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Sample records for milk thistle silibinin-legalon

  1. Milk Thistle

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2009. Milk thistle ( Silybum marianum ), silymarin. Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on October ... Supplements . National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health Web site. ... Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . 2007;(4):CD003620. Seeff LB, ...

  2. Milk Thistle (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... thistle can be used to treat cancer. A randomized clinical trial in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia ... children who did not take milk thistle. A randomized clinical trial in men who had surgery to ...

  3. The therapeutic potential of milk thistle in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kazazis, Christos E; Evangelopoulos, Angelos A; Kollas, Aris; Vallianou, Natalia G

    2014-01-01

    Milk thistle has been known for more than 2.000 years as a herbal remedy for a variety of disorders. It has mainly been used to treat liver and gallbladder diseases. Silibum marianum, the Latin term for the plant, and its seeds contain a whole family of natural compounds, called flavonolignans. Silimarin is a dry mixture of these compounds; it is extracted after processing with ethanol, methanol, and acetone. Silimarin contains mainly silibin A, silibin B, taxifolin, isosilibin A, isosilibin B, silichristin A, silidianin, and other compounds in smaller concentrations. Apart from its use in liver and gallbladder disorders, milk thistle has recently gained attention due to its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Recently, a substance from milk thistle has been shown to possess peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist properties. PPARγ is the molecular target of thiazolidinediones, which are used clinically as insulin sensitizers to lower blood glucose levels in diabetes type 2 patients. The thiazolidinedione type of PPARγ ligands is an agonist with a very high binding affinity. However, this ligand type demonstrates a range of undesirable side effects, thus necessitating the search for new effective PPARγ agonists. Interestingly, studies indicate that partial agonism of PPARγ induces promising activity patterns by retaining the positive effects attributed to the full agonists, with reduced side effects. In this review, the therapeutic potential of milk thistle in the management of diabetes and its complications are discussed. PMID:25396404

  4. The Therapeutic Potential of Milk Thistle in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kazazis, Christos E.; Evangelopoulos, Angelos A.; Kollas, Aris; Vallianou, Natalia G.

    2014-01-01

    Milk thistle has been known for more than 2.000 years as a herbal remedy for a variety of disorders. It has mainly been used to treat liver and gallbladder diseases. Silibum marianum, the Latin term for the plant, and its seeds contain a whole family of natural compounds, called flavonolignans. Silimarin is a dry mixture of these compounds; it is extracted after processing with ethanol, methanol, and acetone. Silimarin contains mainly silibin A, silibin B, taxifolin, isosilibin A, isosilibin B, silichristin A, silidianin, and other compounds in smaller concentrations. Apart from its use in liver and gallbladder disorders, milk thistle has recently gained attention due to its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Recently, a substance from milk thistle has been shown to possess peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist properties. PPARγ is the molecular target of thiazolidinediones, which are used clinically as insulin sensitizers to lower blood glucose levels in diabetes type 2 patients. The thiazolidinedione type of PPARγ ligands is an agonist with a very high binding affinity. However, this ligand type demonstrates a range of undesirable side effects, thus necessitating the search for new effective PPARγ agonists. Interestingly, studies indicate that partial agonism of PPARγ induces promising activity patterns by retaining the positive effects attributed to the full agonists, with reduced side effects. In this review, the therapeutic potential of milk thistle in the management of diabetes and its complications are discussed. PMID:25396404

  5. The Effects of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) on Human Cytochrome P450 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi-Suzuki, Marina; Frye, Reginald F.; Zhu, Hao-Jie; Brinda, Bryan J.; Chavin, Kenneth D.; Bernstein, Hilary J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) extracts are widely used as a complementary and alternative treatment of various hepatic conditions and a host of other diseases/disorders. The active constituents of milk thistle supplements are believed to be the flavonolignans contained within the extracts. In vitro studies have suggested that some milk thistle components may significantly inhibit specific cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes. However, determining the potential for clinically significant drug interactions with milk thistle products has been complicated by inconsistencies between in vitro and in vivo study results. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a standardized milk thistle supplement on major P450 drug-metabolizing enzymes after a 14-day exposure period. CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4/5 activities were measured by simultaneously administering the four probe drugs, caffeine, tolbutamide, dextromethorphan, and midazolam, to nine healthy volunteers before and after exposure to a standardized milk thistle extract given thrice daily for 14 days. The three most abundant falvonolignans found in plasma, following exposure to milk thistle extracts, were silybin A, silybin B, and isosilybin B. The concentrations of these three major constituents were individually measured in study subjects as potential perpetrators. The peak concentrations and areas under the time-concentration curves of the four probe drugs were determined with the milk thistle administration. Exposure to milk thistle extract produced no significant influence on CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, or CYP3A4/5 activities. PMID:25028567

  6. Infusions of artichoke and milk thistle represent a good source of phenolic acids and flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-01-01

    Cynara scolymus L. (artichoke) and Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn (milk thistle) are two herbs well-known for their efficiency in the prevention/treatment of liver injuries, among other chronic diseases. Therefore, the aim of this work was to characterize specific bioactive components, phenolic compounds, in hydromethanolic extracts but also in infusions (the most commonly used preparations) obtained from the whole plant of milk thistle and artichoke. The phenolic profiles were accessed using HPLC-DAD-MS/ESI. Infusions of both species presented higher phenolic contents than the hydromethanolic extracts. Milk thistle presented a similar phenolic composition between the two preparations, revealing only differences in the quantities obtained. Nevertheless, artichoke revealed a slightly different profile considering infusion and hydromethanolic extracts. Apigenin-7-O-glucuronide was the major flavonoid found in milk thistle, while luteolin-7-O-glucuronide was the most abundant in artichoke. Therefore, infusions of both artichoke and milk thistle represent a good source of bioactive compounds, especially phenolic acids and flavonoids. PMID:25367590

  7. New therapeutic potentials of milk thistle (Silybum marianum).

    PubMed

    Milić, Natasa; Milosević, Natasa; Suvajdzić, Ljiljana; Zarkov, Marija; Abenavoli, Ludovico

    2013-12-01

    Silymarin is a bioflavonoid complex extract derived from dry seeds of Milk thistle [(Silybum marianum(L.) Gaemrnt. (Fam. Asteraceae/Compositaceae)] whose hepatoprotective effect has clinically been proved. Low toxicity, favorable pharmacokinetics, powerful antioxidant, detoxifying, preventive, protective and regenerative effects and side effects similar to placebo make silymarin extremely attractive and safe for therapeutic use. The medicinal properties of silymarin and its main component silibinin have been studied in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, sepsis, burns, osteoporosis, diabetes, cholestasis and hypercholesterolemia. Owing to its apoptotic effect, without cytotoxic effects, silymarin possesses potential applications in the treatment of various cancers. Silymarin is being examined as a neuro-, nephro- and cardio-protective in the damage of different etiologies due to its strong antioxidant potentials. Furthermore, it has fetoprotective (against the influence of alcohol) and prolactin effects and is safe to be used during pregnancy and lactation. Finally, the cosmetics industry is examining the antioxidant and UV-protective effects of silymarin. Further clinical studies and scientific evidence that silymarin and silibinin are effective in the therapy of various pathologies are indispensable in order to confirm their different flavonolignan pharmacological effects. PMID:24555302

  8. Milk Thistle Constituents Inhibit Raloxifene Intestinal Glucuronidation: A Potential Clinically Relevant Natural Product-Drug Interaction.

    PubMed

    Gufford, Brandon T; Chen, Gang; Vergara, Ana G; Lazarus, Philip; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

    2015-09-01

    Women at high risk of developing breast cancer are prescribed selective estrogen response modulators, including raloxifene, as chemoprevention. Patients often seek complementary and alternative treatment modalities, including herbal products, to supplement prescribed medications. Milk thistle preparations, including silibinin and silymarin, are top-selling herbal products that may be consumed by women taking raloxifene, which undergoes extensive first-pass glucuronidation in the intestine. Key constituents in milk thistle, flavonolignans, were previously shown to be potent inhibitors of intestinal UDP-glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs), with IC50s ≤ 10 μM. Taken together, milk thistle preparations may perpetrate unwanted interactions with raloxifene. The objective of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of individual milk thistle constituents on the intestinal glucuronidation of raloxifene using human intestinal microsomes and human embryonic kidney cell lysates overexpressing UGT1A1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10, isoforms highly expressed in the intestine that are critical to raloxifene clearance. The flavonolignans silybin A and silybin B were potent inhibitors of both raloxifene 4'- and 6-glucuronidation in all enzyme systems. The Kis (human intestinal microsomes, 27-66 µM; UGT1A1, 3.2-8.3 µM; UGT1A8, 19-73 µM; and UGT1A10, 65-120 µM) encompassed reported intestinal tissue concentrations (20-310 µM), prompting prediction of clinical interaction risk using a mechanistic static model. Silibinin and silymarin were predicted to increase raloxifene systemic exposure by 4- to 5-fold, indicating high interaction risk that merits further evaluation. This systematic investigation of the potential interaction between a widely used herbal product and chemopreventive agent underscores the importance of understanding natural product-drug interactions in the context of cancer prevention. PMID:26070840

  9. Milk Thistle Constituents Inhibit Raloxifene Intestinal Glucuronidation: A Potential Clinically Relevant Natural Product–Drug Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Gufford, Brandon T.; Chen, Gang; Vergara, Ana G.; Lazarus, Philip; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    Women at high risk of developing breast cancer are prescribed selective estrogen response modulators, including raloxifene, as chemoprevention. Patients often seek complementary and alternative treatment modalities, including herbal products, to supplement prescribed medications. Milk thistle preparations, including silibinin and silymarin, are top-selling herbal products that may be consumed by women taking raloxifene, which undergoes extensive first-pass glucuronidation in the intestine. Key constituents in milk thistle, flavonolignans, were previously shown to be potent inhibitors of intestinal UDP-glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs), with IC50s ≤ 10 μM. Taken together, milk thistle preparations may perpetrate unwanted interactions with raloxifene. The objective of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of individual milk thistle constituents on the intestinal glucuronidation of raloxifene using human intestinal microsomes and human embryonic kidney cell lysates overexpressing UGT1A1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10, isoforms highly expressed in the intestine that are critical to raloxifene clearance. The flavonolignans silybin A and silybin B were potent inhibitors of both raloxifene 4′- and 6-glucuronidation in all enzyme systems. The Kis (human intestinal microsomes, 27–66 µM; UGT1A1, 3.2–8.3 µM; UGT1A8, 19–73 µM; and UGT1A10, 65–120 µM) encompassed reported intestinal tissue concentrations (20–310 µM), prompting prediction of clinical interaction risk using a mechanistic static model. Silibinin and silymarin were predicted to increase raloxifene systemic exposure by 4- to 5-fold, indicating high interaction risk that merits further evaluation. This systematic investigation of the potential interaction between a widely used herbal product and chemopreventive agent underscores the importance of understanding natural product–drug interactions in the context of cancer prevention. PMID:26070840

  10. Phylogenetic and chemical diversity of fungal endophytes isolated from Silybum marianum (L) Gaertn. (milk thistle)

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Huzefa A.; Kaur, Amninder; El-Elimat, Tamam; Figueroa, Mario; Kumar, Rahul; Deep, Gagan; Agarwal, Rajesh; Faeth, Stanley H.; Cech, Nadja B.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    Use of the herb milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is widespread, and its chemistry has been studied for over 50 years. However, milk thistle endophytes have not been studied previously for their fungal and chemical diversity. We examined the fungal endophytes inhabiting this medicinal herb to determine: (1) species composition and phylogenetic diversity of fungal endophytes; (2) chemical diversity of secondary metabolites produced by these organisms; and (3) cytotoxicity of the pure compounds against the human prostate carcinoma (PC-3) cell line. Forty-one fungal isolates were identified from milk thistle comprising 25 operational taxonomic units based on BLAST search via GenBank using published authentic sequences from nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence data. Maximum likelihood analyses of partial 28S rRNA gene showed that these endophytes had phylogenetic affinities to four major classes of Ascomycota, the Dothideomycetes, Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Leotiomycetes. Chemical studies of solid–substrate fermentation cultures led to the isolation of four new natural products. In addition, 58 known secondary metabolites, representing diverse biosynthetic classes, were isolated and characterized using a suite of nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry techniques. Selected pure compounds were tested against the PC-3 cell line, where six compounds displayed cytotoxicity. PMID:26000195

  11. Enzymatic milk clotting activity in artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaves and alpine thistle (Carduus defloratus) flowers. Immobilization of alpine thistle aspartic protease.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Marilena; Di Pierro, Prospero; Dejonghe, Winnie; Mariniello, Loredana; Porta, Raffaele

    2016-08-01

    Two different milk clotting enzymes, belonging to the aspartic protease family, were extracted from both artichoke leaves and alpine thistle flowers, and the latter was covalently immobilized by using a polyacrylic support containing polar epoxy groups. Our findings showed that the alpine thistle aspartic protease was successfully immobilized at pH 7.0 on Immobeads IB-150P beads and that, under these experimental conditions, an immobilization yield of about 68% and a recovery of about 54% were obtained. Since the enzyme showed an optimal pH of 5.0, a value very similar to the one generally used for milk clotting during cheese making, and exhibited a satisfactory stability over time, the use of such immobilized vegetable rennet for the production of novel dairy products is suggested. PMID:26988483

  12. Artichoke and milk thistle pills and syrups as sources of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; José Alves, Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-07-13

    Dietary supplements based on hepatoprotective plants have been increasingly used in the prevention of liver injuries. In the present work, the aim was to study the phenolic profile and possibly relate it to the in vitro antimicrobial activity of two different formulations (pills and syrups) of artichoke and milk thistle, the antioxidant and anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activities of which were previously reported by our research group. The phenolic profiles were obtained by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, and the antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed with the clinical isolates of multiresistant bacteria (Escherichia coli, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Artichoke syrup revealed the presence of vanillic acid and luteolin-7-O-glucoside while the pills possessed higher concentrations of 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 1,3-O-dicaffeoylquinic acids, this latest being able to inhibit the growth of MRSA. Regarding milk thistle formulations, the syrup presented isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-dihexoside, isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-hexoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside as the major phenolic constituents whereas the pills were richer in taxifolin, silymarin derivatives and hydroxylated silibinin; the syrup revealed antimicrobial activity against all the studied bacteria with the exception of Proteus mirabilis whereas the pills revealed activity against ESBL producing Escherichia coli. Overall, all of the studied formulations revealed to be a good source of phenolic compounds, among which milk thistle syrup presented the highest variety and concentration of flavonoids, which is possibly related to its strongest antimicrobial activity. PMID:27273551

  13. Chalcone synthase genes from milk thistle (Silybum marianum): isolation and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Sanjari, Sepideh; Shobbar, Zahra Sadat; Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Hasanloo, Tahereh; Sadat-Noori, Seyed-Ahmad; Tirnaz, Soodeh

    2015-12-01

    Silymarin is a flavonoid compound derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seeds which has several pharmacological applications. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of flavonoids; thereby, the identification of CHS encoding genes in milk thistle plant can be of great importance. In the current research, fragments of CHS genes were amplified using degenerate primers based on the conserved parts of Asteraceae CHS genes, and then cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the resultant nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences led to the identification of two different members of CHS gene family,SmCHS1 and SmCHS2. Third member, full-length cDNA (SmCHS3) was isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), whose open reading frame contained 1239 bp including exon 1 (190 bp) and exon 2 (1049 bp), encoding 63 and 349 amino acids, respectively. In silico analysis of SmCHS3 sequence contains all the conserved CHS sites and shares high homology with CHS proteins from other plants.Real-time PCR analysis indicated that SmCHS1 and SmCHS3 had the highest transcript level in petals in the early flowering stage and in the stem of five upper leaves, followed by five upper leaves in the mid-flowering stage which are most probably involved in anthocyanin and silymarin biosynthesis. PMID:26690515

  14. Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Chicory and Milk Thistle on Serum Concentrations of Copper, Zinc, and Manganese in Tamoxifen-Treated Rats.

    PubMed

    Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Ziamajidi, Nasrin; Nasiri, Abolfazl; Behrouj, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Some medications may change trace element levels in the body. Extracts of various plants, due to having the several elements, can have beneficial effects. Consumption of herbal extracts with chemical drugs may reduce adverse effects of medication. The goal of this study was to evaluate copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) concentrations in serum of rats treated with tamoxifen, chicory, and/or milk thistle extracts. Therefore, 36 adult female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: normal control, chicory control, milk thistle control, tamoxifen, tamoxifen-chicory, and tamoxifen-milk thistle. At the end of the study, the blood samples were collected and sera isolated by centrifugation and analyzed by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry for Cu, Zn, and Mn levels. The Zn concentration increased in milk thistle-supplemented groups. The Cu level increased in the chicory control group only. Tamoxifen had no affect on Cu, Zn, and Mn levels, but seed extract of milk thistle increased Zn concentration, and chicory root extract increased Cu concentration. Although elevated levels of Cu in rats receiving tamoxifen-chicory were milder than rats treated only with chicory, it seems that the extract and tamoxifen impact on the Cu are in conflict with each other. PMID:26875177

  15. Milk thistle: a future potential anti-osteoporotic and fracture healing agent.

    PubMed

    Mohd Fozi, Nur Farhana; Mazlan, Mazliadiyana; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Isa Naina, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a progressive disease of the skeleton characterised by bone fragility due to a reduction in bone mass and possibly to alteration in bone architecture that lead to a propensity to fracture with minimum trauma. Most osteoporotic fractures occur at locations rich in trabecular or cancellous bone and usually related to post menopausal women. Recently, silymarin received attention due to its alternative beneficial effect on bone formation. It is a mixture of flavonoids with powerful antioxidant properties. This review focuses on the use of milk thistle or silymarin for the treatment of osteoporosis that may be related to fracture bone. Silymarin shows potent antioxidant herb that may modulate multiple genes in favour of helping to build bone and prevent bone loss. In the mouse fracture healing model, silymarin supplementation improved tibial healing with elevated BMD and serum levels of ALP and osteocalcin. Silymarin also demonstrated clear estrogenic antiosteoporotic effects in bone structure. Silymarin appears to play a crucial role to prevent bone loss and might regulate osteogenesis and may be beneficial for fracture healing. If silymarin is considered for the use of post menopausal women, it may be used for the treatment of osteoporosis. It would be of great benefit to postmenopausal women to develop an oestrogen antagonist that is as potent and efficacious as oestrogen in preventing bone loss without the major side effect associated with HRT. PMID:24093748

  16. Antiosteoclastic activity of milk thistle extract after ovariectomy to suppress estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Lye; Kim, Yun-Ho; Kang, Min-Kyung; Gong, Ju-Hyun; Han, Seoung-Jun; Kang, Young-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Bone integrity abnormality and imbalance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts are known to result in metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Silymarin-rich milk thistle extract (MTE) and its component silibinin enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts but reduced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity of osteoclasts. The osteoprotective effects of MTE were comparable to those of estrogenic isoflavone. Low-dose combination of MTE and isoflavone had a pharmacological synergy that may be useful for osteogenic activity. This study attempted to reveal the suppressive effects of MTE on bone loss. C57BL/6 female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) as a model for postmenopausal osteopenia and orally administered 10 mg/kg MTE or silibinin for 8 weeks. The sham-operated mice served as estrogen controls. The treatment of ovariectomized mice with nontoxic MTE and silibinin improved femoral bone mineral density and serum receptor activator of nuclear factor- κB ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio, an index of osteoclastogenic stimulus. In addition, the administration of MTE or silibinin inhibited femoral bone loss induced by ovariectomy and suppressed femoral TRAP activity and cathepsin K induction responsible for osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Collectively, oral dosage of MTE containing silibinin in the preclinical setting is effective in preventing estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. PMID:23781510

  17. Evaluation of the effect of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin on topical administration of milk thistle extract.

    PubMed

    Spada, Gianpiera; Gavini, Elisabetta; Cossu, Massimo; Rassu, Giovanna; Carta, Antonio; Giunchedi, Paolo

    2013-01-30

    Two water in oil emulsions composed by eudermic ingredients as glycerin, cocoa butter, almond oil and a variety of lipids, were enriched respectively with milk thistle dry extract (MT) or with a binary complex composed by MT and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP) (1:4 w/w) correspondent to 1% (w/w) in sylimarine in order to obtain two different emulsions designed for the skin delivery and determine influence of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin on the extract delivery and permeation. Uv-vis spectrophotometric analyses demonstrated that phytocomplex formation influences the finding of MT after the complexation process and the in vitro antioxidant activity. Further in vitro and ex vivo experiments demonstrated that the penetration capability of MT from formulations is strictly influenced by the phytocomplex able to control MT permeation; moreover phytocomplex increases flavonoids stability during the in vitro tests. Additionally, in vivo studies showed that the penetration into the stratum corneum of the active ingredients is effectively achieved by the phytocomplex formation, in fact about 80% of MT is absorbed by the skin along 1h despite the 30% of MT not complexed absorbed during the same period. PMID:23218263

  18. Milk Thistle Extract and Silymarin Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide Induced Lamellar Separation of Hoof Explants in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Nicole; Schaumberger, Simone; Nagl, Veronika; Hessenberger, Sabine; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of laminitis is not completely identified and the role of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) in this process remains unclear. Phytogenic substances, like milk thistle (MT) and silymarin, are known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and might therefore have the potential to counteract endotoxin induced effects on the hoof lamellar tissue. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of endotoxins on lamellar tissue integrity and to test if MT and silymarin are capable of inhibiting LPS-induced effects in an in vitro/ex vivo model. In preliminary tests, LPS neutralization efficiency of these phytogenics was determined in an in vitro neutralization assay. Furthermore, tissue explants gained from hooves of slaughter horses were tested for lamellar separation after incubation with different concentrations of LPS. By combined incubation of explants with LPS and either Polymyxin B (PMB; positive control), MT or silymarin, the influence of these substances on LPS-induced effects was assessed. In the in vitro neutralization assay, MT and silymarin reduced LPS concentrations by 64% and 75%, respectively, in comparison PMB reduced 98% of the LPS concentration. In hoof explants, LPS led to a concentration dependent separation. Accordantly, separation force was significantly decreased by 10 µg/mL LPS. PMB, MT and silymarin could significantly improve tissue integrity of explants incubated with 10 µg/mL LPS. This study showed that LPS had a negative influence on the structure of hoof explants in vitro. MT and silymarin reduced endotoxin activity and inhibited LPS-induced effects on the lamellar tissue. Hence, MT and silymarin might be used to support the prevention of laminitis and should be further evaluated for this application. PMID:25290524

  19. Milk thistle extract and silymarin inhibit lipopolysaccharide induced lamellar separation of hoof explants in vitro.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Nicole; Schaumberger, Simone; Nagl, Veronika; Hessenberger, Sabine; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2014-10-01

    The pathogenesis of laminitis is not completely identified and the role of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) in this process remains unclear. Phytogenic substances, like milk thistle (MT) and silymarin, are known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and might therefore have the potential to counteract endotoxin induced effects on the hoof lamellar tissue. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of endotoxins on lamellar tissue integrity and to test if MT and silymarin are capable of inhibiting LPS-induced effects in an in vitro/ex vivo model. In preliminary tests, LPS neutralization efficiency of these phytogenics was determined in an in vitro neutralization assay. Furthermore, tissue explants gained from hooves of slaughter horses were tested for lamellar separation after incubation with different concentrations of LPS. By combined incubation of explants with LPS and either Polymyxin B (PMB; positive control), MT or silymarin, the influence of these substances on LPS-induced effects was assessed. In the in vitro neutralization assay, MT and silymarin reduced LPS concentrations by 64% and 75%, respectively, in comparison PMB reduced 98% of the LPS concentration. In hoof explants, LPS led to a concentration dependent separation. Accordantly, separation force was significantly decreased by 10 µg/mL LPS. PMB, MT and silymarin could significantly improve tissue integrity of explants incubated with 10 µg/mL LPS. This study showed that LPS had a negative influence on the structure of hoof explants in vitro. MT and silymarin reduced endotoxin activity and inhibited LPS-induced effects on the lamellar tissue. Hence, MT and silymarin might be used to support the prevention of laminitis and should be further evaluated for this application. PMID:25290524

  20. A validated UHPLC-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitative analysis of flavonolignans in milk thistle (Silybum marianum) extracts.

    PubMed

    Graf, Tyler N; Cech, Nadja B; Polyak, Stephen J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2016-07-15

    Validated methods are needed for the analysis of natural product secondary metabolites. These methods are particularly important to translate in vitro observations to in vivo studies. Herein, a method is reported for the analysis of the key secondary metabolites, a series of flavonolignans and a flavonoid, from an extract prepared from the seeds of milk thistle [Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (Asteraceae)]. This report represents the first UHPLC MS-MS method validated for quantitative analysis of these compounds. The method takes advantage of the excellent resolution achievable with UHPLC to provide a complete analysis in less than 7min. The method is validated using both UV and MS detectors, making it applicable in laboratories with different types of analytical instrumentation available. Lower limits of quantitation achieved with this method range from 0.0400μM to 0.160μM with UV and from 0.0800μM to 0.160μM with MS. The new method is employed to evaluate variability in constituent composition in various commercial S. marianum extracts, and to show that storage of the milk thistle compounds in DMSO leads to degradation. PMID:27136284

  1. Effects of milk thistle seed against aflatoxin B1 in broiler model

    PubMed Central

    Amiridumari, Halimeh; Sarir, Hadi; Afzali, Nazar; FaniMakki, Omid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Consumption of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminated products can pose a risk of development of various diseases in human and animals due to radical production. The scope of this work is to evaluate the efficacy of milk thistle seed (MTS), as a radical scavenger, on serum biochemistry, lipid profile and liver enzymes against AFB1 in broiler chickens contaminated with AFB1. Materials and Methods: The effect of nine experimental treatments (3 × 3 factorial design) was assessed using 216 one-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete design with four replicates of six birds for each dietary treatments: Control (T1), 250 ppb AFB1 (T2), 500 ppb AFB1 (T3), 0.5% MTS (T4), 0.5% MTS Plus 250 ppb AFB1 (T5), 0.5% MTS Plus 500 ppb AFB1 (T6), 1.0% MTS (T7), 1.0% MTS Plus 250 ppb AFB1 (T8), and 1.0% MTS Plus 500 ppb AFB1 (T9). The individual and combined effects of dietary AFB1 and MTS on serum biochemistry factors (Glucose, Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Creatinine, and Uric acid), lipid profile (Triglyceride, Cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein (LDL), and High density lipoprotein (HDL)) and liver enzymes aspartate amino-transferase and alanine amino-transaminase (ALT) in broilers were evaluated at 21 days of age. Also, statistical packages Macros-1.002 (2010) were used to perform the above analysis on computer. Results: Consumption of 500 ppb AFB1 in to the diet significantly decreased HDL (58.13 ± 2.65), Calcium (7.11 ± 0.13), and Glucose (197.1 ± 7.42) compared to the control group (85.12 ± 1.95, 9.45 ± 0.17 and 223.1 ± 6.61, respectively), (P < 0.05). In contrast, it significantly increased creatinine (2.25 ± 0.011) and AST (244.51 ± 4.91). Using MTS together with AFB1 significantly reduced the effect of AFB1 on the above parameters. Conclusion: MTS can provide protection against the negative effects of AFB1 on broiler chicks. PMID:24381623

  2. Inhibition by blueberries (bilberries) and extract from milk thistle of rat forestomach hyperplasia induced by oral smokeless tobacco (Swedish snus).

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Robert; Mićić, Mileva; Filipović, Jelena; Šobot, Ana Valenta; Drakulić, Dunja; Stanojlović, Miloš; Joksiċ, Gordana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify palatable additives which have a significant protective action against soft tissue changes in the oral cavity caused by Swedish smokeless tobacco ("snus"), and that satisfy existing legal requirements. Although the cancer risk from snus is extremely low, long term use may result in highly undesirable keratotic lesions and associated epithelial abnormalities in the oral cavity. The rat forestomach, which is vulnerable to the irritative action of non-genotoxic compounds like butylated hydroxyanisole, propionic acid as well as snus, was chosen as an experimental model. Studied toxicological endpoints included histopathology and cellular proliferation based on DNA incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine. After 6 weeks' exposure, blueberries (bilberries) and an extract from the common milk thistle were found to exert a highly significant inhibition of cell proliferation induced by snus in the rat forestomach epithelium, indicating a potential protection with respect soft tissue changes in the human oral cavity. PMID:26828024

  3. Two Flavonolignans from Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) Inhibit CYP2C9-Mediated Warfarin Metabolism at Clinically Achievable Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Scott J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Kroll, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is a popular herbal product used for hepatoprotection and chemoprevention. Two commercially available formulations are the crude extract, silymarin, and the semipurified product, silibinin. Silymarin consists of at least seven flavonolignans, of which the most prevalent are the diastereoisomers silybin A and silybin B; silibinin consists only of silybin A and silybin B. Based on a recent clinical study showing an interaction between a silymarin product and the CYP2C9 substrate losartan, the CYP2C9 inhibition properties of silybin A and silybin B and corresponding regioisomers, isosilybin A and isosilybin B, were evaluated using human liver microsomes (HLMs), recombinant CYP2C9 (rCYP2C9) enzymes, and the clinically relevant probe, (S)-warfarin. Silybin B was the most potent inhibitor in HLMs, followed by silybin A, isosilybin B, and isosilybin A (IC50 of 8.2, 18, 74, and >100 μM, respectively). Next, silybin A and silybin B were selected for further characterization. As with HLMs, silybin B was more potent than silybin A toward rCYP2C9*1 (6.7 versus 12 μM), rCYP2C9*2 (9.3 versus 19 μM), and rCYP2C9*3 (2.4 versus 9.3 μM). Using a matrix of five substrate (1–15 μM) and six inhibitor (1–80 μM) concentrations and HLMs, both diastereoisomers inhibited (S)-warfarin 7-hydroxylation in a manner described best by a mixed-type inhibition model (Ki values of 4.8 and 10 μM for silybin B and silybin A, respectively). These observations, combined with the high systemic silibinin concentrations (>5–75 μM) achieved in a phase I study involving prostate cancer patients, prompt clinical evaluation of a potential warfarin-milk thistle interaction. PMID:19934397

  4. Two flavonolignans from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) inhibit CYP2C9-mediated warfarin metabolism at clinically achievable concentrations.

