Science.gov

Sample records for milk urea concentration

  1. Influence of milk urea concentration on fractional urea disappearance rate from milk to blood plasma in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Spek, J W; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed to obtain insight in urea transfer characteristics within the mammary gland and from the mammary gland to blood plasma in dairy cows at various concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN; mg of N/dL) and MUN. Urea transfer from milk to blood plasma and urea transfer within the mammary gland itself was evaluated in a 4×4 Latin square design using 4 lactating multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (milk production of 39.8±4.70kg/d and 90±3.9 d in milk). Treatments consisted of 4 primed continuous intravenous urea infusions of 0, 5, 10, and 15g of urea/h. Boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea were injected in cistern milk at 20, 60, and 100 min before the 1700h milking. Milk was collected in portions of approximately 2 L at the 1700h milking. Milk samples were analyzed for urea and enrichment of (15)N-urea. Results from one cow were discarded because of leakage of milk from the teats after injection of boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea. Increasing urea infusion rate linearly increased PUN from 11.4 (0g of urea/h) to 25.9mg/dL (15g of urea/h) and MUN from 10.3 (0g of urea/h) to 23.5 (15g of urea/h) mg of N/dL. The percentage of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea recovered from milk at the time of injection was not affected by urea infusion rate and varied between 65.1 and 73.0%, indicating that a substantial portion of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea was not accounted for by collected milk. The estimated fractional disappearance rate of (15)N-urea from milk to blood (Kurea; per hour) linearly increased from 0.429 (0g of urea/h) to 0.641 per hour (15g of urea/h). Cistern injected [(15)N(15)N]urea diffused within 20 min after injection toward alveoli milk. Calculations with the average Kurea estimated in this study show that 89% of an initial difference between PUN and MUN will have disappeared after 4 h. In conclusion, urea disappearance from milk in the mammary gland is substantial, as well as the intramammary urea exchange between cistern, duct, and alveoli milk. However, results have to be interpreted with caution given the lack of full recovery of dosed (15)N urea at time of injection. Information on Kurea is useful to quantify the effects of diurnal variation in PUN on MUN, which enhances the utility of MUN as an indicator for N excretion in urine. PMID:26947294

  2. Cow level sampling factors affecting analysis and interpretation of milk urea concentrations in 2 dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Eicher, R; Bouchard, E; Tremblay, A

    1999-01-01

    The goals of this study were to determine the influence of the variations among udder quarters, the somatic cell count, the time of sampling during the day, sample conservation, and centrifugation on milk urea (UREA) concentrations, and to propose a sample collection procedure for herds that are not on a Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) program. Forty cows from 2 herds with different feeding practices were randomly selected. The quarter sampled and the somatic cell count did not significantly influence UREA concentrations. Milk urea concentrations were highest in the morning. The diurnal pattern was not influenced by intrinsic factors like parity, days postpartum, or daily milk yield. The UREA concentrations were significantly higher after refrigeration for one week (mean UREA change = +0.41 +/- 0.24 mmol/L, P = 0.0001) and freezing for one month (mean UREA change = +1.52 +/- 1.25 mmol/L, P = 0.0001). Urea concentrations were slightly higher in lactoserum than in whole milk (mean UREA difference = +0.17 +/- 0.24 mmol/L, P = 0.0001). Although this study included only 2 herds and does not allow extrapolation, differences were found in the diurnal pattern of UREA in these 2 herds, which possibly reflect differences in feeding strategy. With consideration of these results, a 6-point sampling procedure for herds that are not on a DHI program is proposed. PMID:10416068

  3. Cow level sampling factors affecting analysis and interpretation of milk urea concentrations in 2 dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Eicher, R; Bouchard, E; Tremblay, A

