The goals of this study were to determine the influence of the variations among udder quarters, the somatic cell count, the time of sampling during the day, sample conservation, and centrifugation on milk urea (UREA) concentrations, and to propose a sample collection procedure for herds that are not on a Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) program. Forty cows from 2 herds with different feeding practices were randomly selected. The quarter sampled and the somatic cell count did not significantly influence UREA concentrations. Milk urea concentrations were highest in the morning. The diurnal pattern was not influenced by intrinsic factors like parity, days postpartum, or daily milk yield. The UREA concentrations were significantly higher after refrigeration for one week (mean UREA change = +0.41 +/- 0.24 mmol/L, P = 0.0001) and freezing for one month (mean UREA change = +1.52 +/- 1.25 mmol/L, P = 0.0001). Urea concentrations were slightly higher in lactoserum than in whole milk (mean UREA difference = +0.17 +/- 0.24 mmol/L, P = 0.0001). Although this study included only 2 herds and does not allow extrapolation, differences were found in the diurnal pattern of UREA in these 2 herds, which possibly reflect differences in feeding strategy. With consideration of these results, a 6-point sampling procedure for herds that are not on a DHI program is proposed.
Eicher, R; Bouchard, E; Tremblay, A
Milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) has been shown to be related to excretion of urinary urea N (UUN; g of N/d) and total excretion of urinary N (UN; g of N/d) in dairy cows. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that MUN and the relationship between MUN and UUN or UN is affected by urine volume as a result of dietary sodium chloride intake. Twelve lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (mean ± SD: milk production 28.1±3.23 kg/d and 190±41 d in milk), of which 4 were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein, were randomly assigned to 4 dietary levels of sodium chloride (3, 9, 14, and 19 g of Na/kg of DM) according to a triple 4×4 Latin square design. Cows were fed at 95% of ad libitum intake, excluding salt addition. Milk was analyzed for MUN and protein content; urine was analyzed for total N, urea, and creatinine content; feces were analyzed for total N and DM content; and blood plasma was analyzed for urea and creatinine content. Creatinine clearance rate (CCR; L/min) and renal urea reabsorption ratio were estimated based on plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine, and total excretion of urea and creatinine in urine. Intake of DM and N, milk production, and milk protein content were (mean ± SD), on average, 21.4±1.24 kg/d, 522±32.0 g/d, 25.4±2.53 kg/d, and 3.64±0.186%, respectively. A linear relationship was found between Na intake and urine production [urine (kg/d; mean ± SE)=7.5±4.33+0.136±0.0143 × Na intake (g/d)] and between Na intake and MUN [MUN (mg/dL; mean ± SE)=13.5±0.35-0.0068±0.00104 × Na intake (g/d)]. Despite the decrease in MUN with increased Na intake, UN excretion increased linearly with Na intake. Excretion of UUN was not affected by dietary Na content. A linear plateau relationship was observed between CCR and renal urea reabsorption. An increase in CCR coincided with an increase in calculated renal urea reabsorption until a CCR breakpoint value (mean ± SD) of 1.56±0.063 L/min was reached. We conclude that Na intake is negatively related to MUN, whereas UUN is not affected. Variation in mineral intake levels that affect urine volume should, therefore, be taken into account when using MUN as an indicator of UUN in dairy cattle. PMID:23063155
Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J
Data from 35 trials with 482 lactating cows fed 106 diets were used to study the effects of animal and dietary factors on the relationship between milk and blood urea N and the value of milk urea N in the assessment of protein status. In two trials, urea N in whole blood and in blood plasma were closely related (r2
Glen A. Broderick; Murray K. Clayton
Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) is correlated with N balance, N intake, and dietary N content, and thus is a good indicator of proper feeding management with respect to protein. It is commonly used to monitor feeding programs to achieve environmental goals; however, genetic diversity also exists among cows. It was hypothesized that phenotypic diversity among cows could bias feed management decisions when monitoring tools do not consider genetic diversity associated with MUN. The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of cow and herd variation on MUN. Data from 2 previously published research trials and a field trial were subjected to multivariate regression analyses using a mixed model. Analyses of the research trial data showed that MUN concentrations could be predicted equally well from diet composition, milk yield, and milk components regardless of whether dry matter intake was included in the regression model. This indicated that cow and herd variation could be accurately estimated from field trial data when feed intake was not known. Milk urea N was correlated with dietary protein and neutral detergent fiber content, milk yield, milk protein content, and days in milk for both data sets. Cow was a highly significant determinant of MUN regardless of the data set used, and herd trended to significance for the field trial data. When all other variables were held constant, a percentage unit change in dietary protein concentration resulted in a 1.1mg/dL change in MUN. Least squares means estimates of MUN concentrations across herds ranged from a low of 13.6 mg/dL to a high of 17.3 mg/dL. If the observed MUN for the high herd were caused solely by high crude protein feeding, then the herd would have to reduce dietary protein to a concentration of 12.8% of dry matter to achieve a MUN concentration of 12 mg/dL, likely resulting in lost milk production. If the observed phenotypic variation is due to genetic differences among cows, genetic choices could result in herds that exceed target values for MUN when adhering to best management practices, which is consistent with the trend for differences in MUN among herds. PMID:23040023
Aguilar, M; Hanigan, M D; Tucker, H A; Jones, B L; Garbade, S K; McGilliard, M L; Stallings, C C; Knowlton, K F; James, R E
Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows.
Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl) intake separately, and their interaction, on MUN and UUN, on the relationship between UUN and MUN, on renal recycling of urea, and on urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract. Twelve second-parity cows (body weight of 645±37 kg, 146±29 d in milk, and a milk production of 34.0±3.28 kg/d), of which 8 were previously fitted with a rumen cannula, were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein. The experiment had a split-plot arrangement with dietary crude protein (CP) content as the main plot factor [116 and 154 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)] and dietary NaCl content as the subplot factor (3.1 and 13.5 g of Na/kg of DM). Cows were fed at 95% of the average ad libitum feed intake of cows receiving the low protein diets. Average MUN and UUN were, respectively, 3.90 mg of N/dL and 45 g of N/d higher for the high protein diets compared with the low protein diets. Compared with the low NaCl diets, MUN was, on average, 1.74 mg of N/dL lower for the high NaCl diets, whereas UUN was unaffected. We found no interaction between dietary content of protein and NaCl on performance characteristics or on MUN, UUN, urine production, and renal clearance characteristics. The creatinine clearance rate was not affected by dietary content of protein and NaCl. Urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract, expressed as a fraction of plasma urea entry rate, was negatively related to dietary protein, whereas it was not affected by dietary NaCl content. We found no interaction between dietary protein and NaCl content on plasma urea entry rate and gastrointestinal urea entry rate or their ratio. The relationship between MUN and UUN was significantly affected by the class variable dietary NaCl content: UUN=-17.7±7.24 + 10.09±1.016 × MUN + 2.26±0.729 × MUN (for high NaCl); R(2)=0.85. Removal of the MUN × NaCl interaction term lowered the coefficient of determination from 0.85 to 0.77. In conclusion, dietary protein content is positively related to MUN and UUN, whereas dietary NaCl content is negatively correlated to MUN but NaCl content is not related to UUN. We found no interaction between dietary protein and NaCl content on performance, MUN, UUN, or renal urea recycling, nor on plasma urea entry rate and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract. For a proper interpretation of the relationship between MUN and UUN, the effect of dietary NaCl should be taken into account, but we found no evidence that the effect of dietary NaCl on MUN is dependent on dietary protein content. PMID:23871366
Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J
Large variation exists in the potassium content of dairy cow feeds and also within a feed type due to soil type and fertilization. Increased ration K concentration causes a subsequent increase in urinary volume and could be expected to also lower milk urea concentration. Six multiparous mid-lactation Swedish Red dairy cows, all fitted with rumen cannulas, were subjected to 3 different levels of K intake in a Latin square experiment with three 2-wk periods to evaluate the effects on concentrations of milk urea and rumen ammonia, urinary output, and drinking water intake. The treatments were achieved by K supplementation on top of a low-K basal ration fed at individual allowances fixed throughout the experiment. The basal ration, consumed at 20.2kg of dry matter (DM)/d, provided 165g of crude protein/kg of DM and consisted of grass silage, concentrates, and urea in the proportions 39.3:60.0:0.7 on a DM basis. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation was 0, 616, and 1,142g/d, respectively, to give total ration K concentrations that were low (LO; 12g/kg of DM), medium (MED; 23g/kg of DM), or high (HI; 32g/kg of DM). Production and composition of milk was not affected by treatment. A linear effect on milk urea concentration was detected, being 4.48, 4.18, and 3.77mM for LO, MED, and HI, respectively, and a linear tendency for rumen ammonia concentration with 6.65, 6.51, and 5.84mg of NH3-N/dL for LO, MED, and HI, respectively. Milk urea concentration peaked about 3h after the rumen ammonia peak from the morning feeding, at a level 1.3mM over the baseline. Urinary urea excretion declined linearly (105, 103, and 98g of urea-N/d for LO, MED, and HI, respectively). Linear increases occurred in urinary output (0.058±0.001kg of urine/g of K intake; no intercept; coefficient of determination=0.997) and drinking water intake (65.9±2.02 + 0.069±0.004kg of water/g of K intake; coefficient of determination=0.95). Urinary K concentration leveled off at 12.4g/L. Urinary creatinine excretion was not affected by K addition, but allantoin excretion increased linearly by 27% from LO to HI, suggesting increased rumen microbial growth. Rumen pH, acetate proportion of total volatile fatty acids, and digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber increased linearly with increasing potassium intake. We concluded that increased ration K concentration lowers milk urea concentration with a magnitude significant for the interpretation of milk urea values, but other sources of variation, such as sampling time relative to feeding, may be even more important. PMID:24835966
Eriksson, T; Rustas, B-O
During recent decades, efforts have been made in several countries to diminish the negative environmental influence of dairy production. The main focus has been on nitrogen and phosphorus. Modern dairy production in Western Europe is often based on imported feed-stuffs, mostly protein-rich feeds. In Sweden at least, it is wished that the use of imported feedstuffs in animal production will decrease due to the risk of contamination with Salmonella and the ban of using GMO crops in Swedish dairy production. An experiment was carried out to investigate whether a lower content of crude protein in the diet would decrease the ammonia release from cow manure and whether a well-balanced diet using only feedstuffs of Swedish origin would maintain milk production. Five treatments were arranged in a Latin square design. Two different protein supplements made of ingredients of Swedish origin were each fed at two protein levels, and a fifth imported commercial protein mix was fed at the higher level. The treatments with low protein levels (13.1 to 13.5%) had a significantly lower milk yield, kilograms of ECM, but, on the other hand the net profit, milk income minus feed cost was nearly the same in all treatments except diet C, which had lower feed cost but also lower net profit due to lower milk yield. The content of urea in milk was higher with diets high in crude protein (17%) content. A decreased protein level in the diets did not influence the content of casein or whey protein, but the commercial concentrate showed a tendency to give lower values than the Swedish mixtures. The low protein diets gave significantly lower ammonia release from manure compared with the high protein diets. There were no production differences between the diets of Swedish feeds compared with the imported control. The readily fermentable beet pulp should have helped cows use the higher N diet more efficiently and increased the response. This gives the rumen microbes a possibility to match the inflow of protein with carbohydrates. Income over feed costs shows that it is possible to compile diets using products of Swedish origin and still be competitive. On the other hand, this structure may change quickly due to altered world market prices. PMID:12201534
Frank, B; Swensson, C
The objectives of this study were to determine the relationships between milk urea N and days in milk, parity, and season in Iranian Holstein cows. Twelve Iranian commercial dairy herds participated in a 13-mo study from December 1, 2008, to December 31, 2009. All cows were milked 3 times daily, housed in freestalls, and fed a total mixed ration twice a day. Mean milk urea N over the study period was 16.0mg/dL. Mean milk urea N, categorized by 30-d increments of days in milk, paralleled changes in milk values and followed a curvilinear shape. However, milk urea N concentration reached a maximum at the fifth month of days in milk, but milk production reached a maximum at the third month. The concentration of milk urea N was lower during the first 30 d in milk category compared with all other days in milk categories. Overall mean milk urea N concentration of Holstein cows in the third and greater lactations was lower than in the first or second lactation. Milk urea N was at its lowest level in December (13 mg/dL), increased in the spring and summer months, and reached a maximum in July (18.8 mg/dL). From that point, milk urea N concentration progressively diminished to the autumn-winter level. In this study, milk urea N concentration was positively correlated with monthly temperature mean and may be a reason for the lower reproductive performance during the summer months. It has been recommended that milk urea N concentration should be evaluated in association with parity, days in milk, and season (or month). These variables should be considered potential sources of misinterpretation when exploring the relationship between milk urea N and nutritional management or measures of performance. PMID:22916921
Fatehi, F; Zali, A; Honarvar, M; Dehghan-banadaky, M; Young, A J; Ghiasvand, M; Eftekhari, M
Background. Dialysis dose is commonly defined as a clearance scaled to some measure of body size, but the toxicity of uraemic solutes is probably associated more to their concentrations than to their clearance. Methods. 619 dialysis sessions of 35 patients were modified by computer simulations targeting a constant urea clearance or a constant urea concentration. Results. Urea generation rate G varied widely in dialysis patients, rather independently of body size. Dialysing to eKt/V 1.2 in an unselected patient population resulted in great variations in time-averaged concentration (TAC) and average predialysis concentration (PAC) of urea (5.9–40.2 and 8.6–55.8?mmol/L, resp.). Dialysing to equal clearance targets scaled to urea distribution volume resulted in higher concentrations in women. Dialysing to the mean HEMO-equivalent TAC or PAC (17.7 and 25.4?mmol/L) required extremely short or long treatment times in about half of the sessions. Conclusions. The relation between G and V varies greatly and seems to be different in women and men. Dialysing to a constant urea concentration may result in unexpected concentrations of other uraemic toxins and is not recommended, but high concentrations may justify increasing the dose despite adequate eKt/V, std?EKR, or std?K/V.
ABSTRACT Milk urea content as an indicator of nutritional status may,be a useful tool if major,sources of variation are consid- ered. Blood and milk samples were col- lected frequently during 16 to 19 h from four Holstein cows to study diurnal vari- ation of urea content. Corn silage, alfalfa hay, and concentrates were fed. Rumen ammonia, VFA, and pH were
D. L. Palmquist
With the widespread consumption of milk, the complete characterization of the constituents of milk and milk products is important in terms of functionality and safety. In this study, a novel nonreducing carbohydrate was separated from powdered skim milk and was identified using electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (m/z 385.1[M + H(+)]), ¹H, ¹³C, ¹H¹H-correlation spectroscopy, and heteronuclear single quantum-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The carbohydrate was identified as a lactose derivative of urea, N-carbamoyl-o-?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-D-glucopyranosylamine (lactose ureide, LU). For the HPLC analysis of LU in milk and milk products, benzoylated LU, hepta-o-benzoyl lactose ureide (melting point 137-139°C; m/z 1,113 [M + H?]; wavelength of maximum absorption, ?(max), 229 nm; molar extinction coefficient, ?, 8.1037 × 10?), was used as a standard. The crude nonreducing carbohydrate fraction from raw milk, thermally processed milk, and milk products such as powdered milks were directly benzoylated and subjected to HPLC analysis using an octadecylsilyl column to determine the quantity of LU. The content of LU in 10% solutions of powdered skim milk and powdered infant formula (5.0±1.1 and 4.9±1.5 mg/L, respectively) were almost 3-fold higher than that of UHT milk (1.6±0.5 mg/L) and higher than that of low-temperature, long-time-processed (pasteurized at 65°C for 30 min) milk (1.2±0.3 mg/L) and the fresh raw milk sample (0.3±0.1 mg/L). A time-course of the LU content in raw milk during heating at 110°C revealed that LU increased with time. From these results, it is likely that LU is formed by the Maillard-type reaction between the lactose and urea in milk and milk products. Because the concentration of LU in milk increased with the degree of processing heat treatment, it could serve as an indicator of the thermal deterioration of milk. Although it is known that the human intestine is unable to digest LU, the gastrointestinal bacteria in human subjects are able to digest and utilize urea nitrogen in formation of essential amino acids that are available to the host human. These findings suggest that LU in milk might have a functional role in human health. PMID:22118076
Suyama, K; Sasaki, A; Oritani, T; Hosono, A
N-ethylmaleimide , p-chloromercuribenzoate, and dioxane revealed no differ- ences in reactions of stability between K-casein, casein, milk, and ungelled and gelled sterile concentrated milks. However, the hydrogen and hydrophobic bond- breaking reagents urea, sodium salicylate, and lithium chloride did not change the stability of caseins and gelled concentrated milk to Ca ++ , but increased that of milk and ungelled
S. NAKAI; K. WILSON; E. O. ttERREID
Four, lactating dairy cows were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of concentrate containing different level of protein at 14 and 18% CP and urea-treated corn silage at 2 and 5% respectively. The treatments were as follows by concentrate containing protein at 14% CP + 2% urea-treated corn silage
Sittisak Khampa; Pala Chaowarat; Rungson Singhalert; Metha Wanapat
Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of urea on ration palatabil- ity, milk yield, and economy of nitrogen utilization. In Experiment 1 concentrate acceptability was studied with 20 cows assigned to two 5 × 5 Latin squares bal- anced for residual effects. Addition of 2.2 and 2.7% urea and 15.9 and 19.0% col~l cobs to the concentrates significantly
H. H. Van Horn; C. F. Foreman; J. E. Rodriguez
The invention relates to a formulated milk concentrate prepared from nonfat dry milk (NFDM) solids, water, and edible oil by a simple, novel method without adding an emulsifier or using specialized dairy equipment such as homogenizers or colloid mills. Th...
G. N. Bookwalter S. A. Lyle
Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008. The development of a rapid, reliable and economic test is of relevance in order to improve adulterated milk identification. Cyclic voltammetry studies using an Au working electrode were performed on adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples from different independent manufacturers. Voltammetric data and their first derivative were subjected to functional principal component analysis (f-PCA) and correctly classified by the KNN classifier. The adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples showed significant differences. Best results of prediction were obtained with first derivative data. Detection limits in milk samples adulterated with 1% of its total nitrogen derived from melamine or urea were as low as 85.0 mg·L?1 and 121.4 mg·L?1, respectively. We present this method as a fast and robust screening method for milk adulteration analysis and prevention of food intoxication.
Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Fauerbach, Jonathan A.; Sacco, Natalia J.; Bonetto, M. Celina; Corton, Eduardo
ABSTRACT The objectives of this study,were,to assess,the rela- tionship,between,urinary,urea N (UUN) excretion,(g\\/ d) and,milk urea N (MUN; mg\\/dL) and to test whether the relationship,was,affected by stage of lactation and thedietarycrudeprotein(CP)content.Twelvelactating multiparous,Holstein cows were randomly,selected and blocked,into 3 groups,of 4 cows,intended,to represent early [123 ± 26 d in milk (DIM); mean,± standard,devia- tion], mid (175 ± 3 DIM), and late (221
S. A. Burgos; J. G. Fadel; E. J. DePeters
Wood plastic composite (WPC) has been prepared with a low grade wood simul ( Salmalia malabarica) of Bangladesh under Co-60 gamma irradiation using MMA as the bulk monomer combined with methanol as the swelling solvent at different urea concentrations. Effect of a second solute such as NVP, TPGDA and TMPTA in the impregnating solution is evaluated. NVP appears to be the best co-additive/second solute among all the additives used to yield the composite with the highest polymer loading (PL) and tensile strength (TS) at 0.5% urea concentration.
Husain, M. M.; Khan, Mubarak A.; Ali, K. M. Idriss; Hasan, A. J. M. Moynul
Wood plastic composite (WPC) has been prepared with a low grade wood simul (Salmalia malabarica) of Bangladesh under Co-60 gamma irradiation using MMA as the bulk monomer combined with methanol as the swelling solvent at different urea concentrations. Effect of a second solute such as NVP, TPGDA and TMPTA in the impregnating solution is evaluated. NVP appears to be the
M. M. Husain; Mubarak A. Khan; K. M. Idriss Ali; A. J. M. Moynul Hasan
The main objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between ammonia emissions from dairy cattle manure and milk urea N (MUN; mg/dL) and to test whether the relationship was affected by stage of lactation and the dietary crude protein (CP) concentration. Twelve lactating multiparous Holstein cows were randomly selected and blocked into 3 groups of 4 cows intended to represent early [123+/-26 d in milk (DIM)], mid (175+/-3 DIM), and late (221+/-12 DIM) lactation stages. Cows within each stage of lactation were randomly assigned to a treatment sequence within a split-plot Latin square design balanced for carryover effects. Stage of lactation formed the main plots (squares) and dietary CP levels (15, 17, 19, and 21% of diet dry matter) formed the subplots. The experimental periods lasted 7 d, with d 1 to 6 used for adjustment to diets and d 7 used for total collection of feces and urine as well as milk sample collection. The feces and urine from each cow were mixed in the proportions in which they were excreted to make slurry that was used to measure ammonia emissions at 22.5 degrees C over 24 h using flux chambers. Samples of manure slurry were taken before and after ammonia emission measurements. The amount of slurry increased by 22% as dietary CP concentration increased from 15 to 21%, largely because of a greater urine volume (25.3 to 37.1 kg/d). Initial urea N concentration increased linearly with dietary CP from 153.5 to 465.2 mg/dL in manure slurries from cows fed 15 to 21% CP diets. Despite the large initial differences, the final concentration of urea N in manure slurries was less than 10.86 mg/dL for all dietary treatments. The final total ammoniacal N concentration in manure slurries increased linearly from 228.2 to 508.7 mg/dL as dietary CP content increased from 15 to 21%. Ammonia emissions from manure slurries ranged between 57 and 149 g of N/d per cow and increased linearly with dietary CP content, but were unaffected by stage of lactation. Ammonia emission expressed as a proportion of N intake increased with percentage CP in the diet from about 12 to 20%, whereas ammonia emission as a proportion of urinary urea N excretion decreased from 67 to 47%. There was a strong relationship between ammonia emission and MUN [ammonia emission (g/d per cow)=25.0 (+/-6.72)+5.03 (+/-0.373) x MUN (mg/dL); R(2)=0.85], which was not different among lactation stages. Milk urea N concentration is one of several factors that allows prediction of ammonia emissions from dairy cattle manure. PMID:20494146
Burgos, S A; Embertson, N M; Zhao, Y; Mitloehner, F M; DePeters, E J; Fadel, J G
We have performed large-scale all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the aggregation behavior of four NFGAIL hexapeptides in the aqueous urea solution, with a urea concentration ranging from 0 to 5 M. We find that urea in general suppresses the peptide aggregation, but suppression slows down in the intermediation concentration regime around 3 M. Two competing mechanisms of urea are determined: urea molecules accumulated near the first solvation shell (FSS) tend to unfold the hexapeptide, which favors aggregation; on the other hand, the tight hydrogen bonds formed between urea and peptide mainchains hinder the association of peptides which disfavors the formation of the ?-sheet. Furthermore, the different nonlinear urea concentration dependences of the urea-peptide and peptide-peptide hydrogen bonds lead to a nonmonotonic behavior, with a weak enhancement in the peptide aggregation around 3 M. PMID:24328094
Cai, Zhuowei; Li, Jingqiang; Yin, Chunji; Yang, Zaixing; Wu, Jianlan; Zhou, Ruhong
The high temperature-short time sterilized concentrated milk product has improved storage stability. The milk has incorporated in it from 0.003 to 0.015 mole per kilogram of milk solids-not-fat of a water soluble, non-toxic, divalent salt of a metal selec...
A. Leviton M. J. Pallansch
We propose a new apparatus and method to estimate accurate urea reduction ratio without influence of any rebound. For this purpose, we have developed an improved version of a chemiluminescence-based urea sensor capable of measuring urea concentration in spent dialysate (CD ) at 2-min intervals. The correlation coefficient between the readouts of the sensor and the conventional enzyme-UV method was 0.97 and the sensor was not affected by 9?mmol/L uric acid, creatinine, or ammonia. Using the urea sensor, CD was measured as a function of dialysis time t during dialysis sessions for various blood flow rates. The urea reduction ratio based on the mass of the urea reduced (m URR) was estimated from the integrated value of CD (t). When in vitro urea concentrations are measured during a dialysis session in model blood (urea solution) at a constant volume (V) in a vessel, the plots of m URR were congruous with theoretical curves of conventional URR calculated based on the one-pool model, and thus the accuracy of m URR was confirmed. On the other hand, in in vivo measurements of CD (t) during dialysis treatment for two patients, the plots of the m URR were not congruous with the theoretical curves of URR. Such a difference between URR and m URR was explained by the deviation of actual dialysis from the one-pool model, and it was concluded that m URR might be accurate under any dialysis condition. PMID:24720411
Ozaki, Masahiro; Hori, Jun'ya; Okabayashi, Tohru
The patent application relates to novel concentrated milk products and a process for making such products. Stable, concentrated milk products are prepared by stabilizing the milk casein at or near its isoelectric point. Milk is thoroughly mixed with sodiu...
D. R. Shenkenberg J. C. Chang B. H. Webb
Urea transporters UT-A2 and UT-B are expressed in epithelia of thin descending limb of Henle's loop and in descending vasa recta, respectively. To study their role and possible interaction in the context of the urine concentration mechanism, a UT-A2 and UT-B double knockout (UT-A2/B knockout) mouse model was generated by targeted deletion of the UT-A2 promoter in embryonic stem cells with UT-B gene knockout. The UT-A2/B knockout mice lacked detectable UT-A2 and UT-B transcripts and proteins and showed normal survival and growth. Daily urine output was significantly higher in UT-A2/B knockout mice than that in wild-type mice and lower than that in UT-B knockout mice. Urine osmolality in UT-A2/B knockout mice was intermediate between that in UT-B knockout and wild-type mice. The changes in urine osmolality and flow rate, plasma and urine urea concentration, as well as non-urea solute concentration after an acute urea load or chronic changes in protein intake suggested that UT-A2 plays a role in the progressive accumulation of urea in the inner medulla. These results suggest that in wild-type mice UT-A2 facilitates urea absorption by urea efflux from the thin descending limb of short loops of Henle. Moreover, UT-A2 deletion in UT-B knockout mice partially remedies the urine concentrating defect caused by UT-B deletion, by reducing urea loss from the descending limbs to the peripheral circulation; instead, urea is returned to the inner medulla through the loops of Henle and the collecting ducts.
Lei, Tianluo; Zhou, Lei; Layton, Anita T.; Zhou, Hong; Zhao, Xuejian; Bankir, Lise
Milk cortisol concentration was determined under routine management conditions on 4 farms with an auto-tandem milking parlor and 8 farms with 1 of 2 automatic milking systems (AMS). One of the AMS was a partially forced (AMSp) system, and the other was a free cow traffic (AMSf) system. Milk samples were collected for all the cows on a given farm (20 to 54 cows) for at least 1 d. Behavioral observations were made during the milking process for a subset of 16 to 20 cows per farm. Milk cortisol concentration was evaluated by milking system, time of day, behavior during milking, daily milk yield, and somatic cell count using linear mixed-effects models. Milk cortisol did not differ between systems (AMSp: 1.15 +/- 0.07; AMSf: 1.02 +/- 0.12; auto-tandem parlor: 1.01 +/- 0.16 nmol/L). Cortisol concentrations were lower in evening than in morning milkings (1.01 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.24 +/- 0.13 nmol/L). The daily periodicity of cortisol concentration was characterized by an early morning peak and a late afternoon elevation in AMSp. A bimodal pattern was not evident in AMSf. Finally, milk cortisol decreased by a factor of 0.915 in milking parlors, by 0.998 in AMSp, and increased by a factor of 1.161 in AMSf for each unit of ln(somatic cell count/1,000). We conclude that milking cows in milking parlors or AMS does not result in relevant stress differences as measured by milk cortisol concentrations. The biological relevance of the difference regarding the daily periodicity of milk cortisol concentrations observed between the AMSp and AMSf needs further investigation. PMID:16899678
Gygax, L; Neuffer, I; Kaufmann, C; Hauser, R; Wechsler, B
We describe on-line optical measurements of urea concentration during the regular hemodialysis treatment of several patients. The spectral measurements were performed in the effluent dialysate stream after the dialysis membrane using an FTIR spectrometer equipped with a flow-through cell. Spectra were recorded across the 5000-4000 cm-1 (2.0-2.5 micrometers at 1-minute intervals. Optically determined concentrations matched concentrations obtained from standard chemical assays with a root-mean-square error of 0.29 mM for urea (0.8 mg/dl urea nitrogen), 0.03 mM for creatinine, 0.11 mM for lactate, and 0.22 mM for glucose. The observed concentration ranges were 0-11 mM for urea, 0-0.35 mM for creatinine, 0-0.75 mM for lactate, and 9-12.5 mM for glucose.
Olesberg, Jonathon T.; Armitage, Ben; Arnold, Mark A.; Flanigan, Michael
The aim of this project was to investigate the relationship of milk urea nitrogen (MUN) with 3 milk production traits [milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY), protein yield (PY)] and 6 fertility measures (number of inseminations, calving interval, interval from calving to first insemination, interval from calving to last insemination, interval from first to last insemination, and pregnancy at first insemination). Data consisted of 635,289 test-day records of MY, FY, PY, and MUN on 76,959 first-lactation Swedish Holstein cows calving from 2001 to 2003, and corresponding lactation records for the fertility traits. Yields and MUN were analyzed with a random regression model followed by a multi-trait model in which the lactation was broken into 10 monthly periods. Heritability for MUN was stable across lactation (between 0.16 and 0.18), whereas MY, FY, and PY had low heritability at the beginning of lactation, which increased with time and stabilized after 100 d in milk, at 0.47, 0.36, and 0.44, respectively. Fertility traits had low heritabilities (0.02 to 0.05). Phenotypic correlations of MUN and milk production traits were between 0.13 (beginning of lactation) and 0.00 (end of lactation). Genetic correlations of MUN and MY, FY, and PY followed similar trends and were positive (0.22) at the beginning and negative (-0.15) at the end of lactation. Phenotypic correlations of MUN and fertility were close to zero. A surprising result was that genetic correlations of MUN and fertility traits suggest a positive relationship between the 2 traits for most of the lactation, indicating that animals with breeding values for increased MUN also had breeding values for improved fertility. This result was obtained with a random regression model as well as with a multi-trait model. The analyzed group of cows had a moderate level of MUN concentration. In such a population MUN concentration may increase slightly due to selection for improved fertility. Conversely, selection for increased MUN concentration may improve fertility slightly. PMID:22032390
Mucha, S; Strandberg, E
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of concentrate-to-forage ratio (C:F) on the performance, blood profile, and milk physicochemical characteristics of mid-lactation cows fed a corn silage-based diet. Twenty four Holstein cows, with BW 575?±?70 kg, body condition score (BCS) 3.1?±?0.2, milk yield 18.4?±?3.0 kg, and days in milk (DIM) 121?±?21 were randomly allocated into three treatments with C:F ratios of 35:65, 45:55, and 55:45 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Data was submitted to analyses of variance and regression. Increasing C:F from 35 to 55 % linearly enhanced milk production (22 to 23.6 kg day(-1)) and serum urea nitrogen (16.8 to 19.6 mg/dL), while it linearly reduced lactose and fat in milk (4.8 to 4.6 %; 3.9 to 3.6 %, respectively). Body weight, BCS, milk acidity, ethanol stability, coagulation time, and milk and blood mineral contents did not differ among treatments. During the last period of measurements, increased C:F reduced urinary pH and milk urea nitrogen. Changes of concentrate-to-forage proportion from 35 to 55 % increased milk yield, altered chemical composition without changing BW, BCS, acidity, stability, and mineral content of milk and blood attributes. PMID:24647476
Machado, Sandro Charopen; McManus, Concepta Margareth; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Fischer, Vivian
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting soybean meal for urea on milk protein fractions (casein, whey protein and non-protein nitrogen) of dairy cows in three dietary lev- els. Nine mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square arrangement, composed of 3 treatments, 3 periods of 21 days each, and 3
A. A. Aquino; Y. V. R. Lima; B. G. Botaro; C. S. S. Alberto; K. C. Peixoto Jr; M. V. Santos
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting soybean meal for urea on milk protein fractions (casein, whey protein and non-protein nitrogen) of dairy cows in three dietary levels. Nine mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a 3×3 Latin square arrangement, composed of 3 treatments, 3 periods of 21 days each, and 3 squares. The treatments
A. A. Aquino; Y. V. R. Lima; B. G. Botaro; C. S. S. Alberto; K PEIXOTOJR; M. V. Santos
In this work, an analytical system based on the coupling of gas diffusion separation and sequential injection analysis for urea determination in milk is presented. A versatile manifold that could simultaneously be used for either spectrophotometric or conductometric detection was constructed. The sample and urease solution are sequentially aspirated into the holding coil and sent to a thermoreactor, where urea is enzymatically hydrolyzed by urease and converted into ammonium. This stream merges an alkaline solution at a confluence point where ammonia is formed. Ammonia diffuses through a hydrophobic membrane and modifies the bromothymol blue indicator color, when spectrophotometric detection is used, or changes the conductance of a boric acid solution acceptor stream, when conductometric detection is used. This methodology was applied to the determination of urea in 18 milk samples and the results were statistically comparable with those furnished by the enzymatic recommended procedure. The detection limits were 2.6 x 10(-4) and 2.8 x 10(-5) mol L(-1) for conductometric and spectrophotometric detection, respectively. Repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD) was better than 3.7% and 2.6% for conductometric and spectrophotometric detection, respectively. PMID:15537291
Lima, M J Reis; Fernandes, Sílvia M V; Rangel, António O S S
Urea recycling, with urea originating from catabolism of amino acids and hepatic detoxification of ammonia, is particularly relevant for ruminant animals, in which microbial protein contributes substantially to the metabolizable protein supply. However, the quantitative contribution of urea recycling to protein anabolism in calves during the transition from preruminants (milk-fed calves) to ruminants [solid feed (SF)-fed calves] is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify urea recycling in milk-fed calves when provided with low-protein SF. Forty-eight calves [164 ± 1.6 kg body weight (BW)] were assigned to 1 of 4 SF levels [0, 9, 18, and 27 g of dry matter (DM) SF · kg BW(-0.75) · d(-1)] provided in addition to an identical amount of milk replacer. Urea recycling was quantified after a 24-h intravenous infusion of [(15)N2]urea by analyzing urea isotopomers in 68-h fecal and urinary collections. Real-time qPCR was used to measure gene expression levels of bovine urea transporter B (bUTB) and aquaglyceroporin-3 and aquaglyceroporin-7 in rumen wall tissues. For every incremental gram of DM SF intake (g DM · kg(0.75)), nitrogen intake increased by 0.70 g, and nitrogen retention increased by 0.55 g (P < 0.01). Of this increase in nitrogen retention, 19% could be directly explained by urea recycling. Additionally, part of the observed increase in nitrogen retention could be explained by the extra protein provided by the SF and likely by a greater efficiency of postabsorptive use of nitrogen for gain. Ruminal bUTB abundance increased (P < 0.01) with SF provision. Aquaglyceroporin-3 expression increased (P < 0.01) with SF intake, but aquaglyceroporin-7 expression did not. We conclude that in addition to the increase in digested nitrogen, urea recycling contributes to the observed increase in nitrogen retention with increasing SF intake in milk-fed calves. Furthermore, ruminal bUTB and aquaglyceroporin-3 expression are upregulated with SF intake, which might be associated with urea recycling. PMID:24812069
Berends, Harma; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Røjen, Betina A; van Baal, Jürgen; Gerrits, Walter J J
Effects of 5 mg estradiol-17? plus 30 mg trenbolone acetate on growth, N retention, and urea metabolism were studied in eight control and eight male goat kids implanted at 21 days of age and hand-fed milk. N balance was measured over a 5 day period beginning 16 and 26 days (Periods 1 and 2, respectively) after treatment. There was no
Ph. Schmidely; J. Hervieu; P. Bas; A. Rouzeau
SUMMARY Heating milks above sterilization temperatures resulted in increased rates of sedi- mentation during ultracentrifugation and packing of particles after sedimentation. Sedimentation constants for raw milks at time of maximum depth of sediment were about 400 × 10 -~8 cm. -1 sec. -~. For sterile milks the constants ranged from 900 to 3,000 × 10 -~\\
K. WILSON; E. O. ttERREID
We performed molecular dynamics simulations of urea solutions at different concentrations with two urea models (OPLS and KBFF) to examine the structures responsible for the thermodynamic solution properties. Our simulation results showed that hydrogen-bonding properties such as the average number of hydrogen bonds and their lifetime distributions were nearly constant at all concentrations between infinite dilution and the solubility limit. This implies that the characterization of urea–water solutions in the molarity concentration scale as nearly ideal is a result of facile local hydrogen bonding rather than a global property. Thus, urea concentration does not influence the local propensity for hydrogen bonds, only how they are satisfied. By comparison, the KBFF model of urea donated fewer hydrogen bonds than OPLS. We found that the KBFF urea model in TIP3P water better reproduced the experimental density and diffusion constant data. Preferential solvation analysis showed that there were weak urea–urea and water–water associations in OPLS solution at short distances, but there were no strong associations. We divided urea molecules into large, medium, and small clusters to examine fluctuation properties and found that any particular urea molecule did not stay in the same cluster for a long time. We found neither persistent nor large clusters.
Kokubo, Hironori; Pettitt, B. Montgomery
We performed molecular dynamics simulations of urea solutions at different concentrations with two urea models (OPLS and KBFF) to examine the structures responsible for the thermodynamic solution properties. Our simulation results showed that hydrogen-bonding properties such as the average number of hydrogen bonds and their lifetime distributions were nearly constant at all concentrations between infinite dilution and the solubility limit. This implies that the characterization of urea-water solutions in the molarity concentration scale as nearly ideal is a result of facile local hydrogen bonding rather than a global property. Thus, urea concentration does not influence the local propensity for hydrogen bonds, only how they are satisfied. By comparison, the KBFF model of urea donated fewer hydrogen bonds than OPLS. We found that the KBFF urea model in TIP3P water better reproduced the experimental density and diffusion constant data. Preferential solvation analysis showed that there were weak urea-urea and water-water associations in OPLS solution at short distances, but there were no strong associations. We divided urea molecules into large, medium, and small clusters to examine fluctuation properties and found that any particular urea molecule did not stay in the same cluster for a long time. We found neither persistent nor large clusters.
Kokubo, Hironori; Pettitt, Bernard M.
The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We performed molecular dynamics simulations of urea solutions at different concentrations with two urea models (OPLS and KBFF) to examine the structures responsible for the thermodynamic solution properties. Our simulation results showed that hydrogen-bonding properties such as the average number of hydrogen bonds and their lifetime distributions were nearly constant at all concentrations between infinite dilution and the solubility limit. This implies that the characterization of urea-water solutions in the molarity concentration scale as nearly ideal is a result of facile local hydrogen bonding rather than a global property. Thus, urea concentration does not influence the local propensity for hydrogen bonds, only how they are satisfied. By comparison, the KBFF model of urea donated fewer hydrogen bonds than OPLS. We found that the KBFF urea model in TIP3P water better reproduced the experimental density and diffusion constant data. Preferential solvation analysis showed that there were weak urea-urea and water-water associations in OPLS solution at short distances, but there were no strong associations. We divided urea molecules into large, medium, and small clusters to examine fluctuation properties and found that any particular urea molecule did not stay in the same cluster for a long time. We found neither persistent nor large clusters.
Kokubo, Hironori; Pettitt, Bernard M.
S100B is a neurotrophic protein detectable in biological fluids and in human milk. Since there are several maternal-neonatal conditions requiring the administration of animal milks the aim of the present study was to quantify S100B in milk from different mammalian species and to compare protein's concentration among human and mammalian milks. We assessed S100B concentrations in donkey (n=12), goat (n=15) sheep (n=15), commercially available cow (n=8) and human (n=15) milk samples. S100B measurements were performed using an immunoluminometric assay. S100B concentration in human milk (10.41 +/- 4.2 microg/L) was higher (P LESS THAN0.001) than mammalian milks. Of note, S100B concentration in cow milk (3.13 +/- 0.56 microg/L) was higher (P LESS THAN0.01) than that showed in donkey (1.17 +/- 0.26 microg/L), sheep (0.25 +/- 0.11 microg/L) and goat (0.26 +/- 0.11 microg/L). S100B in donkey milk was higher (P LESS THAN0.01) than sheep and goat samples whilst protein's concentration did not differ between goat and sheep. The present study suggests the opportunity of S100B addition to animal milk intended for infant feeding. PMID:19482669
Galvano, Fabio; Frigiola, Alessandro; Gagliardi, Luigi; Ciotti, Sabina; Bognanno, Matteo; Iacopino, Anna Maria; Nigro, Francesco; Tina, Gabriella Lucia; Cavallaro, Daniela; Mussap, Michele; Piva, Andrea; Grilli, Ester; Michetti, Fabrizio; Gazzolo, Diego
Facilitated urea transporters (UTs) are responsible for urea accumulation in the renal inner medulla of the mammalian kidney and therefore play a central role in the urinary concentrating process. Recently, the cDNAs encoding three members of the UT family, UT1, UT2, and UT3 have been cloned. These transporters are expressed in different structures of the mammalian kidney. In rat, UT1 resides in the apical membrane of terminal inner medullary collecting ducts, where it mediates vasopressin-regulated urea reabsorption. UT2 and UT3 are located in descending thin limbs of Henle's loop and descending vasa recta, respectively, and participate in urinary recycling processes, which minimize urea escape from the inner medulla. UT1 and UT2 are regulated independently and respond differently to changes in dietary protein content and hydration state. Identification and characterization of these urea transporters advances our understanding of the molecular basis and regulation of the urinary concentrating mechanism. PMID:9729501
Tsukaguchi, H; Shayakul, C; Berger, U V; Hediger, M A
The mechanism by which urine is concentrated in the mammalian kidney remains incompletely understood. Urea is the dominant urinary osmole in most mammals and may be concentrated a 100-fold above its plasma level in humans and even more in rodents. Several facilitated urea transporters have been cloned. The phenotypes of mice with deletion of the transporters expressed in the kidney have challenged two previously well-accepted paradigms regarding urea and sodium handling in the renal medulla but have provided no alternative explanation for the accumulation of solutes that occurs in the inner medulla. In this review, we present evidence supporting the existence of an active urea secretion in the pars recta of the proximal tubule and explain how it changes our views regarding intrarenal urea handling and UT-A2 function. The transporter responsible for this secretion could be SGLT1, a sodium-glucose cotransporter that also transports urea. Glucagon may have a role in the regulation of this secretion. Further, we describe a possible transfer of osmotic energy from the outer to the inner medulla via an intrarenal Cori cycle converting glucose to lactate and back. Finally, we propose that an active urea transporter, expressed in the urothelium, may continuously reclaim urea that diffuses out of the ureter and bladder. These hypotheses are all based on published findings. They may not all be confirmed later on, but we hope they will stimulate further research in new directions. PMID:22456603
Bankir, Lise; Yang, Baoxue
Whey protein concentrate and dried skim milk were each evaluated as the major protein source in milk replacer using four treatments (100% skim milk, 67% skim milk and 33% whey protein concentrate, 33% skim milk and 67% whey protein concentrate, and 100% whey protein concentrate). In the first trial, 64 calves were fed only milk replacer from birth to 6 wk of age. In the second trial, 61 calves were fed milk replacer and were allowed ad libitum intake of starter from birth to 6 wk of age. Calves were fed milk replacer at 10% of birth weight for the first 2 wk and at 12% of birth weight thereafter. In trial 1, average daily gains and feed efficiencies were significantly improved for calves that consumed the milk replacers containing 67 and 100% whey protein concentrate over those for calves that were fed the milk replacer containing 100% skim milk. No difference in growth or feed efficiency caused by treatment was detected in trial 2. Average daily gain in trial 2 was correlated with total starter intake. In trial 1, plasma glucose concentrations were correlated with growth rates and were highest for calves fed the milk replacer containing 67% whey protein concentrate. No differences were found for fecal scores or days scoured between trials. When only milk replacer was fed, higher proportions of whey protein concentrate improved calf performance, but, when starter was also provided, no effect of milk replacer was found. PMID:9710763
Lammers, B P; Heinrichs, A J; Aydin, A
Post-dialysis urea rebound (PDUR) has been attributed mostly to redistribution of urea from different compartments, which is determined by variations in regional blood flows and transcellular urea mass transfer coefficients. PDUR occurs after 30-90min of short or standard hemodialysis (HD) sessions and after 60min in long 8-h HD sessions, which is inconvenient. This paper presents adaptive network based on fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for predicting intradialytic (Cint) and post-dialysis urea concentrations (Cpost) in order to predict the equilibrated (Ceq) urea concentrations without any blood sampling from dialysis patients. The accuracy of the developed system was prospectively compared with other traditional methods for predicting equilibrated urea (Ceq), post dialysis urea rebound (PDUR) and equilibrated dialysis dose (eKt/V). This comparison is done based on root mean squares error (RMSE), normalized mean square error (NRMSE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The ANFIS predictor for Ceq achieved mean RMSE values of 0.3654 and 0.4920 for training and testing, respectively. The statistical analysis demonstrated that there is no statistically significant difference found between the predicted and the measured values. The percentage of MAE and RMSE for testing phase is 0.63% and 0.96%, respectively. PMID:23806679
Azar, Ahmad Taher
Objective Available accurate data on the concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in human milk throughout lactation and infant formulas is important both for formulating nutritional requirements for substances and to provide a base line for the understanding the physiology of their secretion. The objective of this study was to analyze the concentrations of zinc and copper in infant formulas and human milk during prolonged lactation. Levels of these metals were examined in relation to selected parameters such as age, weight, height, education and occupation of mothers. Methods Thirty mothers referred to the selected clinics in Tehran entered the study. Human milk samples were collected at 2 months postpartum. Zinc and copper concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Findings The mean values of Zn and Cu in human milk were 2.95±0.77mg/L and 0.36±0.11 mg/L. The mean values of Zn and Cu in infant formulas were 3.98±0.25 mg/L and 0.53±0.17mg/L. Conclusion No significant relationship was found between levels of trace elements in human milk and evaluated parameters such as age, weight, height, education and occupation of mothers. The concentrations of zinc and copper in breast milk were lower than those reported in the literature.
Khaghani, Shahnaz; Ezzatpanah, Hamid; Mazhari, Najmeh; Givianrad, Mohammad Hadi; Mirmiranpour, Hossein; Sadrabadi, Fatemeh Shahi
We aimed to evaluate the maternal factors [including dietary habits, dental care, smoking, anemia, levels of breast-milk zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe), and levels of serum selenium (Se), Zn and copper (Cu)] that influence breast-milk mercury (Hg) concentrations and to investigate whether there is any relation between Hg concentrations and infant growth and development during the exclusive breastfeeding period and in the second year of life. Forty-four healthy mother-infant pairs in the 10-20-day postpartum period were enrolled in the study. Maternal history and blood samples for hemoglobin, Fe, Fe binding capacity, ferritin, Se, Zn, and Cu and breast-milk samples for Fe, Zn and Hg were taken. Infant growth and development during the exclusive breastfeeding period and in the second year of life were followed. The mean concentration of breast-milk Hg was 3.42 +/- 1.66 microg/L. Serum Se levels were negatively correlated with milk Hg levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that active/passive smoking and offal intake during pregnancy and presence of maternal anemia had an impact on increased milk Hg concentrations. Preventive strategies for mercury exposure should include management of iron deficiency anemia, cessation of smoking exposure and proper nutrition during the pregnancy period. PMID:20402060
Yalçin, S Songül; Yurdakök, Kadriye; Yalçin, Suzan; Engür-Karasimav, Defne; Co?kun, Turgay
AIM: To determine the effect of iodine supplementation on milk production and iodine concentrations in milk for pasture-fed, seasonally calving dairy cows.METHODS: The study was run over two consecutive seasons on the same dairy farm. In Trial One, 294 Friesian dairy cows were either untreated or injected intramuscularly three times with iodised oil (2,370 mg iodine\\/dose) at the start of
ND Grace; GC Waghorn
The influence of various levels of skim milk solids and temperature on the duration of lag phase, growth rate, and extent of growth of Salmonella typhimurium was investigated. The effect on growth of salmonellae (and a strain of Escherichia coli) of reduced pressure at a constant solids level and under conditions simulating vacuum condensation of skim milk was also studied. S. typhimurium grew when inoculated into skim milk solutions ranging from 10 to 60% solids and over a temperature range of 23 to 44 C. At 10 to 12 C, growth was evident only in the 10% skim milk. As the total solids level was increased or incubation temperature was deviated from the optimum, or both, there was an increase in the lag phase and generation time of salmonellae. A lower cell population also resulted. The generation time at 37 C of S. typhimurium incubated at atmospheric pressure was approximately one-half that in skim milk concentrates held under reduced pressure. In addition, a slightly longer lag phase and lower cell yield characterized the growth under reduced pressure. Concentration of skim milk had little or no effect on viability of salmonellae or E. coli when the vapor temperature in the vacuum pan was below the maximum growth temperature for salmonellae. Increasing the vapor temperature to 48 C caused a two-log reduction in viable organisms during the concentrating period (65 min).