    PubMed

    Brantley, Scott J; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Kroll, David J; Paine, Mary F

    2010-03-01

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is a popular herbal product used for hepatoprotection and chemoprevention. Two commercially available formulations are the crude extract, silymarin, and the semipurified product, silibinin. Silymarin consists of at least seven flavonolignans, of which the most prevalent are the diastereoisomers silybin A and silybin B; silibinin consists only of silybin A and silybin B. Based on a recent clinical study showing an interaction between a silymarin product and the CYP2C9 substrate losartan, the CYP2C9 inhibition properties of silybin A and silybin B and corresponding regioisomers, isosilybin A and isosilybin B, were evaluated using human liver microsomes (HLMs), recombinant CYP2C9 (rCYP2C9) enzymes, and the clinically relevant probe, (S)-warfarin. Silybin B was the most potent inhibitor in HLMs, followed by silybin A, isosilybin B, and isosilybin A (IC(50) of 8.2, 18, 74, and >100 microM, respectively). Next, silybin A and silybin B were selected for further characterization. As with HLMs, silybin B was more potent than silybin A toward rCYP2C9 1 (6.7 versus 12 microM), rCYP2C9 2 (9.3 versus 19 microM), and rCYP2C9 3 (2.4 versus 9.3 microM). Using a matrix of five substrate (1-15 microM) and six inhibitor (1-80 microM) concentrations and HLMs, both diastereoisomers inhibited (S)-warfarin 7-hydroxylation in a manner described best by a mixed-type inhibition model (K(i) values of 4.8 and 10 microM for silybin B and silybin A, respectively). These observations, combined with the high systemic silibinin concentrations (>5-75 microM) achieved in a phase I study involving prostate cancer patients, prompt clinical evaluation of a potential warfarin-milk thistle interaction. PMID:19934397

  5. Variability in the antioxidant activity of dietary supplements from pomegranate, milk thistle, green tea, grape seed, goji, and acai: effects of in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Huang, Jianjun; Lee, Ru-Po; Trang, Amy; Nuernberger, Gloria; Heber, David

    2014-05-14

    The antioxidant activity (AA) of fruits and vegetables has been thoroughly investigated but less is known about the AA of dietary supplements (DS). We therefore assessed the AA of three to five DS each from pomegranate, milk thistle, green tea, grapes, goji, and acai using four widely used standard methods. The secondary objective was to determine the effects of in vitro digestion on their AA. The AA of the DS prior to digestion ranked as follows: pomegranate > resveratrol > green tea > grape seed > milk thistle and very low in goji and acai with significant group variability in AA. The AA after in vitro simulated digestion of the mouth, stomach, and small intestine compared to undigested supplement was decreased for green tea and grape seed but increased for pomegranate, resveratrol, milk thistle, goji, and acai to various extents. Although polyphenols provide the major antioxidant potency of the tested supplements, our observations indicate that digestion may alter antioxidant properties depending in part on the variations in polyphenol content. PMID:24745654

  6. Identification of isosilybin a from milk thistle seeds as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Atanasov, Atanas G; Malainer, Clemens; Noha, Stefan M; Kunert, Olaf; Schuster, Daniela; Heiss, Elke H; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Wagner, Hildebert; Bauer, Rudolf; Dirsch, Verena M

    2014-04-25

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a key regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism. Agonists of this nuclear receptor are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and are also studied as a potential treatment of other metabolic diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Silymarin, a concentrated phenolic mixture from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seeds, is used widely as a supportive agent in the treatment of a variety of liver diseases. In this study, the PPARγ activation potential of silymarin and its main constituents was investigated. Isosilybin A (3) caused transactivation of a PPARγ-dependent luciferase reporter in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect could be reversed upon co-treatment with the PPARγ antagonist T0070907. In silico docking studies suggested a binding mode for 3 distinct from that of the inactive silymarin constituents, with one additional hydrogen bond to Ser342 in the entrance region of the ligand-binding domain of the receptor. Hence, isosilybin A (3) has been identified as the first flavonolignan PPARγ agonist, suggesting its further investigation as a modulator of this nuclear receptor. PMID:24597776

  7. Inhibition of human carcinoma cell growth and DNA synthesis by silibinin, an active constituent of milk thistle: comparison with silymarin.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, N; Zhao, J; Wolf, D M; Agarwal, R

    1999-12-01

    Several studies from our laboratory have shown the cancer chemopreventive and anti-carcinogenic effects of silymarin, a flavonoid antioxidant isolated from milk thistle, in long-term tumorigenesis models and in human prostate, breast and cervical carcinoma cells. Since silymarin is composed mainly of silibinin with small amounts of other stereoisomers of silibinin, in the present communication, studies were performed to assess whether the cancer preventive and anti-carcinogenic effects of silymarin are due to its major component silibinin. Treatment of different prostate, breast, and cervical human carcinoma cells with silibinin resulted in a highly significant inhibition of both cell growth and DNA synthesis in a time-dependent manner with large loss of cell viability only in case of cervical carcinoma cells. When compared with silymarin, these effects of silibinin were consistent and comparable in terms of cell growth and DNA synthesis inhibition, and loss of cell viability. Based on the comparable results of silibinin and silymarin, we suggest that the cancer chemopreventive and anti-carcinogenic effects of silymarin reported earlier are due to the main constituent silibinin. PMID:10660092

  8. Blessed thistle

    MedlinePlus

    ... your health provider.Medications that decrease stomach acid (Proton pump inhibitors)Blessed thistle might increase stomach acid. ... that are used to decrease stomach acid, called proton pump inhibitors. Some medications that decrease stomach acid ...

  9. Supercritical CO₂ extraction of oil, fatty acids and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds: Evaluation of their antioxidant and cytotoxic activities in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ben Rahal, Naila; Barba, Francisco J; Barth, Danielle; Chevalot, Isabelle

    2015-09-01

    The optimal conditions of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) (160-220 bars, 40-80 °C) technology combined with co-solvent (ethanol), to recover oil, flavonolignans (silychristin, silydianin and silybinin) and fatty acids from milk thistle seeds, to be used as food additives and/or nutraceuticals, were studied. Moreover, the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the SC-CO2 oil seeds extracts were evaluated in Caco-2 carcinoma cells. Pressure and temperature had a significant effect on oil and flavonolignans recovery, although there was not observed a clear trend. SC-CO2 with co-solvent extraction at 220 bars, 40 °C was the optimum treatment to recover oil (30.8%) and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds. Moreover, linoleic (47.64-66.70%), and oleic (19.68-24.83%) acids were the predominant fatty acids in the oil extracts recovered from milk thistle under SC-CO2. In addition, SC-CO2 extract showed a high antioxidant activity determined by DPPH and ABTS tests. Cytotoxic activities of silychristin, silydianin and silybinin and the obtained SC-CO2 extract (220 bars, 40 °C) were evaluated against Caco-2 cells. The SC-CO2 extract inhibited the proliferation of Caco-2 cells in a dose-responsive manner and induced the highest percentage of mortality of Caco-2 cells (from 43 to 71% for concentrations from 10 up to 100 μg/ml of SC-CO2 oil seeds). PMID:26172510

  10. Optimization and single-laboratory validation of a method for the determination of flavonolignans in milk thistle seeds by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Elizabeth; Paley, Lori; Schieber, Andreas; Brown, Paula N

    2015-10-01

    Seeds of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., are used for treatment and prevention of liver disorders and were identified as a high priority ingredient requiring a validated analytical method. An AOAC International expert panel reviewed existing methods and made recommendations concerning method optimization prior to validation. A series of extraction and separation studies were undertaken on the selected method for determining flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds and finished products to address the review panel recommendations. Once optimized, a single-laboratory validation study was conducted. The method was assessed for repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, LOD, LOQ, analyte stability, and linearity. Flavonolignan content ranged from 1.40 to 52.86% in raw materials and dry finished products and ranged from 36.16 to 1570.7 μg/mL in liquid tinctures. Repeatability for the individual flavonolignans in raw materials and finished products ranged from 1.03 to 9.88% RSDr, with HorRat values between 0.21 and 1.55. Calibration curves for all flavonolignan concentrations had correlation coefficients of >99.8%. The LODs for the flavonolignans ranged from 0.20 to 0.48 μg/mL at 288 nm. Based on the results of this single-laboratory validation, this method is suitable for the quantitation of the six major flavonolignans in milk thistle raw materials and finished products, as well as multicomponent products containing dandelion, schizandra berry, and artichoke extracts. It is recommended that this method be adopted as First Action Official Method status by AOAC International. PMID:26229030

  11. Silychristin, a Flavonolignan Derived From the Milk Thistle, Is a Potent Inhibitor of the Thyroid Hormone Transporter MCT8.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Jörg; Jayarama-Naidu, Roopa; Meyer, Franziska; Wirth, Eva Katrin; Schweizer, Ulrich; Schomburg, Lutz; Köhrle, Josef; Renko, Kostja

    2016-04-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are charged and iodinated amino acid derivatives that need to pass the cell membrane facilitated by thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters (THTT) to exert their biological function. The importance of functional THTT is affirmed by the devastating effects of mutations in the human monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 8, leading to a severe form of psychomotor retardation. Modulation of THTT function by pharmacological or environmental compounds might disturb TH action on a tissue-specific level. Therefore, it is important to identify compounds with relevant environmental exposure and THTT-modulating activity. Based on a nonradioactive TH uptake assay, we performed a screening of 13 chemicals, suspicious for TH receptor interaction, to test their potential effects on THTT in MCT8-overexpressing MDCK1-cells. We identified silymarin, an extract of the milk thistle, to be a potent inhibitor of T3 uptake by MCT8. Because silymarin is a complex mixture of flavonolignan substances, we further tested its individual components and identified silychristin as the most effective one with an IC50 of approximately 100 nM. The measured IC50 value is at least 1 order of magnitude below those of other known THTT inhibitors. This finding was confirmed by T3 uptake in primary murine astrocytes expressing endogenous Mct8 but not in MCT10-overexpressing MDCK1-cells, indicating a remarkable specificity of the inhibitor toward MCT8. Because silymarin is a frequently used adjuvant therapeutic for hepatitis C infection and chronic liver disease, our observations raise questions regarding its safety with respect to unwanted effects on the TH axis. PMID:26910310

  12. A Systematic Approach to Evaluate Herb-Drug Interaction Mechanisms: Investigation of Milk Thistle Extracts and Eight Isolated Constituents as CYP3A Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Scott J.; Graf, Tyler N.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing recognition of potential untoward interactions between herbal products and conventional medications, a standard system for prospective assessment of these interactions remains elusive. This information gap was addressed by evaluating the drug interaction liability of the model herbal product milk thistle (Silybum marianum) with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam. The inhibitory effects of commercially available milk thistle extracts and isolated constituents on midazolam 1′-hydroxylation were screened using human liver and intestinal microsomes. Relative to vehicle, the extract silymarin and constituents silybin A, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, and silychristin at 100 μM demonstrated >50% inhibition of CYP3A activity with at least one microsomal preparation, prompting IC50 determination. The IC50s for isosilybin B and silychristin were ∼60 and 90 μM, respectively, whereas those for the remaining constituents were >100 μM. Extracts and constituents that contained the 1,4-dioxane moiety demonstrated a >1.5-fold shift in IC50 when tested as potential mechanism-based inhibitors. The semipurified extract, silibinin, and the two associated constituents (silybin A and silybin B) demonstrated mechanism-based inhibition of recombinant CYP3A4 (KI, ∼100 μM; kinact, ∼0.20 min−1) but not microsomal CYP3A activity. The maximum predicted increases in midazolam area under the curve using the static mechanistic equation and recombinant CYP3A4 data were 1.75-fold, which may necessitate clinical assessment. Evaluation of the interaction liability of single herbal product constituents, in addition to commercially available extracts, will enable elucidation of mechanisms underlying potential clinically significant herb-drug interactions. Application of this framework to other herbal products would permit predictions of herb-drug interactions and assist in prioritizing clinical evaluation. PMID:23801821

  13. Milk Thistle (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Congress Legislative History Committees of Interest Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws Contact Overview History of NCI Contributing ... Congress Legislative History Committees of Interest Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws Careers Visitor Information Search Search Home ...

  14. Consumption of silibinin, a flavonolignan from milk thistle, and mammary cancer development in the C3(1) SV40 T,t antigen transgenic multiple mammary adenocarcinoma (TAg) mouse.

    PubMed

    Verschoyle, Richard D; Brown, Karen; Steward, William P; Gescher, Andreas J

    2008-07-01

    Silibinin is a flavonolignan extracted from milk thistle with cancer chemopreventive activity in preclinical models of prostate and colorectal cancer. A milk thistle extract, of which silibin is a major component, has recently been shown to exacerbate mammary carcinogenesis in two rodent models. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of silibinin or silipide, a silibinin formulation with pharmaceutical properties superior to the unformulated agent, affect breast cancer development in the C3(1) SV40 T,t antigen transgenic multiple mammary adenocarcinoma mouse model. Mice received silibinin or silipide (0.2% silibinin equivalents) with their diet from weaning, and tumour development was monitored by weekly palpation and the number and weight of neoplasms at the end of the experiment. Intervention neither promoted, nor interfered with, tumour development. The result suggests that promotion of carcinogenesis is not a feature of silibinin consistent across rodent models of mammary carcinogenesis. PMID:17909802

  15. Effect of Milk Thistle, Silybium marianum, Extract on Toxicity, Development, Nutrition, and Enzyme Activities of the Small White Butterfly, Pieris rapae

    PubMed Central

    Hasheminia, Seyedeh M.; Sendi, Jalal J.; Jahromi, Khalil T.; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    The methanolic extract of milk thistle, Silybium marianum L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), was investigated for its effects on the mortality, growth, feeding indices, enzymatic activity, and levels of non-enzymatic molecules of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), a pest of cruciferous plants. Feeding indices including approximate digestibility (AD), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), relative growth rate (RGR), and relative consumption rate (RCR) were measured. These indices were variously affected: the RGR, RCR, and AD decreased, but the ECD and ECI increased. The LC50 and LC25 values were estimated as 2.94% and 1.20%, respectively. At the lowest concentration of S. marianum extract (0.625%), the feeding deterrence index was 40.48%. The duration of the pupal stage and the rate of larval growth decreased. These changes may be due to alterations in metabolic activity, such as the increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, which is likely involved in detoxification. Additionally, the activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, which are key components of amino acid catabolism, decreased. The amount of glucose (an energy source) and uric acid (the excreted end product) increased, while total protein (another energy source) and cholesterol decreased. These results indicate that this plant possesses potential secondary metabolites that may be useful for the future study of the control of insect pests. PMID:24783941

  16. Clinical assessment of CYP2D6-mediated herb-drug interactions in humans: effects of milk thistle, black cohosh, goldenseal, kava kava, St. John's wort, and Echinacea.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Bill J; Swain, Ashley; Hubbard, Martha A; Williams, D Keith; Barone, Gary; Hartsfield, Faith; Tong, Yudong; Carrier, Danielle J; Cheboyina, Shreekar; Battu, Sunil K

    2008-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), an important CYP isoform with regard to drug-drug interactions, accounts for the metabolism of approximately 30% of all medications. To date, few studies have assessed the effects of botanical supplementation on human CYP2D6 activity in vivo. Six botanical extracts were evaluated in three separate studies (two extracts per study), each incorporating 16 healthy volunteers (eight females). Subjects were randomized to receive a standardized botanical extract for 14 days on separate occasions. A 30-day washout period was interposed between each supplementation phase. In study 1, subjects received milk thistle (Silybum marianum) and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa). In study 2, kava kava (Piper methysticum) and goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) extracts were administered, and in study 3 subjects received St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) and Echinacea (Echinacea purpurea). The CYP2D6 substrate, debrisoquine (5 mg), was administered before and at the end of supplementation. Pre- and post-supplementation phenotypic trait measurements were determined for CYP2D6 using 8-h debrisoquine urinary recovery ratios (DURR). Comparisons of pre- and post-supplementation DURR revealed significant inhibition (approximately 50%) of CYP2D6 activity for goldenseal, but not for the other extracts. Accordingly, adverse herb-drug interactions may result with concomitant ingestion of goldenseal supplements and drugs that are CYP2D6 substrates. PMID:18214849

  17. Modulation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in Caco-2 cell monolayers by selected commercial-source milk thistle and goldenseal products.

    PubMed

    Budzinski, Jason W; Trudeau, Vance L; Drouin, Cathy E; Panahi, Mitra; Arnason, J Thor; Foster, Brian C

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we used an in vitro Caco-2 cell monolayer model to evaluate aqueous extracts of commercial-source goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and milk thistle (Silybum marianum) capsule formulations, their marker phytochemicals (berberine and silibinin, respectively), as well as dillapiol, vinblastine, and the HIV protease inhibitor saquinavir for their ability to modulate CYP3A4 and ABCB1 expression after short-term exposure (48 h). Both upregulation and downregulation of CYP3A4 expression was observed with extracts of varying concentrations of the two natural health products (NHPs). CYP3A4 was highly responsive in our system, showing a strong dose-dependent modulation by the CYP3A4 inhibitor dillapiol (upregulation) and the milk thistle flavonolignan silibinin (downregulation). ABCB1 was largely unresponsive in this cellular model and appears to be of little value as a biomarker under our experimental conditions. Therefore, the modulation of CYP3A4 gene expression can serve as an important marker for the in vitro assessment of NHP-drug interactions. PMID:18066144

  18. Canada thistle phenology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural and experimental populations of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) were monitored at separate sites in western Minnesota for two and four years, respectively. Both populations responded similarly to environmental cues, except during the establishment year for the experimental population. Other...

  19. High-performance thin-layer chromatography linked with (bio)assays and mass spectrometry - a suited method for discovery and quantification of bioactive components? Exemplarily shown for turmeric and milk thistle extracts.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mahmoud N; Krawinkel, Michael B; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2015-05-15

    Extraction parameters, chemical fingerprint, and the single compounds' activity levels were considered for the selection of active botanicals. For an initial survey, the total bioactivity (i.e., total reducing capacity, total flavonoids contents and free radical scavenging capacity) of 21 aqueous and 21 ethanolic plant extracts was investigated. Ethanolic extracts showed a higher yield and were further analyzed by HPTLC in detail to obtain fingerprints of single flavonoids and further bioactive components. Exemplarily shown for turmeric (Curcuma longa) and milk thistle (Silybum marianum), effect-directed analysis (EDA) was performed using three selected (bio)assays, the Aliivibrio fischeri bioassay, the Bacillus subtilis bioassay and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) assay. As a proof of principle, the bioactive components found in the extracts were confirmed by HPTLC-MS. Bioassays in combination with planar chromatography directly linked to the known, single effective compounds like curcumin and silibinin. However, also some unknown bioactive components were discovered and exemplarily characterized, which demonstrated the strength of this kind of EDA. HPTLC-UV/Vis/FLD-EDA-MS could become a useful tool for selection of active botanicals and for the activity profiling of the active ingredients therein. The flexibility in effect-directed detections allows a comprehensive survey of effective ingredients in samples. This streamlined methodology comprised a non-targeted, effect-directed screening first, followed by a highly targeted characterization of the discovered bioactive compounds. HPTLC-EDA-MS can also be recommended for bioactivity profiling of food on the food intake side, as not only effective phytochemicals, but also unknown bioactive degradation products during food processing or contamination products or residues or metabolites can be detected. Thus, an efficient survey on potential food intake effects on wellness could be obtained. Having performed

  20. Legalon® SIL: The Antidote of Choice in Patients with Acute Hepatotoxicity from Amatoxin Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Mengs, Ulrich; Pohl, Ralf -Torsten; Mitchell, Todd

    2012-01-01

    More than 90% of all fatal mushroom poisonings worldwide are due to amatoxin containing species that grow abundantly in Europe, South Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. Many cases have also been reported in North America. Initial symptoms of abdominal cramps, vomiting, and a severe cholera-like diarrhea generally do not manifest until at least six to eight hours following ingestion and can be followed by renal and hepatic failure. Outcomes range from complete recovery to fulminant organ failure and death which can sometimes be averted by liver transplant. There are no controlled clinical studies available due to ethical reasons, but uncontrolled trials and case reports describe successful treatment with intravenous silibinin (Legalon® SIL). In nearly 1,500 documented cases, the overall mortality in patients treated with Legalon® SIL is less than 10% in comparison to more than 20% when using penicillin or a combination of silibinin and penicillin. Silibinin, a proven antioxidative and anti-inflammatory acting flavonolignan isolated from milk thistle extracts, has been shown to interact with specific hepatic transport proteins blocking cellular amatoxin re-uptake and thus interrupting enterohepatic circulation of the toxin. The addition of intravenous silibinin to aggressive intravenous fluid management serves to arrest and allow reversal of the manifestation of fulminant hepatic failure, even in severely poisoned patients. These findings together with the available clinical experience justify the use of silibinin as Legalon® SIL in Amanita poisoning cases. PMID:22352731

  1. Plant community associations of two invasive thistles

    PubMed Central

    Rauschert, Emily S.J.; Shea, Katriona; Goslee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    In order to combat the growing problems associated with biological invasions, many researchers have focused on identifying which communities are most vulnerable to invasion by exotic species. However, once established, invasive species can significantly change the composition of the communities that they invade. The first step to disentangling the direction of causality is to discern whether a relationship with other vegetation exists at all. Carduus nutans and C. acanthoides are similar invasive thistles, which have caused substantial economic damage worldwide. We assessed the associations between the thistles and the standing flora in four sites in central Pennsylvania in which they co-occur. After sampling nearly 2000 plots of 1 m2, we used partial Mantel tests to assess the differences in vegetation between thistle and non-thistle plots after accounting for location, and non-metric multidimensional scaling to visualize differences among plots and sites. We found significant differences in community composition in plots with and without Carduus thistles. The non-native species Sisymbrium officinale and Coronilla varia were consistently associated with the presence of Carduus thistles. Several species were associated with areas that were free of Carduus thistles, including an important non-native pasture species (Trifolium repens). We found no evidence for differences in composition between plots with C. nutans versus C. acanthoides, suggesting that they have similar associations with the vegetation community. We conclude that even at the within-field scale, areas invaded by Carduus thistles have different vegetation associations than uninvaded areas, allowing us to target future research about the role of vegetation structure in resisting and responding to invasion. PMID:26038126

  2. Biological Control of Russian thistle (tumbleweed)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We submitted a petition to the APHIS Technical Advisory Group (TAG) in December 2004 requesting permission to release the blister mite (Aceria salsolae) to control Russian thistle (Salsola tragus) and its close relatives. Host specificity experiments conducted in the USDA quarantine laboratory in ...

  3. Russian Thistle (Salsola spp.) Biology and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the major broadleaf weed species infesting the arid and semi-arid regions of the world is Russian thistle (Salsola spp.). It is found in more than 40 countries in the world, infests an estimated 41 million ha in the western United States, and 1.8 million ha of land in the winter wheat-summer ...

  4. Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) suppession by sudangrass interference and defoliation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canada thistle is difficult to manage in farming systems with reduced reliance on herbicides, including organic and low-external input systems. Previous field studies found that defoliation or sudangrass interference suppressed Canada thistle. Our objective was to understand the factors causing supp...

  5. Canada Thistle Phenology: Emergence, Growth, Anthesis, and Death of Shoots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural and experimental populations of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) were monitored at separate sites in western Minnesota, USA, for two and four years, respectively. Both populations responded similarly to environmental cues, except during the "establishment" year for the experimental populatio...

  6. Prospects for Biological Control of Russian thistle (tumbleweed)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    I submitted a petition to the APHIS Technical Advisory Group (TAG) requesting permission to release the blister mite (Aceria salsolae) to control Russian thistle (Salsola tragus) and its close relatives in December 2004. TAG recommended approval for release in Aug. 2005. APHIS-PPQ has not yet issu...

  7. Invasion history of North American Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense – Cardueae, Asteraceae) is one of the worst invasive plants worldwide. Native to Eurasia, its unintentional introduction into North America now threatens the native flora and imposes enormous agricultural losses. The goals of this study are to: (i) conduct bioclim...

  8. Invasion history of North American Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canada thistle (CIRSIUM ARVENSE – Cardueae, Asteraceae) is one of the worst invasive plants worldwide. Native to Eurasia, its unintentional introduction into North America now threatens the native flora and imposes enormous agricultural losses. The goals of this study were to: (i) conduct bioclimati...

  9. Prospects for biological control of Russian thistle (tumbleweed)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We submitted a petition to the APHIS Technical Advisory Group (TAG) requesting permission to release the blister mite (Aceria salsolae) to control Russian thistle (Salsola tragus) and its close relatives was submitted to TAG in December 2004. Host specificity experiments conducted in the quarantin...

  10. Host range determination of Uromyces salsolae from Russian thistle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salsola tragus (Russian thistle) is a major weed pest in the western United States. An isolate of Uromyces salsolae from Greece currently is a candidate for biological control of S. tragus. Risk assessment to determine potential non-target susceptibility involved inoculation of 53 species with 0.5...

  11. First report of fasciation in Pitcher's Thistle, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Korte, Megan K; McEachern, Kathryn; Grundel, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We document the first reported occurrence of fasciation in the federally threatened Pitcher’s thistle, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae). In 2013, we discovered two adult plants of Pitcher’s thistle out of a total of 176 plants at West Beach, near Miller, Indiana, USA, that exhibited both normal and fasciated growth. Unlike plants with normal growth, a portion of the upper stems of these plants was flattened, and some flower heads were elongated into a fan-like shape. Each plant had one large fasciated terminal seed head and several less severely fasciated ancillary heads. The fasciated terminal head on one of the plants found produced an estimated 1153 seeds, whereas normal terminal heads typically produced 80 ± 9 viable seeds. The cause of this fasciation is unclear, but may be due to infection with phytoplasma

  12. Evaluation of Puccinia carduorum for biological control of Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rust fungus Puccinia carduorum is a candidate for biological control of Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus). In Tunisia, rusted Italian thistle has been found in many fields during surveys conducted in the north region of the country. The pathogenicity of Puccinia carduorum was evaluated und...

  13. Canada thistle biological control agents on two South Dakota wildlife refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, C.C.; Larson, D.L.; Larson, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We monitored populations of Canada thistle biocontrol agents Cassida rubiginosa, Ceutorhynchus litura, Larinus (= Hadroplantus) planus, Urophora cardui, Orellia (= Terellia) ruficauda, and Rhinocyllus conicus on Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) at two national wildlife refuges in South Dakota from 1999 through 2003. C. litura, U. cardui, O. ruficauda, and R. conicus were present on both refuges. Agent populations were low except for C. litura, which was present in up to 90% of stems in some plots. C. litura infestation did not reduce thistle flowering, stem length, or over-winter survival. There was no change in thistle stem numbers over the study period and no difference in stem numbers in areas of high C. litura populations compared to areas of low C. litura populations. Our results suggest that insect biological control agents are inadequate for reduction of Canada thistle in southern South Dakota.

  14. Effects of eradication and restoration treatments on Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGinnis, Thomas; Keeley, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Low elevation grasslands in California long have been dominated by Mediterranean grasses, but many areas still have large native forb populations. Alien forbs invade these grasslands, displacing both native and other alien species. Italian thistle is a noxious alien herb that has recently invaded these grasslands, including ungrazed blue oak (Quercus douglassii) and interior live oak (Quercus wislizenii) stands in Sequoia National Park. Here, Italian thistle tends to dominate under oaks and has the potential to substantially alter the foothill ecosystem by displacing native plants and acting as a ladder fuel that can carry fires into the oak canopy. We tested the effects of selectively reducing Italian thistle populations alone and in combination with restoration of native species. Two thistle eradication techniques (clipping and the application of clopyralid herbicide) and two restoration techniques (addition of native forb seeds or planting native grass plugs) were used. After two consecutive years of treatment we found: a) clipping was not effective at reducing Italian thistle populations (clipping reduced Italian thistle density in some areas, but not vegetative cover), b) herbicide reduced both Italian thistle density and vegetative cover for the first two growing seasons after application, but cover rebounded in the third growing season, c) native forb cover and species richness were not significantly affected by clipping or spot-treating with herbicide, d) the grass and forb addition treatments by themselves were not effective at reducing Italian thistle during the course of this study and e) sowing annual forb seeds after clipping resulted in greater forb cover and moderately reduced Italian thistle vegetative cover in the short term.

  15. Auxin and ABA act as central regulators of developmental networks associated with paradormancy in Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dormancy in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle, an herbaceous perennial weed, allows escape from current control methods and contributes to its invasive nature. In this study, ~65% of root sections obtained from greenhouse propagated Canada thistle produced new vegetative shoots by 14 d p...

  16. CANADA THISTLE (CIRSIUM ARVENSE L. SCOP.) TO RECENT INCREASES IN ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recognized invasive weed, Canada thistle was grown at ambient and pre-ambient concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide [CO2] (373 and 287 ppm, respectively) at three levels of supplemental nitrogen (N), (3, 6 and 14.5 mM) from seeding until flowering (ca 77 days after sowing, DAS). The primar...

  17. Determination of Russian Thistle Epicuticular Wax Density and Composition in Response to Water Stress.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian thistle is a prominent broadleaf weed in the low rainfall zone of the inland Pacific Northwest. Herbicides, including glyphosate, are the most desirable form of weed control. The epicuticular wax layer is a major barrier to herbicide penetration and its characteristics may be affected by d...

  18. First report of rust caused by Puccinia carduorum on Italian thistle in Tunisia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus L.), family Asteraceae, is a common weed in rangelands, pasturelands, and cereal crops in Tunisia where it is rapidly spreading and becoming agriculturally important due to its competitive ability. It is also a problematic invasive weed in the western United S...

  19. Floral scent of Canada thistle and its potential as a generic insect attractant.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, A M; Byers, J A; Manning, L M; Jürgens, A; Mitchell, V J; Suckling, D M

    2008-06-01

    The flowers of Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense (L.), attract a wide range of insects, including pollinators and herbivorous species. This attraction is primarily mediated by floral odor, which offers potential for developing generic insect attractants based on odor. In this study, we have analyzed the chemical composition of the volatiles produced by Canada thistle flowers. Nineteen floral compounds were identified in the headspace, including phenylacetaldehyde (55%), methyl salicylate (14%), dimethyl salicylate (8%), pyranoid linalool oxide (4.5%), and benzaldehyde (3.5%). Other minor compounds include benzyl alcohol, methylbenzoate, linalool, phenylethyl alcohol, furanoid linalool oxide, p-anisaldehyde, 2,6-dimethyl-1,3,5,7-octatetraene, benzylacetate, benzyl tiglate, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, benzyl benzoate, isopropyl myristate, and 2-phenylethyl ester benzoic acid. The relative attractiveness of various doses of the main floral volatile compound phenylacetaldehyde (i.e., 10, 100, 200, and 400 mg) was tested for insect attraction. Both the total catch and the biodiversity of insect species trapped increased as the loading of phenylacetaldehyde increased. Volatiles were chosen from the odors from the flowers of Canada thistle and formulated and tested in the field. An 11-component blend was the most attractive of several floral blends tested. These findings indicate that chemical components of flower odors of Canada thistle can serve as a generic insect attractant for monitoring of invasive pest species. PMID:18613571

  20. Six Species of Salsola tumbleweeds (Russian thistle) in the Western USA and Prospects for their Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian thistle or tumbleweed is a common alien weed in many parts of the western USA. However, the taxonomy of this weed has been very confusing. Recent morphological and molecular genetic studies of plants found in California have revealed the existence of at least five distinct species. Salsol...

