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1

Variability of urea concentration in camel milk in Kazakhstan  

E-print Network

Note Variability of urea concentration in camel milk in Kazakhstan Bernard FAYE 1*, Gaukhar-protein nitrogen in milk. The variability of its concentration was never reported in camel milk. The present communication aimed to give some reference values on urea content in camel milk and to explore some

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2

Relationship between blood urea, protein, creatinine, triglycerides and macro-mineral concentrations with the quality and quantity of milk in dairy Holstein cows  

PubMed Central

Seventy six high and low producer cows were selected to determine the composition of the blood and milk parameters, and their interrelationships to determine the indices which could be useful to improve the milk yield. The highest mean blood concentrations were found in high producer cows. Mean values for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum protein (SPtn), creatinine, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) were 25.10 mg dL-1, 10.15 g dL-1, 0.81, 62.30, 177.10 and 0.16 mmol L-1, and for macro-minerals including SCa, SMg, serum in-organic phosphorus (SIP), SNa and SK were 3.85, 2.66, 4.63, 108.00 and 4.34 mmol L-1, respectively. The highest concentrations for milk parameters, were observed in the high producers, and were significant only for MCa, MIP and MMg. Mean values for milk urea nitrogen (MUN), milk protein (MPtn) and lactose were 19.90 mg dL-1, 0.39 g dL-1, and 4.12% and for macro-minerals, 13.24, 3.88, 11.03, 73.30 and 16.90 mmol L-1, respectively. There were significant positive correlations between the blood and milk parameters except for creatinine/BHB, TGs/cholesterol and MNa/MK which were not significant. The correlations between the blood parameters were greater than in the milk parameters. Creatinine and SPtn, MUN and MPtn were the main parameters in that the relationships between MPtn with BUN, SPtn and creatinine were more noticeable than others. The regression analysis showed that BUN with the SIP and creatinine, MPtn with the BUN and creatinine and MUN with the SIP and SMg were the appropriate parameters in improvement studies related to the milk yield. In conclusion, BUN, SPtn, MUN and MPtn concentrations are the most effective indices for predicting the preferred milk yield. PMID:25653747

Nozad, Shahram; Ramin, Ali-Gholi; Moghadam, Gholamali; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Babapour, Azadeh; Ramin, Sina

2012-01-01

3

Milk urea as nutritional indicator in sheep grazing legume-based pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-year study was carried out to assess the effects of different grass-legume mixtures on: (i) dietary CP and NEL (Net Energy for milk production) concentrations and milk urea level; and (ii) the relationship between milk urea and several dietary variables. Replicate groups of Sardinian sheep in early-mid lactation (January-May) rotationally grazed plots of three grass-legume mixtures consisting of common

G. Molle; V. Giovanetti; A. Cabiddu; M. Cuccureddu; G. Scanu; M. Decandia

4

Plasma and Milk Urea Nitrogen in Relation to Pregnancy Rate in Lactating Dairy Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to relate concentrations of plasma (PUN) and milk (MUN) urea nitrogen to pregnancy rate in dairy cows and compare various methods of analysis and prepara- tion of milk for measuring MUN. In two experiments, blood or milk samples were collected on the day of AI from Holstein cows (n = 160 and n =

W. R. Butler; J. J. Calaman; S. W. Beam

2010-01-01

5

Evaluation of between-cow variation in milk urea and rumen ammonia nitrogen concentrations and the association with nitrogen utilization and diet digestibility in lactating cows.  

PubMed

Concentrations of milk urea N (MUN) are influenced by dietary crude protein concentration and intake and could therefore be used as a biomarker of the efficiency of N utilization for milk production (milk N/N intake; MNE) in lactating cows. In the present investigation, data from milk-production trials (production data set; n=1,804 cow/period observations from 21 change-over studies) and metabolic studies involving measurements of nutrient flow at the omasum in lactating cows (flow data set; n=450 cow/period observations from 29 studies) were used to evaluate the influence of between-cow variation on the relationship of MUN with MNE, urinary N (UN) output, and diet digestibility. All measurements were made on cows fed diets based on grass silage supplemented with a range of protein supplements. Data were analyzed by mixed-model regression analysis with diet within experiment and period within experiment as random effects, allowing the effect of diet and period to be excluded. Between-cow coefficient of variation in MUN concentration and MNE was 0.13 and 0.07 in the production data set and 0.11 and 0.08 in the flow data set, respectively. Based on residual variance, the best model for predicting MNE developed from the production data set was MNE (g/kg)=238 + 7.0 × milk yield (MY; kg/d) - 0.064 × MY(2) - 2.7 × MUN (mg/dL) - 0.10 body weight (kg). For the flow data set, including both MUN and rumen ammonia N concentration with MY in the model accounted for more variation in MNE than when either term was used with MY alone. The best model for predicting UN excretion developed from the production data set (n=443) was UN (g/d)=-29 + 4.3 × dry matter intake (kg/d) + 4.3 × MUN + 0.14 × body weight. Between-cow variation had a smaller influence on the association of MUN with MNE and UN output than published estimates of these relationships based on treatment means, in which differences in MUN generally arise from variation in dietary crude protein concentration. For the flow data set, between-cow variation in MUN and rumen ammonia N concentrations was positively associated with total-tract organic matter digestibility. In conclusion, evaluation of phenotypic variation in MUN indicated that between-cow variation in MUN had a smaller effect on MNE compared with published responses of MUN to dietary crude protein concentration, suggesting that a closer control over diet composition relative to requirements has greater potential to improve MNE and lower UN on farm than genetic selection. PMID:25771060

Huhtanen, P; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Krizsan, S J; Shingfield, K J

2015-05-01

6

[Adulteration detection of urea in milk by mid-infrared spectroscopy].  

PubMed

In the present study, a technique of mid-infrared spectroscopy for detection of urea in milk was put forward. Eighteen adulterated milk samples with added different content of urea (1-18 g x L(-1)) were prepared. The mid-infrared spectra of these milk samples were measured. The infrared characteristics of pure milk and adulterated milk were studied, and analysis and comparisons of the differences were carried out. The absorption peak area (A1 562) of 1 562 cm(-1), which was assigned to the C-N stretching vibration for urea, and the absorption peak area (A1 464) of 1 464 cm(-1), which was assigned to the C=O stretching vibration for amide III', were calculated by origin. Linear fitting of relation was made between A1 562/A1 464 and urea concentration in milk. The results show that the A1 562/A1 464 is linear with urea concentration in milk, with a regression coefficient of 0.96. The study is important to improving quality of dairy products and protecting the benefit of consumers, and takes on crucial social significance and application prospect. PMID:22097831

Yang, Ren-Jie; Liu, Rong; Xu, Ke-Xin

2011-09-01

7

Effect of High-Urea Supplementation on Feed Intake and Milk Production of Dairy Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of urea on ration palatabil- ity, milk yield, and economy of nitrogen utilization. In Experiment 1 concentrate acceptability was studied with 20 cows assigned to two 5 × 5 Latin squares bal- anced for residual effects. Addition of 2.2 and 2.7% urea and 15.9 and 19.0% col~l cobs to the concentrates significantly

H. H. Van Horn; C. F. Foreman; J. E. Rodriguez

1967-01-01

8

Voltamperometric discrimination of urea and melamine adulterated skimmed milk powder.  

PubMed

Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008. The development of a rapid, reliable and economic test is of relevance in order to improve adulterated milk identification. Cyclic voltammetry studies using an Au working electrode were performed on adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples from different independent manufacturers. Voltammetric data and their first derivative were subjected to functional principal component analysis (f-PCA) and correctly classified by the KNN classifier. The adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples showed significant differences. Best results of prediction were obtained with first derivative data. Detection limits in milk samples adulterated with 1% of its total nitrogen derived from melamine or urea were as low as 85.0 mg · L(-1) and 121.4 mg · L(-1), respectively. We present this method as a fast and robust screening method for milk adulteration analysis and prevention of food intoxication. PMID:23112709

Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Fauerbach, Jonathan A; Sacco, Natalia J; Bonetto, M Celina; Cortón, Eduardo

2012-01-01

9

Voltamperometric Discrimination of Urea and Melamine Adulterated Skimmed Milk Powder  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008. The development of a rapid, reliable and economic test is of relevance in order to improve adulterated milk identification. Cyclic voltammetry studies using an Au working electrode were performed on adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples from different independent manufacturers. Voltammetric data and their first derivative were subjected to functional principal component analysis (f-PCA) and correctly classified by the KNN classifier. The adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples showed significant differences. Best results of prediction were obtained with first derivative data. Detection limits in milk samples adulterated with 1% of its total nitrogen derived from melamine or urea were as low as 85.0 mg·L?1 and 121.4 mg·L?1, respectively. We present this method as a fast and robust screening method for milk adulteration analysis and prevention of food intoxication. PMID:23112709

Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Fauerbach, Jonathan A.; Sacco, Natalia J.; Bonetto, M. Celina; Cortón, Eduardo

2012-01-01

10

Wood plastic composite at different urea concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood plastic composite (WPC) has been prepared with a low grade wood simul ( Salmalia malabarica) of Bangladesh under Co-60 gamma irradiation using MMA as the bulk monomer combined with methanol as the swelling solvent at different urea concentrations. Effect of a second solute such as NVP, TPGDA and TMPTA in the impregnating solution is evaluated. NVP appears to be the best co-additive/second solute among all the additives used to yield the composite with the highest polymer loading (PL) and tensile strength (TS) at 0.5% urea concentration.

Husain, M. M.; Khan, Mubarak A.; Ali, K. M. Idriss; Hasan, A. J. M. Moynul

1995-04-01

11

What is Milk Urea Nitrogen and How is It Interpreted? Dr. Doo-Hong Min, Extension Forage Specialist, MSU UPES  

E-print Network

What is Milk Urea Nitrogen and How is It Interpreted? Dr. Doo-Hong Min, Extension Forage Specialist, MSU UPES Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) is another tool to assess the protein and energy balance status of a group of dairy cows and can be used for minimizing feed costs while maximizing production. Milk urea

12

21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.115 Concentrated...

2011-04-01

13

21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.115 Concentrated...

2012-04-01

14

21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.115 Concentrated...

2010-04-01

15

21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.115 Concentrated...

2014-04-01

16

21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.115 Concentrated...

2013-04-01

17

Potentiometric biosensor for determination of urea in milk using immobilized Arthrobacter creatinolyticus urease.  

PubMed

The extracellular urease from Arthrobacter creatinolyticus was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and immobilized on PAN [poly(acrylonitrile-methylmethacrylate-sodium vinylsulfonate)] membrane. The urease immobilized PAN membrane exhibited an activity of 97.92U/cm(2) under the optimum conditions of 1.0% enzyme concentration, 15% glutaraldehyde, 24h immobilization time and temperature of 4°C. The changes in surface morphology of the membrane after immobilization were studied by SEM and ATR-FTIR analysis. Immobilized membrane was associated with potentiometric electrode for calibration of biosensor and the results showed a linear response for wide range of urea concentration from 1 to 100mM. The immobilized urease had good storage stability for a period of 70days at 4°C and could be effectively reused for 13cycles. Urease immobilized membrane was also employed in analysis of urea spiked milk samples. PMID:25687009

Ramesh, Rajendran; Puhazhendi, Puhazhselvan; Kumar, Jitendra; Gowthaman, Marichetti Kuppuswami; D'Souza, Stanislaus Francis; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu

2015-04-01

18

Original article UHT processed milk concentrates  

E-print Network

Original article UHT processed milk concentrates Jörg HINRICHS* Chair for food process engineering osmosis concentrates made from milk with differing fat and protein contents were sheared in defined flow and storage stability correlated with the ash content and these increase as the ash contents decrease. Milk

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

19

Genetic analysis of milk urea nitrogen and relationships with yield and fertility across lactation.  

PubMed

The aim of this project was to investigate the relationship of milk urea nitrogen (MUN) with 3 milk production traits [milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY), protein yield (PY)] and 6 fertility measures (number of inseminations, calving interval, interval from calving to first insemination, interval from calving to last insemination, interval from first to last insemination, and pregnancy at first insemination). Data consisted of 635,289 test-day records of MY, FY, PY, and MUN on 76,959 first-lactation Swedish Holstein cows calving from 2001 to 2003, and corresponding lactation records for the fertility traits. Yields and MUN were analyzed with a random regression model followed by a multi-trait model in which the lactation was broken into 10 monthly periods. Heritability for MUN was stable across lactation (between 0.16 and 0.18), whereas MY, FY, and PY had low heritability at the beginning of lactation, which increased with time and stabilized after 100 d in milk, at 0.47, 0.36, and 0.44, respectively. Fertility traits had low heritabilities (0.02 to 0.05). Phenotypic correlations of MUN and milk production traits were between 0.13 (beginning of lactation) and 0.00 (end of lactation). Genetic correlations of MUN and MY, FY, and PY followed similar trends and were positive (0.22) at the beginning and negative (-0.15) at the end of lactation. Phenotypic correlations of MUN and fertility were close to zero. A surprising result was that genetic correlations of MUN and fertility traits suggest a positive relationship between the 2 traits for most of the lactation, indicating that animals with breeding values for increased MUN also had breeding values for improved fertility. This result was obtained with a random regression model as well as with a multi-trait model. The analyzed group of cows had a moderate level of MUN concentration. In such a population MUN concentration may increase slightly due to selection for improved fertility. Conversely, selection for increased MUN concentration may improve fertility slightly. PMID:22032390

Mucha, S; Strandberg, E

2011-11-01

20

Using Milk Urea Nitrogen to Predict Nitrogen Excretion and Utilization Efficiency in Lactating Dairy Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because animal agriculture has been identified as a major source of nonpoint N pollution, ways to reduce the excretion of N by production animals must be examined. The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate a mathematical model that inte- grates milk urea N to predict excretion, intake, and utilization efficiency of N in lactating dairy cows. Three

J. S. Jonker; R. A. Kohn; R. A. Erdman

1998-01-01

21

Concentrate: forage ratio in the diet of dairy cows does not alter milk physical attributes.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of concentrate-to-forage ratio (C:F) on the performance, blood profile, and milk physicochemical characteristics of mid-lactation cows fed a corn silage-based diet. Twenty four Holstein cows, with BW 575?±?70 kg, body condition score (BCS) 3.1?±?0.2, milk yield 18.4?±?3.0 kg, and days in milk (DIM) 121?±?21 were randomly allocated into three treatments with C:F ratios of 35:65, 45:55, and 55:45 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Data was submitted to analyses of variance and regression. Increasing C:F from 35 to 55 % linearly enhanced milk production (22 to 23.6 kg day(-1)) and serum urea nitrogen (16.8 to 19.6 mg/dL), while it linearly reduced lactose and fat in milk (4.8 to 4.6 %; 3.9 to 3.6 %, respectively). Body weight, BCS, milk acidity, ethanol stability, coagulation time, and milk and blood mineral contents did not differ among treatments. During the last period of measurements, increased C:F reduced urinary pH and milk urea nitrogen. Changes of concentrate-to-forage proportion from 35 to 55 % increased milk yield, altered chemical composition without changing BW, BCS, acidity, stability, and mineral content of milk and blood attributes. PMID:24647476

Machado, Sandro Charopen; McManus, Concepta Margareth; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Fischer, Vivian

2014-06-01

22

Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus.  

PubMed

Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment without feeding in nonfed (NF) animals. Food consumption by PP animals and handling of NF animals had no effect on blood water content as measured by hematocrit and plasma oncotic pressure. Food consumption increased both plasma osmolality (P(osm)) and plasma urea (P(urea)) by as much as 15%. Food consumption also increased urine osmolality (U(osm)) and urine urea (U(urea)) by 50-100%. Feeding increased U(osm) regardless of changes in P(osm), and elevation of U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). In NF bats, P(osm) and P(urea) were unchanged, while U(osm) and U(urea) increased by as much as 25%. Again, increased U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). The PP urine concentration cycle of pallid bats resulted from increased urea excretion in response to apparent rapid urea synthesis. Bats rapidly metabolized protein and excreted urea following feeding when body water was most plentiful. PMID:15123201

Bassett, John E

2004-02-01

23

The Effect of Whey Protein Concentrate or Dried Skim Milk in Milk Replacer on Calf Performance and Blood Metabolites1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whey protein concentrate and dried skim milk were each evaluated as the major protein source in milk replacer using four treatments (100% skim milk, 67% skim milk and 33% whey protein concen- trate, 33% skim milk and 67% whey protein concen- trate, and 100% whey protein concentrate). In the first trial, 64 calves were fed only milk replacer from birth

B. P. Lammers; A. J. Heinrichs; A. Aydin

1998-01-01

24

Role of UTB Urea Transporters in the Urine Concentrating Mechanism of the Rat Kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of the renal medulla of the rat kidney was used to investigate urine concentrating mechanism function\\u000a in animals lacking the UTB urea transporter. The UTB transporter is believed to mediate countercurrent urea exchange between\\u000a descending vasa recta (DVR) and ascending vasa recta (AVR) by facilitating urea transport across DVR endothelia. The model\\u000a represents the outer medulla (OM)

Anita T. Layton

2007-01-01

25

Changes in the concentrations of glucose, non-esterifed fatty acids, urea, insulin,  

E-print Network

700 (iEq'L ' and 110 ng-niL-1, respectively). Glucose and insulin levels remained unchanged duringChanges in the concentrations of glucose, non-esterifed fatty acids, urea, insulin, cortisol in the jugular vein, and the evolution of glu- cose, insulin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids (UEFA), calcium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

26

Simplified methodology to determine breast milk retinol concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of a nutritional intervention trial on vitamin A status can be evaluated by measuring the total vi- tamin A concentration in breast milk both before and after the intervention. Because breast milk contains a spectrum of retinyl esters as well as retinol and high lipid content, de- termination of total breast milk retinol routinely requires saponification with alcoholic

Sherry A. Tanumihardjo; Kristina L. Penniston

27

Endocrine regulation of calcium and phosphorus concentration in camel's milk.  

E-print Network

Endocrine regulation of calcium and phosphorus concentration in camel's milk. F Riad M Ben Goumi JCIAVHassan Il, Rabat, Maroc; 31NRA, Theix, France Some qualitative aspects of the milk of the dromedary suggest that the ability to produce milk of high nutritive value for offspring or for human beings during long periods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

28

ORIGINAL PAPER Post-processing of concentrated fermented milk: influence  

E-print Network

cheese (Lucey and Singh 1997). During bacterial fermentation, the lactic acid produced by the starterORIGINAL PAPER Post-processing of concentrated fermented milk: influence of temperature and holding of particle clusters in concentrated, fermented milk (protein content 8.2% (w/w)) during post

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

29

Effect of milk solids concentration on the pH, soluble calcium and soluble phosphate levels  

E-print Network

Note Effect of milk solids concentration on the pH, soluble calcium and soluble phosphate levels, the level of Casol and Psol, as mmol·kg-1 , increased and the pH decreased as the milk concentration as the milk concentration was increased. At any given milk concentration, the level of Casol, Psol and milk pH

Boyer, Edmond

30

Post-dialysis urea concentration: comparison between one- compartment model and two-compartment model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of the urea concentration in blood can be numerically projected by using one-compartment model and two-compartment model with no variation in body fluid. This study aims to compare the simulated values of post-dialysis urea concentration for both models with the clinical data obtained from the hospital. The clinical assessment of adequacy of a treatment is based on the value of Kt/V. Further, direct calculation using clinical data and one-compartment model are presented in the form of ratio. It is found that the ratios of postdialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are higher compared to the ratios of post-dialysis urea concentration using one-compartment model. In addition, most values of post-dialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are much closer to the clinical data compared to values simulated using one-compartment model. Kt/V values calculated directly using clinical data are found to be higher than Kt/V values derived from one-compartment model.

Tamrin, N. S. Ahmad; Ibrahim, N.

2014-11-01

31

Plasma urea, creatinine and uric acid concentrations in relation to feeding in peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant post?prandial increases in plasma uric acid and plasma urea concentrations were observed in peregrine falcons. Post?prandial uric acid concentrations were similar to those in birds suffering from hyperuricaemia and gout and were well above the theoretical limit of solubility of sodium urate in plasma. It is not clear why under normal circumstances no urate deposits occur in peregrine falcons

J. T. Lumeij; J. D. Remple

1991-01-01

32

The Comparative Value of Urea and Linseed Meal for Milk Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In earlier work (5), we established the fact that for the growth of calves urea nitrogen could be successfully used for at least a partial supply of the protein nitrogen. This protein supply, from such a simple substance as urea, was made possible through the multiplication of the microorganisms of the rumen. This intervention of microorganisms and the use of

I. W. Rupel; G. Bohstedt; E. B. Hart

1943-01-01

33

Milk production of dairy cows fed differing concentrations of rumen-degraded protein.  

PubMed

Thirty-two multiparous and 16 primiparous Holstein cows in midlactation averaging 126 d in milk were used to determine the effects of rumen-degraded protein (RDP) concentration on lactation performance. Cows were assigned to diets in a repeated Latin square design with 3-wk experimental periods. Diets were formulated to provide 4 concentrations of dietary RDP [6.8, 8.2, 9.6, and 11.0% of dry matter (DM)] while rumen-undegraded protein remained constant (5.8% of DM). Diets contained 50% corn silage and 50% concentrate (DM basis). Ingredients within diets were equal across treatments except for ground corn, soybean meal, and ruminally protected soybean meal. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Milk yield, fat yield, and protein yield all increased linearly when cows were fed diets with greater RDP. Milk fat and protein concentration each increased by 0.16 percentage units for cows fed 11% RDP compared with 6.8% RDP. Milk protein yield increased by 0.19 g/d for every 1 g/d increase in crude protein supplied mainly as RDP. As RDP increased, the efficiency of N use declined linearly. Milk urea N increased linearly when cows were fed increasing amounts of RDP, indicating increased losses of N via urine. Feeding deficient RDP diets to dairy cows can decrease nitrogen excretion, but it also decreases lactation performance. These data show an environmental benefit from underfeeding RDP to dairy cows according to National Research Council requirements, but at a financial cost to the dairy producer. PMID:16357288

Kalscheur, K F; Baldwin, R L; Glenn, B P; Kohn, R A

2006-01-01

34

Effect of elevated systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen in crossbred heifers on in vitro fertilization (IVF)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Elevated levels of dietary N and hence systemic concentrations of urea-N have been shown to have a deleterious effect on reproductive processes. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding pubertal crossbred heifers diets with moderate (M-N; 64.8% corn silage, 30.0% alfalfa h...

35

Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment

John E Bassett

2004-01-01

36

Effect of circulating blood urea nitrogen concentrations on reproductive efficiency in beef heifers and cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective was to examine the effect of circulating blood or plasma urea nitrogen concentrations (BPUNC) on reproductive efficiency in beef heifers and suckled beef cows. Data from nulliparous heifers (n = 284) as well as primiparous (n = 241) and multiparous (n = 806) beef cows were compiled ac...

37

Zinc and Copper Concentrations in Human Milk and Infant Formulas  

PubMed Central

Objective Available accurate data on the concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in human milk throughout lactation and infant formulas is important both for formulating nutritional requirements for substances and to provide a base line for the understanding the physiology of their secretion. The objective of this study was to analyze the concentrations of zinc and copper in infant formulas and human milk during prolonged lactation. Levels of these metals were examined in relation to selected parameters such as age, weight, height, education and occupation of mothers. Methods Thirty mothers referred to the selected clinics in Tehran entered the study. Human milk samples were collected at 2 months postpartum. Zinc and copper concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Findings The mean values of Zn and Cu in human milk were 2.95±0.77mg/L and 0.36±0.11 mg/L. The mean values of Zn and Cu in infant formulas were 3.98±0.25 mg/L and 0.53±0.17mg/L. Conclusion No significant relationship was found between levels of trace elements in human milk and evaluated parameters such as age, weight, height, education and occupation of mothers. The concentrations of zinc and copper in breast milk were lower than those reported in the literature. PMID:23056682

Khaghani, Shahnaz; Ezzatpanah, Hamid; Mazhari, Najmeh; Givianrad, Mohammad Hadi; Mirmiranpour, Hossein; Sadrabadi, Fatemeh Shahi

2010-01-01

38

Lactoferrin concentration in milk of bovine clinical mastitis.  

PubMed

The lactoferrin (LF) concentration in the milk from dairy cows with clinical mastitis was determined to evaluate the relationship between the LF concentration (LFC) in milk and the non-specific defensive capability of the udder. The mean LFC in 368 milk samples from 319 cows with clinical mastitis was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that of normal cows. The mean LFC in milk from quarters infected with Mycoplasma bovis or Staphylococcus aureus was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of quarters infected with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). In Escherichia coli mastitis, the level of LFC in milk from cows with peracute mastitis was significantly lower (p < 0.01) than that from cows with acute mastitis. In cases of mastitis due to E. coli, the mean LFC in milk from cows that needed more than 10 days to recover from the mastitis or were not cured was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that for cows which took less than 10 days to be cured. The mean LFC in milk from cows with peracute E. coli mastitis was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that for cows with mastitis associated with environmental streptococci or CNS, although these low LF levels were somewhat increased after 46 h from the occurrence of mastitis. These results suggest that the decreased levels of LF in peracute E. coli mastitis may be associated with the progress of inflammation in the early phase of mastitis. PMID:10598071

Kawai, K; Hagiwara, S; Anri, A; Nagahata, H

1999-11-01

39

Modification of the analysis of parathyroid hormone-related protein in milk and concentrations of this protein in commercial milk and milk products in Japan.  

PubMed

Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), which causes hypercalcemia associated with malignant tumors, is known to be present in milk. Gene expression of PTHrP in the mammary gland increases markedly during parturition and with the onset of lactation. Even when circulating PTHrP levels are extremely low or below the detection limit, milk PTHrP levels are remarkably high. Parathyroid hormone-related protein derived from the mammary gland is assumed to play a role in maintaining the maternal calcium homeostasis and calcium transport from blood to milk. In previous studies that determined the PTHrP concentrations in milk, the pretreatments and diluent composition were not standardized. Here, we investigated the effect of various pretreatment procedures and diluent constitutions and the consequent PTHrP concentrations in commercial milk and milk products in Japan. Significant differences were found in PTHrP concentrations in raw milk samples subjected to different combinations of pretreatments (mixing, centrifugation, acidification, and heating) and diluents (0pM standard solution of PTHrP, plasma treated with protease inhibitors, and original diluent). We measured the PTHrP concentrations in normal liquid milk, processed milk, milk drinks, formulated milk powders, and skim milk powder by using the appropriate combination of pretreatment (acidification) and diluent (plasma treated with protease inhibitors). The PTHrP concentration in normal liquid milk, processed milk, and skim milk powder was as high as that in raw milk (>5nM), whereas that in milk drinks differed considerably. The PTHrP concentration in infant formulas (<2nM) was lower than that in the other milk products. These results indicate that a certain amount of PTHrP is ingested when milk and milk products are consumed. PMID:20412899

Onda, K; Yamaguchi, M; Ohashi, M; Sato, R; Ochiai, H; Iriki, T; Wada, Y

2010-05-01

40

Effect of milk type and processing on iodine concentration of organic and conventional winter milk at retail: Implications for nutrition.  

PubMed

Milk is the largest source of iodine in UK diets and an earlier study showed that organic summer milk had significantly lower iodine concentration than conventional milk. There are no comparable studies with winter milk or the effect of milk fat class or heat processing method. Two retail studies with winter milk are reported. Study 1 showed no effect of fat class but organic milk was 32.2% lower in iodine than conventional milk (404 vs. 595?g/L; P<0.001). Study 2 found no difference between conventional and Channel Island milk but organic milk contained 35.5% less iodine than conventional milk (474 vs. 306?g/L; P<0.001). UHT and branded organic milk also had lower iodine concentrations than conventional milk (331?g/L; P<0.001 and 268?g/L: P<0.0001 respectively). The results indicate that replacement of conventional milk by organic or UHT milk will increase the risk of sub-optimal iodine status especially for pregnant/lactating women. PMID:25704719

Payling, Laura M; Juniper, Darren T; Drake, Chris; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D Ian

2015-07-01

41

Bisphenol A concentrations in maternal breast milk and infant urine  

PubMed Central

Purpose The present report describes the distribution of breast milk and urinary free and total bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations, from 27 post-partum women and their 31 infants, and explores the influence of age, sex, and nutritional source on infant BPA urinary concentration. Methods Both free (unconjugated) and total (free plus conjugated) BPA concentrations from women’s breast milk samples and infants’ urine samples were measured by online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests of group comparisons were conducted. Results Total BPA was detected in 93% of urine samples in this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who were without known environmental exposure to BPA (interquartile range [IQR]=1.2 – 4.4 ?g/L). Similarly, 75% of the mothers’ breast milk samples had detectable concentrations of total BPA (IQR=0.4 – 1.4 ?g/L). The magnitude and frequency of detection of free BPA in the children’s urine and the mothers’ breast milk were much lower than the total concentrations. Conclusions Total BPA was detected in 93% of this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who are without known environmental exposure to BPA. Neither free nor total BPA urinary concentrations differed significantly by infant’s sex or by nutritional source (breast milk and/or formula) while age group was of borderline significance. There were no significant correlations between free or total BPA concentrations in mothers’ breast milk and their infants’ urine. PMID:23212895

Mendonca, K.; Hauser, R.; Calafat, A.M.; Arbuckle, T.E.; Duty, S.M.

2013-01-01

42

Is it possible to screen for milk or whey protein adulteration with melamine, urea and ammonium sulphate, combining Kjeldahl and classical spectrophotometric methods?  

PubMed

The Kjeldahl method and four classic spectrophotometric methods (Biuret, Lowry, Bradford and Markwell) were applied to evaluate the protein content of samples of UHT whole milk deliberately adulterated with melamine, ammonium sulphate or urea, which can be used to defraud milk protein and whey contents. Compared with the Kjeldahl method, the response of the spectrophotometric methods was unaffected by the addition of the nitrogen compounds to milk or whey. The methods of Bradford and Markwell were most robust and did not exhibit interference subject to composition. However, the simultaneous interpretation of results obtained using these methods with those obtained using the Kjeldahl method indicated the addition of nitrogen-rich compounds to milk and/or whey. Therefore, this work suggests a combination of results of Kjeldahl and spectrophotometric methods should be used to screen for milk adulteration by these compounds. PMID:23993532

Finete, Virgínia de Lourdes Mendes; Gouvêa, Marcos Martins; Marques, Flávia Ferreira de Carvalho; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira

2013-12-15

43

Triazolothienopyrimidine Inhibitors of Urea Transporter UT-B Reduce Urine Concentration  

PubMed Central

Urea transport (UT) proteins facilitate the concentration of urine by the kidney, suggesting that inhibition of these proteins could have therapeutic use as a diuretic strategy. We screened 100,000 compounds for UT-B inhibition using an optical assay based on the hypotonic lysis of acetamide-loaded mouse erythrocytes. We identified a class of triazolothienopyrimidine UT-B inhibitors; the most potent compound, UTBinh-14, fully and reversibly inhibited urea transport with IC50 values of 10 nM and 25 nM for human and mouse UT-B, respectively. UTBinh-14 competed with urea binding at an intracellular site on the UT-B protein. UTBinh-14 exhibited low toxicity and high selectivity for UT-B over UT-A isoforms. After intraperitoneal administration of UTBinh-14 in mice to achieve predicted therapeutic concentrations in the kidney, urine osmolality after administration of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin was approximately 700 mosm/kg H2O lower in UTBinh-14–treated mice than vehicle-treated mice. UTBinh-14 also increased urine output and reduced urine osmolality in mice given free access to water. UTBinh-14 did not reduce urine osmolality in UT-B knockout mice. In summary, these data provide proof of concept for the potential utility of UT inhibitors to reduce urinary concentration in high-vasopressin, fluid-retaining conditions. The diuretic mechanism of UT inhibitors may complement the action of conventional diuretics, which target sodium transport. PMID:22491419

Yao, Chenjuan; Anderson, Marc O.; Zhang, Jicheng; Yang, Baoxue; Phuan, Puay-Wah

2012-01-01

44

Innovative uses of milk protein concentrates in product development.  

PubMed

Milk protein concentrates (MPCs) are complete dairy proteins (containing both caseins and whey proteins) that are available in protein concentrations ranging from 42% to 85%. As the protein content of MPCs increases, the lactose levels decrease. MPCs are produced by ultrafiltration or by blending different dairy ingredients. Although ultrafiltration is the preferred method for producing MPCs, they also can be produced by precipitating the proteins out of milk or by dry-blending the milk proteins with other milk components. MPCs are used for their nutritional and functional properties. For example, MPC is high in protein content and averages approximately 365 kcal/100 g. Higher-protein MPCs provide protein enhancement and a clean dairy flavor without adding significant amounts of lactose to food and beverage formulations. MPCs also contribute valuable minerals, such as calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus, to formulations, which may reduce the need for additional sources of these minerals. MPCs are multifunctional ingredients and provide benefits, such as water binding, gelling, foaming, emulsification, and heat stability. This article will review the development of MPCs and milk protein isolates including their composition, production, development, functional benefits, and ongoing research. The nutritional and functional attributes of MPCs are discussed in some detail in relation to their application as ingredients in major food categories. PMID:25757895

Agarwal, Shantanu; Beausire, Robert L W; Patel, Sonia; Patel, Hasmukh

2015-03-01

45

Estimation of low bacterial concentration: Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk.  

PubMed

A time-series bacteriological analysis has been carried out on milk collected on farms from 1997 to 2001 by a plant producing raw milk soft cheese, with the purpose of assessing the time course of the presence/absence of Listeria monocytogenes. A standard data collection procedure was used, in which farms were tested on a monthly or biweekly basis and 2-3 days after the detection of milk tanker contamination. This procedure yielded low figures for contamination frequencies. The average value and the median of the monthly prevalence of farms detected positive for L. monocytogenes were 2.4 and 0%, respectively. A seasonal effect (with peaks in winter) was observed. Between 1997 and 2001, there was no significant decrease of contamination rates, in spite of the efforts on the contaminated farms. Over the last year of the study (from March 2000 to February 2001), a new data collection procedure was implemented that allowed much better detection of sporadic occurrences. Milk samples were collected from the bulk tank of each participating farm just before pick-up, then stored and subsequently analysed whenever the milk tanker was found contaminated. The average value and the median of the monthly prevalence of positive farms were found equal to 7.7 and 0%, respectively (for a mean prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the milk tanker of 3.2%). These results confirm that farm milk contamination is, most often, a sporadic event In addition to this prevalence study, contamination levels were quantified by enumerating L. monocytogenes using direct plating of small volumes of farm milk previously tested positive. Most often, these levels were extremely low. A simple simulation model shows that, when milk tankers were found positive, contamination levels in the corresponding bulk-tank milk are themselves very low (typically, below 3 L. monocytogenes per millilitre with most probable concentration 0.1 Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/ml and median ranging from 5.10(-2) to 0.1 CFU/ml). Such low levels are very likely to be due to environmental contamination. PMID:12430767

Meyer-Broseta, Stéphanie; Diot, Annabelle; Bastian, Suzanne; Rivière, Jacques; Cerf, Olivier

2003-01-15

46

Ruminal nitrogen metabolism in steers as affected by feed intake and dietary urea concentration  

SciTech Connect

Four multiple-cannulated steers (340 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Steers were fed a diet of 50% ground hay and 50% concentrate at two intakes (1.4 and 2.1% of BW), with urea and /sup 15/N-enriched ammonium sulfate infused continuously into the rumen at .4 or 1.2% of diet DM. Ratios of purines and diaminopimelic acid-N to N in fluid-associated and particulate-associated bacteria and in protozoa were similar among treatments but were lower for protozoa than for bacteria. Diaminopimelic acid-N:N was higher for fluid-associated vs. particulate-associated bacteria. Enrichment of /sup 15/N was similar between bacteria among treatments and was 30% lower for protozoa. Turnover rates of /sup 15/N in bacteria, NH/sub 3/N, and non-HN/sub 3/N pools were faster for steers infused with 1.2 than those infused with .4% urea, indicating less efficient usage of ammonia with higher urea. A method is described to estimate the proportion of duodenal nitrogen comprising bacterial and protozoal nitrogen.

Firkins, J.L.; Berger, L.L.; Merchen, N.R.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.; Mulvaney, R.L.

1987-11-01

47

The effects of a probiotic on blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations in large felids.  

PubMed

Chronic kidney disease is a common finding in older captive exotic felids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a probiotic to reduce blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in large felids. Fifteen adult, large felids (6 tigers [Panthera tigris], 5 lions [Panthera leo], 3 cougars [Puma concolor], and 1 leopard [Panthera pardus]) were administered a probiotic twice daily after a baseline complete blood cell count and plasma chemistry panel was obtained. Plasma chemistry values were rechecked at 2 mo (n = 14) and 6 mo (n = 9). There was no significant change in blood urea nitrogen over time; however, there was a significant change in creatinine over time (P = 0.04). Creatinine concentration decreased significantly between 2 and 6 mo (P = 0.02), and a decrease was seen between 0 and 6 mo, but this change was not significant (P = 0.05). There was no significant difference noted for creatinine concentration between 0 and 2 mo (P = 0.35). This probiotic may be helpful in large felids with elevated creatinine concentrations because of chronic kidney disease; however, further studies are warranted. PMID:22950314

McCain, Stephanie; Allender, Matthew C; Schumacher, Juergen; Ramsay, Edward

2011-09-01

48

Breast milk lead concentrations of mothers living near tin smelters.  

PubMed

We compared Pb concentration in human milk from 37 mothers living in a neighborhood of tin-ore smelters to that from 45 mothers living in a fishing community. The median breast-milk-Pb (BM-Pb) concentration was significantly (p = 0.0000001) higher (11.3 ?g L(-1); ?0.96-29.4 ?g L(-1)) in mothers living in the vicinity of smelters than that of rural mothers (1.9 ?g L(-1); ?0.96-20.0 ?g L(-1)). These mothers also showed a statistically significant correlation between length of residence and BM-Pb concentration (Spearman r = 0.6864; p < 0.0001). The estimated median exposure (for infants <6 months) was 3.0 ?g kg(-1) b.w. for rural infants compared to 7.5 ?g kg(-1) b.w. for infants in the vicinity of metal smelters. Overall, most BM-Pb concentrations (79 %) in the metal smelter area were above the critical limit of 5.0 ?g L(-1) set by the WHO. PMID:24068462

Marques, Rejane C; Moreira, Maria de Fátima R; Bernardi, José Vicente E; Dórea, José G

2013-11-01

49

Influence of Vacuum Pasteurization upon the Freezing Point Value, Total Solids, and Concentration of Fluid Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The concentration of milk due to pasteurization in a Vacu-Therm pasteurizer was estimated by freezing point measurements, total solids determinations, and by condensing and trapping the water removed from the milk. Composite samples of raw and pasteurized milk were obtained during 3-hr. processing periods from the balance and surge tanks of the equipment. The temperature of pasteurization and the

J. T. Lazar Jr.; R. W. Henningson

1960-01-01

50

Effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk.  

PubMed

Although pasteurization is recommended before distributing donor human milk in North America, limited data are available on its impact on metabolic hormones in milk. We aimed to investigate the effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. The study investigates concentrations of components in donor human milk before and after Holder pasteurization. After the guidelines of the Human Milk Bank Association of North America, human milk samples were pooled to produce 17 distinct batches (4 individuals per batch) and pasteurized at 62.5°C for 30 min. Adiponectin, insulin, energy, fat, total protein, and glucose concentrations were measured pre- and postpasteurization. Pasteurization reduced milk adiponectin and insulin by 32.8 and 46.1%, respectively (both p < 0.0001). Adiponectin and insulin were significantly correlated with energy and fat milk composition (r = 0.36-0.47; all p < 0.05). Pasteurization effects on milk hormone concentrations remained significant after adjusting for fat and energy (beta ± SEE: -4.11 ± 1.27, p = 0.003 for adiponectin; -70.0 ± 15.0, p < 0.0001 for insulin). Holder pasteurization reduced adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. In view of emerging knowledge on the importance of milk components, continued work to find the optimal pasteurization process that mitigates risks but promotes retention of bioactive components is needed. PMID:21587097

Ley, Sylvia H; Hanley, Anthony J; Stone, Debbie; O'Connor, Deborah L

2011-09-01

51

Milk yield and composition of lactating cows fed steam-flaked sorghum and graded concentrations of ruminally degradable protein.  

PubMed

To determine the effect of various amounts of ruminally undegradable protein in the diets of lactating cows fed steam-flaked sorghum, 24 Holstein cows (90 +/- 50 d in milk) were assigned to three treatments: 0.8% urea, 6% soybean meal, or 5% fish meal. Respective percentages of ruminally undegradable protein in the diets (as a percentage of crude protein) were 30, 35, and 39%. All diets contained 37% alfalfa hay; 3 to 5% cottonseed hulls; 10 to 13% whole cottonseed; 39% steam-flaked sorghum (360 g/L); 5% of a molasses, mineral, and vitamin supplement; and the different protein supplements. Intake of dry matter was higher for cows fed urea than for cows fed soybean meal or fish meal diets. In cows that yielded more than 40 kg/d of milk (4 cows per treatment), the soybean meal and fish meal diets resulted in higher yields of milk and 3.5% fat-corrected milk and a greater efficiency of conversion of feed to milk than did the urea diet. Cows that yielded less than 40 kg/d of milk (4 cows per treatment) at the beginning of treatment tended to yield more milk when fed urea than when fed the protein supplements. Nutrient digestibilities were not greatly affected by source of N, suggesting a beneficial effect of urea supplementation on nutrient digestibilities because replacement of protein supplements with cottonseed products caused the neutral detergent fiber content of the urea diet to be about 7% higher than that of the other diets. These data show that response to ruminally undegradable protein in diets of lactating cows fed steam-flaked sorghum was related to milk yield. PMID:9493096

Santos, F A; Huber, J T; Theurer, C B; Swingle, R S; Simas, J M; Chen, K H; Yu, P

1998-01-01

52

Copper, lead and zinc concentrations of human breast milk as affected by maternal dietary practices  

SciTech Connect

Maternal dietary practices have been found to affect the concentrations of some nutrients in human breast milk. Lead toxicity is a concern in young children. Lead, copper and zinc are thought to compete for intestinal absorption sites. The objective of the current project was to compare copper, lead and zinc contents of breast milk from practicing lacto-vegetarian and omnivore, lactating women at approximately four months post-partum. Analyses were done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a carbon rod attachment. Copper concentrations were higher in milk samples from lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Milk samples from the omnivores had the highest lead and zinc concentrations. Lead and copper concentrations in milk were negatively correlated. The higher zinc concentrations in the milk of the omnivore women may have been related to better utilization of zinc from meat than from plant food sources.

Umoren, J.; Kies, C.

1986-03-01

53

Chlorella (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) supplementation decreases dioxin and increases immunoglobulin a concentrations in breast milk.  

PubMed

In addition to meeting nutritional requirements, breast milk plays important roles in biodefense for nursing infants. Dioxins have been detected at high concentrations in breast milk, raising concerns about disorders in nursing infants caused by breast milk containing dioxins in Japan. We analyzed dioxin levels in breast milk and maternal blood samples from 35 pregnant women in Japan. We also measured immunoglobulin (Ig) A concentrations in breast milk and investigated correlations with dioxin concentrations. In addition, 18 of the 35 women took Chlorella pyrenoidosa (Chlorella) supplements during pregnancy, and the effects on dioxin and IgA concentrations in breast milk were investigated. Toxic equivalents were significantly lower in the breast milk of women taking Chlorella tablets than in the Control group (P = .003). These results suggest that Chlorella supplementation by the mother may reduce transfer of dioxins to the child through breast milk. No significant correlation was identified between dioxin and IgA concentrations in breast milk in the Control group. It is unlikely that normal levels of dioxin exposure via food have a remarkable influence on IgA in breast milk. IgA concentrations in breast milk in the Chlorella group were significantly higher than in the Control group (P = .03). Increasing IgA levels in breast milk is considered to be effective for reducing the risk of infection in nursing infants. The present results suggest that Chlorella supplementation not only reduces dioxin levels in breast milk, but may also have beneficial effects on nursing infants by increasing IgA levels in breast milk. PMID:17472477

Nakano, Shiro; Takekoshi, Hideo; Nakano, Masuo

2007-03-01

54

Iodine concentration of organic and conventional milk: implications for iodine intake.  

PubMed

Iodine is required for adequate thyroid hormone production, which is essential for brain development, particularly in the first trimester of pregnancy. Milk is the principal source of iodine in UK diets, and while small studies in Europe have shown organic milk to have a lower iodine concentration than conventional milk, no such study has been conducted in Britain. In view of the increasing popularity of organic milk in the UK, we aimed to compare the iodine concentration of retail organic and conventional milk and to evaluate regional influences in iodine levels. Samples of organic milk (n 92) and conventional milk (n 80), purchased from retail outlets in sixteen areas of the UK (southern England, Wales and Northern Ireland), were analysed for iodine using inductively coupled plasma MS. The region of origin of the milk was determined from information on the label. Organic milk was 42·1 % lower in iodine content than conventional milk (median iodine concentration 144·5 v. 249·5 ng/g; P < 0·001). There was no difference in the iodine concentration of either conventional or organic milk by area of purchase. However, a difference was seen in iodine concentration of organic milk by region of origin (P < 0·001). The lower iodine concentration of organic milk has public-health implications, particularly in view of emerging evidence of iodine deficiency in UK population sub-groups, including pregnant women. Individuals who choose organic milk should be aware that their iodine intake may be compromised and should ensure adequate iodine intake from alternative sources. PMID:21781365

Bath, Sarah C; Button, Suzanne; Rayman, Margaret P

2012-04-01

55

Can the difference in serum concentration of urea and cystatin C be used in diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure?  

PubMed

Changes in renal function are an important diagnostic and prognostic indicator in patients with heart failure (HF). They are caused by decreased renal perfusion and consequently decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), or by the effect of increased neurohormonal activity (sympathetic nervous system [SNS], rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system [RAAS] and arginine vasopressin [AVP]). However, the increase of serum concentration of urea, creatinine and other metabolites is not specific for HF. Therefore, it is not possible to distinguish HF from renal diseases solely based on the increase of their concentration, since the increase of their concentration caused by the decrease of GFR cannot be differentiated from the increase due to neurohormonal activity. Urea and cystatin C (Cys C) have different mechanisms of renal elimination, so it can be assumed that in HF their concentrations will not be increased proportionally, what can be used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. After glomerular filtration Cy C undergoes proximal tubular reabsorption and breakdown, without returning to the blood flow. Since it is not secreted, its serum concentration depends only on GFR. In contrast to Cys C, urea is filtered in glomerulus and subsequently reabsorbed in proximal tubules and collecting duct. Reabsorption of urea is modified by effects of SNS, RAAS and AVP. Therefore its serum concentration depends upon GFR and neurohormonal effect on the tubular function. Since the increase of serum concentration of Cys C is caused only by the effect of the decreased renal perfusion on GFR, while the increase of urea is a result from both decreased GFR and tubular effects of increased neurohormonal activity, the paper hypothesis is that in HF the increase of urea will be significantly higher than the increase of serum Cys C, while in the patients with renal diseases their increase would be mostly proportional. It can be assumed that the disproportion between the increase of Cys C and urea would indicate an increased neurohormonal activity in patients with HF and correlate with its activity. If this hypothesis is proved correct, this parameter could be used in HF diagnosis and risk stratification of such patients. PMID:25064377

Matana, Ante; Zaninovi? Jurjevi?, Teodora; Matana Kaštelan, Zrinka

2014-09-01

56

Short communication: Effects of nanofiltration and evaporation on the physiochemical properties of milk protein during processing of milk protein concentrate.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of nanofiltration and evaporation concentration technologies on the physiochemical properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC) during processing. Skim milk, ultrafiltered milk, evaporated milk, nanofiltered milk, evaporated MPC, and nanofiltered MPC samples were collected at different processing stages. Chemical composition, microstructure of casein micelles, free sulfhydryl content, and surface hydrophobicity of the samples were determined. The insolubility index of MPC was also determined. Casein micelles aggregated compactly after evaporation while surface hydrophobicity increased and free sulfhydryl content decreased in evaporated milk compared with skim milk. However, the microstructure of the casein micelles was relatively undisturbed after nanofiltration, with reduced surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl content. No significant difference was found in chemical composition between the 2 MPC preparations: approximately 61.40% protein and 28.49% lactose. In addition, the particulate microstructures of both MPC were similar. However, the insolubility index of evaporated MPC was significantly (0.58mL) higher than that of nanofiltered MPC. Nanofiltration may be an effective way to improve the solubility of MPC products. PMID:25465557

Cao, Jialu; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Shaozong; Liu, Chang; Li, Yan; Li, Haimei; Zhang, Liebing

2015-01-01

57

Effects of dietary urea supplementation on ruminal ammonia concentrations and microbial protein synthesis  

E-print Network

?IIIEIITAL D . ETS COIIPOS1TIOITS (AIP, -DI?Y BASIS) xp. Ifuri. Diet (%) Feed Intake (kg/day) . k Ba al 7 5 8. 5 III IV V VI Basal + Ii% C. P. E. of' urea 8. 5 Basal + 2% C. P. E. of' urea 9 ' 6 Basal + 5% C. P. E. of urea 10. 8 Basal + 4. 5% C. P... ?'? j ? s ~ pjj C, P, . s urea 26 90 + 2i90 . 64 + . 06 . 43 + ~ 15 579+ 17JJ (CO;TIHDED) '~~y3j-3 4: (Con I)inued) . ': oi; TiP, P , j)/ Dl"1r )HAPP, D)P!)jr Corrected 3acterial Crude Protein Yeilds DAP u v!oJ e/p;m lag 8!jj/1002m DHD r...

Kang, Joan Huei

1978-01-01

58

EFFECTS OF INCREMENTAL UREA SUPPLEMENTATION ON RUMINAL AMMONIA CONCENTRATION AND BACTERIAL PROTEIN FORMATION 1 ,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Increments of O, I, 2, 3, 4.5 and 6.5% crude protein equivalent (CPE) were added as urea to a basal diet containing 75% corn and 20% cottonseed hulls (8.3% protein from all natural sources) and fed to two nonlactating Holstein cows. Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (N) levels increased (P<.05) with each increment of urea and ranged from 1.3 (basal) to

J. H. Kang-Meznarich; G. A. Broderick; Texas A

59

Residual kidney function and plasma urea concentration in patients with chronic renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between the plasma levels of urea (Purea), renal clearance of urea (Curea) and creatinine (Ccr) at an intake of 0.5 g protein\\/kg body weight\\/day were followed in 10 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) under balance\\u000a conditions. Under these conditions, Purea attained a value of 30 mmol\\/l when Curea had decreased below 3.8 ml\\/min. By contrast, no correlation

J. Erben; H. Nádvorníková; V. Teplan; O. Mare?ková; I. Skála; V. Reitschlägerová

1990-01-01

60

Residual concentrations of the flukicidal compound triclabendazole in dairy cows' milk and cheese.  

PubMed

Triclabendazole (TCBZ) is a flukicidal halogenated benzimidazole compound extensively used in veterinary medicine. Liver fluke control in lactating dairy cattle is difficult because treatment should be implemented only during the dry period to avoid milk residues. However, control in endemic areas is usually implemented as regular treatments three to four times a year, even during the lactating period. Thus, information on TCBZ milk excretion and the risk of the presence of drug residues in fluid milk and milk-derivate products is essential. The experimental aims were to evaluate the comparative disposition kinetics of TCBZ and its sulpho-metabolites in plasma and milk in lactating dairy cattle after the oral administration (12 mg kg(-1)) of TCBZ and to assess the pattern of residues in cheese made with milk from treated dairy cows. Both TCBZ sulphoxide and sulphone metabolites but not TCBZ were detected in milk (up to 36 and 144 h, respectively) and plasma (up to 144 h) after oral administration of TCBZ. Residual concentrations of TCBZ sulpho-metabolites were found in cheese made with milk from treated animals. The total average residual concentration in fresh cheese was 13.0-fold higher than that obtained in milk used for its elaboration. The high concentrations of TCBZ sulpho-metabolites recovered in fresh cheese should be seriously considered before milk from treated cows is used for making dairy products. PMID:21337234

Imperiale, F; Ortiz, P; Cabrera, M; Farias, C; Sallovitz, J M; Iezzi, S; Pérez, J; Alvarez, L; Lanusse, C

2011-04-01

61

Milk selenium concentration and its association with udder health in Atlantic Canadian dairy herds.  