    1999-07-01

    The goals of this study were to determine the influence of the variations among udder quarters, the somatic cell count, the time of sampling during the day, sample conservation, and centrifugation on milk urea (UREA) concentrations, and to propose a sample collection procedure for herds that are not on a Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) program. Forty cows from 2 herds with different feeding practices were randomly selected. The quarter sampled and the somatic cell count did not significantly influence UREA concentrations. Milk urea concentrations were highest in the morning. The diurnal pattern was not influenced by intrinsic factors like parity, days postpartum, or daily milk yield. The UREA concentrations were significantly higher after refrigeration for one week (mean UREA change = +0.41 +/- 0.24 mmol/L, P = 0.0001) and freezing for one month (mean UREA change = +1.52 +/- 1.25 mmol/L, P = 0.0001). Urea concentrations were slightly higher in lactoserum than in whole milk (mean UREA difference = +0.17 +/- 0.24 mmol/L, P = 0.0001). Although this study included only 2 herds and does not allow extrapolation, differences were found in the diurnal pattern of UREA in these 2 herds, which possibly reflect differences in feeding strategy. With consideration of these results, a 6-point sampling procedure for herds that are not on a DHI program is proposed. PMID:10416068

  4. Genetic parameters for milk urea concentration and milk traits in Polish Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Rzewuska, Katarzyna; Strabel, Tomasz

    2013-11-01

    Milk urea concentration (MU) used by dairy producers for management purposes can be affected by selection for milk traits. To assess this problem, genetic parameters for MU in Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle were estimated for the first three lactations. The genetic correlation of MU with milk production traits, lactose percentage, fat to protein ratio (FPR) and somatic cell score (SCS) were computed with two 5-trait random regression test-day models, separately for each lactation. Data used for estimation (159,044 daily observations) came from 50 randomly sampled herds. (Co)variance components were estimated with the Bayesian Gibbs sampling method. The coefficient of variation for MU in all three parities was high (40-41 %). Average daily heritabilities of MU were 0.22 for the first parity and 0.21 for the second and third lactations. Average genetic correlations for different days in milk in the first three lactations between MU and other traits varied. They were small and negative for protein percentage (from -0.24 to -0.11) and for SCS (from -0.14 to -0.09). The weakest genetic correlation between MU and fat percentage, and between MU and lactose percentage were observed (from -0.10 to 0.10). Negative average genetic correlation with the fat to protein ratio was observed only in the first lactation (-0.14). Genetic correlations with yield traits were positive and ranged from low to moderate for protein (from 0.09 to 0.33), fat (from 0.16 to 0.35) and milk yield (from 0.20 to 0.42). These results suggest that the selection on yield traits and SCS tends to increase MU slightly. PMID:23934506

  5. APPLICATION OF MILK UREA NITROGEN VALUES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Statistical analyses using both linear and multi-component regression and mixed effects models have been applied to a number of databases relating milk urea nitrogen (MUN) to factors important for N utilization in lactating dairy cows. Concentrations of MUN are highly correlated to BUN, which is a s...

  6. Effects on milk urea concentration, urine output, and drinking water intake from incremental doses of potassium bicarbonate fed to mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, T; Rustas, B-O

    2014-07-01

    Large variation exists in the potassium content of dairy cow feeds and also within a feed type due to soil type and fertilization. Increased ration K concentration causes a subsequent increase in urinary volume and could be expected to also lower milk urea concentration. Six multiparous mid-lactation Swedish Red dairy cows, all fitted with rumen cannulas, were subjected to 3 different levels of K intake in a Latin square experiment with three 2-wk periods to evaluate the effects on concentrations of milk urea and rumen ammonia, urinary output, and drinking water intake. The treatments were achieved by K supplementation on top of a low-K basal ration fed at individual allowances fixed throughout the experiment. The basal ration, consumed at 20.2 kg of dry matter (DM)/d, provided 165 g of crude protein/kg of DM and consisted of grass silage, concentrates, and urea in the proportions 39.3:60.0:0.7 on a DM basis. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation was 0, 616, and 1,142 g/d, respectively, to give total ration K concentrations that were low (LO; 12 g/kg of DM), medium (MED; 23 g/kg of DM), or high (HI; 32 g/kg of DM). Production and composition of milk was not affected by treatment. A linear effect on milk urea concentration was detected, being 4.48, 4.18, and 3.77 mM for LO, MED, and HI, respectively, and a linear tendency for rumen ammonia concentration with 6.65, 6.51, and 5.84 mg of NH?-N/dL for LO, MED, and HI, respectively. Milk urea concentration peaked about 3h after the rumen ammonia peak from the morning feeding, at a level 1.3mM over the baseline. Urinary urea excretion declined linearly (105, 103, and 98 g of urea-N/d for LO, MED, and HI, respectively). Linear increases occurred in urinary output (0.058 0.001 kg of urine/g of K intake; no intercept; coefficient of determination=0.997) and drinking water intake (65.9 2.02 + 0.069 0.004 kg of water/g of K intake; coefficient of determination=0.95). Urinary K concentration leveled off at 12.4 g/L. Urinary creatinine excretion was not affected by K addition, but allantoin excretion increased linearly by 27% from LO to HI, suggesting increased rumen microbial growth. Rumen pH, acetate proportion of total volatile fatty acids, and digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber increased linearly with increasing potassium intake. We concluded that increased ration K concentration lowers milk urea concentration with a magnitude significant for the interpretation of milk urea values, but other sources of variation, such as sampling time relative to feeding, may be even more important. PMID:24835966

