Heavy vehicle automation: transitioning from civilian to military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misener, James A.; Shladover, Steven E.; Empey, Dan; Tan, Han-Shue

    2001-09-01

    We describe potential military robotics applications for the heavy vehicle automation and driver assistance research that has been conducted on at the California Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways (PATH). Specifically, we summarize the state of vehicle automation research at PATH by beginning with a short description of automated platoon operations with eight light duty passenger vehicles. Then we focus on automation of a Class 8 Freightliner Model FLD 125 tractor with 45-ft trailer, and lateral driver assist installed in a 10-wheel International snowplow. We also discuss full automation plans for a Kodiak 4000-ton/hour rotary snowblower, two 40-ft New Flyer buses, one 60-ft New Flyer articulated bus, and three Freightliner Century tractor-trailer combinations. We discuss benefits for civilian applications - congestion relief, driver safety, and fuel economy/emissions reductions. We then follow with a discussion of the benefits from potential military spin-ons which include, as dual-use applications, driver safety and fuel economy/emissions. We end by discussing the additional military benefit in the conduct of tactical resupply operations, where vehicles of similar weight class and performance as those experimented by PATH can be used in automated convoys with savings in manpower and survivability in addition to improved mission operations.

  14. The DOE subsurface microbial culture collection at Florida State University. Final technical report, January 16, 1996--February 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Balkwill, D.L.

    1998-05-25

    This report describes the research that supports the Subsurface Science Program by maintaining a culture collection of microorganisms isolated from deep terrestrial subsurface environments (the Subsurface Microbial Culture Collection, or SMCC). The general distribution of cultures and data was identified as an important function of the SMCC. The accomplishments related to this function of the culture collection are described.

  15. [Cancer incidence in the military: an update].

    PubMed

    Peragallo, Mario Stefano; Urbano, Francesco; Sarnicola, Giuseppe; Lista, Florigio; Vecchione, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    An abnormally elevated rate of Hodgkin's lymphoma was reported in 2001 among Italian soldiers in Bosnia and Kosovo since 1995: a surveillance system was therefore set up for the military community. Preliminary results for a longer period (1996-2007) have shown incidence rates lower than expected for all malignancies. No significant difference was registered between observed and expected cases of Hodkin's lymphoma: the excess of reported cases for this malignancy in 2001-2002 was probably due to a peak occurred in 2000 among the whole military; it is therefore unrelated to deployment in the Balkans, and probably represents a chance event. Moreover, a significant excess of thyroid cancer was reported among the whole military.The estimated number of incident cases, including those missed by the surveillance system, was not significantly higher than expected for all cancers; conversely, the estimated incidence rate of thyroid cancer was significantly increased; this excess, however, is probably due to a selection bias.These data concerning cancer surveillance in the Italian military are consistent with lacking evidence of an increased cancer incidence among troops of other countries deployed in the areas of Iraq, Bosnia, and Kosovo, where armour penetrating depleted uranium shells have been used. However, a comprehensive assessment of cancer morbidity in the military requires a revision of the privacy regulations, in order to link individual records of military personnel and data bases of the National Health Service. PMID:22166781

  16. Radical Scavenging Activities of Undaria pinnatifida Extracts Fermented with Cordyceps militaris Mycelia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yon-Suk; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Han, Young-Ki; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jeong, Jae-Hyun; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2015-06-28

    The present study was performed to investigate the various radical scavenging activities of fermented Undaria pinnatifida by the mycelia fermentation method. U. pinnatifida was fermented with Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) mycelia using solid culture and compared with unfermentated U. pinnatifida and C. militaris mycelia for antioxidant activities. The various radical scavenging activities of extracts from U. pinnatifida fermented with C. militaris mycelia (FUCM) were evaluated by electron spin resonance. The antioxidant activities of the FUCM extracts were assayed for ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2,2'-azinobis-(3- ethybenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity, and oxygen radical absorption capacity. The free radical scavenging activity of FUCM extracts was higher than that of C. militaris mycelia or U. pinnatifida alone. FUCM extracts were significantly (p < 0.05) increased up to 35 times, 10 times, and 16 times that of U. pinnatifida extracts on DPPH, alkyl, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, respectively. These results indicate that FUCM extracts have different chemical ingredients from U. pinnatifida and could provide beneficial antioxidant activity. PMID:25563421