PubMed

Soils and plants in Atlantic Canadian provinces are known to contain low concentrations of selenium (Se). Earlier studies have indicated that dairy producers in Atlantic Canada are providing insufficient supplementary Se in the ration to meet the Se requirements of dairy cattle, as measured by herd-level milk Se concentration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between milk Se concentration and somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of new intramammary infection (IMI) in the dry period, in Atlantic Canadian dairy cows. Eighteen dairy farms participating in the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network cohort study were selected as a convenience sample. On each farm 15 cows to be dried off were selected. Quarter milk samples were collected at 4 and 2 wk before drying-off, within 24 h after calving, and at 7 d after calving to evaluate IMI status. Composite milk samples were analyzed for SCC and Se concentration. Mean milk Se concentration was marginal in 14% of the cows that were on pasture during the grazing season. Milk Se concentration was not associated with the overall odds of new IMI in the dry period; however, the odds of having a new Streptococcus spp. and other gram-positive pathogen IMI in the dry period increased with increasing milk Se concentration. Somatic cell count increased with milk Se concentration, even after adjusting for IMI status. The dairy population in our study had higher ranges for milk Se concentration, whereas ranges for prevalence of IMI, and SCC were lower, compared with those in studies where a negative relationship between Se status and udder health was first noted. Therefore, under the current management conditions, milk Se concentration did not appear to be a principal determinant of udder health. PMID:20855004

Ceballos-Marquez, A; Barkema, H W; Stryhn, H; Dohoo, I R; Keefe, G P; Wichtel, J J

2010-10-01

62

Concentration of omega 3-polyunsaturated fatty acids of seal blubber oil by urea complexation: optimization of reaction conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of omega-3 fatty acid concentrates from seal blubber oil (SBO) was optimized. In this process, the content of total ?3-fatty acids, Y1; eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), Y2; and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), Y3 in the final product was maximized. A three-factor central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to study the effect of urea-to-fatty acid ratio (X1), crystallization time (X2), and

Udaya N Wanasundara; Fereidoon Shahidi

1999-01-01

63

Diurnal variations in milk macro-mineral concentrations in Holstein dairy cows in Urmia, Iran  

PubMed Central

Milk samples from high and low milk producer Holstein cows, were obtained during the morning and afternoon milking over a one week period. Overall, 1064 samples were tested within 14 times sampling in Urmia, Iran. Milk macro-mineral concentrations in the morning milking and in low producers were greater than in the afternoon and in high producers. The highest and lowest concentrations were observed in Na+ and Mg++, respectively. Mean milk values between low and high producers in the morning, afternoon and daily milking times were different (p < 0.05). The individual comparison of milk parameters between both groups in the different milking times were also different (p < 0.05). The results of correlation among macro-minerals in the morning, afternoon and overall milking showed significant and positive correlations among all macro-minerals except for Na+ and K+, in which there was a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05). The highest and lowest correlations were found between Ca++ and inorganic phosphorus (IP) (r=0.37, p < 0.05) and Na+ and IP (r=0.10, p < 0.05), respectively. It is concluded that the concentration of macro-minerals in different producers varied between milking times. The sodium concentration was the highest while Mg++ was the lowest among macro-minerals. The correlation between Ca++/ IP was the highest, while Na+/K+ revealed a negative correlation. Therefore, by organizing the appropriate macro-minerals in the ration, it would be possible to achieve an optimal purpose from animal husbandry. PMID:25653772

Nozad, Shahram; Ramin, Ali-Gholi; Asri Rezaie, Siamak

2012-01-01

64

Influence of short-term dietary measures on dioxin concentrations in human milk.  

PubMed Central

Breast-feeding may expose infants to high levels of toxic chlorinated dioxins. To diminish intake of these lipophilic compounds by the baby, two diets were tested for their ability to reduce concentrations of dioxins in human milk. The diets were a low-fat/high- carbohydrate/low-dioxin diet. (about 20% of energy intake derived from fat) and a high fat /low-carbohydrate/low-dioxin diet. These diets were tested in 16 and 18 breast-feeding women, respectively. The test diets were followed for 5 consecutive days in the fourth week after delivery. Milk was sampled before and at the end of the dietary regimen, and dioxin concentrations and fatty acid concentrations were determined. Despite significant influences of these diets on the fatty acid profiles, no significant influence on the dioxin concentrations in breast milk could be found. We conclude that short-term dietary measures will not reduce dioxin concentration in human milk. PMID:9738212

Pluim, H J; Boersma, E R; Kramer, I; Olie, K; van der Slikke, J W; Koppe, J G

1994-01-01

65

Concentration of Trichloroethylene in Breast Milk and Household Water from Nogales, Arizona  

PubMed Central

The United States Environmental Protection Agency has identified quantification of trichloroethylene (TCE), an industrial solvent, in breast milk as a high priority need for risk assessment. Water and milk samples were collected from 20 households by a lactation consultant in Nogales, Arizona. Separate water samples (including tap, bottled and vending machine) were collected for all household uses: drinking, bathing, cooking, and laundry. A risk factor questionnaire was administered. Liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether was followed by GC-MS for TCE quantification in water. Breast milk underwent homogenization, lipid hydrolysis and centrifugation prior to extraction. The limit of detection was 1.5 ng/mL. TCE was detected in 7 of 20 mothers’ breast milk samples. The maximum concentration was 6 ng/mL. TCE concentration in breast milk was significantly correlated with the concentration in water used for bathing (?=0.59, p=0.008). Detection of TCE in breast milk was more likely if the infant had a body mass index <14 (RR=5.2, p=0.02). Based on average breast milk consumption, TCE intake for 5% of the infants may exceed the proposed US EPA Reference Dose. Results of this exploratory study warrant more in depth studies to understand risk of TCE exposures from breast milk intake. PMID:22827160

Beamer, Paloma I.; Luik, Catherine E.; Abrell, Leif; Campos, Swilma; Martínez, María Elena; Sáez, A. Eduardo

2013-01-01

66

Detecting multiple adulterants in dry milk using Raman chemical imaging  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A Raman chemical imaging method was developed for detecting the presence of multiple chemical adulterants in dry milk powder. Four chemicals (ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea) were added in equal concentrations, between 0.1% and 5.0%, to nonfat dry milk. An area of 25×25 mm2 for e...

67

Changes in concentration of aflatoxin M1 during manufacture and storage of skim milk powder.  

PubMed

In this study, skim milk powder was produced from cow's milk contaminated artificially with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) at two different levels, 1.5 and 3.5 microg/liter (ppb), and the effects of process stages on the AFM1 contents were investigated. Pasteurization, concentration, and spray drying caused losses of about 16, 40, and 68%, respectively, in AFM1 content of the milk contaminated with 1.5 microg/liter AFM1, and losses of 12, 35, and 59%, respectively, in the milk contaminated with 3.5 microg/liter AFM1. These losses were found to be statisticially significant at the level of P < 0.01. After 3- and 6-month storage periods, AFM1 content of the skim milk powder produced from milk with 1.5 microg/liter AFM1 decreased by 2 and 5%, respectively, whereas these rates were 2 and 4%, respectively, for the skim milk powders made from milk with 3.5 microg/liter AFM1 (after adjustment for sample weight). Changes in AFM1 content of milk powder samples were found statistically insignificant (P > 0.05 and P > 0.01) for 3- and 6-month storage periods. PMID:16541705

Deveci, Orgun; Sezgin, Emel

2006-03-01

68

Effect of supplemental concentrate type on milk production and metabolic status in early-lactation dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass-based pasture.  

PubMed

Forty-four early-lactation dairy cows of mixed parity were used to examine the effect of 4 supplemental concentrate types (n=11) on milk production and metabolic status. Animals were blocked by parity and calving date, and blocks were balanced for previous milk yield and milk protein yield. Cows received grazed pasture plus 5.17 kg of DM/d of 1 of the following isoenergetic (1.1 units of energy for lactation) concentrates: 1) high crude protein (CP) with rolled barley (HP, 19% CP); b) low CP with rolled barley (LP, 15% CP); c) low CP with barley and a supplemental methionine hydroxy analog (HMBi; LP + HMBi, 15% CP); and d) low CP with ground corn (LP-corn, 15% CP). Milk yield was recorded from d 1 to 100 postpartum, with weekly milk sampling, body weight, and body condition score (BCS) measurements. Blood and rumen sampling were conducted weekly from wk 2 to 6 postpartum. Milk yield was lower for cows in the LP treatment compared with those offered other concentrate types (25.2 vs. 27.5 ± 0.39 kg/d). Animals in the HP group had a higher milk yield than those in the LP + HMBi group (28.2 vs. 26.8 ± 0.39 kg/d). Milk fat yield was lower from animals in the LP-corn group compared with those in the LP + HMBi group (0.94 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03 kg/d). Milk protein yield was lower in the LP group compared with those in the HP group (0.88 vs. 0.97 ± 0.02 kg/d). Animal body weight, BCS, and BCS loss were not affected by concentrate type. However, nonesterified fatty acids were higher from animals in the HP group than for those in the LP + HMBi group (0.41 vs. 0.33 ± 0.03 mmol/L), and ?-hydroxy butyric acid was higher from animals in the HP group than for those in the other treatments (0.71 vs. 0.59 ± 0.03 mmol/L). Glucose was higher from animals in the LP-corn group than for those in the HP and LP groups (3.3 vs. 3.2 ± 0.05 mmol/L). Blood urea-N was higher from animals offered HP compared with those offered the other treatments (5.49.6 vs. 4.21 ± 0.44 mmol/L). However, rumen NH(3)-N and volatile fatty acid concentration in the rumen were not affected by supplemental concentrate type. Reducing supplemental concentrate CP reduced milk yield. However, milk fat production and energy-corrected milk were not different, reducing the likelihood of an improved energy balance or a more favorable blood metabolic profile in early-lactation dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass. Offering HMBi with low-CP concentrates or replacing rolled barley with ground maize improves milk production relative to low-CP concentrates and metabolic status relative to high-CP concentrates. PMID:22818468

Whelan, S J; Pierce, K M; Flynn, B; Mulligan, F J

2012-08-01

69

Forage to concentrate ratio in Jonica breed goats: influence on lactation curve and milk composition.  

PubMed

The aim of the work is to evaluate the effects of different forage to concentrate rations on milk yield, composition and renneting properties of milk of Jonica breed goats. Twenty-four Jonica goats received diets with forage to concentrate ratio of 35/65, 50/50 or 65/35, providing respectively a low, medium and high energy level. Goats were divided into three homogenous groups and confined in individual pens for 152 days to assess the daily feed intake and milk yield and composition. The main conclusions show that animal body weight did not change significantly with the increasing levels of forage, whereas significant differences (P<0.05) for daily dry matter intake were observed in relation to the evolution of lactation. Milk production was influenced (P<0.05) by dietary treatments and was higher in the diet with the greatest energy level. Forage to concentrate ratios did not significantly affect milk characteristics, milk renneting properties, initial production, rate of increase until reaching the peak and rate of decline after peak production. However, the day of peak production and peak production of goats were linearly reduced when the level of forage increased within the diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that both forage to concentrate ratio and energy level improve goat's production without influencing the milk composition. PMID:19152715

Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Dario, Marco; Laudadio, Vito

2009-02-01

70

Effect of incremental urea supplementation of a conventional corn silage-based diet on ruminal ammonia concentration and synthesis of microbial protein.  

PubMed

One primiparous and 3 multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the efficacy of adding urea to a corn silage-based diet on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis. Dietary treatments were 0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% urea in diet dry matter (DM); urea was manually top dressed and incorporated into the ration. The basal diet contained (DM basis) 52% forage (with 61% of forage provided as corn silage) and 48% concentrate ingredients. The basal diet was formulated to meet National Research Council (NRC, 2001) requirements for energy and all nutrients except rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and metabolizable protein. Experimental periods lasted 14 d with the first 9 d for adaptation. The basal diet, without urea addition, contained 9.2% RDP in DM and had a predicted RDP balance of -167 g/d (NRC, 2001). There were no effects of dietary treatment on ruminal true digestibility of organic matter or ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. Total ruminal volatile fatty acid concentrations increased linearly with increasing urea level. Feeding increasing amounts of urea quadratically increased rumen ammonia N concentrations (9.0, 11.9, 12.8, and 17.4 mg/dL at 0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% urea supplementation, respectively), passage of microbial N, and microbial N in duodenal digesta as a percentage of nonammonia N. The results of this study indicate that there were some positive effects of adding urea to the described lactating dairy cow diet, and that microbial protein synthesis was maximized at an average ruminal ammonia N concentration of 12.8 mg/dL when urea was added at 0.6% in diet DM. PMID:18024754

Boucher, S E; Ordway, R S; Whitehouse, N L; Lundy, F P; Kononoff, P J; Schwab, C G

2007-12-01

71

EFFECT OF MASTITIS ON MILK PERCHLORATE CONCENTRATIONS IN DAIRY COWS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent surveys have identified the presence of perchlorate, a natural compound and environmental contaminant, in forages and dairy milk. The ingestion of perchlorate is of concern due to its ability to competitively inhibit iodide uptake by the thyroid and to impair synthesis of thyroid hormones. ...

72

Predicting Perchlorate Exposure in Milk From Concentrations in Dairy Feed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Perchlorate has been detected in US milk samples from many different states. To attempt to manage this problem it is important to know the pathways for its possible accumulation. Data taken from a recently reported 9-week perchlorate experiment dosing 16 Holstein dairy cows allowed us to derive an...

73

Milk response to concentrate supplementation of high producing dairy cows grazing at two pasture allowances.  

PubMed

Twenty multiparous Holstein cows (four ruminally cannulated) in five 4 x 4 Latin squares with 21-d periods were used to study the effect of concentrate supplementation when grazed at two pasture allowances. The four dietary treatments resulted from the combination of two pasture allowance targets (low, 25 vs. high, 40 kg of dry matter/cow per day) and two concentrate supplementation levels (zero vs. 1 kg of concentrate/4 kg of milk). Concentrate supplementation decreased pasture dry matter intake 2.0 kg/d at the low pasture allowance (17.5 vs. 15.5 kg/d) and 4.4 kg/d at the high pasture allowance (20.5 vs. 16.1 kg/d). Substitution rate was lower at the low pasture allowance (0.26 kg pasture/kg concentrate) than at the high pasture allowance (0.55 kg of pasture/kg of concentrate). Total dry matter intake of both supplemented treatments averaged 24.4 kg/d. Milk production of both supplemented treatments averaged 29.8 kg/d, but was increased with higher pasture allowance in the unsupplemented treatments (19.1 vs. 22.2 kg/d). Milk response to concentrate supplementation was 1.36 and 0.96 kg of milk/kg of concentrate for the low and high pasture allowances, respectively. Concentrate supplementation reduced milk fat percentage but increased milk protein percentage. Rumen pH and NH3-N concentration were decreased with concentrate supplementation. Substitution rate was likely related to both negative associative effects in the rumen (reductions in rumen pH, rate of pasture digestion, and NDF digestibility) and reductions in grazing time. The latter was more important, quantitatively explaining at least 80% of the reduction in pasture dry matter intake observed. PMID:12201529

Bargo, F; Muller, L D; Delahoy, J E; Cassidy, T W

2002-07-01

74

Influence of sodium fluoride and caffeine on the concentration of fluoride ions, glucose, and urea in blood serum and activity of protein metabolism enzymes in rat liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was examining the effect of fluoride ions and caffeine administration on glucose and urea concentration\\u000a in blood serum and the activity of protein metabolism enzymes and selected enzymes of the urea cycle in rat liver. The study\\u000a was carried out using 18 male Sprague-Daowley rats (4.5 mo old). Rats were divided into three groups. Group

Ewa Birkner; Ewa Grucka-Mamczar; Jolanta Zalejska-Fiolka; Dariusz Chlubek; Slawomir Kasperczyk; Barbara Stawiarska-Pi?ta; Urszula B?aszczyk

2006-01-01

75

Effect of Humic\\/Fulvic Acid in Beef Cattle Finishing Diets on Animal Performance, Ruminal Ammonia and Serum Urea Nitrogen Concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

McMurphy, C.P., Duff, G.C., Harris, M.A., Sanders, S.R., Chirase, N.K., Bailey, C.R. and Ibrahim, R.M. 2009. Effect of humic\\/fulvic acid in beef cattle finishing diets on animal performance, ruminal ammonia and serum urea nitrogen concentration. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 35: 97–100.This study was designed to investigate the effects of a humate supplement on rumen ammonia N (RAN), serum urea N

C. P. McMurphy; G. C. Duff; M. A. Harris; S. R. Sanders; N. K. Chirase; C. R. Bailey; R. M. Ibrahim

2009-01-01

76

Relation of a Seafood Diet to Mercury, Selenium, Arsenic, and Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Other Organochlorine Concentrations in Human Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human transition milk was sampled from 88 mothers at the Faroe Islands, where the seafood diet includes pilot whale meat and blubber. Milk mercury concentrations (median, 2.45 ?g\\/liter) were significantly associated with mercury concentrations in cord blood and with the frequency of pilot whale dinners during pregnancy. Milk selenium concentrations (mean, 19.1 ?g\\/liter) correlated significantly with concentrations in cord blood

P. Grandjean; P. Weihe; L. L. Needham; V. W. Burse; D. G. Patterson; E. J. Sampson; P. J. Jorgensen; M. Vahter

1995-01-01

77

Changes in the physical properties, solubility, and heat stability of milk protein concentrates prepared from partially acidified milk.  

PubMed

A limiting factor in using milk protein concentrates (MPC) as a high-quality protein source for different food applications is their poor reconstitutability. Solubilization of colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) from casein micelles during membrane filtration (e.g., through acidification) may affect the structural organization of these protein particles and consequently the rehydration and functional properties of the resulting MPC powder. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acidification of milk by glucono-?-lactone (GDL) before ultrafiltration (UF) on the composition, physical properties, solubility, and thermal stability (after reconstitution) of MPC powders. The MPC samples were manufactured in duplicate, either by UF (65% protein, MPC65) or by UF followed by diafiltration (80% protein, MPC80), using pasteurized skim milk, at either the native milk pH (~pH 6.6) or at pH 6.0 after addition of GDL, followed by spray drying. Samples of different treatments were reconstituted at 5% (wt/wt) protein to compare their solubility and thermal stability. Powders were tested in duplicate for basic composition, calcium content, reconstitutability, particle size, particle density, and microstructure. Acidification of milk did not have any significant effect on the proximate composition, particle size, particle density, or surface morphology of the MPC powders; however, the total calcium content of MPC80 decreased significantly with acidification (from 1.84 ± 0.03 to 1.59 ± 0.03 g/100 g of powder). Calcium-depleted MPC80 powders were also more soluble than the control powders. Diafiltered dispersions were significantly less heat stable (at 120°C) than UF samples when dissolved at 5% solids. The present work contributes to a better understanding of the differences in MPC commonly observed during processing. PMID:25459904

Eshpari, H; Tong, P S; Corredig, M

2014-12-01

78

Vitamin Bi 2: low milk concentrations are related to low serum concentrations in vegetarian women and to methylmalonic aciduria in their infants13  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a group of 13 strict vegetarian and 6 om- nivorous lactating women, relationships were studied among maternal milk and serum vitamin B-l2, and milk vitamin B-12 and infant urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) excretion. Milk vitamin B- 12 concentrations were lower in women consuming a strict vegetarian diet compared with an omnivorous diet. Milk vitamin B-l2 was inversely related to

Bonny L Specker; Anne Black; Lindsay Allen; Frank Morrow

79

Glutamine and glutamate supplementation raise milk glutamine concentrations in lactating gilts  

PubMed Central

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in milk, and lactation is associated with increased glutamine utilization both for milk synthesis and as a fuel for the enlarged small intestine. A number of recent studies have indicated that lactation is accompanied by a mild catabolic state in which skeletal muscle proteins are degraded to provide amino acids that are used to synthesize additional glutamine. In this study we tested the hypothesis that supplemental L-glutamine or the commercially available glutamine supplement Aminogut (2.5% by weight mixed into daily feed) provided to gilts from 30 days prior to parturition until 21 days post-parturition would prevent a decrease in skeletal muscle glutamine while increasing the glutamine content of the milk. Muscle glutamine content decreased (P < 0.05) in control animals during lactation but this was prevented by supplementation with either L-glutamine or Aminogut. In this study, neither lactation nor supplementation had any effect on plasma glutamine or glutamate content. Free glutamine, and the total glutamine plus glutamate concentrations in milk from the control and the Aminogut group rose (P < 0.05) during the first 7 days of lactation, with milk concentrations in the L-glutamine supplemented group showing a similar trend (P = 0.053). Milk glutamate remained constant between day 7 and 21 of lactation in the control and L-glutamine supplemented groups, but by day 21 of lactation the free glutamine, glutamate, and glutamine plus glutamate concentrations in milk from Aminogut-treated gilts were higher than those of control gilts. Thus dietary glutamine supplementation can alleviate the fall in intramuscular glutamine content during lactation in gilts, and may alleviate some of the catabolic effects of lactation. Furthermore, the increased milk glutamine content in the supplemented gilts may provide optimum nutrition for piglet development. PMID:22958708

2012-01-01

80

Studies on the excretion of diazepam and nordazepam into milk for the prediction of milk-to-plasma drug concentration ratios.  

PubMed

The influence of varying protein and fat content in milk of New Zealand White rabbits on the milk-to-plasma drug concentration (M/P) ratio of diazepam was studied. At various time points after littering, a bolus dose (1.5 mg/kg) followed by a 26-hr infusion (1.8 mg/h) of diazepam was administered to freely moving rabbits via a jugular vein catheter. Milk and blood samples were collected to allow characterization of milk composition and quantitative determination of diazepam and nordazepam in milk and plasma. At steady state diazepam showed M/P ratios between 3.7 and 9.5, whereas nordazepam showed ratios between 2.1 and 4.3, respectively. The relative importance of milk protein binding and milk-fat partitioning for the excretion of a drug into milk depended on the drug's affinity to milk fat. A stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that observed M/P ratios of diazepam could be explained by considering the fat content of milk alone. Nordazepam with a lower solubility in milk fat showed M/P ratios which could be best explained by considering protein and fat concentrations together. Using the data from the infusion studies, two recently published diffusional models to predict M/P ratios were evaluated. Neither model could accurately predict the M/P ratios of diazepam and nordazepam observed in rabbits. However, after extending the model described by Atkinson and Begg to take the actually measured partitioning between skim milk and milk fat into account, a great improvement in the predictive power for observed M/P ratios occurred.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1448430

Stebler, T; Guentert, T W

1992-10-01

81

Concentrations of vitamin C in plasma and milk of dairy cattle  

E-print Network

and to a reduced immune response to a specific antigen. Ben- dich (1993) reported that supplementation of vitamin CNote Concentrations of vitamin C in plasma and milk of dairy cattle M Hidiroglou, M Ivan, TR Batra and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid). At birth, the blood plasma concentration of ascorbic acid in calves

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

82

Evaluation of Yield and Quality of Cheddar Cheese Manufactured from Milk with Added Whey Protein Concentrate1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cheddar cheese was produced from whole milk with blends of whey protein concentrates added. Two whey pro- tein concentrate powders containing 35 or 55% protein were each reconstituted to a 15% (wt\\/wt) suspension and heat treated at 70°C for 15 min. Addition of the denatured whey protein concentrate suspension to the milk was at 5 or 10% by weight of

K. A. Baldwin; R. J. Baer; J. G. Parsons; S. W. Seas; K. R. Spurgeon; G. S. Torrey

1986-01-01

83

Rumen fermentation in lactating cows selected for milk fat content fed two forage to concentrate ratios with hay or silage.  

PubMed

Sixteen multiparous cows, including eight rumen fistulated cows, were used in a 4x4 Latin square experiment designed to study dietary effects on rumen and blood parameters and milk production in cows differing in genetic capacity for milk fat content. Diets contained forage to concentrate ratios of 50:50 or 30:70 with either grass hay or silage as the forage. Ruminal fermentation was characterized by a high molar percentage of butyrate, 14 to 17%. Forage to concentrate ratio affected most rumen parameters, with the exception of the molar percentage of propionate (18 to 19%). The silage had a higher fiber degradation rate compared with hay. Compared to hay diets, silage diets had higher ruminal outflow rates, lower acetate:propionate ratios, and greater milk production with no differences in milk composition. Cows selected for low milk fat had higher molar percentages of propionate in the rumen. The low milk fat cows had higher milk production than cows selected for high milk fat but did not differ in milk fat yield. Cows fed the 30:70 diets had higher plasma insulin concentrations in response to a glucose challenge. The low milk fat cows had lower basal concentrations of insulin and lower insulin responses to a glucose challenge. Small changes in nutrient metabolism and supply were sufficient to influence milk production. PMID:10791792

Murphy, M; Akerlind, M; Holtenius, K

2000-04-01

84

Modelling the concentration-time relationship in milk from cattle administered an intramammary drug.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial drugs are often infused directly through the streak canal into the bovine udder for the treatment or prevention of mastitis. These infusions have two major problems: drug residues in milk and variable antimicrobial efficacy. Both problems are influenced by the pharmacokinetics of intramammary delivery and elimination of drugs. This pharmacokinetics does not conform to the assumptions of traditional first-order mamillary pharmacokinetic models. To help understand drug delivery into and elimination from the udder, a new approach to pharmacokinetic modelling of the udder is proposed. This new model was used to predict the movement of drug within the udder and the concentrations of drug achieved within physiological compartments of the udder. These predictions were examined using computer modelling. The model was evaluated using data from in vivo intramammary infusion of cefuroxime. The model predicts that changes in milking efficiency (residual volume), milk productivity and milking frequency can impact both the drug residue persistence and the time that milk drug concentrations exceed the minimum inhibitory concentrations for pathogens. The model provides a new tool for future evaluation of intramammary dosing studies. PMID:22150507

Whittem, T; Whittem, J H; Constable, P D

2012-10-01

85

Urea Excretion in Adult Humans With Varying Degrees oí Kidney Malfunction Fed Milk, Egg or an Amino Acid Mixture: Assessment of Nitrogen Balance1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the urea load (amount to be excreted by the kidney in 24 hours) associated with a determined nitrogen intake, 16 studies of nitrogen balance were performed on 10 patients with different degrees of kidney function. A close asso ciation between urea excretion and nitrogen intake was found in the studies showing nitrogen equilibrium and between urea excretion and

ENRIQUE PEDRO COTTINI; DANIEL LINO GALLINA; JOSE MIGUEL DOMÃ NGUEZ

86

Human milk oligosaccharide concentration and risk of postnatal transmission of HIV through breastfeeding123  

PubMed Central

Background: The inefficiency of HIV breast-milk transmission may be caused by the presence of immunologically active factors, including human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). Objective: We investigated whether HMO concentrations are associated with a reduced risk of postnatal HIV transmission. Design: A nested case-control study was conducted within a larger cohort study of HIV-infected women and their infants followed from birth to 24 mo in Lusaka, Zambia. Breast-milk samples collected at 1 mo from 81 HIV-infected women who transmitted via breastfeeding, a random sample of 86 HIV-infected women who did not transmit despite breastfeeding, and 36 uninfected breastfeeding women were selected. Total and specific HMO concentrations were measured by HPLC and compared between groups with adjustment for confounders by using logistic regression. Results: HIV-infected women with total HMOs above the median (1.87 g/L) were less likely to transmit via breastfeeding (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.97; P = 0.04) after adjustment for CD4 count and breast-milk HIV RNA concentrations; a trend toward higher concentrations of lacto-N-neotetraose being associated with reduced transmission (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.23, 1.04; P = 0.06) was also observed. The proportion of 3?-sialyllactose (3?-SL) per total HMOs was higher among transmitting than among nontransmitting women (P = 0.003) and correlated with higher plasma and breast-milk HIV RNA and lower CD4 counts. Neither Secretor nor Lewis status distinguished between transmitting and nontransmitting women. Conclusions: Higher concentrations of non-3?-SL HMOs were associated with protection against postnatal HIV transmission independent of other known risk factors. Further study of these novel, potentially anti-HIV components of breast milk is warranted. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00310726. PMID:22894939

Kuhn, Louise; Kim, Hae-Young; Hsiao, Lauren; Nissan, Caroline; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M

2012-01-01

87

Simultaneous detection of multiple adulterants in dry milk using macro-scale Raman chemical imaging  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potential of Raman chemical imaging for simultaneously detecting multiple adulterants in milk powder was investigated. Potential chemical adulterants, including ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea, were mixed together into skim dry milk in the concentration range of 0.1–5.0% for ...

88

Development of a Raman chemical image detection algorithm for authenticating dry milk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research developed a Raman chemical imaging method for detecting multiple adulterants in skim milk powder. Ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea were mixed into the milk powder as chemical adulterants in the concentration range of 0.1–5.0%. A Raman imaging system using a 785-nm la...

89

Refractometer assessment of colostral and serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations in dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Estimation of the quantity of colostral IgG or serum IgG absorbed following ingestion of colostrum by calves is essential for monitoring the effectiveness of colostrum feeding practices on dairy farms. Milk total solids concentrations determination is a critical part of quality assessment of nonsaleable whole milk prior to feeding to calves. To date, on-farm methods to assess colostral IgG, serum IgG or milk total solids concentrations have been performed separately with various instruments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a single electronic, hand-held refractometer for assessing colostral and serum IgG concentrations and milk total solids in dairy cattle. Colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations were determined by the refractometer. Corresponding analysis of colostral and serum IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion (RID) while milk total solids were determined by spectrophotometry. Sensitivity and specificity of the refractometer for colostrum and serum samples were calculated as determined by RID. Sensitivity and specificity of the refractometer for milk samples was calculated as determined by spectrophotometry. Results The sensitivity of the refractometer was 1 for colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids determinations. Specificity of the refractometer was 0.66, 0.24 and 0 for colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids determinations, respectively. The refractometer underestimated colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations compared to the concentrations determined by RID or spectrophotometry. Conclusions The refractometer was an acceptable, rapid, convenient on-farm method for determining colostral IgG and milk total solids. The refractometer was not an acceptable method for determination of serum IgG concentrations as it severely underestimated the serum IgG concentrations. PMID:25125217

2014-01-01

90

Growth hormone releasing factor and somatostatin concentrations in the milk of lactating women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) and somatostatin, two hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the regulation of growth hormone secretion, were measured in human milk samples. The study was performed in healthy women within 48 h of delivery or during established lactation (between 1 and 64 weeks post delivery). No statistically significant correlation was found between the levels in

H. Werner; P. Katz; M. Fridkin; Y. Koch; S. Levine

1988-01-01

91

Arsenic Concentrations in Water, Soil, Milk and Forage in Comarca Lagunera, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic levels were determined in seventy three samples of well water, and in fifty samples of soil, forage and cow's milk collected at the most important dairy farms of the Comarca Lagunera located in Coahuila and Durango, Mexico, region naturally rich in As. The total inorganic arsenic concentration in well water ranged from 7 to 740 µg L-1 and about

I. Rosas; R. Belmont; A. Armienta; A. Baez

1999-01-01

92

Rapeseed and sunflower oilcake as supplements for dairy sheep: animal performance and milk fatty acid concentrations.  

PubMed

The influence of different amounts of oilseed cake (rapeseed and sunflower) on animal production parameters and fatty acid (FA) concentrations of the milk was studied in a Latxa dairy sheep experimental flock, both in winter (50% oilcakes; indoor feeding) and in spring (30% oilcakes; part-time grazing). The two different levels of the oilcakes tested did not affect animal production parameters or milk yield. Milk fat content and the fat/protein ratio decreased significantly with 30 and 50% sunflower cake. Yet, fat/protein ratio values were within the range for cheesemaking. Both levels of either type of oilcake tested significantly increased the concentrations of nutritionally interesting FA (CLA isomer C18:2cis-9, trans-11, vaccenic, oleic, and total unsaturated FA), while simultaneously decreasing the concentration of atherogenic FA. The atherogenicity indexes of milks from ewes fed 50 or 30% of either oilcake were significantly lower than those of their corresponding control. The use of cakes in winter increased the concentration of nutritionally interesting FA to the values obtained with part-time grazing. PMID:25287696

Amores, Gustavo; Virto, Mailo; Nájera, Ana Isabel; Mandaluniz, Nerea; Arranz, Josune; Bustamante, María Angeles; Valdivielso, Izaskun; Ruiz de Gordoa, Juan Carlos; García-Rodríguez, Aser; Barron, Luis J R; de Renobales, Mertxe

2014-11-01

93

Effects of pretrial milk yield on responses of feed intake, digestion, and production to dietary forage concentration.  

PubMed

The relationships between pretrial milk yield and effects of dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio on dry matter intake (DMI), digestion, and milk yield were evaluated using 32 Holstein cows in a crossover design with two 16-d periods. Cows were 197 +/- 55 (mean +/- SD) days in milk at the beginning of the experiment. Milk yield averaged 33.9 kg/d and ranged from 16.5 to 55.0 kg/d for the 4 d before initiation of treatments. Treatments were diets with forage-to-concentrate ratios of 67:33 and 44:56. Forages were alfalfa silage and corn silage, each at 50% of forage dry matter (DM). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations of high-forage and low-forage diets were 30.7 and 24.3% of DM, respectively. Dry matter intake was 1.7 kg/d higher for cows fed the low-forage diet. Milk yield was 2.3 kg/d greater on low forage than on high forage, but 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were not different between treatments. Individual DMI response to the low-forage diet relative to the high-forage diet (low-high) was positively and linearly related to pretrial fat-corrected milk yield, but fat-corrected milk yield response demonstrated a quadratic relationship with pretrial fat-corrected milk yield. Milk yield responded more positively to low forage among low- and high-producing cows than among moderate-producing cows. Energy partitioned to body reserves and to milk, and passage rate of indigestible NDF, also responded to dietary forage level in quadratic relationships with pretrial milk energy output. Individual responses of intake, production, and fiber digestion to a change in forage-to-concentrate ratio were dependent on production level. PMID:12416819

Voelker, J A; Burato, G M; Allen, M S

2002-10-01

94

Effects of dietary crude protein and supplemental urea concentrations on nitrogen and phosphorus utilization by feedlot cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three dietary crude protein (CP) levels (11.5, 13.0, and 14.5% of DM) and 3 supplemental urea levels (100, 50, and 0% of supplemental N) were used in a completely randomized block design experiment conducted at 2 locations to determine N and P balance and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) of feedlot cattle....

95

Lactational performance of high producing dairy cows fed diets containing salmon meal and urea.  

PubMed

Thirty Holstein cows were used in a 12-wk trial to study the effects of salmon meal and urea on lactational performance. Two experimental diets, one containing 5.6% salmon meal and the other 5.2% salmon meal plus .42% urea, were compared with a soybean meal control diet. Salmon meal and urea replaced a portion of the soybean meal. Dietary undegraded intake protein levels (expressed as percentage of CP) were 28.8, 35.6, and 32.4% for soybean meal, salmon meal, and salmon meal plus urea. Total mixed diets (average 17.3% CP, 17.6% ADF) consisting of 60% concentrate mixture and 40% bromegrass silage (DM basis) were fed twice daily. Total DMI was lower with salmon meal compared with soybean meal (20.2 versus 22.2 kg/d); salmon meal plus urea (21.2 kg/d) was intermediate. Actual milk production was similar for all diets (average 41.1 kg/d). Percentage milk fat and 4% FCM yield were lower with salmon meal (2.56%, 31.6 kg/d) and salmon meal plus urea (2.50%, 31.4 kg/d) than with soybean meal (3.03%, 35.9 kg/d). Gross efficiency (weight FCM/weight DMI) was higher for soybean meal than for salmon meal and salmon meal plus urea. Acetate: propionate tended to be higher with the soybean meal diet. The use of a high oil fish meal to provide a source of rumen undegraded intake protein, alone or in combination with urea, resulted in a decrease in milk fat percentage and yield without any beneficial effects on milk production or lactational efficiency. PMID:1744278

Windschitl, P M

1991-10-01

96

Protection by milk immunoglobulin concentrate against oral challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is a common cause of traveler's diarrhea. Prophylaxis against traveler's diarrhea has been associated with side effects from bismuth subsalicylate and the development of resistance to antimicrobial agents. We undertook a double-blind controlled trial in which a bovine milk immunoglobulin concentrate with high titers of antibodies against enterotoxigenic E. coli was used as prophylaxis against E. coli challenge in volunteers. Lyophilized milk immunoglobulins were prepared from the colostrum of cows immunized with several enterotoxigenic E. coli serotypes and fimbria types, E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin, and cholera toxin. As a control, an immunoglobulin concentrate with no anti-E. coli activity was prepared. Ten volunteers received buffered immunoglobulin concentrate against enterotoxigenic E. coli, and 10 received the control immunoglobulin concentrate, dissolved in water, three times a day. No side effects were observed. On the third day of immunoglobulin prophylaxis, the volunteers were given 10(9) colony-forming units of enterotoxigenic E. coli H10407 (O78:H11). This strain produces colonization factor antigen I and heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins. None of the 10 volunteers receiving the immunoglobulin concentrate against E. coli had diarrhea, but 9 of the 10 controls did (P less than 0.0001). All volunteers excreted E. coli H10407. We conclude from these preliminary results that milk immunoglobulin concentrate may be an effective prophylaxis against traveler's diarrhea. PMID:3283555

Tacket, C O; Losonsky, G; Link, H; Hoang, Y; Guesry, P; Hilpert, H; Levine, M M

1988-05-12

97

Milk pH as a function of CO2 concentration, temperature, and pressure in a heat exchanger.  

PubMed

Raw skim milk, with or without added CO2, was heated, held, and cooled in a small pilot-scale tubular heat exchanger (372 ml/min). The experiment was replicated twice, and, for each replication, milk was first carbonated at 0 to 1 degree C to contain 0 (control), 600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 ppm added CO2 using a continuous carbonation unit. After storage at 0 to 1 degree C, portions of milk at each CO2 concentration were heated to 40, 56, 72, and 80 degrees C, held at the desired temperature for 30 s (except 80 degrees C, holding 20 s) and cooled to 0 to 1 degree C. At each temperature, five pressures were applied: 69, 138, 207, 276, and 345 kPa. Pressure was controlled with a needle valve at the heat exchanger exit. Both the pressure gauge and pH probe were inline at the end of the holding section. Milk pH during heating depended on CO2 concentration, temperature, and pressure. During heating of milk without added CO2, pH decreased linearly as a function of increasing temperature but was independent of pressure. In general, the pH of milk with added CO2 decreased with increasing CO2 concentration and pressure. For milk with added CO2, at a fixed CO2 concentration, the effect of pressure on pH decrease was greater at a higher temperature. At a fixed temperature, the effect of pressure on pH decrease was greater for milk with a higher CO2 concentration. Thermal death of bacteria during pasteurization of milk without added CO2 is probably due not only to temperature but also to the decrease in pH that occurs during the process. Increasing milk CO2 concentration and pressure decreases the milk pH even further during heating and may further enhance the microbial killing power of pasteurization. PMID:14740816

Ma, Y; Barbano, D M

2003-12-01

98

Effects of Protein Level and Mangosteen Peel Pellets (Mago-pel) in Concentrate Diets on Rumen Fermentation and Milk Production in Lactating Dairy Crossbreds  

PubMed Central

Four, lactating dairy crossbreds (50%×50% Holstein Friesian×Native Zebu cattle) were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement (two protein levels and two levels of mangosteen peel pellets (Mago-pel)) in a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. All cows received concentrate at a proportion of 1 kg concentrate per 2 kg of milk yield, and urea-treated 5% rice straw (UTRS) was given ad libitum. It was found that total dry matter intakes, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and NH3-N concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by treatments. Concentrations of ruminal pH and NH3-N were not affected by dietary treatments although the concentration of BUN varied significantly (p<0.05) between protein levels (p<0.05). The populations of rumen bacteria and fungal zoospores did not differ among treatments (p>0.05); however, the population of protozoa was decreased (p<0.05) when cows received Mago-pel supplementation. The composition of the population of bacteria, identified by real-time PCR technique, including total bacteria, methanogens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus was similar (p>0.05) among dietary treatments (p>0.05); however, copy numbers of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was increased when protein level increased (p<0.05). Microbial protein synthesis, in terms of both quantity and efficiency, was enriched by Mago-pel supplementation. Milk yield was greatest in cows fed UTRS based diets with concentrate containing protein at 16% CP with Mago-pel, but were lowest without Mago-pel (p<0.05). In addition, protein level and supplementation of Mago-pel did not affect (p>0.05) milk composition except solids-not-fat which was higher in cows fed the diet with 19% CP. Therefore, feeding a concentrate containing 16% CP together with 300 g/hd/d Mago-pel supplementation results in changes in rumen fermentation and microbial population and improvements in milk production in lactating dairy crossbreds fed on UTRS. PMID:25049652

Norrapoke, T.; Wanapat, M.; Wanapat, S.

2012-01-01

99

Arsenic concentration in water and bovine milk in Cordoba, Argentina. Preliminary results.  

PubMed

The Chaco Pampean Plain of central Argentina constitutes one of the largest regions of high arsenic (As) groundwaters known, covering around 1 x 10(6) km2 (Smedley & Kinniburg, 2002; Farías et al. 2004). The high-As groundwaters are from Quaternary deposits of loess (mainly silt) with intermixed rhyolitic or dacitic volcanic ash (Nicolli et al. 1989, Smedley et al. 1998,2002). Early in the last century an endemic disease due to contamination of drinking water with arsenic was recognised. This disease is called HACRE (Hidroarsenicismo Crónico Regional Endémico, Chronic Endemic Regional Hydroarsenism) and is connected with a particular type of skin cancer (Astolfi et al. 1981). One of the most affected region is the province of Cordoba, where Nicolli et al. (1989) reported As concentrations that exceed the maximun level permitted for drinking water of 50 microg/l for 82% of the groundwater samples (n=60) of a study area comprising approximately 10000 km2. The southeast of Cordoba is an important milk production zone in Argentina, where dairy product consumption is up to 192 equivalent milk l/inhabitant/year. As a secretion of the mammary gland, milk can carry numerous xenobiotic substances, which constitute a technological risk factor for dairy products and above all for the health of the consumer (Licata et al. 2004). Nevertheless no studies on the incidence of high-As livestock drinking water in livestock health and its transfer to milk have been performed in Argentina. The aim of the present study was the determination of arsenic content in livestock drinking water and milk from dairy farms located in an area of high-As groundwaters, to analyse the relation between As uptake through water and its transfer to milk. PMID:15747740

Pérez-Carrera, Alejo; Fernández-Cirelli, Alicia

2005-02-01

100

Influence of air intake on the concentration of free fatty acids and vacuum fluctuations during automatic milking.  

PubMed

The main objective of the study was to determine whether the amount of air intake during quarter milking influences the concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) and vacuum fluctuations at the teat end when milking automatically. Air intake in the teat cup was restricted from the normal inlet of 4.5 to 7 L/min to 1.7 and 0 L/min on 2 farms and experiments were carried out as half-udder studies with 40 cows. Blockage of the air inlet reduced FFA from 1.02 to 0.77 mEq/100 g of fat in one herd and from 1.50 to 1.17 mEq/100 g of fat in the other herd. Milk yield per milking was the most significant factor influencing FFA. Air intake accounted for <20% of the variation in FFA concentration. Characteristics of the cow explained the most variation, which could mainly be assigned to the effects of milk yield, fat percentage, fat globule size, and fat globule size distribution. The interval between milkings was not significant when adjusting for milk yields. Blockage of the air inlet caused vacuum fluctuations at the teat end to increase from 15.4 to 21.5 kPa for one model of an automatic milking system (AMS), but from 12.8 to 53.6 kPa for another model. Measurements made with a flow simulator and water revealed that the AMS model and water flow were the most important factors influencing vacuum fluctuations, and that interactions existed between the diameter of the short milk tube and air intake. Free fatty acids in bulk milk from 5,980 herds averaged 0.75 mEq/L of milk for conventional herds and varied from 0.77 to 0.94 mEq/L of milk for the 5 AMS models on the Danish market. Fault detection in 55 herds pointed out that the most frequent faults in conventional herds were air leakages and intake of too much air in the cluster, whereas AMS herds had problems with the cooling and stirring of milk. Correction of the cooling faults caused FFA to decrease by 0.52 mEq/L in the AMS herds. We concluded that air intake during automatic milking is not the most important factor in reducing FFA, whereas milk yield per milking matters the most. More attention should be paid to the cooling and stirring of milk. Reducing the air intake causes vacuum fluctuations during milking to increase significantly. PMID:17106091

Rasmussen, M D; Wiking, L; Bjerring, M; Larsen, H C

2006-12-01

101

Fat source and dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio influences milk fatty-acid composition in lactating cows.  

PubMed

On the basis of the potential benefits to human health there is an increased interest in producing milk containing lower-saturated fatty acid (SFA) and higher unsaturated fatty acid (FA) concentrations, including cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were used in two experiments according to a completely randomized block design, with 21-day periods to examine the effects of incremental replacement of prilled palm fat (PALM) with sunflower oil (SFO) in high-concentrate diets containing 30 g/kg dry matter (DM) of supplemental fat (Experiment 1) or increases in the forage-to-concentrate (F : C) ratio from 39 : 61 to 48 : 52 of diets containing 30 g/kg DM of SFO (Experiment 2) on milk production, digestibility and milk FA composition. Replacing PALM with SFO had no effect on DM intake, but tended to increase organic matter digestibility, yields of milk, protein and lactose, and decreased linearly milk fat content. Substituting SFO for PALM decreased linearly milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and cis-9 16:1, and increased linearly 18:0, cis-9 18:1, trans-18:1 (??4 to 16), 18:2 and CLA concentrations. Increases in the F : C ratio of diets containing SFO had no effect on intake, yields of milk, milk protein or milk lactose, lowered milk protein content in a quadratic manner, and increased linearly NDF digestion and milk fat secretion. Replacing concentrates with forages in diets containing SFO increased milk fat 4:0 to 10:0 concentrations in a linear or quadratic manner, decreased linearly cis-9 16:1, trans-6 to -10 18:1, 18:2n-6, trans-7, cis-9 CLA, trans-9, cis-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA, without altering milk fat 14:0 to 16:0, trans-11 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 CLA or 18:3n-3 concentrations. In conclusion, replacing prilled palm fat on with SFO in high-concentrate diets had no adverse effects on intake or milk production, other than decreasing milk fat content, but lowered milk fat medium-chain SFA and increased trans FA and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Increases in the proportion of forage in diets containing SFO increased milk fat synthesis, elevated short-chain SFA and lowered trans FA concentrations, without altering milk polyunsaturated FA content. Changes in fat yield on high-concentrate diets containing SFO varied between experiments and individual animals, with decreases in milk fat secretion being associated with increases in milk fat trans-10 18:1, trans-10, cis-12 CLA and trans-9, cis-11 CLA concentrations. PMID:24176091

Vazirigohar, M; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Rezayazdi, K; Krizsan, S J; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Shingfield, K J

2014-01-01

102

Lactulose production from milk concentration permeate using calcium carbonate-based catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk concentration permeate (MCP), a low-value by-product of ultrafiltration plants and calcium carbonate-based catalysts were used for lactulose production. The results obtained show the effectiveness of oyster shell powder and limestone for lactose isomerisation as a replacement for egg shell powder. With the reaction conditions of 12mg\\/ml catalyst loading, reflux time of 120min at 96°C, a maximum yield of 18–21%

Tatdao Paseephol; Darryl M. Small; Frank Sherkat

2008-01-01

103

Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.  

PubMed

Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and ?-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6?g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and ?-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p?=?0.001), 2.7-fold (p?=?0.001) and 1.7-fold (p?=?0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation. PMID:24635025

Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

2014-08-01

104

Starch levels on performance, milk composition and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of starch levels in diets with the replacement of citrus pulp for corn on milk yield, milk composition, and energy balance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in seven 4?×?4 Latin squares conducted concurrently, and each experimental period consisted of 20 days (16 days for adaptation and 4 days for sampling). The experimental treatments comprised four starch levels: 15, 20, 25, and 30% in the diet. The dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing starch levels. The milk yield and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield showed quadratic response to increasing starch levels. The milk protein content and milk total solids content responded linearly to increasing starch levels. The feed efficiency, milk lactose content, milk urea nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and plasma glucose concentration were not affected by starch levels. The estimated net energy for lactation (NEL) intake increased linearly as the starch level was raised. Although the milk NEL output per kilogram of milk was not affected by starch, the milk NEL output daily responded quadratically to starch levels. In addition, the NEL in body weight gain also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. The efficiency of energy use for milk yield and the NEL efficiency for production also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. Diets for mid-lactating dairy cows producing around 30 kg/day of milk should be formulated to provide around 25% starch to optimize performance. PMID:25315370

Carmo, Carolina Almeida; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Martinez, Junio Cesar; Correa, Paulo; Pedroso, Alexandre Mendonça; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

2015-01-01

105

Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in plasma and milk samples for early pregnancy diagnosis in Lacaune dairy sheep.  

PubMed

In the present study, four RIA systems (RIA-1 to -4) based on two antisera raised against ovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (ovPAGs), combined with an ovine or a bovine PAG tracer were used to measure PAG concentrations in plasma and milk samples of dairy ewes. Blood and milk samples were collected on different days of gestation: 0, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 32, 42, and 49. From day 20 onward, the PAG in plasma could be detected in all pregnant ewes using the four RIA systems. By using milk, except for RIA-1, the other systems showed a sensitivity of 100% from day 28 of gestation onward. In plasma, PAG concentrations were higher in multiple than in single pregnancies, while no clear relationship was observed in milk. In conclusion, milk is a good alternative to plasma for early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep from day 28 to day 42. PMID:25613086

El Amiri, B; Sousa, N M; Alvarez Oxiley, A; Hadarbach, D; Beckers, J F

2015-04-01

106

Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.  