Dega, C. A.; Goepfert, J. M.; Amundson, C. H.
High concentrations of fluoride (F) in powdered milk (formula milk) can have adverse health effects on the body. The F concentration in powdered milk was analysed in Iran in 2010. A total of twelve commercial brands of highly consumed powdered milk were selected to analyse the F content through the standard F ion-selective electrode method. From each brand, three samples with different production dates were selected. The means and standard deviation for F concentration in all the samples was 1·73 (sd 0·3) ?g F/g. The minimum and maximum F content in powdered milk brands Humana2 and Humana3 was 1·32 (sd 0·1) and 2·36 (sd 0·3) ?g F/g, respectively. The study revealed that there was no significant difference in F concentration in the samples that belonged to various dates. Humana3 had a high F concentration (with an average of 2·36 (sd 0·3) ?g F/g), which can be a risk factor for increased dental fluorosis, especially when being prepared using water with a high content of F. PMID:22559248
Hossein Mahvi, Amir; Ghanbarian, Maryam; Ghanbarian, Marjan; Khosravi, Ahmad; Ghanbarian, Masoud
In earlier work (5), we established the fact that for the growth of calves urea nitrogen could be successfully used for at least a partial supply of the protein nitrogen. This protein supply, from such a simple substance as urea, was made possible through the multiplication of the microorganisms of the rumen. This intervention of microorganisms and the use of
I. W. Rupel; G. Bohstedt; E. B. Hart
Different milk protein concentrates (MPC), with pro- tein concentrations of 56, 70, and 90%, were dispersed in water under different treatments (hydration, shear, heat, and overnight storage at 4°C), as well as in a combination of all the treatments in a factorial design. The particle size distribution of the dispersions was then measured to determine the optimal conditions for the
M. A. Ferrer; A. R. Hill; M. Corredig
The concentrations of “real” and “apparent” (= “real” hydralazine + acid-labile hydrazones) hydralazine in maternal and umbilical plasma obtained at delivery of 6 women treated with hydralazine and atenolol for pregnancy hypertension were measured by gas chromatography. In one of the patients, the concentrations of the same substances were subsequently measured in breast milk. “Apparent” hydralazine reached higher levels in
H. Liedholm; E. Wfihlin-Boll; A. Hanson; I. Ingemarsson; A. Melander
Electrolyte and urea levels of vitreous humor collected from bovine eyes at various times postmortem, were compared with serum levels in the same animals. Provided the vitreous humor was filtered immediately after collection, measured levels of total calcium (Ca), potassium ions (K+), sodium ions (Na+) and urea nitrogen were very consistent. For 24 hours postmortem the concentrations of Ca, Na+ and urea nitrogen remained stable, while K+ increased to approximately 55% more than the immediate postmortem level. A small study using anesthetized dogs indicated that urea nitrogen levels of vitreous humor take several hours to equilibrate with elevated blood levels. Analysis of vitreous humor may be a useful adjunct to diagnosis in cases where antemortem clinical chemistry is absent or inadequate.
Wilkie, I W; Bellamy, J E
Optimal conditions were established for alkaline urea-PAGE using modified precast, ultrathin gradient gels on the automated PhastSystem. Profiles of milk proteins showed that the caseins and whey proteins resolved extremely well. Major bands were observed for alpha s1-casein and beta-casein, and alpha s2-casein appeared as a well-resolved doublet. In contrast, kappa-casein separated from other caseins as a faint doublet, and purified kappa-casein appeared as one major and one minor band. Whey proteins (serum albumin, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin) separated into broad bands resolved from each other and from the caseins. Partially (40%) dephosphorylated whole casein showed multiple bands for alpha s1-casein and beta-casein at different levels of phosphorylation. Separation of genetic phenotypes was observed for beta-lactoglobulin A and B; alpha s1-casein A, B, and C; and beta-casein A, B, and C. Electrophoretic patterns of milk proteins extracted from cheese samples varied among the different types of cheeses. Our modified procedure provides researchers with a rapid technique to separate both caseins and whey proteins on the same urea gel according to their charge to mass ratios. PMID:1597574
Van Hekken, D L; Thompson, M P
Significant post?prandial increases in plasma uric acid and plasma urea concentrations were observed in peregrine falcons. Post?prandial uric acid concentrations were similar to those in birds suffering from hyperuricaemia and gout and were well above the theoretical limit of solubility of sodium urate in plasma. It is not clear why under normal circumstances no urate deposits occur in peregrine falcons
J. T. Lumeij; J. D. Remple
It has been proposed that the hypergastrinaemia in subjects with Helicobacter pylori infection is caused by the action of the ammonia produced by the organism's urease activity on the antral G cells. To investigate this hypothesis we examined the effect on plasma gastrin of increasing the bacterium's ammonia production by infusing urea intragastrically to eight H pylori positive duodenal ulcer patients. After a 60 minute control intragastric infusion of dextrose solution at 2 ml/minute, a similar infusion containing urea (50 mmol/l) was continued for four hours. During the urea infusion, the median gastric juice urea concentration rose from 1.1 mmol/l (range 0.3-1.6) to 15.5 mmol/l (range 7.9-21.3) and this resulted in an increase in the ammonium concentration from 2.3 mmol/l (range 1.3-5.9) to 6.1 mmol/l (range 4.2-11.9) (p less than 0.01). This appreciable rise in ammonia production did not result in any change in the plasma gastrin concentration. The experiment was repeated one month after eradication of H pylori, at which time the median basal gastrin was 20 ng/l (range 15-25), significantly less than the value before eradication (30 ng/l range 15-60) (p less than 0.05). On this occasion, the gastric juice ammonium concentration was considerably reduced at 0.4 mmol/l (range 0.1-0.9) and the urea infusion did not raise the ammonium concentration or change the plasma gastrin concentration. In conclusion, augmenting H pylori ammonia production does not cause any early change in plasma gastrin.
Chittajallu, R S; Neithercut, W D; Macdonald, A M; McColl, K E
The Kjeldahl method and four classic spectrophotometric methods (Biuret, Lowry, Bradford and Markwell) were applied to evaluate the protein content of samples of UHT whole milk deliberately adulterated with melamine, ammonium sulphate or urea, which can be used to defraud milk protein and whey contents. Compared with the Kjeldahl method, the response of the spectrophotometric methods was unaffected by the addition of the nitrogen compounds to milk or whey. The methods of Bradford and Markwell were most robust and did not exhibit interference subject to composition. However, the simultaneous interpretation of results obtained using these methods with those obtained using the Kjeldahl method indicated the addition of nitrogen-rich compounds to milk and/or whey. Therefore, this work suggests a combination of results of Kjeldahl and spectrophotometric methods should be used to screen for milk adulteration by these compounds. PMID:23993532
Finete, Virgínia de Lourdes Mendes; Gouvêa, Marcos Martins; Marques, Flávia Ferreira de Carvalho; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira
A protocol for DNA extraction from whole milk, milk fat, skim milk and milk sediment was developed for detection of foreign DNA in milk. The isolated DNA from the different fractions of raw milk was quantitated yielding a 20:40:40 (cream:sediment:skim milk) percent ratio. Raw milk samples were spiked with genomic soya DNA and the detectability of an internal 118-bp fragment
Roland Ernest Poms; Josef Glössl; Helmut Foissy
The purpose of this study was to compile and evaluate relationships between feed nitrogen (N) intake, milk urea N (MUN), urinary urea N (UUN), and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions from dairy farms to aid policy development. Regression relationships between MUN, UUN, and NH(3) emissions were compiled from studies conducted in Wisconsin, California, and the Netherlands. Relative reductions in NH(3) emissions were calculated as percentage decreases in NH(3) emissions associated with a baseline MUN level of 14 mg/dL (prevailing industry average). For 3 studies with cows in stanchion barns, relative NH(3) emission reductions of 10.3 to 28.2% were obtained when MUN declined from 14 to 10mg/dL. Similarly, analyses of 2 freestall studies provided relative NH(3) emission reductions of 10.5 to 33.7% when MUN levels declined from 14 to 10mg/dL. The relative reductions in NH(3) emissions from both stanchion and freestall barns can be associated directly with reductions in UUN excretion, which can be determined using MUN. The results of this study may help create new awareness, and perhaps eventual industry-based incentives, for management practices that enhance feed N use efficiency and reduce MUN, UUN, and NH(3) emissions from dairy farms. PMID:21854942
Powell, J M; Wattiaux, M A; Broderick, G A
Citrus pulp is known to contain a functional molecule of beta-cryptoxanthin which is one of the carotenoids showing anti-oxidative capacity. Influences of citrus pulp silage feeding to dairy cows on beta-cryptoxanthin concentration in plasma, other blood properties and milking performances were investigated. Four Holstein cows were fed total mixed ration (TMR) containing citrus pulp silage 20% dry matter (DM) for 2 weeks with free access to the TMR. Dry mater intake, milk production and milk components 2 weeks later were not altered compared with those of the control group without citrus pulp silage. Activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanin aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase in plasma were not affected by feeding of citrus pulp silage. Concentrations of protein, albumin, sulfhydryl residue, ascorbic acid, thio-barbituric acid reactive substance and urea nitrogen in plasma were also not altered by citrus pulp silage feeding. Concentration of beta-cryptoxanthin in plasma was increased approximately 20-fold compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Content of beta-cryptxanthin in pooled milk fat fraction was also increased approximately three times compared with that of the control group. Feeding of TMR containing citrus pulp silage 15% DM for 30 days to eight dairy cows also increased plasma beta-cryptoxanthin concentration 30-fold compared with that before feeding. PMID:20887309
Tanaka, Masahito; Kamiya, Yuko; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Nakai, Yutaka
Europium-activated Gd2O3 phosphor powders were prepared by homogeneous precipitation method, and the effects of urea concentration and reaction temperature on the morphology of precursor powders were investigated. The synthesized powders were characterized by means of XRD, SEM, TG\\/DTA and FT-IR. The synthesis of gadolinium carbonate compounds was carried out using this method from relatively high concentrations of gadolinium salt and
In Yong Park; Dongjin Kim; Jongwon Lee; Sang Ho Lee; Kyu-Jin Kim
Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of acidification of milk replacers containing soy protein concentrate on diet digestibility and growth of Holstein bull calves. In Experi- ment 1, six calves (6 wk old) were fed at 10% of BW\\/d either acidified milk re- placer containing soy protein concentrate or untreated milk replacer containing soy protein concentrate. Replacers were
P. S. Erickson; D. J. Schauff; M. R. Murphy
Studies have reported genetic variation in milk urea nitrogen (MUN) between cows, suggesting genetic differences in nitrogen efficiency between cows. In this paper, the results of a genome-wide scan to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contribute to genetic variation in MUN and MUN yield are presented. Two to 3 morning milk samples were taken from 1,926 cows, resulting in 5,502 test-day records. Test-day records were corrected for systematic environmental effects using a repeatability animal model. Averages of corrected phenotypes of 849 cows, belonging to 7 sire families, were used in an across-family multimarker regression approach to detect QTL. Animals were successfully genotyped for 1,341 single nucleotide polymorphisms. The QTL analysis resulted in 4 chromosomal regions with suggestive QTL: Bos taurus autosomes (BTA) 1, 6, 21, and 23. On BTA 1, 2 suggestive QTL affecting MUN were detected at 60 and 140 cM. On BTA 6, 1 suggestive QTL affecting both MUN and MUN yield was detected at 103 cM. On BTA 21, 1 suggestive QTL affecting MUN yield was detected at 83 cM. On BTA 23, 1 suggestive QTL affecting MUN was detected at 54 cM. Quantitative trait loci for MUN and MUN yield were suggestive and each explained between 2 and 3% of the phenotypic variance. PMID:20630247
Bouwman, A C; Schopen, G C B; Bovenhuis, H; Visker, M H P W; van Arendonk, J A M
Two experiments measured utilization of urea by lactating eows by intake, milk production, nitrogen balance and related characteristics. In each experiment, 36 cows were in a factorial arrangement of treatments. In Experiment 1, concentrates containing 12, 17, and 22% crude protein equivalent were fed both with and without 1.5% urea (4.2% crude protein). Con- centrate was fed at one unit
F. N. Knott; C. E. Polan; J. T. Huber
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to examine the conformation of proteins in spray-dried milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders and to determine if the spectral changes could be related to nitrogen solubility of these powders. MPC samples (83–92% protein, dry basis) were prepared using a range of processing conditions and stored for 4 weeks at 21°C. FTIR spectra were
Ashwini Kher; Punsandani Udabage; Ian McKinnon; Don McNaughton; Mary Ann Augustin
Four ruminally fistulated multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to a 4x4 Latin square design with a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments to study the effects of dietary supplementation of monensin and flaxseed hulls on ruminal and milk concentration of the mammalian lignan enterolactone (EL) and ruminal and faecal activity of beta-glucuronidase. The hypothesis was that monensin supplementation has no effect on the incorporation of EL into milk when cows are fed flaxseed hulls. Treatments were: 1) control, neither flaxseed hulls nor monensin (CO); 2) diet containing (dry matter basis) 20% flaxseed hulls (FH); 3) diet with monensin (16 mg/kg of dry matter; MO); 4) diet containing 20% (dry matter basis) flaxseed hulls and 16 mg/kg monensin (HM). Intake of dry matter was higher for CO and MO than for FH and HM and monensin had no effect. Milk production decreased in cows fed flaxseed hulls while monensin had no effect. Production of 4% fat-corrected milk and concentrations of milk fat, lactose, urea N, and total solids were similar among treatments. Although there was a decrease in ruminal activity of beta-glucuronidase when feeding flaxseed hulls, the metabolism of plant into mammalian lignans may be increased as shown by enhanced concentration of EL in the rumen and milk. Supplementation with flaxseed hulls then may contribute to favourably change milk composition for better human health by enhancing mammalian lignan EL concentration. PMID:19825214
Petit, Hélène V; Côrtes, Cristiano; da Silva, Daniele; Kazama, Ricardo; Gagnon, Nathalie; Benchaar, Chaouki; dos Santos, Geraldo T; Zeoula, Lúcia M
Daily weight gains (DWG), dry matter intake (DMI) and cost of fattening were studied using a diet of 29% sugarcane sprouts, 29% corn stubble, 29% concentrate with 18% crude protein (CP), 9.5% molasses, 2% urea, 1% salt and 0.5% mineral salts. The study was conducted during three consecutive years (1990–1992), using a total of 374 goats of 12–36 months of
M. A. Galina; D. Pacheco; E. Silva; J. M. Palma; J. Hummel
Urea transport (UT) proteins facilitate the concentration of urine by the kidney, suggesting that inhibition of these proteins could have therapeutic use as a diuretic strategy. We screened 100,000 compounds for UT-B inhibition using an optical assay based on the hypotonic lysis of acetamide-loaded mouse erythrocytes. We identified a class of triazolothienopyrimidine UT-B inhibitors; the most potent compound, UTBinh-14, fully and reversibly inhibited urea transport with IC50 values of 10 nM and 25 nM for human and mouse UT-B, respectively. UTBinh-14 competed with urea binding at an intracellular site on the UT-B protein. UTBinh-14 exhibited low toxicity and high selectivity for UT-B over UT-A isoforms. After intraperitoneal administration of UTBinh-14 in mice to achieve predicted therapeutic concentrations in the kidney, urine osmolality after administration of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin was approximately 700 mosm/kg H2O lower in UTBinh-14–treated mice than vehicle-treated mice. UTBinh-14 also increased urine output and reduced urine osmolality in mice given free access to water. UTBinh-14 did not reduce urine osmolality in UT-B knockout mice. In summary, these data provide proof of concept for the potential utility of UT inhibitors to reduce urinary concentration in high-vasopressin, fluid-retaining conditions. The diuretic mechanism of UT inhibitors may complement the action of conventional diuretics, which target sodium transport.
Yao, Chenjuan; Anderson, Marc O.; Zhang, Jicheng; Yang, Baoxue; Phuan, Puay-Wah
A total of 24 lactating Holstein cows averaging 620 (SE=29) kg of body weight were allotted at week 17 of lactation to eight groups of three cows blocked for similar days in milk to determine the effects of feeding two sources of the plant lignan precursor secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, whole flaxseed and flaxseed meal, on concentrations of the mammalian lignans (enterodiol and enterolactone) in milk. Feed intake, digestion, milk production and milk composition were also determined to compare the use of whole flaxseed and flaxseed meal for milk production. Cows within each block were assigned to one of the three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic total mixed diets: no flaxseed product; 10% flaxseed meal; or 10% whole flaxseed in the dry matter. The experiment was carried out from week 17 to week 21 of lactation and diets were fed at ad-libitum intake. The mammalian lignan, enterodiol, was not detected in the milk of cows. Cows fed whole flaxseed and flaxseed meal had greater concentrations of enterolactone in milk than those fed the control diet. Feed intake, milk production and milk composition were also similar for all diets, indicating that both flaxseed meal and whole flaxseed are suitable feed ingredients for milk production of cows in mid lactation. The results provide new information on the conversion of plant secoisolariciresinol diglucoside from two flaxseed products into mammalian lignans in dairy cows. PMID:19250577
Petit, Hélène V; Gagnon, Nathalie; Mir, Priyadarshini S; Cao, Rong; Cui, Steve
The AA requirements of herd-replacement calves less than 5 wk old and fed milk replacers are not clearly defined and have been estimated in a limited number of studies using milk-fed calves ranging from 5 to 20 wk of age. The objective of these 4 studies was to investigate the effect of supplementing milk replacers containing 24 to 28% crude protein (CP; from milk sources) and 17% fat with Lys, Met, and Thr to estimate the optimum requirements for calves less than 5 wk of age. Holstein bull calves (initially 3 and 4 d old, 43 +/- 1 kg of body weight, BW) were fed an 18% CP (as-fed) starter ad libitum and weaned at 31 to 32 d of age (28-d studies). Calves were housed in an unheated, curtain-sided nursery. In study 1, 6 milk replacer treatments were fed based on the combination of 3 CP concentrations (24, 26, and 28% CP) each with or without added Lys and Met. In studies 2 and 3, 26% CP and 2.34% Lys milk replacer treatments were fed to test the concentration of Met (0.64, 0.68, and 0.72% Met in study 2 and 0.64, 0.72, and 0.80% Met in study 3). In study 4, 26% CP, 2.34% Lys, and 0.72% Met milk replacer treatments were fed to test the concentration of Thr (1.06, 1.43, and 1.80%). There was a 17% improvement in average daily gain (ADG) in study 1 from adding Lys and Met that was maximized with 2.34% Lys. The ADG response to added Met in studies 2 (linear) and 3 (quadratic) were 13 and 7%, respectively, with a plateau at 0.72% Met. There was no ADG or efficiency response to added Thr in study 4. Formulating 17% fat, whey-based milk replacers fed at 0.68 kg/d to 26% CP, 2.34% Lys, and 0.72% Met appeared optimum based on responses of body weight gain, feed efficiency, and serum concentrations of urea nitrogen, while feeding calves more CP and essential AA did not improved ADG and efficiency. Requirements for calves less than 5 wk old, averaging 48 kg of BW, consuming 204 g of CP/d, and gaining 0.46 kg of BW/d, appeared to be met with 17 g of Lys, 0.31 Met:Lys ratio, 0.54 Met+Cys:Lys ratio, and a Thr:Lys ratio less than 0.60. PMID:18487666
Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L; Tanan, K G
Sisay, A., Hassen, A. and Alemu, T. 1999. Effect of supplementation of molasses\\/urea blocks and graded levels of concentrate on growth performance of grazing Arsi bulls. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 16: 47–52.Thirty grazing Arsi bulls (24m, 130kg) were used in a 120 day trial to evaluate the effect of Molasses\\/urea block (MUB) with graded levels of concentrate supplementation on growth
Amsalu Sisay; Abubeker Hassen; Tesfaye Alemu
Exposure of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to elevated extracellular NaCl concentrations is associated with increased\\u000a heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) expression and improved survival of these pretreated cells upon exposure to an additional 600\\u000a mM urea in the medium. To establish a causal relationship between HSP72 expression and cell protection against high urea concentrations,\\u000a two approaches to inhibit NaCl-induced
Wolfgang Neuhofer; Eva Müller; Anke Burger-Kentischer; Maria Luisa Fraek; Klaus Thurau; F. X. Beck
In continuing investigations on effects of milk replacers with high ash and mineral contents (KAMPHUES et al., 1999a) on feces' quality and composition in calves in the present study the sulfate concentration (and its effects) in milk replacers and whey products were proved. In 13 samples of milk replacers the SO4 concentration varied between 2.4 and 6.7 g/kg dry matter, in 14 samples of dried whey products SO4- concentrations of 1.4 up to 41.8 g/kg dm were found. In general higher sulphur contents were caused by higher concentrations of sulfate. In feeding a milk replacer (6.7 g SO4/kg dm) about 20% of the consumed sulfate were excreted via feces (app. digestibility of about 80%). In experiments with elevated SO4 intake (in liquid diets: 560-1980 mg/l) the digestibility rate of sulfate decreased dose dependently (75-->65%). By analysis of milk replacers (used in previous experiments, TSCHENTSCHER, 1998) resulting in diarrhea in all treated calves unexpected SO4- concentrations were found of 16.3 and 10.2 g/kg dm. In feeding experiments (6 calves) by addition of Na2SO4 (85%) and MgSO4 (15%) sulfate concentration in the liquid diet was elevated from 560 mg to 1980 mg/l. Here the SO4 concentration in the diet and the dry matter content in calves' feces were correlated significantly (r = -0.86). Presented results on the SO4 concentration in milk replacers and the observed effects of sulfate intake on feces quality (i.e. dry matter content of feces) indicate by the first time that the SO4 content in milk replacers and dried whey products is an essential parameter when an estimation of milk replacers or whey products' quality is required. PMID:10609415
Kamphues, J; Stolte, M; Tschentscher, A; Rust, P
AIM--To assess the value of measuring the gastric juice urea:ammonium ratio in detecting Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with chronic renal failure. METHODS--Twenty three (12 men) patients with established chronic renal failure and dyspepsia were studied. Gastric juice (2 ml) was aspirated during endoscopy to measure urea and ammonium. The upper gastrointestinal tract was routinely inspected and two antral biopsy specimens obtained. The 14C-urea breath test was conducted within 14 days of endoscopic examination to determine H pylori antibody response. RESULTS--The median (range) serum urea concentration in 11 patients with renal failure and H pylori infection was similar to that in 12 without H pylori infection. The median gastric juice urea concentration in subjects with infection was lower than that in the subjects without infection (p < 0.01). The median gastric juice ammonium concentration in subjects with the infection was higher compared with subjects without infection (p < 0.01). There was an overlap of the urea and ammonium concentrations in gastric juice from both H pylori positive and negative subjects. The urea:ammonium ratio was 0.16 (0.01-1.11) for subjects with H pylori compared with 1.63 (1.0-18.9) in subjects without infection (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION--The urea:ammonium ratio differentiated both groups, with the exception of one false negative result. The urea:ammonium ratio proved almost as effective in identifying the presence of H pylori infection in subjects with chronic renal failure as it had in subjects with normal renal function.
Neithercut, W D; Rowe, P A; el Nujumi, A M; Dahill, S; McColl, K E
A total of 32 lactating Holstein cows with mean body weight of 622 kg (s.e. = 24) were allotted, at week 25 of lactation, to eight groups of four cows blocked for similar days in milk. The objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of feeding four dietary concentrations (0, 50, 100 or 150 g/kg of dry matter) of whole flaxseed, which contains the plant lignan precursor secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), on concentrations of two mammalian lignans (enterodiol and enterolactone) in milk. The effects of the four diets on feed intake, milk production, milk composition and digestion were also studied. Cows within each block were assigned to one of the four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic total mixed diets and the experiment was carried out from week 25 to 29 of lactation. Diets were fed for ad libitum intake. Enterolactone was the mammalian lignan, of the two metabolites studied, detected in the milk of cows and its concentration in milk tended (P = 0.08) to increase linearly with higher intake of SDG in the diet. Feed intake, milk yield and milk composition were similar among diets. Milk fatty acid profile was slightly improved by feeding flaxseed, as shown by higher concentrations of fatty acids (e.g. n-3) recognized as being beneficial for human health. Those results suggest that feeding of whole flaxseed may result in changes in milk fatty acid composition and enterolactone content, which offer benefits for consumers. PMID:22444937
Petit, H V; Gagnon, N
Maternal dietary practices have been found to affect the concentrations of some nutrients in human breast milk. Lead toxicity is a concern in young children. Lead, copper and zinc are thought to compete for intestinal absorption sites. The objective of the current project was to compare copper, lead and zinc contents of breast milk from practicing lacto-vegetarian and omnivore, lactating women at approximately four months post-partum. Analyses were done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a carbon rod attachment. Copper concentrations were higher in milk samples from lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Milk samples from the omnivores had the highest lead and zinc concentrations. Lead and copper concentrations in milk were negatively correlated. The higher zinc concentrations in the milk of the omnivore women may have been related to better utilization of zinc from meat than from plant food sources.
Umoren, J.; Kies, C.
Direct energy requirements in a plant (Plant A) producing evaporated and condensed milk were 508 kcal\\/kg processed while those in a plant (Plant B) producing condensed and dehydrated milk were 544 kcal. Thermal energy was the major component accounting for about 82% of the direct energy consumed. Consumption of electricity in the plants was less than in fluid milk plants
V. K. Goel; W. K. Jordan; M. A. Rao
Important functional properties of milk protein concentrate with 80% protein (MPC80), modified with low- and high-shear extrusion, or low-temperature toasting were compared. The effect of high- and low-shear profile screws in a corotating twin-screw extruder, and 4 different ramped temperature profiles with die temperatures of 65, 75, 90, and 120 °C were compared. Extrudates were pelletized, dried, and ground to a fine powder. Toasting was done at 75 and 110 °C for 4 h for milk protein modification. Extruded and toasted MPC80 had reduced protein solubility and surface hydrophobicity. Extrusion decreased water-holding capacity (WHC). Toasted MPC80 had increased WHC when treated at 75 °C, but WHC decreased when heated at 110 °C. The treatments had no strong influence on gel strength. Reduced and nonreduced sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed peptide structural changes that occurred due to processing, especially for whey proteins. Results are discussed in terms of potential for application of extruded or toasted MPC80 in high-protein nutrition bar applications. PMID:23601000
Banach, J C; Clark, S; Lamsal, B P
To determine the effect of various amounts of ruminally undegradable protein in the diets of lactating cows fed steam-flaked sorghum, 24 Holstein cows (90 +/- 50 d in milk) were assigned to three treatments: 0.8% urea, 6% soybean meal, or 5% fish meal. Respective percentages of ruminally undegradable protein in the diets (as a percentage of crude protein) were 30, 35, and 39%. All diets contained 37% alfalfa hay; 3 to 5% cottonseed hulls; 10 to 13% whole cottonseed; 39% steam-flaked sorghum (360 g/L); 5% of a molasses, mineral, and vitamin supplement; and the different protein supplements. Intake of dry matter was higher for cows fed urea than for cows fed soybean meal or fish meal diets. In cows that yielded more than 40 kg/d of milk (4 cows per treatment), the soybean meal and fish meal diets resulted in higher yields of milk and 3.5% fat-corrected milk and a greater efficiency of conversion of feed to milk than did the urea diet. Cows that yielded less than 40 kg/d of milk (4 cows per treatment) at the beginning of treatment tended to yield more milk when fed urea than when fed the protein supplements. Nutrient digestibilities were not greatly affected by source of N, suggesting a beneficial effect of urea supplementation on nutrient digestibilities because replacement of protein supplements with cottonseed products caused the neutral detergent fiber content of the urea diet to be about 7% higher than that of the other diets. These data show that response to ruminally undegradable protein in diets of lactating cows fed steam-flaked sorghum was related to milk yield. PMID:9493096
Santos, F A; Huber, J T; Theurer, C B; Swingle, R S; Simas, J M; Chen, K H; Yu, P
Quantitation of ?-casein was achieved through the use of urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole milk and scanning densitometry. This method also provided electrophorectic separation of the different phosphoforms of ?-casein which were also quantitated. Fifty-eight human milk samples collected in 4 different countries were analyzed for ?-casein and ?-casein phosphoform concentrations. The average ?-casein concentration obtained using the whole milk
Terry A. Kroening; Pradip Mukerji; Robert G. Hards
The effects of urea and rumen-degrad- able protein (RDP) on microbial growth, digestibility, and fermentation were examined using dual-flow con- tinuous culture. The experimental design was a 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors were urea infusion (0.4 g\\/L of arti- ficial saliva) and RDP concentration, and the treat- ments were as
K. E. Griswold; G. A. Apgar; J. Bouton; J. L. Firkins
To investigate the role of inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) urea transporters in the renal concentrating mechanism, we deleted 3 kb of the UT-A urea transporter gene containing a single 140-bp exon (exon 10). Deletion of this segment selectively disrupted expression of the two known IMCD isoforms of UT-A, namely UT-A1 and UT-A3, producing UT-A1\\/3-\\/- mice. In isolated perfused IMCDs
Robert A. Fenton; Chung-Lin Chou; Gavin S. Stewart; Craig P. Smith; Mark A. Knepper
Samples of raw or pasteurized cow's milk and infant formula were assayed for glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, selenium (Se), and total protein. GSH-Px activity was detected in raw milk, but not in market-pasteurized milk or infant formula. The correlation between GSH-Px activity and Se levels was significant, even when the influence of protein level was removed. This result implies a role of GSH-Px as one of biologically active forms of Se in raw milk. Absence of GSH-Px activity in pasteurized milk and infant formula result from the heating process in these productions, because the heating of raw milk gave an irreversible inactivation of GSH-Px. Both GSH-Px activity and Se levels had significant correlation with protein level, but not so when the respective influences of Se and GSH-Px levels were removed. In raw cow's milk, Se content was 23 ng/mL and GSH-Px activity was 20 U/mL. About 12% of Se was bound to GSH-Px, and 0.003% of protein was GSH-Px. Raw milk obtained in July contained higher levels of Se, GSH-Px, and protein than that in November. Data for cow's milk were discussed in relation to those for human milk and those in New Zealand. PMID:24271994
It is obvious that lead intake is of concern not for its beneficial/essential effects on metabolism, but rather for its toxic actions, which can be especially damaging to children. The objective of this study was to analyze the concentration of lead in milk of mothers during prolonged lactation. Milk samples from 43 mothers were collected at 2 months postpartum. Lead was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The value of lead in human milk was 23.66±22.43 ?g/l. Lead concentration in human milk of mothers was higher than other countries and no significant relationship was found between levels of human milk lead and mother's education, age, parity, height and weight. The concentrations of lead in the milk samples were high, which makes a major public health hazard for the inhabitants, especially neonatal and children, of the industrial locations. PMID:24658989
Soleimani, Sedigheh; Shahverdy, Mohammad Reza; Mazhari, Najmeh; Abdi, Khosrou; Gerayesh Nejad, Siavash; Shams, Sedigheh; Alebooyeh, Elham; Khaghani, Shahnaz
Trávníãek, J., J. Kursa: Iodine Concentration in Milk Sheep and Goats from Farms in South Bohemia. Acta Vet. Brno 2001, 70: 35-42. Iodine concentration was determined in milk samples collected from 60 sheep on 10 farms and from 94 goats of 64 farmers. The animals were grazed in the summer and fed hay of local harvests in the winter. Pregnant
J. TRÁVNÍâEK; J. KURSA
1. The effects of seasonal conditions and nutrition on serum proteins and serum urea concentrations were studied in female reindeer and reindeer calves in Finland. With the exception of one group in winter, the reindeer were roaming wild in the forests. This one group was kept in captivity, out of doors, on a comparatively high nutritional plane. One group lived wild during the winter in very poor nutritional conditions. 2. A very clear seasonal variation in the serum protein and urea concentration was found. The serum protein concentration was low in late winter and increased rapidly during the summer, being high in the autumn. The serum urea concentration was also low in the winter and high in the summer. In the autumn, however, the serum urea concentration was again low. 3. Changes in the serum protein concentration were normally associated with the serum globulins. Only in the very poor-nutrition group did the albumin content decrease significantly. As a result of the large changes in the concentration of serum globulins, there were also considerable changes in the albumin: globulin ratio. 4. The serum protein concentration was much lower in the reindeer calves than in the adult reindeer. The concentration of globulins in particular was much lower than in the adults. PMID:1115752
Hyvärinen, H; Helle, T; Väyrynen, R; Väyrynen, P
The solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders was influenced by the method used for preparing the concentrate, drying conditions, and the type of dryer used. Increasing total solids of the ultrafiltered concentrates (23% total solids, TS) by diafiltration to 25% TS or evaporation to 31% TS decreased the solubility of MPC powders (80-83% protein, w/w dry basis), with ultrafiltration followed by evaporation to higher total solids having the greater detrimental effect on solubility. High shear treatment (homogenisation at 350/100 bar, microfluidisation at 800 bar or ultrasonication at 24 kHz, 600 watts) of ultrafiltered and diafiltered milk protein concentrates prior to spray drying increased the nitrogen solubility of MPC powders (82% protein, w/w dry basis). Of the treatments applied, microfluidisation was the most effective for increasing nitrogen solubility of MPC powders after manufacture and during storage. Manufacture of MPC powders (91% protein, w/w dry basis) prepared on two different pilot-scale dryers (single stage or two stage) from milk protein concentrates (20% TS) resulted in powders with different nitrogen solubility and an altered response to the effects of microfluidisation. Microfluidisation (400, 800 and 1200 bar) of the concentrate prior to drying resulted in increased long term solubility of MPC powders that were prepared on a single stage dryer but not those produced on a two stage spray dryer. This work demonstrates that microfluidisation can be used as a physical intervention for improving MPC powder solubility. Interactions between the method of preparation and treatment of concentrate prior to drying, the drying conditions and dryer type all influence MPC solubility characteristics. PMID:22998771
Augustin, Mary Ann; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Williams, Roderick; Andrews, Helen
Ninety-one lactating Holstein cows were used in three experiments to study effects of dietary urea on milk yields and composi- tion, voluntary consumption of' corn silage, concentrations of l~amen volatile fatty acids, and nutrient balances. The per cent of the total ration nitrogen furnished by urea ranged frmn 0 to 48%. The effect of con- centrate intake in response to
J. T. Huber; R. A. Sandy; C. E. Polan; H. T. Bryant; R. E. Blaser
Four crossbreds (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows were used to evaluate the effects of sunflower oil (SFO) levels and roughage source on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Four milking cows with average liveweight of 410 ± 25 kg and 18 ± 11 days in milk were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with SFO levels (3% or 6%) in the concentrate and the roughage source [rice straw (RS) or urea-treated RS (UTRS)] being the main factors. Four dietary treatments as (1) 3% SFO + RS, (2) 6% SFO + RS, (3) 3% SFO + UTRS, and (4) 6% SFO + UTRS were offered ad libitum total mixed ration, with a concentrate/roughage ratio of 60:40. The results were found that UTRS as a roughage source significantly increased feed intake, digestibility, concentration of acetic acid in rumen fluid, rumen ammonia-nitrogen, blood-urea nitrogen, milk urea-nitrogen, and milk yield (3.5% fat-corrected milk) compared with cows fed on untreated RS. Supplementation of SFO at 3% in the concentrate-supplemented group having increased dry matter intake, milk fat percentage, and milk yield (3.5% fat-corrected milk) compared with 6% SFO supplementation. However, there were no interaction effects between level of SFO in the concentrate and roughage source in any of the factors studied. PMID:20524063
Mapato, Chaowarit; Wanapat, Metha; Cherdthong, Anusorn
Background: In mammals the composition of milk changes during early lactation showing a rapid decline in fat-soluble vitamins and a continuous increase in total lipids. Changes in the concentrations of carotenoids, vitamin A, ?-tocopherol and total lipids in human milk (colostrum, transitory and mature milk) were studied to understand this not well characterised phenomenon. Methods: Colostrum, transitory and mature milk
Consuelo Macias; Florian J. Schweigert
Glutamine, an important fuel and biosynthetic precursor in intestinal epithelial cells, helps maintain intestinal integrity and function when supplemented to the diet of many species. The hypothesis tested here was that glutamine supplementation would overcome the decreased average daily gain (ADG) and altered intestinal morphology caused by milk replacer containing soy protein concentrate (SPC). Holstein calves (9 male and 1 freemartin female per treatment) were assigned to diets of 1) all-milk-protein (from whey proteins) milk replacer, 2) milk replacer with 60% milk protein replacement from SPC, and 3) SPC milk replacer as in diet 2 plus 1% (dry basis) l-glutamine. Milk replacers were reconstituted to 12.5% solids and were fed at 10% of body weight from d 3 to 10 of age, and at 12% of body weight (adjusted weekly) from d 10 through 4 wk of age. No dry feed (starter) was fed, but water was freely available. Glutamine was added at each feeding to reconstituted milk replacer. Five calves from each treatment were slaughtered at the end of wk 4 for measurements of intestinal morphology. The ADG was greater for calves fed the all-milk control than for those fed SPC; glutamine did not improve ADG (0.344, 0.281, and 0.282 kg/d for diets 1 to 3, respectively). Intake of protein was adequate for all groups and did not explain the lower growth for calves fed SPC. Villus height and crypt depth did not differ among treatments in the duodenum. In the jejunum, villus height (713, 506, and 464 mum, for diets 1 to 3, respectively) and crypt depth (300, 209, and 229 mum, respectively) were greater for calves fed all milk protein than for either SPC group. In the ileum, villus height was greater for calves fed all milk than for either soy group (532, 458, and 456 mum), whereas crypt depth tended to be greater (352, 301, and 383 mum for diets 1 to 3, respectively), and the villus to crypt ratio was lower for calves supplemented with glutamine than for those fed SPC alone. Urea N concentration in plasma was greater for calves supplemented with glutamine than for those fed SPC alone, indicating that glutamine was at least partially catabolized. Supplemental l-glutamine did not improve growth or intestinal morphology of calves fed milk replacer containing SPC. PMID:16606739
Drackley, J K; Blome, R M; Bartlett, K S; Bailey, K L
Sialyloligosaccharides and sialylglycoconjugates in colostrumandmilkareregardedtobeimportantbiolog- ical components with respect to be source of brain gan- gliosides in infant and to be antiinfectional components for the attack by the pathogenic bacteria and virus. Severalacidicoligosaccharideshavebeencharacterised inbothbovineandhumanmilkorcolostrum.Thesialyl- oligosaccharide content of human colostrum and milk has been extensivelystudied, whereas that ofcows milk andcolostrumhasreceivedless attention.Inthisstudy, the concentrations of three sialyloligosaccharides of bo- vine colostrum and
T. Nakamura; H. Kawase; K. Kimura; Y. Watanabe; M. Ohtani; I. Arai; T. Urashima
ABSTRACF Dietary calcium and magnesium intakes of 26 Nepalese lactating women were determined from analysis of 24-h duplicate food and beverage composites. In addition, blood, urine, and milk samples were collected. The mean Ca intake ofthese Nepalese mothers, 482 ± 249 mg\\/d, was less than halfthat ofAmerican lactating women yet the Ca concentration ofthe milk was similar for the two
Phylis B Moser; Robert D Reynolds; Suniti Acharya; M Pat Howard; Mark B Andon
We extended a region-based mathematical model of the renal medulla of the rat kidney, previously developed by us, to represent new anatomic findings on the vascular architecture in the rat inner medulla (IM). In the outer medulla (OM), tubules and vessels are organized around tightly packed vascular bundles; in the IM, the organization is centered around collecting duct clusters. In particular, the model represents the separation of descending vasa recta from the descending limbs of loops of Henle, and the model represents a papillary segment of the descending thin limb that is water impermeable and highly urea permeable. Model results suggest that, despite the compartmentalization of IM blood flow, IM interstitial fluid composition is substantially more homogeneous compared with OM. We used the model to study medullary blood flow in antidiuresis and the effects of vascular countercurrent exchange. We also hypothesize that the terminal aquaporin-1 null segment of the long descending thin limbs may express a urea-Na+ or urea-Cl? cotransporter. As urea diffuses from the urea-rich papillary interstitium into the descending thin limb luminal fluid, NaCl is secreted via the cotransporter against its concentration gradient. That NaCl is then reabsorbed near the loop bend, raising the interstitial fluid osmolality and promoting water reabsorption from the IM collecting ducts. Indeed, the model predicts that the presence of the urea-Na+ or urea- Cl? cotransporter facilitates the cycling of NaCl within the IM and yields a loop-bend fluid composition consistent with experimental data.
Dantzler, William H.; Pannabecker, Thomas L.
Chronic kidney disease is a substantial medical and economic burden. Animal models, including mice, are a crucial component of kidney disease research; however, recent studies disprove the ability of autoanalyzer methods to accurately quantify plasma creatinine levels, an established marker of kidney disease, in mice. Therefore, we validated autoanalyzer methods for measuring blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and urinary albumin concentrations,
S Grindle; C Garganta; S Sheehan; J Gile; A Lapierre; H Whitmore; B Paigen; K DiPetrillo
Alfalfa-brome hay, haylage, .5% urea- treated corn silage, or .5% urea plus 1% dried whey-treated corn silage was fed as the only forage to one of four groups of 10 lactating cows per group for a lacta- tion trial of 10 wk. Rumen samples were collected via stomach tube 3 to 4 h after the morning feeding. The pH of
D. J. Schingoethe; H. H. Voelker; G. L. Beardsley; J. G. Parsons
The United States Environmental Protection Agency has identified quantification of trichloroethylene (TCE), an industrial solvent, in breast milk as a high priority need for risk assessment. Water and milk samples were collected from 20 households by a lactation consultant in Nogales, Arizona. Separate water samples (including tap, bottled and vending machine) were collected for all household uses: drinking, bathing, cooking, and laundry. A risk factor questionnaire was administered. Liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether was followed by GC-MS for TCE quantification in water. Breast milk underwent homogenization, lipid hydrolysis and centrifugation prior to extraction. The limit of detection was 1.5 ng/mL. TCE was detected in 7 of 20 mothers’ breast milk samples. The maximum concentration was 6 ng/mL. TCE concentration in breast milk was significantly correlated with the concentration in water used for bathing (?=0.59, p=0.008). Detection of TCE in breast milk was more likely if the infant had a body mass index <14 (RR=5.2, p=0.02). Based on average breast milk consumption, TCE intake for 5% of the infants may exceed the proposed US EPA Reference Dose. Results of this exploratory study warrant more in depth studies to understand risk of TCE exposures from breast milk intake.
Beamer, Paloma I.; Luik, Catherine E.; Abrell, Leif; Campos, Swilma; Martinez, Maria Elena; Saez, A. Eduardo
Breast-feeding may expose infants to high levels of toxic chlorinated dioxins. To diminish intake of these lipophilic compounds by the baby, two diets were tested for their ability to reduce concentrations of dioxins in human milk. The diets were a low-fat/high- carbohydrate/low-dioxin diet. (about 20% of energy intake derived from fat) and a high fat /low-carbohydrate/low-dioxin diet. These diets were tested in 16 and 18 breast-feeding women, respectively. The test diets were followed for 5 consecutive days in the fourth week after delivery. Milk was sampled before and at the end of the dietary regimen, and dioxin concentrations and fatty acid concentrations were determined. Despite significant influences of these diets on the fatty acid profiles, no significant influence on the dioxin concentrations in breast milk could be found. We conclude that short-term dietary measures will not reduce dioxin concentration in human milk.