  17. Cooperative Extension Training Impact on Military Youth and 4-H Youth: The Case of Speak Out for Military Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwin, James; McKinley, Steve; Talbert, B. Allen

    2010-01-01

    Extension needs new venues to promote their programming skills to unfamiliar audiences. One new audience Extension is currently reaching is military children. By partnering with Operation: Military Kids to offer a Speak Out for Military Kids training, Extension supports military children and document changes in the behavior of this audience.…

  18. United States: Responses to the 2001 UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varmer, Ole; Gray, Jefferson; Alberg, David

    2010-12-01

    While the US is not a signatory to the 2001 UNESCO Convention, much progress has been made by US agencies to implement its Rules and principles. The US signed an Agreement on Titanic with Rules that are nearly identical to the UNESCO Convention. US agencies have also expressed support for the Rules and their implementation into their programs. This paper identifies these positive actions as well as the two primary concerns that have prevented the US from signing the Convention to date: (1) "creeping coastal State jurisdiction" and (2) treatment of sunken state vessels.

  19. Military Youth and the Deployment Cycle: Emotional Health Consequences and Recommendations for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Wolff, Jennifer; Lemmon, Keith M.; Bodzy, Mary; Swenson, Rebecca R.; Spirito, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The United States military force includes over 2.2 million volunteer service members. Three out of five service members who are deployed or are preparing for deployment have spouses and/or children. Stressors associated with the deployment cycle can lead to depression, anxiety, and behavior problems in children, as well as psychological distress in the military spouse. Further, the emotional and behavioral health of family members can affect the psychological functioning of the military service member during the deployment and re-integration periods. Despite widespread acknowledgement of the need for emotional and behavioral health services for youth from military families, many professionals in a position to serve them struggle with how to best respond and select appropriate interventions. The purpose of this paper is to provide an empirically-based and theoretically informed review to guide service provision and the development of evidence based treatments for military youth in particular. This review includes an overview of stressors associated with the deployment cycle, emotional and behavioral health consequences of deployment on youth and their caretaking parent, and existing preventative and treatment services for youth from military families. It concludes with treatment recommendations for older children and adolescents experiencing emotional and behavioral health symptoms associated with the deployment cycle. PMID:21707172

  20. Communication and Decision Making in Japanese and American (United States) Organizations: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applbaum, Ronald L.

    Focusing upon the interactive work-group communication patterns of employees classified as "managers," this paper compares such communication observed in Japanese and United States business and industrial organizations. The paper first describes several models of decision making within American and Japanese organizations, highlighting the…

  1. Peace, Politics, and Vortex: The Cultural and Political Consequences of Oregon's Only State Sponsored Rock Concert

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn J Van Marter-Sanders

    2012-01-01

    As the 1960s drew to a close, mainstream America realized that the rebellious youth counterculture was not going to go away quietly. Meeting the problem head on as the authorities had in Kent State resulted in violent deaths and even more protests. This trend broke, possibly for the first time, at McIver Park in Portland, Oregon during the first ever

  2. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of the Baltic States in a New Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickien, Ineta; Kaledaite, Violeta

    2005-01-01

    Language questions are increasingly on the agenda in Europe. This paper addresses some problematic aspects of language teaching and learning that have come to the fore in the Baltic states after the European Union enlargement of 2004. First, the paper aims at providing relevant information about language policies in the former USSR and the…

  3. Parenting in Cross-Cultural Perspective: The United States, France, and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; And Others

    In this study of prominent characteristics of parenting in the United States, France, and Japan, 72 mother-infant dyads were examined. The study focused on three prominent interactive domains of visual and vocal exchange between mother and baby (nurturing, social exchange, and didactic stimulation), examining their frequency of occurrence and…

  4. 76 FR 73663 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State University, Museum of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...proto-historic period burials along the Lower Snake River region of Washington State. Beginning...mostly burial) sites along the Lower Snake River. In 2003, Dr. Sprague turned the...come from burial sites along the Lower Snake River. In 2003, seven items were...

  5. The Cultural Mediation of State Policy: The Democratic Potential of New Community Schooling in Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Jon; Walker, Melanie; Baron, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the democratic potential of New Community Schools (NCS) as developed by the Scottish Executive. Defines the ambivalence of NCS with regard to deliberative democracy, which results from the mediation of state policy. Evaluates NCS in terms of the ends and purposes of deliberative democracy. Infers from the early NCS experience a number of…

  6. Observations on the Military Child Care Program. Statement before the Subcommittee on Military Personnel and Compensation, Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morra, Linda G.