PubMed

Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ?-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 concentrations. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 concentrations (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 concentration (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (?9 to 11), trans-18:1 (?6 to 11), trans-18:2, CLA (cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11, trans-8,trans-10 and trans-7,trans-9) and 20- and 22-carbon FA concentrations. Overall, EL resulted in a relatively high cis-9 18:1 concentration and an increase in the 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 ratio, whereas combining EL and FO resulted in substantial increases in trans-FA, marginal enrichment in 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 and lower 16:0 concentration changes associated with a decrease in milk fat content. In conclusion, data provide further evidence of differential mammary lipogenic responses to diet in the goat compared with the cow and sheep. PMID:25491438

Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

2014-12-10

107

Copeptin, adropin and irisin concentrations in breast milk and plasma of healthy women and those with gestational diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Copeptin, adropin and irisin are polypeptide hormones implicated in energy homostasis and diabetes. The purposes of this study were (1) to compare the copeptin, adropin and irisin concentrations between colostrum, transitional and mature milk and plasma in lactating women with and without GDM and (2) to compare these values with those from non-lactating women. Venous blood samples were obtained before suckling from 15 healthy lactating women aged 26-30 years, 15 lactating women with GDM aged 26-32 years, and 14 age-matched controls aged 25-31 years. Colostrum, transitional milk and mature milk samples were collected just before suckling. The concentration of copeptin was determined by EIA while the concentrations of adropin and irisin were determined by ELISA. The levels of copeptin, adropin and irisin in the colostrum were significantly higher than those in transitional and mature milk samples from healthy women; also, transitional milk had higher copeptin, adropin and irisin concentrations than mature milk. The amounts of copeptin in the colostrum and transitional milk were significantly higher than in mature milk samples from women with GDM, while the amounts of adropin and irisin were significantly lower. The relative concentrations of copeptin, adropin and irisin in the plasma samples from these groups of women were similar to those in the colostrum, transitional and mature milk samples, but the latter concentrations were higher than those in the plasma. These peptides could influence the regulation of metabolic pathways and the postnatal growth and development of different organs in the newborn. PMID:23850897

Aydin, Suleyman; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Aydin, Suna

2013-09-01

108

Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in matched samples of indoor dust and breast milk in New Zealand.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are present in many consumer goods. There is evidence that PBDEs are toxic to humans, particular young children. The purpose of this study was to assess indoor dust as an exposure source for PBDEs. Concentrations of 16 PBDEs were determined in dust samples from 33 households in New Zealand, and in breast milk samples from 33 mothers living in these households. Associations between dust and breast milk PBDE concentrations were assessed, and children's PBDE intake from breast milk and dust estimated. Influences of household and demographic factors on PBDE concentrations in dust were investigated. Indoor dust concentrations ranged from 0.1ng/g for BDE17 to 2500ng/g for BDE209. Breast milk concentrations were positively correlated (p<0.05) with mattress dust concentrations for BDE47, BDE153, BDE154, and BDE209 and with floor dust for BDE47, BDE183, BDE206, and BDE209. The correlation for BDE209 between dust and breast milk is a novel finding. PBDE concentrations in floor dust were lower from households with new carpets. The estimated children's daily intake of PBDEs from dust and breast milk was below U.S. EPA Reference Dose values. The study shows that dust is an important human exposure source for common PBDE formulations in New Zealand. PMID:23850586

Coakley, Jonathan D; Harrad, Stuart J; Goosey, Emma; Ali, Nadeem; Dirtu, Alin-Constantin; Van den Eede, Nele; Covaci, Adrian; Douwes, Jeroen; Mannetje, Andrea 't

2013-09-01

109

Concentrations of preptin, salusins and hepcidins in plasma and milk of lactating women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to ascertain whether human milk contains preptin, salusin-alpha (salusin-?) and -beta (salusin-?) and pro-hepcidin and hepcidin-25, and whether there are relationships between plasma and milk preptin, salusin-? and -? and pro-hepcidin and hepcidin-25 concentrations in lactating mothers with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Blood was obtained from non-lactating women (n = 12), non-diabetic lactating women (n = 12), and GDM lactating women (n = 12). Colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk samples were collected just before suckling from healthy and GDM lactating women. Peptides concentrations were determined by ELISA and EIA. Mammary gland tissues were screened immunohistochemically for these peptides. Women with GDM had significantly higher plasma and colostum preptin concentrations than healthy lactating women during the colostral and transitional milk period. Salusin-alpha and -beta levels in milk and plasma were lower in women with GDM. Salusin-? and -? were significantly lower in both plasma and colostrums of GDM than of healthy lactating women. Women with GDM had significantly higher colostum prohepcidin and hepcidin-25 concentrations than healthy lactating women during the colostral period. Plasma prohepcidin was also higher in women with GDM than in healthy lactating women during the colostral period, but plasma prohepcidin and hepcidin-25 levels decreased during mature milk period. Transitional milk pro-hepcidin and hepcidin-25 levels in women with GDM were higher than in healthy lactating women. All these results revealed that the mammary gland produces those peptides, which were present in milk at levels correlating with plasma concentrations. PMID:24060315

Aydin, Suleyman; Celik, Onder; Gurates, Bilgin; Sahin, Ibrahim; Ulas, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Musa; Kalayci, Mehmet; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Catak, Zekiye; Aksoy, Aziz; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanefi; Kumru, Selahattin

2013-11-01

110

Breast milk concentrations of amiodarone, desethylamiodarone, and bisoprolol following short-term drug exposure: two case reports.  

PubMed

Two cases of mothers given postpartum short-term administration of amiodarone, with and without bisoprolol, are described along with determinations of amiodarone and (±)-bisoprolol in the breast milk. In one mother given a cumulative total of amiodarone of 8?g over 1 week, concentrations 11 days after the drug had been stopped were initially deemed sufficient to pose a risk to an infant. Over the next 5 days the concentrations steadily dropped with amiodarone and desethylamiodarone concentrations being found to be at a level comprising minimal risk to the infant. Bisoprolol was not found in the expressed breast milk. In the second case the mother was given a single 150?mg dose of amiodarone and breast milk concentrations were measured on postpartum days 4 and 5. Breast milk amiodarone concentrations were very low and of little concern clinically had the mother breast fed her baby. The risk to the baby of ingesting breast milk after amiodarone administration postpartum depends on the duration of amiodarone exposure, with a single dose posing minimal risk. Bisoprolol does not appear to accumulate to any great extent in breast milk. PMID:24482268

Khurana, Rshmi; Bin Jardan, Yousef A; Wilkie, Jodi; Brocks, Dion R

2014-07-01

111

Levels and Concentration Ratios of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Serum and Breast Milk in Japanese Mothers  

PubMed Central

Blood and/or breast milk have been used to assess human exposure to various environmental contaminants. Few studies have been available to compare the concentrations in one matrix with those in another. The goals of this study were to determine the current levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Japanese women, with analysis of the effects of lifestyle and dietary habits on these levels, and to develop a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) with which to predict the ratio of serum concentration to breast milk concentration. We measured PBDEs and PCBs in 89 paired samples of serum and breast milk collected in four regions of Japan in 2005. The geometric means of the total concentrations of PBDE (13 congeners) in milk and serum were 1.56 and 2.89 ng/g lipid, respectively, whereas those of total PCBs (15 congeners) were 63.9 and 37.5 ng/g lipid, respectively. The major determinant of total PBDE concentration in serum and milk was the geographic area within Japan, whereas nursing duration was the major determinant of PCB concentration. BDE-209 was the most predominant PBDE congener in serum but not in milk. The excretion of BDE 209 in milk was lower than that of BDE 47 and BDE 153. QSAR analysis revealed that two parameters, calculated octanol/water partition and number of hydrogen-bond acceptors, were significant descriptors. During the first weeks of lactation, the predicted partitioning of PBDE and PCB congeners from serum to milk agreed with the observed values. However, the prediction became weaker after 10 weeks of nursing. PMID:16882522

Inoue, Kayoko; Harada, Kouji; Takenaka, Katsunobu; Uehara, Shigeki; Kono, Makoto; Shimizu, Takashi; Takasuga, Takumi; Senthilkumar, Kurunthachalam; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Koizumi, Akio

2006-01-01

112

Effects of feeding practices on milk fat concentration for dairy cows.  

PubMed

Thirty-seven dairy farms, using high producing (7500 kg/yr per cow on average) Montbéliarde cows that were fed hay-based rations, were included in a detailed survey involving the structure of the farm and the herd, the quality of forage, the feeding practices in winter and summer, and genetic characteristics of the cows (breeding values and herd effects). These data were used to analyze variation in milk fat concentration among farms, particularly variation linked to environmental factors, as assessed by the herd effect. When farms were ranked according to herd effect of fat concentration, farms with the highest herd effects fed concentrate to cows in rolled form, distributed forage before or with the concentrate, and provided hay in the trough in summer. The effects of such practices on digestive phenomena in the rumen are discussed. This study supported the use of herd effects to identify factors related to variation in dairy cow performance. PMID:7814731

Coulon, J B; Agabriel, C; Brunscwig, G; Muller, C; Bonaiti, B

1994-09-01

113

Influence of weather conditions on milk production and rectal temperature of Holsteins fed two levels of concentrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twelve lactating Holstein cows in 2nd lactation were allocated randomly, six each, to two feeding treatments: high concentrate (1 kg dairy concentrate to 2 kg milk produced) and low concentrate (1 kg dairy concentrate to 4 kg milk produced) from 7 to 106 days postcalving. Forage and water were provided adalibitum. Milk and butter fat yields and rectal temperatures were examined in relation to 9 weather variables (minimum, maximum and mean temperatures, relative humidity, temperature-humidity index (THI), radiation, wind velocity and mean temperature of the previous day). Averages for milk yield, fat yield and rectal temperature were respectively 20.4 kg, 0.7 kg and 38.9°C for the high concentrate treatment and 18.4 kg, 0.6 kg and 38.6°C for the low concentrate treatment. Weather conditions accounted for 5.6%, 0.8% and 10.8% of the day to day variation in milk yield, fat yield and rectal remperature, respectively, for the high concentrate group and 29.4%, 9.7% and 0.6%, respectively, for the low concentrate group. Only measures of ambient temperature, especially mean temperature, were closely associated with these traits.

Kabuga, J. D.; Sarpong, K.

1991-12-01

114

Concentration of thyroid hormones and prolactin in dairy cattle serum and milk at three stages of lactation  

SciTech Connect

Eighteen lactating Holstein cows were used with six each in early, mid, and late lactation. Blood samples were obtained on 7 successive d. Blood serum and milk were measured by radioimmunoassay for thyroxine, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine. Prolactin was also measured in serum by radioimmunoassay. Serum thyroxine increased as lactation progressed and milk production declined (50, 55, and 62 ng/ml). Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine and reverse triiodothyronine were unchanged throughout lactation. Prolactin in serum declined as lactation advanced linearly (14.4, 11.8, and 10.5 ng/ml). Concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in milk declined significantly between early and mid but not mid and late lactation. Reverse triiodothyronine in milk did not change over the lactation. Serum triiodothyronine contained 1200 to 1300 pg/ml, whereas that in milk was 200 to 300 pg/ml. Reverse triiodothyronine was over 300 pg/ml in serum and only 80 to 90 pg/ml in milk. Amounts of thyroxine and triiodothyronine available to offspring from milk were calculated to be minor sources (4 to 5%) of total requirements for maintenance of metabolic function.

Akasha, M.A.; Anderson, R.R.; Ellersieck, M.; Nixon, D.A.

1987-02-01

115

Whole intact rapeseeds or sunflower oil in high-forage or high-concentrate diets affects milk yield, milk composition, and mammary gene expression profile in goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to ascertain the response of goat mammary metabolic pathways to concentrate and lipid feeding in relation to milk fatty acid (FA) composition and secretion. Sixteen midlactation multiparous goats received diets differing in forage-to-concentrate ratio (high forage (HF) 64:36, and low forage (LF) 43:57) supplemented or not with lipids (HF with 130 g\\/d of oil from whole intact

S. Ollier; C. Leroux; A. de la Foye; L. Bernard; J. Rouel; Y. Chilliard

2009-01-01

116

Altered concentrate to forage ratio in cows ration enhanced bioproduction of specific size subpopulation of milk fat globules.  

PubMed

The mechanism underlying the shift in milk-fat-globule (MFG) mean diameter upon changing the concentrate-to-forage ratio in dairy cow rations was investigated. Cows were fed high-concentrate low-forage (HCLF) or high-forage low-concentrate (LCHF) rations for 4weeks. Mean diameter of MFG, determined in raw whole milk, was 0.4?m larger in the LCHF-fed vs. HCLF-fed group. The main compositional differences between treatments were found in a specific MFG subgroup with the diameter of 3.3?m (F1), with higher capric, lauric, myristic and lower oleic acid concentrations in HCLF vs. LCHF milk. Similarly, lipid concentration differences between treatments were only found in F1, with higher triglyceride and phosphatidylethanolamine, and lower sphingomyelin concentrations in LCHF vs. HCLF milk. The higher MFG mean diameter in whole raw LCHF milk might therefore be attributed to increased secretion of F1-group MFG, while fat content and composition in the other MFG size groups remains unchanged. PMID:25722155

Mesilati-Stahy, Ronit; Moallem, Uzi; Magen, Yogev; Argov-Argaman, Nurit

2015-07-15

117

Whole intact rapeseeds or sunflower oil in high-forage or high-concentrate diets affects milk yield, milk composition, and mammary gene expression profile in goats.  

PubMed

This study aimed to ascertain the response of goat mammary metabolic pathways to concentrate and lipid feeding in relation to milk fatty acid (FA) composition and secretion. Sixteen midlactation multiparous goats received diets differing in forage-to-concentrate ratio [high forage (HF) 64:36, and low forage (LF) 43:57] supplemented or not with lipids [HF with 130 g/d of oil from whole intact rapeseeds (RS) and LF with 130 g/d of sunflower oil (SO)] in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Milk yield, milk composition, FA profile, and FA secretion were measured, as well as the expression profiles of key genes in mammary metabolism and of 8,382 genes, using a bovine oligonucleotide microarray. After 3 wk of treatment, milk, lactose, and protein yields were lower with HF-RS than with the other diets, whereas treatment had no effect on milk protein content. Milk fat content was higher with the HF-RS and LF-SO diets than with the HF and LF diets, and SO supplementation increased milk fat yield compared with the LF diet. Decreasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio from 64:36 to 43:57 had a limited effect on goat milk FA concentrations and secretions. Supplementing the LF diet with SO changed almost all the FA concentrations, including decreases in medium-chain saturated FA and large increases in trans C18:1 and C18:2 isomers (particularly trans-11 C18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid), without significant changes in C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1, whereas supplementing the HF diet with RS led to a strong decrease in short- and medium-chain saturated FA and a very strong increase in C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1, without significant changes in trans C18:1 and conjugated linoleic acid. Despite the decreases in milk lactose and protein yields observed with HF-RS, and despite the decrease in milk medium-chain FA and the increase in C18 FA secretion with RS or SO supplementation, none of the dietary treatments had any effect on mammary mRNA expression of the key genes involved in lactose (e.g., alpha-lactalbumin), protein (e.g., beta-casein), and lipid metabolism (e.g., lipoprotein lipase) after 3 wk of treatment. In addition, transcriptome analysis did not provide evidence of treatments inducing significant changes in the expression of specific genes in the mammary gland. However, 2-way hierarchical clustering analysis highlighted different global mammary expression profiles between diets, showing that the gene expression profiles corresponding to the same diet were gathered by common groups of genes. This experiment suggests that after 3 wk of dietary treatment, other factors, such as substrate availability for mammary metabolism, could play an important role in contributing to milk FA responses to changes in diet composition in the goat. PMID:19841217

Ollier, S; Leroux, C; de la Foye, A; Bernard, L; Rouel, J; Chilliard, Y

2009-11-01

118

Studies on the increase in serum concentrations of urea cycle amino acids among subjects exposed to cadmium  

SciTech Connect

Itai-itai disease (I disease) is a combination of renal tubular damage and osteomalacia accompanied by osteoporosis among subjects exposed to cadmium (Cd). When the renal tubular damage progresses, the excretion of amino acids, especially, threonine, hydroxyproline, proline, citrulline, ornithine, arginine, etc. increase in urine. It was reported that the increase in urinary excretion of citrulline, arginine and ornithine may be associated with an inhibition of urea synthesis in the urea cycle. The authors have found that serum citrulline, arginine and ornithine also increased in I disease patients. In order to investigate the mechanism of the increase in these serum amino acids, comparative studies were performed using both healthy subjects and patients with renal disease as control groups.

Nishino, H.; Shiroishi, K. (Toyama Institute of Health (Japan)); Kagamimori, S.; Naruse, Y. (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan)); Watanabe, M. (Toyama Female Univ. (Japan))

1988-05-01

119

Studies on the increase in serum concentrations of urea cycle amino acids among subjects exposed to cadmium  

SciTech Connect

Itai-itai disease (I disease) is a combination of renal tubular damage and osteomalacia accompanied by osteoporosis among subjects exposed to cadmium (Cd). When the renal tubular damage progresses, the excretion of amino acids, especially, threonine, hydroxyproline, proline, citrulline, ornithine, arginine increased in urine. It has been reported that the increase in urinary excretion of citrulline, arginine and ornithine may be associated with an inhibition of urea synthesis in the urea cycle. The authors have found that serum citrulline, arginine and ornithine also increased in I disease patients. In order to investigate the mechanism of the increase in these serum amino acids, comparative studies were performed using both healthy subjects and patients with renal disease as control groups.

Nishino, H.; Shiroishi, K.; Kagamimori, S.; Naruse, Y.; Watanabe, M.

1988-04-01

120

An investigation of FT-Raman spectroscopy for quantification of additives to milk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this research, four chemicals, urea, ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, and melamine, were mixed into liquid nonfat milk at concentrations starting from 0.1% to a maximum concentration determined for each chemical according to its maximum solubility, and two Raman spectrometers—a commercial Nicolet...

121

Quantitation of Caseins and Whey Proteins of Processed Milks and Whey Protein Concentrates, Application of Gel Electrophoresis, and Comparison with Harland-Ashworth Procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternate methods for quantitation of caseins and whey proteins in milk pro- ducts were investigated. The Harland- Ashworth and Leighton procedures, which are used for routine determinations of soluble whey proteins in milk, could not be adapted satisfactorily to quantitation of whey protein in blends of nonfat dry milk solids and whey protein concentrates because of problems of precipitation techniques.

Jay J. Basch; Frederic W. Douglas Jr.; Lisa G. Procino; V. H. Holsinger; Harold M. Farrell Jr.

1985-01-01

122

Comparison of functional properties of 34% and 80% whey protein and milk serum protein concentrates.  

PubMed

This study compared the functional properties of serum protein concentrate (SPC) with whey protein concentrate (WPC) made from the same milk and with commercial WPC. The experimental SPC and WPC were produced at 34% or 80% protein from the same lot of milk. Protein contents of WPC and SPC were comparable; however, fat content was much lower in SPC compared with WPC and commercial WPC. The effect of drying methods (freeze vs. spray drying) was studied for 34% WPC and SPC. Few differences due to drying method were found in turbidity and gelation; however, drying method made a large difference in foam formation for WPC but not SPC. Between pH 3 and 7, SPC was found to have lower turbidity than WPC; however, protein solubility was similar between SPC and WPC. Foaming and gelation properties of SPC were better than those of WPC. Differences in functional properties may be explained by differences in composition and extent of denaturation or aggregation. PMID:23871371

Luck, P J; Vardhanabhuti, B; Yong, Y H; Laundon, T; Barbano, D M; Foegeding, E A

2013-09-01

123

The brominated flame retardants, PBDEs and HBCD, in Canadian human milk samples collected from 1992 to 2005; concentrations and trends.  

PubMed

Human milk samples were collected from individuals residing in various regions across Canada mostly in the years 1992 to 2005. These included five large cities in southern Canada as well as samples from Nunavik in northern Quebec. Comparative samples were also collected from residents of Austin, Texas, USA in 2002 and 2004. More than 300 milk samples were analysed for the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), PBDEs and HBCD, by extraction, purification and quantification using either isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-MS. The Canadian total PBDE values in the years 2002-2005 show median levels of about 20?g/kg on a lipid basis; a value significantly higher than in the 1980s and 1990s. Milk samples from Inuit donors in the northern region of Nunavik were slightly lower in PBDE concentrations than those from populated regions in the south of Quebec. Milk samples from Ontario contained slightly lower amounts of PBDEs in two time periods than those from Texas. HBCD levels in most milk samples were usually less than 1ppb milk lipid and dominated by the ?-isomer. This large data set of BFRs in Canadian human milk demonstrates an increase in the last few decades in human exposure to BFRs which now appears to have stabilized. PMID:24879366

Ryan, John Jake; Rawn, Dorothea F K

2014-09-01

124

Effect of protein level and urea in concentrate mixture on feed intake and rumen fermentation in swamp buffaloes fed rice straw-based diet.  

PubMed

Four rumen-fistulated Thai native swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement in a 4?×?4 Latin square design to assess the effect of protein (CP) level and urea (U) source in concentrate diet on feed utilization and rumen ecology. The treatments were as follows: concentrate containing CP at 120 g/kg (soybean meal, SBM) (T1), 160 g/kg (SBM) (T2), 120 g/kg (U) (T3), and 160 g/kg (U) (T4), respectively. All buffaloes were fed concentrate at 10 g/kg of body weight, and rice straw was offered ad libitum. Feed intake and digestibilities of CP, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber increased (P?concentrate did not affect on ruminal pH and temperature (P?>?0.05), while concentration of ruminal ammonia (N), blood urea (U), volatile fatty acids profile, microorganism populations, and variable bacterial growth increased in buffaloes consumed concentrate containing CP at 160 g/kg (T2 and T4; P?concentrate containing higher CP level especially with U source while purine derivatives increased which resulted in a higher N balance as compared to lower CP level and SBM source treatments (P?concentrate improved feed intake, nutrient digestibility, purine derivatives, and rumen ecology, and U had shown better result than SBM. Concentrate mixtures containing 16 g/kg CP with U 40 g/kg could improved nutrients utilization with no adverse effects for swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw. PMID:25686554

Kang, Sungchhang; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Norrapoke, Thitima

2015-04-01

125

Effect of bleaching permeate from microfiltered skim milk on 80% serum protein concentrate.  

PubMed

Whey proteins that have been removed before the cheese-making process are referred to as "native" whey proteins or milk serum proteins. Because serum proteins isolated directly from milk are not exposed to the cheese-making process, they are free from functional or sensory effects arising from this process. Whey proteins used in food and beverage applications are largely derived from annatto-colored Cheddar cheese. Some of the annatto is left in the whey and this color is converted to a colorless compound by bleaching. The effect of bleaching serum proteins on flavor and functionality of spray-dried protein provides a platform to investigate the effect of bleaching free from the confounding effects of cheese manufacture. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the sensory and functional properties of 80% milk serum protein concentrate (SPC80) produced from bleached and unbleached microfiltration (MF) permeate made from skim milk with and without added annatto color. Colored and uncolored MF permeates were bleached with benzoyl peroxide (BP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP), ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried. The SPC80 from unbleached colored and uncolored MF permeates were manufactured as controls. All treatments were manufactured in triplicate. All SPC80 were evaluated by sensory testing, instrumental analyses, functionality, color, and proximate analysis. The HP-bleached SPC80 was higher in lipid oxidation compounds than BP-bleached or unbleached SPC80, specifically hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, and 2,3-octadienone. The HP treatments were higher in aroma intensity and cardboard and fatty flavors compared with the unbleached and BP-bleached SPC80. The SPC80 bleached with BP had lower concentrations of norbixin compared with SPC80 bleached with HP. Functionality testing demonstrated that HP treatments had more soluble protein after 10min of heating at 90°C and pH 4.6 and pH 7 compared with the no bleach and BP treatments, regardless of additional color. Foams generated from bleached SPC80 were more stable than those from unbleached SPC80, and those bleached with HP were lower in yield stress than other SPC80. Overall, HP bleaching destroyed less norbixin and caused more lipid oxidation and subsequent off-flavors than did BP bleaching. However, the heat stability of SPC80 was enhanced by HP bleaching compared with control treatments or BP bleaching. PMID:23295111

Campbell, Rachel E; Adams, Michael C; Drake, Maryanne; Barbano, David M

2013-03-01

126

Effects of high-dose prepartum injections of Se and vitamin E on milk and serum concentrations in ewes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of relatively high-dose Se and vitamin E injections to pregnant ewes on serum Se and ?-tocopherol concentrations of the dam and their offspring, the Se concentrations of colostrum and milk, and the relative lasting effects of these nutrients in the body. Ewes were randomly assigned to seven experimental groups that included treatment

P. A. Cuesta; L. R. McDowell; W. E. Kunkle; N. S. Wilkinson; F. G. Martin

1995-01-01

127

Comparison of composition, sensory, and volatile components of thirty-four percent whey protein and milk serum protein concentrates1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to identify and compare the composition, flavor, and volatile compo- nents of serum protein concentrate (SPC) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) containing about 34% protein made from the same milk to each other and to commercial 34% WPC from 6 different factories. The SPC and WPC were manufactured in triplicate with each pair of

J. Evans; J. Zulewska; M. Newbold; M. A. Drake; D. M. Barbano

2009-01-01

128

Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123  

PubMed Central

Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

2014-01-01

129

Effects of stocking density and concentrate supplementation of grazing dairy cows on milk production, composition and processing characteristics.  

PubMed

The effects on milk composition and processing characteristics of varying grass supply by changing stocking density and of offering a concentrate supplement were investigated. The experiment was conducted over 28 weeks of the lactation (April-October) using 48 spring-calved Friesian-Holstein cows. Three herds each of 16 cows were offered a restricted grass supply, a standard grass supply and a standard grass supply with a supplement of 3 kg concentrate/d. Treatment groups were grazed separately with a residence time of 3 d/paddock. Milk production, composition and processing characteristics such as renneting properties, ethanol stability and plasmin activity were measured weekly. Increasing stocking density above the standard system resulted in significant reductions in milk fat and protein yields, the concentrations of total protein, casein and whey proteins, and a deterioration in most processing characteristics. Imposing concentrate supplementation on the standard system increased total protein, casein and whey protein concentrations but generally did not improve processing characteristics except for ethanol stability. These results suggest that the standard grass supply in a rotational grazing paddock system can support efficient production of quality milk, and concentrate supplementation will not improve processing characteristics when an adequate supply of good quality herbage is available. PMID:10376239

O'Brien, B; Dillon, P; Murphy, J J; Mehra, R K; Guinee, T P; Connolly, J F; Kelly, A; Joyce, P

1999-05-01

130

Concentrations of bovine lactoferrin and citrate in milk during experimental endotoxin mastitis in early- versus late-lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

Lactoferrin (Lf) is a molecule naturally present in bovine milk that affects the availability and transport systems of iron. Lf also binds endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria and modulates the immunological response. In the present study, concentrations of bovine Lf (bLf) and citrate in milk were determined in early (EL) and late (LL) lactating dairy cows, using an experimentally induced endotoxin mastitis model and a crossover design. Nine clinically healthy Finnish Ayrshire cows were challenged twice with 100 ?g endotoxin infused into one udder quarter. Milk samples were collected from the challenged and control quarters of each cow before and after endotoxin infusion during 3 d, and bLf and citrate concentrations were measured. In all cows, clinical signs of mastitis were seen at both times of challenge, but the response was more severe in EL than in LL. Concentration of bLf in the milk started to rise approximately 8 h after endotoxin infusion and was still higher than normal on the third day, especially in the late-lactating cows. In milk of the LL group, concentrations of bLf were significantly higher than in the EL group. In contrast, concentrations of citrate were higher in milk of the EL cows compared with the LL cows. Concentration of bLf and citrate varied substantially among cows. The molar ratio of citrate to bLf before and after challenge was significantly higher during the EL period. The results of this study partly explain why cows in early lactation are more susceptible to intramammary infections and why mastitis is more severe in them. PMID:20800005

Hyvönen, Paula; Haarahiltunen, Taina; Lehtolainen, Tanja; Heikkinen, Jouni; Isomäki, Ritva; Pyörälä, Satu

2010-11-01

131

Correlations between periparturient serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, bilirubin, and urea and the occurrence of clinical and subclinical postpartum bovine endometritis  

PubMed Central

Background Postpartum endometritis in cattle is a multifactorial disease with high economic impact. Both, clinical endometritis (CE) and subclinical endometritis (SCE) result in decreased reproductive performance. Results from in vitro studies led to the implication that non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), bilirubin, and urea could be used as predictors for endometritis in veterinary practice. In this field study, we set out to establish optimal predictor cut points of these metabolic parameters for the detection of CE and SCE. Serum samples were collected one week prior to parturition (wk -1), in the first week postpartum (wk +1) and between 28 and 35 days postpartum (wk +5) from 209 Holstein-Friesian cows. At wk +5, all cows were examined for signs of CE and SCE. Results Higher concentrations of urea at wk +1 were associated with increased odds of CE (OR = 1.7, P = 0.04) in primiparous (PP) cows. A predictor cut point of 3.9 mmol/L (sensitivity: 61%, specificity: 70%) was determined. In multiparous (MP) cows, the logistic regression model revealed that higher concentrations of NEFA at wk -1 were associated with increased odds of CE and SCE (healthy vs. CE: OR = 9.1, P = 0.05; healthy vs. SCE: OR = 12.1, P = 0.04). A predictor cut point of 0.3 mmol/L (sensitivity: 38%, specificity: 87% and sensitivity: 35%, specificity: 89%, respectively) was determined. Increasing concentrations of urea at wk +5 were associated with decreased odds of CE (healthy vs. CE: OR = 0.6, P = 0.01; SCE vs. CE: OR = 0.5, P = 0.03). A predictor cut point of 3.8 mmol/L (sensitivity: 52%, specificity: 81%) was determined. For BHBA and bilirubin relationships with CE or SCE were not detected. Conclusions The corresponding combinations of sensitivity and specificity of the determined predictor cut points were not satisfactory for practical use. Thus, the analysed parameters, i.e. NEFA, BHBA, bilirubin, and urea, at the chosen time points, i.e. at wk -1, at wk +1, and at wk +5 relative to calving, are unsatisfactory for disease prediction. Further research is required to clarify the questions raised by the current study. PMID:20979598

2010-01-01

132

Seasonal and locational effects on serum, milk, liver and kidney chromium, manganese, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations of dairy cows.  

PubMed

Chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) concentrations were quantified in serum (n = 112), milk (n = 112), liver (n = 70), and kidney samples (n = 67) of dairy cows from an iron-steel processing region (Payas-Iskenderun) and from an area free of industrial pollution (Antakya) in Hatay, located in Southern Turkey. Samples were collected in the summer and winter and element determinations were carried out by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The mean concentrations of selected elements in serum were found to be similar in both regions. Milk samples collected from the nonindustrial region in the summer had higher Cr, Mn, and Zn concentrations than the polluted region. The liver Cu and kidney Mn levels of samples taken from the industrial region in winter were higher than samples of the unpolluted region. Copper and Fe concentrations in milk, Cr, Mn, Zn, and Fe levels in the liver, and Cr, Cu, Zn, and Fe levels in kidney samples were not found to be different among the regions in both seasons. Copper concentrations were below the critical level in the 25% of serum and 32% of liver samples analyzed in this study. Fifteen percent of serum samples and most of the liver samples had lower amounts of Zn than other reported studies. Although slight differences were observed between the industrial and nonindustrial regions, industrial activities and seasonal changes had no significant effect on selected element concentrations on cows and their milk. PMID:15051900

Erdogan, Suat; Celik, Sefa; Erdogan, Zeynep

2004-04-01

133

Urea Molasses Blocks to improve milk production and reproductive performance of cross-bred dairy cattle under smallholder farm condition in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Crop residues constitute more than 90% of the feed resources available for ruminal livestock in Bangladesh. The major crop residue is rice straw, which serves as the main feed for dairy cattle. Low quality straw based diets, feed scarcity, poor reproductive management and diseases results in a substantial decrease in milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle. Previous

M. A. S. Khan; M. A. R. Chowdhury

134

The effect of diets on milk production and composition, and on lactation curves in pastured dairy goats.  

PubMed

A 2-yr study investigated effects of different levels of concentrate supplementation on milk production, composition, and lactation curves in pastured dairy goats. For both years, 44 Alpine goats (Capra hircus; 55 +/- 11 kg body weight) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. Animals were supplemented with 0.66 (treatments A and B), 0.33 (treatment C), or 0 kg of concentrate (treatment D) per kg of milk over 1.5 kg/d. Mixed vegetative forages were rotationally grazed by the goats (treatments B, C, and D), except that treatment A was confined and fed alfalfa hay. Individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once every 2 wk for the 7-mo period (March to September) and analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, urea-N, nonesterified fatty acids, and allantoin (second year only). Milk yield and composition varied among dietary treatments, with some measures affected by year. Average daily milk yield was lowest for treatment D. The increased level of concentrate supplementation in treatment A led to 22% greater milk yield compared with treatment D. Milk production increased by 1.7 and 0.9 kg for each additional kilogram of concentrate fed per day during the first and second years, respectively. Average peak yield, time of peak yield, and persistency were lower for treatment D than for other treatments. The percentage of milk fat was lower for treatment D than for other treatments. Concentration of milk protein was greater for treatments A and B during the first year, and was higher for treatment C than for other treatments during the second year. Average milk lactose concentration was higher for treatments B and C than for other treatments. However, milk urea-N concentration in treatment A was higher than other treatments. Milk allantoin, used to estimate microbial proteins synthesis, was 20 to 25% greater for treatment A than for other treatments. Averaged across year, plasma urea-N and nonesterified fatty acids concentration were lowest for treatment B. Average organic matter intake was similar among treatments during both years. Ratios of acetate and propionate concentrations for treatment A were lowest among treatments. In conclusion, milk production and composition were affected by the feeding treatment and year. Increased level of nutrition lead to an increase in daily milk yield, peak yield, time of peak yield, and persistency compared with treatment D. Alpine dairy goats grazing on fresh forages without concentrate supplementation can produce milk inexpensively, and response to concentrate supplementation is greater for low quality pasture. PMID:15956322

Min, B R; Hart, S P; Sahlu, T; Satter, L D

2005-07-01

135

Effect of supplementation of grazing dairy ewes with a cereal concentrate on animal performance and milk fatty acid profile.  

PubMed

This work was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing grazing ewes on pasture with a cereal concentrate on the milk fatty acid (FA) profile. Ninety Assaf ewes in mid lactation were distributed in 9 lots of 10 animals each and allocated to 3 feeding regimens: 1) pasture--ewes were only allowed to graze pasture (an irrigated sward of Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense, and Dactylis glomerata); 2) PS--grazing ewes were supplemented with oat grain (700 g/animal and day); and 3) TMR--ewes were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration (TMR; 80:20 concentrate/forage ratio). Milk yield and composition were recorded for 5 wk. The highest milk yield was observed in ewes receiving the TMR and the lowest in grazing ewes supplemented with oat grain. Productions of milk fat, protein, and total solids showed the lowest values in treatment PS. The atherogenicity index, which comprises C12:0, C14:0, and C16:0, in PS milk fat was no different from that observed in milk from animals on pasture (1.53 for pasture, 1.54 for PS, and 3.22 for TMR). Oat grain supplementation generated higher amounts of C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1 in milk fat than the pasture-only diet, but significantly decreased the levels of alpha-linolenic acid and most of intermediates of the process of biohydrogenation of this FA. Cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 and trans-11 C18:1, its precursor for endogenous synthesis in the mammary gland, were lower in PS (0.58 and 1.59 g/100 g of total FA) than in TMR (0.72 and 1.92 g/100 g of total FA) and very different from the results observed in grazing ewes receiving no supplement (1.21 and 3.88 g/100 g of total FA). Furthermore, the lowest levels of trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10 cis-12 C18:2 were detected in the milk fat of ewes fed pasture. It is concluded that, when pasture quality and availability do not limit dairy production, supplementation of grazing ewes with oat grain compromised the milk FA profile without any significant positive effect on milk production. PMID:19620680

Gómez-Cortés, P; Frutos, P; Mantecón, A R; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A; Hervás, G

2009-08-01

136

Hot topic: pathway confirmed for the transmission of melamine from feed to cow's milk.  

PubMed

Eight lactating Holstein cows were randomly allotted to 2 groups in a trial to establish whether a pathway exists for the transmission of melamine from feed to milk. All cows received oat hay ad libitum and 15 kg of concentrate pellets per cow daily. The concentrate pellets contained either melamine-contaminated corn gluten meal of Chinese origin (melamine treatment) or locally produced melamine-free corn gluten meal (control treatment). Cows in the melamine treatment ingested 17.1 g of melamine per day. Cows were milked twice daily, and milk samples were taken once daily during the afternoon milking for melamine and milk component analyses. Melamine appeared in the milk within 8 h after first ingestion of the melamine containing pellets. Melamine concentration reached a maximum of 15.7 mg/kg within 56 h after first ingestion, with an excretion efficiency of approximately 2%. Milk solids and milk urea nitrogen were not affected by treatment. The melamine concentration dropped rapidly after changing all cows back to the control pellets, but melamine only declined to undetectable levels in the milk more than 6 d (152 h) after last ingestion of melamine. Results from the current trial are important to the feed and dairy industries because, until now, any melamine found in milk and milk products was attributed only to the deliberate external addition of melamine to these products, not to adulterated ingredients in animal feeds. PMID:19389962

Cruywagen, C W; Stander, M A; Adonis, M; Calitz, T

2009-05-01

137

Effect of Intake of Pasture on Concentrations of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Milk of Lactating Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of intake of fresh pasture on concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat. Sixteen Holstein cows were paired and divided into either the control group or the grazing group. The study involved initial, transition, and final peri- ods. During the initial period, all cows consumed a total mixed diet. Cows in the control group were

M. L. Kelly; E. S. Kolver; D. E. Bauman; M. E. Van Amburgh; L. D. Muller

1998-01-01

138

Improving Infant Exposure and Health Risk Estimates: Using Serum Data to Predict Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Concentrations in Breast Milk  

EPA Science Inventory

Women in the United States have breast milk concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) that are among the highest in the world, leading to concerns over the potential health implications to breastfeeding infants during critical stages of growth and development. Deve...

139

The daily rhythm of milk synthesis is dependent on the timing of feed intake in dairy cows  

PubMed Central

Abstract Regulation of the daily rhythm of milk synthesis is important to production animals and breastfeeding, but is difficult to observe in nursing animals. The rate of food intake varies over the day and is expected to create a daily rhythm of nutrient absorption. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of food intake entrains a daily pattern of milk synthesis. Seventeen Holstein cows were used in a crossover design. Treatments were ad libitum feeding of a total mixed ration once daily (1× fed) or fed in four equal meals every 6 h (4× fed). Cows were milked every 6 h the last 7 days of each period. There was a treatment by time of day interaction for milk and milk component yield and concentration. Milk fat and protein concentration and yield exhibited a daily rhythm and the amplitude of the rhythm was reduced in 4× fed. In addition, milk fat percent was higher in 4× fed than 1× fed at three of the four milking intervals (0.22–0.45% higher) and 4× fed increased daily milk fat yield. Treatment by time of day interactions were detected for plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen. These variables also fit a cosine function with a 24 h period and the amplitudes of plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen rhythms were decreased by 4× feeding. In conclusion, there is a circadian pattern of milk synthesis in the dairy cow that is responsive to the timing of food intake. PMID:24963033

Rottman, L. Whitney; Ying, Yun; Zhou, Kan; Bartell, Paul A.; Harvatine, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

140

Rheological characterisation of age thickening with special reference to milk concentrates.  

PubMed

Age thickening is a well known phenomenon within the dairy industry, where the apparent viscosity of concentrated dairy solutions increases with storage time under low shear. The objective of the paper is to develop new tools to analyse several aspects of age thickening, including the increases in shear thinning, the degree of thixotropy and the rate of structural build up with time, as well as irreversible structural changes and gelation. The build up of the dispersed phase structure during storage, was captured by a snap shot technique, where concentrated milk samples were stored, and aliquots were taken at periodic intervals and subjected to shear sweep tests to collect flow curves. Rheological modelling using the Herschel-Bulkley model showed an increase in yield stress and consistency, indicating a build up in structure during age thickening. The trend in apparent viscosity with storage time showed two-phases, a slow and steady increase followed by a sharp rise, which could be used to identify the onset of firm gelation. The extrapolated viscosity at infinite shear rate increased with storage time, indicating the build up in irreversible structural components during age thickening. PMID:17214913

Trinh, Binh; Haisman, Derek; Trinh, Khanh Tuoc

2007-02-01

141

Dietary exposure to phenolic and methoxylated organohalogen contaminants in relation to their concentrations in breast milk and serum in Japan.  

PubMed

This study investigated human exposure to neutral, phenolic, and methoxylated organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in a duplicate diet study to evaluate their concentrations in breast milk and serum of Okinawan people from Japan during 2004-2009. Dietary intakes of phenolic OHCs were predominantly 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TriBP), followed by tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE47). After exposure, TriBP and TBBPA were transferred to breast milk, whereas 6-OH-BDE47 was selectively retained in serum. Despite a lower dietary exposure to pentachlorophenol and 4-hydroxy-CB187, both were retained in serum. For the methoxylated OHCs, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TriBA) and 6-methoxy-BDE47 were the predominant dietary contaminants, of which TriBA was present in both breast milk and serum, whereas 6-methoxy-BDE47 was selectively transferred to breast milk. These findings suggest that dietary exposure to phenolic and methoxylated OHCs may result in differential partitioning between breast milk and serum with different pharmacokinetic or exposure routes. PMID:24263137

Fujii, Yukiko; Nishimura, Eri; Kato, Yoshihisa; Harada, Kouji H; Koizumi, Akio; Haraguchi, Koichi

2014-02-01

142

A comparison of the concentrations of certain chlorinated hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in bone marrow and fat tissue of children and their concentrations in breast milk  

SciTech Connect

Chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in the bone marrow of 57 children were compared with the concentrations in adipose tissue of 50 children and the concentrations in breast milk in the Federal Republic of Germany from 1984 to 1991. The concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the dichlorodiphenyl-trichlorethane (DDT)-metabolites, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners no. 138 and no. 153 were increased threefold, while the concentrations of several hexachloro-cyclohexane (HCH)-isomers and PCB congener no. 180 were only increased two fold. Because breast feeding is the primary source of CHC and PCB in toddlers and infants we also compared the concentrations in bone marrow of children with the concentrations in breast milk and found approximately fourfold higher concentrations for the most highly chlorinated PCB congener no. 180, but only threefold higher concentrations for PCB 138 and 153 and the DDT-metabolites. The concentrations of {beta}-HCH and HCB were only slightly higher in bone marrow. 15 refs., 2 figs.

Scheele, J.; Teufel, M.; Niessen, K.H. [Univ. of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany)

1995-12-31

143

Spectroscopic characterization of urea aqueous solutions: experimental phase diagram of the urea-water binary system.  

PubMed

Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze mixtures of urea and water in order to identify the influence of the urea concentration on the solution's freezing point. Our approach consisted in the analysis of urea aqueous solutions and the determination of their phase transitions at low temperatures. Hence, Raman spectra of these solutions were acquired in a -30 to 10 °C temperature range. This enabled us to build the experimental phase diagram of the urea-water binary system. PMID:24067578

Durickovic, Ivana; Thiébaud, Laura; Bourson, Patrice; Kauffmann, Thomas; Marchetti, Mario

2013-10-01

144

Effect of safflower oil, flaxseed oil, monensin, and vitamin E on concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in bovine milk fat.  

PubMed

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of conjugated octadecadienoic acids of predominantly ruminant origin. The main isomer in bovine milk fat is the cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Interest in CLA increased after the discovery of its health-promoting properties, including potent anticarcinogenic activity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary strategies aimed at increasing the concentration of CLA in bovine milk fat. Both experiments were organized as a randomized complete block design with a repeated measures treatment structure. In Experiment 1, 28 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 3 treatments for a period of 2 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, fed as a total mixed ration (TMR). The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 24 ppm of monensin (MON), 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), or 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels in milk fat after 2 wk of feeding were 0.45, 0.52, 3.36, and 5.15% of total fatty acids for control, MON, SAFF, and SAFF/M, respectively. In Experiment 2, 62 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 5 treatment diets for a period of 9 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a DM basis, fed as a TMR. The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/E), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/ME), or 6% of DM flaxseed oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (FLAX/E). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels during the treatment period were 0.68, 4.12, 3.48, 4.55, 4.75, and 2.80% of total fatty acids for control, SAFF, SAFF/E, SAFF/M, SAFF/ME, and FLAX/E, respectively. The combination of safflower oil with monensin was particularly effective at increasing milk fat CLA. The addition of vitamin E to the diet partially prevented the depression in milk fat associated with oilseed feeding, but had no significant effect on the concentration of CLA in milk. PMID:16428641

Bell, J A; Griinari, J M; Kennelly, J J

2006-02-01

145

Mapping a quantitative trait locus for the concentration of ?-lactoglobulin in milk, and the effect of ?-lactoglobulin genetic variants on the composition of milk from Holstein-Friesian x Jersey crossbred cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the concentration of ?-lactoglobulin in milk, and to evaluate the effect of ?-lactoglobulin genetic variants on the concentration of fat, protein and casein in bovine milk.METHODS: A herd of 850 F2 Holstein-Friesian x Jersey crossbred cows was produced through mating six Holstein-Friesian x Jersey F1 bulls of high genetic merit with F1

SD Berry; N Lopez-Villalobos; EM Beattie; SR Davis; LF Adams; NL Thomas; AE Ankersmit-Udy; AM Stanfield; K Lehnert; HE Ward; JA Arias; RJ Spelman; RG Snell

2010-01-01

146

A simple method to determine urea concentration using intact Helicobacter pylori and BromoCresol Purple as a pH indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified method for urea quantification, by measuring the ammonia formed by urease, used the urease-positive Helicobacter pylori in place of purified urease with a pH indicator dye, BromoCresol Purple, to provide a color change. The color formed was stable for 20-min and could be read at 588-nm for urea quantification. Using this method, urea standard curves were linear up

Yuh-Ling Lin; Chien-Tsu Chen; Su-Cheng Lin; Cheng Lee; Hsien-Shou Kuo; Chun-Mean Shih; Yuan-Hsun Hsu; Yi-Ping Chin; Err-Cheng Chan

2000-01-01

147

Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p < 0.05). In addition, propionic acid and milk production increased while acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, methane production, methanogens and protozoal population decreased with RPM and/or PO supplementation. Furthermore, addition of PO and RPO in the diets increased milk fat while supplementation of RPM resulted in greater milk protein and Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers (p < 0.05). The population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus were not affected by any treatments. The findings on the present study showed that supplementation with RPM and RPO to diets of cows improved the rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat. PMID:24814291

Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

2015-04-01

148

Characterization of rennet coagulation of milk concentrated by vacuum condensing and ultrafiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of rennet coagulation of milk supplemented with vacuum-condensed or ultrafiltered milk was undertaken. Five treatments\\u000a with two levels of protein (45 and 60 g·kg?1) from vacuum-condensed (CM1 and CM2) and ultrafiltered milk (UF1 and UF2) along with a 32 g·kg?1 protein control were compared. A Formagraph was used to characterize rennet clotting time (RCT), amplitude at 40 min (a\\u000a 40), and

Praveen Upreti; Vikram V. Mistry; Mayur R. Acharya

2011-01-01

149

Short communication: plasma concentration of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide may regulate milk energy production in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

In dairy cows, an increase in plasma concentration of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is associated with an increase in metabolizable energy intake, but the role of GIP in energy partitioning of dairy cattle is not certain. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between plasma GIP concentrations and energy partitioning toward milk production. Four mid-lactation, primiparous, rumen-fistulated Holstein-Friesian cows were fed a control diet of 55% forage and 45% concentrate [dry matter (DM) basis] in a 4×4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods. The 4 treatments were (1) control diet fed at 1000 and 1600h, and (2) once-daily (1000h) feeding, (3) twice-daily (1000 and 1600h) feeding, and (4) 4 times/d (1000, 1600, 2200 and 0400h) feeding of the control diet plus 1 dose (1.75kg on a DM basis at 0955h) into the rumen of supplemental vegetable proteins (Amino Green; SCA NuTec Ltd., Thirsk, UK). Measurements of respiratory exchange and energy balance were obtained over 4d during the last week of each period while cows were housed in open-circuit respiration chambers. Blood was collected from the jugular vein every 30min for 12h, using indwelling catheters, starting at 0800h on d 20 of each period. Plasma GIP concentration was measured in samples pooled over each 5 consecutive blood samplings. The relationships between plasma GIP, DM intake, heat production, respiratory quotient (RQ), milk yield, and milk energy output were analyzed using linear correlation procedures, with metabolizable intake as a partial variant. Plasma GIP concentration was not correlated with heat production, or milk yield, but was positively correlated with milk energy yield (correlation coefficient=0.67) and negatively correlated with RQ (correlation coefficient=-0.72). The correlations between GIP with RQ and milk energy output do not imply causality, but support a role for GIP in the regulation of energy metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:24485682

Relling, A E; Crompton, L A; Loerch, S C; Reynolds, C K

2014-04-01

150

First parity evaluation of peak milk yield for range cows developed in the same ecophysiological system but receiving different concentrations of harvested feed inputs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Can range livestock producers reduce harvested feed inputs, during heifer development, and maintain production goals? To address this, we conducted a two year study measuring milk production (kg/d) and milk constituent concentrations (g/d) for 16 primiparous beef cows each year that were born from d...

151

BORON CONCENTRATIONS REMAIN STABLE IN MILK FROM MOTHERS OF FULL-TERM EXCLUSIVELY BREAST-FED INFANTS DURING THE FIRST FOUR MONTHS OF LACTATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To expand the finding from this laboratory that human milk boron (B) concentrations remain stable during the first 3 months of lactation, we analyzed archived milk collected (1980-84) from lactating mothers of full-term, exclusively breast-fed, infants living in Houston, TX. Samples were collected o...

152

Rumen Fermentation and Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Affected by Physical Forms and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different physical forms and urea treatment of rice straw on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and milk production. Four, multiparous Holstein crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation with initial body weight (BW) of 409±20 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were as follows: untreated, long form rice straw (LRS), urea-treated (5%), long form rice straw (5% ULRS), urea-treated (2.5%), long form rice straw (2.5% ULRS) and urea-treated (2.5%), chopped (4 cm) rice straw (2.5% UCRS). Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2 and rice straw was fed ad libitum. The findings revealed significant improvements in total DM intake and digestibility by using long and short forms of urea-treated rice straw (p<0.05). Ruminal pH was not altered among all treatments (p>0.05), whereas ruminal NH3-N, BUN and MUN were found to be increased (p<0.01) by urea-treated rice straw as compared with untreated rice straw. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentrations especially those of acetic acid were decreased (p<0.05) and those of propionic acid were increased (p<0.05), thus acetic acid:propionic acid was subsequently lowered (p<0.05) in cows fed with long or short forms of urea-treated rice straw. The 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS had greater microbial protein synthesis and was greatest when cows were fed with 5% ULRS. The urea-treated rice straw fed groups had increased milk yield (p<0.05), while lower feed cost and greater economic return was in the 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS (p<0.01). From these results, it could be concluded that 2.5% ULRS could replace 5% ULRS used as a roughage source to maintain feed intake, rumen fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, milk production and economical return in mid-lactating dairy cows. PMID:25049912

Gunun, P.; Wanapat, M.; Anantasook, N.

2013-01-01

153

7 CFR 58.430 - Milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...one or more of the following dairy products: Cream, skim milk, concentrated skim milk, nonfat...reconstitute any concentrated or dry milk used. Such dairy products shall have originated from raw milk meeting the same requirements as...

2012-01-01

154

7 CFR 58.430 - Milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...one or more of the following dairy products: Cream, skim milk, concentrated skim milk, nonfat...reconstitute any concentrated or dry milk used. Such dairy products shall have originated from raw milk meeting the same requirements as...

2011-01-01

155

7 CFR 58.430 - Milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...one or more of the following dairy products: Cream, skim milk, concentrated skim milk, nonfat...reconstitute any concentrated or dry milk used. Such dairy products shall have originated from raw milk meeting the same requirements as...

2013-01-01

156

7 CFR 58.430 - Milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...one or more of the following dairy products: Cream, skim milk, concentrated skim milk, nonfat...reconstitute any concentrated or dry milk used. Such dairy products shall have originated from raw milk meeting the same requirements as...

2010-01-01

157

7 CFR 58.430 - Milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...one or more of the following dairy products: Cream, skim milk, concentrated skim milk, nonfat...reconstitute any concentrated or dry milk used. Such dairy products shall have originated from raw milk meeting the same requirements as...

2014-01-01

158

Comparison of grass and legume silages for milk production. 1. Production responses with different levels of concentrate.  