Pluim, H J; Boersma, E R; Kramer, I; Olie, K; van der Slikke, J W; Koppe, J G
The iodine nutrition of grazing ewes was assessed from milk iodine concentrations. In 54 flocks sampled throughout Victoria, the mean milk iodine concentrations in ewes ranged from 79 to 1831 micrograms/l. In 2 flocks where newborn lambs had goitre the concentrations in ewes ranged from 45 to 98 micrograms/l. A marked seasonal variation was apparent when ewes in a flock were sampled at monthly intervals over 2 years. Milk iodine concentrations were highest at the end of summer, and were lowest in spring. In grazing ewes the milk iodine concentrations remained relatively constant throughout the day. In ewes given single oral doses of up to 2 mg iodine, milk iodine concentrations increased to maximum within 5 h, the increment being related to the dose administered, and decreased to pretreatment concentrations within 24 h. Milk iodine concentrations in ewes given 1 ml iodised oil intramuscularly remained significantly higher than untreated ewes in the same flock for 16 months after treatment. The effectiveness of the single injection was still apparent after 2 consecutive pregnancies in the ewes. PMID:6093759
Azuolas, J K; Caple, I W
The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Zn were determined in breast milk of women living in Conceição das Alagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The potential relationships between metal levels in samples of breast milk, drinking water, and soils collected in the study area were also established. Metal levels in breast milk, except Cr, were lower in comparison to WHO reference concentrations. Zinc was the predominant element in breast milk and drinking water samples, with a median level of 46.2 and 82.2 ?g?·?L(-1), respectively. Soils presented a different pattern of metal concentrations with respect to those found in breast milk and drinking water, Chromium showed the highest median levels (148 mg?·?kg(-1)), while a certain predominance of Zn and Cu was also observed (47.0 and 43.0 mg?·?kg(-1), respectively). Similar profiles were observed when comparing metal concentrations in drinking water and breast milk (chi-square ? (2)?=?14.36; p?0.05). In contrast, breast milk-soil and drinking water-soil metal concentration profiles showed significant differences (? (2)?=?635.05 and ? (2)?=?721.78, respectively; p?0.05). These results indicate that drinking water is an important exposure pathway for metals to newborns through breast milk. Further studies should be aimed at assessing the body burdens of metals in that population and at evaluating the potential relationships in the concentrations in biological and environmental matrices as well as at estimating the contribution of dietary intake of metals. In addition, the presence of other chemical pollutants in breast milk should be also studied in order to assess the combined newborn exposure to other contaminants. PMID:24881955
Cardoso, Osmar O; Julião, Fabiana C; Alves, Renato I S; Baena, Antonio R; Díez, Isabel G; Suzuki, Meire N; Celere, Beatriz S; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I
Longitudinal changes in selenium (Se) and protein concentrations and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of milk collected from healthy mothers of term (n = 12), preterm (n = 10), and very preterm (n = 12) infants were assessed. All infants were size appropriate for gestational age. Milk samples representative of colostrum (d 3), transitional (d 7), and mature milk (d 21 and 42) were assayed. The content of Se in the colostrum secreted by mothers of preterm infants was significantly greater than the Se content of milk secreted by the same mothers at d 21 and 42 of lactation. Mothers of term and very preterm infants, however, produced colostrum with significantly higher levels of Se than milk produced at d 7 (p less than 0.05), d 21 (p less than 0.01), or d 42 (p less than 0.001). Significant differences between the protein concentrations measured in early lactation and in late lactation were evident in all maternal groups. Protein content did not differ significantly among groups at anytime during lactation. An age-related difference was detected in milk GSH-Px activities of mature milk (d 21). Mature milk produced by mothers of very preterm infants on d 21 of lactation contained significantly greater enzyme activity (p less than 0.05) than milk produced by mothers of term infants at the same stage of lactation. Activity of GSH-Px in milk from mothers of very preterm and preterm infants paralleled previously noted changes in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content in human milk with the progression of lactation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2296468
Ellis, L; Picciano, M F; Smith, A M; Hamosh, M; Mehta, N R
The aim of the work is to evaluate the effects of different forage to concentrate rations on milk yield, composition and renneting properties of milk of Jonica breed goats. Twenty-four Jonica goats received diets with forage to concentrate ratio of 35/65, 50/50 or 65/35, providing respectively a low, medium and high energy level. Goats were divided into three homogenous groups and confined in individual pens for 152 days to assess the daily feed intake and milk yield and composition. The main conclusions show that animal body weight did not change significantly with the increasing levels of forage, whereas significant differences (P<0.05) for daily dry matter intake were observed in relation to the evolution of lactation. Milk production was influenced (P<0.05) by dietary treatments and was higher in the diet with the greatest energy level. Forage to concentrate ratios did not significantly affect milk characteristics, milk renneting properties, initial production, rate of increase until reaching the peak and rate of decline after peak production. However, the day of peak production and peak production of goats were linearly reduced when the level of forage increased within the diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that both forage to concentrate ratio and energy level improve goat's production without influencing the milk composition. PMID:19152715
Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Dario, Marco; Laudadio, Vito
To determine the effect of various amounts of rumi- nally undegradable protein in the diets of lactating cows fed steam-flaked sorghum, 24 Holstein cows (90 ± 50 d in milk) were assigned to three treatments: 0.8% urea, 6% soybean meal, or 5% fish meal. Respec- tive percentages of ruminally undegradable protein in the diets (as a percentage of crude protein)
F. A. P. Santos; J. T. Huber; C. B. Theurer; R. S. Swingle; J. M. Simas; K. H. Chen; P. Yu
Forty-four early-lactation dairy cows of mixed parity were used to examine the effect of 4 supplemental concentrate types (n=11) on milk production and metabolic status. Animals were blocked by parity and calving date, and blocks were balanced for previous milk yield and milk protein yield. Cows received grazed pasture plus 5.17 kg of DM/d of 1 of the following isoenergetic (1.1 units of energy for lactation) concentrates: 1) high crude protein (CP) with rolled barley (HP, 19% CP); b) low CP with rolled barley (LP, 15% CP); c) low CP with barley and a supplemental methionine hydroxy analog (HMBi; LP + HMBi, 15% CP); and d) low CP with ground corn (LP-corn, 15% CP). Milk yield was recorded from d 1 to 100 postpartum, with weekly milk sampling, body weight, and body condition score (BCS) measurements. Blood and rumen sampling were conducted weekly from wk 2 to 6 postpartum. Milk yield was lower for cows in the LP treatment compared with those offered other concentrate types (25.2 vs. 27.5 ± 0.39 kg/d). Animals in the HP group had a higher milk yield than those in the LP + HMBi group (28.2 vs. 26.8 ± 0.39 kg/d). Milk fat yield was lower from animals in the LP-corn group compared with those in the LP + HMBi group (0.94 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03 kg/d). Milk protein yield was lower in the LP group compared with those in the HP group (0.88 vs. 0.97 ± 0.02 kg/d). Animal body weight, BCS, and BCS loss were not affected by concentrate type. However, nonesterified fatty acids were higher from animals in the HP group than for those in the LP + HMBi group (0.41 vs. 0.33 ± 0.03 mmol/L), and ?-hydroxy butyric acid was higher from animals in the HP group than for those in the other treatments (0.71 vs. 0.59 ± 0.03 mmol/L). Glucose was higher from animals in the LP-corn group than for those in the HP and LP groups (3.3 vs. 3.2 ± 0.05 mmol/L). Blood urea-N was higher from animals offered HP compared with those offered the other treatments (5.49.6 vs. 4.21 ± 0.44 mmol/L). However, rumen NH(3)-N and volatile fatty acid concentration in the rumen were not affected by supplemental concentrate type. Reducing supplemental concentrate CP reduced milk yield. However, milk fat production and energy-corrected milk were not different, reducing the likelihood of an improved energy balance or a more favorable blood metabolic profile in early-lactation dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass. Offering HMBi with low-CP concentrates or replacing rolled barley with ground maize improves milk production relative to low-CP concentrates and metabolic status relative to high-CP concentrates. PMID:22818468
Whelan, S J; Pierce, K M; Flynn, B; Mulligan, F J
This study assessed whether relationships existed between maternal indices of selenium (Se) nutrition and milk content of Se and activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Samples of milk (n = 72) collected at 4, 8, 12, and 16 wk postpartum and blood from lactating (n = 10) and control (n = 8) women were analyzed. Plasma and erythrocyte Se concentrations and plasma GSH-Px activity were significantly lower in lactating than in control women. Maternal plasma Se concentration was positively correlated with plasma GSH-Px activity (r = 0.53, p less than 0.01) and with milk Se content (r = 0.61, p less than 0.01) and GSH-Px activity (r = 0.51, p less than 0.01). Stage of lactation did not influence either milk or blood values. Milk Se concentration was positively correlated with milk GSH-Px activity (r = 0.81, p less than 0.001). Results indicate that human milk Se content and GSH-Px activity are directly influenced by maternal Se nutrition. PMID:3604976
Mannan, S; Picciano, M F
Concentrations of HIV-1 RNA and DNA in mucosal compartments influence the risk of sexual transmission and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Breast milk production is physiologically regulated such that supply is a function of infant demand, but whether demand also influences HIV-1 dynamics in breast milk is unknown. We tested whether minor and major changes in feeding frequency influence breast milk viral concentrations in 958 HIV-1-infected women and their infants followed, for 24 months during a trial in Lusaka, Zambia. Women were randomized to wean abruptly at 4 months or to continue breast-feeding for a duration of their own choosing. Two weeks after breast-feeding cessation (4.5 months), HIV-1 concentrations in breast milk were substantially higher (median RNA, 2708 copies/ml; DNA, 14 copies/ml) than if breast-feeding continued (median RNA, <50 copies/ml; DNA, <1 copy/ml; P < 0.0001). Among those continuing breast-feeding, HIV-1 concentrations in milk were higher if breast-feeding was nonexclusive (median RNA, 293 copies/ml; DNA, 2 copies/ml; P = 0.0006). Elevated milk viral concentrations after stopping breast-feeding explained higher than expected rates of late postnatal HIV transmission in those who weaned early. Changes in the frequency of breast-feeding peri-weaning and with nonexclusive breast-feeding influenced milk viral concentrations. This may explain the reduced risk of HIV-1 transmission associated with exclusive breast-feeding and why early weaning does not achieve the magnitude of HIV prevention predicted by models. Our results support continuation of maternal antiretroviral drug interventions over the full duration of time when any breast milk exposures may occur after planned weaning. PMID:23596203
Kuhn, Louise; Kim, Hae-Young; Walter, Jan; Thea, Donald M; Sinkala, Moses; Mwiya, Mwiya; Kankasa, Chipepo; Decker, Don; Aldrovandi, Grace M
Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate if a surrogate for renal neurohormonal activation, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), could identify patients destined to experience adverse outcomes associated with the use of high dose loop diuretics (HDLD). Background Loop diuretics are commonly used to control congestive symptoms in heart failure; however, these agents cause neurohormonal activation and are associated with worsened survival. Methods Subjects in the Beta-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial receiving loop diuretics at baseline were analyzed (n=2456). The primary outcome was the interaction between BUN and HDLD associated mortality. Results In the overall cohort, HDLD use (?160 mg/day) was associated with increased mortality (HR=1.56, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.80). However, after extensively controlling for baseline characteristics, this association did not persist (HR=1.06, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.25). In subjects with BUN levels above the median (21.0 mg/dl), both the unadjusted (HR=1.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.88) and adjusted (HR=1.29, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.60) risk for death was higher in the HDLD group. In patients with BUN levels below the median, there was no associated risk with HDLD (HR=0.99, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.34) and after controlling for baseline characteristics, the HDLD group had significantly improved survival (HR=0.71, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.96) (p interaction=0.018). Conclusion The risk associated with HDLD use is strongly dependent on BUN concentrations with reduced survival in patients with elevated BUN and improved survival in patients with normal BUN. These data suggest a role for neurohormonal activation in loop diuretic associated mortality.
Testani, Jeffrey M.; Cappola, Thomas P.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Shannon, Richard P.; Kimmel, Stephen E.
Production of omega-3 fatty acid concentrates from seal blubber oil (SBO) was optimized. In this process, the content of total ?3-fatty acids, Y1; eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), Y2; and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), Y3 in the final product was maximized. A three-factor central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to study the effect of urea-to-fatty acid ratio (X1), crystallization time (X2), and
Udaya N Wanasundara; Fereidoon Shahidi
Human milk is the best source of nourishment for the newborn because of its incomparable balanced nutrition and psychological\\u000a benefits to the infant's development. Dental fillings containing metallic Hg are the primary source of inorganic Hg contamination\\u000a of humans. We studied Hg concentrations in the breast milk of mothers during the first month (7–30 d) postnatal in relation\\u000a to the
Sérgio L. da Costa; Olaf Malm; José G. Dórea
Background Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes diarrhea, malnutrition and poor growth in children. Human breast milk decreases disease-causing bacteria by supplying nutrients and antimicrobial factors such as lysozyme. Goat milk with and without human lysozyme (HLZ) may improve the repair of intestinal barrier function damage induced by EAEC. This work investigates the effect of the milks on intestinal barrier function repair, bacterial adherence in Caco-2 and HEp-2 cells, intestinal cell proliferation, migration, viability and apoptosis in IEC-6 cells in the absence or presence of EAEC. Methods Rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6, ATCC, Rockville, MD) were used for proliferation, migration and viability assays and human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2, ATCC, Rockville, MD) and human larynx carcinoma (HEp-2, ATCC, Rockville, MD) cells were used for bacterial adhesion assays. Goats expressing HLZ in their milk were generated and express HLZ in milk at concentration of 270 ?g/ml . Cells were incubated with pasteurized milk from either transgenic goats expressing HLZ or non-transgenic control goats in the presence and absence of EAEC strain 042 (O44:H18). Results Cellular proliferation was significantly greater in the presence of both HLZ transgenic and control goat milk compared to cells with no milk. Cellular migration was significantly decreased in the presence of EAEC alone but was restored in the presence of milk. Milk from HLZ transgenic goats had significantly more migration compared to control milk. Both milks significantly reduced EAEC adhesion to Caco-2 cells and transgenic milk resulted in less colonization than control milk using a HEp-2 assay. Both milks had significantly increased cellular viability as well as less apoptosis in both the absence and presence of EAEC. Conclusions These data demonstrated that goat milk is able to repair intestinal barrier function damage induced by EAEC and that goat milk with a higher concentration of lysozyme offers additional protection.
Given the central role that interleukin 15 (IL-15) plays in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunity, we hypothesized that IL-15 in breast milk may protect against postnatal HIV transmission. In a nested case-control study, we compared breast milk IL-15 levels in 22 HIV-infected women who transmitted HIV to their infants to those in 72 nontransmitters. Samples were collected in the first month of life, prior to HIV infection. IL-15 concentrations were associated with a decreased risk of HIV transmission in unadjusted analysis and after adjusting for milk viral load, CD4 cell count, and other cytokines in breast milk. IL-15-mediated immunity may protect against HIV transmission during breast-feeding. PMID:19835475
Walter, Jan; Ghosh, Mrinal K; Kuhn, Louise; Semrau, Katherine; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M
Given the central role that interleukin 15 (IL-15) plays in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunity, we hypothesized that IL-15 in breast milk may protect against postnatal HIV transmission. In a nested case-control study, we compared breast milk IL-15 levels in 22 HIV-infected women who transmitted HIV to their infants to those in 72 nontransmitters. Samples were collected in the first month of life, prior to HIV infection. IL-15 concentrations were associated with a decreased risk of HIV transmission in unadjusted analysis and after adjusting for milk viral load, CD4 cell count, and other cytokines in breast milk. IL-15–mediated immunity may protect against HIV transmission during breast-feeding.
Walter, Jan; Ghosh, Mrinal K.; Kuhn, Louise; Semrau, Katherine; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Thea, Donald M.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.
The dietary intake of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), and iodine (I) of 31 lactating Mexican-American women attending the Hidalgo County WIC program in Rio Grande Valley (RGV), Texas was estimated from 24-h dietary recall interviews. Milk samples were obtained from lactating mothers who had infants 3 months of age and younger. Milk samples were collected in two visits to assess change in breast milk composition after 1-3 months postpartum: group A--after 30-45 days and group B--75-90 days. Dietary intakes indicated that the study participants had significantly inadequate percent energy intakes than the DRI (Dietary Recommended Intakes) percent recommended kilocalorie values but protein intakes were substantially higher than the percent recommended values. The estimated percent Zn, Fe, Se, and I intakes were also significantly lower than the DRI percent recommended values. The lactating mothers consumed significantly less Zn, Se, and I when compared to the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) even though Fe intake was higher than the RDA value. Breast milk concentration of Zn, Fe, and Se were in agreement within the range of representative values for Constituents of Human Milk but I has significantly less concentration than the representative value. There was no statistically significant correlation observed between dietary intake and milk concentration of Zn, Fe, Se, and I. This study compares the estimated dietary intake of zinc, iron, selenium, and iodine to the concentration of these trace elements in the maternal milk of lactating women of Mexican-American heritage who attend the Rio Grande Valley WIC clinic. PMID:18802672
Hannan, Mohammad A; Faraji, Bahram; Tanguma, Jesus; Longoria, Norma; Rodriguez, R C
The objective was to evaluate effects of feeding level of milk replacer on body growth, plasma metabolite and insulin concentrations, and allometric growth of visceral organs in suckling calves. Holstein bull calves (n = 8; 3-4 days of age) were fed either a low amount (average 0.63 kgDM/day, LM) or high amount (average 1.15 kgDM/day, HM) of high protein milk replacer until they were slaughtered at 6 weeks of age. Body weight (BW) at 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age, feed intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency were higher in the HM than LM calves. The HM group had higher plasma glucose at 3 and 4 weeks of age and insulin levels after the age of 4 weeks compared with LM calves whereas no effect was detected on plasma nonesterified fatty acid or urea nitrogen concentrations. The HM calves had greater empty body weight (EBW), viscera-free BW and most of the organs dissected than LM calves. Relative weights (% of EBW) of liver, spleen, kidneys, and internal fat were higher, whereas head and large intestine was lower in HM than LM calves. The results suggest that increased milk feeding levels would accelerate the growth of the body and specific organs. PMID:20163656
Kamiya, Mitsuru; Matsuzaki, Masatoshi; Orito, Hideki; Kamiya, Yuko; Nakamura, Yoshi-nori; Tsuneishi, Eisaku
Tobacco smoke is immunotoxic, but the effect of smoking on the immunologic function of the mammary gland of mothers who smoke cigarettes (“smoker mothers”) has not been studied. Our objective was to test, in smoker mothers, the colostral and transitional milk concentrations of interleukin-(IL)1?. The immunomodulators ?-endorphin and leptin were also tested. Pregnant women who self-identified as smokers (? 5 cigarettes per day through pregnancy) or nonsmokers were recruited for study participation. The study population included 42 smoker and 40 non-smoker nursing mothers, with otherwise uncomplicated gestation, delivery, and puerperium, who were breast-feeding ad libitum their healthy neonates. Colostrum was obtained on the third postpartum day at 0900 hr and transitional milk on the 10th postpartum day at 0900 hr. IL-1? concentrations were significantly reduced in the colostrum of smoker mothers compared with nonsmoker mothers (p < 0.01). Colostral ?-endorphin and leptin concentrations were comparable. No significant differences were found between smoker and nonsmoker lactating mothers in transitional milk concentrations of IL-1?, ?-endorphin, and leptin. Moreover, ?-endorphin and leptin concentrations were significantly reduced in transitional milk samples compared with colostrum of both smoker and nonsmoker mothers (p < 0.05); also, IL-1? transitional milk concentrations were reduced compared with colostrum, but without any significance. This analysis shows that maternal smoking alters the colostral milk levels of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1?. The altered postnatal provision of alternative source of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1? adds understanding to how breast-feeding could be nonprotective against infections among the neonates nursed by smoker mothers.
Zanardo, Vincenzo; Nicolussi, Silvia; Cavallin, Stefania; Trevisanuto, Daniele; Barbato, Angelo; Faggian, Diego; Favaro, Flaviano; Plebani, Mario
The onset of pregnancy may be associated with hormonal changes and decline in milk yield of buffaloes. To investigate this, forty lactating buffaloes from 1st to 23rd weeks post-conception were selected. The animals were assigned to three treatments: PRT, PRS, NPRT and three milk yielding groups HMY, 66 to 75 l/week, n = 12; MMY, 56 to 65 l/week, n = 16; LMY, 46 to 55 l/week, n = 12). Milk samples were collected on alternate weeks and analyzed with ultrasonic milk analyzer. EIA was used for milk progesterone concentrations. Group means were compared and correlation analysis was conducted. Progesterone concentrations increased in almost similar pattern with the advancing weeks post-conception. The high and low yielder showed greater progesterone concentrations in the supplemented than the animals on traditional ration (P < 0.001). Progesterone concentrations correlated positively with fat (%), negatively with milk yield, protein (%) and lactose (%). Decline in milk yield became drastic when progesterone concentrations rose above 6.44 ng/ml. The pregnant animals on traditional ration exhibited a sharper decline in milk yield with the increasing progesterone concentrations as compared to pregnant animals with supplemented ration. It is concluded that concentrates supplementation induced a raise in progesterone levels. Progesterone concentrations and milk yield showed an inverse relationship. PMID:19107569
Khan, Sarzamin; Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan; Ahmad, Nazir; Amjed, Muhammad; Younas, Muhammad; Rahman, Altafur
Non-protein-bound oligosaccharides are important bioactive components of cow milk, with potential human-health benefits such as stimulation of the growth of beneficial gut bacteria and defense against pathogens. In bovine milk, the majority of oligosaccharides are sialylated; 3'-sialyllactose (3'-N-acetylneuraminyl-D-lactose; 3'-SL) is the predominant sialylated oligosaccharide, followed by 6'-sialyllactose (6'-N-acetylneuraminyl-D-lactose; 6'-SL). Both 3'-SL and 6'-SL have antimicrobial activity. As bovine milk products such as infant formula can be an important component of the human diet, and the concentrations of 3'-SL and 6'-SL are lower in bovine milk compared with human milk, we aimed to identify cows that naturally produce higher concentrations of sialyllactose in their milk. Milk from such cows could be used to produce foods with an increased sialyllactose content, potentially providing increased health benefits. We speculated that cows overexpressing 3'-SL and 6'-SL would exist at low frequency in the population and, to allow their efficient identification, we developed a novel assay for 3'-SL and 6'-SL utilizing flow-injection analysis-mass spectrometry, which could be used for high-throughput analysis of milk samples. We then determined 3'-SL and 6'-SL concentrations in milk samples from 15,507 cows from Friesian, Jersey, and Friesian-Jersey crossbred animals. We found 329 cows with concentrations of 3'-SL or 6'-SL >2-fold higher than the mean, 26 cows with concentrations of 3'-SL or 6'-SL >3-fold higher than the mean, and 1 cow with concentrations of 3'-SL >4-fold higher than the mean. Although these outliers were observed across the 3 groups of cows, breed had a strong effect on mean 3'-SL and 6'-SL concentrations. PMID:24140337
Kelly, Van; Davis, Steve; Berry, Sarah; Melis, Janine; Spelman, Richard; Snell, Russell; Lehnert, Klaus; Palmer, David
Six multicatheterized beef steers (421 ± 21 kg BW) were used to predict the effect of dietary concentrate level on blood flow and net flux of urea and other metabolites across splanchnic tissues. Diets ranged from 0% (switchgrass hay) to 90% concentrate (10% switchgrass hay, 89% cracked corn, 1% urea). Daily DMI varied from 8.01 to 5.34 kg\\/d. Nitrogen intake
Gerald B. Huntington; Elinor J. Zetina; Joanne M. Whitt; William Potts
Background: The inefficiency of HIV breast-milk transmission may be caused by the presence of immunologically active factors, including human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). Objective: We investigated whether HMO concentrations are associated with a reduced risk of postnatal HIV transmission. Design: A nested case-control study was conducted within a larger cohort study of HIV-infected women and their infants followed from birth to 24 mo in Lusaka, Zambia. Breast-milk samples collected at 1 mo from 81 HIV-infected women who transmitted via breastfeeding, a random sample of 86 HIV-infected women who did not transmit despite breastfeeding, and 36 uninfected breastfeeding women were selected. Total and specific HMO concentrations were measured by HPLC and compared between groups with adjustment for confounders by using logistic regression. Results: HIV-infected women with total HMOs above the median (1.87 g/L) were less likely to transmit via breastfeeding (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.97; P = 0.04) after adjustment for CD4 count and breast-milk HIV RNA concentrations; a trend toward higher concentrations of lacto-N-neotetraose being associated with reduced transmission (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.23, 1.04; P = 0.06) was also observed. The proportion of 3?-sialyllactose (3?-SL) per total HMOs was higher among transmitting than among nontransmitting women (P = 0.003) and correlated with higher plasma and breast-milk HIV RNA and lower CD4 counts. Neither Secretor nor Lewis status distinguished between transmitting and nontransmitting women. Conclusions: Higher concentrations of non-3?-SL HMOs were associated with protection against postnatal HIV transmission independent of other known risk factors. Further study of these novel, potentially anti-HIV components of breast milk is warranted. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00310726.
Kuhn, Louise; Kim, Hae-Young; Hsiao, Lauren; Nissan, Caroline; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M
Milk samples were collected weekly from 10 llamas during the first 27 wk after parturition under controlled stable conditions. Mean values for the concentrations of the major milk components across the lactation period were 4.70% fat, 4.23% protein, 5.93% lactose, 15.61% dry matter, and 22.62 mg/dL of milk urea N. All constituents were affected by the stage of lactation. There was an increase in fat to protein ratio as protein concentration declined and fat concentration increased. Fat, protein, and lactose concentrations changed during the transition from colostrum to milk. In the first month postpartum, fat concentration remained constant, protein decreased, and lactose increased. Starting with wk 5 postpartum, fat and protein increased and lactose decreased until the end of lactation. Among the major constituents fat had the highest variation. The mean gross energy concentration of milk was 3.88 kJ/g and showed a similar course as protein. Fat contributed 48.0%, protein 26.3%, and lactose 25.7% to the gross energy in the milk. Milk urea N values were higher than those found in ruminants and increased with stage of lactation, whereas the pH decreased. The analyzed milk components were not affected by the lactation number of the animal, except milk urea N. Somatic cell counts indicated the absence of mastitis and revealed that the average somatic cell count of uninfected llamas is lower than in animals usually used for milk production. The 2 algebraic models fitted by a nonlinear regression procedure to the data resulted in suitable prediction curves for the constituents (R2 = 0.76 to 0.94). The courses of major milk constituents in llamas during lactation are similar to those in domesticated ruminants, although different in their values. The established curves facilitate the composition of milk replacers at different stages of lactation for nursing llamas whose dams died or are agalactic. PMID:16899683
Riek, A; Gerken, M
Background Human milk contains immune molecules involved in the protection of newborns against infections. We analyzed the concentration of Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1), a protein with functions in innate immunity, in breast milk. Methods DMBT1 was detected in breast milk by Western blotting and its concentration was quantified by ELISA in 95 breast milk samples collected from mothers of preterm and term neonates during the first four weeks after delivery. Possible effects of maternal or neonatal parameters were analyzed by different statistical tests. Results The mean DMBT1 concentration (± standard error of the mean) in the tested milk samples was 2.48?±?0.26??g/mL (range: 0.112??g/mL to 17.984??g/mL) and represented 0.0087% of the total protein content. The comparison between the newborns with infection and the newborns without infection revealed significantly higher DMBT1 concentrations in breast milk in the group with infection (6.72?±?2.53??g/mL versus 2.20?±?0.35??g/mL (P?=?0.031)). Neither maternal nor neonatal parameters showed a correlation with the milk DMBT1 levels. Conclusions DMBT1 is a component of breast milk after birth and is up-regulated in the breast milk from mothers with newborns suffering from neonatal infection. Thus, breast milk DMBT1 may be part of the innate immunity similar to secretory IgA.
We previously reported that body weight on day 14 after birth in male offspring of rats given alkaline ionized water (AKW) was significantly heavier than that in offspring of rats given tap water (TPW), but no significant difference was noted in milk yield and in suckled milk volume between the two groups. Additionally, the offspring in the AKW group and TPW group were given AKW and TPW, respectively, at weaning, and unexpectedly, the necrotic foci in the cardiac muscle were observed at the 15-week-old age in the AKW group, but not in the TPW group. The present study was designed to clarify the factors which are involved in that unusual increase of body weight and occurrence of cardiac necrosis. Eight dams in each group were given AKW or TPW (control) from day 0 of gestation to day 14 of lactation. The milk samples were collected on day 14 of lactation and analyzed for concentrations of calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and chloride (Cl). The AKW and TPW were also analyzed. Ca, Na and K levels in milk were significantly higher in the AKW group compared to the TPW group. No significant difference was noted in the Mg and Cl levels between the two groups. These data suggested that the Ca cation of AKW enriched the Ca concentration of the milk and accelerated the postnatal growth of the offspring of rats given AKW. PMID:11201172
Watanabe, T; Kamata, H; Fukuda, Y; Murasugi, E; Sato, T; Uwatoko, K; Pan, I J
Hormonal signals differentially regulate the timing of parturition, as well lactogenesis and, potentially, colostrum formation in the mammary gland. Non-neuronal serotonin (5-HT) is a homeostatic regulator of the mammary gland. In the current study, we manipulated the timing of first milking to investigate its effects on serum 5-HT and calcium concentrations in the maternal and calf circulation, as well as in colostrum. Twenty-three cows were randomly assigned to a control (CON; n=10) group, milked for the first time at 4h postcalving, or a treatment (TRT; n=13) group, milked for the first time approximately 1 d before calving in addition to 4h postcalving. Maternal blood samples were collected for 4 d precalving, 3 times daily, and 1 blood sample was taken 4h postcalving. Calf blood samples were collected 4 (before first colostrum feeding) and 12h after birth, and at 3wk of age. Calves from both treatments were fed colostrum from their respective mothers. Serum 5-HT concentrations were greater in CON cows and decreased significantly in TRT cows after milking was initiated precalving (951 vs. 524±111ng/mL, respectively). Cow serum calcium concentrations were affected by time, beginning to decrease 1 d precalving until 4h postcalving, but this drop in serum calcium was more pronounced in TRT cows. Serum 5-HT and calcium concentrations were negatively correlated (r=-0.57) for the CON cows and positively correlated (r=0.6) for the TRT cows. Maternal calcium and 5-HT decreased similarly due to precalving milking. Calcium and 5-HT concentrations were greater in colostrum collected from TRT cows milked precalving. Overall, calves had higher circulating 5-HT concentrations than cows, and calves born to TRT cows had increased 5-HT concentrations compared with the CON. Precalving milking could affect 5-HT synthesis within the mammary gland and therefore affect maternal 5-HT and calcium concentrations. Further research is needed in ruminants to assess the extent of 5-HT placental transfer, its role on pre- and postnatal development of the calf, the importance of its presence in colostrum, and potential long-term effects on calf health. PMID:24612806
Laporta, J; Gross, J J; Crenshaw, T D; Bruckmaier, R M; Hernandez, L L
Over the past few decades, much progress has been made in the development of freeze concentration technology, and commercial freeze concentration plants have been established around the world. However, high costs still limit its use in many potential applications.A continuous, multilayer freezer was designed, constructed, and operated under different conditions. This process used a series of chambers, mounted as layers
Zhonglai Zhang; Richard W. Hartel
Information on the secretion of trace elements in human milk is needed, not only in order to estimate the intake by the breast-fed infant, but also as a starting point for recommendations of intakes from other types of infant foods and minerals diets during lactation. Duration of lactation, particularly in the first few weeks, markedly affects concentrations of some elements,
A. Kinsara; S. M. Farid; S. A. Wajid; S. Sadi
To examine the suitability and reliability in field use of the "Merckognost Harnstoff" method in estimating the concentration of urea in the blood of horses, cattle, goats and dogs, the levels determined by this procedure were compared with those determined by an enzymatic (urease) photometric method widely used in laboratories. It was concluded from the results obtained that estimation using the "Merckognost Harnstoff" is sufficiently reliable for the rapid assay of urea in the blood under field conditions. PMID:1198574
Schotman, A J; Wensing, T; Ockels, J; de Bruyne, J J; Hendriks, H J
The recovery of species-related conjugated sheep-like flavored alkylphenols from Manchego-type cheese whey by ultrafiltration was investigated. Concentrations of conjugated alkylphenols were similar in the various fractions of whey permeate collected during ultrafiltration, and this was interpreted as a reflection of their high water solubility. About 49 and 62% of conjugated 3- and 4-ethylphenols and p- and m-cresols in sheep's milk cheese whey, respectively, were recovered in the permeate after ultrafiltration with a volume concentration factor of 5.4. Cheese whey retentate correspondingly contained 38 and 28% of conjugated 3- and 4-ethylphenols and p- and m-cresols from the original whey, respectively. Permeate fractions from sheep's milk cheese whey were combined, concentrated by vacuum evaporation, and lactose was partially removed by crystallization and filtration to obtain an aqueous sheep-like flavor precursor concentrate. PMID:15545359
Kilic, M; Lindsay, R C
Zinc (Zn) deficiency in infancy and early childhood is of public health concern in developing countries. This study aimed to longitudinally assess Zn intake of urban South Indian term infants in the first 6 months of life using measures of breast milk (BM) volume and BM Zn concentrations and, additionally, to study the effect of BM Zn intake on infant length and weight gain. BM intake by the deuterium dilution technique, BM Zn concentration at months 1, 3 and 6, as well as serum Zn level at months 3 and 6 were assessed in 50 mother-infant pairs. BM intake significantly declined from 627?mL?day(-1) at month 1 to 608?mL?day(-1) at month 6 (P?0.01). BM Zn concentration and intake significantly declined from month 1 to month 6 (P?0.001 for both). Mean infant serum Zn level at months 3 and 6 were 93.0?±?27.1 and 99.6?±?30.1?µg?dL(-1) , respectively. Infant BM Zn intake at months 1 and 3 was not associated with the weight and length gain between 1-3 and 3-6 months, respectively. Zn intake from BM, maternal BM Zn content and serum Zn levels were not significantly different between small-for-gestational age and appropriate-for-gestational age infants. Therefore, among urban south Indian term infants less than 6 months of age, BM Zn intakes were low, owing to low volumes of BM intake, despite BM Zn concentrations being in the normal range. Promotion of breastfeeding and thereby increasing the volumes of milk produced is a first important step towards improving Zn intake among infants. PMID:22734965
Samuel, Tinu Mary; Thomas, Tinku; Thankachan, Prashanth; Bhat, Swarnarekha; Virtanen, Suvi M; Kurpad, Anura V
We assessed the zinc status of veal calves that were fed milk replacers containing either skim milk protein as the sole source of protein or a mixture of skim milk protein and soybean protein. After the milk replacers had been fed for 26 wk, mean body weight gain was 3 kg lower for calves fed the skim milk plus soybean proteins; this decrease was not significant. Inclusion of dietary protein from soybeans versus milk protein alone reduced plasma concentrations of zinc by 43% and reduced hepatic concentrations of zinc by 81%. The impairment of zinc status that was induced by the inclusion of soybean protein was probably caused by its phytate component. The effect of soybean protein on zinc status was rather specific because plasma and hepatic concentrations of copper were unaffected. Despite the high concentration of zinc (142 mg/kg of dry matter) in the milk replacer that contained milk plus soybean proteins, calves displayed a shortage of zinc because their plasma and hepatic concentrations of zinc were significantly reduced. PMID:9313159
Xu, C; Wensing, T; Beynen, A C
The effects of high pressure (HP) treatment (100-400 MPa at 10-60 °C) on the solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders were tested. The solubility, measured at 20 °C, of fresh MPC powders made with no HP treatment was 66%. It decreased by 10% when stored for 6 weeks at ambient temperature (~20 °C) and continued to decrease to less than 50% of its initial solubility after 12 months of storage. Of the combinations of pressure and heat used, a pressure of 200 MPa at 40 °C applied to the concentrate before spray drying was found to be the most beneficial for improved solubility of MPC powders. This combination of pressure/heat improved the initial cold water solubility to 85%. The solubility was maintained at this level after 6 weeks storage at ambient temperature and 85% of the initial solubility was preserved after 12 months. The improved solubility of MPC powders on manufacture and on storage are attributed to an altered surface composition arising from an increased concentration of non-micellar casein in the milk due to HP treatment prior to drying. The improved solubility of high protein powders (95% protein) made from blends of sodium caseinate and whey protein isolate compared with MPC powders (~85% protein) made from ultrafiltered/diafiltered milk confirmed the detrimental role of micellar casein on solubility. The results suggest that increasing the non-micellar casein content by HP treatment of milk or use of blends of sodium caseinate and whey proteins are strategies that may be used to obtain high protein milk powders with enhanced solubility. PMID:22127220
Udabage, Punsandani; Puvanenthiran, Amirtha; Yoo, Jin Ah; Versteeg, Cornelis; Augustin, Mary Ann
To evaluate the urea load (amount to be excreted by the kidney in 24 hours) associated with a determined nitrogen intake, 16 studies of nitrogen balance were performed on 10 patients with different degrees of kidney function. A close asso ciation between urea excretion and nitrogen intake was found in the studies showing nitrogen equilibrium and between urea excretion and
ENRIQUE PEDRO COTTINI; DANIEL LINO GALLINA; JOSE MIGUEL DOMÃ NGUEZ
The effect of dextran from Leuconostoc mesenteroides (DEX500), added to milk prior to acidification with glucono-?-lactone (GDL) or Streptococcus thermophilus DSM20259, was studied with respect to polysaccharide concentration. The incorporation of 5-30 g/kg DEX500 significantly affected gelation behavior. Increasing DEX500 concentrations resulted in a linear increase of gel stiffness (GDL gels: R(2)=0.96; microbial acidification: R(2)=0.94; P<0.05) and 30 g/kg DEX500 resulted in a 2-fold higher stiffness compared to gels without polysaccharide. The respective stirred gels depicted a significant reduction in syneresis, which decreased from 30.4% (0 g/kg DEX500) to 22.0% (30 g/kg DEX500) for chemically acidified gels after 1 d of storage. Physical characteristics of DEX500 in aqueous solution were helpful to explain its behavior in the complex system milk. PMID:24053819
Mende, Susann; Peter, Michaela; Bartels, Karin; Dong, Tingting; Rohm, Harald; Jaros, Doris
Objective To investigate if breast milk interleukin [IL]-7 concentrations are associated with postnatal HIV transmission. Design A case-control study nested within a cohort of women recruited in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods IL-7 breast milk concentrations were measured in samples from 24 HIV-infected breast-feeding women who transmitted HIV to their child after the neonatal period and from 47 women who did not transmit. Samples were frequency-matched by the time of sample collection (1 week and 1 month postpartum). Logistic regression was used to adjust for possible confounders. For comparison, samples from 18 HIV-uninfected women from the same community were included in the analysis, and plasma IL-7 was determined. Results Breast milk IL-7 concentrations were significantly higher than plasma IL-7 concentrations in all 3 groups. In contrast to levels among transmitters and HIV-uninfected women, breast milk IL-7 concentrations exhibited a bimodal distribution among nontransmitters. Breast milk IL-7 concentrations undetectable or less than 30 pg/mL were significantly associated with less HIV transmission (odds ratio = 0.13, 95% confidence interval: 0.03 to 0.64). The association remained strong after adjustment for breast milk viral load and sodium, maternal CD4 cell counts, parity, and time of sample collection. Conclusion Breast milk IL-7 may be necessary for effective HIV transmission.
Walter, Jan; Kuhn, Louise; Ghosh, Mrinal K.; Kankasa, Chipepo; Semrau, Katherine; Sinkala, Moses; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.
Four, lactating dairy crossbreds (50%×50% Holstein Friesian×Native Zebu cattle) were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement (two protein levels and two levels of mangosteen peel pellets (Mago-pel)) in a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. All cows received concentrate at a proportion of 1 kg concentrate per 2 kg of milk yield, and urea-treated 5% rice straw (UTRS) was given ad libitum. It was found that total dry matter intakes, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and NH3-N concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by treatments. Concentrations of ruminal pH and NH3-N were not affected by dietary treatments although the concentration of BUN varied significantly (p<0.05) between protein levels (p<0.05). The populations of rumen bacteria and fungal zoospores did not differ among treatments (p>0.05); however, the population of protozoa was decreased (p<0.05) when cows received Mago-pel supplementation. The composition of the population of bacteria, identified by real-time PCR technique, including total bacteria, methanogens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus was similar (p>0.05) among dietary treatments (p>0.05); however, copy numbers of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was increased when protein level increased (p<0.05). Microbial protein synthesis, in terms of both quantity and efficiency, was enriched by Mago-pel supplementation. Milk yield was greatest in cows fed UTRS based diets with concentrate containing protein at 16% CP with Mago-pel, but were lowest without Mago-pel (p<0.05). In addition, protein level and supplementation of Mago-pel did not affect (p>0.05) milk composition except solids-not-fat which was higher in cows fed the diet with 19% CP. Therefore, feeding a concentrate containing 16% CP together with 300 g/hd/d Mago-pel supplementation results in changes in rumen fermentation and microbial population and improvements in milk production in lactating dairy crossbreds fed on UTRS.
Norrapoke, T.; Wanapat, M.; Wanapat, S.
Concentrations of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) of two classes, the alkyl phenols (nonyl phenol (NP) and octyl phenol (OP)) and phthalates, in the milk of ewes grazed on pastures fertilised with sewage sludge or with inorganic fertiliser were determined at three stages of lactation. Milk concentrations of these compounds varied greatly between individuals and stages of lactation for both nonyl phenol (NP; < 30-> 1000 microg/kg DM) and total phthalates (< 200-> 20,000 microg/kg DM). Overall, there was no significant effect of sludge treatment on milk concentrations of chemicals of either class. Significant differences between years were recorded in mean log concentrations of both NP (P < 0.001) and total phthalate (P < 0.001) but there were no consistent changes with stage of lactation, ewe body condition or age in mean milk concentrations of either class of compound. Milk concentrations of NP were low, and little higher than environmental concentrations, while phthalate concentrations were approximately two-fold higher than environmental concentrations. Estimated daily intakes of phthalates were considered to be of potential, biological significance with respect to the health of animal and human consumers. It is concluded that the importance of milk as a route of EDC exposure in growing ruminants differs with class of compound and individual animal. Exposure of the offspring to these EDCs may be transiently exacerbated by exposure of their dams to additional EDCs via the application of sewage sludge to their pasture. PMID:17582469
Rhind, Stewart M; Kyle, Carol E; Mackie, Claire; Telfer, Gillian
Bovine mastitis can be diagnosed by abnormalities in milk components and somatic cell count (SCC), as well as by clinical signs. We examined raw milk in Korea by analyzing SCC, milk urea nitrogen (MUN), and the percentages of milk components (milk fat, pro- tein, and lactose). The associations between SCC or MUN and other milk components were investigated, as well
Y. K. Park; H. C. Koo; S. H. Kim; S. Y. Hwang; W. K. Jung; J. M. Kim; S. Shin; R. T. Kim; Y. H. Park
This study investigated the association between pre-breeding blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration and reproductive performance of beef heifers within different management systems in South Africa. Bonsmara heifers (n?=?369) from five herds with different estimated levels of nitrogen intake during the month prior to the commencement of the breeding season were sampled in November and December 2010 to determine BUN concentrations. Body mass, age, body condition score (BCS) and reproductive tract score (RTS) were recorded at study enrolment. Trans-rectal ultrasound and/or palpation was performed 4-8 weeks after a 3-month breeding season to estimate the stage of pregnancy. Days to pregnancy (DTP) was defined as the number of days from the start of the breeding season until the estimated conception date. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards survival analysis were performed to estimate the association of pre-breeding BUN concentration with subsequent pregnancy and DTP, respectively. After stratifying for herd and adjusting for age, heifers with relatively higher pre-breeding BUN concentration took longer to become pregnant when compared to those with relatively lower BUN concentration (P?=?0.011). In the herd with the highest estimated nitrogen intake (n?=?143), heifers with relatively higher BUN were less likely to become pregnant (P?=?0.013) and if they did, it was only later during the breeding season (P?=?0.017), after adjusting for body mass. These associations were not present in the herd (n?=?106) with the lowest estimated nitrogen intake (P?>?0.500). It is concluded that Bonsmara heifers with relatively higher pre-breeding BUN concentration, might be at a disadvantage because of this negative impact on reproductive performance, particularly when the production system includes high levels of nitrogen intake. PMID:24817422
Tshuma, Takula; Holm, Dietmar Erik; Fosgate, Geoffrey Theodore; Lourens, Dirk Cornelius
OBJECTIVES: This study documented the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) in the breast milk of women from Quebec, Canada, and assessed the impact of various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on these levels. METHODS: From 1988 to 1990, milk samples were obtained from 536 Quebec women and analyzed for seven PCB congeners and p,p'-DDE. Information was obtained on subjects' physical, sociodemographic, and lifestyle characteristics. RESULTS: Mean concentrations were 0.52 mg/kg lipids (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.50, 0.54) and 0.34 mg/kg lipids (95% CI = 0.32, 0.35) for PCBs (Aroclor 1260) and DDE, respectively. Age and history of breast-feeding showed statistically significant correlations with PCB and DDE concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of PCBs and DDE measured in this study are at the lower end of the concentration range recently reported for women living in industrialized countries. The modulating factors identified here should be considered when conducting studies on organochlorine exposure and disease.
Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P; Laliberte, C; Weber, J P; Gingras, S; Nantel, A J
Human milk S100B protein possesses important neurotrophic properties. However, in some conditions human milk is substituted by milk formulas. The aims of the present study were: to assess S100B concentrations in milk formulas, to verify any differences in S100B levels between preterm and term infant formulas and to evaluate the impact of industrial preparation at predetermined phases on S100B content. Two different set of samples were tested: (i) commercial preterm (n = 36) and term (n = 36) infant milk formulas; ii) milk preterm (n = 10) and term infant (n = 10) formulas sampled at the following predetermined industrial preparation time points: skimmed cow milk (Time 0); after protein sources supplementation (Time 1); after pasteurization (Time 2); after spray-drying (Time 3). Our results showed that S100B concentration in preterm formulas were higher than in term ones (p < 0.01). In addition, S100B concentrations during industrial preparation showed a significant increase (p < 0.001) at Time 1 followed by a slight decrease (p > 0.05) at Time 2, whereas a significant (p < 0.001) dip was observed at Time 3. In conclusion, S100B showed a sufficient thermostability to resist pasteurization but not spry-drying. New feeding strategies in preterm and term infants are therefore warranted in order to preserve S100B protein during industrial preparation. PMID:18384096
Nigro, Francesco; Gagliardi, Luigi; Ciotti, Sabina; Galvano, Fabio; Pietri, Amedeo; Tina, Gabriella Lucia; Cavallaro, Daniela; La Fauci, Luca; Iacopino, Leonardo; Bognanno, Matteo; Li Volti, Giovanni; Scacco, Antonio; Michetti, Fabrizio; Gazzolo, Diego
Two cases of mothers given postpartum short-term administration of amiodarone, with and without bisoprolol, are described along with determinations of amiodarone and (±)-bisoprolol in the breast milk. In one mother given a cumulative total of amiodarone of 8?g over 1 week, concentrations 11 days after the drug had been stopped were initially deemed sufficient to pose a risk to an infant. Over the next 5 days the concentrations steadily dropped with amiodarone and desethylamiodarone concentrations being found to be at a level comprising minimal risk to the infant. Bisoprolol was not found in the expressed breast milk. In the second case the mother was given a single 150?mg dose of amiodarone and breast milk concentrations were measured on postpartum days 4 and 5. Breast milk amiodarone concentrations were very low and of little concern clinically had the mother breast fed her baby. The risk to the baby of ingesting breast milk after amiodarone administration postpartum depends on the duration of amiodarone exposure, with a single dose posing minimal risk. Bisoprolol does not appear to accumulate to any great extent in breast milk. PMID:24482268
Khurana, Rshmi; Bin Jardan, Yousef A; Wilkie, Jodi; Brocks, Dion R
Blood and/or breast milk have been used to assess human exposure to various environmental contaminants. Few studies have been available to compare the concentrations in one matrix with those in another. The goals of this study were to determine the current levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Japanese women, with analysis of the effects of lifestyle and dietary habits on these levels, and to develop a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) with which to predict the ratio of serum concentration to breast milk concentration. We measured PBDEs and PCBs in 89 paired samples of serum and breast milk collected in four regions of Japan in 2005. The geometric means of the total concentrations of PBDE (13 congeners) in milk and serum were 1.56 and 2.89 ng/g lipid, respectively, whereas those of total PCBs (15 congeners) were 63.9 and 37.5 ng/g lipid, respectively. The major determinant of total PBDE concentration in serum and milk was the geographic area within Japan, whereas nursing duration was the major determinant of PCB concentration. BDE-209 was the most predominant PBDE congener in serum but not in milk. The excretion of BDE 209 in milk was lower than that of BDE 47 and BDE 153. QSAR analysis revealed that two parameters, calculated octanol/water partition and number of hydrogen-bond acceptors, were significant descriptors. During the first weeks of lactation, the predicted partitioning of PBDE and PCB congeners from serum to milk agreed with the observed values. However, the prediction became weaker after 10 weeks of nursing.
Inoue, Kayoko; Harada, Kouji; Takenaka, Katsunobu; Uehara, Shigeki; Kono, Makoto; Shimizu, Takashi; Takasuga, Takumi; Senthilkumar, Kurunthachalam; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Koizumi, Akio
One hundred and sixty Rambouillet lambs (15.925±0.350kg\\/BW) were studied for 90 days with two treatments evaluating in situ DM disappearance, voluntary DM and OM intake, rumen degradation, rate of passage, NH3 and VFA concentrations, apparent digestibility, ruminal pH, total fermentable carbohydrates, and weight gains. The first diet (80 lambs plus two cannulated sheep) offered 1000g corn stubble (CS) per day,
M. A Galina; J. D Hummel; M Sánchez; G. F. W Haenlein
Background The effect of daily prenatal and postnatal vitamin supplementation on concentrations of breast milk nutrients is not well characterized in HIV-infected women. Objective We examined the impact of vitamin supplementation during pregnancy and lactation on breast milk concentrations of retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherols during the first year post-partum among 626 HIV-infected Tanzanian women. Design We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Women were assigned to one of four daily oral supplements: vitamin A + ?-carotene (VA+BC); multivitamins (B, C, E (MV)); MV+VA+BC; or placebo. Concentrations of breast milk nutrients were determined by HPLC at birth and every 3 mo thereafter. Results Supplementation with VA+BC increased concentrations of retinol, ?-carotene, and ?-carotene at delivery by 4799, 1791, and 84 nmol/L, respectively, compared to no VA+BC (all p<0.0001). MV supplementation did not increase concentrations of ?-tocopherol or ?-tocopherol at delivery but significantly decreased concentrations of breast milk ?-tocopherol and retinol. Although concentrations of all nutrients decreased significantly by 3 months postpartum, retinol, ?-carotene, and ?-carotene concentrations were significantly higher among those receiving VA+BC at 3, 6, and 12 mo compared to no VA+BC. Alpha tocopherol was significantly higher, while ?-tocopherol concentrations were significantly lower, among women receiving MV compared to no MV at 3, 6, and 12 mo post-partum. Conclusions Sustained supplementation of HIV-infected breastfeeding mothers with MV could be a safe and effective intervention to improve vitamin E concentrations in breast milk. VA+BC supplementation increases concentrations of breast milk retinol but it is not recommended in HIV-infected mothers due to the elevated risk of vertical transmission.