  1. New records for Aceria anthocopes (Acari: Eriophyidae) occurring on Canada thistle in Colorado, Nebraska and Wyoming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-two Canada thistle infestations in eastern Colorado and Wyoming and western Nebraska were surveyed in 2004 for the eriophyid mite Aceria anthocoptes (Nal.). Mites were abundant at 41% of the sites, present in lesser numbers at 53% of the sites, and no mites were found at 6% of the sites. In 2...

  2. A multidiscipline look at the Thistle field area, Pecos County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Land, J.P. )

    1992-04-01

    To allow an evaluation of the perspective provided by certain nonseismic methods in the Val Verde basin, the synergistic interpretation of gravimetric and magnetic data, surface geomorphology, and the Ellenburgger surface are compared to surface geochemical data and drilling immediate to the Thistle field, Pecos County, Texas.

  3. MICROBOTRYUM CARDUI, A POTENTIAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT FOR CARDUUS THISTLES IN THE U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carduus species and the related thistles Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. and Onopordum acanthium L. are problematic invasive weeds in the USA and targets of classical biological control efforts. During a pathogen collection trip in June 2001, numerous smutted capitula of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. ...

  4. Species of Salsola (Russian thistle) in the Western USA and Prospects for Biological Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian thistle or tumbleweed is a common alien weed in many parts of the western USA. However, the taxonomy of this weed has been very confusing. Recent studies of plants found in California using morphological and molecular genetic characters have revealed the existence of at least five distinct...

  5. Floral scent of Canada thistle, and its potential as a generic insect attractant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flowers of Canada thistles, Cirsium arvense (L.)attract a wide range of insects including pollinators and herbivorous species. This attraction is primarily mediated by floral odor, which offers potential for developing generic insect attractants based on odor. In this study we have analyzed the ...

  6. Aminopyralid and Clopyralid Absorption and Translocation Differences in Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aminopyralid (4-amino-3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) is a new auxinic herbicide that provides Canada thistle control at lower use rates than clopyralid (3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid). Studies were conducted to determine if differences in absorption, translocation, or metabolism ac...

  7. Assessing genetic diversity of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) in North America with microsatellites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.) is a noxious weed worldwide with established populations throughout northern temperate North America. We examined genetic diversity among more than 2000 individuals representing nearly 100 North American populations of C. arvense using 7 different microsat...

  8. Elevated carbon dioxide alters chemical management of Canada thistle in no-till soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differential responses of crops and weeds to anthropogenic climatic change may alter competition and crop yields. Here we examine the role of current and projected increases in carbon dioxide concentration [CO2], on soybean growth and seed yield with and without competition from Canada thistle (Cir...

  9. How many species of Salsola tumbleweeds (Russian thistle) occur in the Western USA?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian thistle or common tumbleweed, Salsola tragus (sensu lato), is an alien weedy annual plant that infests over 41 million hectares in the western United States. The taxonomy of this plant has had a long confusing history, with frequent misapplication of the species names kali and australis. R...

  10. Life cycle of Uromyces salsolae, a candidate fungal biological control agent for Salsola tragus (Russian thistle)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salsola tragus (Russian thistle, Chenopodiaceae) is a major weed pest in the western United States. An isolate of the rust fungus Uromyces salsolae from the Yasensky Spit in Russia is currently under evaluation as a candidate for biological control of S. tragus in a Biosafety Level 3 (BL-3) contain...

  11. Evaluation of Restoration Methods to Minimize Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense) Infestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.

    2009-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System has an active habitat restoration program and annually seeds thousands of hectares with native plant species. The noxious weed, Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), plagues these restorations. This study evaluates planting methodology and seed mixes with the goal of recommending optimal methods to reduce infestation of noxious weeds, especially Canada thistle, in new restorations. Three planting methods (dormant season broadcast, growing season [summer] broadcast, and growing season [summer] drill) were fully crossed with three levels of seed diversity (10, 20, and 34 species [plus a fourth level, 58 species, on the three sites in Iowa]) in a completely randomized design replicated on nine sites in Minnesota and Iowa. The propagule bank of Canada thistle was evaluated at each site. Planting occurred in winter 2004 and spring-summer 2005. Here I report on results through summer 2007. None of the planting methods or seed mix diversities consistently resulted in reduced abundance of Canada thistle. Soil texture had the strongest influence; sites with greater proportions of clay had greater frequency and cover of Canada thistle than did sandy sites. At the Minnesota study sites, the dormant broadcast planting method combined with the highest seed diversity resulted in both the greatest cover of planted species as well as the greatest richness of planted species. At the Iowa sites, planted species richness was slightly greater in the summer drill plots, but cover of planted species was greatest in the dormant broadcast plots. Richness of planted species at the Iowa sites was maximized in the high diversity plots, with the extra-high diversity seed mix resulting in significantly lower species richness. Individual species responded to planting methods idiosyncratically, which suggests that particular species could be favored by tailoring planting methods to that species.

  12. Characterization of chitosan-nanoclay bionanocomposite active films containing milk thistle extract.

    PubMed

    Beigzadeh Ghelejlu, Sara; Esmaiili, Mohsen; Almasi, Hadi

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, bio-based and antioxidant active packaging is attracting significant attention as one of the preferred emerging technologies to prevent sensitive oxidation of foods. In this study, chitosan/nanoclay nanocomposite active films containing three different levels of sodium montmorillonite (MMT) (1, 3 and 5% w/w based on chitosan) and Silybum marianum L. extract (SME) (0.5, 1 and 1.5% v/v) were prepared. The obtained films were characterized in terms of structural, thermal, mechanical, and barrier properties as well as antioxidant behavior. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the exfoliated dispersion form of MMT nanolayers. Scanning electron microscopy images showed an increase in films' surface roughness by the addition of MMT. The results indicated that water vapor permeability and solubility of films reduced significantly (p<0.05) by incorporation of MMT and SME. The mechanical and optical properties of films were significantly affected by the content of MMT and SME (p<0.05). Antioxidant properties of the films also were improved by SME incorporation, suggesting that the formulated bionanocomposites could be considered as a promising antioxidant active packaging material. PMID:26853823

  13. Seed availability and insect herbivory limit recruitment and adult density of native tall thistle.

    PubMed

    Russell, F Leland; Rose, Karen E; Louda, Svata M

    2010-10-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal variation in factors influencing plant regeneration is critical to predicting plant population growth. We experimentally evaluated seed limitation, insect herbivory, and their interaction in the regeneration and density of tall thistle (Cirsium altissimum) across a topographic ecosystem productivity gradient in tallgrass prairie over two years. On ridges and in valleys, we used a factorial experiment manipulating seed availability and insect herbivory to quantify effects of: seed input on seedling density, insect herbivory on juvenile density, and cumulative impacts of both seed input and herbivory on reproductive adult density. Seed addition increased seedling densities at three of five sites in 2006 and all five sites in 2007. Insect herbivory reduced seedling survival across all sites in both years, as well as rosette survival from the previous year's seedlings. In both years, insecticide treatment of seed addition plots led to greater adult tall thistle densities in the following year, reflecting the increase in juvenile thistle densities in the experimental year. Seedling survival was not density dependent. Our analytical projection model predicts a significant long-term increase in adult densities from seed input, with a greater increase under experimentally reduced insect herbivory. While plant community biomass and water stress varied significantly between ridges and valleys, the effects of seed addition and insect herbivory did not vary with gradient position. These results support conceptual models that predict seedling and adult densities of short-lived monocarpic perennial plants should be seed limited. Further, the experiment demonstrates that even at high juvenile plant densities, at which density dependence potentially could have overridden herbivore effects on plant survival, insect herbivory strongly affected juvenile thistle performance and adult densities of this native prairie species. PMID:21058567

  14. Using prairie restoration to curtail invasion of Canada thistle: the importance of limiting similarity and seed mix richness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Bright, J.B.; Drobney, Pauline; Larson, Jennifer L.; Palaia, Nicholas; Rabie, Paul A.; Vacek, Sara; Wells, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Theory has predicted, and many experimental studies have confirmed, that resident plant species richness is inversely related to invisibility. Likewise, potential invaders that are functionally similar to resident plant species are less likely to invade than are those from different functional groups. Neither of these ideas has been tested in the context of an operational prairie restoration. Here, we tested the hypotheses that within tallgrass prairie restorations (1) as seed mix species richness increased, cover of the invasive perennial forb, Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) would decline; and (2) guilds (both planted and arising from the seedbank) most similar to Canada thistle would have a larger negative effect on it than less similar guilds. Each hypothesis was tested on six former agricultural fields restored to tallgrass prairie in 2005; all were within the tallgrass prairie biome in Minnesota, USA. A mixed-model with repeated measures (years) in a randomized block (fields) design indicated that seed mix richness had no effect on cover of Canada thistle. Structural equation models assessing effects of cover of each planted and non-planted guild on cover of Canada thistle in 2006, 2007, and 2010 revealed that planted Asteraceae never had a negative effect on Canada thistle. In contrast, planted cool-season grasses and non-Asteraceae forbs, and many non-planted guilds had negative effects on Canada thistle cover. We conclude that early, robust establishment of native species, regardless of guild, is of greater importance in resistance to Canada thistle than is similarity of guilds in new prairie restorations.

  15. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Milk Allergy KidsHealth > For Teens > Milk Allergy Print A ... on to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, ...

  16. Feasibility of using Salsola Kali L. (Russian thistle) as a source of biofuels. [Tumbleweeds

    SciTech Connect

    Karpiscak, M.M.; Rawles, R.L.; Foster, K.E.

    1980-01-01

    A geographical area of the United States not usually considered for biofuel production is the arid Southwest. The Southwest has abundant sunshine, but water is scarce, which precludes the growth of many high water-using crops. One possible plant to be cultivated in the Southwest for biofuels is Salsola kali L., more commonly known as Russian thistle or tumbleweed. Salsola produces a large biomass quickly with minimal cultivation and fertilizer insecticide and water applications. The cost of producing Salsola biomass is low and it is amenable to harvesting by conventional farming machinery. In Arizona alone up to 240,000 ha re expected to be withdrawn from conventional agriculture by the year 2020 as pumping costs increase, water supplies dwindle and water-supply priority is given to municipal and industrial uses. In the case of Russian thistle there is also an opportunity to stimulate the agricultural economies of aridland communities that have suffered revenue losses due to limited availability and high cost of water.

  17. Routine establishment of epidemics of systemic disease of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) caused by the rust fungus Puccinia punctiformis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of observed effectiveness in eliminating Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) patches, the rust fungus Puccinia punctiformis was proposed as a biological weed control agent in 1893. Since then, there has been considerable documentation on the effectiveness of the rust in controlling Canada thist...

  18. Biological control of Canada thistle in pastures and parks: a call for collaborators on simple field tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2003-2005, we conducted replicated experiments in two field sites naturally infested with Canada thistle and the rust fungus Puccinia punctiformis. Our hypotheses were that a) mowing could remove apical dominance and result in emergence of more systemically infected shoots within the current seas...

  19. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. PMID:24029787

  20. Effects of a non-native biocontrol weevil, Larinus planus, and other emerging threats on populations of the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle, Cirsium pitcheri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, Kayri; Jolls, Claudia L.; Marik, Julie E.; Vitt, Pati; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Kind, Darcy

    2012-01-01

    Larinus planus Frabicius (Curculionidae), is a seed-eating weevil that was inadvertently introduced into the US and was subsequently distributed in the US and Canada for the control of noxious thistle species of rangelands. It has been detected recently in the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). We assayed weevil damage in a natural population of Pitcher's thistle at Whitefish Dunes State Park, Door County, WI and quantified the impact on fecundity. We then estimated the impact of this introduced weevil and other emerging threats on two natural, uninvaded populations of Pitcher's thistle for which we have long-term demographic data for 16 yr (Wilderness State Park, Emmet County, MI) and 23 yr (Miller High Dunes, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Porter County, IN). We used transition matrices to determine growth rates and project the potential effects of weevil damage, inbreeding, goldfinch predation, and vegetative succession on Pitcher's thistle population viability. Based on our models, weevil seed predation reduced population growth rate by 10–12%, but this reduction was enough to reduce time to extinction from 24 yr to 13 yr and 8 yr to 5 yr in the MI and IN population, respectively. This impact is particularly severe, given most populations of Pitcher's thistle throughout its range hover near or below replacement. This is the first report of unanticipated ecological impacts from a biocontrol agent on natural populations of Cirsium pitcheri.

  1. Fragrance of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) attracts both floral herbivores and pollinators.

    PubMed

    Theis, Nina

    2006-05-01

    The evolution of floral scent as a plant reproductive signal is assumed to be driven by pollinator behavior, with little attention paid to other potential selective forces such as herbivores. I tested 10 out of the 13 compounds emitted by dioecious Cirsium arvense, Canada thistle, including 2-phenylethanol, methyl salicylate, p-anisaldehyde, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, phenylacetaldehyde, linalool, furanoid linalool oxides (E and Z), and dimethyl salicylate. Single compounds (and one isomer) set out in scent-baited water-bowl traps trapped over 10 species of pollinators and 16 species of floral herbivores. The two dominant components of the fragrance blend of C. arvense, benzaldehyde and phenylacetaldehyde, trapped both pollinators and florivores. Other compounds attracted either pollinators or florivores. Florivores of C. arvense appear to use floral scent compounds as kairomones; by advertising to pollinators, C. arvense also attracts its own enemies. PMID:16739013

  2. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cirsii', a novel taxon from creeping thistle [Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop].

    PubMed

    Šafárová, Dana; Zemánek, Tomáš; Válová, Pavla; Navrátil, Milan

    2016-04-01

    Creeping thistle [Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.] and dahlia (Dahlia sp.) plants showing typical symptoms of phytoplasma infection including yellowing, stunting, inflorescence and proliferation, were sampled; the presence of phytoplasma was confirmed by standard PCR using universal primers. RFLP analysis allowed classification of the detected phytoplasma strains CirYS, CirYS1 and DahlP within the 16SrXI group, the unique restriction profile F2nR2 fragment obtained in silico by iPhyClassifier indicated that they belong to the new 16SrXI-E subgroup. Genetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the studied strains shared less than 97.5% similarity with all of the previously described 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species. The closest relatives are 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae' with 96.8% and 96.6% similarity. All strains studied bear three specific regions in the 16S rRNA gene, discriminating them from the other phytoplasma species. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA and secA genes confirmed this specificity, as the creeping thistle and dahlia phytoplasma strains clustered in a distinguishable lineage group. The uniqueness of the genetic analysis agrees with the biological characterization of the studied phytoplasma strains, their host range, and geographical distribution. The strains only infect dicotyledonous plants in Europe, contrary to their closest relatives. Based on their unique properties, it could be concluded that the studied phytoplasma strains represent a discrete group that is proposed as a novel taxon 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cirsii', with strain CirYS as a reference strain. PMID:26849880

  3. Blessed thistle

    MedlinePlus

    ... decrease stomach acid, called proton pump inhibitors. Some medications that decrease stomach acid include omeprazole (Prilosec), lansoprazole (Prevacid), rabeprazole (Aciphex), pantoprazole (Protonix), and esomeprazole (Nexium).MinorBe watchful with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

  4. A test of Darwin's naturalization hypothesis in the thistle tribe shows that close relatives make bad neighbors

    PubMed Central

    Park, Daniel S.; Potter, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species have great ecological and economic impacts and are difficult to control once established, making the ability to understand and predict invasive behavior highly desirable. Preemptive measures to prevent potential invasive species from reaching new habitats are the most economically and environmentally efficient form of management. Darwin’s naturalization hypothesis predicts that invaders less related to native flora are more likely to be successful than those that are closely related to natives. Here we test this hypothesis, using the weed-rich thistle tribe, Cardueae, in the California Floristic Province, a biodiversity hotspot, as our study system. An exhaustive molecular phylogenetic approach was used, generating and examining more than 100,000 likely phylogenies of the tribe based on nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers, representing the most in-depth reconstruction of the clade to date. Branch lengths separating invasive and noninvasive introduced taxa from native California taxa were used to represent phylogenetic distances between these groups and were compared at multiple biogeographical scales to ascertain whether invasive thistles are more or less closely related to natives than noninvasive introduced thistles are. Patterns within this highly supported clade show that not only are introduced thistles more closely related to natives more likely to be invasive, but these invasive species are also evolutionarily closer to native flora than by chance. This suggests that preadaptive traits are important in determining an invader’s success. Such rigorous molecular phylogenetic analyses may prove a fruitful means for furthering our understanding of biological invasions and developing predictive frameworks for screening potential invasive taxa. PMID:24127587

  5. Milk lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk fat conveys a number of desirable qualities to food, and various lipid components contribute to human nutrition and health. Over 96% of milk lipids consist of triacylglycerols, which contain a variety of fatty acids. Di- and monoacylglycerols, free fatty acids, sterols, and phospho-, glyco-,...

  6. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques. PMID:17900499

  7. Biochemical and immunological basis of silymarin effect, a milk thistle (Silybum marianum) against ethanol-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Das, Subir Kumar; Mukherjee, Sukhes

    2012-06-01

    Ethanol metabolism induces generation of excessive amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which results in immune dysfunction. We examined the efficacy of silymarin on ethanol-induced oxidative stress, immunomodulatory activity, and vascular function in mice blood. Effectiveness of silymarin was compared with potent antioxidant ascorbic acid. In the present study, 8- to 10-week-old male BALB/c mice (20-30 g) were divided into the four groups of six each. One group were fed with ethanol (1.6 g/kg body weight), while second group were fed with ethanol (1.6 g/kg body weight) and silybin (250 mg/kg body weight), and the third group were exposed to ethanol (250 mg/kg body weight) and ascorbic acid (250 mg/kg body weight) per day for 12 weeks. The control group was fed with isocaloric glucose solution instead of ethanol. Ethanol exposure significantly increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and nitrite levels besides glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, and significantly decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in whole blood hemolyzate, while silymarin treatment significantly normalized these altered parameters. Silymarin significantly prevented ethanol-induced, elevated activities of interleukin (IL)-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, γ interferon (IFN-γ), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, as well as decreased IL-4 activity in mice blood. These results were comparable with the activity of ascorbic acid. PMID:22409310

  8. Anti-glycation activities of phenolic constituents from Silybum marianum (Milk Thistle) flower in vitro and on human explants.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Lee, Jung-A; Kim, Minkyung; Kum, Hyunwoo; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2015-01-01

    Glycation is an ageing reaction of naturally occurring sugars with dermal proteins, with clinical signs appearing in vivo around age 30, and increasing steadily/regularly with age. The suppleness of the dermis is affected by the formation of bridges between proteins and sugars (Maillard's reaction). The accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in skin plays a very important role in skin ageing. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess antiglycation activities may have great anti-ageing potential. In the present study, Silybum marianum flower extract (SMFE) was demonstrated to possess antiglycation activity. We found that SMFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. In addition, antiglycation activity of SMFE was confirmed in a human skin explants model. SMFE reduced Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) expression, whereas SMFE stimulated fibrillin-1 expression compared to treatment with methyglyoxal. An active ingredient contributing to the observed activities was identified as silibinin. The antiglycation activity of silibinin was dose-dependent. The beneficial effects of silibinin may be applied to prevention or management of AGE-mediated pathologies, targeting in a pleiotropic and complementary way the biochemical and cellular bases of skin aging. PMID:25706757

  9. A Phase I Dose-Finding Study of Silybin Phosphatidylcholine (Milk Thistle) in Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Abby B.; Narayan, Rupa; Rodriguez, Rosa; Goyal, Abhishek; Jacobson, Judith S.; Kelly, Kara; Ladas, Elena; Lunghofer, Paul J.; Hansen, Ryan J.; Gustafson, Daniel L.; Flaig, Thomas W.; Tsai, Wei Yann; Wu, David P. H.; Lee, Valerie; Greenlee, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the maximum tolerated dose per day of silybin phosphatidylcholine (Siliphos) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatic dysfunction. Experimental Design Patients with advanced HCC not eligible for other therapies based on poor hepatic function were enrolled in a phase I study of silybin phosphatidylcholine. A standard phase I design was used with 4 planned cohorts, dose escalating from 2, 4, 8, to 12 g per day in divided doses for 12 weeks. Results Three participants enrolled in this single institution trial. All enrolled subjects consumed 2 g per day of study agent in divided doses. Serum concentrations of silibinin and silibinin glucuronide increased within 1 to 3 weeks. In all 3 patients, liver function abnormalities and tumor marker α-fetoprotein progressed, but after day 56 the third patient showed some improvement in liver function abnormalities and inflammatory biomarkers. All 3 participants died within 23 to 69 days of enrolling into the trial, likely from hepatic failure, but it could not be ruled out that deaths were possibly due to the study drug. Conclusion Short-term administration of silybin phosphatidylcholine in patients with advanced HCC resulted in detectable increases in silibinin and its metabolite, silibinin glucuronide. The maximum tolerated dose could not be established. Since patients died soon after enrollment, this patient population may have been too ill to benefit from an intervention designed to improve liver function tests. PMID:23757319

  10. Application of response surface methodology to optimize microwave-assisted extraction of silymarin from milk thistle seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several parameters of Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) including extraction time, extraction temperature, ethanol concentration and solid-liquid ratio were selected to describe the MAE processing. The silybin content, measured by an UV-Vis spectrophotometry, was considered as the silymarin yield....

  11. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the word “Milk” on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... following the circled K or U on a product label indicates the presence of milk protein or a ...

  12. Got milk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While celebrities wear white “milk moustaches” in a popular U.S. advertising campaign to promote the drinking of milk, they should also be concerned about the decreased amount of calcium available to many trees.Calcium levels in forest soils have decreased at locations in 10 states in the eastern United States, according to a new report by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released in time for National Arbor Day on April 30.

  13. Best linear unbiased prediction of host range of the facultative parasite Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. salsolae, a potential biological control agent of Russian thistle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tumbleweed or Russian thistle (Salsola tragus L.) is an introduced invasive weed in N. America. It is widely distributed in the U.S. and is a target of biological control efforts. The facultative parasitic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. in Penz. f. sp. salsolae is a po...

  14. Mixed model analysis combining disease ratings and DNA sequences to determine host range of Uromyces salsolae for biological control of Russian thistle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tumbleweed or Russian thistle (Salsola tragus L.) is an introduced invasive weed in N. America. It is widely distributed in the U.S. and is a target of biological control efforts. The obligate biotrophic rust fungus Uromyces salsolae Richardt is a potential biological control agent of tumbleweed, ...

  15. Changes in Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) shoot density following inoculation with Puccinia punctiformis and induction of symptomatic and asymptomatic systemic disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense, CT) is one of the worst weeds in temperate areas of the world. The rust fungus Puccinia punctiformis was first proposed as a biological control agent for CT in 1893. The rust causes systemic disease which ultimately kills CT plants. In 2013, it was demonstrated in fo...

  16. Genetic and morphological studies of Trichosirocalus species introduced to North America, Australia and New Zealand for the biological control of thistles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichosirocalus horridus sensu lato has been used as a classical biological control agent of several invasive alien thistles (Carduus spp., Cirsium spp. and Onopordum spp.) since 1974. Trichosirocalus horridus was recognized as a single species until 2002, when it was split into three species based ...

  17. Nectar Secretion and Bee Guild Characteristics of Yellow Star-Thistle on Santa Cruz Island and Lesvos: Where Have the Honey Bees Gone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared nectar secretion rates and bee guilds of yellow star-thistle, Centaurea solstitialis on Santa Cruz Island (USA) and the Northeast Aegean Island of Lesvos (Greece). This plant species is non-native and highly invasive in the western USA but native to Eurasia (including Lesvos). "Nectar ...

  18. Field assessment, in Greece and Russia, of the facultative saprophytic fungus, Colletotrichum salsolae, for biological control of Russian thistle (Salsola tragus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian thistle (Salsola tragus, tumbleweed, RT) is a problematic invasive weed in the United States (U.S.) and is a target of biological control efforts. The facultative saprophytic fungus Colletotrichum salsolae (CS) kills RT plants in greenhouse tests and is specific to Salsola spp., which are no...

  19. Cow's milk and children

    MedlinePlus

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  20. Performance of Host-Races of the Fruit Fly, Tephritis conura on a Derived Host Plant, the Cabbage Thistle Cirsium oleraceum: Implications for the Original Host Shift

    PubMed Central

    Diegisser, Thorsten; Johannesen, Jes; Seitz, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    The thistle-infesting fruit fly Tephritis conura Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae) forms host races on the melancholy thistle, Cirsium hetewphyllum (L.) Hill (Asterales: Asteraceae) and the cabbage thistle, Cirsium olemceum (L.). Scop. Previous research indicates that the host shift occurred from C. hetewphyllum to C. oleraceum. In this paper we address whether the host shift involved physiological adaptations by studying oviposition acceptance and survival of the two host races on the derived host C. oleraceum. Performance differed significantly between host races. T. conura originating from C. oleraceum produced adults in 75% of all egg-laying trials in contrast to only 6.6% in T. conura originating from C. hetewphyllum. Population fitness components measured as a function of life-stage was linear decreasing for T. conura on C. oleraceum but stepwise for T. conura on C. heterophyllum. Low performance of T. conura on C. hetewphyllum was determined by low plant acceptance and high mortality during the larval stage, whereas hatching (at least one larva per batch) and pupae survival were not affected. PMID:20302521

  1. Milk processing quality of suckled/milked goats: effects of milk accumulation interval and milking regime.

    PubMed

    Högberg, M; Dahlborn, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Hartmann, E; Andrén, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk with a high concentration of fat and casein is required for cheese production, and these components have a major impact for both quality and yield of the curd. Recent observations have shown that suckling can elevate milk fat concentration in goats and our aim was therefore to check the hypothesis that animal welfare and cheese-processing properties of goat milk could be optimised by appropriate management of suckled/milked goats. Twelve Swedish dairy goats were kept together with one kid each in 4 different mixed management-systems (milking combined with partial suckling) in a cross-over design. Two milk accumulation intervals were tested; Short = dams and kids were together for 16 h (T16) and Long = ; dams and kids were together for 8 h (T8 h). In addition, two milking regimes were used; Suckled Before Milking = S and Milked Before Suckling = M. Milk accumulation interval referred to how long dams and kids were separated. The milk yield available for processing (milk offtake), was weighed and analysed from each milking occasion and the suckled milk yield was estimated by a weigh-suckle-weigh method (WSW) in combination with observing the suckling behaviour during the free suckling periods. Milking managements, such as 'suckling before milking (S)', increased milk fat concentration compared to milking before suckling (M) and 'Short accumulation treatments (T16)' gave higher milk fat, casein concentration and individual curd yield (%) compared to the 'Long accumulation treatment (T8)'. The total individual curd yield (g) was the same despite treatment, but the animal welfare was most likely higher in T16 where dams and kids spent more time together. PMID:27056664

  2. Covariance among milking frequency, milk yield, and milk composition from automatically milked cows.

    PubMed

    Løvendahl, P; Chagunda, M G G

    2011-11-01

    Automatic milking systems allow cows voluntary access to milking and concentrates within set limits. This leads to large variation in milking intervals, both within and between cows, which further affects yield per milking and composition of milk. This study aimed to describe the degree to which differences in milking interval were attributable to individual cows, and how this correlated to individual differences in yield and composition of milk throughout lactation. Data from 288,366 milkings from 664 cow-lactations were used, of which 229,020 milkings had milk composition results. Cows were Holsteins, Red Danes, and Jerseys in parities 1, 2, and 3. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed model, with cow-lactation as a random effect and assuming heterogeneous residual variance over the lactation. Cow-lactation variance was fitted using linear spline functions with 5 knot-points. Residual variance was generally greatest in early lactation and declined thereafter. Accordingly, animal-related variance tended to increase with progression of lactation. Milking frequency (the reverse of milking interval) was found to be moderately repeatable throughout lactation. Daily milk yield expressed per milking was found to be highly repeatable in all breeds, with the highest values occurring by the end of lactation. Fat percentage had only moderate repeatability in early to mid lactation but increased toward the end of lactation. Individual level correlations showed that cows with higher milking frequency also had greater yields, but had lower fat percentage. Correlations were slightly weaker in very early lactation than in the remaining parts of lactation. We concluded that individual differences exist among cows milked automatically. Cows with higher yields are milked more often and have lower fat content in their milk. PMID:22032361

  3. Effects of milk powders in milk chocolate.

    PubMed

    Liang, B; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    The physical characteristics of milk powders used in chocolate can have significant impact on the processing conditions needed to make that chocolate and the physical and organoleptic properties of the finished product. Four milk powders with different particle characteristics (size, shape, density) and "free" milk fat levels (easily extracted with organic solvent) were evaluated for their effect on the processing conditions and characteristics of chocolates in which they were used. Many aspects of chocolate manufacture and storage (tempering conditions, melt rheology, hardness, bloom stability) were dependent on the level of free milk fat in the milk powder. However, particle characteristics of the milk powder also influenced the physical and sensory properties of the final products. PMID:14765806

  4. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. PMID:22226014

  5. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    PubMed

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries. PMID:10208658

  6. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called ...

  7. Milk-alkali syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000332.htm Milk-alkali syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Milk-alkali syndrome is a condition in which there ...

  8. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  9. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. ...

  10. Special Milk Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  11. Milk demystified by chemistry.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-09-01

    This article traces the decline of milk from a heavenly elixir to a tradeable food. Early cultures regarded milk not as a simple nutrient, but a living fluid. Heroes and gods were believed to have been nurtured by animals after being abandoned. Character traits were assumed to be transmitted by milk; infantile diseases were attributed to "bad milk", whereas "good milk" was used as a remedy. With chemical methods developed at the end of the 18th century, it became known that human milk was higher in sugar and lower in protein than cow's milk. During the 19th century, "scientific" feeding emerged that meant modifying cow's milk to imitate the proportion of nutrients in human milk. In Boston from 1893, Rotch initiated the "percentage" method, requiring a physician's prescription. In Paris from 1894, Budin sterilized bottled infant milk. In Berlin in 1898, Rubner measured oxygen and energy uptake by calorimetry, prompting feeding by calories, and Czerny introduced regulated feeding by the clock. These activities ignored the emotional dimension of infant nutrition and the anti-infective properties of human milk. They may have also enhanced the decline in breastfeeding, which reached an all-time low in 1971. Milk's demystification made artificial nutrition safer, but paved the way for commercially produced infant formula. PMID:24558227

  12. Human milk banking.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing. PMID:23666187

  13. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16 Milk and milk products. (a) The following milk products are exempt from the provisions of this part:...

  14. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16 Milk and milk products. (a) The following milk products are exempt from the provisions of this part:...