PubMed

Silages prepared from pure stands of ryegrass, alfalfa, white clover, and red clover over two successive year were offered to lactating dairy cows in two feeding experiments. Proportional mixtures of all cuts prepared in a yr were used to ensure that the forage treatments were representative of the crop. Additional treatments involved mixtures of grass silage with either white clover silage or red clover silage (50/50, on a DM basis). Silages were prepared in round bales, using a biological inoculant additive, and wilting for up to 48 h. Although the legumes were less suited to silage-making than grass, because of their higher buffering capacity and lower water-soluble carbohydrate content, all silages were well-fermented. A standard concentrate was offered at a flat-rate (8 kg/d in yr 1, and 4 or 8 kg/d in yr 2). All of the legume silages led to higher DM intake and milk yields than for the grass silage, with little effect on milk composition. Intake and production responses to legumes were similar at the two levels of concentrate feeding and with forage mixtures they were intermediate to those for the separate forages. An additional benefit of the clover silages, particularly red clover silage, was the increase in levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly alpha-linolenic acid, in milk. Legume silages also led to a lower palmitic acid percentage in milk. The efficiency of conversion of feed N into milk N declined with increasing levels of legume silage. White clover silage led to a higher N-use efficiency when the effect of N intake level is taken into account. PMID:12939084

Dewhurst, R J; Fisher, W J; Tweed, J K S; Wilkins, R J

2003-08-01

159

Invited review: technical solutions for analysis of milk constituents and abnormal milk.  

PubMed

Information about constituents of milk and visual alterations can be used for management support in improving mastitis detection, monitoring fertility and reproduction, and adapting individual diets. Numerous sensors that gather this information are either currently available or in development. Nevertheless, there is still a need to adapt these sensors to special requirements of on-farm utilization such as robustness, calibration and maintenance, costs, operating cycle duration, and high sensitivity and specificity. This paper provides an overview of available sensors, ongoing research, and areas of application for analysis of milk constituents. Currently, the recognition of abnormal milk and the control of udder health is achieved mainly by recording electrical conductivity and changes in milk color. Further indicators of inflammation were recently investigated either to satisfy the high specificity necessary for automatic separation of milk or to create reliable alarm lists. Likewise, milk composition, especially fat:protein ratio, milk urea nitrogen content, and concentration of ketone bodies, provides suitable information about energy and protein supply, roughage fraction in the diet, and metabolic imbalances in dairy cows. In this regard, future prospects are to use frequent on-farm measurements of milk constituents for short-term automatic nutritional management. Finally, measuring progesterone concentration in milk helps farmers detect ovulation, pregnancy, and infertility. Monitoring systems for on-farm or on-line analysis of milk composition are mostly based on infrared spectroscopy, optical methods, biosensors, or sensor arrays. Their calibration and maintenance requirements have to be checked thoroughly before they can be regularly implemented on dairy farms. PMID:20105515

Brandt, M; Haeussermann, A; Hartung, E

2010-02-01

160

A Sustainable Alternative to a Breast Milk Monitoring Program: Using NHANES Serum Data to Estimate Breast Milk PBDE Concentrations  

EPA Science Inventory

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are high-production-volume chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in a variety of consumer products. PBDE concentrations in the environment, wildlife, and humans have been increasing for several decades. Concentrations in t...

161

Supplementation with extruded linseed cake affects concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid in goat milk.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to determine the effect of adding extruded linseed cake to the dry diet of goats on the concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vaccenic acid (VA) in milk fat. Thirty crossbreed dairy goats were divided into 3 groups. Their diet was supplemented with 0% (control group), 5% (low group), or 10% (high group) of extruded linseed cake (ELC), which supplied 0, 16, and 32 g/d of linseed fat, respectively. The milk fat percentage (overall mean 3.5%) and yield did not differ with the different diets, but fatty acid composition was affected by the ELC supplements. The inclusion of ELC in the diets did not influence the concentration of fatty acids from C6:0 to C12:0. The concentrations of C14:0 and C16:0 decreased as the quantity of ELC supplements increased. The concentrations (mg/100 mg of total fatty acid methyl esters) of VA (0.70, 1.23, and 1.39 in control, low, and high groups respectively) and cis-9,trans-11 CLA (0.63, 0.96, and 1.05 in control, low, and high groups, respectively) were increased by ELC supplements. The milk fat content of VA and cis- 9,trans-11 CLA were closely correlated (R2 = 0.82). Desaturation of VA in the mammary gland to produce cis-9,trans-11 CLA was higher in the control group than in the groups with ELC diets. Extruded linseed cake supplementation to lactating goats may enhance the nutritional profile of milk lipids. PMID:16357291

Nudda, A; Battacone, G; Usai, M G; Fancellu, S; Pulina, G

2006-01-01

162

Towards optoelectronic urea biosensors.  

PubMed

Integration of immobilized enzymes with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) leads to the development of optoelectronic enzyme-based biosensors. In this work, urease, used as a model enzyme, immobilized in the form of an open-tubular microbioreactor or biosensing membrane that has been integrated with two red LEDs. It forms complete, fiberless, miniaturized, and extremely economic biooptoelectronic devices useful for nonstationary measurements under flow analysis conditions. Both enzyme-based biodevices, operating according to the paired emitter detector diode (PEDD) principle, allow relatively fast, highly sensitive, and well-reproducible urea detection in the millimolar range of concentrations. Potential analytical applications of the developed urea bioPEDDs have been announced. Both presented constructions will be easily adapted for the development of other optoelectronic biosensors exploring various enzyme-based schemes of biodetection. PMID:25619983

Pokrzywnicka, Marta; Koncki, Robert; Tymecki, ?ukasz

2015-03-01

163

Characterisation of the Metabolites of 1,8-Cineole Transferred into Human Milk: Concentrations and Ratio of Enantiomers  

PubMed Central

1,8-Cineole is a widely distributed odorant that also shows physiological effects, but whose human metabolism has hitherto not been extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was, thus, to characterise the metabolites of 1,8-cineole, identified previously in human milk, after the oral intake of 100 mg of this substance. Special emphasis was placed on the enantiomeric composition of the metabolites since these data may provide important insights into potential biotransformation pathways, as well as potential biological activities of these substances, for example on the breastfed child. The volatile fraction of the human milk samples was therefore isolated via Solvent Assisted Flavour Evaporation (SAFE) and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The absolute concentrations of each metabolite were determined by matrix calibration with an internal standard, and the ratios of enantiomers were analysed on chiral capillaries. The concentrations varied over a broad range, from traces in the upper ng/kg region up to 40 µg/kg milk, with the exception of the main metabolite ?2-hydroxy-1,8-cineole that showed concentrations of 100–250 µg/kg. Also, large inter- and intra-individual variations were recorded for the enantiomers, with nearly enantiomerically pure ?2-hydroxy- and 3-oxo-1,8-cineole, while all other metabolites showed ratios of ~30:70 to 80:20. PMID:24957890

Kirsch, Frauke; Buettner, Andrea

2013-01-01

164

Predicting PCB concentrations in cow milk: validation of a fugacity model in high-mountain pasture conditions.  

PubMed

A fugacity model reported in the literature was applied to a high-altitude pasture in the Italian Alps. The model takes into account three compartments (digestive tract, blood and fat tissues) in unsteady-state conditions using food as the contamination source. Disregarding biotransformation inside cow tissues, the predicted concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in milk were in good agreement with the observed data, especially for congeners known for their resistance to biotransformation (e.g., CB-138 and 153). In contrast, the predicted concentrations were clearly overestimated for congeners with high biotransformation susceptibilities. Therefore data measured in milk and faeces were used to calculate the first-order-biotransformation rate constants in dairy cows. The PCB absorption efficiency observed for pasture conditions was lower than that observed in the cowshed. The final version of the model included biotransformation and observed PCB absorption and was able to predict PCB concentrations in cow milk with mean differences between the predicted and measured data below ± 20% for most congeners. PMID:24802270

Tremolada, Paolo; Guazzoni, Niccolò; Parolini, Marco; Rossaro, Bruno; Bignazzi, Marta Maria; Binelli, Andrea

2014-07-15

165

Illness in breastfeeding infants relates to concentration of lactoferrin and secretory Immunoglobulin A in mother’s milk  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: This study aims to better understand the relationship between immune compounds in human milk and infant health. We hypothesized that the concentration of immune compounds in milk would relate to infant illness symptoms according to two possible theoretical paradigms. In the ‘protective’ paradigm, high concentrations of immune compounds prevent infant illness. The converse, the ‘responsive’ framework, posits that concentrations of immune compounds are elevated in response to infection. Methodology: Milk samples (n = 110) and illness data were collected among the Toba of Argentina from 30 mother–infant dyads. Samples were assayed for two immune proteins, lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relationship between immune composition of milk and symptoms of illness in infants. Results: Lactoferrin was positively associated with symptoms of illness in infants (odds ratios >1), both in the month preceding the sample collection and the subsequent month. sIgA was negatively associated with symptoms (odds ratios <1) in the preceding and subsequent months, an association which was particularly strong for gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusions and implications: The two compounds investigated in our study had opposite relationships with symptoms of illness; the positive relationship between lactoferrin and illness lends support to our ‘responsive’ paradigm, and the negative relationship between sIgA and symptoms of illness was consistent with our ‘protective’ framework. That elevated lactoferrin is restricted to periods of illness suggests that there may be a cost to mother or infant associated with persistently elevated lactoferrin that is not incurred with elevated sIgA. PMID:25608691

Breakey, Alicia A.; Hinde, Katie; Valeggia, Claudia R.; Sinofsky, Allison; Ellison, Peter T.

2015-01-01

166

Human Utilization of Urea Nitrogen in Low Calorie Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the role of calorie intake on the ability of nonprotein nitrogen to substitute for part of a high biological value protein, urea was added to the low caloric milk diets of five obese women during periods of negative nitro gen balance. In five studies, negative nitrogen balance was induced by decreasing milk nitrogen intake to 3.7 g\\/day and

DANIEL LINO GALLINA; ANDJOSE MIGUEL DOMÃ NGUEZ

167

Relation of Lake Ontario fish consumption, lifetime lactation, and parity to breast milk polychlorobiphenyl and pesticide concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Lactating female members and spouses of male members of the New York State Angler Cohort who agreed to provide breast milk samples were the subjects of this study. Milk samples were analyzed for 77 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (DDE), a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1a,2,2,3,3a,4,5,5,5a,5b,6-dodecachlorooctahydro-1,3,4-methano-1H-cyclobuta[cd]pentalene (Mirex). The percentage of samples with quantifiable levels, above the limit of detection (LOD), varied among the individual congeners from 10 to 100%. Nine PCB congeners and DDE were found in all of the 100 samples analyzed. Fish eaters had a significantly higher level of several major PCB congeners with congeners 153 and 138 being 1.36 and 1.34 times higher, respectively. PCB and DDE concentrations, expressed on a lipid basis, varied inversely with parity. The total number of months of lifetime lactation varied inversely with the total PCB concentration in breast milk.

Kostyniak, P.J.; Stinson, C.; Hreizerstein, H.B.; Vena, J.; Buck, G.; Mendola, P. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)] [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

1999-02-01

168

Antimicrobial Protein and Peptide Concentrations and Activity in Human Breast Milk Consumed by Preterm Infants at Risk of Late-Onset Neonatal Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Objective We investigated the levels and antimicrobial activity of antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs) in breast milk consumed by preterm infants, and whether deficiencies of these factors were associated with late-onset neonatal sepsis (LOS), a bacterial infection that frequently occurs in preterm infants in the neonatal period. Study design Breast milk from mothers of preterm infants (?32 weeks gestation) was collected on days 7 (n = 88) and 21 (n = 77) postpartum. Concentrations of lactoferrin, LL-37, beta-defensins 1 and 2, and alpha-defensin 5 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The antimicrobial activity of breast milk samples against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus agalactiae was compared to the activity of infant formula, alone or supplemented with physiological levels of AMPs. Samples of breast milk fed to infants with and without subsequent LOS were compared for levels of AMPs and inhibition of bacterial growth. Results Levels of most AMPs and antibacterial activity in preterm breast milk were higher at day 7 than at day 21. Lactoferrin was the only AMP that limited pathogen growth >50% when added to formula at a concentration equivalent to that present in breast milk. Levels of AMPs were similar in the breast milk fed to infants with and without LOS, however, infants who developed LOS consumed significantly less breast milk and lower doses of milk AMPs than those who were free from LOS. Conclusions The concentrations of lactoferrin and defensins in preterm breast milk have antimicrobial activity against common neonatal pathogens. PMID:25643281

Trend, Stephanie; Strunk, Tobias; Hibbert, Julie; Kok, Chooi Heen; Zhang, Guicheng; Doherty, Dorota A.; Richmond, Peter; Burgner, David; Simmer, Karen; Davidson, Donald J.; Currie, Andrew J.

2015-01-01

169

Effects of lasalocid or monensin supplementation on digestion, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

Six ruminally fistulated midlactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a double 3 x 3 Latin square design (35-d periods) to study the effects of lasalocid (LAS) and monensin (MON) supplemented at 24 mg/ kg of dry matter on digestion, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production. Cows were blocked according to milk production and fed a red clover silage-based total mixed ration (17.8% crude protein) without supplementation or supplemented with LAS or MON. Daily dry matter intake, milk production, and milk fat and protein concentrations were similar among treatments and averaged 23.5 kg, 36.6 kg, 3.36%, and 3.38%, respectively. Rumen lipogenic:glucogenic volatile fatty acids and NH(3)-N concentration were lower, and apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and gross energy were higher with than without ionophore supplementation. Compared with LAS, MON increased concentrations of plasma urea-N and milk urea-N, and excretion of urinary urea-N and total N. Monensin also decreased N retention and tended to reduce plasma concentration of nonessential AA in comparison with LAS. Both ionophores reduced daily fecal excretion of N by 13 g compared with the control, but MON increased daily losses of urinary N by 36 g compared with LAS. Results from this study suggest that postabsorptive metabolism of N might be altered by the type of ionophore fed. PMID:18024764

Martineau, R; Benchaar, C; Petit, H V; Lapierre, H; Ouellet, D R; Pellerin, D; Berthiaume, R

2007-12-01

170

Calibration of infrared milk analyzers: modified milk versus producer milk.  

PubMed

Mid-infrared (MIR) milk analyzers are traditionally calibrated using sets of preserved raw individual producer milk samples. The goal of this study was to determine if the use of sets of preserved pasteurized modified milks improved calibration performance of MIR milk analyzers compared with calibration sets of producer milks. The preserved pasteurized modified milk sets exhibited more consistent day-to-day and set-to-set calibration slope and intercept values for all components compared with the preserved raw producer milk calibration sets. Pasteurized modified milk calibration samples achieved smaller confidence interval (CI) around the regression line (i.e., calibration uncertainty). Use of modified milk calibration sets with a larger component range, more even distribution of component concentrations within the ranges, and the lower correlation of fat and protein concentrations than producer milk calibration sets produced a smaller 95% CI for the regression line due to the elimination of moderate and high leverage samples. The CI for the producer calibration sets were about 2 to 12 times greater than the CI for the modified milk calibration sets, depending on the component. Modified milk calibration samples have the potential to produce MIR milk analyzer calibrations that will perform better in validation checks than producer milk-based calibrations by reducing the mean difference and standard deviation of the difference between instrument values and reference chemistry. PMID:16840598

Kaylegian, K E; Houghton, G E; Lynch, J M; Fleming, J R; Barbano, D M

2006-08-01

171

Effect of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on postpartum metabolism and milk production in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin (BTPC) supplementation on plasma metabolites and milk production in postpartum dairy cows. A total of fifty-two Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive either: (1) 10 ml of saline (NaCl 0.9%, control group); (2) 1000 mg of butaphosphan and 0.5 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC1 group); and (3) 2000 mg of butaphosphan and 1.0 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC2 group). All cows received injections every 5 days from calving to 20 days in milk (DIM). Blood samples were collected every 15 days from calving until 75 DIM to determine serum concentration of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, urea, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), aminotransferase aspartate (AST) and ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT). The body condition score (BCS) and milk production were evaluated from calving until 90 DIM. Increasing doses of BTPC caused a linear reduction in plasma concentrations of NEFA and cholesterol. Supplementation of BTPC also reduced concentrations of BHB but it did not differ between the two treatment doses. Milk yield and milk protein had a linear increase with increasing doses of BTPC. A quadratic effect was detected for milk fat and total milk solids according to treatment dose, and BTPC1 had the lowest mean values. Concentrations of glucose, urea, P, Mg, AST, GGT, milk lactose and BCS were not affected by treatment. These results indicate that injections of BTPC during the early postpartum period can reduce NEFA and BHB concentrations and increase milk production in Holstein cows. PMID:23360824

Pereira, R A; Silveira, P A S; Montagner, P; Schneider, A; Schmitt, E; Rabassa, V R; Pfeifer, L F M; Del Pino, F A B; Pulga, M E; Corrêa, M N

2013-07-01

172

Effect of synchronization of follicle-wave emergence with estradiol and progesterone and superstimulation with follicle-stimulating hormone on milk estrogen concentrations in dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about the effects of hormonal synchronization of follicle waves and superovulation on the estrogen content of a cow’s milk. The objective of this study was to determine the effect in dairy cows of synchronization with estradiol-17? (E2) and progesterone (P4) on milk E2 concentrations and to compare these levels with those achieved during superstimulation for 4 d with porcine follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The milk E2 concentrations were raised significantly above pretreatment levels (P < 0.05) for 2 d after synchronization, the mean peak being 40.2 ± 18.5 (standard error) pg/mL and the pretreatment mean 1.5 ± 0.5 pg/mL. The mean peak E2 concentration during ovarian stimulation was 4.4 ± 0.7 pg/mL. The mean E2 concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.05) after synchronization than during superstimulation for the 1st milking after synchronization but not subsequent milkings. The milk estrone concentrations were above pretreatment levels for 1 d after synchronization and were not different from those observed during superstimulation. PMID:23814359

de Souza, Lucilene B.; Dupras, Raynald; Mills, Louis; Chorfi, Younès; Price, Christopher A.

2013-01-01

173

Effect of forage conservation method, concentrate level and propylene glycol on the fatty acid composition and vitamin content of cows' milk.  

PubMed

Based on potential health benefits, there is a need to develop effective strategies for enhancing milk fat concentrations of cis-9 18:1, 18:3 n-3 and conjugated linoleic (CLA) content in milk without compromising the sensory or storage characteristics of processed milk or dairy products. Sixteen Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with four 21-d experimental periods and a 4 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the effects of forage conservation method, concentrate level and supplements of propylene glycol (PG), and their interactions on milk fatty acid composition and vitamin content. Experimental treatments consisted of four conserved forages offered ad libitum, supplemented with two levels of a standard concentrate (7 or 10 kg/d) and PG (0 and 210 g/d) fed as three equal meals. Primary growths of timothy and meadow fescue sward were conserved by ensiling with none (NA), an inoculant enzyme preparation (IE) or a formic acid based (FORM) additive or as hay 1 week later. Conservation of grass by drying rather than ensiling resulted in lower forage 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, total fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations. In spite of lower intakes, milk fat 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 content was higher (P < 0.05) for hay than for silage diets (12.1, 9.6, 9.6 and 9.3 and 5.00, 3.51, 4.27 and 2.93 g/kg total fatty acids, for hay, NA, IE and FORM silages, respectively). Forage conservation method had no clear effects on milk trans 18:1 or CLA content. Compared with silage, hay diets resulted in milk containing lower (P < 0.001) riboflavin, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene concentrations, but had no effect on ascorbic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine or retinol content. Feeding more concentrates had no effect on milk fatty acid composition or milk vitamin content, other than lowering (P < 0.001) 16:0 concentrations from 348 to 338 g/kg fatty acids. Supplements of PG led to small (P < 0.05) increases in milk 13:0 anteiso and 15:0 content from 1.06 and 11.3 to 1.22 and 12.6 g/kg fatty acids and reduced (P < 0.05) the concentrations of ascorbic acid (16.1 v. 15.1 g/kg milk). PMID:16174367

Shingfield, Kevin J; Salo-Väänänen, Pirjo; Pahkala, Eero; Toivonen, Vesa; Jaakkola, Seija; Piironen, Vieno; Huhtanen, Pekka

2005-08-01

174

Prediction of milk/plasma concentration ratios of drugs and environmental pollutants.  

PubMed

A large database of milk/plasma ratios, M/P, for 179 drugs and hydrophobic environmental pollutants has been constructed from literature data. Application of linear analyses shows that drugs preferentially partition into the aqueous and the protein phases of milk, but that the pollutants partition into the fat phase. No useful linear equation could be obtained for the entire 179 compound data set, but an artificial neural network with only five Abraham descriptors as input resulted in errors in log(1+M/P) of only 0.0574, 0.116 and 0.093 log units for a training set of 135 compounds, an internal test set of 22 compounds and an external test set of 22 compounds respectively. These errors correspond to 0.203, 0.193 and 0.334 log units respectively when transformed into errors in log(M/P). PMID:19217191

Abraham, Michael H; Gil-Lostes, Javier; Fatemi, Mohammad

2009-06-01

175

Urea nitrogen for potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary and Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The source of nitrogen influenced the total yield of potato tubers, the nutrient concentrations in the potato petiole and\\u000a the appearance of growing plants, especially in fields of low available phosphorus.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Urea resulted in higher nitrate-nitrogen, calcium, and magnesium concentrations in the plant petiole, but in lower phosphate-phosphorus\\u000a concentrations as compared with ammonium sulfate.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. 

K. B. Tyler; O. A. Lorenz; F. H. Takatori; J. C. Bishop

1962-01-01

176

The human milk metabolome reveals diverse oligosaccharide profiles.  

PubMed

Breast milk delivers nutrition and protection to the developing infant. There has been considerable research on the high-molecular-weight milk components; however, low-molecular-weight metabolites have received less attention. To determine the effect of maternal phenotype and diet on the human milk metabolome, milk collected at day 90 postpartum from 52 healthy women was analyzed by using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sixty-five milk metabolites were quantified (mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides; amino acids and derivatives; energy metabolites; fatty acids and associated metabolites; vitamins, nucleotides, and derivatives; and others). The biological variation, represented as the percentage CV of each metabolite, varied widely (4-120%), with several metabolites having low variation (<20%), including lactose, urea, glutamate, myo-inositol, and creatinine. Principal components analysis identified 2 clear groups of participants who were differentiable on the basis of milk oligosaccharide concentration and who were classified as secretors or nonsecretors of fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) gene products according to the concentration of 2'-fucosyllactose, lactodifucotetraose, and lacto-N-fucopentaose I. Exploration of the interrelations between the milk sugars by using Spearman rank correlations revealed significant positive and negative associations, including positive correlations between fucose and products of the FUT2 gene and negative correlations between fucose and products of the fucosyltransferase 3 (FUT3) gene. The total concentration of milk oligosaccharides was conserved among participants (%CV = 18%), suggesting tight regulation of total oligosaccharide production; however, concentrations of specific oligosaccharides varied widely between participants (%CV = 30.4-84.3%). The variability in certain milk metabolites suggests possible roles in infant or infant gut microbial development. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01817127. PMID:24027187

Smilowitz, Jennifer T; O'Sullivan, Aifric; Barile, Daniela; German, J Bruce; Lönnerdal, Bo; Slupsky, Carolyn M

2013-11-01

177

The effect of dietary cation-anion difference concentration and cation source on milk production and feed efficiency in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

Feed costs currently account for 55% or more of the total cost of milk production in US dairy herds, and dairy producers are looking for strategies to improve feed efficiency [FE; 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) per dry matter (DM) intake]. Increasing dietary cation-anion difference [DCAD; Na + K - Cl (mEq/kg of DM)] has been shown to increase milk production, FCM, and FE. However, the optimal DCAD concentration for maximal FE has yet to be determined. The objectives of this research were to test the effects of DCAD concentration and cation source on dairy FE. Sixty Holstein dairy cows (20 cows per experiment) were used in three 4×4 Latin square design experiments with 3-wk experimental periods. In experiments 1 and 2, we tested the effect of DCAD concentration: cows were fed a basal diet containing ~250mEq/kg of DM DCAD that was supplemented with potassium carbonate at 0, 50, 100, and 150mEq/kg of DM or 0, 125, 250, and 375mEq/kg of DM in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In experiment 3, we tested the effect of cation source: sodium sesquicarbonate replaced 0, 33, 67, and 100% of the supplemental potassium carbonate (150mEq/kg of DM DCAD). The DCAD concentration had no effect on milk production, milk protein concentration, or milk protein yield in experiments 1 and 2. Dry matter intake was not affected by DCAD concentration in experiment 1 or by cation source in experiment 3. However, DMI increased linearly with increasing DCAD in experiment 2. We detected a linear increase in milk fat concentration and yield with increasing DCAD in experiments 1 and 2 and by substituting sodium sesquicarbonate for potassium carbonate in experiment 3. Increased milk fat concentration with increasing DCAD led to increases in 3.5% FCM in experiments 1 and 2. Maximal dairy FE was achieved at a DCAD concentration of 426mEq/kg of DM in experiments 1 and 2 and by substituting Na for K in experiment 3. The results of these experiments suggest that both DCAD concentration and the cation source used to alter DCAD concentration have effects on milk fat content and yield and dairy FE. PMID:25557895

Iwaniuk, M E; Weidman, A E; Erdman, R A

2015-03-01

178

Production performance and milk composition of grazing dairy cows fed pelleted or non-pelleted concentrates treated with or without lignosulfonate and containing ground sunflower seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of feeding supplements which contained ground sunflower seeds in a pelleted versus non-pelleted concentrate treated with, or without, 50g\\/kg lignosulfonate were evaluated in 8 multiparous Holstein cows under grazing conditions. Cows were assigned to a double 4×4 Latin square design experiment with four 21d experimental periods. Whole diet total tract apparent digestibility, dry matter (DM) intake, milk production, milk

W. B. R. dos Santos; G. T. D. Santos; D. C. da Silva-Kazama; U. Cecato; F. E. de Marchi; J. V. Visentainer; H. V. Petit

2011-01-01

179

Predicting cutting and clotting time of coagulating goat's milk using diffuse reflectance: effect of pH, temperature and enzyme concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diffuse reflectance sensor, which used optical fibres and near-infrared radiation (NIR) at 880nm, was used to monitor goat's milk coagulation. A randomised block design replicated three times was utilized to test the effects of pH, temperature and enzyme concentration on diffuse reflectance parameters. Milk pH was adjusted to three levels (5.5, 6.0 and 6.5) and coagulated at three different

M Castillo; F. A Payne; C. L Hicks; M. B Lopez

2000-01-01

180

Continuous milking of dairy cows disrupts timing of peak IgG concentration appearance in mammary secretions.  

PubMed

The length of the dry period in commercial dairy production is under close scrutiny. While the main concern is the composition and volume of milk produced, the evaluation of colostrum quality under these new paradigms has suggested a decline in IgG concentrations, while some reports indicate no change. Colostrum quality has been defined as an adequate concentration (>50 mg/ml) of immunoglobulin in the secretions to provide the newborn with maximal disease resistance. We investigated the appearance of IgG in mammary pre- and post partum secretions in cows without a dry period (continuously milked, Dry0) and compared the secretions with cows that experienced a dry period of 60 d (Dry60). Blood was collected during the experimental period and plasma analysed for progesterone (P4) and prolactin (Prl). Approximately -6 d relative to parturition, the Dry0 animals exhibited increased concentration of IgG in their secretions to an average of ?35 mg/ml that remained rather constant through subsequent pregnancy and following parturition. Dry0 cows were producing an average IgG concentration in parturition colostrum of 44·2±17·6 mg/ml that was not different than that of controls (66·86±16·8 mg/ml). However, Dry0 cows exhibited high variation, different peak times (day) of IgG concentration including times that occurred both pre and post parturition. IgG mass of the Dry0 cows remained rather constant pre- and post partum and did not show the same declining mass following parturition that was shown for the Dry60 cows. The change in plasma P4 and Prl were shown to have no timing effect on colostrum IgG concentration. PMID:24955588

Baumrucker, Craig R; Zbinden, Rahel S; van Dorland, H Anette; Remmelink, Gerrit J; Kemp, Bas; van Knegsel, Ariette T M; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

2014-11-01

181

Influence of roughage/concentrate ratio and linseed oil on the concentration of trans-fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in duodenal chyme and milk fat of late lactating cows.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of two roughage-to-concentrate ratios, with or without linseed oil supplementation, on the flow of fatty acids in the intestinal chyme and the secretion in milk fat in late lactating cows. Seven late lactating cows fitted with cannulae in the dorsal rumen and simple T-shaped cannulae in the proximal duodenum were randomly assigned to four experimental periods applying an incomplete replicated 2 x 2 Latin square design. The rations consisted of meadow hay and a concentrate mixture given in a ratio of 70:30 or 30:70 on dry matter basis. The basal rations were fed without or with 200 g linseed oil daily. After three weeks of adaptation, samples from the duodenal chyme were taken to study the flow of fatty acids. Additionally, milk samples were analysed for their milk fat composition. Decreasing roughage/concentrate ratio and linseed oil supplementation significantly increased the flow of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), trans-fatty acids (tFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in the duodenum. Furthermore, linseed oil increased the flow of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the duodenum. Higher concentrate portion (H 30) and linseed oil supplementation significantly decreased the milk fat content. SFA were lower (p < 0.05) and MUFA were higher (p < 0.05) in milk fat after linseed oil supplementation; H 30 resulted in more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, p < 0.05) in the milk. Linseed oil supplementation significantly increased tFA and CLA in milk fat. The higher CLA content in milk fat as compared to that in the digesta suggests that a substantial endogenous synthesis of CLA in the mammary gland tissue through A9-desaturase took place. Between 21% and 48% of duodenal t11-C(18:1) were converted into c9, t11-CLA in milk fat. PMID:17236708

Flachowsky, Gerhard; Erdmann, Kristin; Hüther, Liane; Jahreis, Gerhard; Möckel, Peter; Lebzien, Peter

2006-12-01

182

[Transport of urea nitrogen from the intestines into the stomach in dairy cows].  

PubMed

In two experiments with one dairy cow each the utilisation of urea-N after its ruminal or duodenal infusion was comparatively investigated on two crude protein levels and different urease activities in the rumen. The rations contained 9.6 (I) and 14.3 (II) g crude plant protein/100 g dry matter. After completed adaptation 50 g urea were daily infused in the rumen (R, via cannula) in 3 h resp. the duodemun (D, distal cannula of the reentrance cannula) in 6 h with the morning and evening feeding. In experiment II the urease blocker phosphoric acid phenylester diamide (D/PPD) was applied in an additional experiment synchronously with the duodenal urea application. On the first measuring day in each case the urea in the morning feeding was labelled with 17.4 atom-% 15N-excess (15N'). Measuring results in the sequence I R, I D, II R, II D, II D/PPD: 15N'-passage rate at the duodenum within 72 h in the TCA-soluble N-fraction 29, 18, 24, 13 and 16, in the TCA-precipitable N-fraction 59, 25, 41, 11 and 5% of the application, 15N'-excretion within 96 h in milk protein 6.8, 4.2, 4.6, 3.4 and 1.9, in faeces 20, 12, 19, 8 and 4, in urine 20, 32, 34, 56 and 75% of the application, 15N-balance 59, 56, 47, 36 and 21% of the application, passage rate of non-NH3-N in the duodenum 131, 118, 96, 107 and 99% of the total N-intake. After ruminal infusion there always was a higher NH3-concentration in the rumen and 15N-frequencies in the rumen proteins. One can conclude that urea-N that gets into the intestines is to a low degree used for duodenal protein supply as directly utilisable urea-N from the ration in the rumen. The difference increases with the protein content of the ration and the inhibition of rumen urease. The urea N-balance is to a considerably smaller degree influenced by the place of urea infusion particularly at a low level of N-supply, which is due to a better utilisation of the urea-N transported with intermediary metabolism from the intestines. The role of urease as a regulator of urea transport through the rumen wall cannot be corroborated. PMID:6529364

Voigt, J; Piatkowski, B

1984-11-01

183

Influence of temperature and fat content on ideal sucrose concentration, sweetening power, and sweetness equivalence of different sweeteners in chocolate milk beverage.  

PubMed

The introduction of new products catering to specific dietary needs and the corresponding changes in the consumer profile reflect a growing demand for diet and “light” products. However, little information is available regarding the sensory effects of different sweeteners in products consumed at different temperatures and with varying fat contents. In this regard, this study aimed to determine the influence of temperature and fat content on the ideal sucrose concentration and the sweetness equivalence and sweetening power of different sweeteners: Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL), aspartame, neosucralose, sucralose, and stevia (95% rebaudioside A), with sucrose as reference, in a chocolate milk beverage using a just-about-right (JAR) scale and magnitude estimation. Increasing temperature of consumption had an inverse effect on the ideal sucrose concentration in whole milk beverages, whereas no difference was noted in beverages made skim milk. In addition, a decrease in sweetening power was observed for all of the sweeteners analyzed considering the same conditions. The findings suggest that different optimal conditions exist for consumption of chocolate milk beverage related to sweetness perception, which depends on the fat level of milk used in the formulation. This information can be used by researchers and dairy processors when developing chocolate milk beverage formulations. PMID:25606602

Paixão, J A; Rodrigues, J B; Esmerino, E A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

2014-12-01

184

Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation from Mid-Pregnancy to Parturition Influenced Breast Milk Fatty Acid Concentrations at 1 Month Postpartum in Mexican Women1234  

PubMed Central

(n-3) PUFA, including DHA, are essential for neural development and accumulate extensively in the fetal and infant brain. (n-3) PUFA concentrations in breast milk, which are largely dependent on maternal diet and tissue stores, are correlated with infant PUFA status. We investigated the effect of prenatal DHA supplementation on PUFA concentrations in breast milk at 1 mo postpartum. In a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial conducted in Mexico, pregnant women were supplemented daily with 400 mg DHA or placebo from 18–22 wk gestation to parturition. Fatty acid concentrations in breast milk obtained from 174 women at 1 mo postpartum were determined using GLC and were expressed as % by weight of total detected fatty acids. Breast milk DHA concentrations in the DHA and placebo groups were (mean ± SD) 0.20 ± 0.06 and 0.17 ± 0.07 (P < 0.01), respectively, and those of ?-linolenic acid (ALA) were 1.38 ± 0.47 and 1.24 ± 0.46 (P = 0.01), respectively. Concentrations of EPA and arachidonic acid did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). Maternal plasma DHA concentrations at 1 mo postpartum correlated positively with breast milk DHA at 1 mo postpartum in both the placebo and DHA groups (r = 0.4; P < 0.01 for both treatment groups). Prenatal DHA supplementation from 18–22 wk gestation to parturition increased concentrations of DHA and ALA in breast milk at 1 mo postpartum, providing a mechanism through which breast-fed infants could benefit. PMID:21178076

Imhoff?Kunsch, Beth; Stein, Aryeh D.; Villalpando, Salvador; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

2011-01-01

185

Spraying Leaves of Pear Nursery Trees with Urea and Copper Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Alters Tree Nitrogen Concentration without Influencing Tree Susceptibility to Phytophthora syringae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated the effects of nitrogen (N) availability and spraying trees with urea, copper chelate (CuEDTA), and phosphonate-containing fungicides on tree N status and susceptibility to infection by Phytophthora syringae. Increasing soil N availability increased susceptibility and increased N and...

186

Effect of N-(n-butyl) Phosphoric Triamide (NPBT) and a Linalool or Pine Oil Extract on Urea Concentration, Odorants, and Coliform Bacteria in Cattle Feedlot Manure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of a urease inhibitor (NBPT) in combination with plant oils for their ability to maintain urea in feedlot manure, control odor production, and reduce pathogens. Initially, NBPT (40 ppm) and a linalool extract (LE; 4000 ppm) were sprayed on...

187

Adulteration detection in milk using infrared spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adulteration of milk and dairy products has brought serious threats to human health as well as enormous economic losses to the food industry. Considering the diversity of adulterants possibly mixed in milk, such as melamine, urea, tetracycline, sugar/salt and so forth, a rapid, widely available, high-throughput, cost-effective method is needed for detecting each of the components in milk at once. In this paper, a method using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy is established for the discriminative analysis of adulteration in milk. Firstly, the characteristic peaks of the raw milk are found in the 4000-400 cm-1 region by its original spectra. Secondly, the adulterant samples are respectively detected with the same method to establish a spectral database for subsequent comparison. Then, 2D correlation spectra of the samples are obtained which have high time resolution and can provide information about concentration-dependent intensity changes not readily accessible from one-dimensional spectra. And the characteristic peaks in the synchronous 2D correlation spectra of the suspected samples are compared with those of raw milk. The differences among their synchronous spectra imply that the suspected milk sample must contain some kinds of adulterants. Melamine, urea, tetracycline and glucose adulterants in milk are identified respectively. This nondestructive method can be used for a correct discrimination on whether the milk and dairy products are adulterated with deleterious substances and it provides a new simple and cost-effective alternative to test the components of milk.

He, Bin; Liu, Rong; Yang, Renjie; Xu, Kexin

2010-02-01

188

Urea transport through composite polyallylamine membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polyallylamine composite reverse osmosis membranes were prepared by plasma polymerization and deposition onto small-pored cellulose acetate/cellulose nitrate films. The polyallylamine coated the porous substrate with a thin uniform polymer film which exhibited water permeability and urea rejection, of interest because of the potential application of reverse osmosis to urine purification in closed environmental systems. The flux of C-14 labeled urea was studied under the influence of osmotic gradients provided by sodium chloride solutions. The urea flux was found to be enhanced by an osmotic pressure gradient in the same direction and diminished, but not prevented, by an opposing osmotic pressure gradient. Consideration is given to the mechanism of the urea transport, as well as to the influence of concentration polarization on the experimental results. The minimization of coupled flow in pores of a critical size range is apparently necessary to improve urea rejection.

Ballou, E. V.; Kubo, L. Y.; Spitze, L. A.; Wydeven, T.; Clark, J. A.

1977-01-01

189

The effect of concentrate feeding amount and feeding strategy on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows offered a high or low amount of concentrate using 1 of 2 feeding strategies. One hundred and eight autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows were blocked based on milk production data from wk 3 and 4 of lactation, and were divided into low-, medium-, and high-milk yield subgroups. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=27) in a 2×2 factorial design. Treatment factors were concentrate feeding amount, high concentrate=7.0 (Hi) or low concentrate=4.0kg of DM/cow per day (Lo), and concentrate feeding strategy, flat rate (FR) or group-fed to yield (GFY). In the GFY treatments, cows were allocated concentrate based on their milk yield in the third and fourth weeks of lactation. The lowest-yielding cows (n=9) received 5.3 and 2.3kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, the highest-yielding cows (n=9) received 8.7 and 5.7kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, and the average yield cows received the same amount of concentrate as the corresponding FR group (i.e., 7.0 and 4.0kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments, respectively). The proportion of forage in the diet was 63% of total dry matter intake (TDMI) for the Hi treatment and 75% of TDMI for the Lo treatment. No significant interaction was noted between concentrate feeding amount and concentrate feeding strategy for dry matter intake or milk yield. Cows on the Hi treatment had a higher TDMI (18.7±0.36kg/cow per day) compared with cows on the Lo treatment (15.8±0.36kg/cow per day). The milk yield of cows offered the Hi treatment was 1.3kg/cow per day higher than the milk yield of cows on the Lo treatment (23.8±0.31kg/cow per day). Milk solids yield was 0.10kg/cow per day higher on the Hi treatment than on the Lo treatment (1.83±0.03kg of DM/cow per day). Cows on the Hi treatment had an estimated net energy demand of 18.0±0.38 UFL (unité fourragère lait)/cow per day and a net energy intake of 17.6±0.33 UFL/cow per day during the experimental period. Cows on the Lo treatment had an energy demand of 16.8±0.38 UFL/cow per day and an energy intake of 14.9±0.33 UFL/cow per day. No significant difference in TDMI, milk yield, milk solids yield, or energy balance was observed between the FR and GFY treatments. By increasing the total amount of concentrate offered, cows had higher TDMI and energy intake, which resulted in increased milk production and reduced negative energy balance and body condition score loss. PMID:25465538

Lawrence, D C; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E

2015-01-01

190

Rapid detection and quantification of milk adulteration using infrared microspectroscopy and chemometrics analysis.  

PubMed

The application of attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared microspectroscopy (MIR-microspectroscopy) was evaluated as a rapid method for detection and quantification of milk adulteration. Milk samples were purchased from local grocery stores (Columbus, OH, USA) and spiked at different concentrations of whey, hydrogen peroxide, synthetic urine, urea and synthetic milk. Samples were place on a 192-well microarray slide, air-dried and spectra were collected by using MIR-microspectroscopy. Pattern recognition analysis by Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) showed tight and well-separated clusters allowing discrimination of control samples from adulterated milk. Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) showed standard error of prediction (SEP) ~2.33, 0.06, 0.41, 0.30 and 0.014 g/L for estimation of levels of adulteration with whey, synthetic milk, synthetic urine, urea and hydrogen peroxide, respectively. Results showed that MIR-microspectroscopy can provide an alternative methodology to the dairy industry for screening potential fraudulent practice for economic adulteration of cow's milk. PMID:23265450

Santos, P M; Pereira-Filho, E R; Rodriguez-Saona, L E

2013-05-01

191

Urea retranslocation from senescing Arabidopsis leaves is promoted by DUR3-mediated urea retrieval from leaf apoplast  

PubMed Central

In plants, urea derives either from root uptake or protein degradation. Although large quantities of urea are released during senescence, urea is mainly seen as a short-lived nitrogen (N) catabolite serving urease-mediated hydrolysis to ammonium. Here, we investigated the roles of DUR3 and of urea in N remobilization. During natural leaf senescence urea concentrations and DUR3 transcript levels showed a parallel increase with senescence markers like ORE1 in a plant age- and leaf age-dependent manner. Deletion of DUR3 decreased urea accumulation in leaves, whereas the fraction of urea lost to the leaf apoplast was enhanced. Under natural and N deficiency-induced senescence DUR3 promoter activity was highest in the vasculature, but was also found in surrounding bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. An analysis of petiole exudates from wild-type leaves revealed that N from urea accounted for >13% of amino acid N. Urea export from senescent leaves further increased in ureG-2 deletion mutants lacking urease activity. In the dur3 ureG double insertion line the absence of DUR3 reduced urea export from leaf petioles. These results indicate that urea can serve as an early metabolic marker for leaf senescence, and that DUR3-mediated urea retrieval contributes to the retranslocation of N from urea during leaf senescence. PMID:25440717

Bohner, Anne; Kojima, Soichi; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Melzer, Michael; von Wirén, Nicolaus

2015-01-01

192

Urea retranslocation from senescing Arabidopsis leaves is promoted by DUR3-mediated urea retrieval from leaf apoplast.  

PubMed

In plants, urea derives either from root uptake or protein degradation. Although large quantities of urea are released during senescence, urea is mainly seen as a short-lived nitrogen (N) catabolite serving urease-mediated hydrolysis to ammonium. Here, we investigated the roles of DUR3 and of urea in N remobilization. During natural leaf senescence urea concentrations and DUR3 transcript levels showed a parallel increase with senescence markers like ORE1 in a plant age- and leaf age-dependent manner. Deletion of DUR3 decreased urea accumulation in leaves, whereas the fraction of urea lost to the leaf apoplast was enhanced. Under natural and N deficiency-induced senescence DUR3 promoter activity was highest in the vasculature, but was also found in surrounding bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. An analysis of petiole exudates from wild-type leaves revealed that N from urea accounted for >13% of amino acid N. Urea export from senescent leaves further increased in ureG-2 deletion mutants lacking urease activity. In the dur3 ureG double insertion line the absence of DUR3 reduced urea export from leaf petioles. These results indicate that urea can serve as an early metabolic marker for leaf senescence, and that DUR3-mediated urea retrieval contributes to the retranslocation of N from urea during leaf senescence. PMID:25440717

Bohner, Anne; Kojima, Soichi; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Melzer, Michael; von Wirén, Nicolaus

2015-02-01

193

Diet and cooling interactions on physiological responses of grazing dairy cows, milk production and composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of diet and cooling in the holding pen before milking on rectal temperature, respiration rate and milk production and composition. Fifty-eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a factorial split-plot design, at Rafaela Experimental Station from 12 January to 3 March 2003. The treatments were combinations of two diets: control (CD) and balanced (BD) with two levels of cooling before milking: none (NSF) and a sprinkler and fans (SF). Forage:concentrate ratios for CD and BD were 81:19 and 68:32, respectively. Cows were milked twice daily. Milk production was recorded daily, and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) was analysed twice a week. The physiological data were recorded once a week, before the cattle entered the holding pen and after milking, in the afternoon. Average maximum weekly temperature humidity index was 75.4 and ranged from 61.4 to 83. There were highly significant effects of cooling on physiological responses. Milk production was affected by diet and cooling, with no interaction; the highest and lowest production of milk was 22.42 and 20.07 l/cow per day, for BD+SF and CD+NSF, respectively. Protein was affected by diet, and was higher for BD (3.17 vs. 3.08%). There were interaction effects on milk fat at the 8% level, the highest concentration being 3.65% for BD+NFS. It was concluded that under grazing conditions, cooling by sprinkler and fans before milking improves the comfort of dairy cows, and that the effects on milk production and composition are enhanced when diets are specially formulated for heat-stress periods.

Gallardo, M. R.; Valtorta, S. E.; Leva, P. E.; Gaggiotti, M. C.; Conti, G. A.; Gregoret, R. F.

2005-11-01

194

Stability of fatty acid composition after thermal, high pressure, and microwave processing of cow milk as affected by polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration.  

PubMed

Interest has been increasing to enhance the contents of healthy polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in milk. However, trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can be altered after thermal processing and high pressures disrupt the milk fat globule membrane, exposing the lipid core and helping its oxidation. The objective of the present research was to study whether processing can alter the fatty acid composition of milk and if these changes are affected by PUFA concentration as previous studies suggest. Two cow milk batches (500 L each), one naturally enriched in PUFA, were processed to obtain pasteurized; high temperature, short time; UHT; high pressure; and microwave pasteurized samples. The detailed fatty acid composition was analyzed with special attention to trans fatty acids and CLA isomers. Results showed that after high temperature, short time processing, total CLA content increased in both milk batches, whereas sterilization resulted in a sigmatropic rearrangement of C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 to C18:2 trans-9,trans-11. The extent of these effects was greater in milks naturally enriched in PUFA. PMID:25459902

Rodríguez-Alcalá, L M; Alonso, L; Fontecha, J

2014-12-01

195

Effect of feeding linseed oil in diets differing in forage to concentrate ratio: 1. Production performance and milk fat content of biohydrogenation intermediates of ?-linolenic acid.  

PubMed

To evaluate the interaction between the levels of dietary concentrate and linseed oil (LO) on milk fatty acid (FA) profile, 24 Holstein cows were used in a randomised complete block design based on days in milk, with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Within each block, cows were fed one of four experimental diets containing 30% concentrate (LC) or 70% concentrate (HC), without LO (NLO) or with LO supplemented at 3% of dietary dry matter. Milk FA profiles were analysed with a special emphasis on the intermediates of the predominant trans-11, and a putative trans-13 pathways of ruminal biohydrogenation of cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3. Feeding LO increased the concentrations of cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3 and trans-11, cis-15 18:2 in milk fat, and these increases were of a higher magnitude when LO was added in HC as compared with LC diet (interaction of LO by concentrate). A treatment interaction was also observed for the level of trans-11 18:1 which was higher when feeding LO, but for which the increase was more pronounced with the LC as compared with HC diet. The concentrations of cis-15 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11, cis-15 18:3 were higher in cows fed LO, but feeding HC diets decreased milk fat content of cis-15 18:1 and a tendency for a decrease in cis-9, trans-11, cis-15 18:3 was apparent. Feeding LO increased milk fat content of trans-13 18:1 and cis-9, trans-13 18:2, while the concentrations of these two isomers were not affected by the level of dietary concentrates. The isomer cis-9, trans-13, cis-15 18:3 has not been detected in any of the milk samples. In conclusion, interactions were observed between LO and dietary concentrates on the proportions of some intermediates of the trans-11 biohydrogenation pathway. The presence of trans-13 18:1 and cis-9, trans-13 18:2 supports the existence of a trans-13 pathway, but an 18:3 intermediate with a trans-13 double bond has not been identified. PMID:24433586

Saliba, Leacady; Gervais, Rachel; Lebeuf, Yolaine; Chouinard, P Yvan

2014-02-01

196

Nevirapine, Sodium Concentration and HIV-1 RNA in Breast Milk and Plasma among HIV-Infected Women Receiving Short-Course Antiretroviral Prophylaxis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Risk factors for breast milk transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child include high plasma and breast milk viral load, low maternal CD4 count and breast pathology such as mastitis. Objective To determine the impact of nevirapine and subclinical mastitis on HIV-1 RNA in maternal plasma and breast milk after intrapartum single-dose nevirapine combined with either 1-week tail of Combivir (zidovudine/lamivudine) or single-dose Truvada (tenofovir/emtricitabine). Methods Maternal plasma and bilateral breast milk samples were collected between April 2008 and April 2011 at 1, 4 and 6 weeks postpartum from HIV-infected Tanzanian women. Moreover, plasma samples were collected at delivery from mother and infant. Results HIV-1 RNA was quantified in 1,212 breast milk samples from 273 women. At delivery, 96% of the women and 99% of the infants had detectable nevirapine in plasma with a median (interquartile range, IQR) of 1.5 ?g/mL (0.75–2.20 ?g/mL) and 1.04 ?g/mL (0.39–1.71 ?g/mL), respectively (P < 0.001). At 1 week postpartum, 93% and 98% of the women had detectable nevirapine in plasma and breast milk, with a median (IQR) of 0.13 ?g/mL (0.13–0.39 ?g/mL) and 0.22 ?g/mL (0.13–0.34 ?g/mL), respectively. Maternal plasma and breast milk HIV-1 RNA correlated at all visits (R = 0.48, R = 0.7, R = 0.59; all P = 0.01). Subclinical mastitis was detected in 67% of the women at some time during 6 weeks, and in 38% of the breast milk samples. Breast milk samples with subclinical mastitis had significantly higher HIV-1 RNA at 1, 4 and 6 weeks (all P < 0.05). Conclusion After short-course antiretroviral prophylaxis, nevirapine was detectable in most infant cord blood samples and the concentration in maternal plasma and breast milk was high through week 1 accompanied by suppressed HIV-1 RNA in plasma and breast milk. PMID:25812161

Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Theilgaard, Zahra P.; Chiduo, Mercy G.; Bygbjerg, Ib C.; Gerstoft, Jan; Lüneborg-Nielsen, Margrethe; Lemnge, Martha; Katzenstein, Terese L.

2015-01-01

197

Effect of prepartum photoperiod and melatonin feeding on milk production and prolactin concentration in dairy heifers and cows.  

PubMed

Holstein multiparous cows (n = 29) and primiparous heifers (n = 32) calving over a 1-yr period were subjected to photoperiod-melatonin treatments according to a 2 × 3 factorial design. Starting 8 wk before expected calving, all animals were subjected to 1 of the following treatments: 8h of light and 16 h of dark (8L:16D), 16 h of light and 8h of dark (16L:8D), or 16L:8D plus melatonin feeding (16L:8D-melatonin). Each day at 1355 h, the animals in the melatonin treatment received orally a gelatin capsule containing 25mg of melatonin. The treatments ended at calving, when the animals were moved to the lactation barn; all animals were then subjected to about 16 h of light per day. At the beginning and end of the treatment period before calving, blood samples were taken from 6 heifers and 6 cows through a jugular cannula for 24h at 30-min intervals to monitor serum melatonin and prolactin concentrations. Milk production in the heifers was not affected by the photoperiod treatments. Early-lactation milk production was higher in the cows exposed to the short-day photoperiod than in those exposed to a long-day photoperiod (16L:8D and 16L:8D-melatonin), with averages of 36.7 ± 0.9, 33.1 ± 0.8, and 34.1 ± 0.9 kg/d for 8L:16D, 16L:8D, and 16L:8D-melatonin, respectively. Photoperiod had no effect on late-lactation milk production in the cows. During lactation, the dry matter intake of heifers was not affected by the treatments, but dry matter intake of the cows exposed to a short-day photoperiod was greater than that of the cows exposed to a long-day photoperiod. Feed efficiency of heifers was improved by short-day photoperiod. During the treatment period, prolactin concentration was lower in the animals exposed to a short-day photoperiod than in those exposed to a long-day photoperiod, was lower with the 16L:8D-melatonin treatment than with the 16L:8D treatment, and tended to be lower with the 8L:16D treatment than with the 16L:8D-melatonin treatment, with averages of 3.5 ± 0.8, 9.9 ± 0.8, and 6.0 ± 0.8 ng/mL for 8L:16D, 16L:8D, and 16L:8D-melatonin, respectively. In early lactation, prolactin concentration was lower in the heifers exposed to the 16L:8D photoperiod during the dry period than in those exposed to the 8L:16D photoperiod or fed melatonin. In conclusion, a short-day photoperiod during the dry period transiently increases milk production of cows and the feed efficiency of heifers in the following lactation. However, melatonin cannot be used to mimic a short-day photoperiod during the dry period. PMID:24704221

Lacasse, P; Vinet, C M; Petitclerc, D

2014-06-01

198

Concentrations of DDT, PVBs, HCB, and HCH isomers in the liver and adipose tissue of newborn mice receiving an extract of human milk  

SciTech Connect

Persistent organic chlorine compounds, such as DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) circulate in the food chain of the ecosystem. Most data on the toxicity and accumulation of organic chlorine compounds have been obtained from animal experiments after chronic or acute poisoning with marketed preparations or standards of the used components of these preparations. In food products of animal origin and in human milk these compounds and their metabolites are present after multiple metabolic steps in varying proportions and concentrations. Their variable amounts are passed to newborns with mother's milk. The purpose of the present study was to investigate in an experimental model of newborn mice the degree of accumulation of these compounds in the liver and adipose tissue after long-standing feeding them with an extract of human milk with added organic chlorine compounds in doses received by human newborns with milk. In the assessment of the relationship between the degree of accumulation of various compounds in the tissues of newborn mice and the daily dose concentrations were used similar to those found in human milk.