Webb, Aimee L.; Aboud, Said; Furtado, Jeremy; Murrin, Clare; Campos, Hannia; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Villamor, Eduardo
This study aimed to ascertain the response of goat mammary metabolic pathways to concentrate and lipid feeding in relation to milk fatty acid (FA) composition and secretion. Sixteen midlactation multiparous goats received diets differing in forage-to-concentrate ratio [high forage (HF) 64:36, and low forage (LF) 43:57] supplemented or not with lipids [HF with 130 g/d of oil from whole intact rapeseeds (RS) and LF with 130 g/d of sunflower oil (SO)] in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Milk yield, milk composition, FA profile, and FA secretion were measured, as well as the expression profiles of key genes in mammary metabolism and of 8,382 genes, using a bovine oligonucleotide microarray. After 3 wk of treatment, milk, lactose, and protein yields were lower with HF-RS than with the other diets, whereas treatment had no effect on milk protein content. Milk fat content was higher with the HF-RS and LF-SO diets than with the HF and LF diets, and SO supplementation increased milk fat yield compared with the LF diet. Decreasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio from 64:36 to 43:57 had a limited effect on goat milk FA concentrations and secretions. Supplementing the LF diet with SO changed almost all the FA concentrations, including decreases in medium-chain saturated FA and large increases in trans C18:1 and C18:2 isomers (particularly trans-11 C18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid), without significant changes in C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1, whereas supplementing the HF diet with RS led to a strong decrease in short- and medium-chain saturated FA and a very strong increase in C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1, without significant changes in trans C18:1 and conjugated linoleic acid. Despite the decreases in milk lactose and protein yields observed with HF-RS, and despite the decrease in milk medium-chain FA and the increase in C18 FA secretion with RS or SO supplementation, none of the dietary treatments had any effect on mammary mRNA expression of the key genes involved in lactose (e.g., alpha-lactalbumin), protein (e.g., beta-casein), and lipid metabolism (e.g., lipoprotein lipase) after 3 wk of treatment. In addition, transcriptome analysis did not provide evidence of treatments inducing significant changes in the expression of specific genes in the mammary gland. However, 2-way hierarchical clustering analysis highlighted different global mammary expression profiles between diets, showing that the gene expression profiles corresponding to the same diet were gathered by common groups of genes. This experiment suggests that after 3 wk of dietary treatment, other factors, such as substrate availability for mammary metabolism, could play an important role in contributing to milk FA responses to changes in diet composition in the goat. PMID:19841217
Ollier, S; Leroux, C; de la Foye, A; Bernard, L; Rouel, J; Chilliard, Y
Carrier-mediated urea transport allows rapid urea movement across the cell membrane, which is particularly important in the process of urinary concentration and for rapid urea equilibrium in non-renal tissues. Urea transporters mediate passive urea uptake that is inhibited by phloretin and urea analogues. Facilitated urea transporters are divided into two classes: (1) the renal tubular\\/testicular type of urea transporter, UT-A1
Chairat Shayakul; Matthias A. Hediger
Heats of dilution in water and in aqueous 7 mol kg(-1) urea and 3 mol kg(-1) ethanol of binary solutions containing cyclomaltohexaose, cyclomaltoheptaose, cyclomaltooctaose, 2-hydroxypropyl-cyclomaltohexaose (HP?CD), 2-hydroxypropyl-cyclomaltoheptaose (HP?CD), methyl-cyclomaltohexaose (Me?CD), methyl-cyclomaltoheptaose (Me?CD) and 2-hydroxypropyl-cyclomaltooctaose (HP?CD) have been determined at 298.15K by flow microcalorimetry. The purpose of this study is to gain information about the influence of urea and ethanol, which have different effects on water structure, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. The pairwise interaction coefficients of the virial expansion of the excess enthalpies were evaluated and compared to those previously obtained for binary solutions of cyclomaltohexaose and cyclomaltoheptaose. The particular behaviour of cyclomaltooligosaccharides in water is put in evidence with respect to that shown by simple oligosaccharides. The values of the interaction coefficients greatly change in dependence of the solvent medium. They are negative in water for unsubstituted cyclomaltooligosaccharides, and positive for the alkyl-substituted ones, thus marking the major role of the hydrophobic interactions. In concentrated aqueous ethanol, coefficients are negative, while they are positive in concentrated aqueous urea. Urea solvates the hydroxyl group provoking the attenuation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. Instead, the presence of the cosolvent ethanol, which lowers the relative permittivity of the medium, enhances the strength of hydrophilic interactions. PMID:18550036
Castronuovo, Giuseppina; Niccoli, Marcella
Human milk samples were collected from individuals residing in various regions across Canada mostly in the years 1992 to 2005. These included five large cities in southern Canada as well as samples from Nunavik in northern Quebec. Comparative samples were also collected from residents of Austin, Texas, USA in 2002 and 2004. More than 300 milk samples were analysed for the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), PBDEs and HBCD, by extraction, purification and quantification using either isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-MS. The Canadian total PBDE values in the years 2002-2005 show median levels of about 20?g/kg on a lipid basis; a value significantly higher than in the 1980s and 1990s. Milk samples from Inuit donors in the northern region of Nunavik were slightly lower in PBDE concentrations than those from populated regions in the south of Quebec. Milk samples from Ontario contained slightly lower amounts of PBDEs in two time periods than those from Texas. HBCD levels in most milk samples were usually less than 1ppb milk lipid and dominated by the ?-isomer. This large data set of BFRs in Canadian human milk demonstrates an increase in the last few decades in human exposure to BFRs which now appears to have stabilized. PMID:24879366
Ryan, John Jake; Rawn, Dorothea F K
The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in pooled bovine milk samples collected between 1991 and 2005 in County Cork, Ireland. The pooled samples were of bulk-tank milk collected from farms adjacent to industrial, chemical and pharmaceutical installations (target milk) or from rural farms distant from industrial activity (control milk).Comparing data between the first and
James V. O’Donovan; Kevin J. O’Farrell; Pat O’Mahony; James F. Buckley
This study compared the functional properties of serum protein concentrate (SPC) with whey protein concentrate (WPC) made from the same milk and with commercial WPC. The experimental SPC and WPC were produced at 34% or 80% protein from the same lot of milk. Protein contents of WPC and SPC were comparable; however, fat content was much lower in SPC compared with WPC and commercial WPC. The effect of drying methods (freeze vs. spray drying) was studied for 34% WPC and SPC. Few differences due to drying method were found in turbidity and gelation; however, drying method made a large difference in foam formation for WPC but not SPC. Between pH 3 and 7, SPC was found to have lower turbidity than WPC; however, protein solubility was similar between SPC and WPC. Foaming and gelation properties of SPC were better than those of WPC. Differences in functional properties may be explained by differences in composition and extent of denaturation or aggregation. PMID:23871371
Luck, P J; Vardhanabhuti, B; Yong, Y H; Laundon, T; Barbano, D M; Foegeding, E A
Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160
Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J
A fluorescent labeling method was developed to study plasminogen (PG) concentration and location in simulated bovine milk. Activity and stability of PG labeled with Alexa Fluor 594 (PG-594) were comparable to those of native PG. The fluorescent signal of PG-594 exhibited pH, temperature, and storage stability, and remained stable throughout typical sample treatments (stirring, heating, and ultracentrifugation). These characteristics indicate broad applicability of the fluorescent labeling technique for milk protease characterization. In an example application, PG-594 was added to simulated milk samples to study effects of heat and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) on the distribution of PG. Before heating, about one-third of the PG-594 remained soluble in the whey fraction (supernatant) whereas the rest became associated with the casein micelle. Addition of beta-LG to the system slightly shifted PG-594 distribution toward the whey fraction. Heat-induced PG-594 binding to micelles in whey-protein-free systems was evidenced by a decrease of PG-594 from 31 to 15% in the whey fraction accompanied by an increase of PG-594 from 69 to 85% in casein micelle fractions. When beta-LG was present during heating, more than 95% of PG-594 became associated with the micelle. A comparison with the distribution pattern of PG-derived activities revealed that heat-induced PG binding to micelles accompanies heat-induced PG inactivation in the micelle fraction. Incubation of the casein micelles with the reducing agent beta-mercaptoethanol revealed that disulfide bonds formed between PG and casein or between PG and casein-bound beta-LG are the mechanisms for heat-induced PG binding to casein micelles. Western blotting and zymography results correlated well with fluorescent labeling studies and activity studies, respectively. Theoretically important findings are: 1) when heated, serum PG is capable of covalently binding to micellar casein or complexing with beta-LG in whey and then coadhering to micelles, and 2) PG that associated with micellar casein through lysine binding sites before heating is capable of developing heat-induced disulfide bonds with casein. The overall results are PG covalently binding to micelles and inactivation thereafter. Our results suggest that, instead of thermal denaturation through irreversible unfolding, covalent bond formation between PG and other milk proteins is the mechanism of PG inhibition during thermal processing. PMID:16357268
Wang, L; Hayes, K D; Mauer, L J
Data sets from North American (NA, 739 diets) and North European (NE, 998 diets) feeding trials with dairy cows were evaluated to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) intake and ruminal degradability on milk protein yield (MPY) and efficiency of N utilization for milk protein synthesis (MNE; milk N / N intake) in dairy cows. The NA diets were based on corn silage, alfalfa silage and hay, corn and barley grains, and soybean meal. The NE diets were based on grass silage, barley and oats grains, and soybean and rapeseed meals. Diets were evaluated for rumen-degradable and undegradable protein (RDP and RUP, respectively) concentrations according to NRC (2001). A mixed model regression analysis with random study effect was used to evaluate relationships between dietary CP concentration and degradability and MPY and MNE. In both data sets, CP intake alone predicted MPY reasonably well. Addition of CP degradability to the models slightly improved prediction. Models based on metabolizable protein (MP) intake predicted MPY better than the CP or the CP-CP degradability models. The best prediction models were based on total digestible nutrients (TDN) and CP intakes. Similar to the MPY models, inclusion of CP degradability in the CP (intake or concentration) models only slightly improved prediction of MNE in both data sets. Concentration of dietary CP was a better predictor of MNE than CP intake. Compared with the CP models, prediction of MNE was improved by inclusion of TDN intake or concentration. Milk yield alone was a poor predictor of MNE. The models developed from one data set were validated using the other data set. The MNE models based on TDN and CP intake performed well as indicated by small mean and slope bias. This meta-analysis demonstrated that CP concentration is the most important dietary factor influencing MNE. Ruminal CP degradability as predicted by NRC (2001) does not appear to be a significant factor in predicting MPY or MNE. Data also indicated that increasing milk yield will increase MNE provided that dietary CP concentration is not increased, but the effect is considerably smaller than the effect of reducing CP intake. PMID:19528599
Huhtanen, P; Hristov, A N
The effect of rate of substitution of processed, urea-treated whole-crop wheat (pWCW) for grass silage on intake, performance and whole-tract digestibility was evaluated using 44 dairy cows. Cows received 10.5 kg of concentrates per day and one of the following forage mixtures (dry matter (DM) basis): grass silage alone (W-0); 0.75 grass silage, 0.25 pWCW (W-25); 0.5 grass silage, 0.5 pWCW (W-50) or 0.25 grass silage, 0.75 pWCW (W-75). Forage DM intake increased linearly with inclusion rate of pWCW from 9.7 kg DM per day in cows fed W-0 to 14.6 kg DM per day in W-75. By contrast, milk and protein yield (kg/day) were higher (P < 0.05) in cows receiving W-25 compared with W-0, but there was no effect (P>0.05) of treatment on fat yield (kg/day). From week 11 of the experiment onwards, body condition score increased with rate of inclusion of pWCW (P < 0.05). Whole-tract apparent digestibility of organic matter (OM) and fibre (kg/kg), decreased linearly with rate of inclusion of pWCW. Assuming a constant digestibility of starch in the other diet components, the apparent digestibility of starch in pWCW was 0.95 kg/kg and was not affected by rate of inclusion (P>0.05). Four continuous culture vessels were used to determine the effect of rate of inclusion of pWCW on ruminal metabolism in four periods, each of 14 d duration with sampling conducted on days 9 to 14. Vessel ammonia concentration increased linearly (P < 0.05) with rate of inclusion of pWCW whilst mean pH tended (P = 0.06) to decrease. The ratio of acetate to propionate increased from 2.5 in vessels receiving W-0 to 3.2 in those receiving W-75 (P < 0.001). There was no effect (P>0.05) of treatment on digestibility (g/g) of OM, fibre or starch or microbial protein flow (g/day). It is concluded that forage DM intake increased linearly with rate of inclusion of pWCW, but there was no further improvement in milk yield from inclusion rates above 0.25 of the forage DM, with body condition score increasing instead. Increasing the inclusion rate of pWCW resulted in a more ketogenic volatile fatty acid profile but did not affect the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis when determined in vitro. PMID:22444417
Sinclair, L A; Bond, A J; Huntington, J A; Readman, R J
The isotope dilution method of [1-C]leucine (Leu) and open-circuit calorimetry were used to determine effects of urea and soybean meal supplementation on rates of plasma Leu turnover and whole body protein synthesis (WBPS) in sheep fed concentrate-based diets. The experiment was performed in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design. The control diet (Control diet) consisted of timothy hay
H. Sano; S. Shibasaki
ABSTRACT Our study,investigated,the separate,and,combined effects of branched-chain,amino,acids (AA) and,so- dium,caseinate,on,milk,protein,concentration,and yield. Four,Holstein,cows,(112 d in,milk),were abomasally infused with water, branched-chain AA (150 g\\/d), sodium caseinate (600 g\\/d), or branched- chain AA plus sodium caseinate (44 and 600 g\\/d, respectively) according,to a 4 ? 4 Latin square,design with 8-d treatment,periods. Cows were,fed a dry diet based,on alfalfa hay,and,concentrates,for ad libitum intake. The
T. R. Mackle; D. A. Dwyer; D. E. Bauman
Chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) concentrations were quantified in serum (n = 112), milk (n = 112), liver (n = 70), and kidney samples (n = 67) of dairy cows from an iron-steel processing region (Payas-Iskenderun) and from an area free of industrial pollution (Antakya) in Hatay, located in Southern Turkey. Samples were collected in the summer and winter and element determinations were carried out by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The mean concentrations of selected elements in serum were found to be similar in both regions. Milk samples collected from the nonindustrial region in the summer had higher Cr, Mn, and Zn concentrations than the polluted region. The liver Cu and kidney Mn levels of samples taken from the industrial region in winter were higher than samples of the unpolluted region. Copper and Fe concentrations in milk, Cr, Mn, Zn, and Fe levels in the liver, and Cr, Cu, Zn, and Fe levels in kidney samples were not found to be different among the regions in both seasons. Copper concentrations were below the critical level in the 25% of serum and 32% of liver samples analyzed in this study. Fifteen percent of serum samples and most of the liver samples had lower amounts of Zn than other reported studies. Although slight differences were observed between the industrial and nonindustrial regions, industrial activities and seasonal changes had no significant effect on selected element concentrations on cows and their milk. PMID:15051900
Erdogan, Suat; Celik, Sefa; Erdogan, Zeynep
Our objective was to determine the effect of concentration factor (CF) on the removal of serum protein (SP) from skim milk during microfiltration (MF) at 50 °C using a 0.3-?m-pore-size spiral-wound (SW) polymeric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Pasteurized (72°C for 16 s) skim milk was MF (50 °C) at 3 CF (1.50, 2.25, and 3.00×), each on a separate day of processing starting with skim milk. Two phases of MF were used at each CF, with an initial startup-stabilization phase (40 min in full recycle mode) to achieve the desired CF, followed by a steady-state phase (90-min feed-and-bleed with recycle) where data was collected. The experiment was replicated 3 times, and SP removal from skim milk was quantified at each CF. System pressures, flow rates, CF, and fluxes were monitored during the 90-min run. Permeate flux increased (12.8, 15.3, and 19.0 kg/m(2) per hour) with decreasing CF from 3.00 to 1.50×, whereas fouled water flux did not differ among CF, indicating that the effect of membrane fouling on hydraulic resistance of the membrane was similar at all CF. However, the CF used when microfiltering skim milk (50°C) with a 0.3-?m polymeric SW PVDF membrane did affect the percentage of SP removed. As CF increased from 1.50 to 3.00×, the percentage of SP removed from skim milk increased from 10.56 to 35.57%, in a single stage bleed-and-feed MF system. Percentage SP removal from skim milk was lower than the theoretical value. Rejection of SP during MF of skim milk with SW PVDF membranes was caused by fouling of the membrane, not by the membrane itself and differences in the foulant characteristic among CF influenced SP rejection more than it influenced hydraulic resistance. We hypothesize that differences in the conditions near the surface of the membrane and within the pores during the first few minutes of processing, when casein micelles pass through the membrane, influenced the rejection of SP because more pore size narrowing and plugging occurred at low CF than at high CF due to a slower rate of gel layer formation at low CF. It is possible that percentage removal of SP from skim milk at 50 °C could be improved by optimization of the membrane pore size, feed solution composition and concentration, and controlling the rate of formation of the concentration polarization-derived gel layer at the surface of the membrane during the first few minutes of processing. PMID:23891300
Beckman, S L; Barbano, D M
Summary Concentrates of natural linoleic acid (linoleic acid content, 85–95%) have been prepared in 50–72% yields from corn oil fatty\\u000a acids by preferential precipitation of the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids at room temperature as their urea complexes.\\u000a \\u000a By a similar procedure, concentrates of natural linolenic acid (linolenic acid content, 87–89%) have been prepared in 55–61%\\u000a yields from perilla oil fatty
Daniel Swern; Winfred E. Parker
The effect of packing materials like polyethylene-cellophane, cellophane-metal PE parchment and labeling paper on the duration of storage of food concentrates with dry skimmed milk is investigated. Results show that the first two materials can allow to pr...
S. S. Bogautdinov
Strong disulfide reducing agents Na~SQ and NaBH~ increased nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) in the casein complex from sterile concentrated milk. The sulfur-containing reducing agents mercaptoethanol, thioglycolate, and eysteine reduced the disulfide linkages and decreased stabilities to Ca\\
S. Nakai; H. K. Wilson; E. O. Herreid
Eight lactating Holstein cows were randomly allotted to 2 groups in a trial to establish whether a pathway exists for the transmission of melamine from feed to milk. All cows received oat hay ad libitum and 15 kg of concentrate pellets per cow daily. The concentrate pellets contained either melamine-contaminated corn gluten meal of Chinese origin (melamine treatment) or locally produced melamine-free corn gluten meal (control treatment). Cows in the melamine treatment ingested 17.1 g of melamine per day. Cows were milked twice daily, and milk samples were taken once daily during the afternoon milking for melamine and milk component analyses. Melamine appeared in the milk within 8 h after first ingestion of the melamine containing pellets. Melamine concentration reached a maximum of 15.7 mg/kg within 56 h after first ingestion, with an excretion efficiency of approximately 2%. Milk solids and milk urea nitrogen were not affected by treatment. The melamine concentration dropped rapidly after changing all cows back to the control pellets, but melamine only declined to undetectable levels in the milk more than 6 d (152 h) after last ingestion of melamine. Results from the current trial are important to the feed and dairy industries because, until now, any melamine found in milk and milk products was attributed only to the deliberate external addition of melamine to these products, not to adulterated ingredients in animal feeds. PMID:19389962
Cruywagen, C W; Stander, M A; Adonis, M; Calitz, T
Itai-itai disease (I disease) is a combination of renal tubular damage and osteomalacia accompanied by osteoporosis among subjects exposed to cadmium (Cd). When the renal tubular damage progresses, the excretion of amino acids, especially, threonine, hydroxyproline, proline, citrulline, ornithine, arginine increased in urine. It has been reported that the increase in urinary excretion of citrulline, arginine and ornithine may be associated with an inhibition of urea synthesis in the urea cycle. The authors have found that serum citrulline, arginine and ornithine also increased in I disease patients. In order to investigate the mechanism of the increase in these serum amino acids, comparative studies were performed using both healthy subjects and patients with renal disease as control groups.
Nishino, H.; Shiroishi, K.; Kagamimori, S.; Naruse, Y.; Watanabe, M.
Itai-itai disease (I disease) is a combination of renal tubular damage and osteomalacia accompanied by osteoporosis among subjects exposed to cadmium (Cd). When the renal tubular damage progresses, the excretion of amino acids, especially, threonine, hydroxyproline, proline, citrulline, ornithine, arginine, etc. increase in urine. It was reported that the increase in urinary excretion of citrulline, arginine and ornithine may be associated with an inhibition of urea synthesis in the urea cycle. The authors have found that serum citrulline, arginine and ornithine also increased in I disease patients. In order to investigate the mechanism of the increase in these serum amino acids, comparative studies were performed using both healthy subjects and patients with renal disease as control groups.
Nishino, H.; Shiroishi, K. (Toyama Institute of Health (Japan)); Kagamimori, S.; Naruse, Y. (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan)); Watanabe, M. (Toyama Female Univ. (Japan))
Comparative studies of renal structure and function have potential to provide insights into the urine-concentrating mechanism of the mammalian kidney. This review focuses on the tubular transport pathways for water and urea that play key roles in fluid and solute movements between various compartments of the rodent renal inner medulla. Information on aquaporin water channel and urea transporter expression has increased our understanding of functional segmentation of medullary thin limbs of Henle's loops, collecting ducts, and vasa recta. A more complete understanding of membrane transporters and medullary architecture has identified new and potentially significant interactions between these structures and the interstitium. These interactions are now being introduced into our concept of how the inner medullary urine-concentrating mechanism works. A variety of regulatory pathways lead directly or indirectly to variable patterns of fluid and solute movements among the interstitial and tissue compartments. Animals with the ability to produce highly concentrated urine, such as desert species, are considered to exemplify tubular structure and function that optimize urine concentration. These species may provide unique insights into the urine-concentrating process.1
This study investigated human exposure to neutral, phenolic, and methoxylated organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in a duplicate diet study to evaluate their concentrations in breast milk and serum of Okinawan people from Japan during 2004-2009. Dietary intakes of phenolic OHCs were predominantly 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TriBP), followed by tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE47). After exposure, TriBP and TBBPA were transferred to breast milk, whereas 6-OH-BDE47 was selectively retained in serum. Despite a lower dietary exposure to pentachlorophenol and 4-hydroxy-CB187, both were retained in serum. For the methoxylated OHCs, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TriBA) and 6-methoxy-BDE47 were the predominant dietary contaminants, of which TriBA was present in both breast milk and serum, whereas 6-methoxy-BDE47 was selectively transferred to breast milk. These findings suggest that dietary exposure to phenolic and methoxylated OHCs may result in differential partitioning between breast milk and serum with different pharmacokinetic or exposure routes. PMID:24263137
Fujii, Yukiko; Nishimura, Eri; Kato, Yoshihisa; Harada, Kouji H; Koizumi, Akio; Haraguchi, Koichi
Passage of benzylpenicillin across the mammary gland epithelium was studied both after systemic administration of benzylpenicillin in four goats and after intramammary infusion in three goats and two cows. The results after benzylpenicillin administration alone were compared with the results after combined administration of benzylpenicillin and probenecid. The studies on passage of benzylpenicillin through the blood-milk barrier showed, when milk to plasma ultrafiltrate ratios of benzylpenicillin were plotted versus time for each half of the udders, that active transport takes place from blood to milk during steady-state plasma concentrations. Active transport was demonstrated by inhibition with probenecid: (1) The entry of benzylpenicillin into milk was slowed down under the influence of probenecid. The AUC (area under the curve)-values during the first 30 min. were reduced by 66 +/- 9% compared with the AUC-values found without coadministration of probenecid. (2) In the presence of probenecid and during equilibrium between blood and milk concentrations, benzylpenicillin reached concentration ratios in the ultrafiltrates of milk and plasma which corresponded to those expected for diffusion alone. Without probenecid these ultrafiltrate concentration ratios were more than two times higher indicating an active transport of benzylpenicillin from blood to milk. After intramammary infusion of benzylpenicillin, active transport was demonstrated from milk into blood. The absorption rate for benzylpenicillin from the mammary gland was reduced by probenecid, as measured by the ratio of benzylpenicillin to urea absorption half-life, which was increased by 40-50% in the presence of probenecid. PMID:8234185
Schadewinkel-Scherkl, A M; Rasmussen, F; Merck, C C; Nielsen, P; Frey, H H
Nitrogen and urea metabolism during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. During continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), concentrations of serum urea nitrogen (SUN) have been reported that are lower than what would be predicted from estimated dietary protein intake and the calculated urea clearance by dialysis. Net urea generation (urea nitrogen appearance) and losses of various nitrogenous constituents were measured during 12
Michael J Blumenkrantz; Joel D Kopple; John K Moran; Gerald P Grodstein; Jack W Coburn
Summary. Plasma samples were taken every 10 min for periods of 8 h on 3 occasions during the post-partum period from 8 cows milked twice daily (Groups M1 and M2) and from 4 cows each suckling 4 calves (Group S). All samples were assayed for LH, and ovarian activity was monitored by measurement of milk progesterone. Three of the Group
A. R. Peters; G. E. Lamming; M. W. Fisher
A control white fresh cheese was prepared from milk containing 24g milk fat (MF) L?1, and nine white fresh cheese-like products were made by partial or complete substitution of milk fat by whey protein concentrate (WPC) and\\/or canola oil (CO) emulsified with an emulsifiers blend (EB) made of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate (P), sorbitan monostearate (S) and glycerol monostearate (G) in
C. Lobato-Calleros; J. Reyes-Hernández; C. I. Beristain; Y. Hornelas-Uribe; J. E. Sánchez-García; E. J. Vernon-Carter
To investigate the relationship between metabolic status and the acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp) and lactoferrin (Lf) in milk, the concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and Hp were determined in blood samples collected weekly from 4 wk prepartum until 12 wk postpartum. Haptoglobin and Lf were determined in weekly milk samples. The cows (n = 49) were retrospectively classified according to NEFA and BHBA concentrations using different time intervals and threshold values for NEFA and BHBA, respectively. For BHBA, 4 threshold concentrations, (0.8, 1.0, 1.2, and 1.6 mM) were evaluated either at the first week before calving, at wk 1 or 2 postpartum, or when considering the means of wk 2 and 3 postpartum. For NEFA, the tested thresholds were 0.5 and 0.6 mM at wk 1 prepartum, wk 1 or 2 postpartum, or the means of wk 1 and 2 postpartum. All variables showed changes during the interval of observation. Comparing the time course of the acute phase proteins in the subgroups classified according to BHBA or NEFA, consistently greater concentrations of Hp in serum and milk and of Lf in milk were observed in those animals with BHBA concentrations above 1.6 mM during the last week before calving (n = 3/47) than in those with BHBA concentrations below this threshold. For NEFA, analogous differences for Hp in both serum and milk (0.52 +/- 0.07 and 18.1 +/- 4.6 for NEFA >0.6 mM vs. 0.36 +/- 0.04 mg/mL and 8.46 +/- 1.63 microg/mL for NEFA <0.6 mM, respectively) and for Lf in milk (130 +/- 8.5 vs. 89.2 +/- 7.1 microg/mL, respectively) were detected when a threshold of 0.6 mM at wk 2 postpartum was used. Our results indicated that cows having BHBA and NEFA serum concentrations above these thresholds at defined times could be identified. PMID:19700704
Hiss, S; Weinkauf, C; Hachenberg, S; Sauerwein, H
Five experiments were conducted to determine if serum uric acid, serum urea N (SUN), serum ammonia, and the uric acid content of the excreta (UAE) could be used to determine the efficacy of amino acid (AA) utilization in diets for broilers. All experiments were conducted with Ross x Ross 308 or 708 broilers from 0 to 14 or 0 to 18 d posthatching in brooder batteries. Treatments had 6 or 7 replications with at least 6 broilers per replicate pen. All diets were corn and soybean meal-based and formulated to contain 1.0% Ca and 0.45% nonphytate P and to meet or exceed the requirements of all nutrient requirements except total Lys, Met, and Thr (experiment 1) or Met (experiments 2 to 5). Experiment 1 consisted of 2 dietary treatments. Diet 1 was formulated to be deficient in Lys, Thr, and Met and diet 2 was formulated to be adequate in all nutrients. Broilers fed the AA-adequate diet had increased (P<0.01 to 0.03) ADG, ADFI, and G:F compared with broilers fed the AA-deficient diet. Serum uric acid, SUN, serum ammonia, and UAE were not affected (P=0.34 to 0.70) by dietary treatment. In experiments 2 to 5, diets contained 1.35% total Lys, 2 levels of Met (0.50 or 0.76 TSAA:Lys), and without or with Gly supplementation up to 2.32% Gly+Ser. Broilers fed diets containing supplemental Met in experiments 2 to 5 had increased (P=0.01 to 0.03) ADG, ADFI, and G:F. Gain:feed was increased (P=0.01 to 0.07) in broilers fed supplemental Gly. Serum uric acid and SUN were decreased (P<0.01) after a 2-h fast in broilers fed supplemental Met and Gly. Serum uric acid and SUN also were decreased at other times after fasting, but the 2-h fast gave the most consistent response. Uric acid content of the excreta was decreased (P<0.01) in broilers fed supplemental Met. Serum ammonia was decreased (P<0.01 to 0.02) in experiments 2, 3, and 4 at varying times postfeeding but was not affected by diet in experiment 5. The results of this research indicate that serum uric acid, SUN, and UAE concentrations can be used as an indicator of AA utilization in broilers fed AA-adequate and AA-deficient diets. PMID:20075281
Donsbough, A L; Powell, S; Waguespack, A; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L
During recent decades, efforts have been made in several countries to diminish the negative environmen- tal influence of dairy production. The main focus has beenonnitrogenandphosphorus.Moderndairyproduc- tion in Western Europe is often based on imported feed- stuffs, mostly protein-rich feeds. In Sweden at least, it is wished that the use of imported feedstuffs in animal production will decrease due to the
B. Frank; C. Swensson
Human milkcontainsa varietyofN-acetylneuraminic acid(NANA)-containing oligosaccharides, but theexpected rangeofintakeofsialic acidinthisformby infantsfedhuman milkisunknown.Two quitedifferent amountshavebeen reported:120mg\\/liter inpooled,mature human milk(1)and 1400 mg\\/liter inthemilkofa singlewoman on the1stday of lactation (2). The normalrangeofNANA intakeinhuman milkglycoproteins likewise does not appear to have been analyzed previously. Data presented here indicate that both human milk oligosaccharide and glycoprotein NANA decline exponentially over the first 2 months of lactation,
Susan E Carison
This paper describes an experiment in which students measure the amount of transmitted light passing through different milk specimens. Our experiment tests the validity of Beer's law for these samples and provides a way to determine the concentration of fat in various kinds of milk.
Gregory A. Dilisi; Colleen M. Winters; Lori A. Dilisi; Kristina M. Peckinpaugh
This paper describes an experiment in which students measure the amount of transmitted light passing through different milk specimens. Our experiment tests the validity of Beer's law for these samples and provides a way to determine the concentration of fat in various kinds of milk.
Dilisi, Gregory A.; Winters, Colleen M.; Dilisi, Lori A.; Peckinpaugh, Kristina M.
The hypothesis was that calves fed high-fat milk replacers (MR) would have reduced starter intake, digestibility, and average daily gain (ADG). Forty-eight Holstein calves (initially 42.4 +/- 1.5 kg of body weight, 2 to 3 d of age; 12 calves/treatment) were fed 0.66 kg dry matter (DM) of MR per calf daily that contained 14, 17, 20, or 23% fat. This MR had crude protein (CP) to metabolizable energy (ME) ratios ranging from 51.6 to 56.7 g of CP/Mcal of ME, which were above and below a previously determined optimum. Calves were weaned at 28 d; postweaning measurements were continued to d 56. A 20% CP starter and water were fed ad libitum all 56 d of the trial. Measurements of digestion were made using chromic oxide as a marker in the MR and starter from fecal samples collected on d 19 to 23 from 4 calves/treatment. Selected serum constituents were measured on d 21. Calves were housed individually in pens bedded with straw within a naturally ventilated barn with no added heat. The average barn temperature was 2 degrees C. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using polynomial contrasts to separate differences in the means. Preweaning apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, fat, nonfiber carbohydrates, Ca, and P and serum amylase concentration were linearly reduced as fat increased from 14 to 23%. Preweaning starter intake responded quadratically to fat, being lowest at 14 and 23% fat. A reduction in digestibility and starter intake contributed to less ADG at the higher fat concentrations in the MR. A 27% CP, 17% fat MR with 55 g of CP/Mcal of ME maximized preweaning ADG when fat concentration was varied to obtain various CP to ME ratios in the MR. Additionally, a 27% CP, 20% fat MR with 53 g of CP/Mcal of ME supported overall ADG similar to calves fed the 17% fat MR but preweaning digestion measurements and serum amylase concentrations were less than in calves fed the 17% fat MR. PMID:19762833
Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L
Information about constituents of milk and visual alterations can be used for management support in improving mastitis detection, monitoring fertility and reproduction, and adapting individual diets. Numerous sensors that gather this information are either currently available or in development. Nevertheless, there is still a need to adapt these sensors to special requirements of on-farm utilization such as robustness, calibration and maintenance, costs, operating cycle duration, and high sensitivity and specificity. This paper provides an overview of available sensors, ongoing research, and areas of application for analysis of milk constituents. Currently, the recognition of abnormal milk and the control of udder health is achieved mainly by recording electrical conductivity and changes in milk color. Further indicators of inflammation were recently investigated either to satisfy the high specificity necessary for automatic separation of milk or to create reliable alarm lists. Likewise, milk composition, especially fat:protein ratio, milk urea nitrogen content, and concentration of ketone bodies, provides suitable information about energy and protein supply, roughage fraction in the diet, and metabolic imbalances in dairy cows. In this regard, future prospects are to use frequent on-farm measurements of milk constituents for short-term automatic nutritional management. Finally, measuring progesterone concentration in milk helps farmers detect ovulation, pregnancy, and infertility. Monitoring systems for on-farm or on-line analysis of milk composition are mostly based on infrared spectroscopy, optical methods, biosensors, or sensor arrays. Their calibration and maintenance requirements have to be checked thoroughly before they can be regularly implemented on dairy farms. PMID:20105515
Brandt, M; Haeussermann, A; Hartung, E
There is considerable interest in altering the fatty acid composition of milk with the overall aim of improving the long-term health of consumers. Important targets include reducing the amounts of medium-chain saturated fatty acids, enhancing cis-9 18:1 to reduce cardiovascular risk, as well as increasing concentrations of trans-11 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 18:2 which have been shown to exert anti-carcinogenic
R. J. Dewhurst; K. J. Shingfield; M. R. F. Lee; N. D. Scollan
A fugacity model reported in the literature was applied to a high-altitude pasture in the Italian Alps. The model takes into account three compartments (digestive tract, blood and fat tissues) in unsteady-state conditions using food as the contamination source. Disregarding biotransformation inside cow tissues, the predicted concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in milk were in good agreement with the observed data, especially for congeners known for their resistance to biotransformation (e.g., CB-138 and 153). In contrast, the predicted concentrations were clearly overestimated for congeners with high biotransformation susceptibilities. Therefore data measured in milk and faeces were used to calculate the first-order-biotransformation rate constants in dairy cows. The PCB absorption efficiency observed for pasture conditions was lower than that observed in the cowshed. The final version of the model included biotransformation and observed PCB absorption and was able to predict PCB concentrations in cow milk with mean differences between the predicted and measured data below ±20% for most congeners. PMID:24802270
Tremolada, Paolo; Guazzoni, Niccolò; Parolini, Marco; Rossaro, Bruno; Bignazzi, Marta Maria; Binelli, Andrea
1,8-Cineole is a widely distributed odorant that also shows physiological effects, but whose human metabolism has hitherto not been extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was, thus, to characterise the metabolites of 1,8-cineole, identified previously in human milk, after the oral intake of 100 mg of this substance. Special emphasis was placed on the enantiomeric composition of the metabolites since these data may provide important insights into potential biotransformation pathways, as well as potential biological activities of these substances, for example on the breastfed child. The volatile fraction of the human milk samples was therefore isolated via Solvent Assisted Flavour Evaporation (SAFE) and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The absolute concentrations of each metabolite were determined by matrix calibration with an internal standard, and the ratios of enantiomers were analysed on chiral capillaries. The concentrations varied over a broad range, from traces in the upper ng/kg region up to 40 µg/kg milk, with the exception of the main metabolite ?2-hydroxy-1,8-cineole that showed concentrations of 100–250 µg/kg. Also, large inter- and intra-individual variations were recorded for the enantiomers, with nearly enantiomerically pure ?2-hydroxy- and 3-oxo-1,8-cineole, while all other metabolites showed ratios of ~30:70 to 80:20.
Kirsch, Frauke; Buettner, Andrea
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of niacin and dietary concentrate proportion on body temperature, ruminal pH and milk production of dairy cows. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, 20 primiparous Holstein cows (179 ± 12 days in milk) were assigned to four dietary treatments aimed to receive either 0 or 24 g niacin and 30% (low) or 60% (high) concentrate with the rest being a partial mixed ration (PMR) composed of 60% corn and 40% grass silage (on dry matter basis). Ambient temperature and relative humidity were determined and combined by the calculation of temperature humidity index. Respiration rates, rectal, skin and subcutaneous temperatures were measured. Milk production and composition were determined. Ruminal pH and temperature were recorded at a frequency of 5 min using wireless devices for continuous intra-ruminal measurement (boluses). pH values were corrected for pH sensor drift. The climatic conditions varied considerably but temporarily indicated mild heat stress. Niacin did not affect skin, rectal and subcutaneous temperatures but tended to increase respiration rates. High concentrate reduced skin temperatures at rump, thigh and neck by 0.1-0.3°C. Due to the technical disturbances, not all bolus data could be subjected to statistical evaluation. However, both niacin and high concentrate influenced mean ruminal pH. High concentrate increased the time spent with a pH below 5.6 and ruminal temperatures (0.2-0.3°C). Niacin and high concentrate enhanced milk, protein and lactose yield but reduced milk fat and protein content. Milk fat yield was slightly reduced by high concentrate but increased due to niacin supplementation. In conclusion, niacin did not affect body temperature but stimulated milk performance. High concentrate partially influenced body temperatures and had beneficial effects on milk production. PMID:23742643
Lohölter, Malte; Meyer, Ulrich; Rauls, Caroline; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven
When breast milk extraction and storage is required before ingestion, it is important to establish the conditions that ensure the least losses in milk quality, like the antioxidant capacity. The present study evaluates glutathione peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde concentration of breast milk when stored frozen, comparing the effects of 2 temperatures (-20 degrees C and -80 degrees C) and different storage times (15, 30, and 60 days). The results indicate that freezing induces losses in the antioxidant properties of breast milk and that such losses increase with the duration of storage and differ in intensity according to the temperature. It is concluded that to maximally preserve the antioxidant properties of breast milk, it is advisable to store the latter at -80 degrees C for a period of less than 30 days, rather than for shorter time periods at the usual temperature of -20 degrees C. PMID:19759352
Silvestre, Dolores; Miranda, María; Muriach, María; Almansa, Inmaculada; Jareño, Enrique; Romero, Francisco J
Dairy products offer an important source of iodine for humans, particularly infants and children. An adequate iodine content in the diet of lactating animals must guarantee a suitable milk iodine concentration. In this experiment, the effects of iodine supplementation of dairy goat diets on the iodine concentration, milk yield, and milk composition of goat milk were studied. Thirty crossbred dairy goats of the Sarda population were divided into 3 groups supplemented with 0 (control group), 0.45 (group 1), or 0.90 (group 2) mg of KI/d per goat. The dose of KI (76.5% of iodine) was dissolved in water and orally administered with a syringe every day for 10 wk. Mean milk iodine concentrations were 60.1 +/- 50.5, 78.8 +/- 55.4, and 130.2 +/- 62.0 microg/L (mean +/- SD) in the control group, group 1, and group 2, respectively. The extent of iodine enrichment in milk was approximately 31% in group 1 and 117% in group 2 compared with the control group. Milk yield was not influenced by KI supplementation and averaged 1,229, 1,227, and 1,179 g/d in groups 0, 1, and 2, respectively. Milk urea nitrogen concentration was significantly lower in the KI-supplemented groups (32 and 33 mg/dL in groups 1 and 2, respectively) than in the control group (37 mg/dL). Iodine supplementation of dairy goat diets can increase milk iodine content without adverse effects on milk production traits. PMID:19762831
Nudda, A; Battacone, G; Decandia, M; Acciaro, M; Aghini-Lombardi, F; Frigeri, M; Pulina, G
The objective of this study was to evaluate Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry to measure milk ketone bodies to detect hyperketonemic cows and compare this method with milk fat to protein ratio to detect hyperketonemia. Plasma and milk samples were obtained weekly from calving to wk 9 postpartum from 69 high-producing dairy cows. The reference test for hyperketonemia was defined as plasma concentration of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) >or=1,200 micromol/L. The weekly prevalence of hyperketonemia during the first 9 wk of lactation was, on average, 7.1%. Both BHBA and acetone in milk, determined by FTIR, had a higher sensitivity (80%) to detect hyperketonemia compared with milk fat to protein ratio (66%). Specificity was similar for the 3 diagnostic tests (71, 70, and 71%). In conclusion, FTIR predictions of BHBA or acetone in milk can detect cows with hyperketonemia in early lactation with a higher accuracy compared with the use of milk fat to protein ratio. Because of the high proportion of false-positive tests, there are concerns about the practical applicability of FTIR predictions of acetone, BHBA, and fat to protein ratio in milk to detect hyperketonemic cows. PMID:20630223
van Knegsel, A T M; van der Drift, S G A; Horneman, M; de Roos, A P W; Kemp, B; Graat, E A M
Effects of grass maturity on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, ruminal fermentation and pool sizes, digestion and passage kinetics, and chewing activity and the relationship of these effects with preliminary DMI (pDMI) were evaluated using 13 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in a crossover design with a 14-d preliminary period and two 18-d treatment periods. During the preliminary period, pDMI of individual cows ranged from 23.5 to 28.2 kg/d (mean=26.1 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield ranged from 30.8 to 57.2 kg/d (mean=43.7 kg/d). Experimental treatments were diets containing orchardgrass silage harvested either (1) early-cut, less mature (EC) or (2) late-cut, more mature (LC) as the sole forage. Early- and late-cut orchardgrass contained 44.9 and 54.4% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 20.1 and 15.3% crude protein, respectively. Forage:concentrate ratio was 58:42 and 46:54 for EC and LC, respectively; both diets contained approximately 25% forage NDF and 30% total NDF. Preliminary DMI, an index of nutrient demand, was determined during the last 4d of the preliminary period when cows were fed a common diet and used as a covariate. Main effects of grass maturity and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. The EC diet decreased milk yield and increased milk fat concentration compared with the LC diet. Grass maturity and its interaction with pDMI did not affect FCM yield, DMI, rumen pH, or microbial efficiency. The EC diet increased rates of ruminal digestion of potentially digestible NDF and passage of indigestible NDF (iNDF) compared with the LC diet. The lower concentration and faster passage rate of iNDF for EC resulted in lower rumen pools of iNDF, total NDF, organic matter, and dry matter for EC than LC. Ruminal passage rates of potentially digestible NDF and starch were related to level of intake (quadratic and linear interactions, respectively) and subsequently affected ruminal digestibility of these nutrients. The EC diet decreased eating, ruminating, and total chewing time per unit of forage NDF intake compared with the LC diet. When grass silage was the only source of forage in the diet, cows supplemented with additional concentrate to account for decreasing protein and increasing fiber concentrations associated with more mature grass had similar feed intake and produced similar FCM yields as cows fed less mature grass. PMID:22916919
Kammes, K L; Allen, M S
The objective of this study was to determine the feeding value of sweet sorghum silage (SS) for dairy cows compared with alfalfa silage (AS). Two diets were formulated with a 50:50 forage:concentrate ratio. Sweet sorghum silage and AS constituted 70% of the forage in each diet (dry matter basis). Twelve lactating Holstein cows in early lactation were used in a crossover experiment. Relative to AS, SS contained 58% more neutral detergent fiber and 36.6 and 72.7% less acid detergent lignin and crude protein, respectively. Milk yield (33.0 vs. 36.7 kg/d) was lower for cows fed SS than for those fed AS. However, dry matter intake, energy-corrected milk, and feed efficiency were similar for both dietary treatments. Replacing AS with SS increased concentrations of milk fat (4.44 vs. 3.80%) and total solids (13.31 vs. 12.88%) and reduced concentrations of milk lactose (4.55 vs. 4.61%), milk solids-not-fat (8.88 vs. 9.08%), and milk urea nitrogen (10.0 vs. 14.0 mg/dL). We concluded that replacing AS with SS had negative effects on milk yield, whereas dry matter intake, energy-corrected milk, and milk efficiency were similar. PMID:22281350
Amer, S; Seguin, P; Mustafa, A F
Thirty-nine lactating Holstein cows were fed high-energy complete rations ad libitum with crude protein: 1) 11.7% (negative control); 2) 13.9% (1% urea); 3) 16.6% (1% urea); or 4) 16.6% (positive control) in a continuous 12-wk study beginning at wk 5 postpartum. Milk production of 27.7, 31.8, 34.0, and 30.4 kg\\/day showed the use of urea nitrogen by groups 2 and
K. Kwan; C. E. Coppock; G. B. Lake; M. J. Fettman; L. E. Chase; R. E. McDowell
Since sheep's milk is mainly used for cheese making and milk chemical composition and fatty acids (FA) profile affect cheese yield and quality, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of different feeding levels on milk chemical composition and FA profile, as well as on plasma FA profile, and on insulin and leptin concentrations. Twenty-four sheep were assigned to three homogeneous sub-groups. Throughout the experimental period each group was fed the same diet but in quantities which met 70% (under-feeding), 100% (control) and 130% (over-feeding) of their respective energy and crude protein requirements. The results showed that the underfed sheep had higher milk fat content compared with overfed. In blood plasma the concentrations of C18:0 and C18:1 in the underfed sheep were significantly higher compared with control and overfed sheep. The concentrations of leptin and insulin were significantly higher in overfed compared with underfed sheep. Underfeeding reduced the concentrations of short chain FA (SCFA) and medium chain FA (MCFA) and increased that of C18:0 and mono unsaturated FA (MUFA) in sheep milk fat compared with controls and overfed. The concentrations of C18:0, long chain FA (LCFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) in milk were significantly higher and those of SCFA, MCFA and saturated FA (SFA) significantly lower in the underfed compared with the overfed sheep. In conclusion, long term under- and over-feeding affected the sheep milk chemical composition and FA profile which consequently has an impact on milk products yield (cheese and yogurt) and quality (human health). PMID:22341044
Tsiplakou, Eleni; Chadio, Stella; Zervas, George
The experiment was conducted to study the effects of different selenium (Se) sources on productive performance, serum and milk Se concentrations, and antioxidant status of sows. A total of 12 sows (Landrace×Yorkshire) with same pregnancy were randomly divided into two groups; each group was replicated six times. These two groups received the same basal gestation and lactation diets containing 0.042 mg Se/kg, supplemented with 0.3 mg Se/kg sodium selenite or selenomethionine (i.e., seneno-DL: -methylseleno), respectively. The feeding trial lasted for 60 days, with 32 and 28 days for gestation and lactation period, respectively. Compared with sodium selenite, maternal selenomethionine intake significantly increased (P?0.05) the weaning litter weight and average weight of piglet. The Se concentration in the serum, colostrum, and milk of sows were significantly higher (p?0.05) in the selenomethionine-treated group. The antioxidant status was greatly improved in sows of selenomethionine-treated group and was illuminated by the increased total antioxidant capability (T-AOC; P?0.05) and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA; P?0.01) level in the serum of sows, increased T-AOC (P?0.05), glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (P?0.05), superoxide dismutase (P?0.05) and GSH (P?0.05), and MDA (P?0.05) level in the colostrum and milk of sows. These results suggested that maternal selenomethionine intake improved Se concentration and antioxidant status of sows, thus maintain maternal health and increase productive performance after Se was transferred to its offspring. PMID:20717850
Hu, Huijuan; Wang, Min; Zhan, XiuAn; Li, Xing; Zhao, RuQian
The isolated rat kidney perfused with a cell-free perfusion medium produces urine with a solute concentration at or below that of the perfusate. Vasopressin (Pitressin®), arginine vasopressin, DDAVP or dibutyryl cyclic AMP increased urine osmolality to a maximum of 20% above that of perfusate. The increase in urinary solute concentration was similar to the increase in solute content in the
Richard D. Swartz; Patricio Silva; Franklin H. Epstein
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin (BTPC) supplementation on plasma metabolites and milk production in postpartum dairy cows. A total of fifty-two Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive either: (1) 10 ml of saline (NaCl 0.9%, control group); (2) 1000 mg of butaphosphan and 0.5 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC1 group); and (3) 2000 mg of butaphosphan and 1.0 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC2 group). All cows received injections every 5 days from calving to 20 days in milk (DIM). Blood samples were collected every 15 days from calving until 75 DIM to determine serum concentration of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, urea, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), aminotransferase aspartate (AST) and ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT). The body condition score (BCS) and milk production were evaluated from calving until 90 DIM. Increasing doses of BTPC caused a linear reduction in plasma concentrations of NEFA and cholesterol. Supplementation of BTPC also reduced concentrations of BHB but it did not differ between the two treatment doses. Milk yield and milk protein had a linear increase with increasing doses of BTPC. A quadratic effect was detected for milk fat and total milk solids according to treatment dose, and BTPC1 had the lowest mean values. Concentrations of glucose, urea, P, Mg, AST, GGT, milk lactose and BCS were not affected by treatment. These results indicate that injections of BTPC during the early postpartum period can reduce NEFA and BHB concentrations and increase milk production in Holstein cows. PMID:23360824
Pereira, R A; Silveira, P A S; Montagner, P; Schneider, A; Schmitt, E; Rabassa, V R; Pfeifer, L F M; Del Pino, F A B; Pulga, M E; Corrêa, M N
The objectives of this study were to identify and compare the composition, flavor, and volatile components of serum protein concentrate (SPC) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) containing about 34% protein made from the same milk to each other and to commercial 34% WPC from 6 different factories. The SPC and WPC were manufactured in triplicate with each pair of serum and traditional whey protein manufactured from the same lot of milk. At each replication, SPC and WPC were spray dried (SD) and freeze dried (FD) to determine the effect of the heat used in spray drying on sensory properties. A trained sensory panel documented the sensory profiles of rehydrated SD or FD powders. Volatile components were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Whey protein concentrates had higher fat content, calcium, and glycomacropeptide content than SPC. Color differences (Hunter L, a, b) were not evident between SPC and WPC powders, but when rehydrated, SPC solutions were clear, whereas WPC solutions were cloudy. No consistent differences were documented in sensory profiles of SD and FD SPC and WPC. The SD WPC had low but distinct buttery (diacetyl) and cardboard flavors, whereas the SD SPC did not. Sensory profiles of both rehydrated SD products were bland and lower in overall aroma and cardboard flavor compared with the commercial WPC. Twenty-nine aroma impact compounds were identified in the SPC and WPC. Lipid and protein oxidation products were present in both products. The SPC and WPC manufactured in this study had lower total volatiles and lower concentrations of many lipid oxidation compounds when compared with commercial WPC. Our results suggest that when SPC and WPC are manufactured under controlled conditions in a similar manner from the same milk using the same ultrafiltration equipment, there are few sensory differences but distinct compositional and physical property differences that may influence functionality. Furthermore, flavor (sensory and instrumental) properties of both pilot-scale manufactured protein powders were different from commercial powders suggesting the role of other influencing factors (e.g., milk supply, processing equipment, sanitation). PMID:19762792
Evans, J; Zulewska, J; Newbold, M; Drake, M A; Barbano, D M
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different physical forms and urea treatment of rice straw on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and milk production. Four, multiparous Holstein crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation with initial body weight (BW) of 409±20 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were as follows: untreated, long form rice straw (LRS), urea-treated (5%), long form rice straw (5% ULRS), urea-treated (2.5%), long form rice straw (2.5% ULRS) and urea-treated (2.5%), chopped (4 cm) rice straw (2.5% UCRS). Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2 and rice straw was fed ad libitum. The findings revealed significant improvements in total DM intake and digestibility by using long and short forms of urea-treated rice straw (p<0.05). Ruminal pH was not altered among all treatments (p>0.05), whereas ruminal NH3-N, BUN and MUN were found to be increased (p<0.01) by urea-treated rice straw as compared with untreated rice straw. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentrations especially those of acetic acid were decreased (p<0.05) and those of propionic acid were increased (p<0.05), thus acetic acid:propionic acid was subsequently lowered (p<0.05) in cows fed with long or short forms of urea-treated rice straw. The 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS had greater microbial protein synthesis and was greatest when cows were fed with 5% ULRS. The urea-treated rice straw fed groups had increased milk yield (p<0.05), while lower feed cost and greater economic return was in the 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS (p<0.01). From these results, it could be concluded that 2.5% ULRS could replace 5% ULRS used as a roughage source to maintain feed intake, rumen fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, milk production and economical return in mid-lactating dairy cows.