  15. Raw Milk Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, John A.

    2015-01-01

    There continues to be considerable public debate on the possible benefits regarding the growing popularity of the consumption of raw milk. However, there are significant concerns by regulatory, or public health, organizations like the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of risk of contracting milkborne illnesses if the raw milk is contaminated with human pathogens. This review describes why pasteurization of milk was introduced more than 100 years ago, how pasteurization helped to reduce the incidence of illnesses associated with raw milk consumption, and the prevalence of pathogens in raw milk. In some studies, up to a third of all raw milk samples contained pathogens, even when sourced from clinically healthy animals or from milk that appeared to be of good quality. This review critically evaluates some of the popularly suggested benefits of raw milk. Claims related to improved nutrition, prevention of lactose intolerance, or provision of “good” bacteria from the consumption of raw milk have no scientific basis and are myths. There are some epidemiological data that indicate that children growing up in a farming environment are associated with a decreased risk of allergy and asthma; a variety of environmental factors may be involved and there is no direct evidence that raw milk consumption is involved in any “protective” effect. PMID:27340300

  16. Effect of flavored milk vs plain milk on total milk intake and nutrient provision in children.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Concerns surrounding added sugars and their effects on health have created a need to review the literature to assess consumption of flavored milk, consumer preferences for flavored milk, behavior related to the intake of flavored milk, and the effect of flavored milk on the diet and health of children. A review of the literature was performed using the following keywords: milk, flavored, flavoured, sweetened, and chocolate. The search was limited to articles published in English, studies conducted in children, and studies reporting on prevalence of consumption, trends in consumption, preferences for flavored milk, intakes of milk and nutrients, and health outcomes. Fifty-three studies were included. Flavored milk receives the highest palatability rating among children. Children drink more flavored milk than plain milk and, when flavored milk is not available, children drink less plain milk and, consequently, less milk overall. Consumers of flavored milk have a higher total milk intake. Micronutrient intake among consumers of flavored milk is similar to that among consumers of plain milk, while intakes of energy and sugars vary, owing to differences in reporting across studies. There is no association between flavored milk intake and weight status among normal-weight children, and some contradictory effects of flavored milk intake have been observed in subgroups of overweight children. Flavored milk is a palatable beverage choice that helps children to meet calcium targets. Further research to test the effect of flavored milk consumption among overweight children is warranted. PMID:26534904

  17. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants. PMID:23158513

  18. Verification of factors to estimate daily milk yield from one milking of cows milked twice daily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to verify factors to predict daily milk yield when milk is sampled once per d for cows milked twice (2x) per d. Milk weights for both milkings were recorded automatically by 30 herds and collected by Dairy Herd Improvement supervisors. Data was split into 2 subsets...

  19. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety Modernization Act Food Safety and Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... THIS: Real Stories About the Dangers of Raw Milk “My daughter turned into a completely different person ...

  20. The effect of a rosette-crown fly, Botanophila turcica, on growth,biomass allocation and reproduction of the thistle Carthamus lanatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Andrew W.; Vitou, Janine

    2000-12-01

    Plant growth and reproductive output of the winter annual invasive thistle, Carthamus lanatus was characterised in relation to plant size in three native populations in southern France. The effects of the rosette-crown feeding fly Botanophila turcica on these plant characteristics were assessed by comparing unattacked with naturally attacked plants at each site and by a field experiment. Indirect effects of B. turcica on plant seed production were also compared with direct seed loss caused by a guild of capitulum-feeding insects that incidentally attacked the marked plants at these sites. C. lanatus showed no size or weight requirement for flowering, but larger flowering plants produced less total receptacle surface and less seed production (female reproductive potential) in proportion to plant weight than smaller flowering plants. B. turcica did not select hosts on the basis of size or density. B. turcica reduced plant relative growth rate (RGR) in all situations, but attacked plants compensated fully at two of three sites as attack failed to halt rosette growth. Attacked plants suffered 12 % mortality, and 71 % lower seed production than unattacked plants at the site with the lowest RGR. This corresponded to 9 % lower seed production for the whole thistle population compared to 8.6-19.5 % direct seed loss to capitulum insects across all sites.

  1. Behavior, milk yield, and milk composition of machine-and hand-milked Murgese mares.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, M; Albenzio, M; Marino, R; Muscio, A; Zezza, T; Sevi, A

    2007-06-01

    A 25-d trial was performed to assess the effects of machine and hand milking on behavior, and milk yield and composition of mares; the trial involved 8 Murgese mares. Milk yield was higher (7.69 vs. 4.91 kg) and milking time was shorter (1.80 vs. 5.40 min) in machine-milked than in hand-milked mares. Machine milking of mares also resulted in a greater fat content of milk (1.63%) than did hand milking (1.06%). Milking system did not affect casein content, nitrogen fractions, or somatic cell counts. No differences in behavioral activities and in response to humans emerged. Results indicate that machine milking of mares could improve the yield and gross composition of horse milk, without adverse consequences on mare behavior and response to humans. PMID:17517717

  2. Effects of automatic cluster removal and feeding during milking on milking efficiency, milk yield and milk fat quality.

    PubMed

    Ferneborg, Sabine; Stadtmüller, Larissa; Pickova, Jana; Wiking, Lars; Svennersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    In order to increase milking efficiency, the effects of two different cluster take-off levels (200 and 800 g/min) and feeding vs. not feeding during milking were tested in a Latin square design study including 32 cows. Milk yield, milking time, milk flow and milking interval were measured and milk samples were analysed for gross composition, sodium and potassium concentration, free fatty acid (FFA) content, milk fat globule (MFG) size, MFG membrane (MFGM) material and fatty acid composition. Residual milk was harvested to evaluate udder emptying. Increasing the take-off level from 200 to 800 g/min at the whole udder level decreased milking time and increased harvest flow. Udder emptying decreased slightly, but there were no effects on milk yield, FFA content or MFGM. There were interactive effects of take-off level and feeding during milking on content of fatty acids C4:0, C6:0, C16:0, C18:3(n-3) and C20:0. Feeding during milking increased milk yield per day and decreased milking interval. Sodium and potassium concentrations in milk were unaffected by treatments, indicating no loss of tight junction integrity. From these results, it is clear that feeding during milking should be used to increase milk yield and improve milking efficiency, regardless of take-off level used, and that the effect of feeding is more pronounced when a low take-off level is used. Feeding seemed to counteract the effects of the low take-off level on milking time and milking interval. Low take-off levels can therefore be used in combination with feeding. PMID:27210491

  3. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  4. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  5. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  6. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  7. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  8. Effect of milking pipeline height on machine milking efficiency and milk quality in sheep.

    PubMed

    Díaz, J R; Peris, C; Rodríguez, M; Molina, M P; Fernández, N

    2004-06-01

    This experiment studied the effect of milking pipeline height (mid- vs. low-level milking system) on milking efficiency and milk composition. The experiment was of 8 wk duration: 2 wk preexperimental period and 6 wk experimental, in crossover design (2 x 2). Ewes were milked in a 2 x 12 milking parlor with 2 milking pipelines set at a milking vacuum of 36 kPa with a pulsation rate of 180 cycle/min and ratio of 50%. Height of the milkline had no effect on yield of milk at the time of milking, yield after stripping, milk composition, SCC, and number of teatcup fall-offs. Nor did milkline height have any effect on milk lipolysis or on the distribution of fatty acids. The level of free fatty acids was higher in evening than in morning milk (60.5 vs. 25.6 mg/L). Likewise, the increase in the degree of lipolysis between the receiver (40.4 mg/L) and the refrigeration tank (45.8 mg/L) underlines the importance of the milk delivery line design. The parameters (time and flow rate) that define the first peak in the milk emission kinetics were statistically different between lines, so care must be taken when comparing milk emission curves from both types of pipeline. PMID:15453479

  9. Effects on milk yield of milking interval regularity and teat cup attachment failures with robotic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Bach, Alex; Busto, Isabel

    2005-02-01

    A database consisting of 35291 milking records from 83 cows was built over a period of 10 months with the objectives of studying the effect of teat cup attachment failures and milking interval regularity on milk production with an automated milking system (AMS). The database collected records of lactation number, days in milk (DIM), milk production, interval between milkings (for both the entire udder and individual quarters in case of a teat cup attachment failure) and average and peak milk flows for each milking. The weekly coefficient of variation (CV) of milking intervals was used as a measure of milking regularity. DIM, milking intervals, and CV of milking intervals were divided into four categories coinciding with the four quartiles of their respective distributions. The data were analysed by analysis of variance with cow as a random effect and lactation number, DIM, the occurrence of a milking failure, and the intervals between milkings or the weekly CV of milking intervals as fixed effects. The incidence of attachment failures was 7.6% of total milkings. Milk production by quarters affected by a milking failure following the failure was numerically greater owing to the longer interval between milkings. When accounting for the effect of milking intervals, milk production by affected quarters following a milking failure was 26% lower than with regular milkings. However, the decrease in milk production by quarters affected by milking failures was more severe as DIM increased. Average and peak milk flows by quarters affected by a milking failure were lower than when milkings occurred normally. However, milk production recovered its former level within seven milkings following a milking failure. Uneven frequency (weekly CV of milking intervals >27%) decreased daily milk yield, and affected multiparous more negatively than primiparous cows. PMID:15747737

  10. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby only breast milk or iron-fortified formula during the first 12 months of life, not ... baby's diet. If breastfeeding is not possible, infant formulas provide a healthy diet for your infant. Whether ...

  11. Breast milk jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor before deciding to give your newborn formula. It is best to keep breastfeeding. Babies need their mothers' milk. Although a baby full of formula can be less demanding, formula feeding may cause ...

  12. Human Milk Fortification.

    PubMed

    Simmer, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is the feed of choice for preterm infants. However, human milk does not provide enough nutrition, especially protein, for preterm infants to achieve target growth rates similar to those in utero (15-20 g/kg per day). Fortifiers for human milk, manufactured from bovine milk, are commercially available and routinely used for patients born <32 weeks' gestation prior to discharge home. Recent recommended dietary intakes (RDI) have been revised. Up to 4.2 g of protein and 135 kcal/kg per day is recommended for infants born very preterm. Additional supplements are needed to current commercial fortifiers to achieve these RDI and reduce the incidence of ex-uterine growth failure. A human milk fortifier that is manufactured from donor human milk is available in some developed countries and may confer some clinical benefits, including a reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis. Fortification can be added in a standardized protocol as per manufacturers' instructions. Human milk composition can be analyzed and fortification individualized to take into account the large variation from mother to mother. Alternatively, fortification can be increased in a stepwise manner based on assumed composition while monitoring blood urea levels for safety. The current aim is to prevent preterm infants dropping percentiles and falling below the 10th percentile at 36 weeks' corrected gestational age or discharge home. More data are required on how best to fortify human milk for preterm infants to achieve optimal growth, development and health outcomes in the long term. There is an urgent need for well-designed and informed randomized clinical trials in this vulnerable preterm population. PMID:26111568

  13. Milk-borne campylobacter infection.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, D A; Jones, D M

    1981-01-01

    The common factor in 13 recent outbreaks of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis was the consumption of unpasteurised or incompletely pasteurised milk. C jejuni is a common commensal in the alimentary tract of milking cows, but it is not clear how the milk becomes contaminated with the organism. Pasteurisation will readily eliminate the organism from milk. In England and Wales 3% of milk retailed is still unpasteurised, and in the light of these findings it is suggested that only pasteurised milk should be sold to the public. PMID:6786504

  14. Milk Enhancements Improve Milk Consumption and Increase Meal Participation in the NSLP: The School Milk Pilot Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Karen; Zipay, Diane; Patey, Camellia; Meyer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of the School Milk Pilot Test and the Westside School Milk Pilot Study was to test the effect of a milk enhancement initiative to make milk more appealing and attractive to elementary and secondary school students and to improve milk consumption. Methods: 146 schools participated in the national School Milk Pilot…

  15. Camel milk is a safer choice than goat milk for feeding children with cow milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Ehlayel, Mohammad; Bener, Abdulbari; Abu Hazeima, Khalid; Al-Mesaifri, Fatima

    2011-01-01

    Background. Various sources of mammalian milk have been tried in CMA. Objectives. To determine whether camel milk is safer than goat milk in CMA. Methods. Prospective study conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation between April 2007 and April 2010, on children with CMA. Each child had medical examination, CBC, total IgE, cow milk-specific IgE and SPT. CMA children were tested against fresh camel and goat milks. Results. Of 38 children (median age 21.5 months), 21 (55.3%) presented with urticaria, 17 (39.5%) atopic dermatitis, 10 (26.3%) anaphylaxis. WBC was 10, 039 ± 4, 735 cells/μL, eosinophil 1, 143 ± 2, 213 cells/μL, IgE 694 ± 921 IU/mL, cow's milk-specific-IgE 23.5 ± 35.6 KU/L. Only 7 children (18.4%) tested positive to camel milk and 24 (63.2%) to goat milk. 6 (15.8%) were positive to camel, goat, and cow milks. Patients with negative SPT tolerated well camel and goat milks. Conclusions. In CMA, SPT indicates low cross-reactivity between camel milk and cow milk, and camel milk is a safer alternative than goat milk. PMID:23724227

  16. How to reintroduce cow's milk?

    PubMed

    Dupont, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    In a child that is allergic to milk, the natural next step, following the elimination diet, is the reintroduction of cow's milk. Several questions may arise. When feasible, this reintroduction has many benefits for the child and his family. However, the disease needs to be well defined by physicians and explained to parents. They need to understand that there are different types of allergy to cow's milk, specifically IgE- and non-IgE-mediated, and each of these may exhibit both a variable duration and frequently an incomplete recovery. Deciding where to first reintroduce cow's milk to a child who has previously followed a milk-free diet, whether it be at home or in a hospital, also frequently presents an issue. Following this first reintroduction, the progressive increase of milk into the diet needs to be managed properly, as not all children will go back to a normal dairy products intake. Recent studies show that most children with milk allergy tolerate products containing baked milk and that their consumption might speed up recovery. Hence, the purpose of the milk challenge in a child on a milk-free diet is becoming, even in a child still reactive to milk, the first step of gradual and individually adapted reintroduction of milk or dairy products. When reintroduction of cow's milk does not work, immunotherapy becomes an option, and this is carried out in specialized centers. PMID:24112424

  17. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  18. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  19. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  20. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  1. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  2. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  3. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  4. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  5. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  6. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  7. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  8. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  9. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  10. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  11. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  12. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  13. 21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated milk. (a) Description. Evaporated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of water only from milk....

  14. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  15. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  16. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  17. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  18. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  19. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  20. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  1. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  2. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  3. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  4. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  5. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  6. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  7. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  8. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  9. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  10. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  11. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  12. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  13. Milk and Soy Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kattan, Jacob D.; Cocco, Renata R.; Järvinen, Kirsi M.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) affects 2% to 3% of young children and presents with a wide range of immunoglobulin E (IgE-) and non-IgE-mediated clinical syndromes, which have a significant economic and lifestyle impact. Definitive diagnosis is based on a supervised oral food challenge (OFC), but convincing clinical history, skin prick testing, and measurement of cow’s milk (CM)-specific IgE can aid in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated CMA and occasionally eliminate the need for OFCs. It is logical that a review of CMA would be linked to a review of soy allergy, as soy formula is often an alternative source of nutrition for infants who do not tolerate cow’s milk. The close resemblance between the proteins from soy and other related plants like peanut, and the resulting cross-reactivity and lack of predictive values for clinical reactivity, often make the diagnosis of soy allergy far more challenging. This review examines the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, natural history and diagnosis of cow’s milk and soy allergy. Cross-reactivity and management of milk allergy are also discussed. PMID:21453810

  14. [Breast milk substitutes based on cow milk].

    PubMed

    Kofoed, P E

    1990-08-20

    "Adapted" or "humanized" breast-milk substitutes based on cows' milk are manufactured according to directives from a publication issued by the Ministry of Agriculture. The accepted recommendations for the daily intake (RDA) of nutrients is adjusted to the neonates' relatively low tolerance and provides a certain margin of safety in case of illness and slight inaccuracies in preparation. The recommendations are, however, often based on animal experiments, studies of pathological conditions etc. because the needs of the neonate are not known. There is a fundamental difference between RDA for chemical energy and various nutrients as the energy requirement is stated on the basis of average values while the requirements for specific nutrients are gives as upper and lower limiting values. In addition to nutrients, a long series of hormones, enzymes and antimicrobial factors are transferred to the infant via breast-milk. The nutritional significance of these is entirely or partially unknown. It is thus impossible to give the bottle-fed infant a diet which is quantitatively and qualitatively identical with that of a breastfed baby. Nevertheless, experience has shown that bottle-feeding usually proceeds satisfactorily. Galactosaemia and certain forms of medication in the mother constitute absolute contraindications to breast-feeding while phenylketonuria, certain maternal infections are relative contraindications to breast-feeding. Mothers should be prepared for breast-feeding already during pregnancy but in the cases where the mother cannot, should not or does not wish to breast-feed, it is important to counteract any feelings of guilt, neglect or incompetence and, on the other hand, give her thorough training in artificial feeding of the infant. PMID:2205958

  15. Effect of changes in milking routine on milking related behaviour and milk removal in Tunisian dairy dromedary camels.

    PubMed

    Atigui, Moufida; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Ayeb, Naziha; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    We studied the effects of changes in the milking routine (lack or presence of 30-s prestimulation, 0 or 1, 2 or 4-min delay between preparation and cluster attachment) and environmental perturbation (unusual loud sounds capable of frightening animals just after stall entry or during the course of milking) on milk removal and milking-related behaviour in dairy dromedary camels. A 30-s prestimulation decreased incidence of bimodal milk flow curves and increased occurrence of the best milk ejection patterns with higher milk flow but had limited effect on milk production in our well-trained animals within a good machine milking setting. However, unusual sounds heard from the beginning of milking or even after milk ejection caused inhibition or disruption of milk removal and modification of camels' behaviour. Milk ejection was significantly delayed (1·58±0·17 min), residual milk increased over 40% of total milk yield and average and peak milk flow rates were significantly lowered when unusual noises were heard from the beginning of milking. These environmental perturbations increased signs of vigilance and the number of attempts to escape the milking parlour. Delaying cluster attachment for over 1 min after the end of udder preparation caused serious milk losses. Up to 62% of total milk was withheld in the udder when the delay reached 4 min. Average and peak milk flow rates also decreased significantly with delayed milking. Signs of vigilance and attempts to escape from the milking parlour appeared when camels waited for over 2 min. After a 4-min delay, camels showed signs of acute stress. Defaecation prior to milk ejection (solid faeces) and rumination during milking can be used to assess camels' milk ejection during milking. Animal welfare and milking efficiency can be ensured when camels are pre-stimulated, milked in calm conditions and with cluster attachment within a maximum of a 1-min delay after stimulation. PMID:25234858

  16. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing.

    PubMed

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T

    2013-02-01

    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments. PMID:23178068

  17. The Sweetest Chocolate Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Kristie J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nonroutine problem can be an effective way to encourage students to draw on prior knowledge, work together, and reach important conclusions about the mathematics they are learning. This article discusses a problem on the mathematical preparation of chocolate milk which was adapted from an old book of puzzles (Linn 1969) and has been used…

  18. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  19. Microstructure of milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fat and protein in milk may be examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, and any bacteria present may be viewed by light microscopy. The fat exists as globules, the bulk of the protein is in the form of casein micelles, a...

  20. Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production: milk trumps mammary tissue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of normal human mammary gland development and function have mostly relied on cell culture, limited surgical specimens, and rodent models. Although RNA extracted from human milk has been used to assay the mammary transcriptome non-invasively, this assay has not been adequately validated in primates. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to assess the suitability of lactating rhesus macaques as a model for lactating humans and to determine whether RNA extracted from milk fractions is representative of RNA extracted from mammary tissue for the purpose of studying the transcriptome of milk-producing cells. Results We confirmed that macaque milk contains cytoplasmic crescents and that ample high-quality RNA can be obtained for sequencing. Using RNA sequencing, RNA extracted from macaque milk fat and milk cell fractions more accurately represented RNA from mammary epithelial cells (cells that produce milk) than did RNA from whole mammary tissue. Mammary epithelium-specific transcripts were more abundant in macaque milk fat, whereas adipose or stroma-specific transcripts were more abundant in mammary tissue. Functional analyses confirmed the validity of milk as a source of RNA from milk-producing mammary epithelial cells. Conclusions RNA extracted from the milk fat during lactation accurately portrayed the RNA profile of milk-producing mammary epithelial cells in a non-human primate. However, this sample type clearly requires protocols that minimize RNA degradation. Overall, we validated the use of RNA extracted from human and macaque milk and provided evidence to support the use of lactating macaques as a model for human lactation. PMID:24330573

  1. Derivation of factors to estimate daily milk yield from one milking of cows milked three times daily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to derive factors to predict daily milk yield when milk is sampled once per d for cows milked three times (3x) per d. Milk weights for all three milkings were recorded automatically by 8 herds and collected by Dairy Herd Improvement supervisors on test-day. Following edits, 196,725...

  2. Raw milk consumption and health.

    PubMed

    Vranješ, Anka Popović; Popović, Milka; Jevtić, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39%) outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%), bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79%) outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market. PMID:25845259

  3. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  4. 21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.115 Concentrated milk. (a) Description. Concentrated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of...

  5. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk....

  6. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  7. 21 CFR 131.112 - Cultured milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cultured milk. 131.112 Section 131.112 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.112 Cultured milk. (a) Description. Cultured milk is the food produced by culturing one or more of the optional dairy...

  8. 21 CFR 131.110 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk. 131.110 Section 131.110 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.110 Milk. (a) Description. Milk is the lacteal secretion, practically free from colostrum, obtained by the complete...

  9. 21 CFR 131.111 - Acidified milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acidified milk. 131.111 Section 131.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.111 Acidified milk. (a) Description. Acidified milk is the food produced by souring one or more of the optional dairy...

  10. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  11. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  12. 21 CFR 131.112 - Cultured milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cultured milk. 131.112 Section 131.112 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.112 Cultured milk. (a) Description. Cultured milk is the food produced by culturing one or more of the optional dairy...

  13. 21 CFR 131.111 - Acidified milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acidified milk. 131.111 Section 131.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.111 Acidified milk. (a) Description. Acidified milk is the food produced by souring one or more of the optional dairy...

  14. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk....

  15. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  16. 21 CFR 131.111 - Acidified milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acidified milk. 131.111 Section 131.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.111 Acidified milk. (a) Description. Acidified milk is the food produced by souring one or more of the optional dairy...

  17. 21 CFR 131.112 - Cultured milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cultured milk. 131.112 Section 131.112 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.112 Cultured milk. (a) Description. Cultured milk is the food produced by culturing one or more of the optional dairy...

  18. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  19. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  20. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk....

  1. Detection of cow milk adulteration in yak milk by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Ren, Q R; Zhang, H; Guo, H Y; Jiang, L; Tian, M; Ren, F Z

    2014-10-01

    In the current study, a simple, sensitive, and specific ELISA assay using a high-affinity anti-bovine β-casein monoclonal antibody was developed for the rapid detection of cow milk in adulterated yak milk. The developed ELISA was highly specific and could be applied to detect bovine β-casein (10-8,000 μg/mL) and cow milk (1:1,300 to 1:2 dilution) in yak milk. Cross-reactivity was <1% when tested against yak milk. The linear range of adulterant concentration was 1 to 80% (vol/vol) and the minimum detection limit was 1% (vol/vol) cow milk in yak milk. Different treatments, including heating, acidification, and rennet addition, did not interfere with the assay. Moreover, the results were highly reproducible (coefficient of variation <10%) and we detected no significant differences between known and estimated values. Therefore, this assay is appropriate for the routine analysis of yak milk adulterated with cow milk. PMID:25151876

  2. Milk and oral health.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ingegerd; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2011-01-01

    Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10-15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life and nutritional status. Prevention and treatment need, besides traditional implementation of proper oral hygiene, sugar restriction and use of fluoride, newer cost-effective strategies. Non-sweetened dairy products, which are proven non-cariogenic, or specific bioactive components from alike sources might prove to be part of such strategies. Thus, milk proteins, such as bovine and human caseins and lactoferrin, inhibit initial attachment of cariogenic mutans streptococci to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva or purified saliva host ligands. In contrast, both bovine and human milk coated on hydroxyapatite promotes attachment of commensal Actinomyces naeslundii and other streptococci in vitro, and phosphorylated milk-derived peptides promote maintenance of tooth minerals, as shown for the β-casein-derived caseino-phosphate peptide. Observational studies are promising, but randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal if dairy products could be a complementary treatment for oral health. PMID:21335990

  3. Distribution of animal drugs between skim milk and milk fat fractions in spiked whole milk: Understanding the potential impact on commercial milk products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA) and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. Greater than 90% of radioactivity...

  4. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements...

  5. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements...

  6. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements...

  7. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements...

  8. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements...

  9. Human Milk Fortification in India.

    PubMed

    Kler, Neelam; Thakur, Anup; Modi, Manoj; Kaur, Avneet; Garg, Pankaj; Soni, Arun; Saluja, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Human milk fortification in preterm babies has become a standard of care in developed countries. Use of human milk fortifier (HMF) in very-low-birthweight infants is not a routine practice in India. There are concerns about high osmolality, feed intolerance, necrotizing enterocolitis, risk of contamination and added cost associated with use of HMF. There are limited data from India which address the issue of safety and short-term benefits of human milk fortification. This chapter highlights the issues related to human milk fortification in our country. PMID:26111571

  10. Invited review: reduced milking frequency: milk production and management implications.

    PubMed

    Stelwagen, K; Phyn, C V C; Davis, S R; Guinard-Flament, J; Pomiès, D; Roche, J R; Kay, J K

    2013-06-01

    Most dairy cows throughout the world are milked twice daily. In intensive dairying systems, however, it is not uncommon to increase milking frequency to between 3 and 6 times daily to increase milk production. Reducing milking frequency is much less common; however, once-daily milking of dairy cows, practiced either strategically during certain parts of the lactation or for the entire lactation, is not uncommon in key dairying countries where less emphasis is placed on milk production per cow. The practice fits well with more extensive dairy production systems, particularly those based on grazed pasture. A feature of once-daily milking is that it reduces milk yield by approximately 22%, depending on stage of lactation, breed, and parity, and it may adversely affect lactation length and persistency. However, it can offer several positive farm management options, especially related to labor requirements and farm working expenses. In addition, it may provide a tool to better manage the metabolism and energy balance of cows during early lactation or during periods of pasture deficit, and it may help to improve reproductive performance and animal health and welfare. Once-daily milking, representing one extreme of the mammary function spectrum, has attracted considerable research interest over the years. Consequently, substantial scientific information is available on its effects on mammary function, at both the physiological and molecular levels. This review focuses instead on the management of the cow milked once daily, covering the production response in relation to breed, stage of lactation, and parity, and its effect on energy status, reproduction, health and welfare, as well as on milk composition and processability. PMID:23548302

  11. Milk quality and automatic milking: fat globule size, natural creaming, and lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Abeni, F; Degano, L; Calza, F; Giangiacomo, R; Pirlo, G

    2005-10-01

    Thirty-eight Italian Friesian first-lactation cows were allocated to 2 groups to evaluate the effect of 1) an automatic milking system (AMS) vs. milking in a milking parlor (MP) on milk fat characteristics; and 2) milking interval (< or =480, 481 to 600, 601 to 720, and >720 min) on the same variables. Milk fat was analyzed for content (% vol/vol), natural creaming (% of fat), and free fatty acids (FFA, mEq/100 g of fat). Distribution of milk fat globule size was evaluated to calculate average fat globule diameter (d(1)), volume-surface average diameter (d(32)), specific globule surface area, and mean interglobular distance. Milk yield was recorded to calculate hourly milk and milk fat yield. Milking system had no effect on milk yield, milk fat content, and hourly milk fat yield. Milk from AMS had less natural creaming and more FFA content than milk from MP. Fat globule size, globular surface area, and interglobular distance were not affected by milking system per se. Afternoon MP milkings had more fat content and hourly milk fat yield than AMS milkings when milking interval was >480 min. Milk fat FFA content was greater in AMS milkings when milking interval was < or =480 min than in milkings from MP and from AMS when milking interval was >600 min. Milking interval did not affect fat globule size, expressed as d32. Results from this experiment indicate a limited effect of AMS per se on milk fat quality; a more important factor seems to be the increase in milking frequency, generally associated with AMS. PMID:16162526

  12. Milk, milk products, and disease free health: an updated overview.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, R; Behare, P V; Kumar, M; Mohania, D; Yadav, M; Jain, S; Menon, S; Parkash, O; Marotta, F; Minelli, E; Henry, C J K; Yadav, H

    2012-01-01

    The cow and its milk have been held sacred in the world since the dawn of human civilization. Indian ancient Vedic texts describe the virtues of milk and dairy products, as is authenticated by modern scientific principles and proofs. Therefore, milk has been considered as one of the most natural and highly nutritive part of a daily balanced diet. Currently, the integration of advanced scientific knowledge with traditional information is gaining incredible momentum toward developing the concept of potential therapeutic foods. Furthermore, new advances toward understanding the therapeutic roles of milk and milk products have also given a new impetus for unraveling the age old secrets of milk. At present, the best-known examples of therapeutic foods are fermented milk products containing health promoting probiotic bacteria. In the present article, we have tried to review the various aspects of the therapeutic nature of milk and fermented dairy products in a highly up-dated manner, and offer an in-depth insight into the development of targeted therapeutic future foods as per the requirements of consumers. PMID:22332596

  13. Lead content of milk and infant formula

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.