Sitarska, E.; Gorski, T.; Ludwick, J.K.

1987-11-01

199

Changes in concentrations of perfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated biphenyls in Norwegian breast-milk during twelve months of lactation.  

PubMed

At present, scientific knowledge on depuration rates of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is limited and the previous assumptions of considerable reduction of body burdens through breast-feeding have recently been challenged. We therefore studied elimination rates of important POPs in nine Norwegian primiparous mothers and one mother breast-feeding her second child by collecting breast-milk samples (n = 70) monthly from about two weeks to up to twelve months after birth. Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in the breast-milk samples. Linear mixed effect models were established for selected compounds, and significant decreases in the range of 1.2-4.7% in breast-milk concentrations per month were observed for a wide range of PCBs and PBDEs. For the first time, depuration rates for perfluorooctylsulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are presented, being 3.8 and 7.8% per month, respectively (p < 0.05). The relative amount of the branched PFOS isomers in the breast-milk samples was 18% on average (range 6-36%, RSD 30%). There were no significant differences in isomer pattern between the mothers, or changes during the lactation period. After a year of nursing the breast-milk concentrations of PFCs, PBDEs, and PCBs were reduced by 15-94%. PMID:21090747

Thomsen, Cathrine; Haug, Line S; Stigum, Hein; Frøshaug, May; Broadwell, Sharon L; Becher, Georg

2010-12-15

200

Effect of serotonin infusions on the mean plasma concentrations of growth hormone, thyroid hormones and the amount and constituents of milk in the Sanan goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to determine whether serotonin increase the mean plasma concentrations of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), growth hormone (GH), milk amount and constituents in the Sanan goats. Nine Sanan goats were randomly divided into 3 groups. Each group received daily infusion of 1, 4 or 8 ng serotonin agonist (hydroxytryptophan) (5HT) for 7 days. Blood and

H. Khazali; A. Parhiskar; K. Jafari

201

BORON CONCENTRATIONS IN MILK FROM MOTHERS OF EXCLUSIVELY BREAST-FED HEALTHY FULL-TERM INFANTS ARE STABLE DURING THE FIRST FOUR MONTHS OF LACTATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because boron is a bioactive element that satisfies several of the criteria for essentiality in humans, the aim of the present work was to determine the profile of boron metabolism in human milk during the first 4 mo of lactation. The concentration of boron and other minerals was determined in arch...

202

THE EFFECT OF HIGH-DOSE VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENTATION ON SERUM VITAMIN D LEVELS AND MILK CALCIUM CONCENTRATION IN LACTATING WOMEN AND THEIR INFANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: Improve vitamin D status in lactating women and their recipient infants, and measure breast milk calcium concentration ([Ca]) as a function of vitamin D regimen. Design/Methods: Fully breastfeeding mothers were randomized at one month postpartum to 2,000 (n = 12) or 4,000 (n = 13) IU/d...

203

Effects of the percentage of concentrate on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk composition in mid-lactation goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study the effects of the dietary percentage of concentrate on patterns of intake, the evolution of rumen fermentation characteristics and plasma metabolites after a meal, nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition in a medium-term trial in dairy goats. These effects have been well studied in dairy cattle but seldom in goats. Thirteen

A. Serment; P. Schmidely; S. Giger-Reverdin; P. Chapoutot; D. Sauvant

2011-01-01

204

Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations of Guatemalan women are correlated with maternal but not infant vitamin B–12 status at 12 months postpartum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In our previous studies one third of lactating Guatemalan women, infants and children had deficient or marginal serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Relationships among maternal and infant status and breast milk vitamin B-12, however, have not been investigated in such populations. Our purpose was to ...

205

Determination of total antioxidant capacity of milk by CUPRAC and ABTS methods with separate characterisation of milk protein fractions.  

PubMed

Most milk-applied antioxidant assays in literature are based on the isolation and quantification of individual antioxidative compounds, whereas total antioxidant capacity (TAC) gives a more holistic picture due to cooperative action of antioxidants. Recently, the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method has been modified to measure the antioxidant capacities of thiol-containing proteins, where the classical ammonium acetate buffer - that may otherwise precipitate proteins- was replaced with concentrated urea buffer (able to expose embedded thiol groups of proteins to oxidative attack) adjusted to pH 7.0. Thus, antioxidant capacity of milk was investigated with two competing TAC assays, namely CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid))/persulphate, because only these assays were capable of evaluating protein contribution to the observed TAC value. As milk fat caused turbidity, experiments were carried out with skim milk or defatted milk samples. To determine TAC, modified CUPRAC method was applied to whole milk, separated and redissolved protein fractions, and the remaining liquid phase after necessary operations. Both TAC methods were investigated for their dilution sensitivity and antioxidant power assessment of separate milk fractions such as casein and whey. Proteins like ?-lactoglobulin and casein (but not simple thiols) exhibited enhanced CUPRAC reactivity with surfactant (SDS) addition. Addition of milk protein fractions to whole skim milk produced significant 'negative-biased' deviations (up to -26% relative standard error) from TAC absorbance additivity in the application of the ABTS method, as opposed to that of the CUPRAC method less affected by chemical deviations from Beer's law thereby producing much smaller deviations from additivity (i.e. the property of additivity is valid when the measured TAC of a mixture is equal to the sum of individual antioxidant capacities of its constituents). PMID:25731579

Çekiç, Sema Demirci; Demir, Asl?; Sözgen Ba?kan, Kevser; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Re?at

2015-05-01

206

COMPARISON OF THREE ANALYTICAL METHODS TO ASSESS UREA NITROGEN IN COLOSTRUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) obtained from cows fed mid to late lactation diets has been used as an indicator of diet composition adequacy and can be used to predict urine urea nitrogen. However, recent research has suggested that in early lactation, MUN was positively correlated with feed efficiency (...

207

Effects of pH, temperature, CaCl 2 and enzyme concentrations on the rennet-clotting properties of milk: a multifactorial study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pH, coagulation temperature, CaCl2 and enzyme concentrations on the rennet clotting properties of milk were assessed. Rennet coagulation time, coagulum firmness, curd firmness and gel firming rate were the coagulation parameters measured using a gelograph. A multifactorial design, considering two levels of coagulation temperature (28 and 44 °C), pH (6.0 and 6.8) and concentration of CaCl2 (10 and

A. I. Nájera; M. de Renobales; L. J. R. Barron

2003-01-01

208

Effect of dietary concentration of total nonstructural carbohydrate on energy and nitrogen metabolism and milk production of dairy cows.  

PubMed

Two complete blended diets with a ratio of concentrate: silage dry matter of 60:40 were fed to 12 Holstein cows in the first 12 wk of lactation in an incomplete changeover arrangement of treatments. Diets differed (dry basis) in content of total nonstructural carbohydrate (24.9% versus 32.9%), neutral detergent fiber (37.0% versus 32.1%), and hemicellulose (19.6% versus 15.7%) but were similar in amounts of lignin, crude protein, soluble nitrogen, and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen. The diet with more total nonstructural carbohydrate was associated with greater dry matter intake as a percentage of body weight and greater yields of milk and solids-not-fat. Cellulose digestibility and mean rumen ammonia concentration were lower with this diet. Despite similar protein solubilities, the diet with more total nonstructural carbohydrate contained more rumen degradable nitrogen (80% versus 60%) but similar amounts of rumen degradable dry matter (82% versus 79%). The metabolizable energy of this diet was used more efficiently for the combined functions of maintenance and production, and net energy for lactation was larger (2.2 versus 1.9 Mcal/kg dry matter), as measured calorimetrically. PMID:6833593

MacGregor, C A; Stokes, M R; Hoover, W H; Leonard, H A; Junkins, L L; Sniffen, C J; Mailman, R W

1983-01-01

209

Short communication: Annatto in Cheddar cheese-derived whey protein concentrate is primarily associated with milk fat globule membrane.  

PubMed

The yellow color of Cheddar cheese whey arises from a residual amount of annatto that partitions into the whey during Cheddar cheese manufacture. Bleaching of the color using hydrogen peroxide or benzoyl peroxide is often a prerequisite to produce an acceptable neutral-colored whey protein concentrate and isolate. However, the use of these strong oxidizing agents often generates off-flavors as a result of lipid oxidation and results in loss of nutritive value due to protein oxidation. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of partitioning of annatto between protein, milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), and aqueous (serum) phases of cheese whey so that a simple method can be developed to remove annatto from cheese whey. The MFGM was separated from Cheddar cheese whey using a recently developed novel method. Quantitative analysis of the distribution of annatto in the fat-free whey protein isolate (WPI), the MFGM fractions, and the serum phase revealed that annatto was not bound to the protein fraction but was mostly distributed between the serum phase and the MFGM fraction. The results showed that a colorless WPI or whey protein concentrate could be produced from Cheddar cheese whey by separation of MFGM from the whey, followed by diafiltration. This approach will negate the need for using bleaching agents. PMID:22281326

Zhu, D; Damodaran, S

2012-02-01

210

Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in lactating women increases breast milk and plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentrations and alters infant omega 6:3 fatty acid ratio.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on the fatty acid composition of breast milk and plasma concentrations in lactating women and their infants. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 weeks post-partum received placebo, 200mg or 400mg DHA for 6 weeks with usual diets. Breast milk fatty acids and maternal plasma fatty acids were measured at the beginning and end of the study and infant plasma at the end of the study. Breast milk and maternal plasma DHA were significantly greater with 200mg and 400mg DHA compared with placebo (50% and 123% breast milk p<0.05; 71% and 101% plasma, p<0.0001), respectively. Infant plasma omega 6:3 and arachidonic acid (AA):DHA were significantly greater in the placebo group compared to both supplement groups (67% and 106%; 71% and 116%, respectively, p<0.05). DHA supplementation impacts infant fatty acids important for brain development and breast milk fatty acid composition. PMID:25701002

Sherry, C L; Oliver, J S; Marriage, B J

2015-04-01

211

Physiochemical properties, microstructure, and probiotic survivability of nonfat goats' milk yogurt using heat-treated whey protein concentrate as fat replacer.  

PubMed

There is a market demand for nonfat fermented goats' milk products. A nonfat goats' milk yogurt containing probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium spp.) was developed using heat-treated whey protein concentrate (HWPC) as a fat replacer and pectin as a thickening agent. Yogurts containing untreated whey protein concentrate (WPC) and pectin, and the one with only pectin were also prepared. Skim cows' milk yogurt with pectin was also made as a control. The yogurts were analyzed for chemical composition, water holding capacity (syneresis), microstructure, changes in pH and viscosity, mold, yeast and coliform counts, and probiotic survivability during storage at 4 °C for 10 wk. The results showed that the nonfat goats' milk yogurt made with 1.2% HWPC (WPC solution heated at 85 °C for 30 min at pH 8.5) and 0.35% pectin had significantly higher viscosity (P < 0.01) than any of the other yogurts and lower syneresis than the goats' yogurt with only pectin (P < 0.01). Viscosity and pH of all the yogurt samples did not change much throughout storage. Bifidobacterium spp. remained stable and was above 10(6) CFU g(-1) during the 10-wk storage. However, the population of Lactobacillus acidophilus dropped to below 10(6) CFU g(-1) after 2 wk of storage. Microstructure analysis of the nonfat goats' milk yogurt by scanning electron microscopy revealed that HWPC interacted with casein micelles to form a relatively compact network in the yogurt gel. The results indicated that HWPC could be used as a fat replacer for improving the consistency of nonfat goats' milk yogurt and other similar products. PMID:25808084

Zhang, Tiehua; McCarthy, James; Wang, Guorong; Liu, Yanyan; Guo, Mingruo

2015-04-01

212

Inclusion of psyllium in milk replacer for neonatal calves. 2. Effects on volatile fatty acid concentrations, microbial populations, and gastrointestinal tract size.  

PubMed

Fermentable fibers such as psyllium increase volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in the lower digestive tract and increase the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) mass of many mammals. We reasoned that psyllium inclusion in milk replacer might produce similar effects in neonatal dairy calves, which could lead to improved growth and health. Male Holstein calves were fed a milk replacer (22% crude protein, 20% fat) either without or with psyllium (1.1% of dry matter, DM) from 2 d through 28 d of age. Milk replacer was reconstituted to 12.5% DM and fed at 12% of calf body weight, adjusted weekly. Water was offered ad libitum but no starter was fed. Three calves per treatment were harvested weekly to sample digesta from the reticulo-rumen, abomasum, jejunum, proximal colon, and distal colon, and to determine length and mass of GIT components. Psyllium in milk replacer increased the proportion of butyrate in reticulo-rumen contents from 2.4 to 3.2% of total but did not affect total VFA concentrations. Total VFA concentrations were very low in the jejunum but psyllium tended to increase total VFA, acetate, and valerate concentrations; valerate accounted for 15.9 and 16.7% of total VFA (molar basis) for control and psyllium calves, respectively. Psyllium increased total VFA concentrations in the proximal and distal colon by 104.4 and 45.6%, respectively, but had little effect on the profile of VFA. Psyllium in milk replacer increased populations of bifidobacteria (from 9.7 to 10.3 log(10) cfu/g of DM) and lactobacilli (from 8.2 to 9.4 log(10) cfu/g of DM) in the reticulo-rumen, but did not affect populations in jejunum or colon. Calves fed psyllium had 12.0% greater total GIT mass and 9.4% greater GIT as a percentage of body weight. Psyllium tended to increase mass of the reticulo-rumen and significantly increased mass of duodenum (34.2%), jejunum (14.5%), and colon (14.6%). Density of intestinal tissues from calves fed psyllium-supplemented milk replacer was 25.9% greater in the jejunum and 25.3% greater in the ileum, and tended to be greater in duodenum and colon than tissue from control calves. Supplementation of psyllium to milk replacer increased fermentation in the colon, mass of the total GIT, and populations of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the reticulo-rumen. PMID:20855009

Cannon, S J; Fahey, G C; Pope, L L; Bauer, L L; Wallace, R L; Miller, B L; Drackley, J K

2010-10-01

213

Characterization of rennet coagulation of milk concentrated by vacuum condensing and ultrafiltration  

E-print Network

for higher protein samples, indicating a higher rate of curd firming; and were not affected by the method. Statistically there was no effect of method of concentration on a40; however subjective analysis of curds during ); and changes in viscosity were determined throughout coagulation using Brookfield viscometer. Calculated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

214

Acrylamide–occurrence in mixed concentrate feed for dairy cows and carry-over into milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the preparation of cooked foods acrylamide is formed from asparagine and reducing sugars at high temperatures. By-products of oil, starch and sugar production, which may be found in animal feed, partially result from processing steps using heat treatment that are similarly likely to form acrylamide. Possibly, pelletizing during the processing of mixed concentrates may also be involved in acrylamide

K. Pabst; W. Mathar; R. Palavinskas; H. Meisel; A. Blüthgen; H. Klaffke

2005-01-01

215

The expression of genes involved in hepatic metabolism is altered by temporary changes to milking frequency.  

PubMed

Changes to milking frequency (MF) affect the metabolic and energetic status of dairy cows. However, the duration of altered MF necessary to modify hepatic transcription during early lactation is less clear. Additionally, long-term responses to short-term alterations in MF have not been established. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 120) were allocated to 3 or 6 wk of either once-daily (1 ×) or thrice-daily (3 ×) milking, immediately postpartum. Following treatment, cows were switched to twice-daily (2 ×) milking. These 4 treatment groups were compared with cows milked 2 × (n = 30) for the whole lactation. Liver tissue was collected by biopsy at 1, 3, 6, and 9 wk postpartum from 12 cows per treatment, RNA was extracted, and transcript abundance of genes involved in hepatic metabolism was quantified. Milking frequency altered the expression of most of the genes measured; however, we observed no effects caused by the length of time on the alternative milking frequency and no interactions between MF and length. During the MF treatment, mRNA expression of some, but not all, genes involved in gluconeogenesis (G6PC, PCK1), fatty acid ?-oxidation (CPT1A, CPT2), ketogenesis (HMGCS2), lipid transport (APOA1), and lipolysis (PNPLA2) were lower for cows milked 1 × and plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were greater. Cows milked 3 × had reduced mRNA expression for some of the genes involved in fatty acid synthesis (ACACA) and lipid transport (APOB) and had greater plasma NEFA concentrations at wk 1. At 9 wk postpartum, expression data indicated that cows previously milked 3 × had a greater capacity for gluconeogenesis (PCK1), ketogenesis (HMGCS2), and urea cycling (ASL, CPS1) and lower glucose concentrations than cows previously milked 1 ×, because some of the genes involved in these processes were still altered. Milking cows 1 × relative to 2 ×, however, did not result in significant carryover effects on the expression of the genes measured in this study, indicating that metabolic changes are not sustained beyond the period of reduced MF. Changes to MF altered the hepatic response during early lactation; however, this was not dependent on the duration of MF change. Although we observed only minimal carryover effects on hepatic metabolism from short periods of reduced MF postpartum, there may be long-term effects on urea cycling (ASL, CPS1) and ketogenesis (HMGCS2) when 3 × milking occurs immediately postpartum. PMID:24342696

Grala, T M; Roche, J R; Kay, J K; Rius, A G; White, H M; Donkin, S S; Littlejohn, M D; Snell, R G; Phyn, C V C

2014-02-01

216

Yield and sensory properties of cheese made with milk from Holstein or Montbeliarde cows milked twice or once daily.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the milk properties and the yield and sensory properties of Cantal cheese made with milk from Holstein or Montbéliarde cows milked once or twice daily. Sixty-four grazing cows [32 Holstein (H) and 32 Montbéliarde (M) cows] in the declining phase of lactation (157 d in milk) were allocated to 1 of 2 equivalent groups milked once daily (ODM) or twice daily (TDM) for 7 wk. The full-fat raw milk collected during 24 h from the 4 groups of cows (M-TDM, M-ODM, H-TDM, and H-ODM) was pooled and processed into Cantal cheese 4 times during the last 4 wk of the experimental period. In all, 16 cheeses were made (2 milking frequencies x 2 breeds x 4 replicates) and analyzed after a ripening period of 15 and 28 wk. The results showed that for both breeds, the pooled milk content of fat, whey protein, casein, total protein, and phosphorus as well as rennet clotting time and curd firming time were significantly higher with ODM cows, whereas the casein-to-total protein ratio was lower, and lactose, urea, calcium, and free fatty acids contents of milk remained unchanged. The acidification and draining kinetics of the cheese as well as cheese yields and the chemical and rheological properties of the ripened cheese were not significantly modified by milking frequency. For both breeds, the cheeses derived from ODM cows had a slightly yellower coloration but the other sensory attributes, except for pepper odor, were not significantly affected by milking frequency, thereby demonstrating that ODM does not have an adverse effect on the sensory properties of Cantal cheese. Compared with that of Holstein cows, milk from Montbéliarde cows resulted in a higher cheese yield (+1.250 kg/100 kg of milk) and ripened cheeses with lower pH, dry matter, calcium, sodium chloride, and water-soluble nitrogen concentrations. These cheeses had also a less firm and more elastic texture, a more acidic taste, and a yogurt/whey aroma. PMID:19762788

Martin, B; Pomiès, D; Pradel, P; Verdier-Metz, I; Rémond, B

2009-10-01

217

Effect of supplementing napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) with sunflower meal or poultry litter-based concentrates on feed intake, live-weight changes and economics of milk production in Friesian cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted using a randomized complete block design to determine feed intake, live-weight changes, milk yield and cost of milk production in Friesian cows fed napier grass (NG) at 10 weeks (MNG) or 15 weeks (ONG) of maturity. The MNG or ONG was supplemented with equal amounts of sunflower (SFBC) or poultry litter (PLBC) based concentrates in experiment

J. M. K Muia; S Tamminga; P. N Mbugua

2000-01-01

218

Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets.  

PubMed

We investigated the interactions of corn meal or molasses [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) supplements] with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) supplements] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay diets. Eight multiparous and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 135±49d in milk and 386±61kg of body weight in the beginning of the study were randomly assigned to 4 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period lasted 19d with 14d for diet adaptation and 5d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed diets composed of mixed-mostly grass hay plus 1 of the following 4 concentrate blends: (1) corn meal plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; (2) corn meal plus flaxseed meal; (3) liquid molasses plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; or (4) liquid molasses plus flaxseed meal. Data were analyzed for main effects of NSC and RDP supplements, and the NSC × RDP supplement interactions. Significant NSC × RDP supplement interactions were observed for milk urea N, milk N efficiency, and the sums of milk saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. No effect of NSC supplements was observed for nutrient intake and milk yield. However, 4% fat-corrected milk (-0.70kg/d) and energy-corrected milk (-0.60kg/d) were significantly reduced in cows fed liquid molasses due to a trend to decreased concentration of milk fat (-0.17%). Diets with liquid molasses resulted in increased (+35%) concentration and yield of milk enterolactone, indicating that this mammalian lignan can be modulated by supplements with different NSC profiles. Overall, NSC and RDP supplements profoundly changed the milk fatty acid profile, likely because of differences in fatty acids intake, ?(9)-desaturase indices, and ruminal biohydrogenation pathways. Feeding liquid molasses significantly reduced plasma urea N (-1.2mg/dL), urinary N excretion (-20g/d), and N digestibility (-3.2 percentage units). Flaxseed meal significantly reduced yields of milk (-1.3kg/d), milk fat (-90g/d), and milk lactose (-60g/d), but significantly increased the concentration and yield of milk enterolactone. Further research is needed to elucidate the negative responses of flaxseed meal on yields of milk and milk components. PMID:25465544

Brito, A F; Petit, H V; Pereira, A B D; Soder, K J; Ross, S

2015-01-01

219

Effects of induced energy deficiency on lactoferrin concentration in milk and the lactoferrin reaction of primary bovine mammary epithelial cells in vitro.  

PubMed

A dietary energy restriction to 49% of total energy requirements was conducted with Red Holstein cows for three weeks in mid-lactation. At the last day of the restriction phase, primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) of eight restriction (RF) and seven control-fed (CF) cows were extracted out of one litre of milk and cultured. In their third passage, an immune challenge with the most prevalent, heat-inactivated mastitis pathogens Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was conducted. Lactoferrin (LF) was determined on gene expression and protein level. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to determine LF in milk samples taken twice weekly throughout the animal trial, beginning on day 20 pp (post-partum) until day 150 pp, in cell culture total protein and in cell culture supernatant. Milk LF increased throughout the lactation and decreased significantly during the induced energy deficiency in the RF group. At the beginning of realimentation, LF concentration increased immediately in the RF group and reached higher levels than before the induced deficit following the upward trend seen in the CF group. Cell culture data revealed higher levels (up to sevenfold up-regulation in gene expression) and significant higher LF protein concentration in the RF compared to the CF group cells. A further emphasized effect was found in E. coli compared to S. aureus exposed cells. The general elevated LF levels in the RF pbMEC group and the further increase owing to the immune challenge indicate an unexpected memory ability of milk-extracted mammary cells that were transposed into in vitro conditions and even displayed in the third passage of cultivation. The study confirms the suitability of the non-invasive milk-extracted pbMEC culture model to monitor the influence of feeding experiments on immunological situations in vivo. PMID:22540894

Danowski, K; Gross, J J; Meyer, H H D; Kliem, H

2013-08-01

220

Intravaginal administration of lactic acid bacteria modulated the incidence of purulent vaginal discharges, plasma haptoglobin concentrations, and milk production in dairy cows.  

PubMed

This investigation studied the effects of intravaginal administration of a mixture of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the incidence of purulent vaginal discharges (PVD), plasma haptoglobin concentrations, and milk production in dairy cows. A total of 82 pregnant primiparous and multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in this study. Half of the cows received intravaginally 1mL of LAB at 10(10)-10(12)cfu/mL and the other half 1mL of reconstituted skim milk (i.e., carrier) (controls). Administration of LAB was conducted once per wk during 2 and 1wk before the expected day of calving and at 1, 2, 3, and 4wk postpartum. Data demonstrated that intravaginal administration of LAB decreased the occurrence of PVD at 3wk postpartum (P<0.05). Concentrations of plasma haptoglobin, an acute phase protein often associated with uterine infections, was lower in cows treated with the LAB mixture at 2wk (P<0.001) and 3wk (P<0.05) postpartum. Treatment with LAB did not improve overall pregnancy rate, but the treated multiparous cows produced more milk than their control counterparts (P<0.05), whereas no difference was observed in primiparous cows regarding milk yield (P>0.05). Overall, this is the first study demonstrating that intravaginal LAB administration lowers the incidence of PVD and enhances milk production in dairy cows. Further research is warranted to evaluate the effects of LAB on reproductive performance in a larger cohort of cows. PMID:24612560

Ametaj, B N; Iqbal, S; Selami, F; Odhiambo, J F; Wang, Y; Gänzle, M G; Dunn, S M; Zebeli, Q

2014-04-01

221

The urea cycle disorders.  

PubMed

The urea cycle is the primary nitrogen-disposal pathway in humans. It requires the coordinated function of six enzymes and two mitochondrial transporters to catalyze the conversion of a molecule of ammonia, the ?-nitrogen of aspartate, and bicarbonate into urea. Whereas ammonia is toxic, urea is relatively inert, soluble in water, and readily excreted by the kidney in the urine. Accumulation of ammonia and other toxic intermediates of the cycle lead to predominantly neurologic sequelae. The disorders may present at any age from the neonatal period to adulthood, with the more severely affected patients presenting earlier in life. Patients are at risk for metabolic decompensation throughout life, often triggered by illness, fasting, surgery and postoperative states, peripartum, stress, and increased exogenous protein load. Here the authors address neurologic presentations of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency in detail, the most common of the urea cycle disorders, neuropathology, neurophysiology, and our studies in neuroimaging. Special attention to late-onset presentations is given. PMID:25192511

Helman, Guy; Pacheco-Colón, Ileana; Gropman, Andrea L

2014-07-01

222

Urea Cycle Disease Overview  

MedlinePLUS

... such as ammonia. Ammonia is a product of protein digestion and the urea cycle is required for the body to excrete ammonia. In patients with partial enzyme deficiencies, the first recognized clinical episode may be ...

223

Utilization of roughages and concentrates relative to that of milk replacer increases strongly with age in veal calves.  

PubMed

We aimed to investigate the feeding values of milk replacer (MR), roughage, and concentrates for veal calves in a paired-gain setting, thus avoiding any prior assumptions in feeding values and major differences in nutrient intakes. One hundred sixty male Holstein-Friesian calves at 2 wk of age and 45 ± 0.2 kg of body weight (BW) were included in the experiment. Calves were allocated to pens (5 calves per pen) and pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 solid feed (SF) levels: SF1, SF2, SF3, or SF4, respectively, and to 1 of 2 roughage-to-concentrate (R:C) ratios: 20:80 or 50:50. An adaptation period from wk 1 to 10 preceded the experimental period (wk 11 to 27). Total dry matter (DM) intake from SF was targeted to reach 20, 100, 180, and 260 kg of DM for SF1 to SF4, respectively, during the 16-wk experimental period, and increased with preplanned, equal weekly increments. Roughage was composed of 50% corn silage and 50% chopped wheat straw based on DM. The quantity of MR provided was adjusted every 2 wk based on BW to achieve similar targeted rates of carcass gain across treatments. The reduction in MR provided (in kg of DM) to realize equal rates of carcass gain with inclusion of SF (in kg of DM) differed between the R:C ratio of 50:50 (0.41 kg of MR/kg of SF) and the R:C ratio of 20:80 (0.52 kg of MR/kg of SF). As carcass gain unintentionally increased with SF intake, the paired-gain objective was not fully achieved. When adjusted for realized rates of carcass gain, calves fed an R:C ratio of 20:80 still required 10% less MR than calves fed an R:C ratio of 50:50 for equal rates of carcass gain, indicating that the utilization of SF for gain increased with concentrate inclusion. Averaged for the 16-wk experimental period, the feeding value of MR relative to that of concentrates and roughages was close to that predicted based on their respective digestible energy contents. Nevertheless, the feeding value of SF relative to that of MR increased substantially with age. Therefore, additivity in feeding values of these ration components cannot be assumed. The results of the current study may contribute to the development of new concepts for formulation of veal calf diets with substantial amounts of SF. PMID:25129492

Berends, H; van den Borne, J J G C; Mollenhorst, H; van Reenen, C G; Bokkers, E A M; Gerrits, W J J

2014-10-01

224

Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in blood and breast milk collected from 60 mothers in Sapporo City, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (non-ortho PCBs), and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (mono-ortho PCBs) in paired samples of blood and breast milk collected from 60 mothers in Sapporo City, Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. The present study is one of the few studies in which PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs have been measured in

Takashi Todaka; Hironori Hirakawa; Jumboku Kajiwara; Tsuguhide Hori; Kazuhiro Tobiishi; Daisuke Onozuka; Shizue Kato; Seiko Sasaki; Sonomi Nakajima; Yasuaki Saijo; Fumihiro Sata; Reiko Kishi; Takao Iida; Masutaka Furue

2008-01-01

225

Detection of Interstellar Urea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urea, a molecule discovered in human urine by H. M. Rouelle in 1773, has a significant role in prebiotic chemistry. Previous BIMA observations have suggested that interstellar urea [(NH2)2CO] is a compact hot core molecule such as other large molecules (e.g. methyl formate and acetic acid). We have conducted an extensive search for urea toward the high mass hot molecular core Sgr B2(N-LMH) using BIMA, CARMA and the IRAM 30 m. Because the spectral lines of heavy molecules like urea tend to be weak and hot cores display lines from a wide range of molecules, it is necessary to detect a number of urea lines and apply sophisticated statistical tests before having confidence in an identification. The 1 mm resolution of CARMA enables favorable coupling of the source size and synthesized beam size, which was found to be essential for the detection of weak signals. We have detected a total of 65 spectral lines (32 molecular transitions and 33 unidentified transitions), most of which are narrower than the SEST survey (Nummelin et al. 1998) due to the small synthesized beam (2.5" x 2") of CARMA. It significantly resolves out the contamination by extended emission and reveals the eight weak urea lines that were previously blended with nearby transitions. Our analysis indicates that these lines are likely to be urea since the resulting observed line frequencies are coincident with a set of overlapping connecting urea lines, and the observed line intensities are consistent with the expected line strengths of urea. In addition, we have developed a new statistical approach to examine the spatial correlation between the observed lines by applying the Student's t test to the high resolution channel maps obtained from CARMA. The t test shows consistent spatial distributions from all eight candidate lines, suggesting a common molecular origin, urea. Our t test method could have a broad impact on the next generation of arrays, such as ALMA, because the new arrays will require a method to systematically determine the credibility of detections of weaker signals from new and larger interstellar molecules.

Kuo, Hsin-Lun; Remijan, Anthony J.; Snyder, Lewis E.; Looney, Leslie W.; Friedel, Douglas N.; Lovas, Francis J.; McCall, Benjamin J.; Hollis, Jan M.

2010-11-01

226

The effect of dietary crude protein and phosphorus on grass-fed dairy cow production, nutrient status, and milk heat stability.  

PubMed

Dietary crude protein (CP) and phosphorus (P) have the potential to alter dairy cow production, nutrient status, and milk heat stability, specifically in early lactation. This study examined the effect of supplementary concentrates with different CP and P concentrations on blood N and P status and on milk yield, composition, and heat stability. The concentrates [4kg of dry matter (DM) concentrate per cow daily] were fed to grazing dairy cows (13kg DM grass) during early lactation. Forty-eight spring-calving dairy cows were allocated to 4 treatments: high CP, high P (HPrHP; 302g/kg DM CP, 6.8g/kg DM P), medium CP, high P (MPrHP; 202g/kg DM CP, 4.7g/kg DM P), low CP, high P (LPrHP; 101g/kg DM CP, 5.1g/kg DM P), and low CP, low P (LPrLP; 101g/kg DM CP, 0.058g/kg DM P), for 8wk. Levels of N excretion were significantly higher in animals fed the HPrHP and MPrHP concentrates; P excretion was significantly lower in animals fed the LPrLP concentrate. Reducing the level of P in the diet (LPrLP concentrate) resulted in a significantly lower blood P concentration, whereas milk yield and composition (fat and protein) were not affected by either CP or P in the diet. The effect of the interaction between treatment and time on milk urea N was significant, reflecting the positive correlation between dietary CP and milk nonprotein N. Increasing supplementary CP and P (HPrHP) in the diet resulted in significantly lower milk heat stability at pH 6.8. The findings show that increasing dietary CP caused a decrease in milk heat stability, which reduced the suitability of milk for processing. The study also found that increasing dietary CP increased milk urea N and milk nonprotein N. Increasing dietary P increased fecal P excretion. These are important considerations for milk processors and producers for control of milk processing and environmental parameters. PMID:25465549

Reid, M; O'Donovan, M; Elliott, C T; Bailey, J S; Watson, C J; Lalor, S T J; Corrigan, B; Fenelon, M A; Lewis, E

2015-01-01

227

[Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].  

PubMed

Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as ?-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. PMID:22226014

Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

2012-03-01

228

Maternal risk factors associated with increased dioxin concentrations in breast milk in a hot spot of dioxin contamination in Vietnam.  

PubMed

This study looked to identify determinants of exposure to dioxin in breast milk from breast-feeding women in a hot spot of dioxin exposure in Vietnam. Breast milk was collected from 140 mothers 1 month after delivery. The risk factors investigated included length of residency, drinking of well water and the frequency of animal food consumption. Cluster analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns of fish and meat portions, fish variety and egg variety. Residency, age and parity were clearly associated with increased dioxin levels. Drinking well water and the consumption of marine crab and shrimps were related to higher levels of furans in breast milk. The consumption of quail eggs also appeared to be associated with increased levels of some dioxin isomers in this area. Some mothers who ate no or less meat than fish and mothers who consumed more freshwater fish than marine fish had lower levels of dioxins in their breast milk. However, the type of water and the eating habits of mothers contributed only partly to the increased dioxin levels in their breast milk; the length of residency was the most important risk factor associated with increased dioxin body burdens of mothers. PMID:24149970

Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Maruzeni, Shoko; Morikawa, Yuko; Anh, Tran Hai; Van Luong, Hoang; Dam, Pham Minh; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Son, Le Ke; Nishijo, Hisao

2014-01-01

229

Urea movement across erythrocyte membrane during artificial kidney treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urea movement across erythrocyte membrane during artificial kidney treatment. Previous work by other investigators indicates that erythrocyte urea and creatinine in uremic whole blood leaving the hemodialyzer do not move down the concentration gradients established by loss of these solutes across the dialyzer membrane. This puzzling disequilibrium is at odds with work indicating ready movement of both solutes across the

Alfred K Cheung; Michael F Alford; Marcella M Wilson; John K Leypoldt; Lee W Henderson

1983-01-01

230

Crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of the kidney urea transporter  

SciTech Connect

Urea is highly concentrated in the mammalian kidney to produce the osmotic gradient necessary for water re-absorption. Free diffusion of urea across cell membranes is slow owing to its high polarity, and specialized urea transporters have evolved to achieve rapid and selective urea permeation. Here we present the 2.3 {angstrom} structure of a functional urea transporter from the bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The transporter is a homotrimer, and each subunit contains a continuous membrane-spanning pore formed by the two homologous halves of the protein. The pore contains a constricted selectivity filter that can accommodate several dehydrated urea molecules in single file. Backbone and side-chain oxygen atoms provide continuous coordination of urea as it progresses through the filter, and well-placed {alpha}-helix dipoles provide further compensation for dehydration energy. These results establish that the urea transporter operates by a channel-like mechanism and reveal the physical and chemical basis of urea selectivity.

Levin, Elena J.; Quick, Matthias; Zhou, Ming; (Columbia)

2010-03-19

231

Detection of cow milk adulteration in yak milk by ELISA.  

PubMed

In the current study, a simple, sensitive, and specific ELISA assay using a high-affinity anti-bovine ?-casein monoclonal antibody was developed for the rapid detection of cow milk in adulterated yak milk. The developed ELISA was highly specific and could be applied to detect bovine ?-casein (10-8,000 ?g/mL) and cow milk (1:1,300 to 1:2 dilution) in yak milk. Cross-reactivity was <1% when tested against yak milk. The linear range of adulterant concentration was 1 to 80% (vol/vol) and the minimum detection limit was 1% (vol/vol) cow milk in yak milk. Different treatments, including heating, acidification, and rennet addition, did not interfere with the assay. Moreover, the results were highly reproducible (coefficient of variation <10%) and we detected no significant differences between known and estimated values. Therefore, this assay is appropriate for the routine analysis of yak milk adulterated with cow milk. PMID:25151876

Ren, Q R; Zhang, H; Guo, H Y; Jiang, L; Tian, M; Ren, F Z

2014-10-01

232

Chemiresistor urea sensor  

DOEpatents

A sensor to detect and quantify urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures, and in blood and other body fluids. The sensor is based upon a chemiresistor, which consists of an interdigitated array of metal fingers between which a resistance measured. The interdigitated array is fabricated on a suitable substrate. The surface of the array of fingers is covered with a coating containing the enzyme urease which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form the ammonium ion, the bicarbonate ion, and hydroxide-chemical products which provide the basis for the measured signal. In a typical application, the sensor could be used at bedside, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. Also, the chemiresistor used to detect urea, can be utilized with a reference chemiresistor which does not contain urease, and connected in a differential measurement arrangement, such that the reference chemiresistor would cancel out any fluctuations due to background effects.

Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

233

CONDENSED TANNIN IN DRINKING WATER OF CATTLE AND SHEEP TO REDUCE THEIR URINE UREA EXCRETION AND SUBSEQUENT AMMONIA POLLUTION.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methods are needed to reduce urine urea excretion and consequent ammonia emission that is associated with ruminant meat and milk production while not reducing productivity. Ingestion of small amounts of naturally-occurring condensed tannin by ruminants can reduce their urine urea excretion and impr...

234

Discriminant analysis of milk adulteration based on near-infrared spectroscopy and pattern recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of the 21st century, the issue of food safety is becoming a global concern. It is very important to develop a rapid, cost-effective, and widely available method for food adulteration detection. In this paper, near-infrared spectroscopy techniques and pattern recognition were applied to study the qualitative discriminant analysis method. The samples were prepared and adulterated with one of the three adulterants, urea, glucose and melamine with different concentrations. First, the spectral characteristics of milk and adulterant samples were analyzed. Then, pattern recognition methods were used for qualitative discriminant analysis of milk adulteration. Soft independent modeling of class analogy and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) were used to construct discriminant models, respectively. Furthermore, the optimization method of the model was studied. The best spectral pretreatment methods and the optimal band were determined. In the optimal conditions, PLSDA models were constructed respectively for each type of adulterated sample sets (urea, melamine and glucose) and all the three types of adulterated sample sets. Results showed that, the discrimination accuracy of model achieved 93.2% in the classification of different adulterated and unadulterated milk samples. Thus, it can be concluded that near-infrared spectroscopy and PLSDA can be used to identify whether the milk has been adulterated or not and the type of adulterant used.

Liu, Rong; Lv, Guorong; He, Bin; Xu, Kexin

2011-03-01

235

Enteric methane production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows fed grass silage- or corn silage-based diets.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing grass silage (GS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric methane (CH4) production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. A completely randomized block design experiment was conducted with 32 multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Four dietary treatments were used, all having a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 80:20 based on dry matter (DM). The roughage consisted of either 100% GS, 67% GS and 33% CS, 33% GS and 67% CS, or 100% CS (all DM basis). Feed intake was restricted (95% of ad libitum DM intake) to avoid confounding effects of DM intake on CH4 production. Nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) and energy balance, and CH4 production were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after adaptation to the diet for 12 d. Increasing CS proportion linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber and crude protein intake and linearly increased starch intake. Milk production and milk fat content (on average 23.4kg/d and 4.68%, respectively) were not affected by increasing CS inclusion, whereas milk protein content increased quadratically. Rumen variables were unaffected by increasing CS inclusion, except the molar proportion of butyrate, which increased linearly. Methane production (expressed as grams per day, grams per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, and as a percent of gross energy intake) decreased quadratically with increasing CS inclusion, and decreased linearly when expressed as grams of CH4 per kilogram of DM intake. In comparison with 100% GS, CH4 production was 11 and 8% reduced for the 100% CS diet when expressed per unit of DM intake and per unit fat- and protein-corrected milk, respectively. Nitrogen efficiency increased linearly with increased inclusion of CS. The concentration of trans C18:1 FA, C18:1 cis-12, and total CLA increased quadratically, and iso C16:0, C18:1 cis-13, and C18:2n-6 increased linearly, whereas the concentration of C15:0, iso C15:0, C17:0, and C18:3n-3 decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of CS. No differences were found in short- and medium-straight, even-chain FA concentrations, with the exception of C4:0 which increased linearly with increased inclusion of CS. Replacing GS with CS in a common forage-based diet for dairy cattle offers an effective strategy to decrease enteric CH4 production without negatively affecting dairy cow performance, although a critical level of starch in the diet seems to be needed. PMID:25582590

van Gastelen, S; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Klop, G; Alferink, S J J; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

2015-03-01

236

Concentrations of phthalate metabolites in breast milk in Korea: estimating exposure to phthalates and potential risks among breast-fed infants.  

PubMed

Phthalates have been associated with endocrine disruption and developmental effects in many experimental and epidemiological studies. Developing infants are among the most susceptible populations to endocrine disruption. However, limited information is available on phthalate exposure and its associated risks among breast-fed newborn infants. In the present study, breast milk samples were collected from 62 lactating mothers at 1 month post-partum from four cities of Korea in 2012 and were evaluated for six phthalate metabolites (mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP)). MEP was detected in all breast milk samples, with a median concentration of 0.37 ?g/L, and MiBP, MnBP and MEHP were detected in 79-89% of samples, with median concentrations of 1.10, 1.70, and 2.08 ?g/L, respectively. However, MEHHP and MEOHP, the oxidized forms of di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP), were detected in only one sample. For exposure assessment, the levels of phthalate diesters were estimated based on the parent:metabolite ratios in the breast milk that are reported elsewhere. For risk assessment, the endocrine-related toxicity of the monoester was assumed to be the same as that of its diester form. Median daily intake estimates of phthalates, including both monoester and diester forms, through breast milk consumption ranged between 0.91 and 6.52 ?g/kg body weight (bw) for DEHP and between 0.38 and 1.43 ?g/kg bw for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). Based on the estimated daily intake, up to 8% of infants exceeded the reference dose of anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) for DEHP, and 6% of infants exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for DnBP. Breast milk MiBP and MnBP concentrations showed significant positive associations with maternal consumption of whipped cream or purified water. Considering vulnerability of young infants, efforts to mitigate phthalate exposure among lactating women are warranted. PMID:25437948

Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Jangwoo; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Cho, Geumjoon; Kim, Gun-Ha; Eun, So-Hee; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Suh, Eunsook; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Young Don; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Seunghyo; Eom, Soyong; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

2015-03-01

237

Effect of dietary cation-anion difference on performance of lactating dairy cows and stability of milk proteins.  

PubMed

Casein micelle stability is negatively correlated with milk concentrations of ionic calcium, which may change according to the metabolic and nutritional status of dairy cows. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on concentrations of casein subunits, whey proteins, ionic calcium, and milk heat and ethanol stability. Sixteen Holstein cows were distributed in 4 contemporary 4×4 Latin square designs, which consisted of 4 periods of 21d and 4 treatments according to DCAD: 290, 192, 98, and -71mEq/kg of dry matter (DM). The milk concentrations of ionic calcium and ?-casein were reduced as DCAD increased, whereas the milk urea nitrogen and ?-lactoglobulin concentrations were increased. As a result of these alterations, the milk ethanol stability and milk stability during heating at 140°C were increased linearly with increasing DCAD [Y=74.87 (standard error=0.87) + 0.01174 (standard error=0.0025) × DCAD (mEq/kg of DM) and Y=3.95 (standard error=1.02) + 0.01234 (standard error=0.0032) × DCAD (mEq/kg of DM), respectively]. In addition, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and fat, lactose, and total milk solids contents were linearly increased by 13.52, 8.78, 2.5, and 2.6%, respectively, according to DCAD increases from -71 to 290mEq/kg of DM, whereas crude protein and casein content were linearly reduced by 4.83 and 4.49%, respectively. In conclusion, control of metabolic changes in lactating dairy cows to maintain blood acid-base equilibrium plays an important role in keeping milk stable to ethanol and during heat treatments. PMID:25622868

Martins, C M M R; Arcari, M A; Welter, K C; Netto, A S; Oliveira, C A F; Santos, M V

2015-04-01

238

Effect of Parity, Stage of Lactation, and Intramammary Infection on Concentration of Somatic Cells and Cytoplasmic Particles in Goat Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aseptic foremilk samples (about 15 ml) were collected biweekly for four samplings and then monthly throughout lactation from 35 does in three herds on Dairy Herd Improvement test. Bac- teriology, direct microscopic somatic cell counts, and cytospin differential cell counts were performed on all samples. Milk yield was obtained from monthly Dairy Herd Improvement records. Thirty- nine percent of udder

A. M. Dulin; M. J. Paape; W. D. Schultze; B. T. Weinland

1983-01-01

239

A Sustainable Alternative to a U.S. Breast Milk Monitoring Program: Using NHANES Serum Data to Estimate Breast Milk PBDE Concentrations  

EPA Science Inventory

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are high-production-volume chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in a variety of consumer products. PBDE concentrations in the environment, wildlife, and humans have been increasing for several decades. Concentrations in t...

240

Short communication: Supplementing lysine and methionine in a lactation diet containing a high concentration of wet corn gluten feed did not alter milk protein yield.  

PubMed

Primiparous (n=33) and multiparous (n=63) lactating Holstein cows (186±51 d in milk) were used to evaluate the effects of supplementing metabolizable amino acids using lysine in a matrix of Ca salts of fatty acids (Megamine-L, Arm & Hammer Animal Nutrition, Princeton, NJ) and the isopropyl ester of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (MetaSmart, Adisseo Inc., Antony, France) in diets containing >26% wet corn gluten feed (dry matter basis). Cows were blocked by production level, parity, and pregnancy status, then randomly assigned to 1 of 8 pens and allowed a 7-d adaption period before receiving dietary treatments for 28 d. Pens were assigned randomly to either of 2 diets formulated to differ by metabolizable amino acid supply. Dry matter intake and production were monitored daily and milk components analyzed 3d/wk. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. The original design of the study consisted of a control diet predicted to be deficient in lysine and methionine; however, after ingredient nutrients were analyzed and modeled with animal requirements at dry matter intake [26.6±0.35 kg/d (mean ± SEM)] and milk production levels achieved during the study (40.1±0.46 kg/d), only marginal deficiencies were predicted for the control (-8.1g/d for lysine; -1g/d for methionine) according to the National Research Council method, whereas the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System 5.0 and 6.1 models indicated positive balances for these amino acids (25.9 and 21.8 g/d for lysine, 14.7 and 18.9 g/d for methionine, respectively). Supplementing 30 g/d of metabolizable lysine in a Ca soap matrix and 2.4 g/d of metabolizable methionine as 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid led to positive predicted lysine and methionine balances by all 3 models, and predicted metabolizable lysine-to-methionine ratios ranging from 2.9 to 3.1. No treatment effects were observed for dry matter intake, milk yield, milk component concentrations or yields, or energy-corrected milk yield. Despite the negative lysine balance and low lysine-to-methionine ratio predicted by the National Research Council model, results provided no evidence of a lysine deficiency in the control diet. PMID:23746581

Mullins, C R; Weber, D; Block, E; Smith, J F; Brouk, M J; Bradford, B J

2013-08-01

241

Immediate and residual effects of heat stress and restricted intake on milk protein and casein composition and energy metabolism.  

PubMed

The effects of heat stress on dairy production can be separated into 2 distinct causes: those effects that are mediated by the reduced voluntary feed intake associated with heat stress, and the direct physiological and metabolic effects of heat stress. To distinguish between these, and identify their effect on milk protein and casein concentration, mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows (n=24) were housed in temperature-controlled chambers and either subjected to heat stress [HS; temperature-humidity index (THI) ~78] or kept in a THI<70 environment and pair-fed with heat-stressed cows (TN-R) for 7 d. A control group of cows was kept in a THI<70 environment with ad libitum feeding (TN-AL). A subsequent recovery period (7 d), with THI<70 and ad libitum feeding followed. Intake accounted for only part of the effects of heat stress. Heat stress reduced the milk protein concentration, casein number, and casein concentration and increased the urea concentration in milk beyond the effects of restriction of intake. Under HS, the proportion in total casein of ?S1-casein increased and the proportion of ?S2-casein decreased. Because no effect of HS on milk fat or lactose concentration was found, these effects appeared to be the result of specific downregulation of mammary protein synthesis, and not a general reduction in mammary activity. No residual effects were found of HS or TN-R on milk production or composition after THI<70 and ad libitum intake were restored. Heat-stressed cows had elevated blood concentrations of urea and Ca, compared with TN-R and TN-AL. Cows in TN-R had higher serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations than cows in HS. It was proposed that HS and TN-R cows may mobilize different tissues as endogenous sources of energy. PMID:25648800

Cowley, F C; Barber, D G; Houlihan, A V; Poppi, D P

2015-04-01

242

Milk Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... on to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, ... milk). Continue How Can Doctors Tell It's a Milk Allergy? If your doctor suspects you might have ...

243

Long-Term Effects of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA) on Milk Quality and Hepatic Gene Expression in Lactating Goats Fed a High-Concentrate Diet  

PubMed Central

Purpose The mechanism underlying the decline in milk quality during periods of feeding high-concentrate diets to dairy ruminants is not well documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolic changes in the liver that contribute to the input of substrate precursors to the mammary gland after feeding a high-concentrate diet to lactating goats for a long period. Experimental Design Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen cannulas were randomly assigned to two groups. For 9 weeks, the treatment group was fed a high-concentrate diet (60% concentrate of dry matter, HC) and the control group was fed a low-concentrate diet (40% concentrate of dry matter, LC). Ruminal fluid, plasma, and liver tissues were sampled, microarray techniques and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate metabolic parameters and gene expression in liver. Results Feeding a 60%-concentrate diet for 9 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in rumen pH. Changes in fat and protein content also occurred, which negatively affected milk quality. Plasma levels of leptin (p?=?0.058), non-esterified fatty acid (p?=?0.071), and glucose (p?=?0.014) increased markedly in HC group. Plasma cortisol concentration was significantly elevated in the treatment group (p<0.05). Expression of the glucocorticoid receptor protein gene was significantly down-regulated (p<0.05) in the liver. The expression of genes for interleukin 1?, serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, and haptoglobin mRNA was significantly increased (p<0.05) in the HC group. GeneRelNet analysis showed that gene expression involved in inflammatory responses and the metabolism of lipids, protein, and carbohydrate were significantly altered by feeding a high-concentrate diet for 9 weeks. Conclusions Activation of the acute phase response and the inflammatory response may contribute to nutrient partitioning and re-distribution of energy in the liver, and ultimately lead to a decline in milk quality. PMID:24376594

Dong, Haibo; Wang, Shaoqing; Jia, Yuanyuan; Ni, Yingdong; Zhang, Yuanshu; Zhuang, Su; Shen, Xiangzhen; Zhao, Ruqian

2013-01-01

244

Discrimination of adulterated milk based on two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) combined with kernel orthogonal projection to latent structure (K-OPLS).  