Gunun, P.; Wanapat, M.; Anantasook, N.
Six ruminally fistulated midlactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a double 3 x 3 Latin square design (35-d periods) to study the effects of lasalocid (LAS) and monensin (MON) supplemented at 24 mg/ kg of dry matter on digestion, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production. Cows were blocked according to milk production and fed a red clover silage-based total mixed ration (17.8% crude protein) without supplementation or supplemented with LAS or MON. Daily dry matter intake, milk production, and milk fat and protein concentrations were similar among treatments and averaged 23.5 kg, 36.6 kg, 3.36%, and 3.38%, respectively. Rumen lipogenic:glucogenic volatile fatty acids and NH(3)-N concentration were lower, and apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and gross energy were higher with than without ionophore supplementation. Compared with LAS, MON increased concentrations of plasma urea-N and milk urea-N, and excretion of urinary urea-N and total N. Monensin also decreased N retention and tended to reduce plasma concentration of nonessential AA in comparison with LAS. Both ionophores reduced daily fecal excretion of N by 13 g compared with the control, but MON increased daily losses of urinary N by 36 g compared with LAS. Results from this study suggest that postabsorptive metabolism of N might be altered by the type of ionophore fed. PMID:18024764
Martineau, R; Benchaar, C; Petit, H V; Lapierre, H; Ouellet, D R; Pellerin, D; Berthiaume, R
The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of a one-tube nested polymerase chain reaction (OTN PCR) with 5 concentration and lytic treatments for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis in experimentally inoculated milk samples (spiked samples). OTN PCR and the following treatments were tested in inoculated samples: 1) centrifugation; 2) C18-carboxypropylbetaine + capture resin 1 + Proteinase K (CB18-CH-PK); 3) centrifugation + capture resin 1 + Proteinase K; 4) centrifugation + capture resin 2 + Proteinase K; and 5) centrifugation + immunomagnetic separation (IMS). The OTN PCR and the 5 treatments were evaluated in 2 different sets of spiked milk samples. One set consisted of 10-fold serial dilutions of a phenol-killed M. bovis in milk to final concentrations ranging from 5 to 50,000 cells/ml of milk. The other set of samples consisted of 2.5 serial dilutions of milk spiked with M. bovis to final concentrations ranging from 20.5 to 5,000 cells/ml of milk. Each treatment was repeated 5 times at each cell concentration. CB18-CH-PK and IMS were significantly more sensitive than other treatments. The lowest detection limit for these techniques was 20-50 cells/ ml of spiked milk. The specificity of OTN PCR in this study was high as demonstrated by the lack of DNA amplification products when M. bovis cells were not present in the samples. [The OTN PCR used in conjunction with CB18-CH-PK or IMS could be effectively used as a diagnostic and/or screening test for the detection of M. bovis in milk from herds with bovine tuberculosis.] PMID:11289205
Antognoli, M C; Salman, M D; Triantis, J; Hernández, J; Keefe, T
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of a niacin supplementation to three diets with different forage-to-concentrate ratios on blood and milk parameters. Seven midlactation (102 ± 18 days in milk) and three dry cows of the Holstein-Friesian breed, equipped with cannulas in the dorsal sac of the rumen and proximal duodenum, were used. On a dry matter basis
Inka-Donata Niehoff; Liane Hüther; Peter Lebzien; Wiebke Bigalke; Sven Dänicke; Gerhard Flachowsky
Fifty Holstein cows were in a 310- day lactation study to determine the nu- tritional value of urea versus soybean meal as sources of supplemental nitrogen in corn-based diets that contained 9 to 14.5% crude protein. Throughout lacta- tion cows were fed 1 kg of concentrate per 2.75 kg of milk produced, 2.25 kg of hay per day, and corn
J. E. Wohlt; J. H. Clark
A simple and fast method for the detection and quantification of milk adulteration was developed using portable and hand-held infrared (IR) spectrometers. Milk samples were purchased from local supermarkets (Columbus, OH, USA) and spiked with tap water, whey, hydrogen peroxide, synthetic urine, urea, and synthetic milk in different concentrations. Spectral data were collected using mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification models exhibited tight and well-separated clusters allowing the discrimination of control from adulterated milk samples. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to estimate adulteration levels, and results showed high coefficients of determination (R(2)) and low standard errors of prediction (SEP). Classification and quantification models indicated that the tested MIR systems were superior to NIR systems in monitoring milk adulteration. This method can be potentially used as an alternative to traditional methods due to their simplicity, sensitivity, low energy cost, and portability. PMID:23339381
Santos, Poliana M; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E
The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols in human breast milk samples from different periods of lactation and to compare them with tocopherol content in commercially available formulas for infants at corresponding ages. The study included 93 breast milk samples obtained on the 2nd (colostrum, n = 17), 14th (n = 30), 30th (n = 27) and 90th day of lactation (n = 19), along with 90 samples of commercially available initial and follow-on infant formulas. Concentrations of tocopherols were determined using normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Depending on the stage of lactation, human breast milk contained 2.07-9.99 mg L?¹ of alpha-tocopherol and 0.22-0.60 mg L?¹ of gamma-tocopherol. Breast milk concentrations of alpha-tocopherol decreased with the time of lactation, while significant differences in gamma-tocopherol concentration were observed only between the 14th and 30th day of lactation. There was no significant correlation between the dietary intake of vitamin E and its estimated breast milk concentration, also in women who declared vitamin supplementation. Compared with colostrum, infant formulas were characterised by significantly lower concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and vitamin E. This finding indicates the need of additional vitamin E supplementation of bottle-fed infants during the initial 2-3 days of life. PMID:22513202
Martysiak-?urowska, Dorota; Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Zagierski, Maciej
The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in 33 breast milk samples collected in 2006-2007 from primipara mothers close to four industrial areas of Slovak Republic were determined. The total PCDDs/PCDFs and dl-PCBs expressed as TEQ based on WHO TEFs 1998 in breast milk samples varied from 5.0 to 51.8 pg g(-1) fat (median: 13.1 pg g(-1) fat; mean: 18.0 pg g(-1) fat). The measurements of seven PBDE congeners (IUPAC No. 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and 183) were performed for the first time in human milk from Slovakia. PBDE levels ranged between 0.22 and 1.62 ng g(-1) fat, with median and mean value of 0.43 ng g(-1) fat and 0.57 ng g(-1) fat respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between studied areas in total PBDE concentrations. Furthermore, this study presents first results concerning the daily intake (DI) of PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like compounds for the most vulnerable breast-fed infant population in Slovakia. The total PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB DI for an infant during the first 2 months of life was estimated in a range from 14.4 to 230 pg TEQ kg(-1)b.w., with a median value of 58.9 pg TEQ kg(-1)b.w.. The DI values substantially exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) 1-4 pg TEQ kg(-1)b.w. recommended by WHO. The dietary infant intake concerning PBDEs was estimated to be between 0.69 and 7.1 ng kg(-1)b.w.d(-1), with median value of 1.7 ng kg(-1)b.w.d(-1). PMID:21474162
Chovancová, Jana; ?onka, Kamil; Ko?an, Anton; Sejáková, Zuzana Stachová
Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze mixtures of urea and water in order to identify the influence of the urea concentration on the solution's freezing point. Our approach consisted in the analysis of urea aqueous solutions and the determination of their phase transitions at low temperatures. Hence, Raman spectra of these solutions were acquired in a -30 to 10 °C temperature range. This enabled us to build the experimental phase diagram of the urea-water binary system. PMID:24067578
Durickovic, Ivana; Thiébaud, Laura; Bourson, Patrice; Kauffmann, Thomas; Marchetti, Mario
Permeability of medullary nephron segments to urea and water: Effect of vasopressin. High papillary urea concentrations are necessary for the formation of maximally concentrated urine, while low papillary urea concentrations are associated with less concentrated urine. In the present studies we examined the membrane characteristics that are important in determining the medullary urea concentration profiles. Using isolated segments of rabbit
Antonino S Rocha; Juha P Kokko
Four cross-bred beef steers averaging 346 kg were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of prolonged-release recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbGH) implants on serum concentrations of somatotropin (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Recombinant bGH implants of 0, 40, 80 or 160 mg were administered subcutaneously in the tailhead during the 4 trial periods. Each steer received each treatment starting at 06:00 on day 0 with 21 days between treatments. Jugular vein blood samples were collected on days 0, 1, 2 and 3 (4 day time course for GH, IGF-I and BUN) and every 15 min (GH profile) for 6 h on day 3. Serum baseline GH values were higher (P < 0.10) for the 80 and 160 mg treatments than for the control, and peak amplitude was decreased (P < 0.05) by the 40 and 160 mg treatments. There was a trend (P < 0.11) for fewer GH peaks during the 160 mg treatment. Somatotropin concentrations decreased from day 1 to day 3 (P < 0.05) in a linear manner. Serum IGF-I concentrations increased (P < 0.05) in a linear dose-dependent manner from the 0 mg to the 160 mg treatment. BUN concentrations were not significantly altered by rbGH treatment. Results from this experiment indicate that rbGH implants significantly increase serum IGF-I and GH baseline concentrations while suppressing GH peak amplitude in finishing steers. PMID:7858482
Roeder, R A; Garber, M J; Dalke, B S; Kasser, T R; Veenhuizen, J; Schelling, G T
The practice of supplementing milk replacers fed to neonatal calves with high concentrations of vitamin A has raised concerns regarding the effect of excess vitamin A on the bioavailability of vitamin E. A 4 x 2 factorial experiment evaluated the effects of four dietary amounts of vitamin A [0, 1.78 [National Research Council (NRC)(6) requirement, control], 35.6 and 71.2 micromol daily as retinyl acetate] and two forms of vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol and RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate, 155 micromol daily) on plasma RRR-alpha-tocopherol and RRR-gamma-tocopherol and RRR-alpha-tocopherol associated with plasma lipoproteins (Lp) from milk replacer-fed Holstein calves from birth to 28 d of age. The VLDL, LDL, HDL and very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) fractions were separated by ultracentrifugal flotation, and the amount of vitamin E associated with each fraction was determined by normal-phase HPLC. The amount and distribution of RRR-alpha-tocopherol in Lp fractions were unaffected by the form of dietary vitamin E. Plasma and Lp RRR-alpha-tocopherol concentrations increased with age (P < 0.0001) and were maximal at 28 d of age. Concentrations of RRR-alpha-tocopherol associated with Lp were 25% (P < 0.01) to 39% (P < 0.0001) lower in calves fed 35.6 and 71.2 micromol of vitamin A daily than in control calves at 28 d of age. The RRR-gamma-tocopherol concentrations were unaffected by dietary vitamin A (P >/= 0.05). In conclusion, dietary vitamin A modulated the amount and distribution of RRR-alpha-tocopherol in the circulation of milk replacer-fed neonatal calves. Because of the essential antioxidant role of vitamin E, the health-related consequences associated with the depression of the LP RRR-alpha-tocopherol concentrations in calves fed vitamin A at 35.6 and 71.2 micromol need to be investigated. PMID:10702596
Ametaj, B N; Nonnecke, B J; Franklin, S T; Horst, R L; Bidlack, W R; Stuart, R L; Beitz, D C
Mobilization and deposition in cows are different strategies of metabolism; hence, the aim was to study the possibility of reducing the crude protein (CP) supply during deposition to limit the use of protein supplements and minimize the environmental impact. A total of 61 Jersey and 107 Holstein cows were assigned to 4 mixed rations in a 2×2 factorial design with 2 concentrate to forage ratios (CFR) and 2 CP levels: high CFR (40:60) and recommended CP [16% of dry matter (DM); HCFR-RP], high CFR (40:60) and low CP (14% of DM; HCFR-LP), low CFR (30:70) and recommended CP (16% of DM; LCFR-RP), and low CFR (30:70) and low CP (14% of DM; LCFR-LP), where RP met the Danish recommendations. Cows were fed concentrate in an automatic milking unit. After calving, cows were fed HCFR-RP until entering deposition, defined as 11kg (Jersey) or 15kg (Holstein) of weight gain from the lowest weight after calving. Subsequently, cows either remained on HCFR-RP or changed to one of the other mixed rations. Comparing strategies during wk 9 to 30 of lactation showed higher dry matter intake (DMI) of mixed ration on HCFR compared with LCFR and on RP compared with LP. The DMI of the concentrate was higher on LCFR than on HCFR and higher on LP than on RP, resulting in overall higher DMI on HCFR and RP than on LCFR and LP. Crude protein intakes were higher on RP than on LP and starch intakes were higher on HCFR than on LCFR. Intakes of neutral detergent fiber tended to be higher on LCFR than on HCFR. Intakes of net energy for lactation were affected by CFR and CP level, with a higher intake on HCFR and RP than on LCFR and LP. No interactions were found between CFR and CP level for any feed intake variables. Yields of milk and energy-corrected milk were higher on RP than on LP, with no difference in yield persistency after the ration change. Milk composition did not differ among strategies but the protein to fat ratio was higher on HCFR than on LCFR and tended to be lower on RP than on LP. Differences in fatty acid composition were small, and de novo synthesis was high (>60%). Energy efficiency was higher on LCFR than on HCFR and no interaction with breed or parity was found. The N efficiency was higher on LP than RP, but with an interaction with breed due to lower N efficiency in Jersey than Holstein cows on HCFR-RP but higher N efficiency in Jersey than Holstein on LCFR-LP. In dairy production, concentrate in the mixed ration can be substituted with high-quality forage during deposition without negative effects on milk yield and composition when a sufficient CP level is ensured. PMID:24767891
Hymøller, L; Alstrup, L; Larsen, M K; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R
ABSTRAC'I' Plasma amino acid concentrations were mea- sured and selected amino acid ratios were calculated in 12 normal adults and 12 adults heterozygous for phenylketonuria (PKU) ingesting a hamburger and milk shake meal providing 1 g pro- tein\\/kg body wt. Plasma concentrations of all amino acids in- creased significantly over baseline after meal ingestion in both groups, reaching the highest
Lewis D Stegink; Marvin C Brummel; George L Baker; Wilma L Krause; Edward F Bell; Ekhard E Ziegler
Urea SCR is currently the only proven NOX aftertreatment for diesel engines - high NOX reduction possible - some SCR catalyst systems are robust against fuel sulfur - durability has been demonstrated - many systems in the field - long history in other markets - Major limitations to acceptance - distribution of urea solution to end user - ensuring that urea solution is added to vehicle.
Bunting, Bruce G.
The branchial mechanism of urea retention in elasmobranchs was investigated using an in vitro isolated-perfused head preparation, as well as in vivo samples, in the spiny dogfish shark. Both in vivo and in control saline perfusions containing 350 mmol L?1 urea, calculated intracellular urea concentrations in gill epithelial cells were close to extracellular concentrations. Urea efflux to the external water fell only non-significantly, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentration did not change when perfusate urea concentration was reduced from 350 to 175 mmol?L?1 with osmotic compensation by 175 mmol L?1 mannitol. However, when the urea analogues thiourea or acetamide were present in the perfusate at concentrations equimolar (175 mmol L?1) to those of urea (175 mmol L?1), urea efflux rates were increased 4-fold and 6.5-fold respectively, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentrations were depressed by about 55%. Analogue efflux rates were similar to urea efflux rates. Previous studies have argued that either the basolateral or apical membranes provided the limiting permeability barrier, and/or that a back-transporter on the basolateral membranes of gill cells is responsible for urea retention. The present results provide new evidence that the apical membrane is the limiting factor in maintaining gill urea impermeability, and raise the prospect that a urea back-transporter, which can be competitively inhibited by thiourea and acetamide, operates at the apical membrane.
Liew, Hon Jung; De Boeck, Gudrun; Walsh, Patrick J.
As cattle mature, the dietary protein requirement, as a percentage of the diet, decreases. Thus, decreasing the dietary CP concentration during the latter part of the finishing period might decrease feed costs and N losses to the environment. Three hundred eighteen medium-framed crossbred steers (315 +/- 5 kg) fed 90% (DM basis) concentrate, steam-flaked, corn-based diets were used to evaluate the effect of phase-feeding of CP on performance and carcass characteristics, serum urea N concentrations, and manure characteristics. Steers were blocked by BW and assigned randomly to 36 feedlot pens (8 to 10 steers per pen). After a 21-d step-up period, the following dietary treatments (DM basis) were assigned randomly to pens within a weight block: 1) 11.5% CP diet fed throughout; 2) 13% CP diet fed throughout; 3) switched from an 11.5 to a 10% CP diet when approximately 56 d remained in the feeding period; 4) switched from a 13 to an 11.5% CP diet when 56 d remained; 5) switched from a 13 to a 10% CP diet when 56 d remained; and 6) switched from a 13 to an 11.5% CP diet when 28 d remained. Blocks of cattle were slaughtered when approximately 60% of the cattle within the weight block were visually estimated to grade USDA Choice (average days on feed = 182). Nitrogen volatilization losses were estimated by the change in the N:P ratio of the diet and pen surface manure. Cattle switched from 13 to 10% CP diets with 56 d remaining on feed or from 13 to 11.5% CP with only 28 d remaining on feed had lower (P < 0.05) ADG, DMI, and G:F than steers fed a 13% CP diet throughout. Steers on the phase-feeding regimens had lower (P = 0.05) ADG and DMI during the last 56 d on feed than steers fed 13.0% CP diet throughout. Carcass characteristics were not affected by dietary regimen. Performance by cattle fed a constant 11.5% CP diet did not differ from those fed a 13% CP diet. Serum urea N concentrations increased (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary CP concentrations. Phase-feeding decreased estimated N excretion by 1.5 to 3.8 kg/steer and nitrogen volatilization losses by 3 to 5 kg/steer. The results suggest that modest changes in dietary CP concentration in the latter portion of the feeding period may have relatively small effects on overall beef cattle performance, but that decreasing dietary CP to 10% of DM would adversely affect performance of cattle fed high-concentrate, steam-flaked, corn-based diets. PMID:17093237
Cole, N A; Defoor, P J; Galyean, M L; Duff, G C; Gleghorn, J F
For young children, the level of vitamin D required to ensure that most achieve targeted serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] ?50 nmol/L has not been studied. We aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D-fortified milk on serum 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations and to examine the dose-response relationship between vitamin D intake from study milks and serum 25(OH)D concentrations in healthy toddlers aged 12-20 mo living in Dunedin, New Zealand (latitude 46°S). Data from a 20-wk, partially blinded, randomized trial that investigated the effect of providing red meat or fortified toddler milk on the iron, zinc, iodine, and vitamin D status in young New Zealand children (n = 181; mean age 17 mo) were used. Adherence to the intervention was assessed by 7-d weighed diaries at wk 2, 7, 11, 15, and 19. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured at baseline and wk 20. Mean vitamin D intake provided by fortified milk was 3.7 ?g/d (range, 0-10.4 ?g/d). After 20 wk, serum 25(OH)D concentrations but not PTH were significantly different in the milk groups. The prevalence of having a serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L remained relatively unchanged at 43% in the meat group, whereas it significantly decreased to between 11 and 15% in those consuming fortified study milk. In New Zealand, vitamin D intake in young children is minimal. Our findings indicate that habitual consumption of vitamin D-fortified milk providing a mean intake of nearly 4 ?g/d was effective in achieving adequate year-round serum 25(OH)D for most children. PMID:21832027
Houghton, Lisa A; Gray, Andrew R; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Ferguson, Elaine L
The aim of this study was to determine a genetic basis for IgA concentration in milk of Bos taurus. We used a Holstein-Friesian x Jersey F2 crossbred pedigree to undertake a genome-wide search for QTL influencing IgA concentration and yield in colostrum and milk. We identified a single genome-wide significant QTL on chromosome 16, maximising at 4.8 Mbp. The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor gene (PIGR) was within the confidence interval of the QTL. In addition, mRNA expression analysis revealed a liver PIGR expression QTL mapping to the same locus as the IgA quantitative trait locus. Sequencing and subsequent genotyping of the PIGR gene revealed three divergent haplotypes that explained the variance of both the IgA QTL and the PIGR expression QTL. Genetic selection based on these markers will facilitate the production of bovine herds producing milk with higher concentrations of IgA.
Berry, Sarah; Coppieters, Wouter; Davis, Stephen; Burrett, Alayna; Thomas, Natalie; Palmer, David; Kelly, Van; Obolonkin, Vladimir; Sanders, Kathryn; Spelman, Richard; Georges, Michel; Lehnert, Klaus; Snell, Russell
A capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous determination of whey proteins, caseins and their degradation products, such as para-?-casein, was proposed. The effect of several parameters (pH, ionic strength and concentration of urea in the electrophoresis buffer and applied voltage) on the analysis time and on the separation efficiency of the major milk proteins was studied. Using a hydrophilically coated
Beatriz Miralles; Volker Rothbauer; Mar??a A Manso; Lourdes Amigo; Ingolf Krause; Mercedes Ramos
This research developed a Raman chemical imaging method for detecting multiple adulterants in skim milk powder. Ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea were mixed into the milk powder as chemical adulterants in the concentration range of 0.1-5.0%. A Raman imaging system using a 785-nm laser acquired hyperspectral images in the wavenumber range of 102-2538 cm-1 for a 25×25 mm2 area of each mixture. A polynomial curve-fitting method was used to correct fluorescence background in the Raman images. An image classification method was developed based on single-band fluorescence-free images at unique Raman peaks of the adulterants. Raman chemical images were created to visualize identification and distribution of the multiple adulterant particles in the milk powder. Linear relationship was found between adulterant pixel number and adulterant concentration, demonstrating the potential of the Raman chemical imaging for quantitative analysis of the adulterants in the milk powder.
Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S.
Adulteration of milk and dairy products has brought serious threats to human health as well as enormous economic losses to the food industry. Considering the diversity of adulterants possibly mixed in milk, such as melamine, urea, tetracycline, sugar/salt and so forth, a rapid, widely available, high-throughput, cost-effective method is needed for detecting each of the components in milk at once. In this paper, a method using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy is established for the discriminative analysis of adulteration in milk. Firstly, the characteristic peaks of the raw milk are found in the 4000-400 cm-1 region by its original spectra. Secondly, the adulterant samples are respectively detected with the same method to establish a spectral database for subsequent comparison. Then, 2D correlation spectra of the samples are obtained which have high time resolution and can provide information about concentration-dependent intensity changes not readily accessible from one-dimensional spectra. And the characteristic peaks in the synchronous 2D correlation spectra of the suspected samples are compared with those of raw milk. The differences among their synchronous spectra imply that the suspected milk sample must contain some kinds of adulterants. Melamine, urea, tetracycline and glucose adulterants in milk are identified respectively. This nondestructive method can be used for a correct discrimination on whether the milk and dairy products are adulterated with deleterious substances and it provides a new simple and cost-effective alternative to test the components of milk.
He, Bin; Liu, Rong; Yang, Renjie; Xu, Kexin
Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is a popular herbal product used for hepatoprotection and chemoprevention. Two commercially available formulations are the crude extract, silymarin, and the semipurified product, silibinin. Silymarin consists of at least seven flavonolignans, of which the most prevalent are the diastereoisomers silybin A and silybin B; silibinin consists only of silybin A and silybin B. Based on a recent clinical study showing an interaction between a silymarin product and the CYP2C9 substrate losartan, the CYP2C9 inhibition properties of silybin A and silybin B and corresponding regioisomers, isosilybin A and isosilybin B, were evaluated using human liver microsomes (HLMs), recombinant CYP2C9 (rCYP2C9) enzymes, and the clinically relevant probe, (S)-warfarin. Silybin B was the most potent inhibitor in HLMs, followed by silybin A, isosilybin B, and isosilybin A (IC50 of 8.2, 18, 74, and >100 ?M, respectively). Next, silybin A and silybin B were selected for further characterization. As with HLMs, silybin B was more potent than silybin A toward rCYP2C9*1 (6.7 versus 12 ?M), rCYP2C9*2 (9.3 versus 19 ?M), and rCYP2C9*3 (2.4 versus 9.3 ?M). Using a matrix of five substrate (1–15 ?M) and six inhibitor (1–80 ?M) concentrations and HLMs, both diastereoisomers inhibited (S)-warfarin 7-hydroxylation in a manner described best by a mixed-type inhibition model (Ki values of 4.8 and 10 ?M for silybin B and silybin A, respectively). These observations, combined with the high systemic silibinin concentrations (>5–75 ?M) achieved in a phase I study involving prostate cancer patients, prompt clinical evaluation of a potential warfarin-milk thistle interaction.
Brantley, Scott J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Kroll, David J.
Holstein multiparous cows (n=29) and primiparous heifers (n=32) calving over a 1-yr period were subjected to photoperiod-melatonin treatments according to a 2×3 factorial design. Starting 8wk before expected calving, all animals were subjected to 1 of the following treatments: 8h of light and 16h of dark (8L:16D), 16h of light and 8h of dark (16L:8D), or 16L:8D plus melatonin feeding (16L:8D-melatonin). Each day at 1355h, the animals in the melatonin treatment received orally a gelatin capsule containing 25mg of melatonin. The treatments ended at calving, when the animals were moved to the lactation barn; all animals were then subjected to about 16h of light per day. At the beginning and end of the treatment period before calving, blood samples were taken from 6heifers and 6cows through a jugular cannula for 24h at 30-min intervals to monitor serum melatonin and prolactin concentrations. Milk production in the heifers was not affected by the photoperiod treatments. Early-lactation milk production was higher in the cows exposed to the short-day photoperiod than in those exposed to a long-day photoperiod (16L:8D and 16L:8D-melatonin), with averages of 36.7±0.9, 33.1±0.8, and 34.1±0.9kg/d for 8L:16D, 16L:8D, and 16L:8D-melatonin, respectively. Photoperiod had no effect on late-lactation milk production in the cows. During lactation, the dry matter intake of heifers was not affected by the treatments, but dry matter intake of the cows exposed to a short-day photoperiod was greater than that of the cows exposed to a long-day photoperiod. Feed efficiency of heifers was improved by short-day photoperiod. During the treatment period, prolactin concentration was lower in the animals exposed to a short-day photoperiod than in those exposed to a long-day photoperiod, was lower with the 16L:8D-melatonin treatment than with the 16L:8D treatment, and tended to be lower with the 8L:16D treatment than with the 16L:8D-melatonin treatment, with averages of 3.5±0.8, 9.9±0.8, and 6.0±0.8ng/mL for 8L:16D, 16L:8D, and 16L:8D-melatonin, respectively. In early lactation, prolactin concentration was lower in the heifers exposed to the 16L:8D photoperiod during the dry period than in those exposed to the 8L:16D photoperiod or fed melatonin. In conclusion, a short-day photoperiod during the dry period transiently increases milk production of cows and the feed efficiency of heifers in the following lactation. However, melatonin cannot be used to mimic a short-day photoperiod during the dry period. PMID:24704221
Lacasse, P; Vinet, C M; Petitclerc, D
At present, scientific knowledge on depuration rates of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is limited and the previous assumptions of considerable reduction of body burdens through breast-feeding have recently been challenged. We therefore studied elimination rates of important POPs in nine Norwegian primiparous mothers and one mother breast-feeding her second child by collecting breast-milk samples (n = 70) monthly from about two weeks to up to twelve months after birth. Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in the breast-milk samples. Linear mixed effect models were established for selected compounds, and significant decreases in the range of 1.2-4.7% in breast-milk concentrations per month were observed for a wide range of PCBs and PBDEs. For the first time, depuration rates for perfluorooctylsulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are presented, being 3.8 and 7.8% per month, respectively (p < 0.05). The relative amount of the branched PFOS isomers in the breast-milk samples was 18% on average (range 6-36%, RSD 30%). There were no significant differences in isomer pattern between the mothers, or changes during the lactation period. After a year of nursing the breast-milk concentrations of PFCs, PBDEs, and PCBs were reduced by 15-94%. PMID:21090747
Thomsen, Cathrine; Haug, Line S; Stigum, Hein; Frøshaug, May; Broadwell, Sharon L; Becher, Georg
Clinical studies have shown that collagen hydrolysate (CH) may be able to protect joints from damage, strengthen joints, and reduce pain from conditions like osteoarthritis. CH is a collection of amino acids and bioactive peptides, which allows for easy absorption into the blood stream and distribution in tissues. However, although various matrices have been studied, the absorption of specific amino acids from CH added to a fresh fermented milk product (FMP) was not studied. The primary objective of the present study was to compare the plasma concentrations of four representative amino acids from the CH (glycine, proline, hydroxyproline, and hydroxylysine) contained in a single administration of a FMP with that of a single administration of an equal amount of neat hydrolyzed collagen. These four amino acids were chosen because they have already been used as markers of CH absorption rate and bioavailability. This was a single-center, randomized open, and crossover study with two periods, which was performed in 15 healthy male subjects. The subjects received randomly and in fasted state a single dose of product 1 (10 g of CH in 100 mL of FMP) and product 2 (10 g of CH dissolved in 100 mL of water) separated by at least 5 days. After administration, the subjects were assessed for plasma concentrations of amino acids and for urine concentrations of hydroxyproline. After FMP administration, mean values of the maximal concentration (Cmax) of the four amino acids were greater than after ingredient administration (p < 0.05). This effect was related to an increased Cmax of proline (p < 0.05). In conclusion, because of their physicochemical characteristics, the fermentation process, and the great homogeneity of the preparation, this milk product improves the plasma concentration of amino acids from CH, that is, proline. The present study suggests an interesting role for FMP containing CH to improve the plasmatic availability of collagen-specific amino acids. Hence, this FMP product could be of potential interest in the management of joint diseases. PMID:18707117
Walrand, Stephane; Chiotelli, Eleni; Noirt, Florence; Mwewa, Sandrine; Lassel, Taous
The application of attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared microspectroscopy (MIR-microspectroscopy) was evaluated as a rapid method for detection and quantification of milk adulteration. Milk samples were purchased from local grocery stores (Columbus, OH, USA) and spiked at different concentrations of whey, hydrogen peroxide, synthetic urine, urea and synthetic milk. Samples were place on a 192-well microarray slide, air-dried and spectra were collected by using MIR-microspectroscopy. Pattern recognition analysis by Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) showed tight and well-separated clusters allowing discrimination of control samples from adulterated milk. Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) showed standard error of prediction (SEP) ~2.33, 0.06, 0.41, 0.30 and 0.014 g/L for estimation of levels of adulteration with whey, synthetic milk, synthetic urine, urea and hydrogen peroxide, respectively. Results showed that MIR-microspectroscopy can provide an alternative methodology to the dairy industry for screening potential fraudulent practice for economic adulteration of cow's milk. PMID:23265450
Santos, P M; Pereira-Filho, E R; Rodriguez-Saona, L E
Twenty multiparous Holstein cows (four ruminally cannulated)infive4 ×4Latinsquareswith21-dperiods were used to study the effect of concentrate supplemen- tation when grazed at two pasture allowances. The four dietary treatments resulted from the combination of two pasture allowance targets (low, 25 vs. high, 40 kg of dry matter\\/cow per day) and two concentrate supple- mentation levels (zero vs. 1 kg of concentrate\\/4
F. Bargo; L. D. Muller; J. E. Delahoy; T. W. Cassidy
A method for a semi-industrial production of human milk subfractions (human milk protein and human milk fat isolates) is described. Four very low birthweight (VLBW) newborn were given a human milk protein isolate added to the mother's own fresh expressed milk in addition to sodium chloride up to 20 mEkv/liter. Growth followed the intrauterine growth curve. Urea levels did not increase in spite of providing a double-normal protein intake. There was no metabolic acidosis and the blood levels of free amino acids determined with a micro-method did not exceed those seen after a normal meal. The concentrated human milk protein product showed a considerable specific sIgA activity against E. coli 0-antigen. It seems possible to use similar "lacto-engineering"-techniques in order to satisfy the increased protein requirements of the VLBW infant, while providing the caloric requirements, without causing any visible disturbance of blood-homeostasis of urea, amino acids or base excess. The method could provide knowledge about the "human milk protein requirements" and a controlled study has been started. PMID:6961736
Lindblad, B S; Hagelberg, S; Lundsjö, A
An ammonium ion-specific electrode system is evaluated for analysis of blood urea nitrogen from serum, plasma ultrafiltrate, or hemodialyzer dialysate fluid. The electrode shows a high sensitivity over clinically useful concentration ranges. Free serum ammonia, volatile amines, or urea ammonia after hydrolysis can be measured. In a double blind study excellent correlation was found for 187 blood urea nitrogen samples measured with the electrode with standard auto-analyzer techniques. Continuous monitoring of urea in dialysate fluid is described. Urea clearances were measured from dialysate effluent from an in vitro dialysis using conventional equipment. These values show excellent correlation to those from stnadard analysis methods. A continuous urea sensor for on-line hemodialysis application which can provide quantification of therapy is described. PMID:357303
Klein, E; Montalvo, J G; Wawro, R; Holland, F F; Lebeouf, A
Acute effect of the ingestion of 80 g each of casein, lactalbumin, and soybean isolate on serum and urinary uric acid concentrations was investigated in 10 healthy subjects. Serum and urinary uric acid concentrations were measured be- fore and after the ingestion ofproteins. Serum uric acid decreased significantly 3 h after ingestion of lactalbumin and casein but increased after soybean
Dominique R Garrel; Maurice Verdy; Claude PetitClerc; Christophe Martin; Danielle Brul; Pavel Hamet
The goal of this study was to determine whether serotonin increase the mean plasma concentrations of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), growth hormone (GH), milk amount and constituents in the Sanan goats. Nine Sanan goats were randomly divided into 3 groups. Each group received daily infusion of 1, 4 or 8 ng serotonin agonist (hydroxytryptophan) (5HT) for 7 days. Blood and
H. Khazali; A. Parhiskar; K. Jafari
Different neurotransmitter and neuromodulatory systems regulate synthesis and secretion of GnRH. Whereas the endocrine and neural systems are activated in response to the metabolic status and the circulating levels of specific blood metabolites, glutamate receptors have been reported at hepatic level. This study evaluated the possible effect of glutamate supplementation upon changes in serum concentrations across time for total protein (TP), urea (UR) and cholesterol (CL) around the onset of puberty in goats. Prepuberal female goats (n=18) were randomly assigned to: (1) excitatory amino acids group, GLUT, n=10; 16.52±1.04kg live weight (LW), 3.4±0.12 body condition score (BCS) receiving an i.v. infusion of 7mgkg(-1) LW of l-glutamate, and (2) Control group, CONT, n=8; 16.1±1.04kg LW, 3.1±0.12 BCS. General averages for LW (23.2±0.72kg), BCS (3.37±0.10 units), serum TP (65.28±2.46mgdL(-1)), UR (23.42±0.95mgdL(-1)), CL (77.89±1.10mgdL(-1)) as well as the serum levels for TP and UR across time did not differ (P>0.05) between treatments. However, while GLUT positively affected (P<0.05) both the onset (207±9 vs. 225±12 d) and the percentage (70 vs. 25%) of females showing puberty, a treatment×time interaction effect (P<0.05) was observed in the GLUT group, with increases in serum cholesterol, coincident with the onset of puberty. Therefore, in peripuberal glutamate supplemented goats, serum cholesterol profile could act as a metabolic modulator for the establishment of puberty, denoting also a potential role of glutamate as modulator of lipid metabolism. PMID:24811839
Meza-Herrera, C A; Calderón-Leyva, G; Soto-Sanchez, M J; Serradilla, J M; García-Martinez, A; Mellado, M; Veliz-Deras, F G
Water purification system keeps urea and ammonium ion concentration below toxic limits in recirculated water of closed loop aquatic habitat. Urea is first converted to ammonium ions and carbon dioxide by enzygmatic action. Ammonium ions are removed by ion exchange. Bioburden is controlled by filtration through 0.45 micron millipore filters.
Anselmi, R. T.; Husted, R. R.; Schulz, J. R.
Rehydration of native micellar casein and native whey isolate protein powders was followed in different ionic environments. Solutions of NaCl and CaCl2 in the concentration range of 0 to 12% (wt%) were used as rehydration media. The rehydration profiles obtained were interpreted in terms of wetting, swelling, and dispersion stages by using a turbidity method. Two behaviors were observed depending on the salt concentration. For native micellar casein powder, a significant change was observed between 3 and 6% NaCl and between 0.75 and 1.5% CaCl2. The first behavior (low salt concentration) presents a typical rehydration profile: quick wetting, swelling, and long dispersion stage. The dispersion stage of the second behavior (high salt concentration) was significantly shortened, indicating a strong modification of the protein backbone. The rehydration of whey protein powder was less influenced by salts. At low salt concentrations, a typical profile for whey powders was observed: wetting with lump formation and no swelling followed by a quick dispersion. At high CaCl2 concentrations, no turbidity stabilization was observed, indicating a possible protein unfolding and denaturation. Additionally, the changes in secondary structures of the 2 proteins upon salt increase were followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confirmed the different profiles observed. PMID:21183012
Hussain, R; Gaiani, C; Aberkane, L; Scher, J
Feed intake, milk production, and milk fatty acid profiles of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with different protein and starch concentrations were measured in a 3-period experiment in a changeover design using 12 Holstein cows. Each experimental period lasted for 3 wk. The diet fed as a total mixed ration consisted of 45% corn silage, 5% coarsely chopped wheat straw, and 50% concentrate, on a dry matter (DM) basis. The 4 treatments, formulated to be isoenergetic and to differ in concentrations of dietary crude protein (CP) and starch (DM basis), were as follows: low CP and low starch (LPLS; 14% CP and 15% starch), low CP and high starch (LPHS; 14% CP and 25% starch), high CP and low starch (HPLS; 16% CP and 15% starch), and high CP and high starch (HPHS; 16% CP and 25% starch). The LPLS treatment led to lower DM intake, milk yield, milk protein concentration, and milk lactose yield, probably due to a shortage of both rumen-degradable protein supply to rumen microbes and glucogenic nutrients to the animal. There were no differences between protein-rich diets and LPHS, suggesting that this diet satisfied the rumen-degradable protein requirements of rumen microbes and did not limit feed intake, and the increased supply of glucogenic nutrients spared AA so that the nutrient requirements of mid lactation dairy cows were met. Further increases in CP concentration increased plasma urea concentration and resulted in decreased efficiency of conversion of dietary N into milk N. Milk fatty acid profiles were affected by starch and protein supply, with starch having the largest effect. Additionally, increasing dietary starch concentration decreased the apparent transfer of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids to milk, suggesting an increased channeling of fatty acids to adipose tissue. The results further suggest that C(15:0) and C(17:0) are synthesized de novo in animal tissues. PMID:17297116
Cabrita, A R J; Bessa, R J B; Alves, S P; Dewhurst, R J; Fonseca, A J M
The radiocaesium contamination of milk and milk products is directly related to that in grass or hay and therefore the time trend to the effective half-life in these fodders. In the early phase the half-life in grass predominantly depends on effects such ...
K. Mueck M. H. Gerzabek
Fermentable fibers such as psyllium increase volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in the lower digestive tract and increase the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) mass of many mammals. We reasoned that psyllium inclusion in milk replacer might produce similar effects in neonatal dairy calves, which could lead to improved growth and health. Male Holstein calves were fed a milk replacer (22% crude protein, 20% fat) either without or with psyllium (1.1% of dry matter, DM) from 2 d through 28 d of age. Milk replacer was reconstituted to 12.5% DM and fed at 12% of calf body weight, adjusted weekly. Water was offered ad libitum but no starter was fed. Three calves per treatment were harvested weekly to sample digesta from the reticulo-rumen, abomasum, jejunum, proximal colon, and distal colon, and to determine length and mass of GIT components. Psyllium in milk replacer increased the proportion of butyrate in reticulo-rumen contents from 2.4 to 3.2% of total but did not affect total VFA concentrations. Total VFA concentrations were very low in the jejunum but psyllium tended to increase total VFA, acetate, and valerate concentrations; valerate accounted for 15.9 and 16.7% of total VFA (molar basis) for control and psyllium calves, respectively. Psyllium increased total VFA concentrations in the proximal and distal colon by 104.4 and 45.6%, respectively, but had little effect on the profile of VFA. Psyllium in milk replacer increased populations of bifidobacteria (from 9.7 to 10.3 log(10) cfu/g of DM) and lactobacilli (from 8.2 to 9.4 log(10) cfu/g of DM) in the reticulo-rumen, but did not affect populations in jejunum or colon. Calves fed psyllium had 12.0% greater total GIT mass and 9.4% greater GIT as a percentage of body weight. Psyllium tended to increase mass of the reticulo-rumen and significantly increased mass of duodenum (34.2%), jejunum (14.5%), and colon (14.6%). Density of intestinal tissues from calves fed psyllium-supplemented milk replacer was 25.9% greater in the jejunum and 25.3% greater in the ileum, and tended to be greater in duodenum and colon than tissue from control calves. Supplementation of psyllium to milk replacer increased fermentation in the colon, mass of the total GIT, and populations of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the reticulo-rumen. PMID:20855009
Cannon, S J; Fahey, G C; Pope, L L; Bauer, L L; Wallace, R L; Miller, B L; Drackley, J K
In mammals, there are two types of urea transporters; urea transporter (UT)-A and UT-B. The UT-A transporters are mainly expressed in kidney epithelial cells while UT-B demonstrates a broader distribution in kidney, heart, brain, testis, urinary tract, and other tissues. Over the past few years, multiple urea transporter knockout mouse models have been generated enabling us to explore the physiological roles of the different urea transporters. In the kidney, deletion of UT-A1/UT-A3 results in polyuria and a severe urine concentrating defect, indicating that intrarenal recycling of urea plays a crucial role in the overall capacity to concentrate urine. Since UT-B has a wide tissue distribution, multiple phenotypic abnormalities have been found in UT-B null mice, such as defective urine concentration, exacerbated heart blockage with aging, depression-like behavior, and earlier male sexual maturation. This review summarizes the new insights of urea transporter functions in different organs, gleaned from studies of urea transporter knockout mice, and explores some of the potential pharmacological prospects of urea transporters.
Li, Xuechen; Chen, Guangping; Yang, Baoxue
Four ruminally lactating Holstein cows averaging 602+/-25 kg of body weight and 64+/-6 d in milk at the beginning of the experiment were randomly assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of feeding whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil on dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk production and composition, and milk fatty acid profile. The treatments were a control with no flaxseed products (CON) or a diet (on a dry matter basis) of 4.2% whole flaxseed (FLA), 1.9% calcium salts of flaxseed oil (SAL), or 2.3% whole flaxseed and 0.8% calcium salts of flaxseed oil (MIX). The 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were fed for ad libitum intake. Experimental periods consisted of 21 d of diet adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling. Dry matter intake, digestibility, milk production, and milk concentrations of protein, lactose, urea N, and total solids did not differ among treatments. Ruminal pH was reduced for cows fed the CON diet compared with those fed the SAL diet. Propionate proportion was higher in ruminal fluid of cows fed CON than in that of those fed SAL, and cows fed the SAL and CON diets had ruminal propionate concentrations similar to those of cows fed the FLA and MIX diets. Butyrate concentration was numerically higher for cows fed the SAL diet compared with those fed the FLA diet. Milk fat concentration was lower for cows fed SAL than for those fed CON, and there was no difference between cows fed CON and those fed FLA and MIX. Milk yields of protein, fat, lactose, and total solids were similar among treatments. Concentrations of cis-9 18:1 and of intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids such as trans-9 18:1 were higher in milk fat of cows fed SAL and MIX than for those fed the CON diet. Concentration of rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11 18:2) in milk fat was increased by 63% when feeding SAL compared with FLA. Concentration of alpha-linolenic acid was higher in milk fat of cows fed SAL and MIX than in milk of cows fed CON (75 and 61%, respectively), whereas there was no difference between FLA and CON. Flaxseed products (FLA, SAL, and MIX diets) decreased the n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in milk fat. Results confirm that flax products supplying 0.7 to 1.4% supplemental fat in the diet can slightly improve the nutritive value of milk fat for better human health. PMID:20630232
Côrtes, C; da Silva-Kazama, D C; Kazama, R; Gagnon, N; Benchaar, C; Santos, G T D; Zeoula, L M; Petit, H V
The objective was to investigate the acute effects of retinol acetate added to whey protein isolate (WPI) on postprandial changes in plasma retinol (experiment 1) andthe acuteeffectsof milkfat addedtoWPI ontriglyc- eride (TG), chylomicrons and very low density lipopro- tein (VLDL), and fatty acid concentrations (experiment 2) in suckling calves at 1 and 6 wk of age. In experiment 1, 16
S. Kushibiki; H. Shingu; T. Komatsu; F. Itoh; T. Hayashi; K. Hodate
The protective efficacy of oral bovine immunoglobulin concentrates derived from colostrum against challenge with Shigella flexneri was studied in healthy adult volunteers in a randomized, double-blind fashion. Volunteers were given a product consisting of hyperimmune immunoglobulin concentrate with a high titer of anti-S. flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with sodium bicarbonate or a control preparation with sodium bicarbonate three times a day for seven days. On the third day of treatment, volunteers received a challenge of 10(3) colony-forming units of S. flexneri 2a strain 2457T. None of the volunteers who received the high-titered hyperimmune product became ill, compared with 45% of volunteers who received the placebo (P less than 0.05). The duration of shedding of the challenge organism was decreased, and the active immune responses to S. flexneri LPS were less frequent and of lower magnitude in volunteers given the immunoglobulin concentrate than in those in the control group. High-titered, orally administered bovine immunoglobulin concentrate protects against shigellosis and may be useful in preventing shigellosis among travelers, military personnel, and individuals at risk during a Shigella outbreak. PMID:1524140
Tacket, C O; Binion, S B; Bostwick, E; Losonsky, G; Roy, M J; Edelman, R
The growth of S. aureus and the production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) in skim milk concentrates stored at inappropriate temperatures in a recovery milk tank (tank for excess concentrated skim milk) used in the manufacture of skimmed milk powder were investigated. Also, it was estimated if a possible outbreak of food poisoning would occur if the contaminated skimmed milk
T. Soejima; E. Nagao; Y. Yano; H. Yamagata; H. Kagi; K. Shinagawa
Trials utilizing three fistulated steers, in two Latin-square designed experiments, were conducted with five rations equal in digestible protein and containing cotton- seed hulls, plus one of the following pro- tein supplements : soybean meal, raw soybeans, corn gluten feed, urea, or area -b soybean nleal. In the first experiment, soybean meal, raw soybeans, and corn gluten feed were fed.