    As requested, the General Accounting Office conducted a survey in Feburary 1988 of military installations with child development centers in the continental United States. It was found that the Air Force, Army, Navy, and Marine Corps had a combined capacity to serve about 62,000 children at one time at the 215 installations responding. This figure…

  7. Statistical Optimization of Conditions for Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes by Cordyceps militaris MTCC 3936 Using RSM

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Baljinder; Kumar, Balvir; Kaur, Navneet

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the biobleaching potential of white rot fungus Cordyceps militaris MTCC3936 was investigated. For preliminary screening, decolorization properties of C. militaris were comparatively studied using whole cells in agar-based and liquid culture systems. Preliminary investigation in liquid culture systems revealed 100% decolorization achieved within 3 days of incubation for reactive yellow 18, 6 days for reactive red 31, 7 days for reactive black 8, and 11 days for reactive green 19 and reactive red 74. RSM was further used to study the effect of three independent variables such as pH, incubation time, and concentration of dye on decolorization properties of cell free supernatant of C. militaris. RSM based statistical analysis revealed that dye decolorization by cell free supernatants of C. militaris is more efficient than whole cell based system. The optimized conditions for decolorization of synthetic dyes were identified as dye concentration of 300 ppm, incubation time of 48 h, and optimal pH value as 5.5, except for reactive red 31 (for which the model was nonsignificant). The maximum dye decolorizations achieved under optimized conditions for reactive yellow 18, reactive green 19, reactive red 74, and reactive black 8 were 73.07, 65.36, 55.37, and 68.59%, respectively. PMID:25722980

  8. Statistical optimization of conditions for decolorization of synthetic dyes by Cordyceps militaris MTCC 3936 using RSM.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Baljinder; Kumar, Balvir; Garg, Neena; Kaur, Navneet

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the biobleaching potential of white rot fungus Cordyceps militaris MTCC3936 was investigated. For preliminary screening, decolorization properties of C. militaris were comparatively studied using whole cells in agar-based and liquid culture systems. Preliminary investigation in liquid culture systems revealed 100% decolorization achieved within 3 days of incubation for reactive yellow 18, 6 days for reactive red 31, 7 days for reactive black 8, and 11 days for reactive green 19 and reactive red 74. RSM was further used to study the effect of three independent variables such as pH, incubation time, and concentration of dye on decolorization properties of cell free supernatant of C. militaris. RSM based statistical analysis revealed that dye decolorization by cell free supernatants of C. militaris is more efficient than whole cell based system. The optimized conditions for decolorization of synthetic dyes were identified as dye concentration of 300 ppm, incubation time of 48 h, and optimal pH value as 5.5, except for reactive red 31 (for which the model was nonsignificant). The maximum dye decolorizations achieved under optimized conditions for reactive yellow 18, reactive green 19, reactive red 74, and reactive black 8 were 73.07, 65.36, 55.37, and 68.59%, respectively. PMID:25722980

  9. Heartache of the state, enemy of the self: bipolar disorder and cultural change in urban China.

    PubMed

    Ng, Emily

    2009-09-01

    Past works in anthropology and psychology have described the Chinese orientation toward life as situation-centered with an external locus of control. This model has also been applied to the understanding of affect disorders in China--depressive patients have been found to focus on outside circumstances surrounding dysphoric moods. However, dramatic economic, sociopolitical and cultural changes in post-Mao China may be affecting these cognitive orientations toward emotional distress. This paper focuses on the subjective experiences of individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder in China. The study is based on semistructured interviews with patients at a Western-style mental health institution in Shenzhen, the first successful Special Economic Zone in China. My data suggest that the location of agency has shifted across generations. Whereas those who grew up in the Maoist era are inclined to use external circumstances to explain the control over and responsibility for their illness, younger patients tend to emphasize self-blame and individual responsibility. I argue that these intergenerational differences in ethnopsychology relate to the multifaceted rise of individualism in post-Mao China. The paper ends with an examination of this observed shift vis-à-vis recent theories of neoliberal discipline in China and a discussion of potential psychological implications. PMID:19526331