    1980-03-01

    Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

  14. Associations among milk quality indicators in raw bulk milk.

    PubMed

    Pantoja, J C F; Reinemann, D J; Ruegg, P L

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine characteristics and associations among bulk milk quality indicators from a cohort of dairies that used modern milk harvest, storage, and shipment systems and participated in an intensive program of milk quality monitoring. Bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), total bacteria count (TBC), coliform count (CC), and laboratory pasteurization count (LPC) were monitored between July 2006 and July 2007. Bulk milk samples were collected 3 times daily (n = 3 farms), twice daily (n = 6 farms), once daily (n = 4 farms), or once every other day (n = 3 farms). Most farms (n = 11) had direct loading of milk into tankers on trucks, but 5 farms had stationary bulk tanks. The average herd size was 924 cows (range = 200 to 2,700), and daily milk produced per herd was 35,220 kg (range = 7,500 to 105,000 kg). Thresholds for increased bacterial counts were defined according to the 75th percentile and were >8,000 cfu/mL for TBC, >160 cfu/mL for CC, and >or=310 cfu/mL for LPC. Means values were 12,500 (n = 7,241 measurements), 242 (n = 7,275 measurements), and 226 cfu/mL (n = 7,220 measurements) for TBC, CC, and LPC, respectively. Increased TBC was 6.3 times more likely for bulk milk loads with increased CC compared with loads containing fewer coliforms. Increased TBC was 1.3 times more likely for bulk milk with increased LPC. The odds of increased TBC increased by 2.4% for every 10,000-cells/mL increase in SCC in the same milk load. The odds of increased CC increased by 4.3% for every 10,000-cells/mL increase in SCC. The odds of increased CC increased by 1% for every 0.1 degrees C increase in the milk temperature upon arrival at the dairy plant (or at pickup for farms with bulk tank). Laboratory pasteurization count was poorly associated with other milk quality indicators. Seasonal effects on bacterial counts and milk temperature varied substantially among farms. Results of this study can be used to aid the interpretation and analysis of

  15. Estimating efficiency in automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Castro, A; Pereira, J M; Amiama, C; Bueno, J

    2012-02-01

    Milking data of 34 single automatic milking system (AMS) units on 29 Galician dairy farms were analyzed to determine the system capacity in each farm under actual working conditions. Number of cows, milk yield, milkings per cow per day, actual milking time, rejected milking time, cleaning time, and machine downtime were used to determine the number of cows milked per AMS unit to obtain the optimal values of milkings per cow and milk production. Multiple linear regression data analysis was used to model the linear relationship between the dependent variable, milk yield per AMS per year, and the predictor variables: number of cows per AMS, milkings per cow per day, milk flow rate, and rejections per AMS per year. An AMS unit milked 52.7±9.0 cows daily at 2.69±0.28 milkings per cow, with a total milking downtime of 1,947±978 h/yr and a milk yield of 549,734±126,432 kg/yr. The predictor variables cow and milk flow rate had a greater level of influence on the milk yield per AMS than milkings per cow and rejections, and explained the 87% of the variation. The AMS in Galician dairy farms could facilitate an increase of 16±8.5 cows per AMS without impairing milking performance; in this way, the quantity of milk obtained per robot annually could be increased (185,460±137,460 kg). This would make it possible to recoup the cost of the system earlier. In the present situation, the daily milking throughput could be maximized at 2.4 to 2.6 milkings per cow. PMID:22281358

  16. Gulypyrones A and B and Phomentrioloxins B and C Produced by Diaporthe gulyae, a Potential Mycoherbicide for Saffron Thistle (Carthamus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Anna; Boari, Angela; Evidente, Marco; Cimmino, Alessio; Vurro, Maurizio; Ash, Gavin; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-04-24

    A virulent strain of Diaporthe gulyae, isolated from stem cankers of sunflower and known to be pathogenic to saffron thistle, has been shown to produce both known and previously undescribed metabolites when grown in either static liquid culture or a bioreactor. Together with phomentrioloxin, a phytotoxic geranylcyclohexenetriol recently isolated from a strain of Phomopsis sp., two new phytotoxic trisubstituted α-pyrones, named gulypyrones A and B (1 and 2), and two new 1,O- and 2,O-dehydro derivatives of phomentrioloxin, named phomentrioloxins B and C (3 and 4), were isolated from the liquid culture filtrates of D. gulyae. These four metabolites were characterized as 6-[(2S)2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl]-4-methoxy-5-methylpyran-2-one (1), 6-[(1E)-3-hydroxy-1-methylpropenyl]-4-methoxy-3-methylpyran-2-one (2), 4,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-2-(7-methyl-3-methyleneoct-6-en-1-ynyl)cyclohex-2-enone (3), and 2,5-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-(7-methyl-3-methyleneoct-6-en-1-ynyl)cyclohex-3-enone (4) using spectroscopic and chemical methods. The absolute configuration of the hydroxylated secondary carbon of the 2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl side chain at C-6 of gulypyrone A was determined as S by applying a modified Mosher's method. Other well-known metabolites were also isolated including 3-nitropropionic, succinic, and p-hydroxy- and p-methylbenzoic acids, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and nectriapyrone. When assayed using a 5 mM concentration on punctured leaf disks of weedy and crop plants, apart from 3-nitropropionic acid (the main metabolite responsible for the strong phytotoxicity of the culture filtrate), phomentrioloxin B caused small, but clear, necrotic spots on a number of plant species, whereas gulypyrone A caused leaf necrosis on Helianthus annuus plantlets. All other compounds were weakly active or inactive. PMID:25700035

  17. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  18. Mammals, milk, molecules, and micelles.

    PubMed

    Fox, P F

    2011-01-01

    After a brief description of my family background and school days, my professional career as a dairy scientist is described under three headings: research, teaching, and writing. My research activities fall into four areas: biochemistry of cheese, fractionation and characterization of milk proteins, heat stability of milk, and dairy enzymology. Finally, I offer some advice to young scientists. PMID:22129372

  19. [Medical application of breast milk banks].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi-Hong; Ding, Zong-Yi

    2014-07-01

    The history of breast milk banks is over 100 years. Most of the milk banks were closed because of HIV in the 80's. But more and more milk banks are re-opening and new ones are being established as the composition and superiority of breast milk are recognized again. The Human Milk Banking Association of North America and European Milk Bank Association have been set up and they have established and revised the standards and guidelines of breast milk banks. There is no doubt of the clinical effects of donor human milk on preterm infants worldwide. The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition recommended that the preterm infants should use donor human milk when their own mothers' milk is not enough. The first breast milk bank was set up in China in 2013, and its clinical and social significance is worthy of further study. PMID:25008871

  20. Bacteriological examination of milk and milk products sold in Harare.

    PubMed

    Igumbor, E O; Obi, C L; Milingo, T

    2000-01-01

    A study to assess the bacteriological quality of milk and ice cream was conducted using the direct plate count method and the methylene blue dye reduction test. A total of 105 milk and 95 ice cream samples were obtained form two factories (depots) and distributing supermarkets (outlets) in Harare. Under the methylene blue test, all milk and ice cream samples passed the hour and 2 hour tests respectively. However, 99% of the milk and 69% of the ice cream samples reduced the dye after 5.5 and 4 hrs respectively. The results from the direct plate counts revealed the presence of both pathogens and non-pathogens. The median plate counts in the milk and ice cream were found 400 cfu / ml and 100 cfu / ml respectively. Organisms isolated in both samples and in all outlets were similar, these included Bacillus spp. Coagulase Staphlococcus spp., microcuccus spp., Steptococcus spp., Diphthroids, Fusiform bacterial Klebsiella spp., and Citrobacter spp. No significant differences were found in the plate counts of the samples obtained from the depots and outlets for the milk (P = 0.542, df = 1)) and ice cream samples (P = 0.377, df = 1). Results further revealed that there was no significant difference in isolates obtained form strawberry ice cream (0.0096). The study has therefore, revealed that milk and milk product sold in various outlets in Harare contained a variety of bacteria of public health importance and also that the methylene blue dye reduction test is not reliable for the detection of bacterial contaminants in dairy products. It is thus suggested that the use of methylene blue dyes be adapted in combination with other tests such as the plate count in assessing bacterial contaminants in milk products. PMID:17650038

  1. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  2. 7 CFR 58.430 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk. 58.430 Section 58.430 Agriculture Regulations of....430 Milk. The milk shall be fresh, sweet, pleasing and desirable in flavor and shall meet the requirements as outlined under §§ 58.132 through 58.138. The milk may be adjusted by separating part of the...

  3. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  4. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  5. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  6. 7 CFR 58.430 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk. 58.430 Section 58.430 Agriculture Regulations of....430 Milk. The milk shall be fresh, sweet, pleasing and desirable in flavor and shall meet the requirements as outlined under §§ 58.132 through 58.138. The milk may be adjusted by separating part of the...

  7. 7 CFR 58.430 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk. 58.430 Section 58.430 Agriculture Regulations of....430 Milk. The milk shall be fresh, sweet, pleasing and desirable in flavor and shall meet the requirements as outlined under §§ 58.132 through 58.138. The milk may be adjusted by separating part of the...

  8. 7 CFR 58.936 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk. 58.936 Section 58.936 Agriculture Regulations of... Official Identification § 58.936 Milk. To process and package evaporated and condensed milk of ultra... Shield the raw incoming milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.136....

  9. 7 CFR 58.936 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk. 58.936 Section 58.936 Agriculture Regulations of... Official Identification § 58.936 Milk. To process and package evaporated and condensed milk of ultra... Shield the raw incoming milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.136....

  10. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of...

  11. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of...

  12. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of...

  13. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  14. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  15. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  16. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  17. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  18. 7 CFR 58.936 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk. 58.936 Section 58.936 Agriculture Regulations of... Official Identification § 58.936 Milk. To process and package evaporated and condensed milk of ultra... Shield the raw incoming milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.136....

  19. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of...

  20. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  1. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  2. 7 CFR 58.430 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk. 58.430 Section 58.430 Agriculture Regulations of....430 Milk. The milk shall be fresh, sweet, pleasing and desirable in flavor and shall meet the requirements as outlined under §§ 58.132 through 58.138. The milk may be adjusted by separating part of the...

  3. 7 CFR 58.936 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk. 58.936 Section 58.936 Agriculture Regulations of... Official Identification § 58.936 Milk. To process and package evaporated and condensed milk of ultra... Shield the raw incoming milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.136....

  4. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  5. 7 CFR 58.936 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk. 58.936 Section 58.936 Agriculture Regulations of... Official Identification § 58.936 Milk. To process and package evaporated and condensed milk of ultra... Shield the raw incoming milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.136....

  6. 7 CFR 58.430 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk. 58.430 Section 58.430 Agriculture Regulations of....430 Milk. The milk shall be fresh, sweet, pleasing and desirable in flavor and shall meet the requirements as outlined under §§ 58.132 through 58.138. The milk may be adjusted by separating part of the...

  7. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  8. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of...

  9. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  10. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  11. Milk metabolites and neurodegeneration: Is there crosstalk?

    PubMed

    Thakur, Keshav; Anand, Akshay

    2015-10-01

    Milk has been considered as a natural source of nutrition for decades. Milk is known to be nutrient-rich which aids the growth and development of the human body. Milk contains both macro- and micronutrients. Breast milk is widely regarded as the optimal source of neonatal nutrition due to its composition of carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and antibodies. However, despite the wide use of milk products, investigations into the role of milk in degenerative diseases have been limited. This review will examine the relationship between the β-casein gene found in bovine milk and disease states by using age-related macular degeneration as an example. PMID:26526864

  12. Automatic milking systems, farm size, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C A; Coiner, C U; Soder, K J

    2003-12-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) offer relief from the demanding routine of milking. Although many AMS are in use in Europe and a few are used in the United States, the potential benefit for American farms is uncertain. A farm-simulation model was used to determine the long-term, whole-farm effect of implementing AMS on farm sizes of 30 to 270 cows. Highest farm net return to management and unpaid factors was when AMS were used at maximal milking capacity. Adding stalls to increase milking frequency and possibly increase production generally did not improve net return. Compared with new traditional milking systems, the greatest potential economic benefit was a single-stall AMS on a farm size of 60 cows at a moderate milk production level (8600 kg/cow). On other farm sizes using single-stall type robotic units, losses in annual net return of 0 dollars to 300 dollars/cow were projected, with the greatest losses on larger farms and at high milk production (10,900 kg/cow). Systems with one robot serving multiple stalls provided a greater net return than single-stall systems, and this net return was competitive with traditional parlors for 50- to 130-cow farm sizes. The potential benefit of AMS was improved by 100 dollars/cow per year if the AMS increased production an additional 5%. A 20% reduction in initial equipment cost or doubling milking labor cost also improved annual net return of an AMS by up to 100 dollars/cow. Annual net return was reduced by 110 dollars/cow, though, if the economic life of the AMS was reduced by 3 yr for a more rapid depreciation than that normally used with traditional milking systems. Thus, under current assumptions, the economic return for an AMS was similar to that of new parlor systems on smaller farms when the milking capacity of the AMS was well matched to herd size and milk production level. PMID:14740859

  13. Breast milk - pumping and storing

    MedlinePlus

    ... bottle. DO NOT use everyday plastic bags or formula bottle bags. They leak. Store your breast milk. ... means not giving any other food, drinks, or formula. If you use formula, still breastfeed and give ...

  14. Breast milk breaks new boundaries.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Sioned

    2012-01-01

    It is widely understood that breast milk is best for babies, but groundbreaking research continues to be conducted by the world's leading researchers to ensure we have the most recent knowledge to help breastfeeding mothers and give health professionals up to date guidance. This article provides a report from the recent International Breastfeeding and Lactation Symposium, hosted by Medela, touching on some of the key findings that were presented. This year's symposium revealed some exciting news for the breastfeeding world and here our reporter gives us a snap shot of the three most significant updates: further understanding of stem cells in breast milk, findings that have unlocked the power of human milk and insights into medication and breast milk. PMID:22908502

  15. Nonnutritive Sweeteners in Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Gardner, Alexandra L; Bauman, Viviana; Blau, Jenny E; Garraffo, H Martin; Walter, Peter J; Rother, Kristina I

    2015-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), including saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, and acesulfame-potassium, are commonly consumed in the general population, and all except for saccharin are considered safe for use during pregnancy and lactation. Sucralose (Splenda) currently holds the majority of the NNS market share and is often combined with acesulfame-potassium in a wide variety of foods and beverages. To date, saccharin is the only NNS reported to be found in human breast milk after maternal consumption, while there is no apparent information on the other NNS. Breast milk samples were collected from 20 lactating volunteers, irrespective of their habitual NNS intake. Saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame-potassium were present in 65% of participants' milk samples, whereas aspartame was not detected. These data indicate that NNS are frequently ingested by nursing infants, and thus prospective clinical studies are necessary to determine whether early NNS exposure via breast milk may have clinical implications. PMID:26267522

  16. Milking the 30,000-pound herd.

    PubMed

    Mein, G A; Thompson, P D

    1993-10-01

    The principles for milking the 13,600-kg (30,000-lb) cow are the same as for any other dairy cow: she should be milked gently, quickly, and completely with minimal machine stripping or over-milking. The application of these principles may differ, however, because high producing cows have 1) lower premilking stimulus requirements than low producers, 2) higher peak milking rates and higher average flow rates (yet longer times to milkout), 3) higher incidence of teat orifice lesions such as hyperkeratosis, and 4) higher risk of new mastitis infections. Existing national and international standards for construction and performance of milking systems may not be adequate to manage the higher expected flow rates through the milking unit and milklines. Such standards need to be reviewed and perhaps revised to ensure appropriate sizing and flow characteristics based on sound engineering principles and physiological requirements. Milking four times per day increases daily milk production compared with twice per day, and milking eight times per day increased daily production compared with four times per day. Cows milked more than four times per day might not require complete milking out at every milking. More frequent milking (or milking on demand) may be achieved with robot milkers, provided that robots can match the reliability of human milkers. PMID:8227649

  17. Impact of the removal of chocolate milk from school milk programs for children in Saskatoon, Canada.

    PubMed

    Henry, Carol; Whiting, Susan J; Phillips, Theodosia; Finch, Sarah L; Zello, Gordon A; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2015-03-01

    Studies in the United States report inclusion of flavoured milk in the diets of children and youth improves nutrient intakes. No research has investigated the contribution of flavoured milk to overall milk intake or the milk preferences of Canadian children. The objective of the study was to measure milk consumption (plain milk and flavoured milk) by children in an elementary school environment and investigate factors contributing to milk choice. A mixed-method research design was applied across 6 schools for 12 weeks. Milk waste was measured in grades 1-8 for 12 weeks. Weeks 1-4 (phase 1) and 9-12 (phase 3) provided both plain milk and flavoured milk as chocolate milk while weeks 5-8 (phase 2) provided plain milk only. Beverage Frequency Questionnaires were used in each phase (in grades 5-8 only) to assess usual beverage consumption. Statistical nutrient modelling was conducted to determine the effects of removing chocolate milk during phase 2 as a milk choice. Later, focus groups were conducted with students in grades 5-8 to determine what influences them to choose/not choose to drink milk. Total milk intake decreased by 12.3% when chocolate milk was removed from the schools (26.6% ± 5.2% to 14.31% ± 1.6%, p < 0.001). Milk choice was influenced by environmental factors as well as taste, cost, convenience, and variety. Total milk intake was associated with location (p = 0.035) and cost (p < 0.001), with rural students and/or those students receiving free milk drinking the greatest amount of milk. Nutrient modelling revealed chocolate milk is more cost-efficient and convenient at providing nutrients than alternative food/drink combinations. PMID:25585706

  18. Visual scoring of milk mixed with blood.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten D; Bjerring, Martin

    2005-08-01

    Sorting of normal and abnormal milk at time of milking is done visually for conventional milking systems, but more concrete standards are needed when milking is done in automatic milking systems (AMS). Several panel tests were carried out to find out how different consumer groups, milkers and advisors look at and respond to the visual appearance of milk mixed with blood, in order to set a limit for what they think is acceptable. It is concluded from the test panel results that milk samples with 0.4% or more of blood all will be scored as pink and samples with 0.1% blood (about 6 microM-haemoglobin or 100 mg/l) can be visually detected if they are compared with milk samples without blood. The consumer group scored fewer of the samples with 0-1% blood as normal than did the professional groups. The test panel scored 65% of the samples with 1% blood as normal when milk was presented in a black strip cup, which is the reference method when foremilking takes place in a conventional parlour. Only 2% of the milk samples with 2% blood (about 120 microM-haemoglobin or 2000 mg/l) were scored as normal in a black strip cup and should consequently be detected by conventional as well as automatic systems. One model of AMS was tested for its ability to detect and separate milk coloured by blood. The model separated milk with > or = 6 microM-haemoglobin. Milk mixed with blood injected into the milk stream for a short time at the beginning of milking was not separated. We lack data on how blood is naturally expelled into milk and in what amount. We propose that cow composite milk with > 6 microM-haemoglobin should be separated because at this level milk will have a red tinge. PMID:16174354

  19. Isoelectric focusing and ELISA for detecting adulteration of donkey milk with cow milk.

    PubMed

    Pizzano, Rosa; Salimei, Elisabetta

    2014-06-25

    Donkey milk has been recently revalued intensely due to its nutritional properties. Moreover, donkey milk has been proposed as an effective alternative food for some infants with cow milk allergy. Two fast analytical methods were proposed to detect the fraudulent practice of blending cow milk to donkey milk. Detection of cow αs1-casein bands along the profiles of experimental donkey-cow milk mixtures analyzed by isoelectric focusing was adequate to estimate cow milk used as adulterant of donkey milk starting from 5% (v/v). An ELISA-based method using the antipeptide antibodies raised against the 1-28 sequence stretch of cow β-casein was also developed for an accurate definition of composition of donkey-cow milk mixtures. The presence of cow milk at levels as low as 0.5% (v/v) was detected in donkey-cow milk mixtures prepared at laboratory scale and assayed by ELISA. PMID:24892189

  20. [First year of life. Human milk and human milk substitutes].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M

    2016-09-01

    The nutritional improvement of mothers and their children is one of the most cost-effective tools to achieve optimal human growth and development. The World Health Organization recommends offering «exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months, and then begin the introduction of safe and nutritious food while breastfeeding continues until the second year of life.» Since the second half of the 20th century to date extraordinary progress in the manufacturing and formulation of substitutes for human milk has been accomplished, these being partial or complete substitutes for human milk, whether or not suitable for this purpose. Whole (cow´s) milk is not an adequate substitute for human milk during the first six months of life because of its great nutritional disparity and excess solutes with potential deleterious effects in infants. Therefore, it is an ethical responsibility of health professional to educate and advise parents and caregivers on the proper and timely use of human milk substitutes available in our country. PMID:27603882

  1. Factors associated with increased milk production for automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marlène; Hess, Justin P; Christenson, Brock M; McIntyre, Kolby K; Smink, Ben; van der Kamp, Arjen J; de Jong, Lisanne G; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-05-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) are increasingly popular throughout the world. Our objective was to analyze 635 North American dairy farms with AMS for (risk) factors associated with increased milk production per cow per day and milk production per robot per day. We used multivariable generalized mixed linear regressions, which identified several significant risk factors and interactions of risk factors associated with milk production. Free traffic was associated with increased production per cow and per robot per day compared with forced systems, and the presence of a single robot per pen was associated with decreased production per robot per day compared with pens using 2 robots. Retrofitted farms had significantly less production in the first 4 yr since installation compared with production after 4 yr of installation. In contrast, newly built farms did not see a significant change in production over time since installation. Overall, retrofitted farms did not produce significantly more or less milk than newly constructed farms. Detailed knowledge of factors associated with increased production of AMS will help guide future recommendations to producers looking to transition to an AMS and maximize their production. PMID:26898275

  2. [Milk and food security].

    PubMed

    Díaz Yubero, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    In the history of food security in the EU there is a before and after the White Paper published in January 2000; since then we are witnessing radical new approaches in the Commission strategy to ensure the highest standards of food safety for EU citizens, based on a more coordinated and integrated organization. The basic principle was to extend the application of control measures at all stages of the production chain, which was summarized in the slogan which has since been repeated regularly: 'From Farm to Consumer'. The new guidelines for action were the answer to a series of food crises (dioxin, hormones, BSE...) that called into question the European agri-food system and, what was even more severe, produced a deep distrust of consumers by health risks attached to feeding. Beef and cow's milk, two basic components of the European diet, were the products most affected by the aforementioned crisis, which showed that in those years very few companies paid attention to the quality from the source. In this paper a review of the issues presented at the time, the measures implemented by the White Paper and the path travelled is done, while it raised the need to use safe and quality raw materials, so that consumers have absolute confidence in their food. PMID:25862327

  3. Genetically engineering milk.

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Joshi, Akshay; Kumar, Satish; Lillico, Simon G; Proudfoot, Chris

    2016-02-01

    It has been thirty years since the first genetically engineered animal with altered milk composition was reported. During the intervening years, the world population has increased from 5bn to 7bn people. An increasing demand for protein in the human diet has followed this population expansion, putting huge stress on the food supply chain. Many solutions to the grand challenge of food security for all have been proposed and are currently under investigation and study. Amongst these, genetics still has an important role to play, aiming to continually enable the selection of livestock with enhanced traits. Part of the geneticist's tool box is the technology of genetic engineering. In this Invited Review, we indicate that this technology has come a long way, we focus on the genetic engineering of dairy animals and we argue that the new strategies for precision breeding demand proper evaluation as to how they could contribute to the essential increases in agricultural productivity our society must achieve. PMID:26869106

  4. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  5. Milk flow-dependent vacuum loss in high-line milking systems: effects on milking characteristics and teat tissue condition.

    PubMed

    Ambord, S; Bruckmaier, R M

    2010-08-01

    To study the effects of a milking system that partially compensates for milk flow-dependent vacuum loss compared with a standard (high-line) milking unit in a tie-stall barn, milk flow and vacuum patterns were recorded in 10 cows during machine milking with 2 milking systems in a crossover design for 7 d each. Before and after each treatment period postmilking teat condition was recorded by ultrasound cross-sectioning. Additionally, 2 methods to measure teat tissue condition were compared: longitudinal teat ultrasound cross-sectioning and teat tissue density measurements with the spring-loaded caliper (cutimeter method). The partial compensation of milk flow-dependent vacuum loss caused an elevation of the peak flow rate (4.74+/-0.08 vs. 4.29+/-0.07 kg/min) and a shorter duration of plateau (1.57+/-0.06 vs. 1.96+/-0.07 min) compared with the standard milking system. Total milk yield, duration of incline and decline of milk flow, average milk flow, time until peak flow rate, main milking time, and total milking time did not differ between treatments (overall means: 13.75+/-0.17 kg; 0.65+/-0.01 min; 2.88+/-0.09 min; 2.82+/-0.05 kg/min; 1.65+/-0.03 min; 5.23+/-0.09 min, and 5.30+/-0.10 min, respectively). The vacuum drop in the short milk tube during periods of high milk flow was less in the compensating vacuum than in the standard milking system (11+/-1.1 vs. 15+/-0.7 kPa). Teat measures as determined by ultrasound remained unchanged over the entire experimental period with both milking systems. Postmilking teat tissue measures including their recovery within 20 min after the end of milking show a correlation (0.85 and 0.71, respectively) between the methods used (ultrasound and cutimeter method). In conclusion, a more constant vacuum at the teat tip (within the short milk tube) during periods of high milk flow affected milk flow patterns, mainly increasing peak flow rate. However, the reduced vacuum loss did not increase the overall speed of milking. In addition

  6. The effect of pre-milking teat-brushing on milk processing time in an automated milking system.

    PubMed

    Jago, Jenny G; Davis, Kendra L; Copeman, Peter J; Woolford, Murray M

    2006-05-01

    Cow throughput in an automatic milking system (AMS) is limited by system parameters such as the time required for pre-milking udder preparation and cup attachment, physiological responses of the cow (such as milk let-down and milking-out rate), milking machine features and cow behaviour. A single-factor cross-over design was used to investigate the effect of pre-milking teat brushing on milk processing time in an AMS operating in an extensive grazing farming system. Teat brushing consisted of two roller brushes tracking up each teat three times (total brushing time of up to 45 s/cow). Cows were allocated to one of two treatment groups with either no brushing (NB) or brushing (B) for a 4-week period before being changed to the other treatment. Teat brushing resulted in shorter average cups-on-time (B = 506.1 s, NB = 541.0 s, P = 0.0001), longer average milk processing time (B = 10.30 min, NB = 9.76 min, P = 0.001) and no difference in daily milk yield (B = 14.67, NB = 14.71 kg/cow, P = 0.826). There was no difference between the two treatments in the success of cup attachment (B = 3.76%, NB = 5.10% unsuccessful milking attempts, P = 0.285). The estimated time cost of pre-milking teat brushing was 53 min for every 100 milkings, equivalent to an additional 5-6 milkings for every 100 milkings by an AMS. The importance of these potential time savings is discussed in relation to automatic milking in farming systems that aim for a lower per cow milking frequency and high ratio of cows to AMS. PMID:16476173

  7. 21 CFR 131.125 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 131.125 Section 131.125 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.125 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized skim milk....

  8. 21 CFR 131.125 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 131.125 Section 131.125 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.125 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized skim milk....

  9. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person...

  10. 7 CFR 1000.14 - Other source milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Other source milk. 1000.14 Section 1000.14 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.14 Other source milk. Other source milk means all skim milk and butterfat contained in...

  11. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  12. 21 CFR 131.147 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dry whole milk. 131.147 Section 131.147 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.147 Dry whole milk. (a) Description. Dry whole milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized milk, as...

  13. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  14. 7 CFR 1000.14 - Other source milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other source milk. 1000.14 Section 1000.14 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.14 Other source milk. Other source milk means all skim milk and butterfat contained in...

  15. 7 CFR 1160.115 - Milk marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk marketing area. 1160.115 Section 1160.115... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.115 Milk marketing area. Milk marketing area means each area within which...

  16. 7 CFR 1000.14 - Other source milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Other source milk. 1000.14 Section 1000.14 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.14 Other source milk. Other source milk means all skim milk and butterfat contained in...

  17. 21 CFR 136.130 - Milk bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk bread, rolls, and buns. 136.130 Section 136....130 Milk bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods milk bread, milk rolls, and milk buns conforms... permitted in the preparation of the dough is milk or, as an alternative, a combination of dairy products...

  18. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person...

  19. 21 CFR 131.125 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 131.125 Section 131.125 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.125 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized skim milk....

  20. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person...

  1. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  2. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person...

  3. 7 CFR 1160.115 - Milk marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk marketing area. 1160.115 Section 1160.115... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.115 Milk marketing area. Milk marketing area means each area within which...

  4. 21 CFR 136.130 - Milk bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Milk bread, rolls, and buns. 136.130 Section 136....130 Milk bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods milk bread, milk rolls, and milk buns conforms... permitted in the preparation of the dough is milk or, as an alternative, a combination of dairy products...

  5. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  6. 21 CFR 131.125 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 131.125 Section 131.125 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.125 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized skim milk....

  7. 7 CFR 1000.14 - Other source milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other source milk. 1000.14 Section 1000.14 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.14 Other source milk. Other source milk means all skim milk and butterfat contained in...

  8. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  9. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person...

  10. 21 CFR 131.125 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 131.125 Section 131.125 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.125 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized skim milk....

  11. 7 CFR 1000.14 - Other source milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other source milk. 1000.14 Section 1000.14 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.14 Other source milk. Other source milk means all skim milk and butterfat contained in...

  12. 7 CFR 1005.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1005.75 Section 1005.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  13. 7 CFR 1126.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1126.75 Section 1126.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  14. 7 CFR 1006.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1006.75 Section 1006.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  15. 7 CFR 1005.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1005.75 Section 1005.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  16. 7 CFR 1032.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1032.75 Section 1032.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  17. 7 CFR 1032.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1032.75 Section 1032.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  18. 7 CFR 1033.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1033.75 Section 1033.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  19. 75 FR 1027 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Milk and Milk Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... Milk and Milk Products AGENCY: Office for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting and... draft United States positions that will be discussed at the 9th Session of the Codex Committee on Milk and Milk Products (CCMMP) of the Codex ] Alimentarius Commission (Codex), which will be held...

  20. 7 CFR 1007.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1007.75 Section 1007.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  1. 7 CFR 1001.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1001.75 Section 1001.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  2. 7 CFR 1001.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1001.75 Section 1001.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  3. 7 CFR 1007.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1007.75 Section 1007.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  4. 7 CFR 1006.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1006.75 Section 1006.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  5. 7 CFR 1124.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1124.75 Section 1124.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  6. 7 CFR 1006.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1006.75 Section 1006.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  7. 7 CFR 1126.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1126.75 Section 1126.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  8. 7 CFR 1032.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1032.75 Section 1032.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  9. 7 CFR 1001.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1001.75 Section 1001.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  10. 7 CFR 1007.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1007.75 Section 1007.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  11. 7 CFR 1033.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1033.75 Section 1033.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  12. 7 CFR 1033.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1033.75 Section 1033.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  13. 7 CFR 1030.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1030.75 Section 1030.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  14. 7 CFR 1005.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1005.75 Section 1005.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  15. 7 CFR 1030.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1030.75 Section 1030.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  16. 7 CFR 1030.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1030.75 Section 1030.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  17. 7 CFR 1126.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1126.75 Section 1126.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  18. 7 CFR 1124.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1124.75 Section 1124.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  19. 7 CFR 1124.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1124.75 Section 1124.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  20. 7 CFR 1001.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1001.75 Section 1001.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  1. 7 CFR 1124.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1124.75 Section 1124.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  2. 7 CFR 1007.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1007.75 Section 1007.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  3. 7 CFR 1030.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1030.75 Section 1030.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  4. 7 CFR 1006.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1006.75 Section 1006.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  5. 7 CFR 1033.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1033.75 Section 1033.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  6. 7 CFR 1126.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1126.75 Section 1126.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  7. 7 CFR 1005.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1005.75 Section 1005.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  8. 7 CFR 1032.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1032.75 Section 1032.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  9. Fear of people by cows and effects on milk yield, behavior, and heart rate at milking.

    PubMed

    Rushen, J; De Passillé, A M; Munksgaard, L

    1999-04-01

    To examine the ability of cows to recognize people and the effects of the fear of people by cows at milking, cows (n = 14) were handled by two people; one handled the cows gently, and the other handled them aversively. The handlers wore clothes of different color. After handling, the cows stood further from the aversive handler than from the gentle handler. When the handlers changed the color of their clothing, the cows did not discriminate between them. The gentle handler stood close to the cows for one milking, and the aversive handler stood close to the cows for another milking. For two control milkings, neither handler was present. Measurements included milking duration, milk yield, residual milk, heart rates, incidence of movement, and kicking behavior of the cows. Compared with control milkings, the presence of the gentle handler did not change milk yield or residual milk. The presence of the aversive handler increased residual milk by 70%. Kicking behavior of cows during milking was reduced with either handler present, and kicking during udder preparation was reduced with the aversive handler present. For cows that best discriminated between the handlers, the presence of the aversive handler increased movement and heart rate during milking. For cows that did not discriminate well between the handlers, the presence of either handler increased heart rate and decreased movement during milking. Cows recognized individual people, and the fear of people who are present during milking may reduce milk yield. PMID:10212458

  10. Developmental changes in the milk fat globule membrane proteome during the transition from colostrum to milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics is a tool that will help identify proteins important to milk production, secretion, as well as specific components in milk. Identification of proteins associated with various aspects of milk production and secretion will provide a foundation for new research in lactation biology. Milk f...