PubMed

A new method for discrimination analysis of adulterated milk and pure milk is proposed by combining two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) with kernel orthogonal projection to latent structure (K-OPLS). Three adulteration types of milk with urea, melamine, and glucose were prepared, respectively. The synchronous 2D spectra of adulterated milk and pure milk samples were calculated. Based on the characteristics of 2D correlation spectra of adulterated milk and pure milk, a discriminant model of urea-tainted milk, melamine-tainted milk, glucose-tainted milk, and pure milk was built by K-OPLS. The classification accuracy rates of unknown samples were 85.7, 92.3, 100, and 87.5%, respectively. The results show that this method has great potential in the rapid discrimination analysis of adulterated milk and pure milk. PMID:24359648

Yang, Renjie; Liu, Rong; Xu, Kexin; Yang, Yanrong

2013-12-01

245

Lead content of milk and infant formula  

SciTech Connect

Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

Walker, B.

1980-03-01

246

Effect of Cassava Hay and Rice Bran Oil Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Lactating Dairy Cows  

PubMed Central

Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production and composition in dairy cows, while fatty acid composition of milk was influenced by RBO supplementation, and resulted in significantly lower (p<0.05) concentrations of both short-chain and medium-chain FA, and increased (p<0.05) the proportion of long-chain FA in milk fat, as well as significantly increased cis-9, trans-11 CLA and total CLA. In conclusion, RBO or CH exhibited specific effects on DM, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition in lactating dairy cows, which were not interactions between CH and RBO in the diets. Feeding lactating dairy cows with RBO could improve fatty acid in milk fat by increasing cis-9, trans-11 CLA. PMID:25049491

Lunsin, R.; Wanapat, M.; Rowlinson, P.

2012-01-01

247

Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch concentrations and fish oil (FO) supplementation on lactation performance, in vivo total-tract nutrient digestibility, N balance, and methane (CH4) emissions in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 2 concentrations of dietary starch [low vs. high: 23.7 and 27.7% on a dry matter (DM) basis; neutral detergent fiber/starch ratios: 1.47 and 1.12], the presence or absence of FO supplement (0.80% on a DM basis), and their interaction were evaluated. Four Italian Friesian cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets in 4 consecutive 26-d periods: (1) low starch (LS), (2) low starch plus FO (LSO), (3) high starch (HS), and (4) high starch plus FO (HSO). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage, alfalfa and meadow hays). The starch concentration was balanced using different proportions of corn meal and soybean hulls. The cows were housed in metabolic stalls inside open-circuit respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emission and the collection of separate urine and feces. No differences among treatments were observed for DM intake. We observed a trend for FO to increase milk yield: 29.2 and 27.5kg/d, on average, for diets with and without FO, respectively. Milk fat was affected by the interaction between dietary starch and FO: milk fat decreased only in the HSO diet. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO on the LS diet. Fish oil supplementation decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids. High-starch diets negatively influenced all digestibility parameters measured except starch, whereas FO improved neutral detergent fiber digestibility (41.9 vs. 46.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively, and ether extract digestibility (53.7 vs. 67.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively). We observed a trend for lower CH4 emission (g/d) and intensity (g/kg of milk) with the high-starch diets compared with the low-starch diets: 396 versus 415g/d on average, respectively, and 14.1 versus 14.9g/kg of milk, respectively. Methane intensity per kilogram of ECM was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO for the LS diet: 14.5 versus 13.3g of CH4/kg of ECM for LS and LSO diets, respectively. PMID:25465540

Pirondini, M; Colombini, S; Mele, M; Malagutti, L; Rapetti, L; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M

2015-01-01

248

[Identification of adulterants in adulterated milks by near infrared spectroscopy combined with non-linear pattern recognition methods].  

PubMed

In the present work, two hundred and eighty seven raw milks collected from pastures in Shanghai and surrounding ar- eas of Shanghai were used as true milk samples and divided into three true milk sets. Five hundred and twenty six adulterated milk samples, which contained dextrin (or starch) mixed with melamine (or urea, or ammonium nitrate), were prepared as six different adulterated milk sets. The concentrations of these adulterants in the adulterated milks were designed to be 0.15%~ 0.45% (starch or dextrin), 700-2,100 mg · kg(-1) (ammonium nitrate), 524-1,572 mg · kg(-1) (urea), and 365.5-1,096.5 mg · kg(-1) (melamine) to guarantee the protein content of adulterated milks detected by Kjeldahl method not lower than 3%. All the near infrared spectra (NIR) of the samples should have a pretreatment of normal variable transformation (SNV) before they were used to build discriminating models. The three true milk sets and six adulterated milk sets were combined in different ways in order to build NIR models for discriminating different kinds of adulterants (i. e. , dextrin, starch, melamine, urea and ammo- nium nitrate) based on simplified K-nearest neighbor classification algorithm (IS-KNN) and an improved and simplified of sup- port vector machine (?-SVM) method. The relationship between mass concentration of the adulterants and the rate of correct discrimination was also investigated. The results show that the average discrimination accuracy of IS-KNN and ?-SVM for identi- fying melamine, urea and ammonium nitrate were in the region of 49.55% to 51.01%, 61.78% to 68.79% and 68.25% to 73.51%, respectively. Therefore within the concentration regions designed in this study, it is difficult to distinguish different kinds of pseudo proteins by NIR spectroscopy. However, the average accuracy of IS-KNN and ?-SVM for identifying starch and dextrin are 92.33% and 93.66%, 77.29% and 85.08%, respectively. Most discrimination results of ?-SVM are better than those of IS-KNN. The correlative analysis between the discrimination accuracy rate and the content levels of the adulterants indi- cated that near infrared spectroscopy combined with non-linear pattern recognition methods can distinguish dextrin and starch in milks with higher concentration levels (> 0.15%), but do not work well on identifying the adulterants with lower concentrations such as melamine (365.5 to 1,096.5 mg kg(-1)), urea (524 to 1,572 mg · kg(-1)), ammonium nitrate (700 to 2,100 mg · kg(-1)). Therefore near Infrared Spectroscopy is not suitable for identifying the adulterants with concentrations are below 0.1%. PMID:25739206

Ni, Li-Jun; Zhong, Lin; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Li-Guo; Huang, Shi-Xinz

2014-10-01

249

Molecularly imprinted polymer as in-line concentrator in capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry for the determination of quinolones in bovine milk samples.  

PubMed

In this work molecularly imprinted polymers have been evaluated as sorbent for the construction of an in-line solid phase extraction analyte concentrator in capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry for the determination of the eight regulated veterinary quinolones in bovine milk samples. Different parameters affecting the analyte concentrator performance, such as sample pH, volume and composition of the elution plug and injection time, were studied. Sample volumes of 22?L (2bar for 15min) were loaded on the MISPE microcartridge and the retained analytes were eluted by injecting a plug of MeOH/H2O/NH3 (60/37/3 by volume) for 125s at 50mbar (60nL). The proposed method is simple for the monitoring of these antibiotic residues in milk samples, allowing the direct injection of the samples with minimum sample pretreatment, achieving limits of detection between 3.8 and 4.7?gkg(-1) and unequivocal identification of the compounds working in tandem mass spectrometry. Recoveries ranging from 70.0 to 102.3% were obtained and satisfactory intra-day and inter-day RSDs were achieved (?12% and 15% respectively). Reproducibility among different constructed analyte concentrators showed RSD?11%. PMID:25124225

Moreno-González, David; Lara, Francisco J; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M

2014-09-19

250

Milk production, plasma metabolite profiles and mammary arterial-venous differences of milk precursors in early lactation cows milked at different frequencies by an automatic milking system.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to clarify the effect of different milking frequencies under an automatic milking system (AMS) on milk yield, plasma metabolite profiles and mammary arterial-venous (A-V) differences of milk precursors by mammary tissues in early lactation cows. Twelve Holstein cows were divided into two and four times milking frequency treatments by AMS after calving to 50 days postpartum. Cows were given a partial mixed ration ad libitum and a concentrate diet at every milking. Dry matter intake increased similarly in both treatments with advancing postpartum days. Milk yield was greater (P?milking, but milk composition was not affected by milking frequency. Body weight change was also not affected by milking frequency. Arterial concentrations of glucose and glutamate were lower (P?milking frequency. However, arterial concentration of nonesterified fatty acids did not differ between treatments. Although mammary A-V differences of plasma concentration for most milk precursors did not differ between treatments, estimated plasma flow was higher (P?milking frequency. These results indicate that higher milking frequency may increase mammary uptake of milk precursors, whereas may not affect the extent of fat mobilization of early lactating cows from day 20 postpartum onward. PMID:25474097

Astuti, Andriyani; Obitsu, Taketo; Sugino, Toshihisa; Taniguchi, Kohzo; Okita, Miki; Kurokawa, Yuzo

2014-12-01

251

Effect of Dietary Forage Concentration and Buffer Addition on Duodenal Flow of Trans-C18:1 Fatty Acids and Milk Fat Production in Dairy Cows[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk fat depression in cows fed high grain diets has been shown to be related to increased trans-C18:1 fatty acids in milk. Trans-C18:1 fatty acids are produced as a result of incomplete biohydrogenation of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in the rumen. The objec- tive of this study was to determine the effects of varying amounts of dietary concentrate and buffer

K. F. Kalscheur; B. B. Teter; L. S. Piperova; R. A. Erdman

1997-01-01

252

Effect of the level and type of starchy concentrate on tissue lipid metabolism, gene expression and milk fatty acid secretion in Alpine goats receiving a diet rich in sunflower-seed oil.  

PubMed

The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for reducing saturated and increasing specific unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in ruminant milk. The impact of the level and type of starchy concentrate added to diets supplemented with sunflower-seed oil on caprine milk FA composition and on mammary, omental and perirenal adipose, and liver lipid metabolism was examined in fourteen Alpine goats in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square with 21 d experimental periods. Treatments were a grass hay-based diet with a high level of forage (F) or a high level of concentrate with either maize grain (CM) or flattened wheat (CW) as source of starch and supplemented with 130 g/d sunflower-seed oil. Milk yield was enhanced (P<0·01) and milk fat content was decreased on the CM and CW diets compared with the F diet, resulting in similar milk fat secretion. Both high-concentrate diets increased (P<0·05) milk yield of 10 : 0-16 : 0 and decreased trans-9,11-18 : 1 and cis-9, trans-11-18 : 2. The CW diet decreased (P<0·05) the output of ?C18 and ?cis-18 : 1 and increased (P<0·05) the output of trans-10-18 : 1 in milk. The expression and/or activity of fourteen proteins involved in the major lipogenic pathways in mammary tissues and of lipogenic genes in adipose and liver tissues were similar among treatments. In conclusion, high starch concentrates alter milk FA yield via mechanisms independent of changes in mammary, liver or adipose tissue lipogenic gene expression. Furthermore, data provided indications that mammary lipogenic responses to starch-rich diets differ between caprine and bovine ruminants. PMID:21875448

Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Bonnet, M; Chilliard, Y

2012-04-01

253

Erythrocyte permeability to urea and water: comparative study in rodents, ruminants, carnivores, humans, and birds.  

PubMed

Mammalian erythrocytes exhibit high urea permeability (P (urea)) due to UT-B expression in their cytoplasmic membrane. This high P (urea) allows fast equilibration of urea in erythrocytes during their transit in the hyperosmotic renal medulla. It also allows more urea (in addition to that in plasma) to participate in counter-current exchange between ascending and descending vasa recta, thus improving the trapping of urea in the medulla and improving urine concentrating ability. To determine if P (urea) in erythrocytes is related to diet and urine concentrating ability, we measured P (urea) in erythrocytes from 11 different mammals and 5 birds using stopped-flow light scattering. Carnivores (dog, fox, cat) exhibited high P (urea) (in x10(-5) cm/s, 5.3 ± 0.6, 3.8 ± 0.5 and 2.8 ± 0.7, respectively). In contrast, herbivores (cow, donkey, sheep) showed much lower P (urea) (0.8 ± 0.2, 0.7 ± 0.2, 1.0 ± 0.1, respectively). Erythrocyte P (urea) in human (1.1 ± 0.2), and pig (1.5 ± 0.1), the two omnivores, was intermediate. Rodents and lagomorphs (mouse, rat, rabbit) had P (urea) intermediate between carnivores and omnivores (3.3 ± 0.4, 2.5 ± 0.3 and 2.4 ± 0.3, respectively). Birds that do not excrete urea and do not express UT-B in their erythrocytes had very low values (<0.1 × 10(-5) cm/s). In contrast to P (urea), water permeability, measured simultaneously, was relatively similar in all mammals. The species differences in erythrocytes P (urea) most probably reflect adaptation to the different types of diet and resulting different needs for concentrating urea in the urine. PMID:20878327

Liu, Lifeng; Lei, Tianluo; Bankir, Lise; Zhao, Dan; Gai, Xiaodong; Zhao, Xuejian; Yang, Baoxue

2011-01-01

254

[Application of kernel orthogonal projection to latent structure discriminant analysis in the discrimination of adulterated milk].  

PubMed

Based on the method of kernet Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structure Discriminant Analysis, discrimination models for adulterated milk were established in the present paper. Forty adulterated milk samples with melamine (0.01-3 g x L(-1)) and 40 adulterated milk samples with urea (1-20 g x L(-1)) were prepared, respectively. Then the near-infrared absorption spectra of all samples were measured. The spectra in the range of 4 200-4 800 cm(-1) were selected to construct the KOPLS-DA models for milk adulterated with melamine, milk adulterated with urea and milk adulterated with both melamine and urea. The results showed that, compared with PLS-DA and OPLS-DA models, KOPLS-DA model had better discriminant ability for the adulterated milk, and its classification accuracy rate (CAR) for milk adulterated with melamine, milk adulterated with urea and milk adulterated with both melamine and urea were 95%, 100% and 97.5%, respectively. PMID:24159851

Liu, Rong; Yang, Ren-Jie; Miao, Jing; Xu, Ke-Xin

2013-08-01

255

Quinine and Urea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WebWare molecules of the month are discussed in two laboratory articles in this issue. Quinine is studied in the article "A Fluorimetric Approach to Studying the Effects of Ionic Strength on Reaction Rates: An Undergraduate Steady-State Fluorescence Laboratory Experiment" by Stephen W. Bigger, Peter J. Watkins, and Bruce Verity. Urea, a typical protein denaturant, is used as a cosolvent in the article "Transfer Free Energy and the Hydrophobic Effect" by Joseph M. Serafin.

256

Effects of dry period length on milk production, body condition, metabolites, and hepatic glucose metabolism in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Dry period (DP) length affects energy metabolism around calving in dairy cows as well as milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of the study was to investigate milk production, body condition, metabolic adaptation, and hepatic gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in Holstein cows (>10,000kg milk/305d) with 28- (n=18), 56- (n=18), and 90-d DP (n=22) length (treatment groups) in a commercial farm. Cows were fed total mixed rations ad libitum adjusted for far-off (not for 28-d DP) and close-up DP and lactation. Milk yield was recorded daily and body condition score (BCS), back fat thickness (BFT), and body weight (BW) were determined at dry off, 1wk before expected and after calving, and on wk 2, 4, and 8 postpartum (pp). Blood samples were taken on d -56, -28, -7, 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56 relative to calving to measure plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. Liver biopsies (n=11 per treatment) were taken on d -10 and 10 relative to calving to determine glycogen and total liver fat concentration (LFC) and to quantify mRNA levels of pyruvate carboxylase (PC), cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase. Time course of milk yield during first 8wk in lactation differed among treatment. Milk protein content was higher in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Milk fat to protein ratio was highest and milk urea was lowest in 90-d DP cows. Differences in BW, BFT, and BCS were predominantly seen before calving with greatest BW, BFT, and BCS in 90-d DP cows. Plasma concentrations of NEFA and BHBA were elevated during the transition period in all cows, and the greatest increase pp was seen in 90-d DP cows. Plasma glucose concentration decreased around calving and was greater in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Dry period length also affected plasma concentrations of urea, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase, and glutamate dehydrogenase. Plasma insulin concentration decreased around calving in all cows, but insulin concentration pp was greater in 28-d than in 56-d DP cows. Hepatic glycogen concentration decreased and LFC increased after calving in all cows, and LFC was greater pp in 90-d DP than in 28-d DP cows. Hepatic PC mRNA abundance pp tended to increase most in 90-d DP cows. Changes on glucose metabolism were more balanced in cows with a reduced DP, whereas cows with extended DP and elevated body condition indicated greatest metabolic changes according to lipid and glucose metabolism during the transition period. PMID:25547307

Weber, C; Losand, B; Tuchscherer, A; Rehbock, F; Blum, E; Yang, W; Bruckmaier, R M; Sanftleben, P; Hammon, H M

2015-03-01

257

Effect of adding a mycotoxin-sequestering agent on milk aflatoxin M? concentration and the performance and immune response of dairy cattle fed an aflatoxin B?-contaminated diet.  

PubMed

This project aimed to examine the effects of adding 2 doses of a montmorillonite-based mycotoxin adsorbent on milk aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) concentrations and the performance and innate immune response of dairy cows fed an aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-contaminated diet. Eight lactating cows were used in a duplicated 4×4 Latin square design with 12-d periods. Treatments included the following: (1) control diet (C), (2) aflatoxin diet (T) containing C and 75 µg of AFB(1)/kg, 3) low-clay (LC) diet containing T and Calibrin A (Amlan International, Chicago, IL) added at 0.2% of the diet dry matter (DM), and 4) high-clay diet (HC) containing T and Calibrin A added at 1% of the diet DM. Milk production and DM intake were recorded daily and milk was sampled twice daily on d 5, 9, 10, 11, and 12 in each period. Blood samples were collected on d 5 and 9 of each period. Dietary treatments did not affect DM intake, milk yield, or feed efficiency. Even though cows were limit fed, feeding T instead of C reduced milk fat yield (0.67 vs. 0.74 kg/d) and milk protein concentration (3.28 vs. 3.36%). Concentrations of AFM(1) in milk of cows fed the T and LC diets were similar (0.57 and 0.64 µg/kg) and greater than those of cows fed the HC diet (0.46 µg/kg). Haptoglobin concentration was greater (22.0 vs. 14.4) and ?(2)-integrin expression (220 vs. 131) tended to be greater in cows fed diet T instead of C, but values for cows fed LC, HC, and C did not differ. In comparison to C, feeding T increased the innate immune response and decreased milk fat yield and milk protein concentration, but feeding LC and HC did not affect these measures. Only the HC diet reduced milk AFM(1) concentration. PMID:22901480

Queiroz, O C M; Han, J H; Staples, C R; Adesogan, A T

2012-10-01

258

Chemiresistor urea sensor  

DOEpatents

A sensor is disclosed to detect and quantify urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures, and in blood and other body fluids. The sensor is based upon a chemiresistor, which consists of an interdigitated array of metal fingers between which a resistance measured. The interdigitated array is fabricated on a suitable substrate. The surface of the array of fingers is covered with a coating containing the enzyme urease which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form the ammonium ion, the bicarbonate ion, and hydroxide-chemical products which provide the basis for the measured signal. In a typical application, the sensor could be used at bedside, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. Also, the chemiresistor used to detect urea, can be utilized with a reference chemiresistor which does not contain urease, and connected in a differential measurement arrangement, such that the reference chemiresistor would cancel out any fluctuations due to background effects. 16 figs.

Glass, R.S.

1997-12-16

259

Final report of the safety assessment of Urea.  

PubMed

Although Urea is officially described as a buffering agent, humectant, and skin-conditioning agent-humectant for use in cosmetic products, there is a report stating that Urea also is used in cosmetics for its desquamating and antimicrobial action. In 2001, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported that Urea was used in 239 formulations. Concentrations of use for Urea ranged from 0.01% to 10%. Urea is generally recognized as safe by FDA for the following uses: side-seam cements for food contact; an inhibitor or stabilizer in pesticide formulations and formulations applied to animals; internal sizing for paper and paperboard and surface sizing and coating of paper and paper board that contact water-in-oil dairy emulsions, low-moisture fats and oils, moist bakery products, dry solids with surface containing no free fats or oil, and dry solids with the surface of fat or oil; and to facilitate fermentation of wine. Urea is the end product of mammalian protein metabolism and the chief nitrogenous compound of urine. Urea concentrations in muscle, liver, and fetuses of rats increased after a subcutaneous injection of Urea. Urea diffused readily through the placenta and into other maternal and fetal organs. The half-life of Urea injected into rabbits was on the order of several hours, and the reutilization rate was 32.2% to 88.8%. Urea given to rats by a bolus injection or continuous infusion resulted in distribution to the following brain regions: frontal lobe, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, thalamus plus hypothalamus, pons and white matter (corpus callosum). The permeability constant after treatment with Urea of whole skin and the dermis of rabbits was 2.37 +/- 0.13 (x 10(6)) and 1.20 +/- 0.09 (x10(3)) cm/min, respectively. The absorption of Urea across normal and abraded human skin was 9.5% +/- 2.3% and 67.9% +/- 5.6%, respectively. Urea increased the skin penetration of other compounds, including hydrocortisone. No toxicity was observed for Urea at levels as high as 2000 mg/kg in acute oral studies using female rats or mice. No signs of toxicity were observed in male piglets dosed orally with up to 4 g/kg Urea for 5 days. Dogs dosed orally with 5 to 30 g/L Urea for 4 to 10 days had signs of toxicity, including weakness, anorexia, vomiting and retching, diarrhea and a decreased body temperature, which led to a deep torpor or coma. No significant microscopic changes were observed in the skin of male nude mice dermally exposed to 100% Urea for 24 h. No observable effect on fetal development was seen in rats and mice dosed orally with an aqueous solution of Urea (2000 mg/kg) on days 10 and 12 of gestation. The mean number of implants, live fetuses, percent fetal resorptions, mean fetal weight, and percent fetuses malformed were comparable to control group. A detergent containing 15% Urea was injected into pregnant ICR-JCl mice and dams and fetuses had no significant differences when compared to control animals. Urea given orally did not enhance the developmental toxicity of N-nitrosomethylurea. Female Sprague-Dawley rats injected in the uterine horn with 0.05 ml Urea on day 3 (preimplantation) or on day 7 (post implantation) exhibited no maternal mortality or morbidity; a dose-dependent reduction in embryo survival was seen with preimplantation treatment. Urea injected intra-amniotically induces mid-trimester abortions in humans. Urea was not genotoxic in several bacterial and mammalian assays; although in assays where Urea was used at a high concentration, genotoxicity was found, many in in vitro assays. Urea is commonly used in studies of DNA because it causes uncoiling of DNA molecules. Urea was not carcinogenic in Fisher 344 rats or C57B1/6 mice fed diets containing up to 4.5% Urea. Exposure of normal human skin to 60% Urea produced no significant irritation in one study, but 5% Urea was slightly irritating and 20% Urea was irritating in other reports. Burning sensations are the most frequently reported effect of Urea used alone or with other agents in treatment of diseased skin. Overall, there are few reports of sensiti

2005-01-01

260

Effect of low-forage rations on milk production of dairy goats: Separate concentrate-forage versus mixed rations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-year study investigated two methods of feeding concentrated rations to intensively reared dairy goats: separate distribution of concentrate and forage in different feeders or concentrate and forage mixed rations. Both rations consisted, on dry matter basis, 15% ryegrass hay as roughage and 85% fibrous concentrate mixture (33% corn grain, 26.5% dehydrated alfalfa, 24% dehydrated beet pulp, 10% wheat bran

Elizardo Monzón-Gil; José I. R. Castañón; Myriam R. Ventura

2010-01-01

261

Some factors in liquid supplements affecting urea toxicity  

E-print Network

-U solution died. Two out of four (50/) cattle receiving their origi- nal dose of a M-U solution (24 and 25 g level) exhibited toxicity com- pared to four out of five (80X) that received the same dose of urea in W-U solutions. Mean rumen pH, rumen and blood... phosphoric acid was added to a sub-toxic dose of urea, rumen pH and ammonia concentrations were lowered. Blood ammonia concentra- tions were not affected by phosphoric acid. Urea was found in consid- erable quantities in the rumen fluid as much as three...

McClain, William Ray

1979-01-01

262

Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Urea Transporters  

PubMed Central

Urea transporter (UT) proteins, which include isoforms of UT-A in kidney tubule epithelia and UT-B in vasa recta endothelia and erythrocytes, facilitate urinary concentrating function. Inhibitors of urea transporter function have potential clinical applications as sodium-sparing diuretics, or ‘urearetics,’ in edema from different etiologies, such as congestive heart failure and cirrhosis, as well as in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). High-throughput screening of drug-like small molecules has identified UT-A and UT-B inhibitors with nanomolar potency. Inhibitors have been identified with different UT-A versus UT-B selectivity profiles and putative binding sites on UT proteins. Studies in rodent models support the utility of UT inhibitors in reducing urinary concentration, though testing in clinically relevant animal models of edema has not yet been done. PMID:25298345

Verkman, Alan S.; Esteva-Font, Cristina; Cil, Onur; Anderson, Marc O.; Li, Fei; Li, Min; Lei, Tianluo; Ren, Huiwen; Yang, Baoxue

2015-01-01

263

Evidence for urea-induced hypometabolism in isolated organs of dormant ectotherms.  

PubMed

Many organisms endure extended periods of dormancy by depressing their metabolism, which effectively prolongs the use of their endogenous energy stores. Though the mechanisms of hypometabolism are varied and incompletely understood, recent work suggests that urea accumulation in autumn and early winter contributes to reduced metabolism of hibernating wood frogs (Rana sylvatica). Urea accumulation during dormancy is a widespread phenomenon, and it has long been presumed that numerous species from diverse taxa benefit from its hypometabolic effect. To investigate the phylogenetic prevalence of urea-induced hypometabolism, we studied four species of urea accumulators from the clades Amphibia (Spea bombifrons and Ambystoma tigrinum), Reptilia (Malaclemys terrapin), and Gastropoda (Anguispira alternata), and one amphibian species (R. pipiens) that does not accumulate urea during dormancy. We measured rates of oxygen consumption (VO(2)) of excised organ samples from dormant animals in the presence or absence of physiological concentrations of urea. Three of the four urea-accumulating species had at least one organ whose VO(2) was significantly decreased by urea treatment. However, VO(2) of organs from R. pipiens, the one species tested that does not accumulate urea during dormancy, was not affected by urea treatment. Our results support the hypothesis that urea accumulation can reduce metabolic rate of dormant animals and provide a base for further investigation into the evolution of urea-induced hypometabolism. PMID:19739087

Muir, Timothy J; Costanzo, Jon P; Lee, Richard E

2010-01-01

264

Urea biosensors based on PVC membrane containing palmitic acid.  

PubMed

A new urea biosensor was prepared by immobilizing urease with four different procedures on poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) ammonium membrane electrode containing palmitic acid by using nonactine as an ammonium-ionophore. The analytical characteristics were investigated and were compared those of the biosensor prepared by using carboxylated PVC. The effect of pH, buffer concentration, temperature, urease concentration, stirring rate and enzyme immobilization procedures on the response to urea of the enzyme electrode were investigated. The linear working range and sensitivity of the biosensor were also determined. The urea biosensor prepared by using the PVC membranes containing palmitic acid showed more effective performance than those of the carboxylated PVC based biosensors. Additionally, urea assay in serum was successfully carried out by using the standard addition method. PMID:16152697

Karaku?, Emine; Pekyardimci, Sule; Esma, Kiliç

2005-01-01

265

The effect of N-fertilisation rate or inclusion of red clover to timothy leys on fatty acid composition in milk of dairy cows fed a commercial silage: concentrate ratio.  

PubMed

The aim of this experiment was to, under typical Swedish production conditions, evaluate the effects of grass silages subjected to different N-fertilisation regimes fed to dairy cows on the fatty acid (FA) composition of their milk, and to compare the grass silages in this respect to red clover-dominated silage. Grass silages made from first year Phleum pratense L. leys subjected to three N-fertilisation regimes (30, 90 and 120 kg N/ha, designated G-30, G-90 and G-120, respectively) and a mixed red clover-grass silage (Trifolium pratense L. and P. pratense L.; 60/40 on dry matter (DM) basis, designated RC-G) were produced. The experiment was conducted as a change-over design, including 24 primiparous and multiparous dairy cows of the Swedish Red breed, each of which was allocated to three of the four diets. The cows were offered 11 kg DM of silage and 7 kg concentrates. The silages had similar DM and energy concentrations. The CP concentration increased with increase in N-fertilisation level. There was a linear increase in DM intake of the different silages with increased N fertilisation. There were also differences in concentrations of both individual and total FAs amongst silages. The daily milk production (kg/day) did not significantly differ between treatments, but G-30 silage resulted in higher concentrations of 18:2n-6 in the milk compared with the other two grass silages. The highest concentrations of 18:3n-3 and cis-9, trans-11 18:2 were found in milk from cows offered the RC-G silage. The G-30 diet resulted in higher concentration of 18:2n-6 and the same concentration of 18:3n-3 in the milk as the other grass silages, despite lower intake levels of these FAs. The apparent recoveries of 18:3n-3 from feed to milk were 5.74%, 4.27%, 4.10% and 5.31% for G-30, G-90, G-120 and RC-G, respectively. A higher recovery when red clover is included in the diet confirms previous reports. The higher apparent recovery of 18:3n-3 on the G-30 treatment may be related to the lower silage DM intake, which led to a higher relative proportion of ingested FAs originating from concentrates compared with the G-90 and G-120 diets. With the rates and types of concentrates used in this study, the achieved differences in FA composition among the silages were not enough to influence the concentrations of unsaturated FAs in milk. PMID:23031480

Arvidsson, K; Gustavsson, A-M; Fievez, V; Martinsson, K

2012-07-01

266

Uptake of urea C and urea N by the coastal marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urea uptake rates of Thalassiusiru pseudonana (clone 3H) were determined using (14C)urea, (15N)urea, and by measuring disappearance of dissolved urea from the medium after adding 10 lg-atoms urea-N liter-'. In nitrate-sufficient cultures, the average (14C)urea uptake rate was 60% of the urea disappearance rate. Nitrate uptake continued in the presence of urea at a reduced rate, and only 15% of

NEIL M. PRICE; Paul J.-Harrison

1988-01-01

267

Structure and Dynamics of Urea/Water Mixtures Investigated by Vibrational Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulation  

PubMed Central

Urea/water is an archetypical “biological” mixture, and is especially well known for its relevance to protein thermodynamics, as urea acts as a protein denaturant at high concentration. This behavior has given rise to an extended debate concerning urea’s influence on water structure. Based on a variety of methods and of definitions of water structure, urea has been variously described as a structure-breaker, a structure-maker, or as remarkably neutral towards water. Because of its sensitivity to microscopic structure and dynamics, vibrational spectroscopy can help resolve these debates. We report experimental and theoretical spectroscopic results for the OD stretch of HOD/H2O/urea mixtures (linear IR, 2DIR, and pump-probe anisotropy decay) and for the CO stretch of urea-D4/D2O mixtures (linear IR only). Theoretical results are obtained using existing approaches for water, and a modification of a frequency map developed for acetamide. All absorption spectra are remarkably insensitive to urea concentration, consistent with the idea that urea only very weakly perturbs water structure. Both this work and experiments by Rezus and Bakker, however, show that water’s rotational dynamics are slowed down by urea. Analysis of the simulations casts doubt on the suggestion that urea immobilizes particular doubly hydrogen bonded water molecules. PMID:23841646

Carr, J. K.; Buchanan, L. E.; Schmidt, J. R.; Zanni, M. T.; Skinner, J. L.

2013-01-01

268

Detoxication of Ammonia in Sheep Fed Soy Protein or Urea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urea-fed sheep were able to detoxify additional ammonia absorbed from the digestive tract by a mechanism involving increased concentrations of liver ornithine. Feeding urea as the sole nitrogen source caused decreases in activities of carbamyl phosphate synthetase, ornithine transcarbamylase and argüíase while no differences were noted in activities of arginine synthetase and argininosuccinase. Decreases in these enzyme systems were concluded

WILLIAM CHALUPA; JIMMY CLARK; PAMELA OPLIGER

269

Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves.  

PubMed

The current study evaluated the effects of protein provision to calves fed a combination of solid feed (SF) and milk replacer (MR) at equal total N intake on urea recycling and N retention. Nitrogen balance traits and [(15)N2]urea kinetics were measured in 30 calves (23 wk of age, 180±3.7kg of body weight), after being exposed to the following experimental treatments for 11 wk: a low level of SF with a low N content (SF providing 12% of total N intake), a high level of SF with a low N content (SF providing 22% of total N intake), or a high level of SF with a high N content (SF providing 36% of total N intake). The SF mixture consisted of 50% concentrates, 25% corn silage, and 25% straw on a dry matter basis. Total N intake was equalized to 1.8g of N·kg of BW(-0.75)·d(-1) by adjusting N intake via MR. All calves were housed individually on metabolic cages to allow for quantification of a N balance of calves for 5 d, and for the assessment of urea recycling from [(15)N2]urea kinetics. Increasing low-N SF intake at equal total N intake resulted in a shift from urinary to fecal N excretion but did not affect protein retention (0.71g of N·kg of BW(-0.75)·d(-1)). Increasing low-N SF intake increased urea recycling but urea reused for anabolism remained unaffected. Total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased (-9%) with increasing low-N SF intake, indicating reduced rumen fermentation. Increasing the N content of SF at equal total N intake resulted in decreased urea production, excretion, and return to ornithine cycle, and increased protein retention by 17%. This increase was likely related to an effect of energy availability on protein retention due to an increase in total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestion (>10%) and due to an increased energy supply via the MR. In conclusion, increasing low-N SF intake at the expense of N intake from MR, did not affect protein retention efficiency in calves. Increasing the N content of SF at equal total N intake decreased urea production, increased protein retention, and coincided with improved fiber degradation. Therefore, results suggest that low N availability in the rumen limits microbial growth and rumen fermentation in calves fed low-N SF (93g of CP/kg of DM), and this effect cannot be compensated for by recycling of urea originating from MR. PMID:25497820

Berends, H; van den Borne, J J G C; Røjen, B A; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

2015-02-01

270

Milk Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... not be restricted by someone avoiding milk: Calcium lactate Calcium stearoyl lactylate Cocoa butter Cream of tartar ... acid starter culture may contain milk) Oleoresin Sodium lactate Sodium stearoyl lactylate Download our PDF on how ...

271

Improving the nutritive value of wheat straw with urea and yeast culture for dry season feeding of dairy cows.  

PubMed

The study evaluated the effects of feeding urea treated/supplemented wheat straw-based diets with addition of yeast culture (YC) as a dry season feed for dairy cows. Wheat straw diets with 3.6% urea and 5.8% molasses were formulated to upgrade nonprotein nitrogen levels and fibre degradation in the rumen. Yeast culture was included at 0 and 10 g/cow/day in mixer with commercial dairy meal to improve on fibre degradation and milk yield. Two experiments were conducted. Firstly, an in sacco dry matter degradability (DMD) trial with three steers in a completely randomized design (CRD) with a 3?×?2 factorial arrangement to determine the effects on intake and rumen degradation parameters. Secondly, feeding trial with 18 lactating cows in a 3?×?2 factorial arrangement at two levels of yeast culture (0 and 10 g/cow/day) and three types of urea interventions: No intervention (WS); addition of urea to straw at the time of feeding (USWS); and 7 days incubation of straw with urea (UTWS). Yeast cultures addition had no effect on rumen pH and NH3-N, but urea intervention showed an effect on rumen pH with USWS being lowest (p?urea interventions and yeast culture addition had no effect (p?>?0.05) on dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition but they increased (p?

Kashongwe, Olivier Basole; Migwi, Preminius; Bebe, Bockline Omedo; Ooro, Patrick Auwor; Onyango, Tobias Atali; Osoo, John Odhiambo

2014-08-01

272

Urea excretion in the hibernating Columbian ground squirrel (Spermophilus columbianus).  

PubMed

Hibernation was induced in Columbian ground squirrels by placing them in refrigerated cages equipped with urine-collection pans. On arousal, urine and blood were collected from each animal, which was then allowed to reenter hibernation. After several days the animal was sacrificed and bladder urine and another blood sample were taken. In addition, four active non-hibernating ground squirrels were placed in a cage at room temperature with neither food or water. Urine was collected at 9 and 26 hours and blood was collected at 0 and 26 hours. Although only seven of ten hibernating squirrels had a higher blood-urea level when sacrificed than during the previous arousal, the other three had very high levels in the arousal period and probably further excreted urea before entering hibernation. When total body urea was calculated on a body weight basis, all except one animal showed a greater level of urea during hibernation than in the previous arousal. During their period of dehydration, the non-hibernating summer squirrels showed a marked decrease in blood urea. The osmotic concentration of the urine from these squirrels was due less to urea than that excreted during arousal by hibernating squirrels. Thus, it appears that urea accumulates in the blood during hibernation and is excreted in the urine during arousal. PMID:1127412

Passmore, J C; Pfeiffer, E W; Templeton, J R

1975-04-01

273

Compound Heterozygous Mutations in SLC30A2/ZnT2 Results in Low Milk Zinc Concentrations: A Novel Mechanism for Zinc Deficiency in a Breast-Fed Infant  

PubMed Central

Zinc concentrations in breast milk are considerably higher than those of the maternal serum, to meet the infant's requirements for normal growth and development. Thus, effective mechanisms ensuring secretion of large amounts of zinc into the milk operate in mammary epithelial cells during lactation. ZnT2 was recently found to play an essential role in the secretion of zinc into milk. Heterozygous mutations of human ZnT2 (hZnT2), including H54R and G87R, in mothers result in low (>75% reduction) secretion of zinc into the breast milk, and infants fed on the milk develop transient neonatal zinc deficiency. We identified two novel missense mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene in a Japanese mother with low milk zinc concentrations (>90% reduction) whose infant developed severe zinc deficiency; a T to C transition (c.454T>C) at exon 4, which substitutes a tryptophan residue with an arginine residue (W152R), and a C to T transition (c.887C>T) at exon 7, which substitutes a serine residue with a leucine residue (S296L). Biochemical characterization using zinc-sensitive DT40 cells indicated that the W152R mutation abolished the abilities to transport zinc and to form a dimer complex, indicating a loss-of-function mutation. The S296L mutation retained both abilities but was extremely destabilized. The two mutations were found on different alleles, indicating that the genotype of the mother with low milk zinc was compound heterozygous. These results show novel compound heterozygous mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene causing zinc deficiency in a breast-fed infant. PMID:23741301

Itsumura, Naoya; Inamo, Yasuji; Okazaki, Fumiko; Teranishi, Fumie; Narita, Hiroshi; Kambe, Taiho; Kodama, Hiroko

2013-01-01

274

Urea and urea nitrate decomposition pathways: a quantum chemistry study.  

PubMed

Electronic structure calculations have been performed to investigate the initial steps in the gas-phase decomposition of urea and urea nitrate. The most favorable decomposition pathway for an isolated urea molecule leads to HNCO and NH3. Gaseous urea nitrate formed by the association of urea and HNO3 has two isomeric forms, both of which are acid-base complexes stabilized by the hydrogen-bonding interactions involving the acidic proton of HNO3 and either the O or N atoms of urea, with binding energies (D0(o), calculated at the G2M level with BSSE correction) of 13.7 and 8.3 kcal/mol, respectively, and with estimated standard enthalpies of formation (delta(f)H298(o) of -102.3 and -97.1 kcal/mol, respectively. Both isomers can undergo relatively facile double proton transfer within cyclic hydrogen-bonded structures. In both cases, HNO3 plays a catalytic role for the (1,3) H-shifts in urea by acting as a donor of the first and an acceptor of the second protons transferred in a relay fashion. The double proton transfer in the carbonyl/hydrogen bond complex mediates the keto-enol tautomerization of urea, and in the other complex the result is the breakdown of the urea part to the HNCO and NH3 fragments. The enolic form of urea is not expected to accumulate in significant quantities due to its very fast conversion back to H2NC(O)NH2 which is barrierless in the presence of HNO3. The HNO3-catalyzed breakdown of urea to HNCO and NH3 is predicted to be the most favorable decomposition pathway for gaseous urea nitrate. Thus, HNCO + NH3 + HNO3 and their association products (e.g., ammonium nitrate and isocyanate) are expected to be the major initial products of the urea nitrate decomposition. This prediction is consistent with the experimental T-jump/FTIR data [Hiyoshi et al. 12th Int. Detonation Symp., Aug 11-16, San Diego, CA, 2002]. PMID:16494387

Tokmakov, Igor V; Alavi, Saman; Thompson, Donald L

2006-03-01

275

Effect of replacing grass silage with red clover silage on nutrient digestion, nitrogen metabolism, and milk fat composition in lactating cows fed diets containing a 60:40 forage-to-concentrate ratio.  

PubMed

Diets based on red clover silage (RCS) typically increase the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ruminant meat and milk and lower the efficiency of N utilization compared with grass silages (GS). Four multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (108 d postpartum) fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods to evaluate the effect of incremental replacement of GS with RCS on milk production, nutrient digestion, whole-body N metabolism, and milk fatty acid composition. Treatments comprised total mixed rations offered ad libitum, containing 600 g of forage/kg of diet dry matter (DM), with RCS replacing GS in ratios of 0:100, 33:67, 67:33, and 100:0 on a DM basis. Intake of DM and milk yield tended to be higher when RCS and GS were offered as a mixture than when fed alone. Forage species had no influence on the concentration or secretion of total milk fat, whereas replacing GS with RCS tended to decrease milk protein concentration and yield. Substitution of GS with RCS decreased linearly whole-tract apparent organic matter, fiber, and N digestion. Forage species had no effect on total nonammonia N at the omasum, whereas the flow of most AA at the omasum was higher for diets based on a mixture of forages. Replacing GS with RCS progressively lowered protein degradation in the rumen, increased linearly ruminal escape of dietary protein, and decreased linearly microbial protein synthesis. Incremental inclusion of RCS in the diet tended to lower whole-body N balance, increased linearly the proportion of dietary N excreted in feces and urine, and decreased linearly the utilization of dietary N for milk protein synthesis. Furthermore, replacing GS with RCS decreased linearly milk fat 4:0 to 8:0, 14:0, and 16:0 concentrations and increased linearly 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 concentrations, in the absence of changes in cis-9 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 18:2, or total trans fatty acid concentration. Inclusion of RCS in the diet progressively increased the apparent transfer of 18-carbon PUFA from the diet into milk, but had no effect on the amount of 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 at the omasum recovered in milk. In conclusion, forage species modified ruminal N metabolism, the flow of AA at the omasum, and whole-body N partitioning. A lower efficiency of N utilization for milk protein synthesis with RCS relative to GS was associated with decreased availability of AA for absorption, with some evidence of an imbalance in the supply of AA relative to requirements. Higher enrichment of PUFA in milk for diets based on RCS was related to an increased supply for absorption, with no indication that forage species substantially altered PUFA bioavailability. PMID:24679932

Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Vanhatalo, A; Toivonen, V; Heikkilä, T; Lee, M R F; Shingfield, K J

2014-06-01

276

ASSOCIATIONS AMONG CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF IGF-1 AND GH DURING THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD WITH RESUMPTION OF ESTRUS, CALF WEIGHTS, AND MILK PRODUCTION IN MATURE CROSSBRED COWS FED VARYING LEVELS OF ENERGY INTAKE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and GH fluctuate in response to nutritional status. Objectives of this study were to evaluate usefulness of circulating profiles of IGF-1 and GH during the postpartum period as predictors of capacity to resume estrus and level of production (milk and calf growth)...

277

Effect of offering dairy cows diets differing in phosphorus concentration over four successive lactations: 1. Food intake, milk production, tissue changes and blood metabolites.  

PubMed

The loss of phosphates from dairy farms contributes to the eutrophication of waterways. Whilst reducing the phosphorus (P) content of dairy cow diets has the potential to help reduce phosphate losses, diets containing inadequate dietary P may have a negative effect on cow health and performance. To address this issue, 100 winter-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were offered diets containing either 'high' or 'low' levels of dietary P. The experiment was conducted over a 4-year period, with 80 primiparous cows commencing the study in year 1, while a further 20 primiparous cows commenced the study in year 2. Rations offered during the winter comprised grass silage, maize silage (70 : 30 dry matter (DM) basis, approximately) and concentrates (10.0 to 12.0 kg/cow per day). During the summer periods in years 1 and 2, half of the cows grazed both day and night, while the remaining cows grazed by day, and were housed by night and offered grass silage. During years 3 and 4, all cows grazed both day and night during the summer period. Concentrate feed levels during the summer periods were 3.0 to 4.0 kg/cow per day. Different dietary P levels were achieved by offering concentrates containing either high or low P levels during the winter period (approximately 7.0 or 4.4 g P/kg DM respectively), and during the summer period (approximately 6.8 or 3.6 g P/kg DM, respectively). Total ration P levels averaged 4.9 and 3.6 g P/kg DM for the 'high' and 'low' P winter diets respectively, and 4.2 and 3.6 g P/kg DM for the 'high' and 'low' P summer diets respectively. A total of 95, 70, 50 and 22 cows completed each of lactations 1 to 4 respectively. Dietary P level had no significant effect on food intake, milk output or milk composition (P > 0.05). Plasma P concentrations were significantly lower with cows offered the 'low' P diet in each of lactations 1 to 4 (P < 0.05). In each of lactations 3 and 4, cows offered the 'low' P diet tended to have lower condition scores and live weights than those offered the 'high' P diet. The results of this experiment highlight that the P content of dairy cow diets can be substantially reduced with no detrimental effect on dairy cow performance. PMID:22444042

Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; McCoy, M A; Kilpatrick, D J

2010-04-01

278

Antimicrobial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extracts against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus in a microbiological medium and milk of various fat concentrations.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces are widely used in the preparation of beverages. The calyces contain compounds that exhibit antimicrobial activity, yet little research has been conducted on their possible use in food systems as antimicrobials. Aqueous extracts prepared from the brand "Mi Costenita" were sterilized by membrane filtration (0.22-?m pore size) or autoclaving (121 °C, 30 min) and tested for antimicrobial activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains ATCC 43894 and Cider and Staphylococcus aureus strains SA113 and ATCC 27708 in a microbiological medium and ultrahigh-temperature-processed milk with various fat percentages. Extracts heated by autoclaving exhibited greater activity than did filtered extracts in a microbiological medium. Against E. coli, results of 20 mg/ml filtered extract were not different from those of the control, whereas autoclaved extracts reduced viable cells ca. 3 to 4 log CFU/ml. At 60 mg/ml, both extracts inactivated cells after 24 h. There were reduced populations of both strains of S. aureus (ca. 2.7 and 3 log CFU/ml, respectively) after 24 h of incubation in 40 mg/ml filtered extracts. When grown in autoclaved extracts at 40 mg/ml, both strains of S. aureus were inactivated after 9 h. Autoclaved extracts had decreased anthocyanin content (2.63 mg/liter) compared with filtered extracts (14.27 mg/liter), whereas the phenolic content (48.7 and 53.8 mg/g) remained similar for both treatments. Autoclaved extracts were then tested for activity in milk at various fat concentrations (skim [<0.5%], 1%, 2%, and whole [>3.25%]) against a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of E. coli O157:H7 and a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of S. aureus. Extracts at 40 mg/ml inactivated S. aureus after 168 h in skim and whole milk, and E. coli was inactivated after 96 h in 60 mg/ml extract in all fat levels. These findings show the potential use of Hibiscus extracts to prevent the growth of pathogens in foods and beverages. PMID:24490920

Higginbotham, Kristen L; Burris, Kellie P; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Davidson, P Michael; Stewart, C Neal

2014-02-01

279

Phloretin sensitive active urea absorption in frog skin.  

PubMed

This report presents evidence for urea active absorption by isolated skin of Rana esculenta. One of the supporting factors of such evidence is that at a low concentration the urea influx is five times greater than the outflux, in the absence of a chemical gradient. The transport shows a saturation kinetics with an apparent Km = 1.33 mM and is inhibited by un uncoupling agent (FCCP). 5 x 10(-4) M Phloretin, added to the external side, markedly inhibits inward urea transport, whereas it is ineffective when added to the serosal fluid. This provides evidence for a phloretin-sensitive mechanism located at the external side of the epithelium. Phloretin stimulates the sodium active transport; the possible coupling of urea and sodium movement is analysed. PMID:6983053

Svelto, M; Casavola, V; Valenti, G; Lippe, C

1982-09-01

280

Effects of short-term supplementation of clinoptilolite in colostrum and milk on the concentration of some serum minerals in neonatal dairy calves.  

PubMed

In recent years, the use of both natural and synthetic zeolites in animal nutrition has increased mainly to improve their performance, health, and to protect against mycotoxin intoxication. Thirty calves were used in the present study for the determination of some physiologic effects of clinoptilolite supplementation. The animals were divided equally into three groups (control, test 1, and test 2). The three groups of calves were homogeneous for parity of dams, sex, and month of birth. For group test 1, clinoptilolite in the concentration of 2% of each colostrum meal was added for 48 h, and for group test 2, clinoptilolite in the concentration of 2% was added to each colostrum and milk meal for 14 days. Blood samples were taken from all calves 12 h after birth and at the end of the first, second, third, forth, fifth, and sixth weeks of life. Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), and potassium (K) were determined in the serum. For statistical analysis of data, a repeated measures approach using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with mixed linear models was used. Clinoptilolite supplementation had significant effect on the concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and iron. The concentrations of Fe significantly higher in test group 2 than other trial groups (p < 0.05). Calcium concentrations were significantly higher in serum of clinoptilolite-treated than control calves (p < 0.05). The concentrations of phosphorus were significantly lower in test groups than control group (p < 0.05). Sodium concentrations were significantly higher in clinoptilolite-supplemented groups than control calves (p < 0.05). Potassium and magnesium concentrations were not affected by clinoptilolite supplementation. Clinoptilolite supplementation could promote iron levels in serum and better hemopoiesis and prevent pathologic or physiologic drop of red blood cell (RBC) parameters in supplemented calves during a first few weeks of life. According to higher need and utilization of Ca in growing animals, clinoptilolite supplementation could increase available Ca. Based on the results of the present study and the importance of dietary phosphorus in many physiologic processes, the level of phosphorus in diet of neonatal dairy calves must be considered and adapted when clinoptilolite was supplemented. With an adequate supply of good quality drinking water, cattle can tolerate large quantities of dietary sodium chloride. Thus, it seems that significant increase in serum Na concentration during short-term supplementation of clinoptilolite in neonatal calves could be well tolerated without any adverse effects. PMID:18317705

Mohri, M; Seifi, H A; Maleki, M

2008-01-01

281

Bovine milk in human nutrition – a review  

PubMed Central

Milk and milk products are nutritious food items containing numerous essential nutrients, but in the western societies the consumption of milk has decreased partly due to claimed negative health effects. The content of oleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, short- and medium chain fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds may promote positive health effects. Full-fat milk has been shown to increase the mean gastric emptying time compared to half-skimmed milk, thereby increasing the gastrointestinal transit time. Also the low pH in fermented milk may delay the gastric emptying. Hence, it may be suggested that ingesting full-fat milk or fermented milk might be favourable for glycaemic (and appetite?) regulation. For some persons milk proteins, fat and milk sugar may be of health concern. The interaction between carbohydrates (both natural milk sugar and added sugar) and protein in milk exposed to heat may give products, whose effects on health should be further studied, and the increasing use of sweetened milk products should be questioned. The concentration in milk of several nutrients can be manipulated through feeding regimes. There is no evidence that moderate intake of milk fat gives increased risk of diseases. PMID:17894873

Haug, Anna; Høstmark, Arne T; Harstad, Odd M

2007-01-01

282

Effects of decreasing metabolizable protein and rumen-undegradable protein on milk production and composition and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of decreasing dietary protein and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on production performance, nitrogen retention, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein lactating cows (2 lactations; 50 ± 7 d in milk; 47 kg/d of milk production) were used in a Latin square design with 4 treatments and 3 replicates (cows). Treatments 1 to 4 consisted of diets containing 18, 17.2, 16.4, and 15.6% crude protein (CP), respectively, with the 18% CP diet considered the control group. Rumen-degradable protein levels were constant across the treatments (approximately 10.9% on a dry matter basis), whereas RUP was gradually decreased. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal Lys:Met ratio of about 3:1. Dietary CP had no significant effects on milk production or milk composition. In fact, 16.4% dietary CP compared with 18% dietary CP led to higher milk production; however, this effect was not significant. Feed intake was higher for 16.4% CP than for 18% CP (25.7 vs. 24.3 kg/d). Control cows had greater CP and RUP intakes, which resulted in higher concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen; cows receiving 16.4 and 15.6% CP, respectively, exhibited lower concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (15.2 and 15.1 vs. 17.3 mg/dL). The control diet had a significant effect on predicted urinary N. Higher CP digestibility was recorded for 18% CP compared with the other diets. Decreasing CP and RUP to 15.6 and 4.6% of dietary dry matter, respectively, had no negative effects on milk production or composition when the amounts of Lys and Met and the Lys:Met ratio were balanced. Furthermore, decreasing CP and RUP to 16.4 and 5.4%, respectively, increased dry matter intake. PMID:24679928

Bahrami-Yekdangi, H; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Jahanian, R; Kamalian, E

2014-06-01

283

Effects of fertilizer-urea on growth, photosynthetic activity and microcystins production of Microcystis aeruginosa isolated from Dianchi Lake.  