  10. Polysaccharide production by submerged and solid-state cultures from several medicinal higher Basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Sandra; Sanchez, Oscar Julian; Levin, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Polysaccharides produced by microorganisms represent an industrially unexploited market. An important number of polysaccharides have been isolated from fungi, especially mushrooms, with many interesting biological functions, such as antitumor, hypoglycemic, and immunostimulating activities. In the search of new sources of fungal polysaccharides, the main goal of this research was to test the ability of several species of basidiomycetes, among them various edible mushrooms, to produce both extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPSs). Among 10 species screened for production of EPSs in submerged cultures with glucose, soy oil, and yeast extract, the best results were obtained with Ganoderma lucidum (0.79 g/L EPS) and Pleurotus ostreatus (0.75 g/L EPS). Agitation strongly improved EPS production in most of the studied strains. Eight of 10 species assayed successfully developed basidiomes during synthetic "bag-log" cultivation on a substrate consisting of oak sawdust and corn bran. This work describes for the first time the environmental factors required for fruiting of 4 species under such conditions: Schizophyllum commune, Ganoderma applanatum, Trametes versicolor, and T. trogii. IPSs were extracted from the carpophores. The IPS content of the carpophores varied from 1.4% (G. applanatum) up to 5.5% and 6% in G. lucidum and Grifola frondosa, respectively. PMID:23510286

  11. Induction of a hypermetabolic state in cultured hepatocytes by glucagon and H 2O 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyongbum Lee; François Berthiaume; Gregory N. Stephanopoulos; Martin L. Yarmush

    2003-01-01

    Stress hormones and pro-inflammatory cytokines are putative signals triggering increased energy expenditure or “hypermetabolism” commonly observed in inflammatory states. Cytokines also cause the release of reactive oxidants by immune cells resident in tissues in vivo. Therefore, we hypothesized that oxidative stress plays a role in the induction of hypermetabolism. We examined the effect of glucagon (1.0nM), a catabolic stress hormone,

  12. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Multinational Firms' Recruitment Practices in Mexico and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eileen Daspro

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess whether U.S. multinationals practice non-discrimination when recruiting employees in Mexico. A mean discrimination score was calculated for 900 advertisements taken from a Mexican\\/U.S. job website. An ANOVA revealed a difference between U.S. companies in the United States and Mexico and Mexican companies at home. Discriminatory language was also found to be more

  13. The Military Child Education Coalition[TM]: Supporting Military Families during Deployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surles, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    The Military Child Education Coalition (MCEC[TM]) has recently released a new support for military families facing deployment, with the addition of another kit to its "Growing, Learning, and Understanding: Making Meaning through Early Literacy"[TM] (GLU[TM]) initiative. The GLU initiative focuses on developing early literacy skills in children…

  14. Distance Learning in Advanced Military Education: Analysis of Joint Operations Course in the Taiwan Military

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tung, Ming-Chih; Huang, Jiung-yao; Keh, Huan-Chao; Wai, Shu-shen

    2009-01-01

    High-ranking officers require advanced military education in war tactics for future combat. However, line officers rarely have time to take such courses on campus. The conventional solution to this problem used to take the inefficient correspondence courses. Whereas Internet technologies progress, online course is the current trend for military

  15. The cetaceopteryx: A global range military transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brivkalns, Chad; English, Nicole; Kazemi, Tahmineh; Kopel, Kim; Kroger, Seth; Ortega, ED

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a design of a military transport aircraft capable of carrying 800,000 lbs of payload from any point in the United States to any other point in the world. Such massive airlift requires aggressive use of advanced technology and a unique configuration. The Cetaceopteyx features a joined wing, canard and six turbofan engines. The aircraft has a cost 1.07 billion (1993) dollars each. This paper presents in detail the mission description, preliminary sizing, aircraft configuration, wing design, fuselage design, empennage design, propulsion system, landing gear design, structures, drag, stability and control, systems layout, and cost analysis of the aircraft.

  16. The cooperative monitoring of military forces: An exercise in strategy

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This exercise examines a hypothetical security problem associated with conventional military forces and border security: a surprise attack. The goal of the exercise is to provide an opportunity to think about how cooperative monitoring can be part of regional security. Two hypothetical countries, VOLCANOES and MOUNTAINS, have been created for this exercise based on the US states of Arizona and New Mexico. They were selected for their size and variety of terrain. Hypothetical background information and characteristics of the two countries are provided. An outline of activities is given, including prioritization of security concerns and monitoring of objectives for security concerns. 6 tabs.

  17. The application of CRM to military operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, Dale E.; Williams, Kenneth R.