  7. Relationship between content of crude protein in rations for dairy cows and milk yield, concentration of urea in milk and ammonia emissions.

    PubMed

    Frank, B; Swensson, C

    2002-07-01

    During recent decades, efforts have been made in several countries to diminish the negative environmental influence of dairy production. The main focus has been on nitrogen and phosphorus. Modern dairy production in Western Europe is often based on imported feed-stuffs, mostly protein-rich feeds. In Sweden at least, it is wished that the use of imported feedstuffs in animal production will decrease due to the risk of contamination with Salmonella and the ban of using GMO crops in Swedish dairy production. An experiment was carried out to investigate whether a lower content of crude protein in the diet would decrease the ammonia release from cow manure and whether a well-balanced diet using only feedstuffs of Swedish origin would maintain milk production. Five treatments were arranged in a Latin square design. Two different protein supplements made of ingredients of Swedish origin were each fed at two protein levels, and a fifth imported commercial protein mix was fed at the higher level. The treatments with low protein levels (13.1 to 13.5%) had a significantly lower milk yield, kilograms of ECM, but, on the other hand the net profit, milk income minus feed cost was nearly the same in all treatments except diet C, which had lower feed cost but also lower net profit due to lower milk yield. The content of urea in milk was higher with diets high in crude protein (17%) content. A decreased protein level in the diets did not influence the content of casein or whey protein, but the commercial concentrate showed a tendency to give lower values than the Swedish mixtures. The low protein diets gave significantly lower ammonia release from manure compared with the high protein diets. There were no production differences between the diets of Swedish feeds compared with the imported control. The readily fermentable beet pulp should have helped cows use the higher N diet more efficiently and increased the response. This gives the rumen microbes a possibility to match the inflow of protein with carbohydrates. Income over feed costs shows that it is possible to compile diets using products of Swedish origin and still be competitive. On the other hand, this structure may change quickly due to altered world market prices. PMID:12201534

  8. Effects of the level of dietary valine supply on amino acids and urea concentration in milk and blood plasma of lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Roth-Maier, D A; Ott, H; Roth, F X; Paulicks, B R

    2004-02-01

    In order to determine the valine (Val) requirement, suckling sows with 10-12 piglets were supplied with feed mixtures, which contained various levels of Val derived by adding crystalline L-Val to the native diet (0.45% = native, 0.55, 0.65, 0.85, 1.05 and 1.45%) during a total of 72 lactations. Milk and blood plasma, taken after 3 weeks of lactation, was examined on the concentration of amino acids (total amino acids in milk, free amino acids in plasma) and urea by ion exchange chromatography or autoanalyzer, respectively. The contents of almost all amino acids in milk were significantly higher compared with the native diet, when Val was supplemented, reflecting increasing milk protein concentrations. Highest amino acid concentrations were observed with 0.85% dietary Val. Amino acid pattern in milk was not affected by the Val supply. In blood plasma the concentration of free Val rose with the dietary Val from 9 mg/l (0.45% dietary Val) to 132 mg/l (1.45% dietary Val). Several other amino acid contents were also higher when Val was added to the native diet, but there was no dose-response. Urea concentrations in milk and blood plasma were lowest with 0.65% and 0.85% dietary Val, respectively. Conclusively, for sows nursing litters with 10-12 piglets a dietary valine supply of 0.85% (0.75% apparent ileal digestible Val) can be recommended with a minimum requirement of 0.65% (0.55% apparent ileal digestible Val). PMID:19774761

  9. Refinement of the pressure assay for milk urea nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D M; Delwiche, M J; DePeters, E J; BonDurant, R H