  11. 7 CFR 1007.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1007.75 Section 1007.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  12. 7 CFR 1032.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1032.75 Section 1032.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  13. 7 CFR 1006.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1006.75 Section 1006.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  14. 7 CFR 1030.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1030.75 Section 1030.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  15. 7 CFR 1033.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1033.75 Section 1033.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  16. 7 CFR 1005.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1005.75 Section 1005.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  17. 7 CFR 1126.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1126.75 Section 1126.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  18. 7 CFR 1124.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1124.75 Section 1124.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  19. 7 CFR 1001.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1001.75 Section 1001.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN...

  20. Distribution of Animal Drugs between Skim Milk and Milk Fat Fractions in Spiked Whole Milk: Understanding the Potential Impact on Commercial Milk Products.

    PubMed

    Hakk, Heldur; Shappell, Nancy W; Lupton, Sara J; Shelver, Weilin L; Fanaselle, Wendy; Oryang, David; Yeung, Chi Yuen; Hoelzer, Karin; Ma, Yinqing; Gaalswyk, Dennis; Pouillot, Régis; Van Doren, Jane M

    2016-01-13

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA), and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate the drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. More than 90% of the radioactivity was distributed into the skim milk fraction for ERY, KETO, OTET, PENG, and SDMX, approximately 80% for THIA, and 13% for IVR. The distribution of drug between milk fat and skim milk fractions was significantly correlated to the drug's lipophilicity (partition coefficient, log P, or distribution coefficient, log D, which includes ionization). Data were fit with linear mixed effects models; the best fit was obtained within this data set with log D versus observed drug distribution ratios. These candidate empirical models serve for assisting to predict the distribution and concentration of these drugs in a variety of milk and milk products. PMID:26652058

  1. Testing for polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Wickizer, T.M.; Brilliant, L.B.

    1981-09-01

    Reports of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of human milk have raised questions about the possible risks of breast-feeding and whether nursing mothers ought to have their breast milk tested. Current data on contamination of human milk are needed so that pediatricians can make informed recommendations about breast milk testing and breast-feeding. With consideration of recent findings of PCB contamination of human milk in Michigan, recommendations concerning breast milk testing and breast-feeding are made. No major changes in current breast-feeding practices are advised. However, breast milk testing is recommended for certain nursing mothers who have had potentially high exposure to PCBs. Limiting the duration of breast-feeding may also be advisable for mothers with high PCB milk fat levels in order to reduce infant exposure to PCBs.

  2. Breast Milk Best from the Breast?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159054.html Breast Milk Best From the Breast? Babies were more likely ... get ear infections if they were fed pumped milk, study found To use the sharing features on ...

  3. 7 CFR 58.932 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.932 Milk. The raw milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.138....

  4. 7 CFR 58.932 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.932 Milk. The raw milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.138....

  5. 7 CFR 58.932 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.932 Milk. The raw milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.138....

  6. 7 CFR 58.932 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.932 Milk. The raw milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.138....

  7. 7 CFR 58.232 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.232 Milk. Raw milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.138 and,...

  8. 7 CFR 58.232 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.232 Milk. Raw milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.138 and,...

  9. 7 CFR 58.232 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.232 Milk. Raw milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.138 and,...

  10. 7 CFR 58.932 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.932 Milk. The raw milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.138....

  11. 7 CFR 58.232 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.232 Milk. Raw milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.138 and,...

  12. 7 CFR 58.232 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.232 Milk. Raw milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.138 and,...

  13. [Milk fat globules, as determinants of the nutritional and biological value of goat milk].

    PubMed

    Skidan, I N; Gulyaev, A E; Kaznacheev, K S

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the most complete information on such fundamentally important quality parameters of goat milk as the cellular composition of somatic cells and the structure of cytoplasmic debris in milk. It also focuses on the characterization of an essential component of the energetic value and nutritional content of milk--milk fat globules and milk fat globule membranes. The survey also clarifies some of the terms and meanings of physiological processes associated with the formation of the milk of various ruminants and breast milk. PMID:26841561

  14. Protective and therapeutic effects of an extract mixture of alder tree, labiate herb, milk thistle green bean-rice bran fermentation, and turnip against ethanol-induced toxicity in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Min-Won; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Lee, Hui-Young; Kim, Dong Jae; Lee, Byoung-Hee; Ahn, Young-Tae; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Huh, Chul-Sung

    2008-01-01

    An herbal extract mixture and yogurt added to the herbal extract mixture were tested for their protective and therapeutic effects on ethanol-induced liver injury. The herbal extract mixture, yogurt and commercial drugs were used for treatment for two weeks prior to administering a single oral dose of ethanol (3 g/kg body weight). The herbal extract mixture and yogurt added to the herbal extract mixture were found to provide protection against ethanol-induced toxicity comparable to the commercial drug treatment, according to the serum and histopathological analysis. It was also shown that co-treatment with herbal extract mixture and yogurt against a triple oral dose of ethanol (2 g/kg body weight, over one week) provided protection against ethanol toxicity. After the initial set of experiments, the herbal extract mixture and yogurt treatments were extended for three more weeks. When compared to the positive control, further treatment with both the herbal extract and yogurt significantly reduced liver injury and resulted in a lower grade of lipid deposition. PMID:18296886

  15. Major advances in fresh milk and milk products: fluid milk products and frozen desserts.

    PubMed

    Goff, H D; Griffiths, M W

    2006-04-01

    Major technological advances in the fluid milk processing industry in the last 25 yr include significant improvements in all the unit operations of separation, standardization, pasteurization, homogenization, and packaging. Many advancements have been directed toward production capacity, automation, and hygienic operation. Extended shelf-life milks are produced by high heat treatment, sometimes coupled with microfiltration or centrifugation. Other nonthermal methods have also been investigated. Flavored milk beverages have increased in popularity, as have milk beverages packaged in single-service, closeable plastic containers. Likewise, the frozen dairy processing industry has seen the development of large-capacity, automated processing equipment for a wide range of products designed to gain market share. Significant advancements in product quality have been made, many of these arising from improved knowledge of the functional properties of ingredients and their impact on structure and texture. Incidents of foodborne disease associated with dairy products continue to occur, necessitating even greater diligence in the control of pathogen transmission. Analytical techniques for the rapid detection of specific types of microorganisms have been developed and greatly improved during this time. Despite tremendous technological advancements for processors and a greater diversity of products for consumers, per capita consumption of fluid milk has declined and consumption of frozen dairy desserts has been steady during this 25-yr period. PMID:16537949

  16. 21 CFR 163.130 - Milk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Milk chocolate. 163.130 Section 163.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.130 Milk chocolate. (a) Description. (1) Milk chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and...

  17. 7 CFR 58.518 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk. 58.518 Section 58.518 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....518 Milk. The selection of raw milk for cottage cheese shall be in accordance with §§ 58.132...

  18. 21 CFR 163.130 - Milk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Milk chocolate. 163.130 Section 163.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.130 Milk chocolate. (a) Description. (1) Milk chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and...

  19. 7 CFR 58.518 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk. 58.518 Section 58.518 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....518 Milk. The selection of raw milk for cottage cheese shall be in accordance with §§ 58.132...

  20. 21 CFR 163.130 - Milk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk chocolate. 163.130 Section 163.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.130 Milk chocolate. (a) Description. (1) Milk chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and...

  1. 7 CFR 58.518 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk. 58.518 Section 58.518 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....518 Milk. The selection of raw milk for cottage cheese shall be in accordance with §§ 58.132...

  2. 7 CFR 58.518 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk. 58.518 Section 58.518 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....518 Milk. The selection of raw milk for cottage cheese shall be in accordance with §§ 58.132...

  3. 21 CFR 163.130 - Milk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Milk chocolate. 163.130 Section 163.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.130 Milk chocolate. (a) Description. (1) Milk chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and...

  4. Clinical applications of bioactive milk components

    PubMed Central

    Newburg, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Milk represents a unique resource for translational medicine: It contains a rich pool of biologically active molecules with demonstrated clinical benefits. The ongoing characterization of the mechanistic process through which milk components promote development and immunity has revealed numerous milk-derived compounds with potential applications as clinical therapies in infectious and inflammatory disease, cancer, and other conditions. Lactoferrin is an effective antimicrobial and antiviral agent in high-risk patient populations and a potentially potent adjuvant to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Enteric nutrition formulas supplemented with transforming growth factor β, a milk cytokine, have been shown to promote remission in pediatric Crohn's disease. A number of milk glycans, including human milk oligosaccharides, show promise in preclinical studies as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. While active preclinical investigations of human milk may soon result in large-scale production of human milk molecules, bovine milk components in many instances represent a practical source of bioactive milk compounds for use in clinical trials. This review summarizes current efforts to translate the compounds derived from human and bovine milk into effective clinical therapies. These efforts suggest a common pathway for the translation of milk-derived compounds into clinical applications. PMID:26011900

  5. Clinical applications of bioactive milk components.

    PubMed

    Hill, David R; Newburg, David S

    2015-07-01

    Milk represents a unique resource for translational medicine: It contains a rich pool of biologically active molecules with demonstrated clinical benefits. The ongoing characterization of the mechanistic process through which milk components promote development and immunity has revealed numerous milk-derived compounds with potential applications as clinical therapies in infectious and inflammatory disease, cancer, and other conditions. Lactoferrin is an effective antimicrobial and antiviral agent in high-risk patient populations and a potentially potent adjuvant to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Enteric nutrition formulas supplemented with transforming growth factor β, a milk cytokine, have been shown to promote remission in pediatric Crohn's disease. A number of milk glycans, including human milk oligosaccharides, show promise in preclinical studies as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. While active preclinical investigations of human milk may soon result in large-scale production of human milk molecules, bovine milk components in many instances represent a practical source of bioactive milk compounds for use in clinical trials. This review summarizes current efforts to translate the compounds derived from human and bovine milk into effective clinical therapies. These efforts suggest a common pathway for the translation of milk-derived compounds into clinical applications. PMID:26011900

  6. 7 CFR 58.518 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk. 58.518 Section 58.518 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....518 Milk. The selection of raw milk for cottage cheese shall be in accordance with §§ 58.132...

  7. Bactericidal Activities of Milk Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Sprong, R. Corinne; Hulstein, Marco F. E.; Van der Meer, Roelof

    2001-01-01

    The bactericidal capacity of digestion products of bovine milk triglycerides and membrane lipids was tested in vitro using Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, and Clostridium perfringens. C10:0 and C12:0 fatty acids and digestion products of sphingolipids appeared to be effective bactericidal agents, whereas digestion products of phosphoglycerides were moderately bactericidal. Thus, milk fat sphingolipids and triglycerides, particularly those containing C10:0 and C12:0 fatty acids, may protect against food-borne gastroenteritis. PMID:11257052

  8. Human milk banking to 1985.

    PubMed

    Thorley, Virginia

    2012-03-01

    This paper provides a literature review of the use of donor human milk by hospitals in Australia and elsewhere from the postwar period through to the early 1980s, and establishes the context for a small study of practices which happened in that period. The latter study will be reported elsewhere. The purpose of this paper is to provide a resource for future comparison when the history of the new hospital milk banks of the 21st century is written. Relevant literature in English and two articles in French were accessed. PMID:22724309

  9. Supplementary feeding at milking and minimum milking interval effects on cow traffic and milking performance in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Jago, Jenny G; Davis, Kendra L; Copeman, Peter J; Ohnstad, Ian; Woolford, Murray M

    2007-11-01

    In extensive pastoral dairy farming systems herds graze 12 months of the year with the majority fed a near-100% pasture or conserved pasture diet. The viability of automatic milking in these systems will depend partly upon the amount of supplementary feed necessary to encourage cows to walk from the pasture to the milking unit but also on the efficient use of the automatic milking system (AMS). This paper describes a study to determine the importance of offering concentrate in the milking unit and the effect of minimum milking interval on cow movement and milking performance in a pasture-based AMS. The effects of feeding rate (FR0=0 kg or FR1=1 kg crushed barley/d) and minimum milking interval (MM6=6 h or MM12=12 h) on cow movement and behaviour during milking were studied in a multi-factorial cross-over (feeding level only, 4 weeks per treatment) experiment involving 27 mixed-breed cows milked through a single AMS. Feeding 1 kg barley in the milking unit resulted in a higher visiting frequency to the pre-selection unit (FR0=4.6 visits/d, FR1=5.4 visits/d, sed=0.35, P<0.05) and a higher yield (FR0=22.5 kg/d, FR1=23.6 kg/d, sed=0.385, P<0.01) but had no effect on milking frequency (FR0=1.6 milkings/d, FR1=1.7 milkings/d, sed=0.04, NS). Minimum milking interval was the major factor influencing milking frequency (MM6=1.9, MM12=1.4 milkings/d, sed=0.15, P<0.01). The absence of feeding in the milking unit had no negative effect on behaviour during milking or the number of cows that had to be manually driven from the paddock. The results show that automatic milking can be combined with a near-100% pasture diet and that milking interval is an important determinant for maximizing milk harvested per AMS. PMID:17922936

  10. From milk to diet: feed recognition for milk authenticity.

    PubMed

    Ponzoni, E; Gianì, S; Mastromauro, F; Breviario, D

    2009-11-01

    The presence of plastidial DNA fragments of plant origin in animal milk samples has been confirmed. An experimental plan was arranged with 4 groups of goats, each provided with a different monophytic diet: 3 fresh forages (oats, ryegrass, and X-triticosecale) and one 2-wk-old silage (X-triticosecale). Feed-derived rubisco (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, rbcL) DNA fragments were detected in 100% of the analyzed goat milk samples, and the nucleotide sequence of the PCR-amplified fragments was found to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments amplified from the plant species consumed in the diet. Two additional chloroplast-based molecular markers were used to set up an assay for distinctiveness, conveniently based on a simple PCR. In one case, differences in single nucleotides occurring within the gene encoding for plant maturase K (matK) were exploited. In the other, plant species recognition was based on the difference in the length of the intron present within the transfer RNA leucine (trnL) gene. The presence of plastidial plant DNA, ascertained by the PCR-based amplification of the rbcL fragment, was also assessed in raw cow milk samples collected directly from stock farms or taken from milk sold on the commercial market. In this case, the nucleotide sequence of the amplified DNA fragments reflected the multiple forages present in the diet fed to the animals. PMID:19841219

  11. The associations between milk production, milk composition and Salmonella in the bulk milk supplies of dairy farms in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    McClure, L H; McEwen, S A; Martin, S W

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess changes in dairy herd milk production and milk composition associated with changes in Salmonella contamination of bulk milk on dairy farms in southwestern Ontario. Twenty-three dairy farms that had submitted milk filters for culture from which Salmonella were isolated (cases) and 23 farms that submitted Salmonella-negative milk filters (controls) were included in the study. The rolling herd averages for milk and fat of case and control farms for the months of December 1985, December 1986 and April 1987 were compared and no significant differences were detected. Case and control farms were divided into three groups (A,B,C) on the basis of Salmonella culture results of milk filters submitted at various time periods throughout the study. Daily and monthly changes in milk production and composition parameters that reflected the time periods of milk filter culture were compared. The following unconditional associations between a changing Salmonella infection status on dairy farms and changes in milk production or composition variables were significant (p less than or equal to 0.05): group A: case farms had higher plate loop counts than control farms; group B: case farms had younger cows than control farms; group C: case farms had cows with longer average days in lactation than control farms. After analytical control of confounding variables, the disappearance of Salmonella from bulk milk supplies of dairy farms was associated with a decrease in percent fat and in somatic cell count. PMID:2713783

  12. Commercial Milk Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Kit Reactivities to Purified Milk Proteins and Milk-Derived Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ivens, Katherine O; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2016-07-01

    Numerous commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits exist to quantitatively detect bovine milk residues in foods. Milk contains many proteins that can serve as ELISA targets including caseins (α-, β-, or κ-casein) and whey proteins (α-lactalbumin or β-lactoglobulin). Nine commercially-available milk ELISA kits were selected to compare the specificity and sensitivity with 5 purified milk proteins and 3 milk-derived ingredients. All of the milk kits were capable of quantifying nonfat dry milk (NFDM), but did not necessarily detect all individual protein fractions. While milk-derived ingredients were detected by the kits, their quantitation may be inaccurate due to the use of different calibrators, reference materials, and antibodies in kit development. The establishment of a standard reference material for the calibration of milk ELISA kits is increasingly important. The appropriate selection and understanding of milk ELISA kits for food analysis is critical to accurate quantification of milk residues and informed risk management decisions. PMID:27272960

  13. An Investigation of Milk Sugar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher A.; Dawson, Maureen M.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an experiment to identify lactose and estimate the concentration of lactose in a sample of milk. Gives a background of the investigation. Details the experimental method, results and calculations. Discusses the implications of the experiment to students. Suggests further experiments using the same technique used in "miniprojects." (CW)

  14. Drying Milk With Boiler Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable energy saved in powdered-milk industry. Only special requirement boiler fired with natural gas or other clean fuel. Boiler flue gas fed to spray drier where it directly contacts product to be dried. Additional heat supplied by auxillary combustor when boiler output is low. Approach adaptable to existing plants with minimal investment because most already equipped with natural-gas-fired boilers.

  15. The complex microbiota of raw milk.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Stanton, Catherine; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Here, we review what is known about the microorganisms present in raw milk, including milk from cows, sheep, goats and humans. Milk, due to its high nutritional content, can support a rich microbiota. These microorganisms enter milk from a variety of sources and, once in milk, can play a number of roles, such as facilitating dairy fermentations (e.g. Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Propionibacterium and fungal populations), causing spoilage (e.g. Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Bacillus and other spore-forming or thermoduric microorganisms), promoting health (e.g. lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) or causing disease (e.g. Listeria, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter and mycotoxin-producing fungi). There is also concern that the presence of antibiotic residues in milk leads to the development of resistance, particularly among pathogenic bacteria. Here, we comprehensively review these topics, while comparing the approaches, both culture-dependent and culture-independent, which can be taken to investigate the microbial composition of milk. PMID:23808865

  16. Milk allergy in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Odedra, Katy Mara

    2015-07-01

    Cow's milk allergy is common in children and rare in adults. The clinical features of cow's milk allergy are varied and they include anaphylaxis, gastrointestinal symptoms and atopic dermatitis. The prevalence of cow's milk allergy is difficult to ascertain, based on self-reported symptoms that are not subsequently confirmed by diagnostic testing. The gold-standard diagnostic test is the double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Avoidance of milk and milk products is the main therapy. Nutritional considerations are important in both children and adults, as is recognising the potential for resolution of cow's milk allergy. Providing evidence-based advice and support to individuals and their families and carers is central to managing cow's milk allergy. PMID:26136034

  17. ALMOND MILK: A POTENTIAL THERAPEUTIC WEAPON AGAINST COW’S MILK PROTEIN ALLERGY.

    PubMed

    Cuppari, C; Manti, S; Salpietro, A; Dugo, G; Gitto, E; Arrigo, T; Sturiale, M; Salpietro, C

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an adverse health effect arising from a specific immune response that occurs reproducibly following exposure to a given food. Cow’s milk protein allergy results from an immunological reaction to one or more milk proteins. The principle key in the treatment of cow’s milk protein allergy is the dietary elimination of cow’s milk protein. Although hydrolyzed and elemental formulas are appropriate replacements, other milk products, including almond milk adequately integrated, could be administered. Here, in the light of encouraging results from our study, we focused on the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of almond milk and we also believe that almond milk might be considered as a potential alternative in cow’s milk protein allergy treatment. PMID:26634581

  18. Storage of refrigerated raw goat milk affecting the quality of whole milk powder.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, C R; Bordin, K; Fernandes, A M; Rodrigues, C E C; Corassin, C H; Cruz, A G; Oliveira, C A F

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the growth of lipolytic bacteria in raw goat milk stored under refrigeration for different periods on quality parameters of goat milk powder during its shelf life. Fresh goat milk (100L) was collected after milking, divided into 3 identical fractions, and stored at 4°C for 1, 3, and 5d. On d 1, 3, and 5, one sample (1L) was collected and used for microbiological and chemical analysis, and the remaining fraction (almost 30L) was spray dried and stored at 25°C. Milk powder was submitted to microbiological, chemical, and sensory analysis immediately after production, and on d 60, 120, and 180. Lipolytic psychrotrophic counts and total free fatty acid content did not increase in raw milk during storage. However, peroxide value, caprylic and capric acid concentrations, and total free fatty acid content of milk powder increased during 180d of storage, with higher levels found in milk powder manufactured with raw milk stored for 5d. Capric odor and rancid flavors increased in milk powder during storage, regardless the of storage of raw milk for 1, 3, or 5d. Heat treatments used during powder processing destroyed lipolytic psychrotrophic bacteria, but did not prevent lipolysis in milk powder. Results of this trial indicate that the storage of raw goat milk at 4°C should not exceed 3d to preserve the quality of goat milk powder during its shelf life of 180d. PMID:23664351

  19. Chocolate Milk Consequences: A Pilot Study Evaluating the Consequences of Banning Chocolate Milk in School Cafeterias

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Andrew S.; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk). If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? Methods In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk–which will be referred to as chocolate milk–was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) were compared year to date. Results Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (p<0.01). Although white milk increased by 161.2 cartons per day (p<0.001), 29.4% of this milk was thrown away. Eliminating chocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. Conclusions Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more) of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose. PMID:24740451

  20. Effects of twice-daily nursing on milk ejection and milk yield during nursing and milking in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    de Passillé, A M; Marnet, P-G; Lapierre, H; Rushen, J

    2008-04-01

    Milk production and hormonal responses to milking in Holstein cows that were milked twice daily, and that either also nursed calves twice daily 2 h after milking for 9 wk after calving (n = 10) or that served as nonnursing controls (n = 8) were examined to assess how nursing affected responses to machine milking. Milk yield at milking during the 9 wk of nursing was lower in nursing cows compared with control cows (26.1 +/- 1.0 vs. 35.5 +/- 1.1 kg) that were only machine milked. During nursing, the amount drunk by calves increased from 6.5 +/- 0.7 kg/d on wk 1 to 12.5 +/- 1.4 kg/d on wk 9. When this was added to the amount of milk obtained at milking, nursing cows did not differ from control cows in total milk produced (35.5 +/- 1.0 vs. 35.5 +/- 1.0 kg). Residual milk yield, after i.v. injection of oxytocin after milking, was higher in nursing cows than in control cows (8.7 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.2 +/- 0.8 kg). During the 6 wk after weaning, milk production was the same for the nursing and control cows (34.0 +/- 1.35 vs. 34.7 +/- 1.42 kg). Plasma oxytocin levels during milking were greater for control cows than for nursing cows (31.7 +/- 5.4 vs. 18.0 +/- 2.8 pg/mL), but were equivalent to concentrations in nursing cows during nursing (35.5 +/- 7.5 pg/mL). Plasma concentrations of prolactin and cortisol increased after both milking (control vs. nursing: prolactin: 40.2 +/- 6.8 vs. 32.9 +/- 6.1 ng/mL; cortisol: 6.4 +/- 1.23 vs. 7.4 +/- 1.10 ng/mL) and nursing (control vs. nursing: prolactin: 18.6 +/- 7.3 vs. 38.9 +/- 6.6 ng/mL; cortisol: 2.34 +/- 1.15 vs. 7.37 +/- 1.04 ng/mL). In contrast to previous studies, there was no obvious advantage for milk production by keeping a calf with the cow. This appears to result from the reduced oxytocin secretion during milking for the nursing cows. PMID:18349233

  1. Comparison of the nutrient composition of commercial dog milk replacers with that of dog milk

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Cailin R.; Freeman, Lisa M.; Martin, Camilia R.; Power, Michael L.; Fascetti, Andrea J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the nutrient composition of commercially available dog milk replacers with that of dog milk. Design Prospective, cross-sectional study. Sample 5 dog milk samples and 15 samples of commercial dog milk replacers. Procedures Dog milk and milk replacers were analyzed for concentrations of total protein, essential amino acids, sugars, total fat, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus. Energy density was calculated. Results from milk replacers were compared with the range of the concentration of each nutrient in milk samples from mature dogs as well as the National Research Council (NRC) recommendations for puppy growth. Results Milk replacers varied widely in caloric density and concentration of nutrients such as calcium, protein, and fat. Calcium concentration was lower in 14 of 15 milk replacers than in the dog milk samples. Docosahexaenoic acid was undetectable in 12 of 15 milk replacers but present in all dog milk samples. All milk replacers had numerous essential nutrients outside of the range of the dog milk samples, and many had concentrations of amino acids, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus less than the NRC minimal requirement or recommended allowance. Compared with NRC recommendations, some dog milk samples had concentrations of total protein, linoleic acid, calcium, or phosphorus less than the recommended allowance. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results suggested that there was substantial variation in nutrient composition of 15 dog milk replacers and that some products were closer approximations of dog milk than others. Nearly all products would benefit from more appropriate calcium, amino acids, and essential fatty acids concentrations and better feeding directions. PMID:24871064

  2. Baked Milk and Egg Diets for Milk and Egg Allergy Management.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna H

    2016-02-01

    In baked form, cow's milk and egg are less allergenic and are tolerated by most milk- and egg-allergic children. Not only may including baked milk and egg in the diets of children who are tolerant improve nutrition and promote more social inclusion but there is also evidence that inclusion may accelerate the resolution of unheated milk and egg allergy. Further research is needed on biomarkers that can predict baked milk or egg reactivity; however, data suggest casein- and ovomucoid-specific immunoglobulin E levels may be useful. Physician-supervised introduction of baked milk and egg is recommended because anaphylaxis has occurred. PMID:26617232

  3. Excretion of drugs in human breast milk

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, R.M.; Findlay, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The present report briefly discusses some of the morphological, physiological, and compositional aspects of animal and human breast milk and how these characteristics might be important for the accumulation of drugs and foreign compounds. In addition, a study is described confirming the presence of caffeine, codeine, morphine, phenacetin, acetaminophen, and salicylic acid in the breast milk of a lactating mother following oral administration of a combination analgesic containing aspirin, phenacetin, caffeine, and codeine. Although the study is limited to one subject, it has provided critically needed data on the rates of appearance in, and elimination of these drugs from, breast milk. A similar amount of information is presented on phenacetin, also a component of the analgesic mixture, which has not been previously reported to enter human milk. The distribution of these drugs between the slightly more acidic breast milk and the relatively neutral plasma is consistent with their weakly basic, acidic, or relatively neutral properties. In general, the study shows that codeine and morphine milk concentrations are higher than, salicylic acid milk levels are much lower than, and phenacetin, caffeine, and acetaminophen milk concentrations are relatively similar to their respective plasma levels. It is projected, from estimated steady-state milk concentrations of the drugs and their metabolites studied, that very low percentages of the therapeutic dosages (less than 0.7%) would be excreted in mother's milk, too low an amount to be clinically significant to the infant.

  4. Quality milk and tests for antibiotic residues.

    PubMed

    Sischo, W M

    1996-06-01

    One goal of total quality management is to prevent the occurrence of antibiotics in raw milk shipped from the farm. An effective approach to meet this goal is the implementation of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) procedures, which are part of the Milk and Dairy Beef Quality Assurance Program for antibiotic avoidance. The program defines 10 critical control points, including screening tests for preventing antibiotic residues. Although milk from individual cows clearly should be tested to ensure that antibiotic-free milk is leaving the farm, it is not clear whether any existing tests can be reliably used on milk samples from individual cows, or even on samples from bulk tanks. The FDA acceptance procedures have not required that bulk milk tests undergo a population evaluation; these tests have not been objectively evaluated for individual cows. Of more concern, detection limits differ among tests, sometimes approaching zero. Despite the intent of the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance, milk acceptability definitions vary between states. In addition, the predictive value of test results has not been integrated into the regulatory process. Although largely ignored by the regulatory agencies, these issues cannot be ignored by the dairy industry. Ultimately, the milk testing program should become a component of the quality process that is centered on the farm and that measures the success of the industry in producing high quality milk rather than being a regulatory program that searches for a flawed product. PMID:8827472

  5. Ultrasound improves the renneting properties of milk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Juliano, Pablo; Williams, Roderick P W; Niere, Julie; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2014-11-01

    The effects of ultrasound application on skim milk (10% w/w total solids at natural pH 6.7 or alkali-adjusted to pH 8.0) prior to the renneting of milk at pH 6.7 were examined. Skim milk, made by reconstituting skim milk powder, was sonicated at 20kHz and 30°C (dissipated power density 286kJkg(-1)) in an ultrasonic reactor. The rennet gelation time, curd firming rate, curd firmness, and the connectivity of the rennet gel network were improved significantly in rennet gels made from milk ultrasonicated at pH 8.0 and re-adjusted back to pH 6.7 compared to those made from milk sonicated at pH 6.7. These renneting properties were also improved in milk sonicated at pH 6.7 compared to those of the non-sonicated control milk. The improvements in renneting behavior were related to ultrasound-induced changes to the proteins in the milk. This study showed that ultrasonication has potential to be used as an intervention to manipulate the renneting properties of milk for more efficient manufacturing of cheese. PMID:24751292

  6. On-line milk spectrometry: analysis of bovine milk composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, Kyle; Kuennemeyer, Rainer; Woolford, Murray; Claycomb, Rod

    2005-04-01

    We present partial least squares (PLS) regressions to predict the composition of raw, unhomogenised milk using visible to near infrared spectroscopy. A total of 370 milk samples from individual quarters were collected and analysed on-line by two low cost spectrometers in the wavelength ranges 380-1100 nm and 900-1700 nm. Samples were collected from 22 Friesian, 17 Jersey, 2 Ayrshire and 3 Friesian-Jersey crossbred cows over a period of 7 consecutive days. Transmission spectra were recorded in an inline flowcell through a 0.5 mm thick milk sample. PLS models, where wavelength selection was performed using iterative PLS, were developed for fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell content. The root mean square error of prediction (and correlation coefficient) for the nir and visible spectrometers respectively were 0.70%(0.93) and 0.91%(0.91) for fat, 0.65%(0.5) and 0.47%(0.79) for protein, 0.36%(0.49) and 0.45%(0.43) for lactose, and 0.50(0.54) and 0.48(0.51) for log10 somatic cells.

  7. [Milk and milk products: food sources of calcium].