    1987-01-01

    The detailed content of the CRM training component of the C-5 Aircrew Training System (ATS) was left to the discretion of the contractor. As a part of determining what the content should be, United Airlines Services Corporation has made an effort to understand how the needs of MAC crews compare with those of civilian airline crews. There are distinct similarities between the crew roles in the cockpits of civilian airliners and military air transports. Many of the attitudes and behaviors exhibited by civil and military crew members are comparable, hence much of the training in the field referred to as Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is equally appropriate to civil or military aircrews. At the same time, there are significant differences which require assessment to determine if modifications to what might be termed generic CRM are necessary. The investigation enabled the definition and specification of CRM training which is believed to address the needs of the C-5 operational community. The study has concentrated largely on military airlift, but the training objectives and course content of the CRM training are readily adaptable to a wider range of military cockpits than are found in strategic airlift. For instance, CRM training focusing on communication, leadership, situational awareness, and crew coordination is just as appropriate, with some modification, to the pilots manning a flight to Tactical Airlift Command A-7's as it is to the pilots, flight engineers, and loadmasters crewing a C-5.

  18. Ingredients of military genius. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, J.M.

    1986-04-07

    This article deals with military genius from an historical and a classical theory perspective. The author modifies an approach developed by Carl von Clausewitz that makes use of theory as a framework for the study of history. Clausewitz used theory to study campaigns of Napoleon. This article uses Clausewitz's theory of military genius to study some of the great captains of the American Civil War and World War II. Using seven qualities of military genius that Clausewitz lists in his ON WAR, a study was made to ascertain commonalities of behavior displayed by great battlefield generals. Historical examples are given which reflect the qualities of military genius. The basic hypothesis of the article is that successful generals command their armies with their total being and not just one predominate aspect of their person. The underlying theme is that body, emotions, mind, and spirit must work in a relatively balanced manner which results in military genius being displayed. Historical example urges each senior officer to continually train and discipline his being in preparation for his possible future destiny.

  19. The State of the Hip-Hop Generation: How Hip-Hop’s Cultural Movement is Evolving into Political Power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bakari Kitwana

    2004-01-01

    In the short decade between 1985 and 1995, the dominant cultural movement of our time, hip-hop culture, has become, seemingly overnight, mainstream American popular culture. This centering of hip-hop art, most specifically rap music, in American popular culture has given young African Americans unprecedented national and international visibility, at a historical time when images via the 21st century’s public square

  20. The Art Of Military Networking All people making a major career move will experience some difficulties in growing a new

    E-print Network

    Lien, Jyh-Ming

    to start reading are some of the following publications: The Economist, Harvard Business Review are compounded by our lives in a sub- culture of America called the military. Therefore here are 5 steps that can professional business cards. (DO NOT print your business cards on a printer.) Also buy heavy white linen

  1. 78 FR 60243 - Solicitation of Written Comments by the Military Compensation and Retirement Modernization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ...welfare programs, the resale programs (military exchanges and commissaries), and dependent school systems; The tax treatment of military compensation and benefits; and military family housing. See, Sec. 671...

  2. 5 CFR 841.708 - Special provisions affecting retired military reserve technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Special provisions affecting retired military reserve technicians. 841.708 Section...708 Special provisions affecting retired military reserve technicians. (a) Military reserve technicians who retire as a...

  3. 5 CFR 841.708 - Special provisions affecting retired military reserve technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Special provisions affecting retired military reserve technicians. 841.708 Section...708 Special provisions affecting retired military reserve technicians. (a) Military reserve technicians who retire as a...

  4. 5 CFR 841.708 - Special provisions affecting retired military reserve technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Special provisions affecting retired military reserve technicians. 841.708 Section...708 Special provisions affecting retired military reserve technicians. (a) Military reserve technicians who retire as a...

  5. 5 CFR 841.708 - Special provisions affecting retired military reserve technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Special provisions affecting retired military reserve technicians. 841.708 Section...708 Special provisions affecting retired military reserve technicians. (a) Military reserve technicians who retire as a...