    2000-09-01

    We report improvements in the application of a pressure-based assay for urea. The assay involved the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea and subsequent measurement of CO2 partial pressure. Effects of the preservative bronopol on the assay and their implications for laboratory applications are discussed. A method of remediating these effects with cysteine is described. A method is also described wherein these additives can be used to prepare standards of known urea concentration in milk. The improved assay can be used to measure urea N in unadulterated milk or in bronopol preserved milk with an accuracy of +/-0.7 mg/dl (0.25 mM) in the range from 0 to 30 mg/dl (0 to 10.7 mM). PMID:11003237

  10. Chemical assay of urea for automated sensing in milk.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D M; Delwiche, M J; Depeters, E J; Bondurant, R H

    1999-09-01

    Results of a new chemical assay for urea involving enzymatic hydrolysis to ammonium and carbonate and subsequent measurement of CO2 partial pressure are presented. The assay is simple to implement in an automated version, and the hardware used is not prone to fouling and damage by raw milk. The assay sensitivity at 24 degrees C is about 0.367 kPa per milligram per deciliter of urea N. The assay has no dependence on milk fat in the sample, and effects of milk proteins and lactose are slight (less than 2% change in sensitivity per change in w/v percent). Observed sensitivities to urea in spiked milk samples were not significantly different from each other or from standards in distilled water or 0.1 M phosphate-buffered saline. The standard error of the assay is about 0.3 mg/dl of urea N (0.1 mM) in standard solution, and about 1 mg/dl of urea N (0.3 mM) in milk in a range of 0 to 30 mg/dl of urea N (0 to 11 mM). The assay holds promise for use in an on-line sensor to measure milk urea N in the milking parlor. PMID:10509259

  11. Manometric biosensor for on-line measurement of milk urea.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Daniel M; Delwiche, Michael J

    2002-06-01

    Performance of a prototype sensor for on-line measurement of urea in milk during milking was evaluated. The sensor was based on a manometric assay of the carbon dioxide generated by the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. Temperature compensation of the sensor was described briefly, and was shown to be effective. The calibration of the sensor was described and resulted in a standard calibration error of about 0.15 mM of urea. The standard error of the sensor in milk was shown to be about 0.25 mM (given a physiological range of about 2-7 mM in cow milk). The sensor was simple, inexpensive, suffered from no interferences in raw milk, and completed a measurement cycle in about 5 min (less than the time to milk a typical cow). A custom made sampling device, whereby milk was passively collected from the milk line under vacuum, was shown to collect an ample volume within 10 s to run a test with the sensor. No measurable bubbles or foam were introduced from the sampling mechanism so that the milk sampled was not diminished in density compared to samples taken by other methods. PMID:11959478

  12. Evaluation of flow injection analysis for determination of urea in sheep's and cow's milk.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Martina; Flöck, Martina; Winter, Petra; Luf, W; Baumgartner, W

    2002-01-01

    Difficulties in measuring the urea content in sheep's milk often occur with spectral photometry due to the high protein and fat concentrations of the milk. In this study an enzymatic flow procedure (QuickChem 8000 Ion Analyser, Lachat Instruments, Milwaukee, USA) to determine the urea content in ovine and bovine milk was evaluated. Urea content is determined by the Berthelot reaction after splitting it enzymatically with urease. The free ammonia diffuses through a teflon membrane into a stream of reagent solutions. Detection takes place by means of a reaction between the ammonium ions with hypochlorite and salicylate producing a green colour, which is measured spectrometrically in a flow meter at 660 nm. By using a diffusion cell chemical deproteinisation of milk is not necessary and capacity is high. The assessed procedure exhibited high accuracy and precision and reached a sample capacity of 55 samples an hour. Storage of the milk samples for several days as well as chemical preservation with bronopol had no effect on the measurement procedure. Due to the complexity of the apparatus and the costs associated therewith, the device proves less suitable for routine diagnostics but rather serves as a reference method for the measurement of urea concentration in milk. PMID:12237967