G. V. Davis; O. T. Stallcup
Twenty-seven sheep were assigned to three groups in order to study acute urea toxicity. Groups I, II and III were dosed with 0.5, 0.6 annd 0.75 g/kg of urea, respectively. The mean survival times were 165, 109 and 60 minutes, respectively. The following clinical signs such as pronounced muscle fasciculation, trembling, grinding teeth, ataxia, lateral recumbency, bloating, regurgitation, hyperesthesia, mydriasis and convulsions were observed. Anuria and lack of salivation were also present. The primary cause of death in this study was due to respiratory arrest and not cardiovascular collapse. Plasma examinations showed a marked increase in glucose, ammonia and urea levels but no change in ketone body concentration.
Edjtehadi, M; Szabuniewicz, M; Emmanuel, B
Here we report that synergetic effects of functionalized nanoporous support and urea on enzyme activity enhancement. Even in 8.0 M urea, the specific activity of GI entrapped in FMS was still higher than the highest specific activity of GI free in solution, indicating the strong tolerance of GI in FMS to the high concentration of urea.
Lei, Chenghong; Shin, Yongsoon; Liu, Jun; Ackerman, Eric J.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic, endocrine-disrupting compound. Free BPA has been detected in human samples indicating that humans are internally exposed to estrogenically active BPA. The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive method to detect free BPA in human breast milk. BPA was isolated from the milk of 21 nursing mothers in the U.S. by solid-phase extraction. It was then derivatized to improve sensitivity and subsequently analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Free BPA was detected in 62% of the milk samples (? 0.22-10.8 ng mL(-1), median 0.68 ng mL(-1), mean 3.13 ng mL(-1)). No statistical difference in BPA concentrations was observed between women with a low or high Body Mass Index (BMI) (<30 (n=11) and>30 (n=10), respectively). However, there was a significant association between BPA concentration and race. Caucasian women had significantly higher levels of free BPA in their breast milk than non-Caucasian women (mean=4.44 (n=14) and 0.52 (n=7), respectively; p<0.05). The difference between races could be attributed to variations in exposure, lifestyle or metabolism and suggests that certain populations should take extra precautions to limit BPA exposure, particularly during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:24507723
Zimmers, Stephanie M; Browne, Eva P; O'Keefe, Patrick W; Anderton, Douglas L; Kramer, Lawrence; Reckhow, David A; Arcaro, Kathleen F
Two experiments with a randomized complete block design were conducted to determine the effects of phase feeding of CP on performance, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), manure N:P ratio, and carcass characteristics of steers fed in a feedlot. In Exp. 1, 45 crossbred steers (initial BW = 423 +/- 3.3 kg) were individually fed a diet formulated to contain 13.0% CP (DM basis) for 62 d. On d 63, the dietary CP was maintained at 13.0% or formulated to contain 11.5 or 10.0% CP until slaughter. Actual CP values were 12.8, 11.8, and 9.9%, respectively. Reducing the CP concentration of the diet did not affect ADG of steers from d 62 to 109 (P = 0.54) or over the 109-d feeding period (1.45, 1.50, and 1.49 kg/d for 13.0, 11.5, and 10.0% CP, respectively; P = 0.85). No differences (P > 0.12) among treatments were detected for BUN concentrations on d 0, 62, or 109. Gain:feed, DMI, and carcass characteristics did not differ among treatments (P > 0.10). In Exp. 2, 2 trials were conducted using 184 (initial BW = 406 +/- 2.6 kg) and 162 (initial BW = 342 +/- 1.9 kg) crossbred steers. Data from the 2 trials were pooled for statistical analysis, and trial effect was added to the statistical model. Steers were fed a diet formulated to contain 13.0% CP until reaching approximately 477 kg. When the average BW of the pen was 477 kg, diets were maintained at 13.0% CP or reduced to contain 11.5 or 10.0% CP. Actual CP values were 12.4, 11.5, and 9.3% CP for treatments 13.0, 11.5, and 10.0% CP, respectively. Reducing the CP content of the diet did not affect ADG after the diet changed (P = 0.16) or throughout the finishing period (P = 0.14). Immediately before slaughter, steers fed the 13.0% CP diet had greater (P < 0.001) BUN concentrations than steers fed the 11.5 and 10.0% CP diets. Carcasses from cattle fed the 11.5% CP diet had greater (P = 0.02) fat thickness than the 13.0 and 10.0% CP treatments, whereas carcasses from cattle fed 13.0% CP had greater (P = 0.004) marbling scores than steers fed the 11.5 or 10.0% CP diets. Other carcass characteristics, DMI, and G:F did not differ (P > 0.10) among treatments. The N:P ratio was increased with the 10.0% CP diet (P = 0.02) compared with the 11.5 or 13.5% CP treatments; however, manure composition did not differ (P > 0.10) among treatments. These results indicate that reduced CP concentration during the finishing period does not affect feedlot performance but can improve the N and P relationship in the manure. PMID:17032797
Vasconcelos, J T; Greene, L W; Cole, N A; Brown, M S; McCollum, F T; Tedeschi, L O
Although free amino acids (FAA) account for a small fraction of total nitrogen in mammalian milk, they are more abundant in human milk than in most formulas, and may serve as a readily available source of amino acids for protein synthesis, as well as fulfill specific physiologic roles. We used reversed phase Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) technique for FAA profiling in milks from three species (human, rat and cow) with a simple and rapid sample preparation. The derivatization procedure chosen, combined with UPLC-ESI-MS/MS allowed the quantitation of 21 FAA using labeled amino acids (Internal Standards) over a 10 min run time in micro-samples of mammalian milk (50 ?L). The low limit of quantitation was 0.05 pmol/?L for most FAA with good repeatability and reproducibility (mean CV of 5.1%). Higher levels of total FAA were found in human (3032 ?M) and rat milk (3460 ?M) than in bovine milk (240 ?M), with wide differences in the abundances of specific FAA between species. This robust analytical method could be applied to monitor FAA profile in human breast milk, and open the way to individualized adjustment of FAA content for the nutritional management of infants. PMID:24298434
Roucher, Véronique Ferchaud; Desnots, Emmanuelle; Naël, Charlotte; Agnoux, Aurore Martin; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Darmaun, Dominique; Boquien, Clair-Yves
Changes to milking frequency (MF) affect the metabolic and energetic status of dairy cows. However, the duration of altered MF necessary to modify hepatic transcription during early lactation is less clear. Additionally, long-term responses to short-term alterations in MF have not been established. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=120) were allocated to 3 or 6 wk of either once-daily (1×) or thrice-daily (3×) milking, immediately postpartum. Following treatment, cows were switched to twice-daily (2×) milking. These 4 treatment groups were compared with cows milked 2× (n=30) for the whole lactation. Liver tissue was collected by biopsy at 1, 3, 6, and 9 wk postpartum from 12 cows per treatment, RNA was extracted, and transcript abundance of genes involved in hepatic metabolism was quantified. Milking frequency altered the expression of most of the genes measured; however, we observed no effects caused by the length of time on the alternative milking frequency and no interactions between MF and length. During the MF treatment, mRNA expression of some, but not all, genes involved in gluconeogenesis (G6PC, PCK1), fatty acid ?-oxidation (CPT1A, CPT2), ketogenesis (HMGCS2), lipid transport (APOA1), and lipolysis (PNPLA2) were lower for cows milked 1× and plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were greater. Cows milked 3× had reduced mRNA expression for some of the genes involved in fatty acid synthesis (ACACA) and lipid transport (APOB) and had greater plasma NEFA concentrations at wk 1. At 9 wk postpartum, expression data indicated that cows previously milked 3× had a greater capacity for gluconeogenesis (PCK1), ketogenesis (HMGCS2), and urea cycling (ASL, CPS1) and lower glucose concentrations than cows previously milked 1×, because some of the genes involved in these processes were still altered. Milking cows 1× relative to 2×, however, did not result in significant carryover effects on the expression of the genes measured in this study, indicating that metabolic changes are not sustained beyond the period of reduced MF. Changes to MF altered the hepatic response during early lactation; however, this was not dependent on the duration of MF change. Although we observed only minimal carryover effects on hepatic metabolism from short periods of reduced MF postpartum, there may be long-term effects on urea cycling (ASL, CPS1) and ketogenesis (HMGCS2) when 3× milking occurs immediately postpartum. PMID:24342696
Grala, T M; Roche, J R; Kay, J K; Rius, A G; White, H M; Donkin, S S; Littlejohn, M D; Snell, R G; Phyn, C V C
Zinc concentration in breast milk varies within and between mothers. Neither environmental (zinc intake — either in natural food or supplemented, nutrient interaction, cigarette smoking, and oral contraceptives) nor constitutional (premature delivery, number of children, teen age pregnancy, undernutrition, infection, and diabetes) variables consistently affected zinc concentration or its rate of decrease in breast milk. Stage of lactation is the
Jose G. Dorea
A comparison of low starch maize silage and grass silage and the effect of concentrate supplementation of the forages or inclusion of maize grain with the maize silage on milk production by dairy cows
This experiment examined the effect of partially replacing (60%) a high quality grass silage (GS) with an immature, low starch maize silage (LSM) on forage intake and milk production by dairy cows. The responses in milk production and composition to increased concentrate supplementation (4, 6 or 8 kg\\/cow\\/day) of these forages were also determined. An additional treatment (HGM, high grain
J. J Fitzgerald; J. J Murphy
Chemical synthesis of long or aggregation-prone peptide has been problematic. Its biological production has an advantage in that point, but it often forms inclusion body which creates difficulties in recovery of targets. As a deubiquitylating enzyme (Usp2-cc) was shown in this study to maintain its activity even in the presence of up to 4 M urea, target peptide was purified by a single step of chromatography after overexpression as inclusion body, solubilization in urea and cleavage by the enzyme from the fusion protein consisting of GroES (used for high expression and easy to handle), ubiquitin (as a cleavage site) and target peptide. This system is a convenient tool for production of peptides that are difficult to be chemically synthesized and biologically purified.
Shahnawaz, Mohammad [Research Center for Proteineous Materials (RCPM), Department of Bio-materials Engineering, Chosun University, Gwanju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Thapa, Arjun [Research Center for Proteineous Materials (RCPM), Department of Bio-materials Engineering, Chosun University, Gwanju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Il-Seon [Research Center for Proteineous Materials (RCPM), Department of Bio-materials Engineering, Chosun University, Gwanju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of) and Cell and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwanju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This study evaluated the effects of increasing the physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) intake of lactating dairy cows fed high-concentrate diets supplemented with unsaturated fat on intake, eating behavior, diet sorting, chewing activity, total-tract digestibility, and milk production and composition. Diets contained 24% alfalfa hay (AH), 16% corn silage, 58% concentrate, and 2% yellow grease [dry matter (DM) basis], and dietary peNDF content was increased by varying the particle size (PS) of the AH. Nine multiparous cows averaging 87.8 ± 14.8d in milk and weighing 653 ± 53 kg were randomly assigned to a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square. During each 21-d period, cows were offered 1 of 3 total mixed rations that varied in PS of AH: fine, medium, and long, with a geometric mean particle length of 3.00, 3.57 and 3.87 mm, respectively. Increasing PS quadratically affected DM intake (DMI; 24.7, 25.4, and 23.7 kg/d, for fine, medium, and long, respectively), but cumulative DMI at 2, 4, and 6h after feeding was similar across treatments, averaging 23.4, 35.6 and 46.4% of total DMI for the 3 time points, respectively. Increased peNDF intake did not affect feed sorting, but increased daily eating time, and eating and total chewing time per kilogram of DMI. Daily rumination time exhibited a quadratic response, with highest rumination time for the medium diet. Dietary PS had no effects on digestibility in the total tract, but we observed, for fine, medium, and long diets, quadratic responses in milk production (41.5, 43.3, and 40.4 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk production, and milk protein yield. Milk fat content decreased linearly with increasing PS, but milk fat content and fat:protein ratio were low for all treatments, likely due to adding unsaturated fat to a diet containing a high level of nonfiber carbohydrates (42.2% of DM). The composition, degree of saturation, and total conjugated linoleic acid content of fatty acids in milk fat were not affected by the change in peNDF content of the diet. The study indicates that a moderate increase in the PS of AH in diets containing unsaturated fat elevates peNDF intake and increases chewing activity, DMI, milk yield and milk fat production. However, the effects of dietary PS were quadratic, with maximum DMI and milk production observed with diets supplying 24% dietary peNDF (measured as the proportion of the ration retained on sieves >1.18 mm multiplied by dietary neutral detergent fiber content; DM basis). PMID:24054282
Kahyani, A; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A
A dietary energy restriction to 49% of total energy requirements was conducted with Red Holstein cows for three weeks in mid-lactation. At the last day of the restriction phase, primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) of eight restriction (RF) and seven control-fed (CF) cows were extracted out of one litre of milk and cultured. In their third passage, an immune challenge with the most prevalent, heat-inactivated mastitis pathogens Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was conducted. Lactoferrin (LF) was determined on gene expression and protein level. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to determine LF in milk samples taken twice weekly throughout the animal trial, beginning on day 20 pp (post-partum) until day 150 pp, in cell culture total protein and in cell culture supernatant. Milk LF increased throughout the lactation and decreased significantly during the induced energy deficiency in the RF group. At the beginning of realimentation, LF concentration increased immediately in the RF group and reached higher levels than before the induced deficit following the upward trend seen in the CF group. Cell culture data revealed higher levels (up to sevenfold up-regulation in gene expression) and significant higher LF protein concentration in the RF compared to the CF group cells. A further emphasized effect was found in E. coli compared to S. aureus exposed cells. The general elevated LF levels in the RF pbMEC group and the further increase owing to the immune challenge indicate an unexpected memory ability of milk-extracted mammary cells that were transposed into in vitro conditions and even displayed in the third passage of cultivation. The study confirms the suitability of the non-invasive milk-extracted pbMEC culture model to monitor the influence of feeding experiments on immunological situations in vivo. PMID:22540894
Danowski, K; Gross, J J; Meyer, H H D; Kliem, H
Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) of Nitric Oxide has been studied experimentally using commercial grade of urea in a pilot-scale diesel fired tunnel furnace. The furnace simulated small-scale combustion systems such as low capacity boiler, hot water heater, oil heater etc., where the operating temperature is in the range of about 900 to 1300 K. The experiment was conducted with low
Khandoker Abul Hossain; Mohammad Nazri Mohd. Jaafar
Lactating female members and spouses of male members of the New York State Angler Cohort who agreed to provide breast milk samples were the subjects of this study. Questionnaires were provided to participants focusing on Lake Ontario fish consumption, reproductive history, and lactation history. Milk samples were analyzed for 77 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (DDE), a metabolite of
P. J. Kostyniak; C. Stinson; H. B. Greizerstein; J. Vena; G. Buck; P. Mendola
Polyallylamine composite reverse osmosis membranes were prepared by plasma polymerization and deposition onto small-pored cellulose acetate/cellulose nitrate films. The polyallylamine coated the porous substrate with a thin uniform polymer film which exhibited water permeability and urea rejection, of interest because of the potential application of reverse osmosis to urine purification in closed environmental systems. The flux of C-14 labeled urea was studied under the influence of osmotic gradients provided by sodium chloride solutions. The urea flux was found to be enhanced by an osmotic pressure gradient in the same direction and diminished, but not prevented, by an opposing osmotic pressure gradient. Consideration is given to the mechanism of the urea transport, as well as to the influence of concentration polarization on the experimental results. The minimization of coupled flow in pores of a critical size range is apparently necessary to improve urea rejection.
Ballou, E. V.; Kubo, L. Y.; Spitze, L. A.; Wydeven, T.; Clark, J. A.
Beginning on the day of delivery and until the 15th or 22nd day of lactation, one group of dams received a 20% protein diet as a basal diet and one group received the basal diet supplemented with caffeine (4 mg\\/l00 g body weight). A correlation between caffeine concentrations in the dams’ plasma and milk was observed. In the caffeine group,
Magdalena J. Rossowska; William Carvajal; Tetsuo Nakamoto
Preterm infants fed human milk have been shown to grow poorly and develop mineral deficiencies that may lead to osteopenia. This study has investigated the efficacy of a human milk fortifier made up of glucose polymers, a mixture of bovine milk protein fractions and free amino acids, minerals and vitamins designed to improve these nutritional deficiencies. Growth and bone mineral deficiencies were compared in 38 preterm infants fed fortified mother's milk and 21 preterm infants fed a preterm formula until they reached 1800 g; all had a birthweight below 1600 g. Weight gain was similar in each group with a mean (SD) increase of 19.6 (3.5) g/kg/day in the fortified group and 19.9 (4.1) g/kg/day in the preterm formula group. There were also no significant differences in linear growth, head circumference, skin fold thickness or mid-arm circumference. Serum phosphate, alkaline phosphatase and plasma urea concentrations were similar and there was no clinical evidence of osteopenia. These results indicate that the growth and metabolic disadvantages associated with feeding human milk to preterm infants are ameliorated by the addition of a milk fortifier that increases the calorific, protein and mineral content of breast milk. PMID:9744147
Warner, J T; Linton, H R; Dunstan, F D; Cartlidge, P H
Evidence has suggested that the current requirement for vitamin A tabulated by the NRC [(approximately 3800 IU of vitamin A/kg of dry matter (DM)] for dairy calves fed liquid diets is too low. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of vitamin A content in milk replacers on serum and liver vitamin A concentrations, growth, and development of clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency in calves. Male Holstein calves were separated from their dams at birth and given standardized feedings of colostrum and milk replacer for 3 d. On d 4, calves were assigned to five groups and fed milk replacer containing 2300, 6200, 9000, 18,300, or 44,000 IU of vitamin A/kg of DM. Liver biopsies and serum samples were taken on d 4, 9, 15, 21, and 28 to monitor vitamin A concentrations. Weekly physical and neurological examinations were performed to monitor the development of deficiency signs. Fecal scores, body temperature, and the presence of nasal and ocular discharge were recorded daily. Liver vitamin A concentrations in calves allotted to diets with 2300 and 6200 IU of vitamin A/kg decreased from d 4 to 28. Calves fed 9000 IU of vitamin A/kg maintained liver stores, while those fed 18,300 and 44,000 IU of vitamin A/kg had significant increases in hepatic vitamin A. A strong negative association existed between incidence of hyperthermic temperatures and vitamin A concentration in the diet; calves fed 2300 IU of vitamin A/kg had approximately three times more hyperthermic readings than did calves fed other treatments. A strong negative association also existed between fecal score and concentration of vitamin A in the diet; calves fed diets containing low vitamin A concentration had a higher incidence of high fecal scores (more watery) than did calves fed diets with higher vitamin A concentrations. Although slight differences were detected in serum retinol concentration, growth performance and incidence of ocular and nasal discharges were not different among treatment groups. Our data indicate that vitamin A concentrations of less than 9000 IU/kg of DM in milk replacers result in declining liver vitamin A stores in preruminant calves. Using the human Dietary Reference Intakes as a model for calculating the requirement, we recommend that the vitamin A requirement for preruminant calves should be increased to 11,000 IU of vitamin A/kg of DM. PMID:11003235
Swanson, K S; Merchen, N R; Erdman, J W; Drackley, J K; Orias, F; Morin, D E; Haddad, M F
The aim of the study was to develop a simple, low-cost treatment for sewage sludge using urea as a sanitising agent. Sewage sludge was spiked with Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella typhimurium, treated with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% w/w urea at laboratory scale, and the viability was monitored during 4 months of storage at 4, 10 and 22 °C (only 0.5%). A linear relationship was identified between Salmonella spp. inactivation rate and ammonia (NH3) concentration. Temperature had a positive impact on Salmonella spp. inactivation at higher temperatures, but in the range 4-10 °C temperature influenced this inactivation merely by its impact on the ammonia equilibrium. Enterococcus spp. was more persistent and a lag phase of up to 11 weeks was observed. Higher temperature and ammonia concentration reduced the lag phase duration significantly, and also had a clear effect on the inactivation rate for the treatments with 0.5% urea at 22 °C and 2% urea at 4 and 10 °C. Urea sanitisation of sewage sludge can give a 2 log10 reduction of Enterococcus spp. and more than a 5 log10 reduction of Salmonella spp. within 6 weeks with either 0.5% w/w urea at 22 °C or 2% urea at 10 °C. PMID:24185072
Fidjeland, Jørgen; Lalander, Cecilia; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn
To produce a concentrated urine, the renal medulla needs hypertonicity for the reabsorption of free water from collecting duct. The single effect that increases interstitial tonicity in the outer medulla is the active NaCl reabsorption in the thick ascending limb, while the single effect in the inner medulla is the passive efflux of NaCl through the thin ascending limb. The passive mechanism in the inner medulla requires high interstitial urea concentration. Two main groups of urea transporters (UT-A, UT-B) are present in the kidney, which maintains the high concentration of urea in the deepest portion of the inner medulla by intra-renal urea recycling. Recent studies suggest that UT-A1 in the terminal inner medullary collecting duct is up-regulated when urine or inner medullary interstitial urea is depleted in order to enhance the reabsorption of urea, while UT-A2 in the descending thin limb of loops of Henle and UT-B in the descending vasa recta are increased when outer medullary interstitial urea concentration is high, in order to prevent the loss of urea from the medulla to the systemic circulation, thereby increasing intra-renal urea recycling. This review will summarize the functions of the renal urea transporters in urine concentration mechanism and the recent knowledge about their long-term regulation.
Background Selenium (Se) is important for the postnatal development of the calf. In the first weeks of life, milk is the only source of Se for the calf and insufficient level of Se in the milk may lead to Se deficiency. Maternal Se supplementation is used to prevent this. We investigated the effect of dietary Se-enriched yeast (SY) or sodium selenite (SS) supplements on selected blood parameters and on Se concentrations in the blood, colostrum, and milk of Se-deficient Charolais cows. Methods Cows in late pregnancy received a mineral premix with Se (SS or SY, 50 mg Se per kg premix) or without Se (control – C). Supplementation was initiated 6 weeks before expected calving. Blood and colostrum samples were taken from the cows that had just calved (Colostral period). Additional samples were taken around 2 weeks (milk) and 5 weeks (milk and blood) after calving corresponding to Se supplementation for 6 and 12 weeks, respectively (Lactation period) for Se, biochemical and haematological analyses. Results Colostral period. Se concentrations in whole blood and colostrum on day 1 post partum and in colostrum on day 3 post partum were 93.0, 72.9, and 47.5 ?g/L in the SY group; 68.0, 56.0 and 18.8 ?g/L in the SS group; and 35.1, 27.3 and 10.5 ?g/L in the C group, respectively. Differences among all the groups were significant (P < 0.01) at each sampling, just as the colostrum Se content decreases were from day 1 to day 3 in each group. The relatively smallest decrease in colostrum Se concentration was found in the SY group (P < 0.01). Lactation period. The mean Se concentrations in milk in weeks 6 and 12 of supplementation were 20.4 and 19.6 ?g/L in the SY group, 8.3 and 11.9 ?g/L in the SS group, and 6.9 and 6.6 ?g/L in the C group, respectively. The values only differed significantly in the SS group (P < 0.05). The Se concentrations in the blood were similar to those of cows examined on the day of calving. The levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were 364.70, 283.82 and 187.46 ?kat/L in the SY, SS, and C groups, respectively. This was the only significantly variable biochemical and haematological parameter. Conclusion Se-enriched yeast was much more effective than sodium selenite in increasing the concentration of Se in the blood, colostrum and milk, as well as the GSH-Px activity.
Slavik, Petr; Illek, Josef; Brix, Michal; Hlavicova, Jaroslava; Rajmon, Radko; Jilek, Frantisek
In Western Canada, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is produced from mixtures of corn and wheat at variable ratios, and used as a source of dietary crude protein (CP) in diets of lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing dietary allocation of wheat DDGS on dry matter intake, milk production, milk composition, feed efficiency, plasma metabolites, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows in midlactation. Sixteen multiparous and 16 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. Dietary treatments were a control diet containing canola meal as the primary protein source (CON) and diets containing increasing concentrations of wheat DDGS in place of corn DDGS (0, 50, and 100% of dietary DDGS allocation). The treatment protein sources supplied approximately 35% of dietary CP. Yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and energy-corrected milk were greater for diets containing DDGS compared with the CON diet. Although cows fed the DDGS diets tended to have lower CP digestibility compared with those fed the CON diet, concentrations of ruminal ammonia nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and milk urea nitrogen were higher, but milk protein concentration was lower for cows fed the DDGS diets. Although dry matter intake increased linearly as the dietary allocation of wheat DDGS increased, milk yield was not affected, thus decreasing feed efficiency linearly. Feeding increasing levels of wheat DDGS tended to decrease plasma glucose concentration linearly. Plasma Leu concentration decreased linearly and plasma Gln concentration increased linearly as dietary inclusion of wheat DDGS increased. Apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients except for CP was not affected by dietary treatments. A mixture of wheat and corn DDGS seems to have similar feeding values to both DDGS sources and it can be used as an alternative protein source in diets for lactating dairy cows. However, replacing corn DDGS with wheat DDGS might decrease feed efficiency. PMID:22720944
Abdelqader, M M; Oba, M
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase purified from leaves of maize (Zea mays, L.) is sensitive to the presence of urea. Exposure to 2.5 m urea for 30 min completely inactivates the enzyme, whereas for a concentration of 1.5 m urea, about 1 h is required. Malate appears to have no effect on inactivation by urea of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. However, the presence of 20 mm phosphoenolpyruvate or 20 mm glucose-6-phosphate prevents significant inactivation by 1.5 m urea for at least 1 h. The inactivation by urea is reversible by dilution. The inhibition by urea and the protective effects of phosphoenolpyruvate and glucose-6-phosphate are associated with changes in aggregation state.
Wedding, Randolph T.; Dole, Paul; Chardot, Thierry P.; Wu, Min-Xian
Purpose The mechanism underlying the decline in milk quality during periods of feeding high-concentrate diets to dairy ruminants is not well documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolic changes in the liver that contribute to the input of substrate precursors to the mammary gland after feeding a high-concentrate diet to lactating goats for a long period. Experimental Design Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen cannulas were randomly assigned to two groups. For 9 weeks, the treatment group was fed a high-concentrate diet (60% concentrate of dry matter, HC) and the control group was fed a low-concentrate diet (40% concentrate of dry matter, LC). Ruminal fluid, plasma, and liver tissues were sampled, microarray techniques and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate metabolic parameters and gene expression in liver. Results Feeding a 60%-concentrate diet for 9 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in rumen pH. Changes in fat and protein content also occurred, which negatively affected milk quality. Plasma levels of leptin (p?=?0.058), non-esterified fatty acid (p?=?0.071), and glucose (p?=?0.014) increased markedly in HC group. Plasma cortisol concentration was significantly elevated in the treatment group (p<0.05). Expression of the glucocorticoid receptor protein gene was significantly down-regulated (p<0.05) in the liver. The expression of genes for interleukin 1?, serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, and haptoglobin mRNA was significantly increased (p<0.05) in the HC group. GeneRelNet analysis showed that gene expression involved in inflammatory responses and the metabolism of lipids, protein, and carbohydrate were significantly altered by feeding a high-concentrate diet for 9 weeks. Conclusions Activation of the acute phase response and the inflammatory response may contribute to nutrient partitioning and re-distribution of energy in the liver, and ultimately lead to a decline in milk quality.
Dong, Haibo; Wang, Shaoqing; Jia, Yuanyuan; Ni, Yingdong; Zhang, Yuanshu; Zhuang, Su; Shen, Xiangzhen; Zhao, Ruqian
Since the beginning of the 21st century, the issue of food safety is becoming a global concern. It is very important to develop a rapid, cost-effective, and widely available method for food adulteration detection. In this paper, near-infrared spectroscopy techniques and pattern recognition were applied to study the qualitative discriminant analysis method. The samples were prepared and adulterated with one of the three adulterants, urea, glucose and melamine with different concentrations. First, the spectral characteristics of milk and adulterant samples were analyzed. Then, pattern recognition methods were used for qualitative discriminant analysis of milk adulteration. Soft independent modeling of class analogy and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) were used to construct discriminant models, respectively. Furthermore, the optimization method of the model was studied. The best spectral pretreatment methods and the optimal band were determined. In the optimal conditions, PLSDA models were constructed respectively for each type of adulterated sample sets (urea, melamine and glucose) and all the three types of adulterated sample sets. Results showed that, the discrimination accuracy of model achieved 93.2% in the classification of different adulterated and unadulterated milk samples. Thus, it can be concluded that near-infrared spectroscopy and PLSDA can be used to identify whether the milk has been adulterated or not and the type of adulterant used.
Liu, Rong; Lv, Guorong; He, Bin; Xu, Kexin
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of selenium (Se) supplementation to lactating women on Se concentrations and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in blood components of mothers and breast-fed infants and on milk Se levels and Se intake by breast-fed infants. Lactating mothers were supplied for 3 months with 200 micrograms Se/day in the form of yeast-Se (Y-Se) and sodium selenite. Initial blood and plasma Se levels of all women (n = 67) were 76.6 and 53.2 micrograms/L, respectively. After 3 months Se concentrations both in whole blood and in plasma from mothers and infants were significantly higher than the initial values. Y-Se exerts a stronger effects than selenite on blood and plasma Se levels. Initial milk Se concentration was 8.9 micrograms/L and after 1 month in both groups in reached a plateau at 14-16 micrograms/L. This resulted in an increase of Se intake in breast-fed infants from 6.1 to a plateau of 11-13 micrograms Se/day. GSH-Px activities in plasma and red cells of Y-Se group increased significantly and reached a plateau after 1 and 2 months, respectively, while in the selenite group the enzyme activities increased steadily throughout the entire period of the study. Selenite exerts a stronger effect on GSH-Px both in maternal and in infant blood components as compared with Y-Se. In milk the GSH-Px activity in the Y-Se group did not change during the study, while in the selenite group after 3 months it increased almost 2-fold compared to the initial value. In conclusion, this study shows that organic Se causes higher Se deposition than did the inorganic form. PMID:9760415
Trafikowska, U; Sobkowiak, E; Butler, J A; Whanger, P D; Zachara, B A
A new method for discrimination analysis of adulterated milk and pure milk is proposed by combining two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) with kernel orthogonal projection to latent structure (K-OPLS). Three adulteration types of milk with urea, melamine, and glucose were prepared, respectively. The synchronous 2D spectra of adulterated milk and pure milk samples were calculated. Based on the characteristics of 2D correlation spectra of adulterated milk and pure milk, a discriminant model of urea-tainted milk, melamine-tainted milk, glucose-tainted milk, and pure milk was built by K-OPLS. The classification accuracy rates of unknown samples were 85.7, 92.3, 100, and 87.5%, respectively. The results show that this method has great potential in the rapid discrimination analysis of adulterated milk and pure milk. PMID:24359648
Yang, Renjie; Liu, Rong; Xu, Kexin; Yang, Yanrong
A definitive method is described for the indirect assay of several tens of milligrams of urea by coulometric titration. Urea was decomposed in concentrated sulfuric acid using a Kjeldahl flask. Subsequently, the formed ammonium ion was titrated with electrogenerated hypobromite ion in a sodium bromide-sodium tetraborate medium of pH 8.6, with amperometric end-point detection. Parameters affecting the pretreatment procedure were evaluated. The optimized conditions included the heating of 2 g of urea at around 300°C for 2 h with 10 cm(3) of sulfuric acid. Under the proposed conditions, the assay value with expanded uncertainty (k = 2), 99.870 ± 0.026%, agreed well with the certified value of NIST SRM 912a urea, 99.9 ± 0.1%. PMID:23842420
Kato, Jun; Koseki, Takuma; Aoki, Yukie; Yamada, Ayako; Tanaka, Tatsuhiko
A non-instrumental rapid test was developed for the screening of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in milk at the 40ng\\/L level. The method combines on one immunoaffinity gel layer, AfM1 pre-concentration and direct competitive immunoassay detection with visual evaluation. Aflatoxin B1-horse radish peroxidase (AfB1-HRP) and Sepharose 4B-immobilized anti-aflatoxin B1 monoclonal antibody with a 79% cross-reaction for AfM1 were used. The assay was
Irina Yu. Goryacheva; Makpal A. Karagusheva; Carlos Van Peteghem; Liberty Sibanda; Sarah De Saeger
The relationship of body condition score (BCS) and blood urea and ammonia to pregnancy outcome was examined in Italian Mediterranean Buffalo cows mated by AI. The study was conducted on 150 buffaloes at 145 +/- 83 days in milk that were fed a diet comprising 14.8% crude protein, 0.9 milk forage units.kg-1 dry matter and a non-structural carbohydrate/crude protein ratio of 2.14. The stage of the oestrous cycle was synchronised by the Ovsynch-TAI programme and blood urea and ammonia levels were assessed on the day of AI. Energy corrected milk (ECM) production and BCS were recorded bi-weekly. The pregnancy risk was 46.7% and was slightly lower in buffaloes with BCS < 6.0 and BCS > 7.5. There were no significant differences in ECM, urea and ammonia between pregnant and non-pregnant buffaloes. However, pregnancy outcome was higher (P = 0.02) in buffaloes with blood urea < 6.83 mmol.L-1. The likelihood of pregnancy for buffaloes with low urea blood level was 2.6 greater than for high urea level and exposure to a high urea level lowered the probability of pregnancy by about 0.25. The findings indicate that buffaloes are similar to cattle and increased blood levels of urea are associated with reduced fertility when animals are mated by AI. PMID:16438915
Campanile, Giuseppe; Neglia, Gianluca; Di Palo, Rossella; Gasparrini, Bianca; Pacelli, Corrado; D'Occhio, Michael J; Zicarelli, Luigi
Eight healthy, non-pregnant, crossbred Holstein dairy cows (557-682 kg) within their first 3 months of lactation (13-21.5 kg of milk/day) were used. Cows were kept in tie stalls for the whole experiment. The 8 cows were randomly assigned to 2 (IM and SC) 4 x 4 balanced Latin square design experiments. Doses of procaine penicillin G (PPG) (300000 IU/mL) in each square were 7000, 14000, 21000 and 28000 IU/kg and were injected IM or SC once daily for 5 consecutive days. Volumes of PPG per site of injection never exceeded 20 mL. Blood was collected to determine the Cmax, Tmax, and AUC; urine and milk were also taken to measure the persistence of PPG in these fluids. Results show that serum Cmax and Tmax were only slightly affected by increasing the doses or the route of administration, whereas the AUC was linearly increased in relation to the dose injected in both modes of injection. In the urine, Cmax varied from 160 to 388 IU/mL and Tmax from 72-120 h during 5 consecutive days of PPG injection. A dose effect in Cmax was observed only for the IM route of administration and no variation (P > 0.05) was found between the IM and SC routes. Milk Cmax concentrations were only increased by the dose regimen in the IM group. At doses of 21000 and 28000 IU/kg, the IM group had a higher (P > 0.05) Cmax when compared with the SC groups. Milk PPG residues were not detectable over 96 h following the last IM injection, independently of the dose injected. However milk PPG residues were detected for up to 132 h following the last SC injection. These results show that when PPG is injected IM once daily in volumes not exceeding 20 mL/site at doses as high as 28000 IU/kg, the withdrawal period should be at least 96 h. Therefore, in the present model, there was no advantage to inject PPG by SC route to improve PPG kinetic parameters as the AUC, Cmax, or Tmax.
Dubreuil, P; Daigneault, J; Couture, Y; Guay, P; Landry, D
Plasma levels of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in ewes after administration of a single massive intravenous dose of vitamin D3 (2 X 10(6) IU) or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (5 mg) were determined at zero, one, two, three, five, ten and 20 days postinjection. In six ewes injected with vitamin D3 conversion of vitamin D3 to 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 resulted in a six-fold increase in the plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 level within one day. Elevated levels were maintained until day 10 but by day 20 a substantial decline in the plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 level had occurred. Peak levels of vitamin D3 were reached one day after injection and then continuously declined until day 20. Administration of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 increased plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 to fivefold higher levels than those observed when vitamin D3 was injected, with approximately threefold higher levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 maintained for five days. On day 10 and day 20 ewes which were injected with 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 still maintained plasma levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 which were twice as high as those of ewes injected with vitamin D3. In six ewes injected with vitamin D3, a sharp increase in vitamin D3 level in milk occurred within one day and more than a tenfold elevation of milk vitamin D3 concentrations were maintained for ten days. By 20 days the milk vitamin D3 level had returned to preinjection levels. These observations suggest that indirect supplementation of the suckling ruminant with vitamin D3 may be achieved through maternal injection and subsequent mammary transfer.
Hidiroglou, M; Knipfel, J E
The present study investigated whether thermal sweating may relieve elevated concentrations of serum uric acid or urea. Concentrations of uric acid and urea were measured in the sweat of sixteen male volunteers, who were treated with external heat after one hour of intense physical exercise. The same analytes were also measured in their urine and serum samples. Furthermore, creatinine and some electrolytes were determined in these specimens. The results show that the concentration of uric acid in the sweat is 24.5 micromol/L, which is only 6.3% of that in serum. The concentration of urea in the sweat is 22.2 mmol/L, which is 3.6 times that in serum. The results indicate that sweat uric acid concentration is quite minimal, and the estimated total uric acid excretion per day in normal physiological range is insignificant. However, the level of sweat urea was found at a much higher concentration than the serum level. No correlation could be established between the level of uric acid in sweat and in serum. There was also no correlation between the level of urea in sweat and that in serum. These results suggest it would not be effective to relieve the elevated serum uric acid concentration by thermal sweating when the renal excretion of uric acid is partly compromised. Nevertheless, the potential of urea excretion via profuse sweating is apparent particularly when the kidneys are damaged or their function is impaired. These findings also suggest that persons who take vigorous exercise or are exposed to hot environments should be well advised to drink adequate fluids since heavy sweating excretes only minimal uric acid, accompanied by significant diminution of urinary output and diminished urinary excretions of uric acid, which may induce elevated levels of serum uric acid. PMID:12817713
Huang, Chien-Tsai; Chen, Mei-Lien; Huang, Li-Ling; Mao, I-Fang
Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is composed mainly by water and also contains non-volatile mediators, which are expired in small droplets of airway fluid. Urea has been proposed as a normalization factor for EBC non-volatile biomarkers. Aim of this study was to assess volatility and diffusivity of urea ex vivo and to measure its EBC concentrations in different clinical conditions. Volatility was assessed quantifying EBC concentrations collected at 4 different temperatures, whereas diffusivity was tested by measuring urea concentrations in both plasma and EBC from uraemic patients on intermittent haemodialysis. Urea was also measured in EBC from patients with chronic airway diseases, i.e., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and cystic fibrosis. The concentration of urea but not its absolute amount in EBC increased with condensation temperature. Haemodialysis influenced EBC and plasma urea concentrations in a similar way. The concentrations of urea in chronic airway diseases did not significantly differ from those of controls. Urea is a non-volatile molecule ex vivo and EBC urea depends on its concentrations in plasma. Urea concentrations in EBC are unaffected by three chronic airway diseases. We suggest that there is no need to normalize non-volatile biomarkers in EBC for urea concentrations to account for inter-individual variability. However, in repeated measurements within the same individual, the use of urea either as a normalizing factor or as covariate variable could be proposed to control intra-individual variability. PMID:18924313
Folesani, Giuseppina; Corradi, Massimo; Goldoni, Matteo; Manini, Paola; Acampa, Olga; Andreoli, Roberta; Bertorelli, Giuseppina; David, Salvatore; Franchini, Innocente
Corn silage (CS) is associated with a reduction in milk fat content. The fact that CS is constituted of a grain and a forage fraction could explain this effect. This experiment evaluated the effect of grain fraction of CS on rumen fermentation, production performance and milk composition. Earless CS (ECS) was harvested after manually removing corn ears from the plant. Whole CS (WCS) was harvested from the same field on the same day. Eight (four ruminally fistulated) multiparous Holstein cows (84 days in milk) were utilized in a double 4 × 4 Latin square with 21-day periods. Treatments were (dry matter (DM) basis) (1) 23.0% WCS; (2) 12.4% ECS plus 10.6% high moisture corn (HMC) to obtain reconstituted CS (RCS); (3) 23.0% ECS; and (4) 23.0% timothy silage (TS). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and were fed as total mixed ration once a day. DM intake (DMI), milk yield, 4.0% fat-corrected milk (FCM), as well as protein concentration and yield were higher for WCS than ECS. Compared with WCS, cows tended to eat less with RCS, and produced less milk and milk protein. However, yield of FCM was similar between WCS and RCS. Milk fat concentration and yield, as well as the specific ratio of t11 18:1 to t10 18:1 in milk fat did not differ among diets. Milk urea-N tended to be higher for ECS than WCS and TS, whereas ruminal NH3-N was higher with ECS than TS. Rumen pH decreased linearly with time after feeding but was not different between treatments. Higher acetate and lower propionate concentration resulted in greater acetate to propionate ratio with ECS compared with WCS. In conclusion, removing grain fraction from CS decreased milk production and modified rumen fermentation without affecting milk fat concentration and yield. Moreover, despite some differences in DMI and total ruminal volatile fatty acid concentration between WCS and RCS, the restoration of FCM yield, using HMC in RCS diets, to a level of production similar to WCS highlights the importance of energy and nutrients supplied by the grain fraction of CS to support milk yield. PMID:23031720
Boivin, M; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y
Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production and composition in dairy cows, while fatty acid composition of milk was influenced by RBO supplementation, and resulted in significantly lower (p<0.05) concentrations of both short-chain and medium-chain FA, and increased (p<0.05) the proportion of long-chain FA in milk fat, as well as significantly increased cis-9, trans-11 CLA and total CLA. In conclusion, RBO or CH exhibited specific effects on DM, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition in lactating dairy cows, which were not interactions between CH and RBO in the diets. Feeding lactating dairy cows with RBO could improve fatty acid in milk fat by increasing cis-9, trans-11 CLA.
Lunsin, R.; Wanapat, M.; Rowlinson, P.
Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production and composition in dairy cows, while fatty acid composition of milk was influenced by RBO supplementation, and resulted in significantly lower (p<0.05) concentrations of both short-chain and medium-chain FA, and increased (p<0.05) the proportion of long-chain FA in milk fat, as well as significantly increased cis-9, trans-11 CLA and total CLA. In conclusion, RBO or CH exhibited specific effects on DM, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition in lactating dairy cows, which were not interactions between CH and RBO in the diets. Feeding lactating dairy cows with RBO could improve fatty acid in milk fat by increasing cis-9, trans-11 CLA. PMID:25049491
Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P
The distribution of urea has been determined for certain coastal and oceanic waters. The presence of urea-nitrogen in surface waters off the continental shelf between Panama and Callao, Peru, was extremely patchy and varied in concentration from 0.54-5.00 pg- atom urea-N\\/liter. The higher values were generally from samples collected within a foam slick or windrow. Surface waters in nonupwelling waters
CHARLES C. REMSON
This project aimed to examine the effects of adding 2 doses of a montmorillonite-based mycotoxin adsorbent on milk aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) concentrations and the performance and innate immune response of dairy cows fed an aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-contaminated diet. Eight lactating cows were used in a duplicated 4×4 Latin square design with 12-d periods. Treatments included the following: (1) control diet (C), (2) aflatoxin diet (T) containing C and 75 µg of AFB(1)/kg, 3) low-clay (LC) diet containing T and Calibrin A (Amlan International, Chicago, IL) added at 0.2% of the diet dry matter (DM), and 4) high-clay diet (HC) containing T and Calibrin A added at 1% of the diet DM. Milk production and DM intake were recorded daily and milk was sampled twice daily on d 5, 9, 10, 11, and 12 in each period. Blood samples were collected on d 5 and 9 of each period. Dietary treatments did not affect DM intake, milk yield, or feed efficiency. Even though cows were limit fed, feeding T instead of C reduced milk fat yield (0.67 vs. 0.74 kg/d) and milk protein concentration (3.28 vs. 3.36%). Concentrations of AFM(1) in milk of cows fed the T and LC diets were similar (0.57 and 0.64 µg/kg) and greater than those of cows fed the HC diet (0.46 µg/kg). Haptoglobin concentration was greater (22.0 vs. 14.4) and ?(2)-integrin expression (220 vs. 131) tended to be greater in cows fed diet T instead of C, but values for cows fed LC, HC, and C did not differ. In comparison to C, feeding T increased the innate immune response and decreased milk fat yield and milk protein concentration, but feeding LC and HC did not affect these measures. Only the HC diet reduced milk AFM(1) concentration. PMID:22901480
Queiroz, O C M; Han, J H; Staples, C R; Adesogan, A T
The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Activity coefficients of urea solutions are calculated to explore the mechanism of its solution properties, which form the basis for its well-known use as a strong protein denaturant. We perform free energy simulations of urea solutions in different urea concentrations using two urea models (OPLS and KBFF models) to calculate and decompose the activity coefficients. For the case of urea, we clarify the concept of the ideal solution in different concentration scales and standard states and its effect on our subsequent analysis. The analytical form of activity coefficients depends on the concentration units and standard states. For both models studied, urea displays a weak concentration dependence for excess chemical potential. However, for the OPLS force-field model, this results from contributions that are independent of concentration to the van der Waals and electrostatic components whereas for the KBFF model those components are nontrivial but oppose each other. The strong ideality of urea solutions in some concentration scales (incidentally implying a lack of water perturbation) is discussed in terms of recent data and ideas on the mechanism of urea denaturation of proteins.
Kokubo, Hironori; Rosgen, Jorg; Bolen, D Wayne; Pettitt, Bernard M.
The rheological behaviour of commercial milk protein\\/?-carrageenan mixtures in aqueous solutions was studied at neutral pH. Four milk protein ingredients; skim milk powder, milk protein concentrate, sodium caseinate, and whey protein isolate were considered. As seen by confocal laser microscopy, mixtures of ?-carrageenan with skim milk powder, milk protein concentrate, and sodium caseinate showed phase separation, but no phase separation
Y. Hemar; C. E. Hall; P. A. Munro; H. Singh
Urea, a molecule discovered in human urine by H. M. Rouelle in 1773, has a significant role in prebiotic chemistry. Previous BIMA observations have suggested that interstellar urea [(NH2)2CO] is a compact hot core molecule such as other large molecules (e.g. methyl formate and acetic acid). We have conducted an extensive search for urea toward the high mass hot molecular core Sgr B2(N-LMH) using BIMA, CARMA and the IRAM 30 m. Because the spectral lines of heavy molecules like urea tend to be weak and hot cores display lines from a wide range of molecules, it is necessary to detect a number of urea lines and apply sophisticated statistical tests before having confidence in an identification. The 1 mm resolution of CARMA enables favorable coupling of the source size and synthesized beam size, which was found to be essential for the detection of weak signals. We have detected a total of 65 spectral lines (32 molecular transitions and 33 unidentified transitions), most of which are narrower than the SEST survey (Nummelin et al. 1998) due to the small synthesized beam (2.5" x 2") of CARMA. It significantly resolves out the contamination by extended emission and reveals the eight weak urea lines that were previously blended with nearby transitions. Our analysis indicates that these lines are likely to be urea since the resulting observed line frequencies are coincident with a set of overlapping connecting urea lines, and the observed line intensities are consistent with the expected line strengths of urea. In addition, we have developed a new statistical approach to examine the spatial correlation between the observed lines by applying the Student's t test to the high resolution channel maps obtained from CARMA. The t test shows consistent spatial distributions from all eight candidate lines, suggesting a common molecular origin, urea. Our t test method could have a broad impact on the next generation of arrays, such as ALMA, because the new arrays will require a method to systematically determine the credibility of detections of weaker signals from new and larger interstellar molecules.