  6. ARPA-E: Improving Military Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, Bryan; Mahvi, Allison; Stepien, Tom; Wasco, Mick

    2014-02-24

    The U.S. military has a vested interest in advancing microgrid technologies that can power forward operating bases. These technologies could not only help the military significantly reduce its energy demand both at home and abroad, but also they could reduce the number of fuel-supply convoys required on the battlefield and the number of troops killed in fuel-supply convoy attacks. This video highlights two ARPA-E projects that have formed strategic partnerships with the military to enable these microgrids at forward operating bases. Georgia Tech is developing an innovative absorption heat pump that utilizes exhaust heat to provide heating and cooling, which could cut the amount of energy used to heat and cool forward operating bases by 50%. Primus Power is developing a low-cost, energy-dense storage system that could store enough energy to operate a base for several days in the event of a disruption.

  7. ARPA-E: Improving Military Energy Security

    ScienceCinema

    Willson, Bryan; Mahvi, Allison; Stepien, Tom; Wasco, Mick

    2014-03-13

    The U.S. military has a vested interest in advancing microgrid technologies that can power forward operating bases. These technologies could not only help the military significantly reduce its energy demand both at home and abroad, but also they could reduce the number of fuel-supply convoys required on the battlefield and the number of troops killed in fuel-supply convoy attacks. This video highlights two ARPA-E projects that have formed strategic partnerships with the military to enable these microgrids at forward operating bases. Georgia Tech is developing an innovative absorption heat pump that utilizes exhaust heat to provide heating and cooling, which could cut the amount of energy used to heat and cool forward operating bases by 50%. Primus Power is developing a low-cost, energy-dense storage system that could store enough energy to operate a base for several days in the event of a disruption.

  8. Solar energy information user study: military engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Marle, T.L.; Belew, W.W.

    1981-09-01

    This report summarizes data from questionnaires administered to military engineers and architects attending a 2-day solar design workshop at Lowry Air Force Base, February 17 and 18, 1981. The workshop was designed to inform engineers when and where solar energy could be used more effectively. The study aimed to identify the (a) solar energy information needs and information habits of the professionals, (b) their familiarity with and appraisal of relevant military publications containing solar energy information currently available, and (c) the overall effectiveness of the workshops (including structure and content). To measure the effectiveness of the workshop itself and provide input on producing an effective and comprehensive information dissemination plan for military engineers nationwide, 2 questionnaires were designed and administered to the participants. The Pre-Workshop Questionnaire assessed the participant's knowledge of solar energy prior to attending the workshop.

  9. Genetic Analysis of Pigmentation in Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Choi, Sung-Keun; Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Woong; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2005-09-01

    Pigmentation of ascospore-derived isolates from seven different natural specimens of Cordyceps militaris EFCC C-5888, EFCC C-7159, EFCC C-7833, EFCC C-7991, EFCC C-8021, EFCC C-8023 and EFCC C-8179 was observed on the plates of Sabouraud Dextrose agar plus Yeast Extract at 25? under continuous illumination (500 lux). Pigmentation of the wild-type isolates of C. militaris was diverse ranging from yellowish white to orange, while white color was believed as a mutant. Inheritance of pigmentation was found to be controlled by both parental isolates when F1 progeny were analyzed. Pigmentation and mating type were shown to be either independent or distantly linked each other due to the high percentage of non-parental phenotypes among F1 progeny. Crosses between white mutant isolates of C. militaris yielded progeny with wild type pigmentations, indicating that the albino mutations in the parents were unlinked to each other. PMID:24049487

  10. The future of military standards - A focus on electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecht, Michael; Hakim, Edward

    1992-07-01

    With cut-backs in the military and the changing international economic environment, there is a growing perception that the military must rely on commercial industries in order to afford the next generation of high performance and high reliability military systems. What is not clear, is whether an industrial base for the military can be provided and maintained without dramatic changes in the operation of both the government (DoD) and commercial industry. This paper examines one issue associated with this question - whether commercial standards can effectively supplant military standards and still provide high performance and reliability for military missions.

  11. Optimization of fermentation parameters to study the behavior of selected lactic cultures on soy solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Olmos, A; Bru, E; Garro, M S