    PubMed

    Farré Rovira, Rosaura

    2015-01-01

    The importance of calcium in human nutrition, the mechanisms of absorption and excretion of the element, and the factors affecting them with special reference to dietary factors are described. After reviewing daily dietary intakes of calcium and the main contributors in European and Spanish population, recommended intakes in Spain, the Nordic countries and the United States are mentioned. In relation to the dietary sources of calcium it has to be noted that the value of a given food as a source of a nutrient depends on its content in the food, the bioavailability of the nutrient and the usual food consumption. The calcium contents of potential food sources of the element are reported and its value is estimated according to the potential absorbability of the calcium they contain. The benefits of milk and dairy products as sources of calcium are also highlighted. Populations such as children or elderly may require fortified foods or supplements to satisfy their high calcium needs, so some examples of the efficacy of this supplementation are discussed. It is concluded that food and drinks are the best choice to obtain calcium. Taking into account the calcium content, the usual portion size and the consumption habits milk and dairy products, nuts, green leafy vegetables and legumes can provide adequate amounts of calcium. However, milk and dairy products constitute the best dietary source thanks to the bioavailability of the calcium they contain. PMID:25862323

  8. Human milk metagenome: a functional capacity analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human milk contains a diverse population of bacteria that likely influences colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies, however, have been limited to characterization of this microbial community by 16S rRNA analysis. In the present study, a metagenomic approach using Illumina sequencing of a pooled milk sample (ten donors) was employed to determine the genera of bacteria and the types of bacterial open reading frames in human milk that may influence bacterial establishment and stability in this primal food matrix. The human milk metagenome was also compared to that of breast-fed and formula-fed infants’ feces (n = 5, each) and mothers’ feces (n = 3) at the phylum level and at a functional level using open reading frame abundance. Additionally, immune-modulatory bacterial-DNA motifs were also searched for within human milk. Results The bacterial community in human milk contained over 360 prokaryotic genera, with sequences aligning predominantly to the phyla of Proteobacteria (65%) and Firmicutes (34%), and the genera of Pseudomonas (61.1%), Staphylococcus (33.4%) and Streptococcus (0.5%). From assembled human milk-derived contigs, 30,128 open reading frames were annotated and assigned to functional categories. When compared to the metagenome of infants’ and mothers’ feces, the human milk metagenome was less diverse at the phylum level, and contained more open reading frames associated with nitrogen metabolism, membrane transport and stress response (P < 0.05). The human milk metagenome also contained a similar occurrence of immune-modulatory DNA motifs to that of infants’ and mothers’ fecal metagenomes. Conclusions Our results further expand the complexity of the human milk metagenome and enforce the benefits of human milk ingestion on the microbial colonization of the infant gut and immunity. Discovery of immune-modulatory motifs in the metagenome of human milk indicates more exhaustive analyses of the

  9. Does milk make children grow? Relationships between milk consumption and height in NHANES 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Andrea S

    2005-01-01

    In the United States, milk (usually cow's milk) is widely considered an "essential food" to support bone growth among post-weaning age children, as evident in government-sponsored nutrition policies that mandate milk for children. Milk contains calories, protein, and calcium, among other nutrients, and bioactive components such as insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), all of which may facilitate bone growth. There is a large literature on milk and/or calcium intake and its effects on bone density, but one aspect of bone mass--height--is not well studied in relation to milk consumption. Limited experimental studies show no consistent relationship across populations. To investigate this linkage among American children, analysis of the NHANES 1999-2002 was undertaken. NHANES data allow two hypotheses to be tested: (1) reported frequency of childhood milk consumption will be positively related to adult height and (2) height of children 5-18 years will be predicted by the reported frequency of milk consumption and/or milk intake from a 24-h dietary recall. Results indicate that adult height was positively associated with milk consumption at ages 5-12 and 13-17, after controlling for sex, education, and ethnicity. Among contemporary children, milk consumption had no effect on the height of 5-11 year olds after controlling for age, birthweight, energy intake, and ethnicity. In contrast, milk consumption frequency and milk intake (measured as grams of milk, or protein or calcium from milk) were significant predictors of the height of 12-18 year olds, along with age, sex, household income, and ethnicity. The greatest ethnic contrasts were between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites and blacks, and milk variables remained significant predictors of height in these comparisons. Thus NHANES data show substantial variability in the effects of milk consumption on height. PMID:15981182

  10. Consumption of milk and milk products in the population of the Upper Silesian agglomeration inhabitants

    PubMed Central

    Kardas, Marek; Grochowska-Niedworok, Elżbieta; Całyniuk, Beata; Kolasa, Ilona; Grajek, Mateusz; Bielaszka, Agnieszka; Kiciak, Agata; Muc-Wierzgoń, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Background Providing the appropriate amount of nutrients at every stage of life is a key element determining the proper development and functioning of the body. Objective Because of the nutritional value and resulting position of milk and milk products in the daily diet, this study was undertaken to assess the consumption of milk and milk products among the inhabitants of the Upper Silesian agglomeration. Design The survey covered 600 people, including 339 women (56.5%) and 261 men (43.5%) aged 18–78 years. To assess the consumption of milk and milk products, as a research tool an original survey with the closed-ended and open-ended questions was used. The questions concerned the characteristics of the surveyed group and various aspects of the consumption of milk and milk products. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using the Statistica 10.0 program with a chi-square test for quality features. Results The level of consumption of milk and milk products among the Upper Silesian agglomeration inhabitants is insufficient in relation to nutrition recommendations. However, despite many controversies surrounding milk, the respondents also claimed that it played an important role in their daily diet. Conclusions The most frequently consumed type of milk in the surveyed group is ultra heat treated (UHT) milk with average fat content. PMID:26942408

  11. 7 CFR 1032.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1032.44 Section 1032... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1032.44 Classification of producer milk....

  12. 7 CFR 1126.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1126.44 Section 1126... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1126.44 Classification of producer milk....

  13. 21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sweetened condensed milk. 131.120 Section 131.120... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.120 Sweetened condensed milk. (a) Description. Sweetened condensed milk is the food obtained by partial...

  14. 7 CFR 1126.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1126.44 Section 1126... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1126.44 Classification of producer milk....

  15. 7 CFR 1032.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1032.44 Section 1032... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1032.44 Classification of producer milk....

  16. 7 CFR 1001.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1001.44 Section 1001... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1001.44 Classification of producer milk....

  17. 7 CFR 760.5 - Fair market value of milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fair market value of milk. 760.5 Section 760.5... Farmers for Milk § 760.5 Fair market value of milk. (a) The county committee shall determine the fair... the case of an affected farmer who markets his whole milk through a milk handler, by multiplying...

  18. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  19. 7 CFR 1033.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1033.44 Section 1033... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1033.44 Classification of producer milk....

  20. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  1. 7 CFR 1032.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1032.44 Section 1032... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1032.44 Classification of producer milk....

  2. 21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sweetened condensed milk. 131.120 Section 131.120... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.120 Sweetened condensed milk. (a) Description. Sweetened condensed milk is the food obtained by partial...

  3. 7 CFR 1000.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1000.44 Section 1000... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Classification of Milk § 1000.44 Classification of producer milk. For each...

  4. 7 CFR 760.3 - Indemnity payments on milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Indemnity payments on milk. 760.3 Section 760.3... Farmers for Milk § 760.3 Indemnity payments on milk. An indemnity payment for milk may be made to an... whole milk marketed during the applications period, and (b) any payment not subject to refund which...

  5. 7 CFR 1007.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1007.44 Section 1007... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1007.44 Classification of producer milk....

  6. 7 CFR 1126.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1126.44 Section 1126... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1126.44 Classification of producer milk....

  7. 7 CFR 1131.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1131.44 Section 1131... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1131.44 Classification of producer milk....

  8. 7 CFR 1007.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1007.44 Section 1007... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1007.44 Classification of producer milk....

  9. 7 CFR 1006.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1006.44 Section 1006... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1006.44 Classification of producer milk....

  10. 7 CFR 1131.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1131.44 Section 1131... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1131.44 Classification of producer milk....

  11. 7 CFR 1006.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1006.44 Section 1006... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1006.44 Classification of producer milk....

  12. 7 CFR 1033.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1033.44 Section 1033... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1033.44 Classification of producer milk....

  13. 21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweetened condensed milk. 131.120 Section 131.120... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.120 Sweetened condensed milk. (a) Description. Sweetened condensed milk is the food obtained by partial...

  14. 7 CFR 1000.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1000.44 Section 1000... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Classification of Milk § 1000.44 Classification of producer milk. For each...

  15. 7 CFR 1006.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1006.44 Section 1006... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1006.44 Classification of producer milk....

  16. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  17. 7 CFR 1001.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1001.44 Section 1001... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1001.44 Classification of producer milk....

  18. 7 CFR 1000.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1000.44 Section 1000... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Classification of Milk § 1000.44 Classification of producer milk. For each...

  19. 7 CFR 1033.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1033.44 Section 1033... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1033.44 Classification of producer milk....

  20. 7 CFR 760.5 - Fair market value of milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fair market value of milk. 760.5 Section 760.5... Farmers for Milk § 760.5 Fair market value of milk. (a) The county committee shall determine the fair... the case of an affected farmer who markets his whole milk through a milk handler, by multiplying...

  1. 7 CFR 1007.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1007.44 Section 1007... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1007.44 Classification of producer milk....

  2. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  3. 7 CFR 1131.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1131.44 Section 1131... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1131.44 Classification of producer milk....

  4. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  5. 7 CFR 1001.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1001.44 Section 1001... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1001.44 Classification of producer milk....

  6. 7 CFR 760.3 - Indemnity payments on milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indemnity payments on milk. 760.3 Section 760.3... Farmers for Milk § 760.3 Indemnity payments on milk. An indemnity payment for milk may be made to an... whole milk marketed during the applications period, and (b) any payment not subject to refund which...

  7. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  8. 7 CFR 760.3 - Indemnity payments on milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indemnity payments on milk. 760.3 Section 760.3... Farmers for Milk § 760.3 Indemnity payments on milk. An indemnity payment for milk may be made to an... whole milk marketed during the applications period, and (b) any payment not subject to refund which...

  9. 7 CFR 760.3 - Indemnity payments on milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indemnity payments on milk. 760.3 Section 760.3... Farmers for Milk § 760.3 Indemnity payments on milk. An indemnity payment for milk may be made to an... whole milk marketed during the applications period, and (b) any payment not subject to refund which...

  10. 7 CFR 1001.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1001.44 Section 1001... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1001.44 Classification of producer milk....

  11. 7 CFR 1032.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1032.44 Section 1032... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1032.44 Classification of producer milk....

  12. 7 CFR 1033.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1033.44 Section 1033... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1033.44 Classification of producer milk....

  13. 7 CFR 1000.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1000.44 Section 1000... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Classification of Milk § 1000.44 Classification of producer milk. For each...

  14. 7 CFR 1007.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1007.44 Section 1007... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1007.44 Classification of producer milk....

  15. 7 CFR 1006.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1006.44 Section 1006... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1006.44 Classification of producer milk....

  16. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  17. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  18. 7 CFR 1131.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1131.44 Section 1131... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1131.44 Classification of producer milk....

  19. 7 CFR 1126.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1126.44 Section 1126... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1126.44 Classification of producer milk....

  20. 21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sweetened condensed milk. 131.120 Section 131.120... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.120 Sweetened condensed milk. (a) Description. Sweetened condensed milk is the food obtained by partial...

  1. Impact of processing on the digestibility of milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processing of milk by homogenization and pasteurization causes changes in the milk proteins and fats, but there is little information about whether these changes affect milk digestibility. In this study, whole and skim milk samples were processed and compared to raw milk after all samples had underg...

  2. 21 CFR 136.130 - Milk bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Milk bread, rolls, and buns. 136.130 Section 136....130 Milk bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods milk bread, milk rolls, and milk buns conforms... ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110 except that: (1) The only moistening...

  3. 21 CFR 136.130 - Milk bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Milk bread, rolls, and buns. 136.130 Section 136....130 Milk bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods milk bread, milk rolls, and milk buns conforms... ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110 except that: (1) The only moistening...

  4. 21 CFR 136.130 - Milk bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Milk bread, rolls, and buns. 136.130 Section 136....130 Milk bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods milk bread, milk rolls, and milk buns conforms... ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110 except that: (1) The only moistening...

  5. 7 CFR 1032.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1032.44 Section 1032... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1032.44 Classification of producer milk....

  6. 7 CFR 1007.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1007.44 Section 1007... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1007.44 Classification of producer milk....

  7. 7 CFR 1000.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1000.44 Section 1000... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Classification of Milk § 1000.44 Classification of producer milk. For each...

  8. 7 CFR 1001.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1001.44 Section 1001... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1001.44 Classification of producer milk....

  9. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  10. 7 CFR 1131.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1131.44 Section 1131... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1131.44 Classification of producer milk....

  11. 7 CFR 1006.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1006.44 Section 1006... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1006.44 Classification of producer milk....

  12. 7 CFR 1126.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1126.44 Section 1126... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1126.44 Classification of producer milk....

  13. 7 CFR 760.5 - Fair market value of milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fair market value of milk. 760.5 Section 760.5... Farmers for Milk § 760.5 Fair market value of milk. (a) The county committee shall determine the fair... the case of an affected farmer who markets his whole milk through a milk handler, by multiplying...

  14. 7 CFR 1033.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of producer milk. 1033.44 Section 1033... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1033.44 Classification of producer milk....

  15. 7 CFR 760.3 - Indemnity payments on milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indemnity payments on milk. 760.3 Section 760.3... Farmers for Milk § 760.3 Indemnity payments on milk. An indemnity payment for milk may be made to an... whole milk marketed during the applications period, and (b) any payment not subject to refund which...

  16. Induction of milk ejection and milk removal in different production systems.

    PubMed

    Bruckmaier, R M; Wellnitz, O

    2008-03-01

    Milk ejection is important during milking or suckling to obtain the alveolar milk fraction, which can represent more than 80% of the milk stored in the udder of dairy cows. In response to tactile teat stimulation, either manually or by the milking machine, milk ejection is induced by the release of oxytocin and resultant myoepithelial contraction. The time from the start of tactile stimulation until the occurrence of milk ejection spans 40 s to > 2 min and increases with a decreasing degree of udder filling. Therefore, cows need a longer prestimulation in the late stages of lactation or if the milking is performed shortly after the previous milking, whereas in full udders prestimulation is less important. Milk ejection is disturbed under several conditions, such as during milking in unfamiliar surroundings (i.e., a novel milking environment) or for several weeks immediately after parturition in primiparous cows. Disturbed milk ejection is due to a reduction of or absence of oxytocin release from the pituitary. The severity of disturbed milk ejection and the coping capacity toward a novel milking environment is related to cortisol release in response to ACTH (i.e., adrenal cortex activity). Therefore, susceptibility of individual cows to the inhibition of oxytocin release and milk ejection can be predicted by an ACTH challenge test. Comfortable surroundings, such as feeding in and lighting of the milking parlor, can increase the secretion of oxytocin. Overcoming the lack of oxytocin release by injection of exogenous oxytocin for an extended time results in a reduction of the mammary response to endogenous oxytocin. In different production systems, it has to be verified that udder stimulation is sufficient to prevent disturbed milk ejection. Different brands of automatic milking systems induce a sufficient prestimulation of the udder, even if a few minutes are needed for a successful onset of the teat clusters. Specific breeds used for less intense milk production

  17. Comparative proteomics of milk fat globule membrane in goat colostrum and mature milk.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Liu, Lu; Pang, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Shuwen; Jia, Zhenhu; Ma, Changlu; Zhao, Lili; Lv, Jiaping

    2016-10-15

    As an important nutrient source in large area of world, the composition and nutritional value of goat milk are not well deliberated. Detailed annotation of protein composition is essential to address the physiological and nutritional value of goat milk. In the present study, 423 colostrum and mature goat milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins were identified. The abundance of 189 proteins was significantly different between colostrums and mature milk MFGM. The acute phase proteins were higher in colostrums MFGM than those in mature milk MFGM which protected newborns at the beginning of life. Proteins related to synthesis and secretion were conserved through lactation to ensure the milk production. Of note, long term depression (LTD) proteins were observed in colostrum and mature milk MFGM. Milk LTD proteins could be potential biomarkers for diagnosis of lactation related depressive syndromes and should be taken into considerations of their effects on newborns. PMID:27173528

  18. Effects of light and copper ions on volatile aldehydes of milk and milk fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Jeno, W.; Bassette, R.; Crang, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    Raw, laboratory-pasteurized and plant-pasteurized homogenized milks were exposed to copper ions (5 ppm), to sunlight or fluorescent light and the effects determined on the composition of volatile aldehydes. The greatest change due to copper treatment was an increase in n-hexanal; acetaldehyde showed the least response in each of the sources of milk. The responses were similar from all three sources of milk with laboratory-pasteurized milk samples showing the greatest responses for each aldehyde analyzed. Similar milk samples exposed to sunlight also showed an increase in volatile aldehydes from all milk sources but with the greatest response being acetaldehyde and n-pentanal components. The milk fraction most susceptible to changes in the presence of light was neutralized whey, whereas resuspended cream was most susceptible to copper exposure. Overall, dialyzed whey appeared to be influenced more than other milk fractions by both light and copper ions.

  19. Detection of calcium based neutralizers in milk and milk products by AAS.

    PubMed

    Sowmya, R; Indumathi, K P; Arora, S; Sharma, V; Singh, A K

    2015-02-01

    Current study was carried out with the intent to standardize detection and estimation method for calcium (Ca) based neutralizers in milk and milk based indigenous products (khoa and paneer) using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Neutralized milk, khoa and paneer samples were prepared using milk with developed acidity to which calculated quantity of neutralizer (Ca based) was added. Rosalic acid test results get masked at times due to developed acidity which neutralizes the alkalinity imparted by neutralizer and hence gives false result with time in neutralizer added samples. Atomic absorption spectroscopy proved to be an accurate estimate which could detect the abnormal rise in mineral concentration even with slight addition of neutralizers in comparison with control milk and milk products. Formalin, which is a commonly used preservative in milk samples for chemical analysis, did not have any significant impact on estimation of calcium in the neutralized milk during storage. PMID:25694738

  20. Mild protein hydrolysation of lactose-free milk further reduces milk-related gastrointestinal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Turpeinen, Anu; Kautiainen, Hanna; Tikkanen, Marja-Leena; Sibakov, Timo; Tossavainen, Olli; Myllyluoma, Eveliina

    2016-05-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with milk are common. Besides lactose, milk proteins may cause symptoms in sensitive individuals. We have developed a method for mild enzymatic hydrolysation of milk proteins and studied the effects of hydrolysed milk on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with a self-diagnosed sensitive stomach. In a double blind, randomised placebo-controlled study, 97 subjects consumed protein-hydrolysed lactose-free milk or commercially available lactose-free milk for 10 d. Frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms during the study period was reported and a symptom score was calculated. Rumbling and flatulence decreased significantly in the hydrolysed milk group (P < 0·05). Also, the total symptom score was lower in subjects who consumed hydrolysed milk (P < 0·05). No difference between groups was seen in abdominal pain (P = 0·47) or bloating (P = 0·076). The results suggest that mild enzymatic protein hydrolysation may decrease gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with a sensitive stomach. PMID:27034058

  1. Donkey milk-based formula: A substitute for patients with cow’s milk protein allergy

    PubMed Central

    Osman Swar, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Cow’s milk protein allergy affects 2-7% of children using cow’s milk formulae. Fifty to eighty percent of them develop allergy to other food items and substitutes. On the search for a safe and affordable substitute, we reviewed the composition of milks of the domestic mammals in close contact with man. Milk constituents studied included fat, protein, lactose, minerals, water, pH, specific gravity and caloric value. Compared to others, donkey milk was found to be closest to breast milk when the amount of 16ml of sunflower is added to one liter of this milk. To our knowledge, no allergy to donkey milk has been reported yet.

  2. Derivation of factors to estimate daily fat, protein, and somatic cell score from one milking of cows milked twice daily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to derive factors to predict daily fat (F) and protein (P) yield or somatic cell score (SCS) when milk is sampled once for cows milked twice per d. Milk samples were collected for each milking on test-day by Dairy Herd Improvement personnel from herds recording milking times and m...

  3. Milk flow-controlled changes of pulsation ratio and pulsation rate affect milking characteristics in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ambord, Sarah; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2009-08-01

    To test a system with milk flow-controlled pulsation, milk flow was recorded in 29 Holstein cows during machine milking. The three different treatments were routine milking (including a pre-stimulation of 50-70 s), milking with a minimum of teat preparation and milking with milk flow-controlled b-phase, i.e. with a gradually elongated b-phase of the pulsation cycle with increasing milk flow rate and shortening again during decreasing milk flow. For data evaluation the herd was divided into three groups based on the peak flow rate at routine milking (group 1: <3.2 kg/min; group 2: 3.2-4.5 kg/min; group 3: >4.5 kg/min). Compared with routine milking, milking with milk flow-controlled b-phase caused a significant elevation of the peak flow rate and the duration of incline lasted longer especially in cows with a peak flow rate of >3.2 kg/min in routine milking. In milking with a minimum of teat preparation the duration of incline lasted longer compared with the two other treatments. Bimodality of milk flow, i.e. delayed milk ejection at the start of milking, was most frequent at milking with a minimum of teat preparation. No significant differences between routine milking and milking with milk flow-controlled b-phase were detected for all other milking characteristics. In summary, milking with milk flow-controlled b-phase changes the course of milk removal, however mainly in cows with high peak flow rates. PMID:19250576

  4. Detection of milk mixtures in Halloumi cheese.

    PubMed

    Recio, I; García-Risco, M R; Amigo, L; Molina, E; Ramos, M; Martín-Alvarez, P J

    2004-06-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method has been applied to the detection of illegal addition of milk from goat and/ or cow in Halloumi cheese, traditionally made with sheep milk. The electrophoretic profiles of the casein from Halloumi cheeses have revealed that caprine para-kappa-casein and bovine alphas1-casein peaks point to the presence of low percentages of goat's and/or cow's milk added to Halloumi cheese. Stepwise multiple linear regression has been used to predict these percentages with a standard error of the estimation of 2.14%. The analytical method combined with the statistical application is valid for the prediction of percentages higher than 2% of goat's and percentages of 5% of cow's milk added to the cheese either in fresh or ripened cheese. The standard error of estimation was higher for the prediction of cow's milk than for goat's milk. PMID:15453472

  5. Effect of milking interval on milk secretion and mammary tight junction permeability in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Castillo, V; Such, X; Caja, G; Casals, R; Albanell, E; Salama, A A K

    2008-07-01

    Twenty-four lactating ewes (Manchega, n = 12; Lacaune, n = 12) in mid lactation were used to assess the short-term effects of different machine milking intervals (4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h) on milk yield, milk composition, and tight junction (TJ) permeability of mammary epithelia. Milk samples were analyzed for chemical composition, somatic cell count (SCC), and plasmin activity. Plasma lactose, and milk Na and K concentrations were used as indicators of TJ permeability. Milk accumulated linearly for up to 24 h, showing a different rate according to the milk yield of the breed (Manchega, 38 mL/h; Lacaune, 87 mL/h). Milking interval affected milk fat content, which decreased markedly from 4 to 24 h in both breeds, but no differences were observed in milk protein content. The milk contents of casein, true protein, lactose, and total solids also varied according to milking interval. Values of SCC did not vary by breed (175 x 10(3) cells/mL, on average), showing the lowest log(10) values for the 4-and 24-h milking intervals in both breeds. Plasmin activity in milk increased with milking interval until 20 h of udder filling in both breeds, and was poorly but positively correlated with SCC content (r = 0.39). Plasma lactose increased dramatically after 20 h of milk accumulation, indicating enhanced permeability of mammary TJ. As a result, an increase in Na concentration and in the Na:K ratio, and a decrease in K concentration, were observed in the milk of Manchega ewes. On the contrary, no differences in Na and K concentrations in milk were detected in Lacaune ewes. In conclusion, our results proved that Manchega and Lacaune dairy sheep could maintain high rates of milk secretion during extended milking intervals in the short term, with no effects on udder health and few negative effects on milk yield. Increased TJ permeability, caused by the effect of udder filling, induced changes in milk composition that were more marked in Manchega than in Lacaune ewes. PMID

  6. [Potentiality of synchronous fluorescence technology for determination of reconstituted milk adulteration in fresh milk].

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Han, Dong-Hai; Wang, Shi-Ping

    2014-10-01

    In the present research, synchronous fluorescence technique was used for qualitative and quantitative detection of re- constituted milk mixed into two kinds of milk samples, raw milk and pasteurized milk, respectively. The total accuracy of sample was used to evaluate the performance of the qualitative discrimination models. The correlation coefficient (r), the root mean square error of correction (RMSEC) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEC) were used to evaluate the perform- ance of the quantitative analysis models. The constant wavelength difference (Δλ) between the excitation and emission scanning was determined to be 80 nm from three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum of milk. The total discrimination accuracy was 100% by partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) for raw milk, pasteurized milk and reconstituted milk samples. When checking whether the raw milk and pasteurized milk were mixed with reconstituted milk, the total accuracy of calibration samples was 100% and the accuracy of prediction samples was 75% and 81.25%, respectively. The effects of qualitative discrimination models were satisfactory. The PLS regression was used for quantitative analysis of the reconstituted milk content mixed in raw milk and pasteurized milk. The correlation coefficients of actual values versus predicted values were 0.911 2 and 0.911 2, re-spectively. The RMSEC was 0.042 2 and 0.0384, respectively. The RMSEP was 0.054 8 and 0.057 5, respectively. The cor- relation coefficients of quantitative analysis models could reach up to 0.9. The results showed that synchronous fluorescence technology could be applied for rapid detection of reconstituted milk mixed in fresh milk PMID:25739208

  7. [Selenium contents in human milk after term and preterm labor and in breast milk substitutes].

    PubMed

    Ladodo, K S; Iatsyk, G V; Oshchenko, A P; Skvortsova, V A; Fam Van Tkhu

    1997-01-01

    Selenium contents in breast milk of Russia's and Vietnam's women after term and preterm childbirth and in breast milk substitutes were studied. The concentration of selenium in breast milk of Russia's women was normal after term and preterm childbirth. The level of selenium in breast milk of Vietnam's women was decreased and could not satisfy completely the need of breasted infants. Selenium contents in babyfood "Malutka" Istra' manufacturing company were lower than those in Sybaj' company. PMID:9206891

  8. Producing specific milks for speciality cheeses.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, G; Calamari, L; Maianti, M G

    2001-05-01

    Protected denomination of origin (PDO) cheeses have distinctive sensorial characteristics. They can be made only from raw milk possessing specific features, which is processed through the 'art' of the cheesemaker. In general, the distinctive sensorial traits of PDO cheese cannot be achieved under different environmental-production conditions for two main reasons: (1) some milk features are linked to specific animal production systems; (2) cheese ripening is affected by the interaction between milk (specific) and the traditional technology applied to the transformation process (non-specific). Also, the environment for a good ripening stage can be quite specific and not reproducible. With reference to milk, factors of typicality are species and/or breed, pedoclimatic conditions, animal management system and feeding. Other factors that influence cheese quality are milk treatments, milk processing and the ripening procedures. The technology applied to most cheeses currently known as PDO utilizes only raw milk, rennet and natural lactic acid bacteria, so that milk must be, at its origin, suitable for processing. The specific milk characteristics that ensure a high success rate for PDO cheeses are high protein content and good renneting properties, appropriate fat content with appropriate fatty acid composition and the presence of chemical flavours originating from local feeds. Moreover, an appropriate microflora is also of major importance. The factors that contribute to achieving milk suitable for transformation into PDO cheese are genetics, age, lactation stage, season and climate, general management and health conditions, milking and particularly feeding, which affect nutrient availability, endocrine response and health status, and also the presence of microbes and chemical substances which enrich or reduce the milk-cheese quality. Many of these factors are regulated by the Producer Associations. However, the secret of the success of PDO cheeses is the combination of

  9. A Qualitative Investigation of Adults' Perceived Benefits, Barriers and Strategies for Consuming Milk and Milk Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Mary E.; Mistry, Chetan; Bourne, Jessica E.; Perrier, Marie-Josee; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Milk and milk products provide important nutrients and have been associated with numerous health benefits in addition to bone health, including a healthy weight and a reduction of risk for certain conditions such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer. Nonetheless, consumption of milk and milk…

  10. Consumption of raw or unpasteurized milk and milk products by pregnant women and children.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Sales of raw or unpasteurized milk and milk products are still legal in at least 30 states in the United States. Raw milk and milk products from cows, goats, and sheep continue to be a source of bacterial infections attributable to a number of virulent pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella species, Brucella species, and Escherichia coli O157. These infections can occur in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals, including older adults, infants, young children, and pregnant women and their unborn fetuses, in whom life-threatening infections and fetal miscarriage can occur. Efforts to limit the sale of raw milk products have met with opposition from those who are proponents of the purported health benefits of consuming raw milk products, which contain natural or unprocessed factors not inactivated by pasteurization. However, the benefits of these natural factors have not been clearly demonstrated in evidence-based studies and, therefore, do not outweigh the risks of raw milk consumption. Substantial data suggest that pasteurized milk confers equivalent health benefits compared with raw milk, without the additional risk of bacterial infections. The purpose of this policy statement was to review the risks of raw milk consumption in the United States and to provide evidence of the risks of infectious complications associated with consumption of unpasteurized milk and milk products, especially among pregnant women, infants, and children. PMID:24344105

  11. Association of some milking parameters with milk quality of smallholder dairy farms in Samsun region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Atasever, Savas; Erdem, Huseyin; Demiryurek, Kursat

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the association between some milking factors and milk quality in dairy cows. While questionnaires collected from a total of 50 smallholder farms in Bafra and Samsun, number of milkers (NM), milking duration (MD), care frequency for milking machine (CMM) and age of milking machine (AMM) were used as milking parameters. Milk quality was measured by somatic cell count (SCC) of milk by direct microscopy. Milk parameters were assessed in two groups according to SCC: <400,000 and >400,000 cells ml(-1), respectively. Data were analyzed by SPSS, and no statistical difference was found in each parameter by SCC thresholds. However, significant (P<0.01) difference was determined among MD means by NM groups. Estimated correlation (r=0.47; P<0.01) indicated that lower NM causes to shorter MD during milking activity. The results of the study suggest that dairy farmers should focus on milking factors to obtain more quality milk. PMID:23033654

  12. Decontamination of radioactive milk--a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, A A; Prasad, S R

    1993-03-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in Russia in 1986 has further revealed the susceptibility of the environment to radioactive contamination. This can have serious implications for the safety of milk as well as other foods. Global fallout and other isotope releases can threaten to increase the radionuclide levels in milk alarmingly, and thus make it unfit for human consumption. Perception of such fears in the past resulted in considerable research efforts being directed towards radioactive decontamination of milk by different means. The holding of milk and milk products long enough to deactivate certain radioisotopes prior to consumption, conversion of milk into butter, and manufacturing cheese by using modified processes are some of the approaches in minimizing the radioactivity risk to consumers. Extensive studies carried out in the USA have shown that though somewhat expensive, ion-exchange treatment of milk in large-scale, automated plants can eliminate 90% or more of the radionuclides of concern, i.e. strontium-90, and iodine-131, and much of caesium-137. Various factors affecting the efficiency of the ion exchange process and properties of the treated milk are reviewed. Other processing techniques such as electrodialysis are also briefly discussed in relation to removal of radionuclides from milk. PMID:8095292