Kuo, Hsin-Lun; Remijan, Anthony J.; Snyder, Lewis E.; Looney, Leslie W.; Friedel, Douglas N.; Lovas, Francis J.; McCall, Benjamin J.; Hollis, Jan M.
Two experiments involving 3- to 5-d-old dairy calves were carried out. In Experiment 1, lime-treated corn flour (Nixtamal) supplied 50 to 100% of carbohydrates in a milk substitute based on sodium caseinate, lard, and cerelose. In Experiment 2, partially hydrolyzed fish protein concentrate replaced 50% of 67% of proteins in milk substitutes based on skim milk powder, lard, and 35% Nixtamal. Increasing the proportion of carbohydrates supplied by Nixtamal was associated with a linear decrease of postprandial serum glucose and insulin. Postprandial fluctuations in blood glucose were less in calves fed Nixtamal than in controls. Nixtamal probably was trapped within the casein clot in the abomasum, leading to delayed rate of passage of Nixtamal carbohydrates into the intestine. Replacing skim milk protein with hydrolyzed fish protein in diets containing Nixtamal had no effect on blood glucose or insulin but elevated free essential amino acids, which promoted glucagon secretion. More uniform concentrations of blood essential amino acids and glucose were related to lower blood urea at 54 d in calves fed diets based on hydrolyzed fish protein and Nixtamal, than that of control calves. It is suggested that more uniform postprandial blood glucose concentrations might reduce amino acid degradation for energy purposes and stimulate protein synthesis. Young dairy calves may adapt to milk substitutes based on Nixtamal and hydrolyzed fish protein despite changes in the concentration patterns of several blood components. PMID:2677072
Diaz-Castaneda, M; Brisson, G J
Effect of replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with high-oil traditional canola, high-oleic acid canola, or high-erucic acid rapeseed meals on rumen fermentation, digestibility, milk production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of replacing conventional, solvent-extracted canola meal (control; CTRL) with high oil content; conventional, mechanically extracted canola meal (CMEC); high-oleic, low polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) canola meal (HOLL); and high-erucic acid, low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (RPS) on rumen function, digestibility, milk production, and milk FA composition in lactating dairy cows. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 8 lactating dairy cows. Four of the cows were ruminally cannulated. All oilseed meals were included at approximately 12 to 13% of dietary dry matter (DM). Crude protein and fat concentrations (% of DM) of the meals were 43 and 3.1%, 32.8 and 16.1%, 45.2 and 13.7%, and 34.3 and 17.9% for CTRL, CMEC, HOLL, and RPS, respectively. All diets were formulated to supply net energy of lactation in excess of requirements. The CMEC and RPS diets were predicted to be about 1% deficient in metabolizable protein. Relative to the CTRL, inclusion of high-oil seed meals in the diet lowered ruminal acetate concentration and the molar acetate:propionate ratio and decreased DM intake. Milk yield generally followed DM intake and was lower for CMEC and RPS than the CTRL. Treatments had no effect on milk composition, other than an increase in milk urea nitrogen concentration for HOLL. Fat-corrected milk (3.5%) feed efficiency was increased by HOLL and RPS compared with CTRL. Urinary urea nitrogen losses were increased by HOLL, which, as a consequence, increased the ammonia-emitting potential of manure. The ratio of milk N-to-N intake was greater for CMEC and RPS. Replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with the high-oil meal decreased milk fat 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and total saturated FA content and enhanced cis-9 18:1 and total monounsaturated FA concentrations. Relative to the CTRL, canola increased total trans FA in milk, whereas inclusion of HOLL in the diet increased trans-11 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 CLA content. The RPS increased milk fat cis-13 22:1 content from 0.07 to 2.33 g/100g of FA. In conclusion, HOLL or RPS, which are likely to come from small-scale biodiesel plants where oil is cold pressed without hexane extraction, fed at levels at or above 12 to 13% of dietary DM may decrease feed intake and milk production, but can be used to alter milk FA composition in lactating dairy cows. PMID:21787941
Hristov, A N; Domitrovich, C; Wachter, A; Cassidy, T; Lee, C; Shingfield, K J; Kairenius, P; Davis, J; Brown, J
This study investigated the potential of Raman chemical imaging for simultaneously detecting multiple adulterants in milk powder. Potential chemical adulterants, including ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea, were together mixed into nonfat dry milk in the concentration range of 0.1%-5.0% for each adulterant. A benchtop point-scan Raman imaging system using a 785-nm laser was assembled to acquire hyperspectral images in the wavenumber range of 102-2538 cm-1. Each mixture was imaged in an area of 25×25 mm2 with a spatial resolution of 0.25 mm. Selfmodeling mixture analysis (SMA) was used to extract pure component spectra, by which the four types of the adulterants were identified at all concentration levels based on their spectral information divergence values to the reference spectra. Raman chemical images were created using the contribution images from SMA, and their use to effectively visualize identification and spatial distribution of the multiple adulterant particles in the dry milk was demonstrated.
Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S.
The objectives of this study were to determine if midlactation dairy cows (Bos taurus L.) grazing intensively managed elephantgrass would have their protein requirement met exclusively with the pasture and an energy concentrate, making the use of protein ingredients unnecessary, as well as to determine the dietary crude protein (CP) content that would optimize the efficiency of N utilization (ENU). Thirty-three Holstein and crossbred (Holstein × Jersey) midlactation dairy cows, producing approximately 20 kg/d, were grouped within breed into 11 blocks according to milk yield and days in milk. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments and remained in the study for 11 wk. The control treatment contained only finely ground corn, minerals, and vitamins, and it was formulated to be 8.7% CP. Two higher levels of CP (formulated to be 13.4 and 18.1%) were achieved by replacing corn with solvent-extracted soybean meal (SSBM). Pasture was fertilized with 50 kg of N/ha after each grazing cycle and averaged 18.5% CP (dry matter basis). No differences were observed in milk yield or milk fat, protein, and casein content or casein yield. In addition, pasture intake was not different among treatments. Milk urea N increased linearly as the concentrate CP content increased. Cows fed the 8.7% CP concentrate had higher ENU. In another experiment, 4 ruminally cannulated Holstein dry cows were used in a metabolism trial designed in a 4×4 Latin square. Cows were fed the same treatments described as well as a fourth treatment with 13.4% CP in the concentrate, in which urea replaced SSBM as the main N source. Ruminal volatile fatty acid concentration and microbial synthesis were not affected by levels or sources of N in the concentrate. Ruminal NH(3)N content increased as the concentrate CP content increased. Inclusion of SSBM in the concentrate did not increase production and decreased the ENU of midlactation dairy cows grazing on tropical forage. Supplementation of an 8.7% CP concentrate, resulting in a diet with CP levels between 15.3 and 15.7% of dry matter, was sufficient to meet the protein requirements of such milk production, with the highest ENU (18.4%). PMID:23127909
Danes, M A C; Chagas, L J; Pedroso, A M; Santos, F A P
A sensor to detect and quantify urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures, and in blood and other body fluids. The sensor is based upon a chemiresistor, which consists of an interdigitated array of metal fingers between which a resistance measured. The interdigitated array is fabricated on a suitable substrate. The surface of the array of fingers is covered with a coating containing the enzyme urease which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form the ammonium ion, the bicarbonate ion, and hydroxide-chemical products which provide the basis for the measured signal. In a typical application, the sensor could be used at bedside, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. Also, the chemiresistor used to detect urea, can be utilized with a reference chemiresistor which does not contain urease, and connected in a differential measurement arrangement, such that the reference chemiresistor would cancel out any fluctuations due to background effects.
Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA
After conducting a preliminary survey, a feeding trial was carried out to determine the effect of urea-molasses-multinutrient block (UMMB) and urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) as a feed supplement on the productivity of dairy cows. Sixty Holstein-Friesian crossbred cows on 11 smallholder farms were divided equally into control, UMMB and UTRS supplementation groups. Milk yield and feed intake were recorded daily. Milk fat content, body weight and body condition score (BSC) of each cow were determined at two week intervals. Milk samples for progesterone analysis were collected once a week commencing one month after parturition. Data were recorded for date of onset of ovarian activity, estrus, insemination, and conception rate. Milk production increased by 10.3-11.9% and milk fat content increased by 3-5%, therefore, profit for farmers increased by US $0.55-0.73 per cow per day (exchange rate US $1 = VN $11,000). The intervals from calving to onset of ovarian activity (91-94 days), to estrus (110-114 days), to conception (121-122 days) and the calving interval (13.4-13.6 months) in the trial groups were significantly shorter than those in the control group (112, 135, 152 days and 14.4 months, respectively. PMID:10081798
Vu, D D; Cuong, L X; Dung, C A; Hai, P H
Sugar supplementation can stimulate rumen microbial growth and possibly fiber digestibility; however, excess ruminal carbohydrate availability relative to rumen-degradable protein (RDP) can promote energy spilling by microbes, decrease rumen pH, or depress fiber digestibility. Both RDP supply and rumen pH might be altered by forage source and monensin. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate interactions of a sugar source (molasses) with monensin and 2 forage sources on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and production and fatty acid composition of milk. Seven ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a 5 x 7 incomplete Latin square design with five 28-d periods. Four corn silage diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), 3) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea (MU), or 4) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea plus monensin sodium (Rumensin, at the intermediate dosage from the label, 16 g/909 kg of dry matter; MUR). Three chopped alfalfa hay diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), or 3) 2.6% molasses plus Rumensin (MR). Urea was added to corn silage diets to provide RDP comparable to alfalfa hay diets with no urea. Corn silage C and M diets were balanced to have 16.2% crude protein; and the remaining diets, 17.2% crude protein. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment, but there was a trend for lower milk production in alfalfa hay diets compared with corn silage diets. Despite increased total volatile fatty acid and acetate concentrations in the rumen, total tract organic matter digestibility was lower for alfalfa hay-fed cows. Rumensin did not affect volatile fatty acid concentrations but decreased milk fat from 3.22 to 2.72% in corn silage diets but less in alfalfa hay diets. Medium-chain milk fatty acids (% of total fat) were lower for alfalfa hay compared with corn silage diets, and short-chain milk fatty acids tended to decrease when Rumensin was added. In whole rumen contents, concentrations of trans-10, cis-12 C(18:2) were increased when cows were fed corn silage diets. Rumensin had no effect on conjugated linoleic acid isomers in either milk or rumen contents but tended to increase the concentration of trans-10 C(18:1) in rumen samples. Molasses with urea increased ruminal NH(3)-N and milk urea N when cows were fed corn silage diets (6.8 vs. 11.3 and 7.6 vs. 12.0 mg/dL for M vs. MU, respectively). Based on ruminal fermentation characteristics and fatty acid isomers in milk, molasses did not appear to promote ruminal acidosis or milk fat depression. However, combinations of Rumensin with corn silage-based diets already containing molasses and with a relatively high nonfiber carbohydrate:forage neutral detergent fiber ratio influenced biohydrogenation characteristics that are indicators of increased risk for milk fat depression. PMID:19109286
Oelker, E R; Reveneau, C; Firkins, J L
Zinc concentrations in breast milk are considerably higher than those of the maternal serum, to meet the infant's requirements for normal growth and development. Thus, effective mechanisms ensuring secretion of large amounts of zinc into the milk operate in mammary epithelial cells during lactation. ZnT2 was recently found to play an essential role in the secretion of zinc into milk. Heterozygous mutations of human ZnT2 (hZnT2), including H54R and G87R, in mothers result in low (>75% reduction) secretion of zinc into the breast milk, and infants fed on the milk develop transient neonatal zinc deficiency. We identified two novel missense mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene in a Japanese mother with low milk zinc concentrations (>90% reduction) whose infant developed severe zinc deficiency; a T to C transition (c.454T>C) at exon 4, which substitutes a tryptophan residue with an arginine residue (W152R), and a C to T transition (c.887C>T) at exon 7, which substitutes a serine residue with a leucine residue (S296L). Biochemical characterization using zinc-sensitive DT40 cells indicated that the W152R mutation abolished the abilities to transport zinc and to form a dimer complex, indicating a loss-of-function mutation. The S296L mutation retained both abilities but was extremely destabilized. The two mutations were found on different alleles, indicating that the genotype of the mother with low milk zinc was compound heterozygous. These results show novel compound heterozygous mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene causing zinc deficiency in a breast-fed infant. PMID:23741301
Itsumura, Naoya; Inamo, Yasuji; Okazaki, Fumiko; Teranishi, Fumie; Narita, Hiroshi; Kambe, Taiho; Kodama, Hiroko
Zinc concentrations in breast milk are considerably higher than those of the maternal serum, to meet the infant's requirements for normal growth and development. Thus, effective mechanisms ensuring secretion of large amounts of zinc into the milk operate in mammary epithelial cells during lactation. ZnT2 was recently found to play an essential role in the secretion of zinc into milk. Heterozygous mutations of human ZnT2 (hZnT2), including H54R and G87R, in mothers result in low (>75% reduction) secretion of zinc into the breast milk, and infants fed on the milk develop transient neonatal zinc deficiency. We identified two novel missense mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene in a Japanese mother with low milk zinc concentrations (>90% reduction) whose infant developed severe zinc deficiency; a T to C transition (c.454T>C) at exon 4, which substitutes a tryptophan residue with an arginine residue (W152R), and a C to T transition (c.887C>T) at exon 7, which substitutes a serine residue with a leucine residue (S296L). Biochemical characterization using zinc-sensitive DT40 cells indicated that the W152R mutation abolished the abilities to transport zinc and to form a dimer complex, indicating a loss-of-function mutation. The S296L mutation retained both abilities but was extremely destabilized. The two mutations were found on different alleles, indicating that the genotype of the mother with low milk zinc was compound heterozygous. These results show novel compound heterozygous mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene causing zinc deficiency in a breast-fed infant.
Itsumura, Naoya; Inamo, Yasuji; Okazaki, Fumiko; Teranishi, Fumie; Narita, Hiroshi; Kambe, Taiho; Kodama, Hiroko
Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. PMID:24029787
To study the renal medullary transport and accumulation of urea in dogs independent of water transport, we obliterated the medullary electrolyte gradient by a sustained ethacrynic acid diuresis. Infusions of urea were also given at various rates to vary urinary urea concentration. In the steady state, the kidneys were removed, and slices were analyzed for water, urea, and electrolytes. In every experiment in 15 dogs over a range of urinary urea concentration from 19 to 230 mmoles per L and urine flow from 0.5 to 9.7 ml per minute per kidney, an intrarenal urea gradient persisted, and urinary urea concentration was always lower than papillary water urea concentration. The magnitude of this uphill urinary-papillary gradient (mean ± SE = - 21 ± 2.9 mmoles per L) was not affected by hemorrhagic hypotension or a nonprotein diet. In 12 additional experiments begun similarly, inhibitors were infused into one renal artery. Both iodoacetate, an inhibitor of anaerobic glycolysis, and acetamide, an analogue of urea, markedly and significantly reduced both the intrarenal urea gradient and the uphill urinary-papillary gradient. In contrast, cyanide, an inhibitor of oxidative metabolism, had no observable effect on the urea gradients. The data are best explained by postulating an active transport system for urea in the medullary collecting duct deriving its energy from anaerobic glycolysis.
Goldberg, Martin; Wojtczak, Andrzej M.; Ramirez, Manuel A.
Objective-To compare the nutrient composition of commercially available dog milk replacers with that of dog milk. Design-Prospective, cross-sectional study. Sample-5 dog milk samples and 15 samples of commercial dog milk replacers. Procedures-Dog milk and milk replacers were analyzed for concentrations of total protein, essential amino acids, sugars, total fat, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus. Energy density was calculated. Results from milk replacers were compared with the range of the concentration of each nutrient in milk samples from mature dogs as well as the National Research Council (NRC) recommendations for puppy growth. Results-Milk replacers varied widely in caloric density and concentration of nutrients such as calcium, protein, and fat. Calcium concentration was lower in 14 of 15 milk replacers than in the dog milk samples. Docosahexaenoic acid was undetectable in 12 of 15 milk replacers but present in all dog milk samples. All milk replacers had numerous essential nutrients outside of the range of the dog milk samples, and many had concentrations of amino acids, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus less than the NRC minimal requirement or recommended allowance. Compared with NRC recommendations, some dog milk samples had concentrations of total protein, linoleic acid, calcium, or phosphorus less than the recommended allowance. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that there was substantial variation in nutrient composition of 15 dog milk replacers and that some products were closer approximations of dog milk than others. Nearly all products would benefit from more appropriate calcium, amino acids, and essential fatty acids concentrations and better feeding directions. PMID:24871064
Heinze, Cailin R; Freeman, Lisa M; Martin, Camilia R; Power, Michael L; Fascetti, Andrea J
Effects of ventilation regimen on the quality of ewes' milk and on proteolysis in Canestrato Pugliese cheese during ripening were studied. Cheeses were manufactured from the bulk milk of Comisana ewes subjected to three different ventilation regimens, which were designated low (LOV, 23 m3/h per ewe), moderate (MOV, 47 m3/h per ewe) and programmed ventilation regimen (PROV, 73 m3/h per ewe; fan set to maintain 70% relative humidity). Bulk milk was analysed for chemical and microbial composition, renneting parameters and plasmin-plasminogen activities. At 1, 15, 30 and 45 d of ripening, the cheeses were analysed for gross chemical composition, nitrogen fractions, and plasmin and plasminogen activities. The pH 4.6-insoluble nitrogen fractions were analysed by urea-PAGE. Free amino acid content was determined at the end of ripening. Lower concentrations of bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and of mesophilic bacteria were found in the MOV group than in the LOV and the PROV groups. A lower plasminogen (PG) to plasmin (PL) ratio (PG/PL) was observed in the MOV and PROV than in the LOV cheeses. Irrespective of treatment, PL activity in cheeses was higher at 15d of ripening, while a sudden decrease of PL and PG activities was observed at 30 d, which was associated with a marked increase in non-protein nitrogen. The peptide profile characterized in the urea-PAGE showed a greater intensity of alpha- and beta-CN hydrolysis in the MOV than in the PROV and LOV cheeses. The results provide evidence that a proper ventilation regimen is critical for optimizing the hygienic quality of milk and the proteolysis of Canestrato Pugliese cheese during ripening. PMID:15605710
Albenzio, Marzia; Marino, Rosaria; Caroprese, Mariangela; Santillo, Antonella; Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Sevi, Agostino
Effect of replacing grass silage with red clover silage on nutrient digestion, nitrogen metabolism, and milk fat composition in lactating cows fed diets containing a 60:40 forage-to-concentrate ratio.
Diets based on red clover silage (RCS) typically increase the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ruminant meat and milk and lower the efficiency of N utilization compared with grass silages (GS). Four multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (108 d postpartum) fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods to evaluate the effect of incremental replacement of GS with RCS on milk production, nutrient digestion, whole-body N metabolism, and milk fatty acid composition. Treatments comprised total mixed rations offered ad libitum, containing 600g of forage/kg of diet dry matter (DM), with RCS replacing GS in ratios of 0:100, 33:67, 67:33, and 100:0 on a DM basis. Intake of DM and milk yield tended to be higher when RCS and GS were offered as a mixture than when fed alone. Forage species had no influence on the concentration or secretion of total milk fat, whereas replacing GS with RCS tended to decrease milk protein concentration and yield. Substitution of GS with RCS decreased linearly whole-tract apparent organic matter, fiber, and N digestion. Forage species had no effect on total nonammonia N at the omasum, whereas the flow of most AA at the omasum was higher for diets based on a mixture of forages. Replacing GS with RCS progressively lowered protein degradation in the rumen, increased linearly ruminal escape of dietary protein, and decreased linearly microbial protein synthesis. Incremental inclusion of RCS in the diet tended to lower whole-body N balance, increased linearly the proportion of dietary N excreted in feces and urine, and decreased linearly the utilization of dietary N for milk protein synthesis. Furthermore, replacing GS with RCS decreased linearly milk fat 4:0 to 8:0, 14:0, and 16:0 concentrations and increased linearly 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 concentrations, in the absence of changes in cis-9 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 18:2, or total trans fatty acid concentration. Inclusion of RCS in the diet progressively increased the apparent transfer of 18-carbon PUFA from the diet into milk, but had no effect on the amount of 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 at the omasum recovered in milk. In conclusion, forage species modified ruminal N metabolism, the flow of AA at the omasum, and whole-body N partitioning. A lower efficiency of N utilization for milk protein synthesis with RCS relative to GS was associated with decreased availability of AA for absorption, with some evidence of an imbalance in the supply of AA relative to requirements. Higher enrichment of PUFA in milk for diets based on RCS was related to an increased supply for absorption, with no indication that forage species substantially altered PUFA bioavailability. PMID:24679932
Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Vanhatalo, A; Toivonen, V; Heikkilä, T; Lee, M R F; Shingfield, K J
Kaur, S. and Kakkar, V.K. 1995. Feeding urea through surface licking in the growing buffalo (Bos bubalis) calves. J. Appl. Anim Res., 8: 129–136A new device, called portable feeder with revolving surface, for the gradual intake of urea-molasses mixture, was compared with urea-molasses-mineral block (uromin-lick) and urea containing concentrate mixture in Murrah buffalo calves. The different groups of calves were
Sukhvir Kaur; V. K. Kakkar
Functional studies in knockout mice in- dicate a critical role for urea transporters (UTs) in the urinary concentrating mechanism and in renal urea clearance. However, potent and specific urea transport blockers have not been available. Here, we used high- throughput screening to discover high-affinity, small molecule inhibitors of the UT-B urea transporter. A collection of 50,000 diverse, drug-like compounds was
Marc H. Levin; Ricardo de la Fuente; A. S. Verkman
One of the characteristics of automatic milking is that cows can visit the milking robot voluntarily. This induces a large variation in the frequency of visits to the milking robot and, thus, results in a large variation in milking intervals. The relationships between milking interval, milk production and milk flow-rate using a milking robot were studied with data from a
H. Hogeveen; W. Ouweltjes; C. J. A. M de Koning; K. Stelwagen
Different concentrations either of ammonium chloride or urea were used in batch and fed-batch cultivations of Spirulina platensis to evaluate the possibility of substituting nitrate by cheaper reduced nitrogen sources in wastewaters biotreatment. The\\u000a maximum nitrogen concentration able to sustain the batch growth of this microalga without inhibition was 1.7 mM in both cases.\\u000a Ammonium chloride was limiting for the growth
A. Converti; S. Scapazzoni; A. Lodi; J. C. M. Carvalho
The WebWare molecules of the month are discussed in two laboratory articles in this issue. Quinine is studied in the article "A Fluorimetric Approach to Studying the Effects of Ionic Strength on Reaction Rates: An Undergraduate Steady-State Fluorescence Laboratory Experiment" by Stephen W. Bigger, Peter J. Watkins, and Bruce Verity. Urea, a typical protein denaturant, is used as a cosolvent in the article "Transfer Free Energy and the Hydrophobic Effect" by Joseph M. Serafin.
A sensor is disclosed to detect and quantify urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures, and in blood and other body fluids. The sensor is based upon a chemiresistor, which consists of an interdigitated array of metal fingers between which a resistance measured. The interdigitated array is fabricated on a suitable substrate. The surface of the array of fingers is covered with a coating containing the enzyme urease which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form the ammonium ion, the bicarbonate ion, and hydroxide-chemical products which provide the basis for the measured signal. In a typical application, the sensor could be used at bedside, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. Also, the chemiresistor used to detect urea, can be utilized with a reference chemiresistor which does not contain urease, and connected in a differential measurement arrangement, such that the reference chemiresistor would cancel out any fluctuations due to background effects. 16 figs.
A study was conducted to evaluate the excretion pattern, after a single oral dose, of melamine from feed into milk, and the subsequent transfer to cheese and whey. The transfer of cyanuric acid was also investigated. Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows were randomly allocated to 4 treatments and received single doses of melamine as follows: 0.05, 0.50, 5.00, and 50.00 g/cow for groups D1, D2, D3, and D4, respectively. Individual milk samples were collected for melamine and cyanuric acid analyses on d 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7. Milk collected individually from the second milking after melamine ingestion was used to make cheese on a laboratory scale. Melamine and cyanuric acid were extracted using a solid-phase extraction cartridge, and analyses were carried out by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Maximal melamine concentrations occurred between 6 and 18 h after treatment and increased with log dose (linear and quadratic), ranging from 0.019 to 35.105 mg/kg. More than 60% of the melamine that was transferred to the milk was observed within 30 h after melamine ingestion. Melamine was not detected (limit of detection was 0.002 mg/kg) in milk 5 d after treatment in group D1, and 7 d after treatment in groups D2, D3, and D4. Blood urea nitrogen was not influenced by melamine ingestion. During cheese making, melamine was transferred mainly to the whey fraction. Cyanuric acid was not detected in any of the samples (milk, cheese, or whey). The excretion pattern of melamine in milk and whey may represent a health concern when cows ingest more than 0.50 g of melamine/d. However, only at intake levels of 5 and 50 g/d did cheese exceed the limits as set forth by the European Union. The results confirmed that melamine contamination of milk and milk products may be related not only to direct contamination, but also to adulteration of animal feeds. PMID:20965350
Battaglia, M; Cruywagen, C W; Bertuzzi, T; Gallo, A; Moschini, M; Piva, G; Masoero, F
Lipid auto-oxidation in milk is affected by a complex interplay of pro- and antioxidants. Several of these compounds are also important nutrients in the human diet and may have other physiological effects in the gastrointestinal tract and other tissues. Among antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase catalyses the dismutation of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide. The degradation of hydrogen peroxide can be catalysed by catalase and the selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase. The latter enzyme can also degrade lipid peroxides. Lactoferrin may have an important role by binding pro-oxidative iron ions. The occurrence of different forms of these antioxidative proteins in milk and available data on their functional role are reviewed. More remains to be learnt of individual compounds and as an example the potential role of seleno compounds in milk is virtually unknown. Antioxidative vitamins in milk can provide an important contribution to the daily dietary intake. Moreover vitamin E and carotenoids act as fat-soluble antioxidants, e.g. in the milk fat globule membrane, which is regarded as a major site of auto-oxidation. Vitamin C is an important water-soluble antioxidant and interacts in a complex manner with iron and fat-soluble antioxidants. The concentrations of these compounds in milk are affected by cow feeding rations and milk storage conditions. Since milk contains a number of antioxidants many reactions are possible and the specific function of each antioxidant cannot easily be defined. There are indications that other compounds may have antioxidative function and measurement of total antioxidative capacity should be a useful tool in evaluating their relative roles. PMID:11242454
Lindmark-Månsson, H; Akesson, B
Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques. PMID:17900499
This study explored the potential for using seed cake from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as a protein feed for dairy cows. The aim was to evaluate the effects of increasing the proportion of hempseed cake (HC) in the diet on milk production and milk composition. Forty Swedish Red dairy cows were involved in a 5-week dose-response feeding trial. The cows were allocated randomly to one of four experimental diets containing on average 494 g/kg of grass silage and 506 g/kg of concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Diets containing 0 g (HC0), 143 g (HC14), 233 g (HC23) or 318 g (HC32) HC/kg DM were achieved by replacing an increasing proportion of compound pellets with cold-pressed HC. Increasing the proportion of HC resulted in dietary crude protein (CP) concentrations ranging from 126 for HC0 to 195 g CP/kg DM for HC32. Further effects on the composition of the diet with increasing proportions of HC were higher fat and NDF and lower starch concentrations. There were no linear or quadratic effects on DM intake, but increasing the proportion of HC in the diet resulted in linear increases in fat and NDF intake, as well as CP intake (P < 0.001), and a linear decrease in starch intake (P < 0.001). The proportion of HC had significant quadratic effects on the yields of milk, energy-corrected milk (ECM) and milk protein, fat and lactose. The curvilinear response of all yield parameters indicated maximum production from cows fed diet HC14. Increasing the proportion of HC resulted in linear decreases in both milk protein and milk fat concentration (P = 0.005 and P = 0.017, respectively), a linear increase in milk urea (P < 0.001), and a linear decrease in CP efficiency (milk protein/CP intake; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the HC14 diet, corresponding to a dietary CP concentration of 157 g/kg DM, resulted in the maximum yields of milk and ECM by dairy cows in this study. PMID:22445146
Karlsson, L; Finell, M; Martinsson, K
A family of molecular urea transporters (UTs) has been identified whose members appear to have an exceptionally high transport turnover rate. To test the hypothesis that urea transport involves passage through an aqueous channel, osmotic water permeability was measured in Xenopus oocytes expressing UTs. The UT3 class of urea transporters functioned as efficient water channels. Quantitative measurement of single channel water permeability (pf) using epitope-tagged rat UTs gave pf (in cm3/s x 10(-14)) of 0.14 +/- 0.11 (UT2) and 1.4 +/- 0.2 (UT3), compared with 6.0 and 2.3 for water channels AQP1 and AQP3, respectively. Relative single channel urea permeabilities (purea) were 1.0 (UT2), 0.44 (UT3), and 0.0 (AQP1). UT3-mediated water and urea transport were weakly temperature-dependent (activation energy <4 kcal/mol), inhibited > 75% by the urea transport inhibitor 1,3-dimethylthiourea, but not inhibited by the water transport inhibitor HgCl2. To test for a common water/urea pore, the urea reflection coefficient (sigmaurea) was measured by independent induced osmosis and solvent drag methods. In UT3-expressing oocytes, the time course of oocyte volume in response to different urea gradients (induced osmosis) gave sigmaurea approximately 0.3 for the UT3 pathway, in agreement with sigmaurea determined by the increase in uptake of [14C]urea during osmotic gradient-induced oocyte swelling (solvent drag). In oocytes of comparable water and urea permeability coexpressing AQP1 (permeable to water, not urea) and UT2 (permeable to urea, not water), sigmaurea = 1. These results indicate that UT3 functions as a urea/water channel utilizing a common aqueous pathway. The water transporting function and low urea reflection coefficient of UT3 in vasa recta may be important for the formation of a concentrated urine by countercurrent exchange in the kidney. PMID:9545259
Yang, B; Verkman, A S
Milking-related release of oxytocin, prolactin, and cortisol was studied following three premilking treatments. Six Murrah buffaloes were treated with direct application of milking cluster (O), a 1-min pre-stimulation (M), and combined feeding and pre-stimulation (MF). Machine milk yield, stripping yield and milk composition were recorded. Milk ejection occurred significantly earlier with MF than M and O (P<0.05; 2.50, 5.10 and 6.33 min, respectively). In all treatments, milk ejection occurred with small increases >3-5 ng/l in oxytocin concentration. Increase in oxytocin concentration over a threshold level and milk ejection occurred simultaneously and were closely correlated (r=0.83, P<0.05). There was a positive correlation between total time oxytocin concentration remained elevated over threshold levels and machine yield (r=0.86, P<0.05). For treatment O, milk ejection was inhibited during machine milking, while a marked increase in oxytocin occurred during hand stripping (6 and 16 ng/l, respectively). For treatment M, mean oxytocin concentrations remained unchanged during prestimulation but increased during subsequent machine milking and hand stripping (6.38, 18.06 and 12.36 ng/l, respectively). For treatment MF, although there was a 3.6-fold increase during pre-stimulation, oxytocin increased by 10-fold and 3-fold during machine milking and hand stripping, and was significant for machine milking (P<0.05, 17.32, 47.86, 18.13 ng/l, respectively). Milk-ejection-related cortisol release was visible only in treatment MF. For treatments O and M, prolactin concentration increased prior to the increase in oxytocin. The stripping yield was higher, and fat content in the stripping yield significantly lower, for treatment O indicating incomplete milking. Thus buffaloes are easily disturbed even by small changes in milking routines. PMID:15747726
Thomas, Chirathalattu S; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Ostensson, Karin; Svennersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin
The amount of drug excreted into breast milk is dependent upon the lipid solubility of the medication, the mechanism of transport, the degree of ionization, and change in plasma pH. The higher the lipid solubility, the greater the concentration in human milk. The majority of drugs are transported into mammary blood capillaries by passive diffusion. The rest are transported by reverse pinocytosis. Once the drug has entered the epithelial cells of breast tissue, the drug molecules are excreted into the human milk by active transport, passive diffusion, or apocrine secretion. The amount of free (active) drug available for transport depends on the degree of protein binding the plasma pH. Another factor affecting excretion of drugs is the time when breast feeding occurs. In the 1st few days of life, when colostrum is present, water-soluble drugs pass through the breast more easily than afterwards when milk is produced. Then lipid-soluble drugs cross in higher concentrations. The effect on nursing infants is dependent on the amount excreted into the milk, the total amount absorbed by the infant, and the toxicity of the drug. The use of the following drugs in breast feeding mothers is reviewed: anticoagulants, antihypertensives and diuretics, antimicrobials, drugs affecting the central nervous system (alcohol, chloral hydrate, meprobamate, lithium, and aspirin), marijuana, other drugs (antihistamines, atropine, ergot alkaloids, laxatives, nicotine, iodides, propylthiouracil, theophylline), hormones (insulin, thyroxine, and oral contraceptives), and radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:12311408
Hervada, A R; Feit, E; Sagraves, R
We use long multiple trajectories generated by molecular dynamics simulations to probe the stability of oligomers of A?16–22 (KLVFFAE) peptides in aqueous urea solution. High concentration of urea promotes the formation of ?-strand structures in A?16–22 monomers, whereas in water they adopt largely compact random coil structures. The tripeptide system, which forms stable antiparallel ?-sheet structure in water, is destabilized in urea solution. The enhancement of ?-strand content in the monomers and the disruption of oligomeric structure occur largely by direct interaction of urea with the peptide backbone. Our simulations suggest that the oligomer unbinding dynamics is determined by two opposing effects, namely, by the increased propensity of monomers to form ?-strands and the rapid disruption of the oligomers. The qualitative conclusions are affirmed by using two urea models. Because the proposed destabilization mechanism depends largely on hydrogen bond formation between urea and the peptide backbone, we predict that high urea concentration will destabilize oligomers of other amyloidogenic peptides as well.
Klimov, D. K.; Straub, John E.; Thirumalai, D.
The study evaluated the effects of feeding urea treated/supplemented wheat straw-based diets with addition of yeast culture (YC) as a dry season feed for dairy cows. Wheat straw diets with 3.6 % urea and 5.8 % molasses were formulated to upgrade nonprotein nitrogen levels and fibre degradation in the rumen. Yeast culture was included at 0 and 10 g/cow/day in mixer with commercial dairy meal to improve on fibre degradation and milk yield. Two experiments were conducted. Firstly, an in sacco dry matter degradability (DMD) trial with three steers in a completely randomized design (CRD) with a 3?×?2 factorial arrangement to determine the effects on intake and rumen degradation parameters. Secondly, feeding trial with 18 lactating cows in a 3?×?2 factorial arrangement at two levels of yeast culture (0 and 10 g/cow/day) and three types of urea interventions: No intervention (WS); addition of urea to straw at the time of feeding (USWS); and 7 days incubation of straw with urea (UTWS). Yeast cultures addition had no effect on rumen pH and NH3-N, but urea intervention showed an effect on rumen pH with USWS being lowest (p?0.05). Both urea interventions and yeast culture addition had no effect (p?>?0.05) on dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition but they increased (p?0.05) propionate yields. PMID:24817370
Kashongwe, Olivier Basole; Migwi, Preminius; Bebe, Bockline Omedo; Ooro, Patrick Auwor; Onyango, Tobias Atali; Osoo, John Odhiambo
Background: Wilson disease (WD) is characterized by hepatic copper accumulation with progressive liver damage to cirrhosis. This study aimed to characterize the toxic milk mouse from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME, USA) (tx-j) mouse model of WD according to changes over time in hepatic copper concentrations, methionine metabolism, global DNA methylation, and gene expression from gestational day 17 (fetal) to adulthood (28 weeks). Methods: Included liver histology and relevant biochemical analyses including hepatic copper quantification, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) liver levels, qPCR for transcript levels of genes relevant to methionine metabolism and liver damage, and DNA dot blot for global DNA methylation. Results: Hepatic copper was lower in tx-j fetuses but higher in weanling (three weeks) and adult tx-j mice compared to controls. S-adenosylhomocysteinase transcript levels were significantly lower at all time points, except at three weeks, correlating negatively with copper levels and with consequent changes in the SAM:SAH methylation ratio and global DNA methylation. Conclusion: Compared to controls, methionine metabolism including S-adenosylhomocysteinase gene expression is persistently different in the tx-j mice with consequent alterations in global DNA methylation in more advanced stages of liver disease. The inhibitory effect of copper accumulation on S-adenosylhomocysteinase expression is associated with progressively abnormal methionine metabolism and decreased methylation capacity and DNA global methylation. PMID:24810691
Le, Anh; Shibata, Noreene M; French, Samuel W; Kim, Kyoungmi; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Islam, Mohammad S; Lasalle, Janine M; Halsted, Charles H; Keen, Carl L; Medici, Valentina
Background Wilson disease (WD) is characterized by hepatic copper accumulation with progressive liver damage to cirrhosis. This study aimed to characterize the toxic milk mouse from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME, USA) (tx-j) mouse model of WD according to changes over time in hepatic copper concentrations, methionine metabolism, global DNA methylation, and gene expression from gestational day 17 (fetal) to adulthood (28 weeks). Methods Included liver histology and relevant biochemical analyses including hepatic copper quantification, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) liver levels, qPCR for transcript levels of genes relevant to methionine metabolism and liver damage, and DNA dot blot for global DNA methylation. Results Hepatic copper was lower in tx-j fetuses but higher in weanling (three weeks) and adult tx-j mice compared to controls. S-adenosylhomocysteinase transcript levels were significantly lower at all time points, except at three weeks, correlating negatively with copper levels and with consequent changes in the SAM:SAH methylation ratio and global DNA methylation. Conclusion Compared to controls, methionine metabolism including S-adenosylhomocysteinase gene expression is persistently different in the tx-j mice with consequent alterations in global DNA methylation in more advanced stages of liver disease. The inhibitory effect of copper accumulation on S-adenosylhomocysteinase expression is associated with progressively abnormal methionine metabolism and decreased methylation capacity and DNA global methylation.
Le, Anh; Shibata, Noreene M.; French, Samuel W.; Kim, Kyoungmi; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Islam, Mohammad S.; LaSalle, Janine M.; Halsted, Charles H.; Keen, Carl L.; Medici, Valentina
It is well known that urea can considerably increase the release of drugs from ointment bases and that it is one of the most effective penetration promoters for topically applied drugs. In our present study, therefore, we investigated the influence of urea on the penetration kinetics of vitamin A acid (VAA) into the various layers of human skin. When a vehicle containing urea was applied to the skin, we found increased VAA concentrations depending on the penetration of urea. We discuss the significance of the synergistic properties of VAA and urea in the topical treatment of various skin disease. PMID:2264369
Many organisms endure extended periods of dormancy by depressing their metabolism, which effectively prolongs the use of their endogenous energy stores. Though the mechanisms of hypometabolism are varied and incompletely understood, recent work suggests that urea accumulation in autumn and early winter contributes to reduced metabolism of hibernating wood frogs (Rana sylvatica). Urea accumulation during dormancy is a widespread phenomenon, and it has long been presumed that numerous species from diverse taxa benefit from its hypometabolic effect. To investigate the phylogenetic prevalence of urea-induced hypometabolism, we studied four species of urea accumulators from the clades Amphibia (Spea bombifrons and Ambystoma tigrinum), Reptilia (Malaclemys terrapin), and Gastropoda (Anguispira alternata), and one amphibian species (R. pipiens) that does not accumulate urea during dormancy. We measured rates of oxygen consumption (VO(2)) of excised organ samples from dormant animals in the presence or absence of physiological concentrations of urea. Three of the four urea-accumulating species had at least one organ whose VO(2) was significantly decreased by urea treatment. However, VO(2) of organs from R. pipiens, the one species tested that does not accumulate urea during dormancy, was not affected by urea treatment. Our results support the hypothesis that urea accumulation can reduce metabolic rate of dormant animals and provide a base for further investigation into the evolution of urea-induced hypometabolism. PMID:19739087
Muir, Timothy J; Costanzo, Jon P; Lee, Richard E
SOME FACTORS AFFECTING THE STA)~ILITY OF CERTAIN MILK PROPERTIES. VI. RELATION OF THE CONCENTRATION OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN TO THE OXIDATION OF ASCORBIC ACID AND TO THE DEVELOP MENT OF OXIDIZED FLAVOR IN MILK
Tile destruction of ascorbic acid and the devclopment of oxidized flavor in milk are oxidative reactions that are of paramount importance to the dairy industry. Research work has shown that dissolved oxygen is the prin- cipal agent (3, 4, 5, 7, 10) responsible for these chemical reactions. Re- search has shown further that both reactions are catalyzed by the presence
O. F. GARRETT
Analysis of amino acids in milk protein reveals a relatively low content of glycine. This study was conducted with young pigs to test the hypothesis that milk-fed neonates require dietary glycine supplementation for maximal growth. Fourteen-day-old piglets were allotted randomly into one of four treatments (15 piglets/treatment), representing supplementation with 0, 0.5, 1 or 2 % glycine (dry matter basis) to a liquid milk replacer. Food was provided to piglets every 8 h (3 times/day) for 2 weeks. Milk intake (32.0-32.5 g dry matter/kg body weight per day) did not differ between control and glycine-supplemented piglets. Compared with control piglets, dietary supplementation with 0.5, 1 and 2 % glycine increased (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of glycine and serine, daily weight gain, and body weight without affecting body composition, while reducing plasma concentrations of ammonia, urea, and glutamine, in a dose-dependent manner. Dietary supplementation with 0.5, 1 and 2 % glycine enhanced (P < 0.05) small-intestinal villus height, glycine transport (measured using Ussing chambers), mRNA levels for GLYT1, and anti-oxidative capacity (indicated by increased concentrations of reduced glutathione and a decreased ratio of oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione). These novel results indicate, for the first time, that glycine is a nutritionally essential amino acid for maximal protein accretion in milk-fed piglets. The findings not only enhance understanding of protein nutrition, but also have important implications for designing improved formulas to feed human infants, particularly low birth weight and preterm infants. PMID:24858859
Wang, Weiwei; Dai, Zhaolai; Wu, Zhenlong; Lin, Gang; Jia, Sichao; Hu, Shengdi; Dahanayaka, Sudath; Wu, Guoyao
The carnitine concentration in milk was determined weekly for two groups of 19 cows (one group kototic and one control) during the first 8 wk of lacta- tion. Milk carnitine concentration was high at the start of lactation in both groups and decreased about half by the 8th wk. Carnitine concentration in miLk from ketotie cows was correlated with blood
J. D. Erfle; F. D. Sauer; L. J. Fisher
A study of the reaction of several acids with urea resulted in a series of compounds of varying stoichiometry and structure. The acids having the structure HO2C(CH2)nCO2H produced saltlike compounds with urea when n = 0 and 1 and H-bonded complexes for n ...
J. Radell B. W. Brodman J. J. Domanski
Milk protein-stabilized model emulsions were formed using high-pressure homogenization and the effect of protein concentration and homogenization pressure during emulsification on the particle size was studied. Various techniques are available for determining particle size distribution, each one of which has its own advantages and disadvantages. In this study sedimentation field-flow fractionation was employed for the size characterization of oil-in water
Stella Kenta; Vassilios Raikos; John Kapolos; Athanasia Koliadima; George Karaiskakis
Frequent consumption of milk, yogurt, cold breakfast cereals, peppers, and cruciferous vegetables and intakes of dietary folate and riboflavin but not vitamins B12 and B6 are inversely associated with serum total homocysteine concentrations in the US
Background: Elevated circulating total homocysteine (tHcy) is an independent risk factor for vascular diseases. Objective:Weinvestigatedtherelationbetweendietaryintakesand serum tHcy in the US population. Design: Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Exami- nationSurvey(1988-1994)wereusedtoinvestigatetheassociations between food consumption frequency and dietary B vitamin intakes and serum tHcy in 5996 persons. Results: Multivariate-adjusted tHcy concentrations were 15.2% higher in subjects who never consumed milk
Vijay Ganji; Mohammad R Kafai
Aims The primary aims of the study were to estimate the exposure of infants to paroxetine via breast milk and to determine the maternal milk:plasma ratio (M/P) of paroxetine. Secondary aims were to compare single point and area under the curve (AUC) estimates of M/P, to assess variability of M/P in fore and hind milk, and to compare the observed M/P with that predicted by a model. Methods Two studies were performed. In one study, six nursing mothers who were being treated with paroxetine were studied over a 24 h dose interval at steady-state. The total amount of paroxetine in the milk was measured, which represented the ‘dose’ to the infant. The M/PAUCwas calculated and compared with a predicted value. In the second study, four nursing mothers who were being treated with paroxetine, were studied at steady-state, around a normal infant feeding time. A single plasma sample and a prefeed milk sample were taken approximately 3 h after the morning dose of paroxetine, and a postfeed milk sample taken around 1 h later. The dose received by the infant was estimated from the average milk concentrations of the pre and postfeed samples using standard assumptions, and M/P calculated directly. Plasma concentrations of paroxetine were measured in 8 of the 10 infants in the two studies. Results The mean dose of paroxetine received by the infants in the first study was 1.13% (range 0.5–1.7) of the weight adjusted maternal dose. The mean M/PAUC was 0.39 (range 0.32–0.51). The predicted M/P was 0.22. The mean dose of paroxetine received by the infants in the second study was 1.25% (range 0.38–2.24) of the weight adjusted maternal dose. The mean M/P was 0.96 (range 0.31–3.33) and did not differ between fore and hind milk. The drug was not detected in the plasma of seven of the infants studied and was detected but not quantifiable (<4 ?g l?1) in one infant. No adverse effects were observed in any of the infants. Conclusions Measured M/P and estimated infant dose were similar in the two studies, although the range was wider for the single point study. Paroxetine can be considered ‘safe’ during breast feeding because the dose transferred to the infant is well below the recommended safety limit of 10% of the weight adjusted maternal dose, concentrations in the infants were generally undetectable, and no adverse effects were reported.