    2015-03-01

    The use of solid fermentation substrate (SSF) has been appreciated by the demand for natural and healthy products. Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria play a leading role in the production of novel functional foods and their behavior is practically unknown in these systems. Soy is an excellent substrate for the production of functional foods for their low cost and nutritional value. The aim of this work was to optimize different parameters involved in solid state fermentation (SSF) using selected lactic cultures to improve soybean substrate as a possible strategy for the elaboration of new soy food with enhanced functional and nutritional properties. Soy flour and selected lactic cultures were used under different conditions to optimize the soy SSF. The measured responses were bacterial growth, free amino acids and ?-glucosidase activity, which were analyzed by applying response surface methodology. Based on the proposed statistical model, different fermentation conditions were raised by varying the moisture content (50-80%) of the soy substrate and temperature of incubation (31-43°C). The effect of inoculum amount was also investigated. These studies demonstrated the ability of selected strains (Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and Bifidobacterium longum) to grow with strain-dependent behavior on the SSF system. ?-Glucosidase activity was evident in both strains and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei was able to increase the free amino acids at the end of fermentation under assayed conditions. The used statistical model has allowed the optimization of fermentation parameters on soy SSF by selected lactic strains. Besides, the possibility to work with lower initial bacterial amounts to obtain results with significant technological impact was demonstrated. PMID:25498472

  12. Observations on Some of the Mycelial Growth and Pigmentation Characteristics of Cordyceps militaris Isolates.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Lee, Won-Ho; Han, Sang-Kuk; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2006-06-01

    Characteristic growth patterns of Cordyceps militaris isolates on various media, under varying light conditions and at varying incubation periods were examined. Light was found to be the most critical single factor in determining the density, texture, and pigmentation of the mycelial culture of the fungus. However, under the light condition, the degree of pigmentation and mycelial density were found to be affected by the incubation period and type of medium. Irrespective of the variations in medium type or incubation period, there was no pigmentation of the mycelium under dark condition. Radial growth of the mycelium was faster under dark incubation rather than under light incubation. Abundant mycelial density and darkest pigmentation of C. militaris isolates were produced in nutritionally rich media like SDAY, SMAY and CZYA, suggesting that these media may fulfill all the requirements for vegetative growth of the fungus. Growth characteristics of C. militaris isolates could be easily observed by the simple agar culture method, which would be useful to characterize the phenotypic characteristics of large number of pure cultures of the fungus under given conditions of growth factors such as medium, light and temperature. PMID:24039476

  13. Effectiveness of immunoprophylaxis in suppressing carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in the military environment.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, K; Skoczy?ska, A; Guzek, A; Konior, M; Chcia?owski, A; Wa?ko, I; Markowska, M; Zwoli?ska, E

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis, etiological factor of invasive meningococcal disease, is a human commensal that colonizes the nasopharynx. Colonization is usually asymptomatic, but it is a prerequisite for disease. Asymptomatic carriers are the major source of infection. In the present study, a survey of N. meningitidis carriage was conducted between January and March 2013 in a military unit in Poland. Single-time throat culture samples were collected from professional 559 soldiers (302 unvaccinated vs. 257 vaccinated individuals with the quadrivalent conjugate vaccine AC YW-135). Bacterial identification was performed with classic microbiological methods (culture, incubation, identification). Non-culture method (PCR) was used for confirmation of detected strains of N. meningitidis and determination of serogroups. We found 29 carriers in the group of unvaccinated soldiers (9.6 % of examined individuals) whereas among vaccinated soldiers only 3 persons were carriers of N. meningitidis (1.2 %). The most frequently identified serogroups among the carriers serving in the same military facility were serogroup B (28 %), followed by Y (25 %), and C (22 %). In conclusion, the initiation of mass vaccination with the quadrivalent conjugate vaccine ACYW-135 in the military environment seems an effective method of suppressing N. meningitidis carriage. PMID:25310944

  14. Extended electrical model for impedance characterization of cultured HeLa cells in non-confluent state using ECIS electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mondal, D; RoyChaudhuri, C

    2013-09-01

    Electric cell substrate impedance sensing has been widely used as a label free quantitative platform to study various cell biological processes and it is extremely essential to extract the parameters like the variation of the cell substrate spacing, changing projected area of the cell on the electrode and approximate cluster size during the non-confluent state to understand the mechanism of proliferation of the cells. The distributed analytical models developed so far to extract these parameters are applicable only under the conditions when the cells have become confluent. There are some lumped electrical models which have been reported for the non-confluent state but they do not provide correct estimate of the changing cell substrate spacing and the cell cluster size during growth. In this paper we develop extended distributed electrical models to characterize the impedance spectroscopy behavior of cultured HeLa cells in 200 Hz to 1 MHz range using eight well ECIS electrodes in the non-confluent state. The distributed model introduces some pseudo regularity in the arrangement of the non-confluent cells to extract the average ensemble of the significant parameters. The parameters extracted from the distributed model after 10 hours, 20 hours, and 30 hours of HeLa cell growth have been compared with the lumped circuit model and has been observed to fit the experimental data with a seven times improved fit quality factor. Further, the changing cell radius and cluster radius extracted at three different instants of time from the distributed analytical model have been found to match closely the microscopic observation in contrast to the lumped circuit model. PMID:23995584