PubMed

Urea is the most frequently applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer in agriculture, while its loss is assumed triggering algal blooms in adjacent water bodies. In this context the present study assessed the growth, photosynthetic activity as well as toxin production of Microcystis aeruginosa at different urea concentrations (0.125, 1.25, 12.5, 250 and 2,500 mg/L) using BG11 (containing 250 mg/L NO3(-)-N) as control. The results showed for all endpoints that M. aeruginosa is capable of using urea as N source: the two highest urea treatments delivered comparable values like the control. Low urea concentrations (0.125 and 1.25 mg/L), which were comparable to environmental urea levels, did not sustainably promote the growth, photosynthesis and toxin production of the test species. While, in certain microenvironments urea might potentially reach the concentrations that may affect M. aeruginosa. PMID:24515350

Huang, Wenmin; Bi, Yonghong; Hu, Zhengyu

2014-05-01

284

Variation in milk cortisol during lactation in Murciano-Granadina goats.  

PubMed

Fifty-seven goats were included in an experiment designed to study the effect of lactation stage, parity number, and mammary gland health status on milk cortisol concentration as a method to assess the welfare of Murciano-Granadina goats. The relationships of milk cortisol concentration with different production parameters (milk yield, milk composition, and mechanical milking ability: milk fractioning during milking and milking time) were also studied. The experiment lasted 8 mo and monthly samplings were carried out to determine total milk yield (MY), fractioning during milking (machine milk, MM; machine stripping milk, MSM), and milking time (MT), and a sample was taken from the total milk yield to determine milk cortisol concentration, somatic cell count, and milk composition (fat, protein, and lactose). To determine the infection status of the gland, an aseptic sample was taken for bacteriological analysis before each monthly sampling. Third-parity goats presented higher concentrations of milk cortisol than those of 1, 2, or ? 4 parities. Intramammary infection had no effect on milk cortisol concentration, and somatic cell count did not correlate with cortisol concentration. Cortisol presented a significant correlation with MY and MM, but showed no significant correlation with MSM, MT, or milk composition parameters. Variations in milk cortisol concentration in goats may be associated with different physiological factors in the animal (e.g., milk production level, lactation stage, and parity number) and therefore need not always indicate stress for the animal. PMID:23245963

Díaz, J R; Alejandro, M; Romero, G; Moya, F; Peris, C

2013-02-01

285

Effect of Dietary Concentration of Total Nonstructural Carbohydrate on Energy and Nitrogen Metabolism and Milk Production of Dairy Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two complete blended diets with a ratio of concentrate:silage dry matter of 60:40 were fed to 12 Holstein cows in the first 12 wk of lactation in an in- complete changeover arrangement of treatments. Diets differed (dry basis) in content of total nonstructural carbo- hydrate (24.9% versus 32.9%), neutral detergent fiber (37.0% versus 32.1%), and hemicellulose (19.6% versus 15.7%)but were

C. A. MacGregor; M. R. Stokes; W. H. Hoover; H. A. Leonard; L. L. Junkins Jr.; C. J. Sniffen; R. W. Mailman

1983-01-01

286

Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but do increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 40±21 d in milk and 464±35kg of body weight and 4 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 75±37 d in milk and 384±17kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21 d with 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed a total mixed ration (64:36 forage-to-concentrate ratio) supplemented (as fed) with 0, 57, 113, or 170 g/d of ANOD. Milk yield as well as concentrations and yields of milk components (fat, protein, lactose, milk urea N) were not affected by increasing dietary amounts of ANOD. Concentration (from 178 to 1,370 µg/L) and yield (from 2.8 to 20.6mg/d) of milk I increased linearly in cows fed incremental amounts of ANOD as a result of the high concentration of I (820mg/kg of dry matter) in ANOD. Overall, only minor changes were observed in the proportion of milk fatty acids with ANOD supplementation. Quadratic trends were observed for dry matter intake and total-tract digestibilities of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber, whereas negative linear trends were observed for serum concentration of cortisol and crude protein digestibility with ANOD supplementation. Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not affected by ANOD supplementation and averaged 1.1 and 48.4ng/mL, respectively. However, feeding increasing amounts of ANOD linearly reduced the plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (from 164 to 132mEq/L). Quadratic effects were found for the total-tract digestibility of ADF and urinary output of purine derivatives, suggesting that ANOD supplementation may stimulate growth of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in a dose-dependent fashion. In general, feeding incremental amounts of ANOD to early lactation dairy cows dramatically increased milk I concentration and output with no effect on animal performance. PMID:25547299

Antaya, N T; Soder, K J; Kraft, J; Whitehouse, N L; Guindon, N E; Erickson, P S; Conroy, A B; Brito, A F

2015-03-01

287

Characterization of Timed Changes in Hepatic Copper Concentrations, Methionine Metabolism, Gene Expression, and Global DNA Methylation in the Jackson Toxic Milk Mouse Model of Wilson Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Wilson disease (WD) is characterized by hepatic copper accumulation with progressive liver damage to cirrhosis. This study aimed to characterize the toxic milk mouse from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME, USA) (tx-j) mouse model of WD according to changes over time in hepatic copper concentrations, methionine metabolism, global DNA methylation, and gene expression from gestational day 17 (fetal) to adulthood (28 weeks). Methods Included liver histology and relevant biochemical analyses including hepatic copper quantification, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) liver levels, qPCR for transcript levels of genes relevant to methionine metabolism and liver damage, and DNA dot blot for global DNA methylation. Results Hepatic copper was lower in tx-j fetuses but higher in weanling (three weeks) and adult tx-j mice compared to controls. S-adenosylhomocysteinase transcript levels were significantly lower at all time points, except at three weeks, correlating negatively with copper levels and with consequent changes in the SAM:SAH methylation ratio and global DNA methylation. Conclusion Compared to controls, methionine metabolism including S-adenosylhomocysteinase gene expression is persistently different in the tx-j mice with consequent alterations in global DNA methylation in more advanced stages of liver disease. The inhibitory effect of copper accumulation on S-adenosylhomocysteinase expression is associated with progressively abnormal methionine metabolism and decreased methylation capacity and DNA global methylation. PMID:24810691

Le, Anh; Shibata, Noreene M.; French, Samuel W.; Kim, Kyoungmi; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Islam, Mohammad S.; LaSalle, Janine M.; Halsted, Charles H.; Keen, Carl L.; Medici, Valentina

2014-01-01

288

Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.  

PubMed

The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by feeding level. In conclusion, reduction in energy spared via fat yield reduction after CLA supplementation was not partitioned toward milk lactose or protein in goats at a low feeding level, possibly because of a simultaneous shortage of energy and amino acids. In goats on the high feeding level, energy spared tended to be partitioned toward milk protein yield, and at the same time to the prevention of excessive lipid mobilization. PMID:25151882

Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

2014-11-01

289

Designer milk.  

PubMed

Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques. PMID:17900499

Sabikhi, Latha

2007-01-01

290

Milk lipids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Milk fat conveys a number of desirable qualities to food, and various lipid components contribute to human nutrition and health. Over 96% of milk lipids consist of triacylglycerols, which contain a variety of fatty acids. Di- and monoacylglycerols, free fatty acids, sterols, and phospho-, glyco-,...

291

Development of a Raman chemical imaging detection method for authenticating skim milk powder  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research demonstrated that Raman chemical imaging coupled with a simple image classification algorithm can be used to detect multiple chemical adulterants in skim milk powder. Ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea were mixed into the milk powder as chemical adulterants in the conc...

292

Effect of milking frequency and pasture intake on milk yield and composition of late lactation cows.  

PubMed

Twenty-four monozygous twinsets in late lactation (> 210 d in milk) were used to examine the effects of feed restriction and milking frequency prior to drying off on milk yield and composition in a pastoral dairying system. Cows were assigned to one of four treatment groups for 26 d and were milked either twice or once daily and given either unrestricted or restricted access to feed. Dry matter intakes averaged 16 or 8 kg per cow per day, and diets comprised ryegrass and white clover pasture supplemented with 15% pasture silage. Feed restriction and once daily milking reduced milk yield and increased concentrations of milk fat and protein. Somatic cell count was increased by feed restriction only. Production losses caused by feed restriction were nearly threefold higher than were those for once daily milking. Yields of components that were mammary synthesized and serum derived were reduced by feed restriction, in accordance with milk volume reduction. Plasma lactose concentration increased with once daily milking only and indicated enhanced permeability of mammary tight junctions. Both feed restriction and once daily milking compromised milk quality, but increased leakage of serum components into milk via mammary tight junctions was deemed to occur only for once daily milking. PMID:10386309

Lacy-Hulbert, S J; Woolford, M W; Nicholas, G D; Prosser, C G; Stelwagen, K

1999-06-01

293

Effect of Granular Urea Placement on Nitrous Oxide Production from a Silt Loam Soil  

E-print Network

Effect of Granular Urea Placement on Nitrous Oxide Production from a Silt Loam Soil Richard Engel1, placement of urea in small holes or nests is a common practice particularly for production of row crops. Placement of fertilizer N in concentrated zones, such as subsurface bands and nests, has been promoted

Lawrence, Rick L.

294

Removal of milk fat globules from whey protein concentrate 34% to prepare clear and heat-stable protein dispersions.  

PubMed

Whey protein concentrates (WPC) are low-cost protein ingredients, but their application in transparent ready-to-drink beverages is limited due to turbidity caused by fat globules and heat instability. In this work, fat globules were removed from WPC 34% (WPC-34) to prepare heat-stable ingredients via the Maillard reaction. The removal of fat globules by acid precipitation and centrifugation was observed to be the most complete at pH 4.0, and the loss of protein was caused by micrometer-sized fat globules and protein aggregates. Spray-dried powder prepared from the transparent supernatant was glycated at 130°C for 20 and 30min or 60°C for 24 and 48h. The 2 groups of samples had comparable heat stability and degree of glycation, evaluated by free amino content and analytical ultracentrifugation, but high-temperature, short-time treatment reduced the color formation during glycation. Therefore, WPC-34 can be processed for application in transparent beverages. PMID:25108870

Liu, Gang; Zhong, Qixin

2014-10-01

295

Influence of Condensed Tannins from Ficus bengalensis Leaves on Feed Utilization, Milk Production and Antioxidant Status of Crossbred Cows  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to examine the effects of condensed tannins (CT) from Ficus bengalensis leaves on the feed utilization, milk production and health status of crossbred cows. Eighteen crossbred dairy cows at their second and mid lactation (avg. BW 351.6±10.6 kg) were randomly divided into two groups of nine each in a completely randomized block design and fed two iso-nitrogenous supplements formulated to contain 0% and 1.5% CT through dried and ground leaves of Ficus bengalensis. The diets were designated as CON and FBLM, respectively and fed to cows with a basal diet of rice straw to meet requirements for maintenance and milk production. The daily milk yield was significantly (p<0.05) increased due to supplementation of FBLM diet. The 4% fat corrected milk yield was also significantly (p<0.01) higher due to increased (p<0.05) milk fat in cows under diet FBLM as compared to CON. The inclusion of CT at 1.5% in the supplement did not interfere with the feed intake or digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF by lactating cows. Digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) values of the composite diets were comparable between the groups. The blood biochemical parameters remained unaltered except significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum urea concentration in cows fed FBLM diet. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in cows supplemented with condensed tannins. The total thiol group (T-SH) was found to be higher with reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cows of FBLM group. The cost of feeding per kg milk production was also reduced due to supplementation of Ficus bengalensis leaves. Therefore, a perceptible positive impact was evident on milk production and antioxidant status in crossbred cows during mid-lactation given supplement containing 1.5% CT through Ficus bengalensis leaves. PMID:25049960

Dey, Avijit; De, Partha Sarathi

2014-01-01

296

Effect of forage conservation method on plasma lipids, mammary lipogenesis, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed diets containing a 60:40 forage-to-concentrate ratio.  

PubMed

The effects of forage conservation method on plasma lipids, mammary lipogenesis, and milk fat were examined in 2 complementary experiments. Treatments comprised fresh grass, hay, or untreated (UTS) or formic acid treated silage (FAS) prepared from the same grass sward. Preparation of conserved forages coincided with the collection of samples from cows fed fresh grass. In the first experiment, 5 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (229 d in milk) were used to compare a diet based on fresh grass followed by hay during 2 consecutive 14-d periods, separated by a 5-d transition during which extensively wilted grass was fed. In the second experiment, 5 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (53 d in milk) were assigned to 1 of 2 blocks and allocated treatments according to a replicated 3×3 Latin square design, with 14-d periods to compare hay, UTS, and FAS. Cows received 7 or 9 kg/d of the same concentrate in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Arterial concentrations of triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid were higher in cows fed fresh grass, UTS, and FAS compared with hay. Nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and the relative abundance of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 in TAG of arterial blood were also higher in cows fed fresh grass than conserved forages. On all diets, TAG was the principle source of fatty acids (FA) for milk fat synthesis, whereas mammary extraction of NEFA was negligible, except during zero-grazing, which was associated with a lower, albeit positive calculated energy balance. Mammary FA uptake was higher and the synthesis of 16:0 lower in cows fed fresh grass than hay. Conservation of grass by drying or ensiling had no influence on mammary extraction of TAG and NEFA, despite an increase in milk fat secretion for silages compared with hay and for FAS than UTS. Relative to hay, milk fat from fresh grass contained lower 12:0, 14:0, and 16:0 and higher S3,R7,R11,15-tetramethyl-16:0, cis-9 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3 concentrations. Even though conserved forages altered mammary lipogenesis, differences in milk FA composition were relatively minor, other than a higher enrichment of S3,R7,R11,15-tetramethyl-16:0 in milk from silages compared with hay. In conclusion, differences in milk fat composition on fresh grass relative to conserved forages were associated with a lower energy balance, increased uptake of preformed FA, and decreased synthesis of 16:0 de novo in the mammary glands, in the absence of alterations in stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase activity. PMID:23769378

Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Kairenius, P; Ahvenjärvi, S; Toivonen, V; Huhtanen, P; Vanhatalo, A; Givens, D I; Shingfield, K J

2013-08-01

297

Drip breast milk: it's composition, collection and pasteurization.  

PubMed

"Drip breast milk" is that milk which spontaneously drips from the contralateral breask during the suckling of an infant. Biochemically and immunologically, pooled drip milk resembled pooled mature expressed breast milk, although it has a lower fat concentration. About 15% of lactating women are capable of producing drip milk; volumes produced are up to 188 ml/donor/day. A milk bank is described which processes 1400 liters of drip milk/yr. Heat treatment of this milk with a semi-automated holder pasteurizer caused a 21% reduction in IgA concentration and a 36% reduction in lysozyme activity, as well as a decrease in the ability of the milk to inhibit the growth of E. coli. In comparison with boiling, pasteurization was as effective in reducing total bacterial content provided the milk initially contained fewer than 10(6) bacteria/ml. PMID:363402

Gibbs, J H; Fisher, C; Bhattacharya, S; Goddard, P; Baum, J D

1977-12-01

298

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF N-CHLORAMINES AND DIAZOLIDINYL UREA  

EPA Science Inventory

A combination of MICs of an N-chloramine, a simple chlorinated amino acid, and diazolidinyl urea gave synergistic activity against bacteria, but not fungi. The two compounds at a higher concentration, 0.1 and 0.3%, respectively, gave synergistic inhibition of fungi; kill times we...

299

Modeling to control spores in raw milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modeling approach was used to identify measures at the farm that reduce transmission of microorganisms to raw milk. Butyric acid bacteria (BAB) and Bacillus cereus were used as case-studies. Minimizing the concentration of BAB spores in raw milk is important to prevent late-blowing of Gouda-type cheeses. Reducing the concentration of B. cereus spores in raw milk increases the shelf

M. Vissers

2007-01-01

300

Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at the omasal canal, did not differ among treatments. Results from this experiment have confirmed that dietary La is not a practical agent for suppressing RP population in dairy cows, mainly because of its negative effects on fiber digestion and ruminal fermentation. Intake of CO appeared to reduce ruminal and improve protein efficiency, but did not improve milk production, milk composition, or increase microbial outflow from the rumen. Based on the results of this study, a 40% reduction of RP population is not sufficient to improve N utilization in dairy cows. PMID:24931520

Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

2014-08-01

301

Milk thistle  

MedlinePLUS

... diabetes, hangover, diseases of the spleen, prostate cancer, malaria, depression, uterine complaints, increasing breast milk flow, allergy ... disorders. Gallbladder problems. Swelling of the lungs (pleurisy). Malaria. Menstrual problems. Other conditions. More evidence is needed ...

302

Disappearing Milk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A magician pours milk into a glass, but when he turns the glass upside down, nothing comes out. How does he do it? Discover the science behind the magic in this video adapted from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

2007-08-09

303

Milk Thistle  

MedlinePLUS

... cells. Silymarin, which can be extracted from the seeds (fruit) of the milk thistle plant, is believed ... the biologically active part of the herb . The seeds are used to prepare capsules, extracts, powders, and ...

304

Milk Plastic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners transform everyday milk into small plastic figurines and jewelry. Use this activity to introduce learners to monomers and polymers. Note: this activity requires adult supervision.

Mission Science Workshop

2013-01-01

305

Got milk?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While celebrities wear white “milk moustaches” in a popular U.S. advertising campaign to promote the drinking of milk, they should also be concerned about the decreased amount of calcium available to many trees.Calcium levels in forest soils have decreased at locations in 10 states in the eastern United States, according to a new report by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released in time for National Arbor Day on April 30.

Showstack, Randy

306

Oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates in human milk: Their role in host defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human milk contains an extremely high concentration of complex carbohydrates, especially oligosaccharides, the third most abundant solid constituent of human milk. The value of human milk nutrients to infants is now widely recognized, and a role for the secretory antibodies of human milk in the defense of the infant is generally accepted. However, a function for nonimmunoglobulin milk protective factors,

David S. Newburg

1996-01-01

307

Urea Biosynthesis Using Liver Slices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a practical scheme to enable introductory biology students to investigate the mechanism by which urea is synthesized in the liver. The tissue-slice technique is discussed, and methods for the quantitative analysis of metabolites are presented. (Author/SL)

Teal, A. R.

1976-01-01

308

An investigation of urea decomposition and selective non-catalytic removal of nitric oxide with urea  

E-print Network

was injected into the gases as a urea-water solution. The decomposition processes of the urea-water solutions and urea powder were examined. For both the nitric oxide removal and the urea decomposition experiments, a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR...

Park, Yong Hun

2004-09-30

309

FITC-tagged macromolecule-based alginate microspheres for urea sensoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urea is an important biomarker for identification of kidney diseases. Early urea detection using a specific and sensitive technique can significantly reduce the mortality of patients. The research aims at developing fluorescence-based FITCmediated pH and urea measurement. A system containing FITC-dextran in alginate microspheres was developed using air-driven atomization. pH/Urea biosensor was characterized using optical microscopy, SEM, and CLSM. Urea biosensing studies were performed by exposing different standard solutions of pH and urea standard solutions using fluorescence spectroscopy (?ex=488 nm and ?em=520 nm). FITC-dextran was entrapped using an encapsulation unit and alginate microspheres were formed. The microspheres were found to be uniform and spherical in nature with sizes (50±10?). FITC-dextran was found to be uniformly distributed in the alginate microspheres as per the CLSM scans. Urea biosensing studies indicate that a linear correlation was observed with increasing urea concentrations. The said microspheres can be used to detect changes in pH from 4-8 units owing to its linear response in this range. FITC dextran loaded alginate microspheres showed an improved range of detection upto 7 mM in comparison to 1.5 mM when in solution phase in a study with urea concentrations from 0-50 mM. The pH and urea detection was accurate to an extent of interday variation of 5%. FITC-dextran loaded alginate microspheres show a great potential for usage as a pH and urea biosensor for early detection of kidney diseases.

Joshi, Abhijeet; Chaudhari, Rashmi; Srivastava, Rohit

2014-04-01

310

OSMOREGULATION IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTERSELECTED FOR UREA TOLERANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals may adapt to hyperosmolar environments by either osmoregulating or osmoconforming. Osmoconforming animals generally accumulate organic osmolytes including sugars, amino acids or, in a few cases, urea. In the latter case, they also accumulate 'urea- counteracting' solutes to mitigate the toxic effects of urea. We examined the osmoregulatory adaptation of Drosophila melanogaster larvae selected to live in 300 mmol l

VALERIE A. PIERCE; LAURENCE D. MUELLER; ALLEN G. GIBBS

311

Cow's milk and children  

MedlinePLUS

Milk and children ... children over 1 year old to drink cow's milk. However, there's no scientific evidence that this is true. While most experts recommend not giving cow's milk to infants , it is safe to give milk ...

312

Water-mediated interactions between trimethylamine-N-oxide and urea.  

PubMed

The amphiphilic osmolyte trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is commonly found in natural organisms, where it counteracts biochemical stress associated with urea in aqueous environments. Despite the important role of TMAO as osmoprotectant, the mechanism behind TMAO's action has remained elusive. Here, we study the interaction between urea, TMAO, and water in solution using broadband (100 MHz-1.6 THz) dielectric spectroscopy. We find that the previously reported tight hydrogen bonds between 3 water molecules and the hydrophilic amine oxide group of TMAO, remain intact at all investigated concentrations of urea, showing that no significant hydrogen bonding occurs between the two co-solutes. Despite the absence of direct TMAO-urea interactions, the solute reorientation times of urea and TMAO show an anomalous nonlinear increase with concentration, for ternary mixtures containing equal amounts of TMAO and urea. The nonlinear increase of the reorientation correlates with changes in the viscosity, showing that the combination of TMAO and urea cooperatively enhances the hydrogen-bond structure of the ternary solutions. This nonlinear increase is indicative of water mediated interaction between the two solutes and is not observed if urea is combined with other amphiphilic solutes. PMID:25138965

Hunger, Johannes; Ottosson, Niklas; Mazur, Kamila; Bonn, Mischa; Bakker, Huib J

2015-01-01

313

Effect of urea on growth and microcystins production of Microcystis aeruginosa.  

PubMed

The effects of urea on the growth and toxin content of Microcystis aeruginosa isolated from Dianchi Lake in China were investigated. Experiments were carried out in lab using (15)N isotopic technique to characterize urea-N biosynthesis to microcystins. High urea concentration (3.6mmol-NL(-1)) would restrict the growth of M.aeruginosa and the production of microcystin-LR, while low urea concentration (0.4-1.4mmol-NL(-1)) would promote the growth of M.aeruginosa and the production of microcystin-LR. The (15)N labeling experiment further demonstrated that there existed selectivity when M.aeruginosa assimilated urea to form its structure. The majority of M.aeruginosa assimilated 1 urea molecule at first which was biosynthesized into the Ala or Leu residue. On day 18, The m/z=1004 parent ion assimilated 9 (15)N except that the Mdha residue did not assimilate any urea-(15)N. The results give deeper insight to the biosynthesis of urea into microcystins. PMID:25638406

Wu, Xuanhao; Yan, Yangwei; Wang, Pinfei; Ni, Lanqi; Gao, Jiayi; Dai, Ruihua

2015-04-01

314

Urea as a PCDD/F inhibitor in municipal waste incineration.  

PubMed

Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from municipal waste incineration have been widely studied because of their extensive toxicity, and many efforts have been made to restrict their emissions. Although a number of chemical compounds have been shown in laboratory-scale tests to inhibit the formation of PCDD/Fs, few have been tested in pilot- or full-scale plants. This work evaluates the effect of urea as a PCDD/F inhibitor in a pilot-scale incinerator that uses refuse-derived fuel (RDF). The decomposition of urea under the test conditions was also studied using detailed kinetic modeling. An aqueous solution of urea was injected into the flue gas stream after the furnace at approximately 730 degrees C, with varied urea concentrations and flue gas residence times used between the furnace and the sampling point. The results demonstrate that urea can successfully inhibit PCDD/F formation in waste incineration if concentrations and injection points are properly adjusted. The kinetic model showed that urea can be rapidly decomposed under appropriate flue gas conditions, indicating that in addition to the urea molecule itself, decomposition products of urea can also be responsible for the reduction of PCDD/F production during incineration. PMID:11266105

Ruokojärvi, P; Asikainen, A; Ruuskanen, J; Tuppurainen, K; Mueller, C; Kilpinen, P; Yli-Keturi, N

2001-03-01

315

Morning versus afternoon cutting time of Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) affects feed intake, milk yield and composition in Girgentana goats.  

PubMed

Twenty lactating Girgentana goats were used to evaluate the effect of morning v. afternoon cutting time of Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition. Goats were randomly divided into two groups of ten animals, receiving 10 kg of fresh Berseem clover cut at 9.00 (AM group) or 16.00 (PM group), respectively; 500 g of concentrate was given individually to goats before offering forage. Feed intake increased (P<0·01) in the PM group (30·5 v. 25·3 g dry matter/kg body weight), associated with the different nutrient content of diets: lower crude protein but higher dry matter, neutral detergent fibre, water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and total fatty acids in the PM-harvested forage. Milk production, protein and casein content were higher (P<0·05) in the PM group (1415 g/d, 3·25% and 2·42% v. 1277 g/d, 3·15% and 2·33%, respectively), whereas no differences between groups were detected for milk fat, lactose or urea content. Body weight slowly decreased from the start to the end of the experiment, without differences between groups. This study showed an important milk yield responses in Girgentana goats offered afternoon-cut compared with morning-cut Berseem clover, due to a marked increase in WSC in the afternoon-cut forage. PMID:21939575

Pagano, Renato Italo; Valenti, Bernardo; De Angelis, Anna; Avondo, Marcella; Pennisi, Pietro

2011-11-01

316

Total arsenic in rice milk.  

PubMed

Rice milk and its by-products were tested for total arsenic concentration. Total arsenic concentration was determined using graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.7 ± 0.3 to 17.9 ± 0.5 µg L(-1). Rice milk and its by-products are not clearly defined as food, water or milk substitute. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the European Union (EU) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have set a level of 10 µg L(-1) for total arsenic concentrations in drinking water. The EU and the US regulatory agencies do not provide any guidelines on total arsenic concentrations in foods. This study provides us with a starting point to address this issue in the State of Mississippi, USA. PMID:24779982

Shannon, Ron; Rodriguez, Jose M

2014-01-01

317

Polymorphic transformation of cellulose I to cellulose II by alkali pretreatment and urea as an additive.  

PubMed

The effect on crystalline structure transformation from cellulose I to cellulose II polymorph was studied of the cotton linter treated with NaOH with and without urea as an additive, analyzed by wide-angle X-ray diffraction analysis. Cotton linter treated with increasing NaOH concentration showed at 15 wt% sudden transformation from cellulose I to cellulose II polymorph. But when urea 5 wt% was used as additive along with 15 wt% NaOH concentration the magnitude of the transformation reduced largely. The crystallinity index showed a gradual decrease with increasing concentration of NaOH. The crystallinity index showed a gradual decrease with increasing concentration of NaOH with or without addition of urea, nevertheless with addition of urea a further slight more transformation was also observed. PMID:23544641

Gupta, P K; Uniyal, Vanshi; Naithani, Sanjay

2013-05-15

318

Prediction of enteric methane output from milk fatty acid concentrations and rumen fermentation parameters in dairy cows fed sunflower, flax, or canola seeds.  

PubMed

Milk fatty acid (FA) composition has been suggested as a means of predicting enteric methane (CH?) output in lactating dairy cattle because of the common biochemical pathways among CH?, acetate, and butyrate in the rumen. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a Latin square design with four 28-d periods. All diets contained steam-rolled barley, a pelleted supplement, barley silage [45% of dietary dry matter (DM)] and 3.3% added fat (DM basis) from 1 of 4 sources: calcium salts of long-chain FA (palm oil; control) or crushed oilseeds from sunflower, flax, or canola. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the effect of diets on milk FA profile; (2) model CH? production from milk FA composition, intake, and rumen fermentation variables; and (3) test the applicability of CH(4) prediction equations reported in previous studies. Methane (g/d) was measured in chambers (2 animals/chamber) on 3 consecutive days (d 21-23). The test variables included total DM intake (DMI, kg/d; d 21-23), forage DMI (kg/d; d 21-23), milk yield (kg/d; d 21-23), milk components (d 18-21), milk FA composition (% total FA methyl esters; d 18-21), rumen volatile FA (mol/100 mol; d 19-21), and protozoal counts (d 19-21), and were averaged by chamber and period to determine relationships between CH? and the test variables. Milk trans(t)10-, t11-18:1, and cis(c)9t11-18:2 were greater for sunflower seeds compared with the other diets. Forage DMI (correlation coefficient, r=0.52; n=32), DMI (r=0.52; n=32), and rumen acetate + butyrate:propionate (r=0.72; n=16) were positively related to CH? (g/d), whereas rumen propionate (r=0.63; n=16), milk c9-17:1 (r=0.64; n=32), and c11-18:1 (r=0.64; n=32) were negatively related to CH?. The best regression equation (coefficient of determination=0.90; n=16) was CH? (g/d)=-910.8 (±156.7) × milk c9-17:1 + 331.2 (±88.8) × milk 16:0 iso + 0.0001 (±0.00) × total entodiniomorphs + 242.5 (±39.7). Removing rumen parameters from the model also resulted in a reasonably good estimate (coefficient of determination=0.83; n=32) of CH?. Stepwise regression analysis within diets resulted in greater coefficient of determination and lower standard error values. Predictions of CH?, using equations from previous studies for the data set from this study, resulted in a mean overestimation ranging from 19 to 61% across studies. Thus, milk FA alone may not be suitable for developing universal CH? prediction equations. PMID:22118093

Mohammed, R; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A

2011-12-01

319

Effects of slow-release urea on ruminal digesta characteristics and growth performance in beef steers.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow-release urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers. Experiment 1 used 12 ruminally cannulated steers (529 +/- 16 kg of BW) to monitor the behavior of SRU in the ruminal environment. Compared with feed-grade urea, SRU decreased ruminal ammonia concentration (P = 0.02) and tended to increase ruminal urease activity (P = 0.06) without affecting ruminal VFA molar proportions or total concentrations (P > 0.20). After 35 d of feeding, the in situ degradation rate of SRU was not different between animals fed urea or SRU (P = 0.48). Experiment 2 used 180 Angus-cross steers (330 +/- 2.3 kg) fed corn silage-based diets supplemented with urea or SRU for 56 d to evaluate the effects on feed intake, gain, and G:F. The design was a randomized complete block with a 2 x 4 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments included no supplemental urea (control) or urea or SRU at 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, or 1.6% of diet DM. Over the entire 56 d experiment, there were interactions of urea source x concentration for gain (P = 0.04) and G:F (P = 0.01) because SRU reduced ADG and G:F at the 0.4 and 1.6% supplementation concentrations but was equivalent to urea at the 0.8 and 1.2% supplementation concentrations; these effects were due to urea source x concentration interactions for gain (P = 0.06) and G:F (P = 0.05) during d 29 to 56 of the experiment. The SRU reduced DMI during d 29 to 56 (P = 0.01) but not during d 0 to 28, so that over the entire experiment there was no difference in DMI for urea source (P = 0.19). These collective results demonstrate that SRU releases N slowly in the rumen with no apparent adaptation within 35 d. Supplementation of SRU may limit N availability at low (0.4%) concentrations but is equivalent to urea at 0.8 and 1.2% concentrations. PMID:18820164

Taylor-Edwards, C C; Hibbard, G; Kitts, S E; McLeod, K R; Axe, D E; Vanzant, E S; Kristensen, N B; Harmon, D L

2009-01-01

320

Excretion of drugs in human breast milk  

SciTech Connect

The present report briefly discusses some of the morphological, physiological, and compositional aspects of animal and human breast milk and how these characteristics might be important for the accumulation of drugs and foreign compounds. In addition, a study is described confirming the presence of caffeine, codeine, morphine, phenacetin, acetaminophen, and salicylic acid in the breast milk of a lactating mother following oral administration of a combination analgesic containing aspirin, phenacetin, caffeine, and codeine. Although the study is limited to one subject, it has provided critically needed data on the rates of appearance in, and elimination of these drugs from, breast milk. A similar amount of information is presented on phenacetin, also a component of the analgesic mixture, which has not been previously reported to enter human milk. The distribution of these drugs between the slightly more acidic breast milk and the relatively neutral plasma is consistent with their weakly basic, acidic, or relatively neutral properties. In general, the study shows that codeine and morphine milk concentrations are higher than, salicylic acid milk levels are much lower than, and phenacetin, caffeine, and acetaminophen milk concentrations are relatively similar to their respective plasma levels. It is projected, from estimated steady-state milk concentrations of the drugs and their metabolites studied, that very low percentages of the therapeutic dosages (less than 0.7%) would be excreted in mother's milk, too low an amount to be clinically significant to the infant.

Welch, R.M.; Findlay, J.W.

1981-01-01

321

Effects of urea on the microstructure and phase behavior of aqueous solutions of polyoxyethylene surfactants.  

PubMed

Membrane proteins are made soluble in aqueous buffers by the addition of various surfactants (detergents) to form so-called protein-detergent complexes (PDCs). Properties of membrane proteins are commonly assessed by unfolding the protein in the presence of surfactant in a buffer solution by adding urea. The stability of the protein under these conditions is then monitored by biophysical methods such as fluorescence or circular dichroism spectroscopy. Often overlooked in these experiments is the effect of urea on the phase behavior and micellar microstructure of the different surfactants used to form the PDCs. Here the effect of urea on five polyoxyethylene surfactants - n-octylytetraoxyethylene (C(8)E(4)), n-octylpentaoxyethylene (C(8)E(5)), n-decylhexaoxyethylene (C(10)E(6)), n-dodecylhexaoxyethylene (C(12)E(6)) and n-dodecyloctaoxylethylene (C(12)E(8)) - is explored. The presence of urea increases the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of all surfactants studied, indicating that the concentration of both the surfactant and urea should be considered in membrane protein folding studies. The cloud point temperature of all surfactants studied also increases with increasing urea concentration. Small-angle neutron scattering shows a urea-induced transition from an elongated to a globular shape for micelles of C(8)E(4) and C(12)E(6). In contrast, C(8)E(5) and C(12)E(8) form more globular micelles at room temperature and the micelles remain globular as the urea concentration is increased. The effects of increasing urea concentration on micelle structure are analogous to those of decreasing the temperature. The large changes in micelle structure observed here could also affect membrane protein unfolding studies by changing the structure of the PDC. PMID:21359094

Bianco, Carolina L; Schneider, Craig S; Santonicola, Mariagabriella; Lenhoff, Abraham M; Kaler, Eric W

2010-09-29

322

On the urea induced hydrophobic collapse of a water soluble polymer.  

PubMed

Stabilization of macromolecular folded states in solution by protective osmolytes has been traditionally explained on the basis of preferential osmolyte depletion from the macromolecule's first solvation shell. However recent theoretical and experimental studies suggest that protective osmolytes may directly interact with the macromolecule. An example is the stabilization of the collapsed globular state of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAM) by urea in aqueous solution. Based on Molecular Dynamics simulations we have characterized the mechanism through which urea stabilizes the collapsed state of PNiPAM in water. Analysis and comparison of the different components of the excess chemical potentials of folded and unfolded PNiPAM chains in aqueous urea solutions indicates that enthalpic interactions play no role in stabilizing the collapsed state. We instead find that with increasing urea, solvation of the unfolded state is entropically penalized over solvation of the folded state, thereby shifting the folding equilibrium in favour of the folded state. The unfavourable entropy contribution to the excess chemical potential of unfolded PNiPAM chains results from two urea effects: (1) an increasing cost of cavity formation with increasing urea, (2) larger fluctuations in the energy component corresponding to PNiPAM-(co)solvent attractive interactions. These energy fluctuations are particularly relevant at low urea concentrations (<3 M) and result from attractive polymer-urea van der Waals interactions that drive the formation of "urea clouds" but bias the spatial distribution of urea and water molecules with a corresponding reduction of the entropy. We further find indications that urea increases the entropy of the globular state. PMID:25684267

Rodríguez-Ropero, Francisco; van der Vegt, Nico F A

2015-04-01

323

Interactions Between Barley Grain Processing and Source of Supplemental Dietary Fat on Nitrogen Metabolism and Urea-Nitrogen Recycling in Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the ef- fects of methods of barley grain processing and source of supplemental fat on urea-N transfer to the gastroin- testinal tract (GIT) and the utilization of this recycled urea-N in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannu- lated Holstein cows (656.3 ± 27.7 kg of BW; 79.8 ± 12.3 d in milk)

G. N. Gozho; M. R. Hobin; T. Mutsvangwa

2008-01-01

324

Role for urea in nitrification by polar marine Archaea  

PubMed Central

Despite the high abundance of Archaea in the global ocean, their metabolism and biogeochemical roles remain largely unresolved. We investigated the population dynamics and metabolic activity of Thaumarchaeota in polar environments, where these microorganisms are particularly abundant and exhibit seasonal growth. Thaumarchaeota were more abundant in deep Arctic and Antarctic waters and grew throughout the winter at surface and deeper Arctic halocline waters. However, in situ single-cell activity measurements revealed a low activity of this group in the uptake of both leucine and bicarbonate (<5% Thaumarchaeota cells active), which is inconsistent with known heterotrophic and autotrophic thaumarchaeal lifestyles. These results suggested the existence of alternative sources of carbon and energy. Our analysis of an environmental metagenome from the Arctic winter revealed that Thaumarchaeota had pathways for ammonia oxidation and, unexpectedly, an abundance of genes involved in urea transport and degradation. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that most polar Thaumarchaeota had the potential to oxidize ammonia, and a large fraction of them had urease genes, enabling the use of urea to fuel nitrification. Thaumarchaeota from Arctic deep waters had a higher abundance of urease genes than those near the surface suggesting genetic differences between closely related archaeal populations. In situ measurements of urea uptake and concentration in Arctic waters showed that small-sized prokaryotes incorporated the carbon from urea, and the availability of urea was often higher than that of ammonium. Therefore, the degradation of urea may be a relevant pathway for Thaumarchaeota and other microorganisms exposed to the low-energy conditions of dark polar waters. PMID:23027926

Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Waller, Alison S.; Mende, Daniel R.; Bakker, Kevin; Farnelid, Hanna; Yager, Patricia L.; Lovejoy, Connie; Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Potvin, Marianne; Heinrich, Friederike; Estrada, Marta; Riemann, Lasse; Bork, Peer; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Bertilsson, Stefan

2012-01-01

325

Urea biosensor for hemodialysis monitoring  

DOEpatents

This research discloses an electrochemical sensor capable of detecting and quantifying urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures. The sensor is based upon measurement of the pH change produced in an aqueous environment by the products of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The sensor may be fabricated using methods amenable to mass fabrication, resulting in low-cost sensors and thus providing the potential for disposable use. In a typical application, the sensor could be used in treatment centers, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. The sensor can also be utilized to allow at-home testing to determine if dialysis was necessary. Such a home monitor is similar, in principle, to devices used for blood glucose testing by diabetics, and would require a blood droplet sample by using a finger prick. 9 figs.

Glass, R.S.

1999-01-12

326

Urea biosensor for hemodialysis monitoring  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting and quantifying urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures. The sensor is based upon measurement of the pH change produced in an aqueous environment by the products of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The sensor may be fabricated using methods amenable to mass fabrication, resulting in low-cost sensors and thus providing the potential for disposable use. In a typical application, the sensor could be used in treatment centers, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. The sensor can also be utilized to allow at-home testing to determine if dialysis was necessary. Such a home monitor is similar, in principle, to devices used for blood glucose testing by diabetics, and would require a blood droplet sample by using a finger prick.

Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

327

Supplemental methionine and urea for gestating beef cows consuming low quality forage diets.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate Met requirements of late-gestation beef cows consuming low quality forages on the premise that inadequate supply of metabolizable AA may limit protein accretion during pregnancy. Five ruminally cannulated, multiparous late-gestation beef cows (490 +/- 27 kg), of predominantly Angus (> or =75%) with Hereford and Simmental breeding, were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square experiment to evaluate the effects of postruminal dl-Met supplementation on N retention, serum metabolites, and plasma AA concentrations during the third trimester of pregnancy. The basal diet was fed individually, and weights of refusals were recorded for N intake determination. Treatments consisted of no urea, urea (0.053 +/- 0.002 g/kg of BW daily), urea + 5 g of Met/d, urea + 10 g of Met/d, and urea + 15 g of Met/d. Cows were adapted to the experimental diet 30 d before the beginning of the study, with periods lasting for 14 d; 4 d to allow for clearance of the previous treatment effects, 4 d for adaptation to the treatments, and 6 d for total fecal and urine collection. Blood samples were collected every 4 h on d 13 of each period for analysis of serum metabolites and plasma AA. Inclusion of urea increased DM and OM intakes (urea vs. no urea; P = 0.05), but no further improvement in intake was observed with inclusion of Met. Serum urea concentrations increased with inclusion of urea (P = 0.03) and responded quadratically (P = 0.06) when Met was added, with the lowest concentration observed in the urea + 5 g of Met/d treatment. More N was retained with the inclusion of urea (P = 0.04), and N retention increased linearly (P = 0.07) with inclusion of Met. Plasma Met concentration increased linearly (P < 0.01) with inclusion of Met. These data suggest that Met was a limiting AA and that supplementation of a combination of urea and 5 g/d of rumen-protected Met to low quality, forage diets will improve N retention and promote protein accretion during late pregnancy. PMID:17060412

Waterman, R C; Löest, C A; Bryant, W D; Petersen, M K

2007-03-01

328

Concentration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the NCTM Android app of their familiar on line Illuminations game, "Concentration" ( cataloged separately ) which challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.

2011-08-11

329

Concentration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NCTM iOS app of the familiar online Illuminations game, "Concentration" (cataloged separately) challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.

2011-09-15

330

concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development in our under- standing of the regulation of enzyme activity makes it a high priority to ascertain whether the behavior of purified enzymes reflects their functional characteristics in vivo. Enzyme concentration is usually the most significant difference between routine in vitro assays and in vivo conditions, as it is well known that many intracel- lular enzymes are

JUAN J. ARAGON; ALBERTO SOLS

331

SANS and DLS Studies of Protein Unfolding in Presence of Urea and Surfactant  

SciTech Connect

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) have been used to study conformational changes in protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) during its unfolding in presence of protein denaturating agents urea and surfactant. On addition of urea, the BSA protein unfolds for urea concentrations greater than 4 M and acquires a random coil configuration with its radius of gyration increasing with urea concentration. The addition of surfactant unfolds the protein by the formation of micelle-like aggregates of surfactants along the unfolded polypeptide chains of the protein. The fractal dimension of such a protein-surfactant complex decreases and the overall size of the complex increases on increasing the surfactant concentration. The conformation of the unfolded protein in the complex has been determined directly using contrast variation SANS measurements by contrast matching the surfactant to the medium. Results of DLS measurements are found to be in good agreement with those obtained using SANS.

Aswal, V. K.; Chodankar, S. N.; Wagh, A. G. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kohlbrecher, J.; Vavrin, R. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, ETH Zurich and Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2008-03-17

332

Plasma urea nitrogen in relation to pregnancy rate in dairy sheep.  

PubMed

The aim of this field study was to investigate the relationship of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) with the pregnancy rate in lactating Awassi × Merino ewes. One hundred and eighty-five Awassi × Merino ewes were used in the present study. Ewes were fed a diet containing 17.4% crude protein and were milked twice a day by the milking machine. The ewes were synchronized for estrus by insertion of intravaginal sponges containing 30 mg flurogestone acetate for 14 days. At the time of sponge removal each ewe was administered eCG (600 IU). All ewes were inseminated twice with fresh semen into the external os of the cervix at 48 and 56 h after sponge removal. The day of insemination was considered as Day 0 for calculating the gestational period. Blood samples were collected from each ewe at Days 0, 18 for measurement of PUN concentrations and at Day 22 after AI for measurement of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Thirty-eight ewes (20.5%) were confirmed pregnant by PAG-RIA test at Day 22 and by ultrasonography at Day 80. The mean (±S.D.) concentration of PUN in all ewes at Day 0 was 12.7±4.6 mmol/L. There were non-significant differences in the level of PUN between pregnant and non-pregnant ewes at Days 0 (12.2±4.2 mmol/L vs. 12.8±4.7 mmol/L, respectively) and 18 (9.6±2.9 mmol/L vs. 10.4±4.0 mmol/L, respectively) after AI. Mean PUN concentrations decreased significantly from Day 0 to Day 18 after AI in both pregnant and non-pregnant ewes. By using logistic regression analysis, there was no effect of PUN concentrations on the probability of pregnancy occurrence in the studied ewes (odds ratio: 0.97; 95% confidence interval: 0.9-1.05; P=0.45). In conclusion, there was no evidence of a relationship between PUN concentration and pregnancy rate for lactating Awassi × Merino ewes in the present study because of low pregnancy rate observed. PMID:21349665

Karen, A M; Kovács, P; Beckers, J F; de Sousa, N M; Szenci, O

2011-03-01

333

Alfalfa baleage with increased concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates supplemented with a corn-based concentrate did not improve production and nitrogen utilization in early lactation dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding alfalfa baleage with different concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) supplemented with a common corn-based concentrate on performance, ruminal fermentation profile, N utilization, and omasal flow of nutrients in dairy cows during early lactation. Ten multiparous (8 ruminally cannulated) and 8 primiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments (high- or low-NSC diet) in a crossover design. The difference in NSC concentration between the 2 alfalfa baleages fed from d14 to 21 averaged 14 g of NSC/kg of dry matter (DM). Forages and concentrate were offered in separate meals with forages fed once and concentrate offered 3 times daily. Except for the molar proportion of valerate, which was lowest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, no other changes in ruminal fermentation were observed. Omasal flows of most nitrogenous fractions, including bacterial nonammonia N and AA, were not affected by treatments. Apparent ruminal digestibilities of neutral and acid detergent fiber and N were lowest, whereas that of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest when feeding the high-NSC diet. Postruminal digestibilities of DM, organic matter, fiber, and N were highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, resulting in no difference in total-tract digestibilities. Total-tract digestibility of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but that of starch did not differ across treatments. Although milk yield and total DM intake did not differ between treatments, yields of milk fat and 4% fat-corrected milk decreased significantly in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Milk concentration of urea N was lowest, and that of ruminal NH3-N highest, in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Plasma urea N concentration tended to be decreased in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but concentrations of AA were not affected by treatments, with the exception of Asp and Cys, both of which were lowest in cows fed the low-NSC diet. Feeding diets with contrasting NSC concentrations did not improve milk production, N utilization, or bacterial protein synthesis, possibly because intakes of NSC and DM were similar between treatments. Overall, results from the current study should be interpreted cautiously because of the lack of difference in dietary NSC intake between treatments and reduced N and fiber intakes when feeding the high-NSC diet. PMID:25173470

Brito, A F; Tremblay, G F; Bertrand, A; Castonguay, Y; Bélanger, G; Michaud, R; Lafrenière, C; Martineau, R; Berthiaume, R

2014-11-01

334

Urea transformation of wetland microbial communities.  

PubMed

Transformation of urea to ammonium is an important link in the nitrogen cycle in soil and water. Although microbial nitrogen transformations, such as nitrification and denitrification, are well studied in freshwater sediment and epiphytic biofilm in shallow waters, information about urea transformation in these environments is scarce. In this study, urea transformation of sedimentary, planktonic, and epiphytic microbial communities was quantified and urea transformation of epiphytic biofilms associated with three different common wetland macrophyte species is compared. The microbial communities were collected from a constructed wetland in October 2002 and urea transformation was quantified in the laboratory at in situ temperature (12 degrees C) with the use of the 14C-urea tracer method, which measures the release of 14CO2 as a direct result of urease activity. It was found that the urea transformation was 100 times higher in sediment (12-22 mmol urea-N m(-2) day(-1)) compared with the epiphytic activity on the surfaces of the submerged plant Elodea canadensis (0.1-0.2 mmol urea-N m(-2) day(-1)). The epiphytic activity of leaves of Typha latifolia was lower (0.001-0.03 mmol urea-N m(-2) day(-1)), while urea transformation was negligible in the water column and on the submerged leaves of the emergent plant Phragmites australis. However, because this wetland was dominated by dense beds of the submerged macrophyte E. canadensis, this plant provided a large surface area for epiphytic microbial activity-in the range of 23-33 m2 of plant surfaces per square meter of wetland. Thus, in the wetland system scale at the existing plant distribution and density, the submerged plant community had the potential to transform 2-7 mmol urea-N m(-2) day(-1) and was in the same magnitude as the urea transformation in the sediment. PMID:17268879

Thorén, Ann-Karin

2007-02-01

335

Making milk  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor STAT5A is essential for two processes during mammary gland development. First, it controls the development of luminal progenitor cells from stem cells1 and second, it has a role during pregnancy where it is required for alveologenesis2,3 the production of clusters of luminal cells that synthesize and secrete milk during lactation. Thus, deletion of STAT5A in late pregnancy results in lactation failure. Alveologenesis requires the proliferation of a different lineage of luminal epithelial cells in response to the pregnancy hormones progesterone and prolactin, the latter of which activates STAT5. Prolactin is required additionally during lactation to ensure adequate milk production and the transcription of several milk protein genes has been shown to be regulated by STAT5.4,5 On the other hand, the PI3K/Akt pathway is essential for the synthesis of other milk components such as lipids and lactose.6 In recent elegant work from Lewis Chodosh’s laboratory, published in Genes and Development, these two pathways are now shown to be directly linked.7 More specifically, it is shown that the PI3K/Akt pathway induces autocrine prolactin production and that this is required for the initiation of lactation. PMID:24058804

Oliver, Carrie H.; Watson, Christine J.