  13. Voltamperometric discrimination of urea and melamine adulterated skimmed milk powder.

    PubMed

    Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Fauerbach, Jonathan A; Sacco, Natalia J; Bonetto, M Celina; Cortón, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008. The development of a rapid, reliable and economic test is of relevance in order to improve adulterated milk identification. Cyclic voltammetry studies using an Au working electrode were performed on adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples from different independent manufacturers. Voltammetric data and their first derivative were subjected to functional principal component analysis (f-PCA) and correctly classified by the KNN classifier. The adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples showed significant differences. Best results of prediction were obtained with first derivative data. Detection limits in milk samples adulterated with 1% of its total nitrogen derived from melamine or urea were as low as 85.0 mg · L(-1) and 121.4 mg · L(-1), respectively. We present this method as a fast and robust screening method for milk adulteration analysis and prevention of food intoxication. PMID:23112709

  14. Voltamperometric Discrimination of Urea and Melamine Adulterated Skimmed Milk Powder

    PubMed Central

    Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Fauerbach, Jonathan A.; Sacco, Natalia J.; Bonetto, M. Celina; Cortón, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008. The development of a rapid, reliable and economic test is of relevance in order to improve adulterated milk identification. Cyclic voltammetry studies using an Au working electrode were performed on adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples from different independent manufacturers. Voltammetric data and their first derivative were subjected to functional principal component analysis (f-PCA) and correctly classified by the KNN classifier. The adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples showed significant differences. Best results of prediction were obtained with first derivative data. Detection limits in milk samples adulterated with 1% of its total nitrogen derived from melamine or urea were as low as 85.0 mg·L−1 and 121.4 mg·L−1, respectively. We present this method as a fast and robust screening method for milk adulteration analysis and prevention of food intoxication. PMID:23112709

  15. 21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.115 Concentrated milk. (a) Description. Concentrated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of...

  16. Potentiometric biosensor for determination of urea in milk using immobilized Arthrobacter creatinolyticus urease.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Rajendran; Puhazhendi, Puhazhselvan; Kumar, Jitendra; Gowthaman, Marichetti Kuppuswami; D'Souza, Stanislaus Francis; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu

    2015-04-01

    The extracellular urease from Arthrobacter creatinolyticus was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and immobilized on PAN [poly(acrylonitrile-methylmethacrylate-sodium vinylsulfonate)] membrane. The urease immobilized PAN membrane exhibited an activity of 97.92U/cm(2) under the optimum conditions of 1.0% enzyme concentration, 15% glutaraldehyde, 24h immobilization time and temperature of 4°C. The changes in surface morphology of the membrane after immobilization were studied by SEM and ATR-FTIR analysis. Immobilized membrane was associated with potentiometric electrode for calibration of biosensor and the results showed a linear response for wide range of urea concentration from 1 to 100mM. The immobilized urease had good storage stability for a period of 70days at 4°C and could be effectively reused for 13cycles. Urease immobilized membrane was also employed in analysis of urea spiked milk samples. PMID:25687009

  17. A compact miniaturized continuous flow system for the determination of urea content in milk.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Willian Toito; Pessoa-Neto, Osmundo Dantas; Dos Santos, Vagner Bezerra; de Araujo Nogueira, Ana Rita; Faria, Ronaldo Censi; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando; Puyol, Mar; Alonso, Julián

    2010-10-01

    A multicommutation-based flow system with photometric detection was developed, employing an analytical microsystem constructed with low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology, a solid-phase reactor containing particles of Canavalia ensiformis DC (urease source) immobilized with glutaraldehyde, and a mini-photometer coupled directly to the microsystem which monolithically integrates a continuous flow cell. The determination of urea in milk was based on the hydrolysis of urea in the solid-phase reactor and the ammonium ions produced were monitored using the Berthelot reaction. The analytical curve was linear in the urea concentration range from 1.0 x 10(-4) to 5.0 x 10(-3) mol L(-1) with a limit of detection of 8.0 x 10(-6) mol L(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for a 2.0 x 10(-3) mol L(-1) urea solution was lower than 0.4% (n = 10) and the sample throughput was 13 h(-1). To check the reproducibility of the flow system, calibration curves were obtained with freshly prepared solutions on different days and the RSD obtained was 4.7% (n = 6). Accuracy was assessed by comparing the results of the proposed method with those from the official procedure and the data are in close agreement, at a 95% confidence level. PMID:20694810

  18. [Effects of urea and coated urea on harmful gases concentrations in plastic greenhouse].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xihong; Zeng, Qingru; Mao, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Litian; Liao, Bohan; Tie, Baiqing; Liao, Zongwen