  15. Extract of Cordyceps militaris inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth of human malignant melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ruma, I Made Winarsa; Putranto, Endy Widya; Kondo, Eisaku; Watanabe, Risayo; Saito, Ken; Inoue, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi; Nakata, Susumu; Kaihata, Masaji; Murata, Hitoshi; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo

    2014-07-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumor development and metastasis. Among several angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF) is important for tumor-derived angiogenesis and commonly overexpressed in solid tumors. Thus, many antitumor strategies targeting VEGF have been developed to inhibit cancer angiogenesis, offering insights into the successful treatment of solid cancers. However, there are a number of issues such as harmful effects on normal vascularity in clinical trials. Taking this into consideration, we employed Cordyceps militaris as an antitumor approach due to its biological safety in vivo. The herbal medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris has been reported to show potential anticancer properties including anti-angiogenic capacity; however, its concrete properties have yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the biological role of Cordyceps militaris extract in tumor cells, especially in regulating angiogenesis and tumor growth of a human malignant melanoma cell line. We demonstrated that Cordyceps militaris extract remarkably suppressed tumor growth via induction of apoptotic cell death in culture that links to the abrogation of VEGF production in melanoma cells. This was followed by mitigation of Akt1 and GSK-3? activation, while p38? phosphorylation levels were increased. Extract treatment in mouse model xenografted with human melanoma cells resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect with down-regulation of VEGF expression. The results suggest that suppression of tumor growth by Cordyceps militaris extract is, at least, mediated by its anti-angiogenicity and apoptosis induction capacities. Cordyceps militaris extract may be a potent antitumor herbal drug for solid tumors. PMID:24789042

  16. The Impact of Natural Culture and Economic Ideology on Managerial Work Values: A Study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Ralston; David H. Holt; Robert H. Terpstra; Yu Kai-cheng

    1997-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of economic ideology and national culture on the individual work values of managers in the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. The convergence-divergence-crossvergence (CDC) framework was used as theoretical framework for the study, while the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was used to operationalize over investigation of managerial work values across these four countries. The findings

  17. The impact of national culture and economic ideology on managerial work values: a study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Ralston; David H. Holt; Robert H Terpstra; Yu Kai-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of economic ideology and national culture on the individual work values of managers in the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. The convergence–divergence–crossvergence (CDC) framework was used as a theoretical framework for the study, while the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was used to operationalize our investigation of managerial work values across these four countries. The

  18. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CULTURE CONDITIONS AND INDUCERS ON PRODUCTION OF LACCASE BY A BASIDIOMYCETE FUNGAL ISOLATE PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS HP1 UNDER SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hardik Patel; Akshaya Gupte; Shilpa Gupte

    The production of laccase by an indigenous strain of Pleurotus ostreatus HP-1 was studied on solid state fermentation. Culture parameters such as type and concentration of substrate, inoculum size, moisture content, pH, surfactant presence, temperature, and nitrogen source were optimized by conventional \\

  19. Examining Post-Migration Psycho-Cultural Adjustment Challenges of Foreign-Born Students at Community Colleges in the Northeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anemelu, Charles I.

    2012-01-01

    The current study is an attempt to examine post-migration psycho-cultural adjustment factors that potentially inhibit foreign-born students' (FBS) adjustment at community colleges (CCs) in the United States. Although much research has been conducted to better understand various aspects of FBSs' adjustment challenges little attention has been paid…

  20. Studying Cross-Cultural Differences in the Development of Infant Temperament: People's Republic of China, the United States of America, and Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartstein, Maria A.; Gonzalez, Carmen; Carranza, Jose A.; Ahadi, Stephan A.; Ye, Renmin; Rothbart, Mary K.; Yang, Suh Wen

    2006-01-01

    Investigated early development of temperament across three cultures: People's Republic of China (PRC), United States of America (US), and Spain, utilizing a longitudinal design (assessments at 3, 6, and 9 months of age). Selection of these countries presented an opportunity to conduct Eastern-Western/Individualistic-Collectivistic comparisons. The…