  13. Perspectives on Immunoglobulins in Colostrum and Milk

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Walter L.; Theil, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulins form an important component of the immunological activity found in milk and colostrum. They are central to the immunological link that occurs when the mother transfers passive immunity to the offspring. The mechanism of transfer varies among mammalian species. Cattle provide a readily available immune rich colostrum and milk in large quantities, making those secretions important potential sources of immune products that may benefit humans. Immune milk is a term used to describe a range of products of the bovine mammary gland that have been tested against several human diseases. The use of colostrum or milk as a source of immunoglobulins, whether intended for the neonate of the species producing the secretion or for a different species, can be viewed in the context of the types of immunoglobulins in the secretion, the mechanisms by which the immunoglobulins are secreted, and the mechanisms by which the neonate or adult consuming the milk then gains immunological benefit. The stability of immunoglobulins as they undergo processing in the milk, or undergo digestion in the intestine, is an additional consideration for evaluating the value of milk immunoglobulins. This review summarizes the fundamental knowledge of immunoglobulins found in colostrum, milk, and immune milk. PMID:22254105

  14. Relationships between milking frequency, lactation persistency and milk yield in Swedish Red heifers and cows milked in a voluntary attendance automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Gunnar; Svennersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin; Knight, Christopher H

    2011-08-01

    A large dataset comprising output from an automatic milking (AM) system between 1999 and 2006 was examined and a total of 172 cow lactation curves and 68 heifer lactation curves were identified for further analysis. Relationships between milking frequency at different stages of lactation and lactation persistency and total lactation yield were determined. Cows had higher peak and total milk yields than heifers, but heifers had higher persistency (defined as the rate of decline in milk yield between days 100 and 300 post calving). Milking frequency did not differ significantly between cows and heifers in early lactation, but thereafter decreased significantly more in cows than in heifers. The effect of milking frequency on yield characteristics was analysed by comparing the highest and lowest quartiles for milking frequency. High milking frequency in early lactation was consistently associated with increased peak yield. High milking frequency averaged across the whole lactation was associated with increased peak yield in both cows and heifers, and with improved lactation persistency in cows only. This resulted in total lactation yield that was 21% greater in the high quartile cows compared with the low. PMID:21774865

  15. Milk Oligosaccharide Variation in Sow Milk and Milk Oligosaccharide Fermentation in Piglet Intestine.

    PubMed

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Pan, Feipeng; Logtenberg, Madelon; Willems, Rianne H A M; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Schols, Henk Arie; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-03-16

    Porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) were analyzed in six colostrum and two mature milk samples from Dutch Landrace sows. In total, 35 PMOs were recognized of which 13 were new for the PMO literature: neutral HexNAc-Hex, β4'-galactosyllactose, putative GalNAc(α/β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, lacto-N-fucopentaose-II, lacto-N-tetraose, galactose substituted lacto-N-neohexaose, lacto-N-hexaose and difucosyl-lacto-N-hexaose, and acidic Neu5Ac(α2-6)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, sialyllacto-N-tetraose-a and -b, Neu5Ac2-Hex3, and sialyllacto-N-fucopentaose-II. PMOs were analyzed using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced florescence detection or mass spectrometry and using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Interindividual variation regarding PMO presence and concentration was observed between porcine milks. Within a limited sample set, a 43% decrease of the major PMOs was found during a 1 w lactation period. Interestingly, while some PMOs decreased, some other PMOs increased in concentration. PMOs were also monitored in fecal samples of suckling piglets. In feces of 1-2 d old piglets, few intact PMOs were found, indicating considerable PMO fermentation at early stage of life. PMID:26882005

  16. Application of osmometry in quality analysis of milk.

    PubMed

    Musara, Colin; Pote, William

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate osmometry as a tool in quality analysis of milk. The osmolality of raw milk, sterilized milk, skimmed UHT (ultra-high temperature-treated) milk, pasteurized milk, standardized UHT milk and fermented milk (Lactococcus lactis culture) was determined by freezing point osmometry. The relationship between osmolality and pH of fermented milk was further investigated during spontaneous fermentation of UHT milk at 37 °C for 48 h. Average osmolality values (mean ± SD) were raw milk-290.2 ± 7.98, sterilized milk-290.2 ± 5.84, skimmed UHT milk-290.8 ± 3.31, pasteurized milk-283.6 ± 2.28, standardized UHT milk-281 ± 4.59 and fermented milk-466.0 ± 17.30 mOsmoles kg(-1). For fresh milk samples, 88 % showed normal osmolality, 8 % were hypo-osmotic and 4 % hyper-osmotic. Fermentation studies revealed a high negative correlation between osmolality and pH, with a correlation coefficient of -97.49 %. Hypo-osmotic milk shows mixing of milk with water along the production chain. Hyper-osmotic milk indicates fermentation of milk at high ambient temperatures or with prolonged storage. It may also reveal adulteration of fresh milk with a soluble substance. Osmolality was highest for fermented milk owing to production of lactic acid during fermentation. This was confirmed by the high negative correlation between osmolality and pH of milk in fermentation studies. Hence the osmolality of fermented milks may be used as an index of the extent of fermentation. PMID:24587540

  17. Investigating associations between milk metabolite profiles and milk traits of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Melzer, N; Wittenburg, D; Hartwig, S; Jakubowski, S; Kesting, U; Willmitzer, L; Lisec, J; Reinsch, N; Repsilber, D

    2013-03-01

    In the field of dairy cattle research, it is of great interest to improve the detection and prevention of diseases (e.g., mastitis and ketosis) and monitor specific traits related to the state of health and management. During the standard milk performance test, traditional milk traits are monitored, and quality and quantity are screened. In addition to the standard test, it is also now possible to analyze milk metabolites in a high-throughput manner and to consider them in connection with milk traits to identify functionally important metabolites that can also serve as biomarker candidates. We present a study in which 190 milk metabolites and 14 milk traits of 1,305 Holstein cows on 18 commercial farms were investigated to characterize interrelations of milk metabolites between each other, to milk traits from the milk standard performance test, and to influencing factors such as farm and sire effect (half-sib structure). The effect of influencing factors (e.g., farm) varied among metabolites and traditional milk traits. The investigations of associations between metabolites and milk traits revealed groups of metabolites that show, for example, positive correlations to protein and casein, and negative correlations to lactose and pH. On the other hand, groups of metabolites jointly associated with the investigated milk traits can be identified and functionally discussed. To enable a multivariate investigation, 2 machine learning methods were applied to detect important metabolites that are highly correlated with the investigated traditional milk traits. For somatic cell score, uracil, lactic acid, and 9 other important metabolites were detected. Lactic acid has already been proposed as a biomarker candidate for mastitis in the recent literature. In conclusion, we found sets of metabolites eligible to predict milk traits, enabling the analysis of milk traits from a metabolic perspective and discussion of the possible functional background for some of the detected

  18. Public health and the safety of milk and milk products from sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Klinger, I; Rosenthal, I

    1997-08-01

    Goats and sheep rank third and fourth in terms of global milk production from different species, but unlike cow milk, which has stringent hygiene and quality regulations, microbiological standards for the production and distribution of goat milk and sheep milk are more relaxed. Difficulties in managing the sanitary quality of sheep and goat milk derive from a series of factors including the low level of production per head, the milking system, the difficulty involved in machine milking, the conditions under which the herds or flocks are raised, adverse climatic conditions and the spread of production over a wide geographic area. Fresh goat milk is consumed by infants and others with allergies to cow milk and is also used for on-farm manufactured cheese, with or without thermal treatment. The high fat content and peculiar taste of cheeses made from ewe milk are also very popular. These cheese varieties, which are mostly still of 'artisan-type', are not covered by regulatory definitions and the dispute over the use of raw versus pasteurised milk is still alive. However, in documented intoxications recorded after the consumption of cheese, there has always been evidence of incorrect temperature control during pasteurisation, the deliberate addition of raw milk, or contamination during storage. Compositional differences between the milk from cows, ewes and goats (chemical composition of lipids, phosphatase level, freezing point, natural bacterial inhibitor levels, somatic cell count, etc.) preclude the nondiscriminatory use of bovine standards for regulatory purposes. Quality standards adjusted for the specifics of ewe/goat milk should be considered. The production of safe cheese is linked to a series of conditions which ensure consumer health, primarily pasteurisation. In the absence of pasteurisation, all cheeses made from raw milk should be subjected to strict periodic controls. PMID:9501361

  19. Early milk intake, later bone health: results from using the milk history questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Vatanparast, Hassanali; Whiting, Susan J

    2004-06-01

    Milk intake is considered an important determinant of peak bone mass; consequently, its intake early in life may decrease risk of osteoporotic fractures later. Using the milk history questionnaire, many investigators have conducted retrospective cross-sectional studies and have determined a positive effect of milk intake in childhood and adolescence on bone mineral density in adult white women. By contrast, a recent study indicates that early milk intake has no beneficial effect on bone mineral density in black women. The milk history questionnaire can assist in determining diet-bone relationships in various groups. PMID:15291400

  20. Milk adulteration: Detection of bovine milk in bulk goat milk produced by smallholders in northeastern Brazil by a duplex PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, N P A; Givisiez, P E N; Queiroga, R C R E; Azevedo, P S; Gebreyes, W A; Oliveira, C J B

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the adulteration of goat milk produced by smallholders in semiarid northeastern Brazil with bovine milk as an adulterant. The study was requested by the association of smallholder producers in the region to investigate and to inhibit adulteration practices as a need to ensure the quality and safety of goat milk. A duplex PCR assay has been developed and standardized. Further validation was performed in 160 fresh bulk goat milk samples. The detection limit of the duplex PCR was 0.5% bovine milk in goat milk and the results indicated that 41.2% of the goat milk presented to market was positive for bovine milk. Making the test available to the association of producers, together with extension activities, have been applied to reduce adulteration in goat milk sold to small-scale dairy plants and to ensure the species origin for goat milk in the state of Paraíba. PMID:22541505

  1. Dynamic tests during cow milking with different types of milk meters.

    PubMed

    Amirante, P; Bianchi, P; Montel, G L

    2005-01-01

    This study is related to the POM - Measure 2 - Project B15 'Veterinary services computerization and technical support to livestock farms', in which innovative plants solutions has been introduced to recognize the single animal to measure the quantity of produced milk, to centralize and automate the management, in different cow and sheep and goats breedings in Puglia and Basilicata regions. The experimentation has foreseen dynamic tests, during the real milking of the cows, in an apulian plant in which different measurers of the quantity of milk have been installed: weigh jar, electronic weighing 'bascule' milk-meter, electronic proportional milk-meter. In a mechanical point of view, the vacuum level and the vacuum fluctuations in three different milk pipe sections have been valued: at short milk tube, downstream from the claw, prior to the milk meter. Comparing the results, authors deduced that the electronic milkmeters, like the electronic proportional milk meter, allows inferior vacuum degree variations and less mechanical solicitations in cow udder; such situation is particularly evident with higher milk flow. The study also underlines that the vacuum drops during milking can be very critical if not immediately compensate with a suitable planning and periodic revision of the plants. PMID:20437372

  2. Discrimination of "grazing milk" using milk fatty acid profile in the grassland dairy area in Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Kuniyuki; Ueda, Koichiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-02-01

    Milk produced by the grazing system, referred to as "grazing milk" contains many components required for human health. The milk fatty acid (FA) profile is strongly associated with the diet on the farms. In the present study, based on the FA profile of farmer's bulk milk, we determined how to discriminate between milk produced on grazing and on a confinement system. A field survey was conducted four times (grazing and confinement season) in the Konsen (29 farms) and Okhotsk (25 farms) area in Hokkaido. Farmer's bulk milk samples and details of feeding management were collected and the FA profile of milk was measured. Milk produced during the grazing season contained less C16:0 and cis-9 C16:0, and more C18:0, cis-9 C18:1, trans-11 C18:1, cis-9,12 C18:2, cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and cis-9,12,15 C18:3 than milk produced during the confinement season. Discrimination analysis using 16 FA revealed that almost all milk samples were discriminated correctly (confinement season: 90% correct and 10% borderline, grazing season: 88% correct, 9% borderline and 3% incorrect). For farmers that were categorized incorrectly and were considered borderline in the grazing season, the dependency on pasture was low compared with that for farmers correctly discriminated. Therefore, to claim "grazing milk", a high dependency on pasture is required for grazing dairy farmers. PMID:26220515

  3. Shorter sampling periods and accurate estimates of milk volume and components are possible for pasture based dairy herds milked with automated milking systems.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Claudia; Burke, Jennie K; Taukiri, Sarah; Petch, Susan-Fay; Turner, Sally-Anne

    2016-08-01

    Dairy cows grazing pasture and milked using automated milking systems (AMS) have lower milking frequencies than indoor fed cows milked using AMS. Therefore, milk recording intervals used for herd testing indoor fed cows may not be suitable for cows on pasture based farms. We hypothesised that accurate standardised 24 h estimates could be determined for AMS herds with milk recording intervals of less than the Gold Standard (48 hs), but that the optimum milk recording interval would depend on the herd average for milking frequency. The Gold Standard protocol was applied on five commercial dairy farms with AMS, between December 2011 and February 2013. From 12 milk recording test periods, involving 2211 cow-test days and 8049 cow milkings, standardised 24 h estimates for milk volume and milk composition were calculated for the Gold Standard protocol and compared with those collected during nine alternative sampling scenarios, including six shorter sampling periods and three in which a fixed number of milk samples per cow were collected. Results infer a 48 h milk recording protocol is unnecessarily long for collecting accurate estimates during milk recording on pasture based AMS farms. Collection of two milk samples only per cow was optimal in terms of high concordance correlation coefficients for milk volume and components and a low proportion of missed cow-test days. Further research is required to determine the effects of diurnal variations in milk composition on standardised 24 h estimates for milk volume and components, before a protocol based on a fixed number of samples could be considered. Based on the results of this study New Zealand have adopted a split protocol for herd testing based on the average milking frequency for the herd (NZ Herd Test Standard 8100:2015). PMID:27600967

  4. 21 CFR 131.110 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... nonfat dry milk. Milk may be homogenized. (b) Vitamin addition (Optional). (1) If added, vitamin A shall... Units thereof within limits of good manufacturing practice. (2) If added, vitamin D shall be present in... coloring, nutritive sweetener, emulsifiers, and stabilizers) as follows: (i) Fruit and fruit...

  5. 21 CFR 131.110 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... nonfat dry milk. Milk may be homogenized. (b) Vitamin addition (Optional). (1) If added, vitamin A shall... Units thereof within limits of good manufacturing practice. (2) If added, vitamin D shall be present in... coloring, nutritive sweetener, emulsifiers, and stabilizers) as follows: (i) Fruit and fruit...

  6. 21 CFR 131.110 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... nonfat dry milk. Milk may be homogenized. (b) Vitamin addition (Optional). (1) If added, vitamin A shall... Units thereof within limits of good manufacturing practice. (2) If added, vitamin D shall be present in... coloring, nutritive sweetener, emulsifiers, and stabilizers) as follows: (i) Fruit and fruit...

  7. 21 CFR 131.110 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... nonfat dry milk. Milk may be homogenized. (b) Vitamin addition (Optional). (1) If added, vitamin A shall... Units thereof within limits of good manufacturing practice. (2) If added, vitamin D shall be present in... coloring, nutritive sweetener, emulsifiers, and stabilizers) as follows: (i) Fruit and fruit...

  8. Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The composition of human milk is the biologic norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules, e.g., lactoferrin, are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. A dynamic, bioactive fluid, human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, and varies within feeds, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing. Pasteurized donor milk is now commonly provided to high risk infants and most mothers in the U.S. express and freeze their milk at some point in lactation for future infant feedings. Many milk proteins are degraded by heat treatment and freeze-thaw cycles may not have the same bioactivity after undergoing these treatments. This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, sources of its variation, and its clinical relevance. PMID:23178060

  9. Premilking teat preparation for Australian pasture-based cows milked by an automated milking system.

    PubMed

    Davis, K L; Fulkerson, W J; Garcia, S C; Dickeson, D; Barchia, I M

    2008-07-01

    Economic viability of automatic milking systems (AMS) within an Australian pasture-based farming system will be largely determined by the throughput (cows milked/h), which is the result of processes occurring while the cow is in the AMS milking crate. Premilking udder preparation is automated and optional on all AMS. Yet, very few conventional farms in Australia conduct premilking teat preparation regimens, with the majority (78%) strategically washing only visibly dirty teats before milking cup attachment. The objective was to determine the impact of udder preparation in an AMS on the total time spent by cows in the AMS milking unit (crate time). An experiment was conducted with 80 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows in a crossover design over two 5-wk periods to determine the effect of premilking teat preparation (no wash vs. wash) on milk yield, milk harvest rates, and total crate time per milking session in an AMS. Within this study there was no significant effect of treatment on quarter milk conductivity (no wash = 4,858 vs. wash = 4,829 +/- SE = 17 microS/cm), milk blood concentration (no wash = 115.7 vs. wash = 112.3 +/- 7.3 ppm) or test-day somatic cell counts (no wash = 2.044 vs. wash = 2.039 +/- 0.025 log(10) SCC). There was similar total daily milk yield for the 2 treatments (no wash = 20.5 vs. wash = 20.1 +/- 0.2 kg of milk), but a greater mean quarter milk flow rate resulting from the wash treatment (no wash = 0.950 vs. wash = 0.981 +/- 0.013 kg of milk/min). The faster milking was not sufficient to counter the time associated with washing, resulting in longer crate time (no wash = 6.02 vs. wash = 7.12 +/- 0.08 min/milking session) and therefore, lower harvest rate (no wash = 2.08 vs. wash = 1.74 +/- 0.02 kg of milk/min crate time). Not washing teats would allow more efficient AMS utilization by potentially allowing more cows to be milked per machine, which would likely have a positive effect on the economic viability of this technology. The results

  10. Comparative aspects of milk fat synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dils, R R

    1986-03-01

    This general review attempts to capture the interest of nonspecialists, especially those whose main interest is the dairy cow, in the extraordinary diversity of milk fats synthesized and secreted by different mammalian species. The review compares differences in the gross proportions of fats in the milk of various species and discusses different strategies for providing the suckling young with sufficient energy as fat. Despite the constancy of the gross chemical composition of the milk fat globule and its membrane produced by mammals, there are striking differences among species in the fatty acid composition of milk triacylglycerols (triglycerides). The origins of the short-, medium-, and long-chain fatty acids of milk triacylglycerols are reviewed with emphasis on differences between ruminants and nonruminants. Because there appears to be less difference among mammals in the mechanisms of fatty acid desaturation, chain elongation, and esterification by the mammary gland, these topics are only briefly reviewed. PMID:3711414

  11. Excretion of bisphenol A into rat milk.

    PubMed

    Okabayashi, Ken; Watanabe, Toshi

    2010-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, is widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. This study analyzed the BPA concentration in rat milk, in order to assess the risk of BPA transfer to the offspring via milk. The rats ingested BPA by oral administration or by drinking the water in a polycarbonate bottle, and the milk samples were collected using an automated experimental milker. The BPA concentration in the samples of milk, drinking water, and food was analyzed by LC/MS. In the case of milk samples obtained from rats injected with BPA at 2, 4, 8, and 24 h prior to milking, the BPA concentrations were 0.462 +/- 0.182 ppm, 0.138 +/- 0.0185 ppm, 0.080 +/- 0.0197 ppm, and 0.0232 +/- 0.0051 ppm, respectively. Also, in the cases of the water sample left in polycarbonate bottle and the milk sample obtained from rats provided it as drinking water, the concentrations of BPA were 0.000332 +/- 0.00015 ppm and 0.0184 +/- 0.0050 ppm, respectively. The results indicate that the BPA administered to the dams was transferred to their milk, and that BPA concentration in milk was higher at the early period after the single bolus dose. Additionally, these results reveal that sequential elution of BPA from polycarbonate containers in a much diluted form would undergo bioaccumulation in dams and likely be transferred to pups via milk in a much concentrated form. PMID:20163291

  12. Protein Evolution of Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Sagar K; Giuffrida, Francesca; Bertschy, Emmanuelle; De Castro, Antonio; Destaillats, Frédéric; Lee, Le Ye

    2016-01-01

    Given the documented short- and long-term advantages of breastfeeding, human milk (HM) as a sole source of nutrition for the first few months of newborn life is considered a normative standard. Each macroconstituent of HM plays a crucial role in the growth and development of the baby. Lipids are largely responsible for providing more than 50% of the energy as well as providing essential fatty acids and minor lipids that are integral to all cell membranes. Carbohydrates can be broadly divided into lactose and oligosaccharides, which are a readily digestible source of glucose and indigestible nonnutritive components, respectively. Proteins in HM provide essential amino acids indispensable for the growth of infants. What is more interesting is that protein concentration profoundly changes from colostrum to mature milk. In this report, we share data from an observatory, single-center, longitudinal trial assessing the constituents of HM collected 30, 60 and 120 days postpartum from 50 mothers (singleton deliveries: 25 male and 25 female infants). The protein content decreased with evolving stages of lactation from an average of 1.45 to 1.38 g/100 ml. The data did not show any gender differences as it was reported for lipid content at 120 days postpartum by our group. Additionally, we also share consolidated literature data on protein evolution of HM during the first year of lactation. PMID:27336906

  13. Milk pasteurization with geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    Milk pasteurization with geothermal energy has been viewed by the author in two locations in the world: Klamath Falls, Oregon and Oradea, Romania. The former is not longer in operation; but, the latter has been operating since 1981. A third dairy using geothermal energy has been reported in Iceland which was established in 1930 to pasteurize milk and evaporate whey to produce brown whey cheese. This dairy merged with another co-op dairy in 1938 and was shut down. A description of the first two of these installations is deemed important, as there is potential for similar installation is deemed important, as there is potential for similar installation in other geothermal locations. These two reported savings in energy costs by using geothermal heat; the Klamath Falls installation producing 7,600 L/day (2,000 gals/day) for a savings of $12,000 per year and the Oradea plant producing 70,000 L/day (18,500 gals/day) (winter) and 200,000 L/day (52,800 gals/day) (summer) for savings of $120,000 per year (savings 800 TOE - tonnes of oil equivalent).

  14. Uproar over Milk Substitutes Act.

    PubMed

    1993-11-15

    Health policy activists lobbied 7 years for the Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Food Bill. Proponents of the bill say that it basically curtails unethical marketing practices, not the sales of baby foods, and argue that it was conceived to reduce the trend of mothers over-diluting commercial milk in order to reduce household expenses as well as stem the potential erosion of knowledge on locally available weaning foods. Even though the bill will become an Act only after its rules and regulations have been finalized, the government has already banned baby food advertisements on television and in other electronic media under its control. Women's groups now argue that the bill tends to focus almost exclusively upon the welfare of children and compromises the position of women who can not lactate adequately. Moreover, they hold that the bill may be used to compel wives to stay out of the formal workforce so that they may feed their babies. The intention of the bill may be meaningless without complementary legislation addressing the problems of working mothers. Specifically, amendments to the Maternity Benefits Act of 1961 would extend maternity leave to 4 months after delivery and lengthen the duration of nursing breaks. It is, however, feared that these changes may reduce employment prospects for women. PMID:12179211

  15. Invited review: organic and conventionally produced milk-an evaluation of factors influencing milk composition.

    PubMed

    Schwendel, B H; Wester, T J; Morel, P C H; Tavendale, M H; Deadman, C; Shadbolt, N M; Otter, D E

    2015-02-01

    Consumer perception of organic cow milk is associated with the assumption that organic milk differs from conventionally produced milk. The value associated with this difference justifies the premium retail price for organic milk. It includes the perceptions that organic dairy farming is kinder to the environment, animals, and people; that organic milk products are produced without the use of antibiotics, added hormones, synthetic chemicals, and genetic modification; and that they may have potential benefits for human health. Controlled studies investigating whether differences exist between organic and conventionally produced milk have so far been largely equivocal due principally to the complexity of the research question and the number of factors that can influence milk composition. A main complication is that farming practices and their effects differ depending on country, region, year, and season between and within organic and conventional systems. Factors influencing milk composition (e.g., diet, breed, and stage of lactation) have been studied individually, whereas interactions between multiple factors have been largely ignored. Studies that fail to consider that factors other than the farming system (organic vs. conventional) could have caused or contributed to the reported differences in milk composition make it impossible to determine whether a system-related difference exists between organic and conventional milk. Milk fatty acid composition has been a central research area when comparing organic and conventional milk largely because the milk fatty acid profile responds rapidly and is very sensitive to changes in diet. Consequently, the effect of farming practices (high input vs. low input) rather than farming system (organic vs. conventional) determines milk fatty acid profile, and similar results are seen between low-input organic and low-input conventional milks. This confounds our ability to develop an analytical method to distinguish organic from

  16. Predicting milk yield in sheep used for dairying in Australia.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, A D; Cameron, A W N; Caddy, D J; Tilbrook, A J

    2007-11-01

    It is necessary to identify traits that are simple to measure and correlated with milk yield to select ewes for dairying from existing populations of sheep in Australia. We studied 217 primiparous and 113 multiparous (second parity, n = 51; third parity, n = 40; and fourth parity, n = 22) East Friesian crossbred ewes, for 2 consecutive lactations, that were milked by machine following a period of suckling (24 to 28 d). We measured lamb growth, milk production, milk yield, and residual milk during early lactation (milk production during the suckling period or the growth rate of the lamb predicts milk yield. Milk production at weaning, or the amount of residual milk, or both, predict milk yield within lactations. These measures also predict milk yield between lactations. Lambs were weighed at birth and weaning and milk production in ewes was measured using a 4-h milk production test at d 5 of lactation and at weaning. Following weaning, ewes were milked twice daily and milk yield was recorded weekly for 8 wk and once a month thereafter. Milk production (using a 16-h milk production test) and residual milk were measured at weaning, and again 1 wk and 4 wk later. Milk yield to 120 d was correlated (r2 = 0.39) between lactations, and 120-d milk yield (primiparous 82.7 +/- 2.0 L; multiparous 107.1 +/- 4.2 L; second lactation 146 +/- 3.7 L) can be predicted after 4 wk of machine milking using a single measurement of either daily milk yield (primiparous 770 +/- 25 mL/d; multiparous 940 +/- 44 mL/d; second lactation 1,372 +/- 46 mL/d, r2 = 0.60 to 0.65) or daily milk production (primiparous 1,197 +/- 27 mL/d; multiparous 1,396 +/- 62 mL/d; second lactation 1,707 +/- 45 mL/d, r2 = 0.50 to 0.53). Residual milk in primiparous ewes (38%) and multiparous ewes (34%) was high (292 +/- 11 and 321 +/- 20 mL, respectively) in the first lactation, but lower (17%) in the second lactation (238 +/- 17 mL). Residual milk and 120-d milk yield were not

  17. Associations between lameness and production, feeding and milking attendance of Holstein cows milked with an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Bach, Alex; Dinarés, Martí; Devant, Maria; Carré, Xavier

    2007-02-01

    A longitudinal study involving 73 primiparous (PP) and 47 multiparous (MP) Holstein cows was conducted over an 8-month period to assess the associations between locomotion score (LCS) and milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), feeding behaviour, and number of visits to an automatic milking system (AMS). Twice weekly, all cows were locomotion scored (scale 1-5) by the same observer. Individual eating behaviour and individual feed consumption at each cow visit to the feed troughs, individual milk production, the time of milking, and the number of milkings for each cow were recorded for the day of locomotion scoring and the day before and after. Dependent variables, such as milk yield, DMI, etc. were modelled using a mixed-effects model with parity, LCS, days in milk (DIM), the exponential of -0.05 DIM, and the interaction between parity and LCS, as fixed effects and random intercepts and random slopes for the linear and the exponential of -0.05DIM effects within cow. LCS did not affect time of attendance at feed troughs, but affected the location that cows occupied in the feed troughs. The time devoted to eating and DMI decreased with increasing LCS. Milk production decreased with LCS>3. The number of daily visits to the AMS also decreased with increasing LCS. The cows with high LCS were fetched more often than the cows with low LCS. Overall, PP cows were more sensitive to the effects of increasing LCS than were MP cows. The decrease in milk production observed with increasing LCS seemed to be affected similarly by the decrease in DMI and by the decrease in number of daily visits to the AMS. A further economic loss generated by lame cows with AMS will be associated with the additional labour needed to fetch them. PMID:16978436

  18. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  19. Proteomic comparison of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei Zhang cultivated in milk and soy milk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jicheng; Wu, Rina; Zhang, Wenyi; Sun, Zhihong; Zhao, Wenjing; Zhang, Heping

    2013-09-01

    Soy milk is regarded as a substitute for milk and has become popular in varied diets throughout the world. It has been shown that a newly characterized probiotic bacterium (Lactobacillus casei Zhang) actually grows faster in soy milk than in bovine milk. To elucidate the mechanism involved, we carried out a proteomic analysis to characterize bacterial proteins that varied upon growth in soy milk and bovine milk at 3 different growth phases, and compare their expression under these conditions. A total of 104 differentially expressed spots were identified from different phases using a peptide mass fingerprinting assay. Functional analysis revealed that a major part of these identified proteins is associated with transport and metabolism of carbohydrates, nucleotides, and amino acids as well. The results from our proteomic analysis were clarified by real-time quantitative PCR assay, which showed that Lb. casei Zhang loci involved in purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis were transcriptionally enhanced during growth in soy milk at lag phase (pH 6.4), whereas the loci involved in carbohydrate metabolism were upregulated in bovine milk. Particularly, our results showed that l-glutamine might play an important role in the growth of Lb. casei Zhang in soy milk and bovine milk, perhaps by contributing to purine, pyrimidine, and amino sugar metabolism. PMID:23871367

  20. Analysis of factors affecting milking claw vacuum levels using a simulated milking device.

    PubMed

    Enokidani, Masafumi; Kuruhara, Kana; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Bovine mastitis is typically caused by microbial infection of the udder, but the factors responsible for this condition are varied. One potential cause is the milking system, and although previous studies have investigated various methods for inspecting these devices, most have not assessed methods for evaluating the milking units. With this in mind, we analyzed the factors that affect the vacuum inside the milking claw by using a simulated milking device and by measuring milking claw vacuum when adjusting the flow rate in five stages. The factors analyzed in each milking system were the vacuum pressure settings (high and low line system) , milk tube length (200-328 cm), aperture diameter (14-22.2 mm), constricted aperture diameter (12 mm), tubing configurations, lift formation (0-80 cm), claw type (bottom and top flow) and use or non-use of a milk sampler. The study findings demonstrated that all of these variables had a significant impact on claw vacuum and suggest that a diagnostic method using a simulated milking device should be considered when inspecting modern milking systems. PMID:26336796