2013-01-01

336

Mechanistic insights into osmolyte action in protein stabilization under harsh conditions: N-methylacetamide in glycine betaine-urea mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glycine betaine (GB), a small naturally occurring osmolyte, stabilizes proteins and counteracts harsh denaturing conditions such as extremes of temperature, cellular dehydration, and presence of high concentration of urea. In spite of several studies on understanding mechanism of protein stabilization and counteraction of these harsh conditions by osmolytes, studies centred on GB, one of the most important osmolyte, are scarce, hence, there is need for more investigations. To explore mechanism of protein stabilization and counteraction of denaturing property of urea by GB, molecular dynamics studies of N-methylacetamide (NMA), a model peptide representing denatured state of a protein, in the presence of GB, urea, and GB-urea mixture were carried out. The results show that GB and urea work such that the strength of GB as a protecting osmolyte is increased and the denaturing ability of urea is decreased in the GB-urea mixture. It can be inferred that GB counteracts urea by decreasing its hydrophobic interactions with proteins. The mutual interactions between GB and urea also play an important role in protein stabilization. This study provides insights on osmolyte induced counteraction of denaturing property of urea.

Kumar, Narendra; Kishore, Nand

2014-10-01

337

[The nature of urea transport across the skin of of Rana esculenta].  

PubMed

In several epithelial tissues such as toad bladder, gallbladder and human red cells, it has been established that urea movement implies a phloretin sensitive mediated transport. In the skin of the toad Bufo viridis also it has been described an active transport of urea. Our data, obtained on the frog skin seem to demonstrate the existence of some specific mechanism for urea transport towards the inside solution. In fact, two molecules having the some molecular diameter, such as urea and thiourea, show a large difference in permeability at low concentration. In addition 0.1 mM urea influxes and outfluxes, measured on paired skin halves in the absence of concentration gradient, exhibit an evident asymmetry. Further approaches with phloretin experiments were made in order to characterize the urea transport system. Phloretin (5.10(-4)M) added to the external solution significantly inhibits the urea influx. Little can be said at this time about the composition or kinetics of the carrier involved in the transport. PMID:6980654

Svelto, M; Casavola, V; Valenti, G; Lippe, C

1982-06-30

338

Responses to graded replacement of urea by maize steep liquor in diets for intensively fed lambs for meat production.  

PubMed

Urea is a common ingredient of the diets of intensively fed lambs, but is increasingly required for industrial processes. Maize steep liquor (MSL) is a by-product of maize grain degradation to produce starch that may be a suitable replacement. Fifty growing lambs were fed on equinitrogenous diets in which between 0% and 80% of the urea was replaced by MSL; their growth and metabolism were recorded over 70 days. Increasing replacement of urea by MSL increased feed intake and nutrient digestibilities, leading to increased growth rates, more efficient feed conversion, and increased nitrogen retention. Concentrations of triiodothyroxin, thyroxin, glucose, and methionine were increased by replacement of urea by liquor, and plasma urea was reduced. This study suggests that MSL is a suitable replacement for up to 80% of urea in the diet of rapidly growing lambs. PMID:22101979

Mahr-un-Nisa; Shahzad, Muhammad A; Phillips, Clive J C; Sarwar, Muhammad

2012-06-01

339

Effects of ammonia and urea in vitro on mRNA of candidate bovine endometrial genes.  

PubMed

Large amounts of protein intake are associated with elevated ammonia and urea concentrations in both plasma and uterine fluid in dairy cows. These increased concentrations affect successful embryo development and subsequent pregnancy establishment. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of ammonia and urea on the expression of some candidate genes in the endometrium of mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle of dairy cows. Endometrial explants were cultured and treated with 0, 75, 150, 300, 600?M of ammonium chloride or 0, 4, 8, 12, 16mM of urea. After the RNA extraction and reverse transcription, real time PCR was performed to assess the treatment effects on relative amounts of mRNA of candidate genes. BCL2 mRNA was greater in explants treated with 150?M of ammonium chloride compared to explants treated with 0, 75 and 300?M. Relative amounts of IGFBP1 mRNA were less in explants treated with 600?M of ammonium chloride when compared with other concentrations. Relative FGF2 gene expression was less in explants treated with a greater concentration (600?M) of ammonium chloride or urea (16mM) when compared with lesser concentrations. Expression of HSPA1A, IGFBP3 and SERPINA14 genes was greater in explants exposed to lesser concentrations (150?M) of ammonium chloride or urea (4mM). Relative amounts of IGF1 and BAX mRNA were not affected by any of the ammonium chloride or urea concentrations tested. In conclusion, greater concentrations of ammonia and urea have negative effects on some endometrial gene expression, while moderate concentrations have positive effects. PMID:23910634

Gunaretnam, I; Pretheeban, T; Rajamahendran, R

2013-09-01

340

Low Temperature Urea Decomposition and SCR Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urea-SCR systems are potentially a highly-effective means of NOX reduction for light-duty diesel vehicles. However, use of urea-SCR technologies at low temperatures presents unique technical challenges. This study was undertaken to provide more knowledge about low temperature urea decomposition and the resulting effects on SCR performance. Data are presented for experiments using two SCR catalysts of differing size with a

C. Scott Sluder; John M. E. Storey; Samuel A. Lewis; Linda A. Lewis

341

Got Milk? Cows Do!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Essential Question: Where does milk come from, and how is it produced and distributed? Second grade students will learn where milk comes from, how milk is made, and where the milk is sold. Enrichment Resources: Where does milk come from? Click the link ...

Miss Patterson

2010-03-25

342

Antimicrobial activities of N-chloramines and diazolidinyl urea.  

PubMed Central

A combination of MICs of an N-chloramine, a simple chlorinated amino acid, and diazolidinyl urea gave synergistic activity against bacteria, but not fungi. The two compounds at a higher concentration, 0.1 and 0.3%, respectively, gave synergistic inhibition of fungi; kill times were 1 h for Trichophyton tonsurans, 3 h for Aspergillus niger and Fusarium moniliforme, and 6 h for Aspergillus fumigatus. PMID:3920962

Llabres, C M; Ahearn, D G

1985-01-01

343

A technique for predicting urea release from coated urea in wetland soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple technique for measuring urea release from different coated urea fertilizer materials in simulated wetland soil has been developed and tested. The laboratory soil system used simulates physical, chemical, and microbiological environments of wetland soils under field conditions. Laboratory and field values for urea release are in good agreement.

N. K. Savant; J. R. Clemmons; A. F. James

1982-01-01

344

Original article Milk protein-iron complexes: Inhibition of lipid  

E-print Network

) to common milk protein products, sodium caseinate, whey protein isolate (WPI) and milk protein concentrate with high bioavailability, good flavour and no solubility problems. sodium caseinate / whey protein isolateOriginal article Milk protein-iron complexes: Inhibition of lipid oxidation in an emulsion Maya

Boyer, Edmond

345

Relation Between Micellar and Serum Casein in Bovine Milk1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little or no additional casein dissolved when milk was diluted with large volumes of milk dialysate. Some dissolution of mi- cellar to serum casein occurred when sedi- mented micelles were redispersed in ultra- filtrate mechanically, but the concentration of serum casein remained far below that of the original milk. It is concluded that micellar and serum casein do not form

Dyson Rose

1968-01-01

346

EVALUATION OF DIOXIN IN U.S. COW'S MILK  

EPA Science Inventory

Milk fat is likely to be among the highest dietary sources of exposure to persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) contaminants, thus it is important to understand PBT levels in milk. Schaum had previously reported on concentrations of 21 PBTs in the United States milk suppl...

347

Milk Thistle (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... Trials Cancer Statistics Research & Funding News About NCI Milk Thistle (PDQ®) Patient Version Health Professional Version Last Modified: 12/24/2013 Milk Thistle (PDQ®) Overview Questions and Answers About Milk ...

348

Wetting of soy protein adhesives modified by urea on wood surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetting of soy protein adhesives modified by urea on wood surfaces was investigated with sessile liquid droplet method. Dynamic\\u000a contact angles were used to illustrate the wetting process. The effects of wood surface roughness and urea concentration on\\u000a contact angles were investigated. Moreover, two wetting models were used to describe the dynamic contact angle process, in\\u000a which the contact angle

Hua-Neng Xu; Qiu-Yun Shen; Xiao-Kun Ouyang; Li-Ye Yang

349

Temporary alterations to postpartum milking frequency affect whole-lactation milk production and the energy status of pasture-grazed dairy cows.  

PubMed

This study investigated the immediate and long-term effects of temporary alterations to postpartum milking frequency (MF) on milk production, body condition score (BCS), and indicators of energy status in pasture-grazed cows supplemented with concentrates. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 150) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups at calving: milked twice daily (2 ×) throughout lactation (control), or milked either once daily (1 ×) or 3 times daily (3 ×) for 3 or 6 wk immediately postpartum, and then 2 × for the remainder of lactation. During wk 1 to 3 postpartum, cows milked 1 × produced 15% less milk and 17% less energy-corrected milk (ECM) than cows milked 2 ×. This immediate production loss increased to 20% less milk and 22% less ECM during wk 4 to 6 postpartum for cows that remained on 1 × milking; these animals also produced less than 1 × cows switched to 2 × milking after 3 wk. During wk 8 to 32, when all cows were milked 2 ×, those previously milked 1 × had sustained reductions in milk (-6%) and ECM (-8%) yields, which were not affected by the duration of reduced postpartum MF. In contrast, cows milked 3 × postpartum had 7% greater milk yields during wk 1 to 6 compared with 2 × controls, irrespective of the duration of increased MF. Milk yields also remained numerically greater (+5%) during wk 8 to 32 in cows previously milked 3 ×. Nevertheless, yields of ECM were not increased by 3 × milking, because of lower milk fat and protein contents that persisted for the rest of lactation. In addition, indicators of cow energy status reflected an increasing state of negative energy balance with increasing MF. Cows milked 1 × postpartum had greater plasma glucose and lower plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations during the reduced MF, and plasma glucose remained lower for 2 wk after cows had switched to 2 × milking. Moreover, BCS was improved relative to 2 × controls from wk 5 to 6. In contrast, cows milked 3 × had lower plasma glucose concentrations, greater plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations, and greater BCS loss during wk 1 to 3; however, greater body fat mobilization was not sustained, indicating that additional energy supplements may be required to achieve better milk production responses. In conclusion, temporary 1 × milking had lactation-long negative effects on milk and milk component yields but improved cow energy status and BCS, whereas temporary 3 × milking immediately increased milk yield but did not improve milk fat and protein yields in pasture-grazed cows. PMID:25200777

Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K; Rius, A G; Morgan, S R; Roach, C G; Grala, T M; Roche, J R

2014-11-01

350

Beside the information supplied by nitrogen metabolism, blood urea is the most frequently cited in the literature. Thus, plasma urea level (PUL) varies with dietary nitrogen  

E-print Network

. The concentrate mixtures used in these studies were composed of barley grain, a N-supplement source (soybean meal, urea or fish meal) wheat bran and a macro/micro element vitamin mixture. The mixtures were fed along the proportion of the N-supplement. Dietary N-concentration did not affect total feed intake in any of the 3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

351

Comparison of estrone and 17?-estradiol levels in commercial goat and cow milk.  

PubMed

Increased levels of estrogen metabolites are believed to be associated with cancers of the reproductive system. One potential dietary source of these metabolites that is commonly consumed worldwide is milk. In North America, dairy cows are the most common source of milk; however, goats are the primary source of milk worldwide. In this study, the absolute concentrations of unconjugated and total (unconjugated plus conjugated) estrone (E(1)) and 17?-estradiol (E(2)) were compared in a variety of commercial cow milks (regular and organic) and goat milk. A lower combined concentration of E(1) and E(2) was found in goat milk than in any of the cow milk products tested. The differences in E(1) and E(2) levels between regular and organic cow milks were not as significant as the differences between goat milk and any of the cow milk products. Goat milk represents a better dietary choice for individuals concerned with limiting their estrogen intake. PMID:22459818

Farlow, D W; Xu, X; Veenstra, T D

2012-04-01

352

A newly prepared surface-treated oxystarch for removal of urea.  

PubMed

There is an urgent need to develop an efficient technique to remove urea from the blood or gastrointestinal tract of uremic patients. Activated charcoals have a low sorption capacity for urea although they effectively remove other uremic toxic substances. To provide an urea-reactive adsorbent, a chemically modified oxystarch with albumin or gelatin has been prepared. Elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic analysis demonstrate that the reaction of a small amount of protein (albumin or gelatin) with oxystarch has taken place possibly by chemical combination. The influence of the dialdehyde content of the oxystarch on urea sorption, its sorption isotherm, and the adsorption rates have been investigated. It was found that the swelling factor of the oxystarch is closely related to the sorption activity under physiological conditions (pH 7.2-7.4 at 37 degrees C). Adsorption studies have shown that sorption capacity is increased by surface treatment and can reach 6-8.2 g urea/kg-dried adsorbent (initial urea concentration was 70 mg/dL). The oxystarch had 49.2% of glucose unit oxidized and was surface treated with albumin. These results suggest that the newly prepared surface-treated oxystarch would be utilized as an effective chemisorbent for urea removal under physiological conditions. PMID:6885841

Shimizu, T; Fujishige, S

1983-07-01

353

21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to...

2012-04-01

354

21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to...

2011-04-01

355

21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to...

2010-04-01

356

21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to...

2013-04-01

357

21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to...

2014-04-01

358

RELATIONSHIP OF NITROTYROSINE IN MILK TO INFLAMMATION OF THE BOVINE MAMMARY GLAND  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The relationships of whey protein nitrotyrosine concentration with milk somatic cell count (SCC), clinical mastitis and intramammary infection were investigated. Composite milk samples were collected from 42 lactating Holstein cows and SCC were determined. Total nitrotyrosine concentrations of whe...

359

Understanding strategy of nitrate and urea assimilation in a Chinese strain of Aureococcus anophagefferens through RNA-seq analysis.  

PubMed

Aureococcus anophagefferens is a harmful alga that dominates plankton communities during brown tides in North America, Africa, and Asia. Here, RNA-seq technology was used to profile the transcriptome of a Chinese strain of A. anophagefferens that was grown on urea, nitrate, and a mixture of urea and nitrate, and that was under N-replete, limited and recovery conditions to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie nitrate and urea utilization. The number of differentially expressed genes between urea-grown and mixture N-grown cells were much less than those between urea-grown and nitrate-grown cells. Compared with nitrate-grown cells, mixture N-grown cells contained much lower levels of transcripts encoding proteins that are involved in nitrate transport and assimilation. Together with profiles of nutrient changes in media, these results suggest that A. anophagefferens primarily feeds on urea instead of nitrate when urea and nitrate co-exist. Furthermore, we noted that transcripts upregulated by nitrate and N-limitation included those encoding proteins involved in amino acid and nucleotide transport, degradation of amides and cyanates, and nitrate assimilation pathway. The data suggest that A. anophagefferens possesses an ability to utilize a variety of dissolved organic nitrogen. Moreover, transcripts for synthesis of proteins, glutamate-derived amino acids, spermines and sterols were upregulated by urea. Transcripts encoding key enzymes that are involved in the ornithine-urea and TCA cycles were differentially regulated by urea and nitrogen concentration, which suggests that the OUC may be linked to the TCA cycle and involved in reallocation of intracellular carbon and nitrogen. These genes regulated by urea may be crucial for the rapid proliferation of A. anophagefferens when urea is provided as the N source. PMID:25338000

Dong, Hong-Po; Huang, Kai-Xuan; Wang, Hua-Long; Lu, Song-Hui; Cen, Jing-Yi; Dong, Yue-Lei

2014-01-01

360

The effect of some molecules and ions on gastric function in the milk-fed calf.  

PubMed

1. The abomasum of the milk-fed calf has been examined using an adaptation of the Serial Test Meal method devised by Hunt & Spurrell (1951). The emptying process, acid secretion and pepsin secretion were studied.2. Using serial test meals of simple solutions instilled into the abomasum via a cannula, our investigation leaves no doubt that the osmolarity of the abomasal contents significantly modifies the rate of abomasal emptying.3. Hypotonic and isotonic solutions of sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate increase abomasal emptying but bicarbonate is most effective.4. Increasing the concentration of solutes in the abomasal contents slows abomasal emptying. Sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, ammonium chloride and urea do not delay abomasal emptying until hypertonic concentrations are attained. Hypotonic solutions of potassium chloride, calcium chloride, glucose, lactose, hydrochloric acid and acetic acid delay abomasal emptying.5. The results obtained in the calf show that the abomasum is under restraint probably from duodenal receptors as is the simple stomach (Hunt & Knox, 1968) and that an osmoreceptor as postulated by Hunt (1956) is an important factor in this mechanism.6. Acid secretion is inhibited when hypertonic solutions are instilled into the abomasum.7. Pepsin secretion is not affected by simple solutions in the abomasum.8. Gastric function in the milk-fed calf appears to be controlled by mechanisms essentially similar to those already demonstrated in the simple stomach. PMID:4568911

Bell, F R; Razig, S A

1973-01-01

361

Transport characteristics of urea transporter-B.  

PubMed

UT-B represents the major urea transporter in erythrocytes, in addition to being expressed in kidney descending vasa recta, brain, spleen, ureter, bladder, and testis. Expression of urea transporter UT-B confers high urea permeability to mammalian erythrocytes. Erythrocyte membranes are also permeable to various urea analogues, suggesting common transport pathways for urea and structurally similar solutes. UT-B is highly permeable to urea and the chemical analogues formamide, acetamide, methylurea, methylformamide, ammonium carbamate, and acrylamide, each with a Ps > 5.0 × 10(-6) cm/s at 10 °C. The amides formamide, acetamide, acrylamide, and butyramide efficiently diffuse across lipid bilayers. The urea analogues dimethylurea, acryalmide, methylurea, thiourea, and methylformamide inhibit UT-B-mediated urea transport by >60 % by a pore-blocking mechanism. UT-B is also a water channel in erythrocytes and has a single-channel water permeability that is similar to aquaporin-1. Whether UT-B is an NH3 channel still needs further study. Urea permeability (Purea) in erythrocytes differs between different mammals. Carnivores (dog, fox, cat) exhibit high Purea. In contrast, herbivores (cow, donkey, sheep) show much lower Purea. Erythrocyte Purea in human and pig (omnivores) was intermediate. Rodents and lagomorphs (mouse, rat, rabbit) have Purea intermediate between carnivores and omnivores. Birds that do not excrete urea and do not express UT-B in their erythrocytes have very low values. In contrast to Purea, water permeability is relatively similar in all mammals studied. This chapter will provide information about the transporter characteristics of UT-B. PMID:25298342

Yang, Baoxue

2014-01-01

362

Influence of exogenous urea on photosynthetic pigments, (14)CO 2 uptake, and urease activity in Elodea densa-environmental implications.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the effect of exogenous urea in increased concentration gradient (0, 100, 500 and 1,000 mg L(-1)) on photosynthetic pigments (measured spectrophotometrically), uptake of (14)CO2 (using radioisotope), and urease activity (by measuring ammonia with Nessler's reagent) in leaves of Elodea densa Planch. We have observed that low concentration of urea (100 mg L(-1)) stimulates the accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and intensifies photosynthesis in E. densa, whereas high concentration (1,000 mg L(-1)) suppresses these processes. Urease activity increased by approximately 2.7 and 8 fold when exogenous urea concentrations were 100 and 500 mg L(-1), respectively. However, exogenous urea in high concentration (1,000 mg L(-1)) decreased urease activity by 1.5 fold compared to the control. The necessity of mitigating urea and other nitrogen-containing compounds (NH3 from urea) in water bodies has been discussed with emphasis on the potential for phytoremediation of urea using common water weed viz. E. densa. PMID:23546854

Maleva, Maria; Borisova, Galina; Chukina, Nadezda; Nekrasova, Galina; Prasad, M N V

2013-09-01

363

Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw and market milk commercialized in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

From December 1999 to May 2000, 114 samples of pasteurized, ultrahigh temperature-treated (UHT) and concentrated milk were collected in supermarkets, whereas 52 raw milk samples from cow, sheep and goat were obtained from different milk producers all over Greece. Sample collection was repeated from December 2000 to May 2001 and concerned 54 samples of pasteurized milk, 23 samples of bulk-tank

V. Roussi; A. Govaris; A. Varagouli; N. A. Botsoglou

2002-01-01

364

Effect of feeding intensity and milking system on nutritionally relevant milk components in dairy farming systems in the North East of England.  

PubMed

There is increasing concern that the intensification of dairy production reduces the concentrations of nutritionally desirable compounds in milk. This study therefore compared important quality parameters (protein and fatty acid profiles; ?-tocopherol and carotenoid concentrations) in milk from four dairy systems with contrasting production intensities (in terms of feeding regimens and milking systems). The concentrations of several nutritionally desirable compounds (?-lactoglobulin, omega-3 fatty acids, omega-3/omega-6 ratio, conjugated linoleic acid c9t11, and/or carotenoids) decreased with increasing feeding intensity (organic outdoor ? conventional outdoor ? conventional indoors). Milking system intensification (use of robotic milking parlors) had a more limited effect on milk composition, but increased mastitis incidence. Multivariate analyses indicated that differences in milk quality were mainly linked to contrasting feeding regimens and that milking system and breed choice also contributed to differences in milk composition between production systems. PMID:22737968

Stergiadis, Sokratis; Leifert, Carlo; Seal, Chris J; Eyre, Mick D; Nielsen, Jacob H; Larsen, Mette K; Slots, Tina; Steinshamn, Håvard; Butler, Gillian

2012-07-25

365

Nickel-cobalt bimetallic anode catalysts for direct urea fuel cell.  

PubMed

Nickel is an ideal non-noble metal anode catalyst for direct urea fuel cell (DUFC) due to its high activity. However, there exists a large overpotential toward urea electrooxidation. Herein, NiCo/C bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared with various Co contents (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%) to improve the activity. The best Co ratio was 10% in the aspect of cell performance, with a maximum power density of 1.57 mW cm(-2) when 0.33 M urea was used as fuel, O2 as oxidant at 60 °C. The effects of temperature and urea concentration on DUFC performance were investigated. Besides, direct urine fuel cell reaches a maximum power density of 0.19 mW cm(-2) with an open circuit voltage of 0.38 V at 60 °C. PMID:25168632

Xu, Wei; Zhang, Huimin; Li, Gang; Wu, Zucheng

2014-01-01

366

Nickel-cobalt bimetallic anode catalysts for direct urea fuel cell  

PubMed Central

Nickel is an ideal non-noble metal anode catalyst for direct urea fuel cell (DUFC) due to its high activity. However, there exists a large overpotential toward urea electrooxidation. Herein, NiCo/C bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared with various Co contents (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40?wt%) to improve the activity. The best Co ratio was 10% in the aspect of cell performance, with a maximum power density of 1.57?mW cm?2 when 0.33?M urea was used as fuel, O2 as oxidant at 60°C. The effects of temperature and urea concentration on DUFC performance were investigated. Besides, direct urine fuel cell reaches a maximum power density of 0.19?mW cm?2 with an open circuit voltage of 0.38?V at 60°C. PMID:25168632

Xu, Wei; Zhang, Huimin; Li, Gang; Wu, Zucheng

2014-01-01

367

Determination of derivatized urea in exhaled breath condensate by LC-MS.  

PubMed

Elevation in one or more compounds in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has been reported to be related to one or another lung disease. The increased concentration might be caused by increased chemicals in the airway surface liquid. However, it might also be due to an increased delivery of liquid samples into the airstream. Being evenly distributed throughout the body, urea is a likely candidate for a marker of such dilution. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for determination of EBC urea. Urea in EBC samples was converted to 2-hydroxypyrimidine (2-HPM) through a one step reaction, along with (15)N(2)-urea added as an internal standard. The product ion m/z 97/42 was selected for quantification with m/z 99/43 from (15)N(2)-2-HPM as a standard. Concentrations of urea in EBC from five lung cancer patients were found to be 35.1, 2.2, 103.5, 19.3, and 3.6 microM, respectively. The highest values were in patients dying of respiratory distress, whose lungs were filled with fluid. Lower values were seen in patients whose conditions were improving. Lately, one of the low EBC urea values was observed in a patient whose airway status did not contribute to his poor clinical condition. PMID:20109293

Quan, Zhe; Purser, Christine; Baker, Rodney C; Dwyer, Terry; Bhagat, Rajesh; Sheng, Yinghong; Leszczynski, Jerzy R

2010-02-01

368

Urea loading enhances freezing survival and postfreeze recovery in a terrestrially hibernating frog.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that urea, an osmolyte accumulated early in hibernation, functions as a cryoprotectant in the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica. Relative to saline-treated, normouremic (10 micromol ml(-1)) frogs, individuals rendered hyperuremic (70 micromol ml(-1)) by administration of an aqueous urea solution exhibited significantly higher survival (100% versus 64%) following freezing at -4 degrees C, a potentially lethal temperature. Hyperuremic frogs also had lower plasma levels of intracellular proteins (lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, hemoglobin), which presumably escaped from damaged cells, and more quickly recovered neurobehavioral functions following thawing. Experimental freezing-thawing did not alter tissue urea concentrations, but did elevate glucose levels in the blood and organs of all frogs. When measured 24 h after thawing commenced, glucose concentrations were markedly higher in urea-loaded frogs as compared to saline-treated ones, possibly because elevated urea retarded glucose clearance. Like other low-molecular-mass cryoprotectants, urea colligatively reduces both the amount of ice forming within the body and the osmotic dehydration of cells. In addition, by virtue of certain non-colligative properties, it may bestow additional protection from freeze-thaw damage not afforded by glucose. PMID:18775934

Costanzo, Jon P; Lee, Richard E

2008-09-01

369

Urea Output by L3 Teladorsagia circumcincta and some Properties of Two Urea Producing Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Background Like several other parasites, Teladorsagia circumcincta secretes or excretes urea, but neither the rate of efflux nor the possible metabolic sources of the urea has been considered. Methods Parasites were maintained by passage through sheep. Urea efflux was measured using phenol/hypochlorite after treatment with urea aminohydrolase. The kinetics of creatine amidinohydrolase and arginine amidinohydrolase were characterised by coupling the reactions with urea aminohydrolase and glutamate dehydrogenase. Results Infective L3 T. circumcincta secreted or excreted urea at 25% of the rate of NH3/NH4 +. The rate of urea efflux was about 84 pmol h?1 (103 larvae)?1 over 4 hours, corresponding to about 11 nmol h?1 mg?1 protein. We could not detect urea aminohydrolase activity, but urea production by both creatine amidinohydrolase and arginine amidinohydrolase could be detected. The apparent K m and V max of creatine amidinohydrolase were 1.1 mM and 48 nmol h?1 mg?1 protein, respectively, and the activity was greatest at pH 8. The apparent K m and V max of arginine amidinohydrolase were 0.7 mM and 62 nmol h?1 mg?1 protein, respectively, and the activity was greatest at pH 7.9. Conclusion The activity of creatine amidinohydrolase and arginine amidinohydrolase was sufficient to account for the rate of urea secretion or excretion. PMID:23682271

Muhamad, N; Walker, LR; Simcock, DC; Pedley, KC; Simpson, HV; Brown, S

2013-01-01

370

Occupationally derived chemicals in breast milk  

SciTech Connect

Exogenously derived chemicals have been widely reported in breast milk. Chemicals typically found in occupational exposures, including trace metals, solvents, and halogenated hydrocarbons, are reviewed, in terms of milk partition factors, potential infant exposures, and possible infant health effects. In addition to ingestion of a chemical from breast milk, an infant incurs a neonatal body burden of a chemical due to transplacental migration from maternal blood. For trace metals, neonatal blood levels are similar to maternal blood levels. Partition of metals to milk is less efficient, but nevertheless can contribute significantly to an infant's body burden. For lipid-soluble pesticide residues and halogenated biphenyls, neonatal body burden is much less than that of the mother, but transfer to milk is efficient, due to the high proportion of milk fat. It is suggested that potential organic mercury toxicity can be estimated from concentration in maternal blood or milk. For other chemicals, available data are not sufficient to evaluate short- or long-term health effects. However, for many halogenated hydrocarbons, concentrations in normal human milk would permit infant exposure above guidelines for allowable daily intake set by the World Health organization.

Wolff, M.S.

1983-01-01

371

A Large Response Range Reflectometric Urea Biosensor Made from Silica-Gel Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

A new silica-gel nanospheres (SiO2NPs) composition was formulated, followed by biochemical surface functionalization to examine its potential in urea biosensor development. The SiO2NPs were basically synthesized based on sol–gel chemistry using a modified Stober method. The SiO2NPs surfaces were modified with amine (-NH2) functional groups for urease immobilization in the presence of glutaric acid (GA) cross-linker. The chromoionophore pH-sensitive dye ETH 5294 was physically adsorbed on the functionalized SiO2NPs as pH transducer. The immobilized urease determined urea concentration reflectometrically based on the colour change of the immobilized chromoionophore as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The pH changes on the biosensor due to the catalytic enzyme reaction of immobilized urease were found to correlate with the urea concentrations over a linear response range of 50–500 mM (R2 = 0.96) with a detection limit of 10 mM urea. The biosensor response time was 9 min with reproducibility of less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD). This optical urea biosensor did not show interferences by Na+, K+, Mg2+ and NH4+ ions. The biosensor performance has been validated using urine samples in comparison with a non-enzymatic method based on the use of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) reagent and demonstrated a good correlation between the two different methods (R2 = 0.996 and regression slope of 1.0307). The SiO2NPs-based reflectometric urea biosensor showed improved dynamic linear response range when compared to other nanoparticle-based optical urea biosensors. PMID:25054632

Alqasaimeh, Muawia; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Musa; Raj, A.S. Santhana; Ling, Tan Ling

2014-01-01

372

Relationship of severity of subacute ruminal acidosis to rumen fermentation, chewing activities, sorting behavior, and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed a high-grain diet.  

PubMed

The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the variation in severity of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) among lactating dairy cows fed a high-grain diet and to determine factors characterizing animals that are tolerant to high-grain diets. Sixteen ruminally cannulated late-lactating dairy cows (days in milk=282 ± 33.8; body weight=601 ± 75.9 kg) were fed a high-grain diet consisting of 35% forage and 65% concentrate mix. After 17 d of diet adaptation, chewing activities were monitored for a 24-h period and ruminal pH was measured every 30s for 72 h. Acidosis index, defined as the severity of SARA (area of pH <5.8) divided by dry matter intake (DMI), was determined for individual animals to assess the severity of SARA normalized for a feed intake level. Although all cows were fed the same diet, minimum pH values ranged from 5.16 to 6.04, and the acidosis index ranged from 0.0 to 10.9 pH · min/kg of DMI. Six cows with the lowest acidosis index (0.04 ± 0.61 pH · min/kg) and 4 with the highest acidosis index (7.67 ± 0.75 pH · min/kg) were classified as animals that were tolerant and susceptible to the high-grain diet, respectively. Total volatile fatty acid concentration and volatile fatty acid profile were not different between the groups. Susceptible animals sorted against long particles, whereas tolerant animals did not (sorting index=87.6 vs. 97.9, respectively). However, the tolerant cows had shorter total chewing time (35.8 vs. 45.1 min/kg of DMI). In addition, although DMI, milk yield, and milk component yields did not differ between the groups, milk urea nitrogen concentration was higher for tolerant cows compared with susceptible cows (12.8 vs. 8.6 mg/dL), which is possibly attributed to less organic matter fermentation in the rumen of tolerant cows. These results suggest that a substantial variation exists in the severity of SARA among lactating dairy cows fed the same high-grain diet, and that cows tolerant to the high-grain diet might be characterized by less sorting behavior but less chewing time, and higher milk urea nitrogen concentration. PMID:24612805

Gao, X; Oba, M

2014-05-01

373

Maximizing the value of milk through separation technologies.  

PubMed

Milk is the source of a wide range of proteins that deliver nutrition to the most promising new food products today. Isolated milk proteins are natural, trusted food ingredients with excellent functionality. Separation technologies provide the basis for adding value to milk through the production of proteins that provide the food industry with ingredients to meet specific needs, not possible with milk itself or with other ingredients. The major milk proteins, casein and whey protein, can be isolated by manipulating their compositional and physical properties and then by using various separation technologies to recover the proteins. Additionally, they can be processed in various ways to create a wide range of ingredients with diverse functional characteristics. These ingredients include milk protein concentrate, milk protein isolate, casein, caseinate, whey protein concentrate, whey protein isolate, hydrolysates, and various milk fractions. Within each of these ingredient categories, there is further differentiation according to the functional and nutritional requirements of the finished food. Adding value to milk by expanding from consumer products to ingredients often requires different technologies, marketing structure and distribution channels. The worldwide market for both consumer products and ingredients from milk continues to grow. Technology often precedes market demand. Methods for the commercial production of individual milk components now exist, and in the future as clinical evidence develops, the opportunity for adding value to dairy products as functional foods with health benefits may be achieved. The research and development of today will be the basis of those value-added milk products for tomorrow. PMID:10531613

Huffman, L M; Harper, W J

1999-10-01

374

Mammary cisternal size, cisternal milk and milk ejection in Murrah buffaloes.  

PubMed

The internal arrangement of the mammary gland cavity system, cisternal and alveolar milk fractions and the characteristics of milk ejection were investigated in buffaloes. Twenty-four Murrah buffaloes in three different stages of lactation and of two age groups were used. Continuous ultrasound cross-sections during milk ejection induced by exogenous oxytocin were performed to record the latency period of milk ejection. Buffaloes had small cisterns and the cavity area in the teat and gland regions were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The animals had long teat canals (3.1 +/- 0.1 cm), longer in the hind than fore quarters. Cisternal milk yield was low (0.17 +/- 0.01 kg) and cisternal fraction was only 4.9 +/- 0.1% of the total milk. The cisternal area (cm2) was 69.6 +/- 4.6, 51.61 +/- 4.8 and 26.01 +/- 4.8 while the cisternal yield (kg) was 0.32 +/- 0.05, 0.18 +/- 0.05 and 0.05 +/- 0.05 in early, mid and late lactation, respectively. A close correlation (r = 0.87, P < 0.05) existed between the ultrasound cisternal area and cisternal milk yield. The latency period of induced milk ejection was similar to that reported for cows (25 +/- 1 s) and was negatively correlated with milk yield (r = -0.75, P < 0.05). Milk ejection occurred shortly after elevated oxytocin concentrations were present. Delayed milk ejection reported earlier in this species must therefore be due to the absence of cisternal milk and delayed oxytocin release. An increase in teat length and circumference at milk ejection was also evident in the ultrasound cross sections. PMID:15190943

Thomas, Chirathalattu S; Svennersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin; Bhosrekar, Madhukar R; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

2004-05-01

375

Urea reduction ratio that considers effects of ultrafiltration and intradialytic urea generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We modified the urea reduction ratio (URR) equation to correct the effects of ultrafiltration and intradialytic urea generation on the delivered dose of hemodialysis: muRR = 1?R1+2?UFBW+0.01?t×100% where mURR is modified URR, R is postdialysis plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) to predialysis PUN ratio, UF is ultrafiltrate volume in liters, BW is postdialysis body weight in kilograms, and t is dialysis

Yuk Lun Cheng; Koon Shing Choi; Ka Foon Chau; Chun Sang Li; Cheen Unn Yung; Alex W Yu; Kwan Keung Wong

2001-01-01

376

Urea release from silicate- and polymer-coated urea in water and a simulated wetland soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urea release rates in water (38°C) and in a simulated wetland soil system under greenhouse conditions from silicate- and polymer-coated urea (SPCU) materials have been studied. The SPCU materials were prepared by the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Seoul, Korea, in cooperation with the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC). Average urea release (\\u000a$$\\\\overline {UR} $$\\u000a)

NK Savant; AF James; GH McClellan

1983-01-01

377

Unfolding mechanism of lysozyme in various urea solutions: Insights from fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence spectroscopic technique is very popular in exploring the folding/unfolding process of proteins. In this paper, unfolding process of hen egg-white lysozyme was investigated in various denaturing solutions. Firstly, polymer solution theory was employed to comprehend the dependence of fluorescence quenching effect on protein concentration, and dynamic contact concentration was suggested as a critical value for related fluorescence experiment. Secondly, it was found that urea alone could not completely unfold lysozyme but did when together with DTT or HCl. Lysozyme was destabilized in concentrated urea solution, but still could maintain its spatial structure. Phase diagram of fluorescence intensities revealed that HCl could enhance the denaturing capacity of urea, resulting in the emergence of intermediate state in the thermodynamic unfolding process of lysozyme.

Chen, Bang; Zhang, Hongjia; Xi, Wenying; Zhao, Liqing; Liang, Li; Chen, Yantao

2014-11-01

378

Antibacterial kaolinite/urea/chlorhexidine nanocomposites: Experiment and molecular modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clay minerals are commonly used materials in pharmaceutical production both as inorganic carriers or active agents. The purpose of this study is the preparation and characterization of clay/antibacterial drug hybrids which can be further included in drug delivery systems for treatment oral infections. Novel nanocomposites with antibacterial properties were successfully prepared by ion exchange reaction from two types of kaolinite/urea intercalates and chlorhexidine diacetate. Intercalation compounds of kaolinite were prepared by reaction with solid urea in the absence of solvents (dry method) as well as with urea aqueous solution (wet method). The antibacterial activity of two prepared samples against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated by finding the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Antibacterial studies of both samples showed the lowest MIC values (0.01%, w/v) after 1 day against E. faecalis, E. coli and S. aureus. A slightly worse antibacterial activity was observed against P. aeruginosa (MIC 0.12%, w/v) after 1 day. Since samples showed very good antibacterial activity, especially after 1 day of action, this means that these samples can be used as long-acting antibacterial materials. Prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The experimental data are supported by results of molecular modelling.

Holešová, Sylva; Valášková, Marta; Hlavá?, Dominik; Madejová, Jana; Samlíková, Magda; Tokarský, Jonáš; Pazdziora, Erich

2014-06-01

379

Differential stability of the bovine prion protein upon urea unfolding  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are a group of infectious neurological diseases associated with the structural conversion of an endogenous protein (PrP) in the central nervous system. There are two major forms of this protein: the native and noninfectious cellular form, PrPC; and the misfolded, infectious, and proteinase K-resistant form, PrPSc. The C-terminal domain of PrPC is mainly ?-helical in structure, whereas PrPSc in known to aggregate into an assembly of ?-sheets, forming amyloid fibrils. To identify the regions of PrPC potentially involved in the initial steps of the conversion to the infectious conformation, we have used high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to characterize the stability and structure of bovine recombinant PrPC (residues 121 to 230) during unfolding with the denaturant urea. Analysis of the 800 MHz 1H NMR spectra reveals region-specific information about the structural changes occurring upon unfolding. Our data suggest that the dissociation of the native ?-sheet of PrPC is a primary step in the urea-induced unfolding process, while strong hydrophobic interactions between helices ?1 and ?3, and between ?2 and ?3, stabilize these regions even at very high concentrations of urea. PMID:19693935

Julien, Olivier; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu; Thiessen, Angela; Graether, Steffen P; Sykes, Brian D

2009-01-01

380

Developing Hypothetical Inhibition Mechanism of Novel Urea Transporter B Inhibitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urea transporter B (UT-B) is a membrane channel protein that specifically transports urea. UT-B null mouse exhibited urea selective urine concentrating ability deficiency, which suggests the potential clinical applications of the UT-B inhibitors as novel diuretics. Primary high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) of 50000 small-molecular drug-like compounds identified 2319 hit compounds. These 2319 compounds were screened by high-throughput screening using an erythrocyte osmotic lysis assay. Based on the pharmacological data, putative UT-B binding sites were identified by structure-based drug design and validated by ligand-based and QSAR model. Additionally, UT-B structural and functional characteristics under inhibitors treated and untreated conditions were simulated by molecular dynamics (MD). As the result, we identified four classes of compounds with UT-B inhibitory activity and predicted a human UT-B model, based on which computative binding sites were identified and validated. A novel potential mechanism of UT-B inhibitory activity was discovered by comparing UT-B from different species. Results suggest residue PHE198 in rat and mouse UT-B might block the inhibitor migration pathway. Inhibitory mechanisms of UT-B inhibitors and the functions of key residues in UT-B were proposed. The binding site analysis provides a structural basis for lead identification and optimization of UT-B inhibitors.

Li, Min; Tou, Weng Ieong; Zhou, Hong; Li, Fei; Ren, Huiwen; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian; Yang, Baoxue

2014-07-01

381

ESTIMATION OF BOVINE CARCASS COMPOSITION BY THE UREA DILUTION TECHNIQUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY One hundred and thirteen beef type steers of varying live weight and degrees of fatness were used to study the reliability and usefulness of urea space measured at varying times after urea infusion for estimating body composition in the live animal. Urea space measured 12 min following urea infusion proved to be the best time as judged from correlation

S. W. Kock; R. L. Preston

2010-01-01

382

Urea and deuterium mixtures at high pressures.  

PubMed

Urea, like many network forming compounds, has long been known to form inclusion (guest-host) compounds. Unlike other network formers like water, urea is not known to form such inclusion compounds with simple molecules like hydrogen. Such compounds if they existed would be of interest both for the fundamental insight they provide into molecular bonding and as potential gas storage systems. Urea has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material [T. A. Strobel et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 97 (2009)]. Here, we report the results of high-pressure neutron diffraction studies of urea and D2 mixtures that indicate no inclusion compound forms up to 3.7 GPa. PMID:25833592

Donnelly, M; Bull, C L; Husband, R J; Frantzana, A D; Klotz, S; Loveday, J S

2015-03-28

383

What Is a Urea Cycle Disorder?  

MedlinePLUS

... involves a series of biochemical steps in which nitrogen, a waste product of protein metabolism, is removed ... from the body. In urea cycle disorders, the nitrogen accumulates in the form of ammonia, a highly ...

384

High nonlinear optical anisotropy of urea nanofibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanofibers consisting of the optically nonlinear organic molecule urea embedded in both poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymers were produced by the electrospinning technique. The second-harmonic generation produced by aligned fiber mats of these materials displays a strong dependence on the polarization of the incident light. In PVA-urea nanofibers the effectiveness in generating of the second-harmonic light is as high as that of a pure urea powder with an average grain size of 110 ?m. The results suggest that single crystalline urea nanofibers were achieved with a long-range crystalline order extending into the range of 2-4 ?m with PVA as the host polymer.

Isakov, D.; de Matos Gomes, E.; Belsley, M.; Almeida, B.; Martins, A.; Neves, N.; Reis, R.

2010-07-01

385

Detection of Interstellar Urea with Carma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urea, a molecule discovered in human urine by H. M. Rouelle in 1773, has a significant role in prebiotic chemistry. Previous BIMA observations have suggested that interstellar urea [(NH_2)_2CO] is a compact hot core molecule such as other large molecules, e.g. methyl formate and acetic acid (2009, 64th OSU Symposium On Molecular Spectroscopy, WI05). We have conducted an extensive search

H.-L. Kuo; L. E. Snyder; D. N. Friedel; L. W. Looney; B. J. McCall; A. J. Remijan; F. J. Lovas; J. M. Hollis

2010-01-01

386

a Search for Interstellar Urea with Carma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urea, a molecule discovered in human urine by H. M Rouelle in 1773, also plays a significant role in prebiotic chemistry. Previous BIMA observations have suggested that interstellar urea [(NH_2)_2CO] is a compact hot core molecule such as the other large molecules methyl formate and acetic acid (2008, 63rd OSU Symposium On Molecular Spectroscopy, RF11). We have conducted an extensive

H.-L. Kuo; L. E. Snyder; D. N. Friedel; L. W. Looney; B. J. McCall; A. J. Remijan; F. J. Lovas; J. M. Hollis

2009-01-01

387

Effects of urea on the molecules involved in the olfactory signal transduction: a preliminary study on Danio rerio.  

PubMed

Among vertebrates, the physiologically uremic Chondrichthyes are the only class which are not presenting the ciliated olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory neuroepithelium. The only sequenced genome for this class revealed only three olfactory receptor genes and the immunohistochemical detection of G protein alpha subunit typically coupled to the olfactory receptors (G?(olf)) failed in different species. Chronic renal disease can represent a cause of olfactory impairment in human. In this context, our present study focused on investigating potential effects of high urea concentration on the olfactory epithelium of vertebrates. Larvae of the teleost fish Danio rerio were exposed to urea in order to assess the effects on the olfactory signal transduction; in particular on both the olfactory receptors and the G?(olf). The endocytosis of neutral red dye in the olfactory mucosa was detected in control and urea-exposed larvae. The amount of neutral red dye uptake was used as a marker of binding and internalization of the G?(olf). The neutral red dye endocytosis was not affected by urea exposure, hence suggesting that the presence of the G?(olf) and their binding to the odorants are not affected by urea treatment, either. The presence and distribution of G?(olf) were investigated in the olfactory epithelium of control and urea-exposed larvae, using a commercial antibody. The immunoreactivity was increased after urea treatment, suggesting an effect of urea on the expression or degradation of this G protein alpha subunit. PMID:25092237

Ferrando, Sara; Gallus, Lorenzo; Gambardella, Chiara; Marchesotti, Emiliano; Ravera, Silvia; Franceschini, Valeria; Masini, Maria Angela

2014-12-01

388

Mechanisms of molecular transport through the urea channel of Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori survival in acidic environments relies on cytoplasmic hydrolysis of gastric urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, which buffer the pathogen’s periplasm. Urea uptake is greatly enhanced and regulated by HpUreI, a proton-gated inner membrane channel protein essential for gastric survival of H. pylori. The crystal structure of HpUreI describes a static snapshot of the channel with two constriction sites near the center of the bilayer that are too narrow to allow passage of urea or even water. Here we describe the urea transport mechanism at atomic resolution, revealed by unrestrained microsecond equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the hexameric channel assembly. Two consecutive constrictions open to allow conduction of urea, which is guided through the channel by interplay between conserved residues that determine proton rejection and solute selectivity. Remarkably, HpUreI conducts water at rates equivalent to aquaporins, which might be essential for efficient transport of urea at small concentration gradients. PMID:24305683

McNulty, Reginald; Ulmschneider, Jakob P.; Luecke, Hartmut; Ulmschneider, Martin B.

2013-01-01

389

Mechanisms of molecular transport through the urea channel of Helicobacter pylori  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helicobacter pylori survival in acidic environments relies on cytoplasmic hydrolysis of gastric urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, which buffer the pathogen’s periplasm. Urea uptake is greatly enhanced and regulated by HpUreI, a proton-gated inner membrane channel protein essential for gastric survival of H. pylori. The crystal structure of HpUreI describes a static snapshot of the channel with two constriction sites near the center of the bilayer that are too narrow to allow passage of urea or even water. Here we describe the urea transport mechanism at atomic resolution, revealed by unrestrained microsecond equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the hexameric channel assembly. Two consecutive constrictions open to allow conduction of urea, which is guided through the channel by interplay between conserved residues that determine proton rejection and solute selectivity. Remarkably, HpUreI conducts water at rates equivalent to aquaporins, which might be essential for efficient transport of urea at small concentration gradients.

McNulty, Reginald; Ulmschneider, Jakob P.; Luecke, Hartmut; Ulmschneider, Martin B.

2013-12-01

390

Mechanisms of molecular transport through the urea channel of Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori survival in acidic environments relies on cytoplasmic hydrolysis of gastric urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, which buffer the pathogen's periplasm. Urea uptake is greatly enhanced and regulated by HpUreI, a proton-gated inner membrane channel protein essential for gastric survival of H. pylori. The crystal structure of HpUreI describes a static snapshot of the channel with two constriction sites near the center of the bilayer that are too narrow to allow passage of urea or even water. Here we describe the urea transport mechanism at atomic resolution, revealed by unrestrained microsecond equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the hexameric channel assembly. Two consecutive constrictions open to allow conduction of urea, which is guided through the channel by interplay between conserved residues that determine proton rejection and solute selectivity. Remarkably, HpUreI conducts water at rates equivalent to aquaporins, which might be essential for efficient transport of urea at small concentration gradients. PMID:24305683

McNulty, Reginald; Ulmschneider, Jakob P; Luecke, Hartmut; Ulmschneider, Martin B

2013-01-01

391

The effect of milk production level on host resistance of dairy cows, as assessed by the severity of experimental Escherichia coli mastitis.  

PubMed

This study investigated the possible effects of milk production level on the host resistance of dairy cows. High (n = 18) and low (n = 18) producing cows on a research farm, which respectively produced 11 443 and 7 727 kg milk in their previous lactation, were compared. To enhance the possible differences in host resistance between high and low producing cows, the animals in both groups were metabolically stressed by overfeeding during the dry period or were fed according to requirements, resulting in four groups of nine cows. The metabolic status was monitored from two weeks pre-partum until 2.5-4.5 weeks post-partum. Host resistance was assessed by measuring the severity of experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis. Pre-partum blood glucose levels tended to be higher in overfed cows than in cows fed according to requirements. The post-partum energy balance was significantly more negative in high producing cows than in low producers, and tended to be more negative in overfed cows compared to cows fed according to the requirements. Post-partum plasma glucose, NEFA, beta-OH-butyrate and urea concentrations were similar in the four groups. Plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lower and liver triacylglycerol concentrations were significantly higher in third than in second parity cows. Host resistance was not affected by the production level or feeding regimen. There were no significant correlations between the metabolic status and the severity of experimental E. coli mastitis, except for the relatively more severe mastitis in the cows with beta-OH-butyrate concentrations above 1.4 mmol/L. In conclusion, milk production level did not affect host resistance in dairy cows, as measured by the severity of experimental E. coli mastitis. Even in a situation where cows were metabolically stressed by overfeeding, high producers were as able as low producers to cope with the demands of milk production, without consequences for host resistance. PMID:14746768

Kornalijnslijper, Esther; Beerda, Bonne; Daemen, Ineke; van der Werf, Joop; van Werven, Tine; Niewold, Theo; Rutten, Victor; Noordhuizen-Stassen, Elsbeth

2003-01-01

392

Effects of Different Protein Supplements on Milk Production and Nutrient Utilization in Lactating Dairy Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen (8 ruminally cannulated) multiparous and 8 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in 6 replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares to test the effects of feeding supplemental protein as urea, solvent soybean meal (SSBM), cottonseed meal (CSM), or canola meal (CM) on milk production, nutrient utilization, and ru- minal metabolism. All diets contained (% of DM) 21% alfalfa silage

A. F. Brito; G. A. Broderick

2007-01-01

393

Effects of Different Protein Supplements on Milk Production and Nutrient Utilization in Lactating Dairy Cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sixteen (8 ruminally cannulated) multiparous and 8 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in 6 replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares to test the effects of feeding supplemental protein as urea, solvent soybean meal (SSBM), cottonseed meal (CSM), or canola meal (CM) on milk production, nutrient utili...

394

Diffusion Flame Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles using Urea Assisted Precursor Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroxyapatite (HA) or (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 has been widely used in orthopedics and dental applications for human bone implant and teeth filler due to their biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties. Fine to nanoparticles of HA with appropriate stoichiometry and purity are preferred because they enhance densification and bioactive properties. Here, we reported the synthesis of hydroxyapatite particles in a diffusion flame reactor. LPG mainly consisting of butane and propane was used as fuel and compressed air was used as oxidizer and carrier gas. The effects of urea adding into precursor on morphology and crystallinity of the generated particles were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to observe particles morphology and crystallinity, respectively. Purity of the generated particles was analyzed quantitatively from XRD pattern using Rietveld method. Spherical shape of particles morphology was obtained for particles synthesized without urea added into precursor. Increasing fuel flow rate and urea concentration led to further disintegration of the generated particles. Nano sized particles were generated using fuel flow rate of 1 L/min and 30 w% concentration of urea added into precursor. However, increasing urea concentration led to the increase of tricalcium phosphate as a further reaction of hydroxyapatite for flame generated by using LPG as fuel of 1 L/min.

Widiyastuti; Setiawan, Adhi; Setyawan, Heru; Kusdianto; Nurtono, Tantular; Nia, Suci Madha; Winardi, Sugeng

2011-12-01

395