Begg, Evan J; Duffull, Stephen B; Saunders, Darren A; Buttimore, Rona C; Ilett, Kenneth F; Hackett, L Peter; Yapp, Patrick; Wilson, Debbie A
The effects of energy density in the diet [low = 0.86 SFU/kg dry matter (DM) or high = 1.06 SFU/kg DM] and daily milking frequency (two or three times) in early lactation on plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones were evaluated in 40 Holstein dairy cows arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial block design. The four treatment combinations were L2, L3, H2 and H3, and the experimental period comprised the first 8 weeks of lactation. Plasma glucose, insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations were on average 8 (3.43 versus 3.19 mmol/l), 114 (41.6 versus 19.4 pmol/l) and 60% (91.9 versus 57.4 ng/ml) higher, whereas beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB), plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and growth hormone (GH) concentrations were on average 18 (0.73 versus 0.89 mmol/l), 14 (7.18 versus 8.35 mmol/l), and 63% (1.0 versus 2.6 ng/ml) lower for cows fed diet H than for cows fed diet L. Cows milked three times daily had a 6% (3.20 versus 3.42 mmol/l) lower plasma glucose concentration and a 19% (0.88 versus 0.74 mmol/l) higher plasma concentration of BOHB compared with cows milked two times daily. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration was not affected by either treatment. Overall, it is concluded that increasing the daily milking frequency creates a higher metabolic imbalance in early lactation. Cows in early lactation will benefit from receiving a high energy density diet and thereby avoid a too high metabolic imbalance when mobilizing body tissue in support of milk production. PMID:15153073
Andersen, J B; Friggens, N C; Larsen, T; Vestergaard, M; Ingvartsen, K L
The effects of forage conservation method on plasma lipids, mammary lipogenesis, and milk fat were examined in 2 complementary experiments. Treatments comprised fresh grass, hay, or untreated (UTS) or formic acid treated silage (FAS) prepared from the same grass sward. Preparation of conserved forages coincided with the collection of samples from cows fed fresh grass. In the first experiment, 5 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (229 d in milk) were used to compare a diet based on fresh grass followed by hay during 2 consecutive 14-d periods, separated by a 5-d transition during which extensively wilted grass was fed. In the second experiment, 5 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (53 d in milk) were assigned to 1 of 2 blocks and allocated treatments according to a replicated 3×3 Latin square design, with 14-d periods to compare hay, UTS, and FAS. Cows received 7 or 9 kg/d of the same concentrate in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Arterial concentrations of triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid were higher in cows fed fresh grass, UTS, and FAS compared with hay. Nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and the relative abundance of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 in TAG of arterial blood were also higher in cows fed fresh grass than conserved forages. On all diets, TAG was the principle source of fatty acids (FA) for milk fat synthesis, whereas mammary extraction of NEFA was negligible, except during zero-grazing, which was associated with a lower, albeit positive calculated energy balance. Mammary FA uptake was higher and the synthesis of 16:0 lower in cows fed fresh grass than hay. Conservation of grass by drying or ensiling had no influence on mammary extraction of TAG and NEFA, despite an increase in milk fat secretion for silages compared with hay and for FAS than UTS. Relative to hay, milk fat from fresh grass contained lower 12:0, 14:0, and 16:0 and higher S3,R7,R11,15-tetramethyl-16:0, cis-9 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3 concentrations. Even though conserved forages altered mammary lipogenesis, differences in milk FA composition were relatively minor, other than a higher enrichment of S3,R7,R11,15-tetramethyl-16:0 in milk from silages compared with hay. In conclusion, differences in milk fat composition on fresh grass relative to conserved forages were associated with a lower energy balance, increased uptake of preformed FA, and decreased synthesis of 16:0 de novo in the mammary glands, in the absence of alterations in stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase activity. PMID:23769378
Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Kairenius, P; Ahvenjärvi, S; Toivonen, V; Huhtanen, P; Vanhatalo, A; Givens, D I; Shingfield, K J
Common genetic variants rs10741657 and rs10766197 in CYP2R1 and rs4588 and rs842999 in GC and a combined genetic risk score (GRS) of these four variants influence late summer 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The objectives were to identify those who are most at risk of developing low vitamin D status during winter and to assess whether vitamin D3-fortified bread and milk will increase 25(OH)D concentrations in those with genetically determined low 25(OH)D concentrations at late summer. We used data from the VitmaD study. Participants were allocated to either vitamin D3-fortified bread and milk or non-fortified bread and milk during winter. In the fortification group, CYP2R1 (rs10741657) and GC (rs4588 and rs842999) were statistically significantly associated with winter 25(OH)D concentrations and CYP2R1 (rs10766197) was borderline significant. There was a negative linear trend between 25(OH)D concentrations and carriage of 0-8 risk alleles (p < 0.0001). No association was found for the control group (p = 0.1428). There was a significant positive linear relationship between different quintiles of total vitamin D intake and the increase in 25(OH)D concentrations among carriers of 0-2 (p = 0.0012), 3 (p = 0.0001), 4 (p = 0.0118) or 5 (p = 0.0029) risk alleles, but not among carriers of 6-8 risk alleles (p = 0.1051). Carriers of a high GRS were more prone to be vitamin D deficient compared to carriers of a low GRS. Furthermore, rs4588-AA carriers have a low but very stable 25(OH)D concentration, and interestingly, also low PTH level. PMID:24934498
Nissen, Janna; Vogel, Ulla; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Nexø, Bjørn A; Andersen, Rikke; Mejborn, Heddie; Madsen, Katja H; Rasmussen, Lone B
This study was conducted to examine the effects of condensed tannins (CT) from Ficus bengalensis leaves on the feed utilization, milk production and health status of crossbred cows. Eighteen crossbred dairy cows at their second and mid lactation (avg. BW 351.6±10.6 kg) were randomly divided into two groups of nine each in a completely randomized block design and fed two iso-nitrogenous supplements formulated to contain 0% and 1.5% CT through dried and ground leaves of Ficus bengalensis. The diets were designated as CON and FBLM, respectively and fed to cows with a basal diet of rice straw to meet requirements for maintenance and milk production. The daily milk yield was significantly (p<0.05) increased due to supplementation of FBLM diet. The 4% fat corrected milk yield was also significantly (p<0.01) higher due to increased (p<0.05) milk fat in cows under diet FBLM as compared to CON. The inclusion of CT at 1.5% in the supplement did not interfere with the feed intake or digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF by lactating cows. Digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) values of the composite diets were comparable between the groups. The blood biochemical parameters remained unaltered except significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum urea concentration in cows fed FBLM diet. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in cows supplemented with condensed tannins. The total thiol group (T-SH) was found to be higher with reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cows of FBLM group. The cost of feeding per kg milk production was also reduced due to supplementation of Ficus bengalensis leaves. Therefore, a perceptible positive impact was evident on milk production and antioxidant status in crossbred cows during mid-lactation given supplement containing 1.5% CT through Ficus bengalensis leaves.
Dey, Avijit; De, Partha Sarathi
The safety and nutritional adequacy of goat milk infant formulas have been questioned. The primary aim of the present study was to compare the growth and nutritional status of infants fed a goat milk infant formula with those of infants fed a typical whey-based cow milk infant formula. The secondary aim was to examine a range of health- and allergy-related outcomes. A double-blind, randomised controlled trial with 200 formula-fed term infants randomly assigned to receive either goat or cow milk formula from 2 weeks to at least 4 months of age was conducted. A cohort of 101 breast-fed infants was included for comparison. Weight, length and head circumference were measured at 2 weeks and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Nutritional status was assessed from serum albumin, urea, creatinine, Hb, ferritin, and folate and plasma amino acid concentrations at 4 months. Z-scores for weight, length, head circumference and weight for length were not different between the two formula-fed groups. There were differences in the values of some amino acids and blood biomarkers between the formula-fed groups, but the mean values for biomarkers were within the normal reference range. There were no differences in the occurrence of serious adverse events, general health, and incidence of dermatitis or medically diagnosed food allergy. The incidence of parentally reported blood-stained stools was higher in the goat milk formula-fed group, although this was a secondary outcome and its importance is unclear. Goat milk formula provided growth and nutritional outcomes in infants that did not differ from those provided by a standard whey-based cow milk formula. PMID:24502951
Zhou, Shao J; Sullivan, Thomas; Gibson, Robert A; Lönnerdal, Bo; Prosser, Colin G; Lowry, Dianne J; Makrides, Maria
Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy Mediterranean diet which, besides cow's milk, also consists of sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk--alone or as a mixture---as raw material. The fat and protein composition of the milk of the various animal species differs only slightly, but in every case it has a high priority in human nutrition. The milk proteins are characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. Beyond that macromolecules,which have various biological functions, are available or may be formed by proteolysis in milk. Taking this into consideration, the technology of different well-known Italian and German cheese types is presented and the differences as well as correspondences regarding nutrition are discussed. Especially Ricotta and Mascarpone are discussed in detail. Ricotta represents a special feature as this cheese is traditionally made of whey and cream. Thus the highly valuable whey proteins which contain a higher amount of the amino acids lysine, methionine and cysteic acid in comparison to casein and, additionally, to soy protein, are made usable for human nutrition. Finally, it is pointed out on the basis of individual examples that technologies to enrich whey proteins in cheese are already available and in use. Thus, the flavor of low fat cheese is improved and the nutritional value is increased. PMID:15052494
In the late 1980s, urea permeability measurements produced values that could not be explained by paracellular transport or lipid phase diffusion. The existence of urea transport proteins were thus proposed and less than a decade later, the first urea transporter was cloned. The SLC14A family of urea transporters has two major subgroups, designated SLC14A1 (or UT-B) and Slc14A2 (or UT-A). UT-B and UT-A gene products are glycoproteins located in various extra-renal tissues however, a majority of the resulting isoforms are found in the kidney. The UT-B (Slc14A1) urea transporter was originally isolated from erythrocytes and two isoforms have been reported. In kidney, UT-B is located primarily in the descending vasa recta. The UT-A (Slc14A2) urea transporter yields 6 distinct isoforms, of which 3 are found chiefly in the kidney medulla. UT-A1 and UT-A3 are found in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), while UT-A2 is located in the thin descending limb. These transporters are crucial to the kidney’s ability to concentrate urine. The regulation of urea transporter activity in the IMCD involves acute modification through phosphorylation and subsequent movement to the plasma membrane. UT-A1 and UT-A3 accumulate in the plasma membrane in response to stimulation by vasopressin or hypertonicity. Long term regulation of the urea transporters in the IMCD involves altering protein abundance in response to changes in hydration status, low protein diets, or adrenal steroids. Urea transporters have been studied using animal models of disease including diabetes mellitus, lithium intoxication, hypertension, and nephrotoxic drug responses. Exciting new genetically engineered mouse models are being developed to study these transporters.
Klein, Janet D.; Blount, Mitsi A.; Sands, Jeff M.
The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of automatic milking (AM) on milk enzymes and minerals related to mammary epithelial integrity in comparison with twice-daily conventional milking (CM). One cow from each of 6 pairs of twins was assigned to be milked with AM or with CM throughout first lactation. Milk production was recorded and milk samples were collected at 4, 11, 18, 25, 32, and 39 wk of lactation (WOL) to determine fat and protein content, somatic cell count, pH, plasminogen (pl) and plasmin (Pl) activities, Na, K, and Cl. Body condition score was monitored; blood samples were collected to determine energy-related metabolites in the first third of lactation (14 WOL), and plasma oxidative status throughout lactation. Overall mean and standard deviation of milking frequency (MF) in AM were 2.69 and 0.88, respectively. Milk production, fat and protein contents, and somatic cell count did not differ between milking systems. The pl and pl+Pl activities were lesser in AM than in CM. Milk pH was greater in AM than in CM. Milk Na, K, Na/K ratio, and Cl did not differ across the whole lactation. Milk pH had a positive correlation with milk Pl activity (r = 0.41), Na (r = 0.37), and Cl (r = 0.40) concentration, and negative correlation with the log(10) of pl/Pl ratio (r = -0.47). The milk Na/K ratio had a positive correlation (r = 0.55) with milk Pl activity. Milking system (MS) did not seem to affect mammary epithelial permeability. The differences in enzymatic (proteolytic) activity due to the MS, probably related to daily MF, lead one to suppose that the quality of the protein fraction for the cheese-making process was preserved better with AM than with CM, even if differences in pH might negatively interfere. No difference was detected in BCS, and in plasma concentration of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, whereas plasma cholesterol concentration during the first 10 WOL was lesser in AM than CM. Oxidative status, measured by plasma reactive oxygen metabolites and thiol groups, did not differ between MS throughout the whole lactation. These results suggest that early lactation of AM primiparous cows may give rise to crucial situations: for milk production, when a low MF may impair further mammary cell proliferation; for milk quality, if an irregular MF, with prolonged milking intervals, leads to an increased milk pH with increased conversion of pl to Pl. PMID:18765596
Abeni, F; Terzano, M G; Speroni, M; Migliorati, L; Capelletti, M; Calza, F; Bianchi, L; Pirlo, G
Effect of dry- versus wet-autoclaving of spray-dried egg albumen compared with casein as protein sources on apparent nitrogen and energy balance, plasma urea nitrogen and glucose concentrations, and growth performance of neonatal swine.
Forty crossbred neonatal pigs with an average initial age of 4 d and BW of 2.16 kg were used in a 28-d experiment to evaluate the nutritional effects of autoclaving a commercial sugar-free, spray-dried egg albumen (EA) compared with casein. Basal diet protein sources were lactic acid casein and EA. Two more dietary treatments were made by replacing the EA with dry-autoclaved EA (DAEA) or wet-autoclaved EA (WAEA, EA and water mixed in a 1.0:1.2 ratio before autoclaving). The DAEA and WAEA were autoclaved at 121 degrees C and 1.75 kg/cm(2) pressure for 30 min, and WAEA was oven-dried after autoclaving. Analyzed trypsin inhibitor units/mg of EA, DAEA, and WAEA were 535.0, 9.0, and 6.5, respectively. Pigs were fed the diets in gruel form to appetite in individual metabolism cages every 2 h during the experiment. Blood samples were taken on d 7, 14, and 21, and total urine and fecal grab-samples were collected from d 14 to 21 of the experiment. Response criteria were N and energy balance, plasma urea N (PUN) and glucose concentrations, and growth performance. The WAEA was a higher quality protein source for neonatal pigs than DAEA. Pigs fed the diet containing WAEA absorbed and retained more (P < 0.05) grams of N/d, had higher (P < 0.05) percentages of N and energy that were absorbed and retained/intake, had lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of PUN overall, and had higher (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F than pigs fed the diet containing DAEA. Most response criteria of pigs fed the diets containing DAEA or EA were not different, although pigs fed the diet containing DAEA had lower (P < 0.05) overall PUN concentrations, and pigs fed the diet containing EA had higher (P < 0.05) percentages of energy absorbed and retained/intake, and higher ADG and G:F than pigs fed the diet containing DAEA. Growth performance was not different for pigs fed the diets containing WAEA or casein. However, pigs fed the diet containing casein excreted less (P < 0.05) fecal N, retained more (P < 0/05) grams of N/d, had higher percentages of N absorbed and retained/intake, and had lower (P < 0.05) PUN concentrations overall than pigs fed the diet containing WAEA. In conclusion, WAEA was a higher quality protein source for neonatal pigs than DAEA or EA, whereas lactic casein was a higher quality protein source for neonatal pigs than EA, DAEA, or WAEA. PMID:20418450
Watkins, K L; Veum, T L
The compound N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) was found to be a more effective ureas inhibitor than phenyl phosphorodiamidate (PPDA) in flooded soils when compared at concentrations of from 0.5 to 5% of the weight of urea. It allowed essentially no ammoniacal-N to acumulate in the floodwater when added at 0.5% of the weight of urea. The fate of urea was
B. H. Byrnes; A. Amberger
Rice milk and its by-products were tested for total arsenic concentration. Total arsenic concentration was determined using graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.7 ± 0.3 to 17.9 ± 0.5 µg L(-1). Rice milk and its by-products are not clearly defined as food, water or milk substitute. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the European Union (EU) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have set a level of 10 µg L(-1) for total arsenic concentrations in drinking water. The EU and the US regulatory agencies do not provide any guidelines on total arsenic concentrations in foods. This study provides us with a starting point to address this issue in the State of Mississippi, USA. PMID:24779982
Shannon, Ron; Rodriguez, Jose M
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at the omasal canal, did not differ among treatments. Results from this experiment have confirmed that dietary La is not a practical agent for suppressing RP population in dairy cows, mainly because of its negative effects on fiber digestion and ruminal fermentation. Intake of CO appeared to reduce ruminal and improve protein efficiency, but did not improve milk production, milk composition, or increase microbial outflow from the rumen. Based on the results of this study, a 40% reduction of RP population is not sufficient to improve N utilization in dairy cows. PMID:24931520
Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A
Urea concentration in uterine fluid was determined in 20 women fitted with Lippes loops IUDs, compared to that in 12 parous controls, to see whether urea accounts for the higher nitrogen content reported in uterine fluid in IUD users. The fluid was centrifuged and the supernatant analyzed enzymatically by the Tarnoky urease method. The urea concentration of the fluid from IUD users was significantly higher than that of controls, 181.8 vs 42.9 mcg/ml, p0.01. Uterine fluid urea content did not differ throughout the menstrual cycle. Blood urea levels did not differ between groups. The protein denaturant effects of urea may conceivably be detrimental to the preimplantation blastocyst. PMID:5786713
Kar, A B; Engineer, A D; Dasgupta, P R; Srivastava, A K
We measured concentrations of the gastrointestinal protective peptides Trefoil factors in human milk. By the use of in-house ELISA we detected high amounts of TFF3, less TFF1 and virtually no TFF2 in human breast milk obtained from 46 mothers with infants born extremely preterm (24?27 wk gestation), preterm (28?37 wk gestation), and full term (38?42 wk gestation). Samples were collected during the first,
Else Marie Vestergaard; Ebba Nexo; Anke Wendt; Florian Guthmann
Human milk samples from low-income blacks residing in rural Mississippi and Arkansas and middle-class whites residing in metropolitan Nashville, Tennessee, were analyzed for DDT and its metabolites. The mean total DDT (DDE + DDT) whole milk concentration ...
B. T. Woodard B. B. Ferguson D. J. Wilson
Influences of insoluble and soluble N on milk production and N use were studied in 24 Holstein cows. The basal diet (grain: corn silage plus urea, 1:1 dry matter) contained 12% crude protein (60% insoluble N). Urea or soybean meal was added to the basal diet, increasing the crude protein to 15% with 43 and 67% insoluble N, respectively. Balance
E. M. Crish; J. E. Wohlt; J. L. Evans
Watch your solution change color as you mix chemicals with water. Then check molarity with the concentration meter. What are all the ways you can change the concentration of your solution? Switch solutes to compare different chemicals and find out how concentrated you can go before you hit saturation!
Simulations, Phet I.; Chamberlain, Julia; Malley, Chris; Lancaster, Kelly; Moore, Emily B.; Perkins, Kathy
The present study addressed whether milk fat, which was modified by partial replacement of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with 18:1 would reduce plasma cholesterol (C). In addition, since dairy products contain high levels of calcium (cal), which may reduce C through an increased excretion of SFAs, we determined whether the presence of additional calcium would further reduce plasma C. Seventy-two
Michael Angelo Pellizzon
A novel potentiometric urea biosensor has been developed for selective and quantitative recognition of urea by immobilizing urease onto Ti\\/urease-imprinted TiO2 film and monitoring the potentiometric response caused by the immobilized urease\\/urea reaction system. Urease immobilization on TiO2 film was investigated using a potentiometer, and factors affecting its immobilization such as concentration of urease, pH and ionic strength were discussed
Xin Chen; Zhengpeng Yang; Shihui Si
Understanding the mechanism that controls the folding/unfolding of proteins in the presence of urea continues to be a subject of research, and since micelles mimic biological aggregates, equal importance has been given to the study of surfactants in the presence of urea. Despite several studies on the effect of urea on the behavior of reverse micelles and microemulsions based on sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate (AOT), the urea effect on AOT regular micelles has not been investigated and hence it is studied herein by using surface tension, steady-state fluorescence, and dynamic light scattering methods. The effect of urea on the behavior of AOT is found to be different below and above 1.0 mol kg(-1) urea (c(u)). The critical micelle concentration (cmc) is almost independent of urea concentration below c(u), whereas it increases with increasing urea amount above c(u). In AOT+urea aqueous solution below c(u), added NaCl at a particular critical concentration (c*) induces sudden increase in the values of (i) counterion binding constant, (ii) aggregation number, (iii) fluorescence intensity ratio of pyrene excimer to monomer, and (iv) hydrodynamic diameter of AOT aggregate, whereas such changes are suppressed by urea above c(u). NaCl-induced shape change in AOT micelle takes place if urea concentration is below c(u), but hindered above c(u). The adsorption behavior of AOT at the air-solution interface as a function of NaCl is also found to be different below and above c(u). The urea effect is explained in terms of increase in the polarity of the medium, better solvation of head groups and counterions, and weakening of head group-head group and head group-counterion interactions. PMID:23827480
Thapa, U; Ismail, K
Causes, kinetics and clinical implications of post-hemodialysis urea rebound. The rapid increase in end-dialysis urea concentration (Co) immediately after the end of dialysis (HD), which greatly exceeds that expected as an effect of urea generation and defined as “net rebound,” was assessed in 21 chronic HD patients. The curve of serial values of net rebound correlated (r = 0.70) with
Luciano A Pedrini; Samir Zereik; Samir Rasmy
The assumption, that metabolites derived from the activity of the mammary gland epithelial cells reflect changes in milk secretion and its coagulation properties, was tested in dairy cows. The experiment included cows with uninfected udders and cows with one of the glands infected by different bacteria specie. Analysis were carried at the cow level (including all four glands), or at the gland level. High and significant correlations among the concentrations of lactose, glucose, glucose-6-posphate, milk related respiratory index (the ratio between the concentrations of citrate/lactate+malate in milk) and milk-derived glycolytic index (the ratio between glucose-6-phosphate and glucose in milk) and milk clotting parameters were found. The physiological basis for these relations and their ability to predict the deterioration in milk quality in subclinically infected glands and in glands previously clinically infected with Escherichia coli are discussed. PMID:25052436
Silanikove, Nissim; Merin, Uzi; Shapiro, Fira; Leitner, Gabriel
Parameters such as blood urea nitrogen concentration, normalized protein catabolic rate and Kt/V that are utilized for urea concentration measurements in blood and dialysate for the optimization of the hemodialysis process are reviewed in the paper. Basic methods of urea concentration measurement are described. Urea biosensors of the EnFET type based on the pH-sensitive Si3N4 gate FET and pNH4-sensitive FET with a Siloprene membrane containing nonactine, both of our own construction, are presented. Application of these biosensors for urea concentration measurement in blood and dialysate is described. An experimental microdialysis system with urease in detector solution and a pH-ISFET detector are described. A comparison of two dialysis procedures, with a commercial dialysate an initial of pH 5.6 and with pH kept lowered during the dialysis process applied to rats, is given. PMID:10898243
Torbicz, W; Pijanowska, D G; Dawgul, M
The excretion of cefprozil into breast milk in nine healthy, lactating female subjects was investigated. Each subject received a single 1,000-mg oral dose of cefprozil consisting of cis and trans isomers in an approximately 90:10 ratio. Serial blood, urine, and breast milk samples were collected and analyzed for the concentrations of the cis and trans isomers by a specific high-pressure liquid chromatography-UV assay. The mean pharmacokinetic parameters for both isomers were essentially the same. The mean peak concentrations in plasma for the cis isomer were 14.8 micrograms/ml, and the area under the concentration curve was 54.8 micrograms.h/ml. The mean values of elimination half-life, renal clearance, and urinary excretion for the cis isomer were 1.69 h, 164 ml/min, and 60%, respectively. The mean concentrations in milk of the cis isomer over a 24-h period ranged from 0.25 to 3.36 micrograms/ml, with the maximum concentration appearing at 6 h after dosing. The average maximum concentration in milk of the trans isomer was less than 0.26 micrograms/ml. The concentrations of the trans isomer in plasma and in breast milk were about 1/10 of those for the cis isomer. Less than 0.3% of the dose was excreted in breast milk for both isomers of cefprozil. Even if one assumes that the concentration of cefprozil in milk remains constant at 3.36 micrograms/ml (the highest concentration of cefprozil observed in breast milk), an infant ingesting an average of 800 ml of milk per day will be exposed to a maximum amount of about 3 mg of cefprozil per day. This value represents about 0.3% of the maternal dose. Low excretion of cefprozil in breast milk and the excellent safety profile of cefprozil suggest that this cephalosporin may be administered to nursing mothers when indicated.
Shyu, W C; Shah, V R; Campbell, D A; Venitz, J; Jaganathan, V; Pittman, K A; Wilber, R B; Barbhaiya, R H
This experiment investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of Origanum vulgare L. leaf material (OR) on rumen fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows. The experimental design was a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with 8 rumen-cannulated Holstein cows and 20-d experimental periods. Treatments were control (no OR supplementation), 250 g/cow per day OR (LOR), 500 g/d OR (MOR), and 750 g/d OR (HOR). Oregano supplementation had no effect on rumen pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, and estimated microbial protein synthesis, but decreased ammonia concentration and linearly decreased methane production per unit of dry matter intake (DMI) compared with the unsupplemented control: 18.2, 16.5, 11.7, and 13.6g of methane/kg of DMI, respectively. Proportions of rumen bacterial, methanogen, and fungal populations were not affected by treatment. Treatment had no effect on total-tract apparent digestibility of dietary nutrients, except neutral detergent fiber digestibility was slightly decreased by all OR treatments compared with the control. Urinary N losses and manure odor were not affected by OR, except the proportion of urinary urea N in the total excreted urine N tended to be decreased compared with the control. Oregano linearly decreased DMI (28.3, 28.3, 27.5, and 26.7 kg/d for control, LOR, MOR, and HOR, respectively). Milk yield was not affected by treatment: 43.4, 45.2, 44.1, and 43.4 kg/d, respectively. Feed efficiency was linearly increased with OR supplementation and was greater than the control (1.46, 1.59, 1.60, and 1.63 kg/kg, respectively). Milk composition was unaffected by OR, except milk urea-N concentration was decreased. Milk fatty acid composition was not affected by treatment. In this short-term study, OR fed at 250 to 750 g/d decreased rumen methane production in dairy cows within 8h after feeding, but the effect over a 24-h feeding cycle has not been determined. Supplementation of the diet with OR linearly decreased DMI and increased feed efficiency. Oregano had no effects on milk fatty acid composition. PMID:23245964
Hristov, A N; Lee, C; Cassidy, T; Heyler, K; Tekippe, J A; Varga, G A; Corl, B; Brandt, R C
Four experiments were conducted to determine the interactive effects of Gly, TSAA, and Lys in corn-soybean meal diets on growth performance of broilers. All experiments were conducted with female Ross x Ross 308 or 708 broilers in brooder batteries from 0 to 18 d posthatching. Treatments had 5 to 8 replications with 5 or 6 broilers per replicate pen. Diets in all experiments were fed without or with Gly (2.32% total Gly + Ser). All diets contained 0.25% l-Lys.HCl except in experiment 1, where no crystalline Lys was added. In experiment 1, the total dietary Lys level was 1.26% with TSAA:Lys of 0.72 and 0.76. Increasing TSAA:Lys increased (P < 0.07) G:F. The main effect of Gly was not significant for ADG, ADFI, or G:F; however, G:F was increased by Gly in broilers fed 0.72 but not in those fed 0.76 TSAA:Lys (Gly x TSAA:Lys, P < 0.03). In experiment 2, the total dietary Lys level was 1.26% with TSAA:Lys of 0.51, 0.68, 0.72, and 0.76. Glycine addition did not affect ADG, ADFI, or G:F; however, increasing TSAA:Lys linearly increased (P < 0.01) ADG, ADFI, and G:F and the response was quadratic for ADG and G:F. Experiment 3 was similar to experiment 2 except the total dietary Lys level was 1.35%. Glycine addition increased (P < 0.03) G:F and decreased (P < 0.04) serum uric acid (SUA) and serum urea N concentrations. Also, increasing TSAA:Lys linearly and quadratically (P < 0.02) increased ADG, ADFI, and G:F. In experiment 4, broilers were fed 2 levels of total dietary Lys (1.26 and 1.35%), 3 levels of TSAA:Lys (0.72, 0.76, and 0.80), and without or with Gly supplementation up to a total of 2.32% Gly + Ser. Glycine addition increased ADG (P < 0.02) and G:F (P < 0.01). The increase in G:F with Gly was not the same for all TSAA:Lys (Gly x TSAA:Lys, P < 0.07). Increasing Lys increased (P < 0.01 to 0.10) ADG, ADFI, and G:F. Glycine addition increased ADG and ADFI more in broilers fed 1.35% Lys than in those fed 1.26% Lys (Lys x Gly, P < 0.09). Glycine addition increased SUA in broilers fed 1.26% Lys but decreased SUA in broilers fed 1.35% Lys (P < 0.01). Glycine addition decreased SUA in broilers fed the TSAA:Lys of 0.80 but not at the other TSAA:Lys (P < 0.08). These data indicate that Gly increased G:F and decreased SUA in diets with 1.35% Lys and excess TSAA. PMID:19531711
Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding 3 corn-milling coproducts on intake, milk production, ruminal fermentation, and digestibility of lactating Holstein cows. In experiment 1, three corn-milling coproducts were fed at 15% of the diet dry matter (DM) to 28 Holstein cows averaging (+/-SD) 625 +/- 81 kg of body weight and 116 +/- 33 d in milk to determine effects on DM intake and milk production. In experiment 2, the same rations were fed to 4 ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows averaging 677 +/- 41 kg of body weight and 144 +/- 5 d in milk to determine the effects on ruminal fermentation and digestibility. In both experiments, cows and treatments were assigned randomly in 4 x 4 Latin squares over four 21-d periods. Treatments were formulated by replacing portions of forage and concentrate feeds with 15% coproduct and included 1) 0% coproduct (control), 2) dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS), 3) dehydrated corn germ meal (germ), and 4) high-protein dried distillers grains (HPDDG). Feed intake was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected on d 19 to 21 of each period for analysis of major components. Rumen fluid was collected at 10 time points over 24 h post feeding on d 21 of experiment 2. In experiment 1, DM intake was greater for the germ (24.3 kg/d) and DDGS treatments (23.8 kg/d), but DDGS was not different from the control (22.9 kg/d) and HPDDG treatments (22.4 kg/d). Milk production paralleled DM intake and tended to be greater for the germ (32.1 kg/d) and DDGS treatments (30.9 kg/d), but the DDGS treatment was not different from the control (30.6 kg/d) and HPDDG treatments (30.3 kg/d). However, yields of milk fat, milk protein, and 3.5% FCM were similar and averaged (+/-SEM) 1.1 +/- 0.1, 0.9 +/- 0.03, and 31.7 +/- 1.3 kg/d. Milk urea nitrogen was greater for the HPDDG (15.9 mg/dL) and germ treatments (15.5 mg/dL) than for the control (15.0 mg/dL) and DDGS treatments (14.9 mg/dL). In experiment 2, DM intake and milk production were not different across treatments and averaged 26.1 +/- 2.3 and 28.3 +/- 3.9 kg/d. Ruminal pH (6.26 +/- 0.08) and total concentration of volatile fatty acids (125.3 +/- 4.2 mM) were similar. Acetate concentration was higher for the control treatment than the DDGS, germ, and HPDDG treatments (81.7 vs. 75.8, 75.0, and 78.4 mM). Concentrations of propionate and butyrate were not different and averaged 27.8 +/- 1.2 and 14.3 +/- 0.9 mM across treatments. The acetate:propionate ratios for the control, germ, and HPDDG treatments were greater than for the DDGS treatment (3.02, 2.88, and 2.91 vs. 2.62). Dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities were similar across treatments and averaged 63.5 +/- 2.7, 67.3 +/- 2.2, and 43.5 +/- 4.2%. Milk production followed DM intake in experiment 1, and yield of major milk components was not affected. Results of these experiments indicate that dairy rations can be successfully formulated to include 15% of diet DM as corn-milling coproducts while maintaining or increasing DM intakes and yields of milk and milk components. PMID:19762830
Kelzer, J M; Kononoff, P J; Gehman, A M; Tedeschi, L O; Karges, K; Gibson, M L
In this paper, catalytic samples of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% (w/w) urea/activated carbon fibre (AFC), 10% urea--5% La2O3/ACF, 10% urea--10% La2O3/ACF, 10% urea--15% La2O3/ACF, 20% urea--5% La2O3/ACF, 20% urea--10% La2O3/ACF, and 20% urea-15% La2O3/ACF were prepared and used for removal of NO under the condition of: NO, 500 ppm; O2, 21%; N2, balance, gas space velocity = 10000 m3 x h(-1) m(-3), total gas flow = 266.7 mL min(-1), temperature = 30 degreesC, relative humidity = 0%. The physical and chemical properties of the prepared catalysts were characterized by surface area measurements (BET) and scanning electron microscopy studies. Furthermore, the catalytic stability of 10% urea--5% La2O3/ACF under different concentrations of NO and O2 were also studied. The results showed that, among the prepared urea/ACF samples, 20% urea/ACF yielded the highest NO conversion at room temperature. Meanwhile, among the prepared urea--La2O3/ACF catalysts, 10% urea--5% La2O3/ACF yielded the highest NO conversion. Both 20% urea/ACF and 10% urea--5% La2O3/ACF could yield over 95% NO conversion at ambient temperature. However, 10% urea--5% La2O3/ACF had a more stable activity than that of 20% urea/ACF. The catalytic and characterization experimental results, including BET, thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared analysis, showed that the NO selective catalytic reduction mechanism of urea-La2O3/ACF was different from that of ACF and urea/ACF. The NO was purified by ACF mainly by adsorption, whereas there was mainly a reduction reaction when NO was purified by urea/ACF or urea-La2O3/ACF. ACF-C was not only the catalyst but also the reducing agent for urea/ACF, whereas, for urea-La2O3/ACF, the catalytic centre was La2O3, and ACF was mainly the carrier. These differences resulted in the higher and more stable NO removal by 10% urea--5% La2O3/ACF. PMID:22720430
Lu, Pei; Zeng, Zheng; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Guo, Jing; Jiang, Xiao; Zhai, Yunbo; Fan, Xiaopeng
This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary arginine supplementation on the growth of artificially reared piglets. The pigs (n = 24; 7 d old) were removed from sows to a nursery facility and assigned randomly to 1 of the 3 treatments representing diets supplemented with 0, 0.2, or 0.4% L-arginine (on the basis of milk replacer powder). Each milk feeder was assigned to 1 dietary treatment. Fresh liquid milk replacer (18.6% dry matter) was provided daily ( approximately 0800 h) to piglets. Body weights of piglets were measured and jugular venous blood samples were obtained for metabolite analysis at d 7, 14, and 21 of age. Food intake did not differ between control and arginine-supplemented piglets [66.7 vs. 69.5 g dry matter/(kg body wt. d)]. Compared with control piglets, dietary supplementation with 0.2 and 0.4% L-arginine dose dependently increased (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of arginine by 30 and 61%, and decreased (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of ammonia by 20 and 35%, and those of urea by 19 and 33%, respectively. Dietary supplementation with 0.4% L-arginine also increased (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of insulin and growth hormone by 24-27% in piglets, compared with controls. Between 7 and 21 d of age, the supplementation of 0.2 and 0.4% L-arginine to piglets enhanced (P < 0.05) average daily weight gain by 28 and 66%, and body weight by 15 and 32%, respectively, compared with control piglets. Collectively, both the metabolic and growth data demonstrate unequivocally that arginine is deficient in milk-fed young pigs and that this arginine deficiency represents a major obstacle to maximal growth in piglets. PMID:14988458
Kim, Sung Woo; McPherson, Rebecca L; Wu, Guoyao
Essential Question: Where does milk come from, and how is it produced and distributed? Second grade students will learn where milk comes from, how milk is made, and where the milk is sold. Enrichment Resources: Where does milk come from? Click the link ...
Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) need regular monitoring, usually by blood urea and creatinine measurements, needing venepuncture, frequent attendances and a healthcare professional, with significant inconvenience. Noninvasive monitoring will potentially simplify and improve monitoring. We tested the potential of transdermal reverse iontophoresis of urea in patients with CKD and healthy controls. Methods Using a MIC 2® Iontophoresis Controller, reverse iontophoresis was applied on the forearm of five healthy subjects (controls) and 18 patients with CKD for 3–5 h. Urea extracted at the cathode was measured and compared with plasma urea. Results Reverse iontophoresis at 250 ?A was entirely safe for the duration. Cathodal buffer urea linearly correlated with plasma urea after 2 h (r = 0·82, P < 0·0001), to 3·5 h current application (r = 0·89, P = 0·007). The linear equations y = 0·24x + 1 and y = 0·21x + 4·63 predicted plasma urea (y) from cathodal urea after 2 and 3 h, respectively. Cathodal urea concentration in controls was significantly lower than in patients with CKD after a minimum current application of 2 h (P < 0·0001), with the separation between the two groups becoming more apparent with longer application (P = 0·003). A cathodal urea cut-off of 30 ?M gave a sensitivity of 83·3% and positive predictive value of 87% CKD. During haemodialysis, the fall in cathodal urea was able to track that of blood urea. Conclusion Reverse iontophoresis is safe, can potentially discriminate patients with CKD and healthy subjects and is able to track blood urea changes on dialysis. Further development of the technology for routine use can lead to an exciting opportunity for its use in diagnostics and monitoring.
Ebah, Leonard M; Read, Ian; Sayce, Andrew; Morgan, Jane; Chaloner, Christopher; Brenchley, Paul; Mitra, Sandip
The impact of urea supplementation of sheep feed was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 48 8-month-old Merino wethers were randomised into three groups by liveweight and each group was fed one of three diets: (1) untreated oaten chaff hay; (2) hay treated with urea in-paddock (pre-experiment); or (3) hay treated with a 2% urea solution using a feed mixer. In Experiment 2, 48 4-month-old Merino ewes were randomised into three groups and each group received one of the following roughages: (1) untreated oaten chaff hay, (2) hay treated with a 2% urea solution in a feed mixer, or (3) a 20?kg urea lick block. Both experiments lasted 40 days, and sheep liveweight (kg), average feed intake (g/day), average daily gain (ADG) and body condition score (BCS) were recorded. Ruminal fluid and blood samples were collected on days 20 and 40 from animals in Experiment 1. Sheep supplemented with additional urea had a greater average dry matter (DM) intake (Experiment 1, P?=?0.038; Experiment 2, P?=?0.001), ADG (Experiment 1, P?=?0.043; Experiment 2, P?=?0.041) and average final liveweight (Experiment 1, P?=?0.048), compared to sheep receiving no additional supplementary urea. On both days 20 and 40 in Experiment 1, blood analyses revealed that urea supplemented sheep had elevated levels of urea, creatine kinase and total protein (P?<0.05). Urea supplementation most likely influenced blood urea and total protein concentrations, as supplemented sheep had an increased crude protein intake (through increased feed intake of urea treated roughage with a higher crude protein percentage). By providing additional urea, the DM intake of sheep in both experiments was increased and offers a practical strategy when providing supplementation to sheep. The practice can benefit sheep production by increasing the nutritional value and digestibility of low energy crop stubbles, when fed over dry summer months to help maintain BCS. PMID:24792451
Sweeny, Joshua P A; Surridge, Victoria; Humphry, Pia S; Pugh, Harriet; Mamo, Kristen
A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD) were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis) as the control (CON), and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF) at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP), ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total cholesterol (TC) compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol levels without any negative effects in lactating cows. PMID:25049515
Li, X Z; Park, B K; Yan, C G; Choi, J G; Ahn, J S; Shin, J S
A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD) were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis) as the control (CON), and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF) at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP), ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total cholesterol (TC) compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol levels without any negative effects in lactating cows.
Li, X. Z.; Park, B. K.; Yan, C. G.; Choi, J. G.; Ahn, J. S.; Shin, J. S.
4 cases of contact allergy to diazolidinyl urea (Germall II) in a "hypoallergenic" brand of cosmetics are described. 2 patients sensitized by these cosmetics were not allergic to formaldehyde. 2 other patients already sensitive to formaldehyde had exacerbations of dermatitis due to diazolidinyl urea. The following tentative conclusions were drawn. (i) Contact allergy to diazolidinyl urea may or may not be due to formaldehyde sensitivity. (ii) Patients allergic to formaldehyde may suffer contact allergic reactions from the use of cosmetics containing diazolidinyl urea. (iii) Patients sensitized to diazolidinyl urea may cross-react to imidazolidinyl urea and vice-versa. (iv) It is suggested that the sensitizing potential of diazolidinyl urea is greater than that of imidazolidinyl urea. (v) Aq. solutions may be preferable to pet. for patch testing with diazolidinyl urea. PMID:3378427
de Groot, A C; Bruynzeel, D P; Jagtman, B A; Weyland, J W
...the United States. Products subject to this provision include but are not limited to condensed milk, long-life milks such as sterilized milk, casein and caseinates, lactose, and lactalbumin. (4) Small amounts of milk and milk...
...the United States. Products subject to this provision include but are not limited to condensed milk, long-life milks such as sterilized milk, casein and caseinates, lactose, and lactalbumin. (4) Small amounts of milk and milk...
In order to evaluate ecological risk of agrochemicals in common use, joint toxic effects of acetochlor and urea on germinating characteristics of Chinese cabbage (Brassica Pekinensis Rupr) seeds were investigated using the water-culture method and the soil-culture method. The results indicated that excessive application of acetochlor and urea, when the concentrations were higher than 31.3 mg x kg(-1) for acetochlor and 500 mg x kg(-1) for urea, had strong inhibitory effects on the rate of seed germination, root elongation and hypocotyl length of Chinese cabbage. The inhibitory rate of the germinating characteristics of Chinese cabbage seeds was significantly increased with an increase in the concentration of acetochlor or urea. The two agrochemicals in water had a stronger toxicity than these in the soil at the same concentration. Among the three indexes, hypocotyl length was the most sensitive to the toxicity of acetochlor and urea. PMID:16089323
Xiao, Hong; Zhou, Qixing; Ma, Lena Q
Laboratory, digestion, and growth studies evaluated urea as a source of ammoniation for quality improvement in guineagrass ( Panicum maxi- mum) hay. In a laboratory trial, 5.0-kg portions of hay were reconstituted with water to yield final forage moisture concentrations or 25 of 40% and treated with urea at 0, 4, 6, or 8% of the forage DM, with or
W. F. Brown; M. B. Adjei
The objectives of the present in vivo and in situ trials were to evaluate whether feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid (LA) would affect rumen fermentation patterns, in situ dry matter (DM) degradation kinetics, and milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows. The in vivo trial involved 8 rumen-fistulated Holstein cows fed once daily a total mixed ration containing rolled barley grain (27% in DM) steeped for 48 h in an equal quantity of tap water (CTR) or in 0.5% LA (TRT) in a 2 x 2 crossover design. The in situ trials consisted of incubation of untreated rolled barley grain in cows fed CTR or TRT diets and of incubation of 3 different substrates including CTR or barley grain steeped in 0.5% or 1.0% LA (TRT1 and TRT2, respectively) up to 72 h in the rumen. Results of the in vivo trial indicated that cows fed the TRT diet had greater rumen pH during most intensive fermentation phases at 10 and 12 h post-feeding. The latter effect was associated with a shorter duration in which rumen pH was below 5.8 for cows fed the TRT diet (2.4 h) compared with CTR diet (3.9 h). Furthermore, cows fed the TRT diet had lower concentrations of volatile fatty acids at 2 and 4 h post-feeding. In addition, concentrations of preprandial volatile fatty acids were lower in the rumen fluid of cows fed the TRT diet. Results also showed that molar proportion of acetate was lower, whereas propionate tended to increase by feeding cows the TRT diet. Cows fed the TRT diet demonstrated greater rumen in situ lag time of substrate DM degradation and a tendency to lower the fractional degradation rate. Other in situ results indicated a quadratic effect of LA on the effective rumen degradability of substrates whereby the latter variable was decreased from CTR to TRT1 but increased for TRT2 substrate. Although the diet did not affect actual milk yield, fat-corrected milk, percentages of milk protein, and lactose and concentration of milk urea nitrogen, cows fed the TRT diet increased milk fat content and tended to increase fat:protein ratio in the milk. In conclusion, results demonstrated that treatment of barley grain with LA lowered the risk of subacute rumen acidosis and maintained high milk fat content in late-lactating Holstein cows fed diets based on barley grain. PMID:19923605
Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Bertoni, G; Dunn, S M; Yang, W Z; Ametaj, B N
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of commercial exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (EFE) mixture added at 1.5 and 3.0 g (cellulase 4,000 microM glucose/g/h + xylanase 7,990 microM xylose/g/min; 50:50 w/w) per kilogram of dry matter (DM) of feed on nutrient digestibility, milk production, milk composition, and some blood constituents in lactating Murrah buffaloes. Eighteen buffaloes were allotted to three dietary treatments, on the basis of milk yield (8.48, 8.52, and 8.53 kg/day) and days in lactation (68.5, 80.33, and 82.00) for 90 days. The buffaloes were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) comprising of 45% chaffed wheat straw, 15% chopped green maize, and 40% concentrate on DM basis (control group), the same TMR plus EFE at 1.5 g/kg DM (T-1 group) and the same TMR plus EFE at 3.0 g/kg DM (T-2 group) supplemented through the concentrate mixture. There was no effect of fortifying EFE mixture on DM intake and crude protein intake (grams per day) whereas total digestible nutrients intake (kilogram per day) was higher by (P < 0.05) 12.53% in T-1 group over that of control, and there was no significant difference between T-2 and control groups. The average daily milk yield and 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield was higher (P < 0.05) by 12.99% and 15.17% in T-1 group as over that of control, and there was no difference between T-2 and control groups. There was no (P > 0.05) difference in blood glucose and blood urea nitrogen concentration in different experimental groups. It is concluded that supplementation of cellulase and xylanase mixture at 1.5 g/kg of DM of TMR containing wheat straw (45%), green maize (15%), and concentrate (40%) on DM basis significantly increased (P < 0.05) the average daily milk yield and FCM yield in Murrah buffaloes due to improved dietary fiber digestion. PMID:20401691
Shekhar, Chandra; Thakur, Sudarshan S; Shelke, Sachin K
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a direct-fed microbial (M) and dietary glycerol (G) on milk yield, efficiency of yield, and nutrient digestibility during hot weather. Sixty Holstein cows averaging 120 d in milk (DIM) and 36.2 kg/d of milk were used in a 12-wk 2×2 factorial design trial from June through September 2008. Cows were fed a common diet during the 2-wk standardization period and were blocked by milk yield, DIM, parity, and dry matter intake. Diets were based on corn and ryegrass silages and balanced to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Treatments included a negative control (M- or G-), 4 × 10(9) cfu/head of a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii NP24 (M+), control plus 400 g/h per day of 99% pure food-grade glycerol (G+), and 4×10(9) cfu/h per day of a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii NP24 plus 400 g/h per day of 99% pure food-grade glycerol (MG++). No interactions were observed between direct-fed microbials and dietary glycerol in the study except on apparent nutrient digestibility. No differences were observed in dry matter intake, which averaged 22.7, 23.1, 23.4, and 22.9 for M-, G-, M+, and G+, respectively. Milk yield was increased for M+ compared with M- at 34.1 and 31.7 kg/d, but G+ had no effect on yield. No treatment effect was noted for milk fat percentage or milk protein percentage among diets. Milk protein yield was higher for M+ compared with M- at 0.93 versus 0.87 kg/d. Energy-corrected milk was improved for the M+ versus M- groups at 33.5 and 31.6 kg/d, respectively. No differences in respiratory rate, skin temperature, body temperature, or concentrations of serum glucose or urea N were observed among treatments. Improvement in apparent digestibility was observed with M+ and G+ compared with M-/G- in this experiment. The addition of a direct-fed microbial alone improved milk and protein yield, energy-corrected milk, and apparent digestibility of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber, and the inclusion of glycerol (G+) had a positive effect on apparent dry matter and acid detergent fiber digestibility compared with M-/G-. The addition of a direct-fed microbial and dietary glycerol may improve yield and digestibility for cows subject to heat stress. PMID:21854934
Boyd, J; West, J W; Bernard, J K
Little or no additional casein dissolved when milk was diluted with large volumes of milk dialysate. Some dissolution of mi- cellar to serum casein occurred when sedi- mented micelles were redispersed in ultra- filtrate mechanically, but the concentration of serum casein remained far below that of the original milk. It is concluded that micellar and serum casein do not form
This NCTM iOS app of the familiar online Illuminations game, "Concentration" (cataloged separately) challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.
This is the NCTM Android app of their familiar on line Illuminations game, "Concentration" ( cataloged separately ) which challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.
In addition to lysine and methionine, current ration-balancing programs suggest that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supply may also be limiting in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to investigate whether BCAA, leucine, isoleucine, and valine become limiting for milk protein synthesis when methionine and lysine supply were not limiting. Nine multiparous Holstein cows with an average milk production of 53.5±7.1 kg/d were randomly assigned to 7-d continuous jugular infusions of saline (CTL), methionine and lysine (ML; 12 g and 21 g/d, respectively), or ML plus leucine, isoleucine, and valine (ML+BCAA; 35 g, 15 g, and 15 g/d, respectively) in a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 infusion periods separated by 7-d noninfusion periods. The basal diet consisted of 40% corn silage, 14% alfalfa hay, and a concentrate mix, and respectively supplied lysine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, and valine as 6.1, 1.8, 4.7, 8.9, and 5.3% of metabolizable protein. Dry matter intake (23.9 kg/d), milk yield (52.8 kg/d), fat content (2.55%), fat yield (1.33 kg/d), lactose content (4.77%), lactose yield (2.51 kg/d), and milk protein efficiency (0.38) were similar across treatments. Protein yield and protein content were not significantly different between ML (1.52 kg/d and 2.88%, respectively) and ML+BCAA (1.51 kg/d and 2.83%, respectively), but they were significantly greater than that of CTL (1.39 kg/d and 2.71%). Cows that received ML+BCAA had less milk urea nitrogen content (10.9 mg/dL) compared with milk of CTL cows (12.4 mg/dL) and ML cows (11.8 mg/dL). Whereas high-producing cows responded positively to methionine and lysine supplementation, no apparent benefits of BCAA supplementation in milk protein synthesis were found. Infusion of BCAA may have stimula