    2006-09-01

    With simulation test and plastic greenhouse experiment, this paper studied the effects of urea and minerals- coated urea on the soil pH and harmful gases concentrations in plastic greenhouse. The results showed that under simulated condition, the application of these'two N fertilizers led to an initial increase of soil pH, which reached the maximum (an increment of > 50%) within the first week and dropped to the initial level by the end of the fifth week. In plastic greenhouse, applying urea and coated urea resulted in the increase of NH3, NO2 and O3 concentrations. The daily volatilization amount of NH3 and NO2 was higher in urea treatment than in coated urea treatment, and the highest value in urea treatment was 42.36 microg x m(-3) x d(-1) for NH3, 41.95 microg x m(-3) x d(-1) for NO2, and 86.00 microg x m(-3) x d(-1) for O3. The volatilization intensity of NH3 and NO2 was influenced by temperature and sunlight, while the O3 concentration was influenced by sunlight. PMID:17147165

  19. Evaluation of milk urea nitrogen as a management tool to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compile and evaluate relationships between feed nitrogen (N) intake, milk urea N (MUN), urinary urea N (UUN) and ammonia (NH3) emissions from dairy farms to aid policy development. Regression relationships between MUN (within the range of 10 to 25 mg/dL), UUN, and re...

  20. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) tool reduces nitrogen emissions from dairy farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The milk urea nitrogen (MUN) tool was developed to monitor dietary crude protein (CP) use and feed costs. MUN within the range of 12 to 10 mg/100 ml milk usually indicates the recommended dietary CP level of 16.5%. MUN levels greater than 12 mg/100 ml indicate dietary CP is being wasted and excreted...

  1. Determination of lactate dehydrogenase activity and urea content in milk by dry chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lipperheide, C; Andersson, R; Petersen, B; Sommer, H

    1995-05-01

    Comparison of the new technique of dry chemistry (EKTACHEM 700-XR, Eastman Kodak Co., USA) with conventional wet chemistry (HITACHI 717, Boehringer Mannheim, Germany) for quantitations of lactate dehydrogenase activity and urea content in bovine milk resulted in correlation coefficients of more than 0.9 even when measuring fresh raw milk by dry chemistry. PMID:8578901

  2. Online measurement of urea concentration in spent dialysate during hemodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesberg, Jonathon T.; Armitage, Ben; Arnold, Mark A.; Flanigan, Michael

    2002-05-01

    We describe on-line optical measurements of urea concentration during the regular hemodialysis treatment of several patients. The spectral measurements were performed in the effluent dialysate stream after the dialysis membrane using an FTIR spectrometer equipped with a flow-through cell. Spectra were recorded across the 5000-4000 cm-1 (2.0-2.5 micrometers at 1-minute intervals. Optically determined concentrations matched concentrations obtained from standard chemical assays with a root-mean-square error of 0.29 mM for urea (0.8 mg/dl urea nitrogen), 0.03 mM for creatinine, 0.11 mM for lactate, and 0.22 mM for glucose. The observed concentration ranges were 0-11 mM for urea, 0-0.35 mM for creatinine, 0-0.75 mM for lactate, and 9-12.5 mM for glucose.

  3. Relationships between Circulating Urea Concentrations and Endometrial Function in Postpartum Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhangrui; Oguejiofor, Chike F.; Swangchan-Uthai, Theerawat; Carr, Susan; Wathes, D. Claire

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Dairy cows fed high levels of protein to increase milk yield tend to have reduced fertility but the reasons behind this are unclear. Differing dietary protein levels are reflected in altered urea concentrations in both blood and other tissues including the uterus. We showed that the circulating urea concentration was highly correlated to changed expression levels of many genes in the endometrium shortly after calving. These were predominantly associated with tissue repair, innate immunity and lipid metabolism. A subsequent study found no effect of altered urea concentration on endometrial gene expression in vitro implying that the dietary influence is indirect. Abstract Both high and low circulating urea concentrations, a product of protein metabolism, are associated with decreased fertility in dairy cows through poorly defined mechanisms. The rate of involution and the endometrial ability to mount an adequate innate immune response after calving are both critical for subsequent fertility. Study 1 used microarray analysis to identify genes whose endometrial expression 2 weeks postpartum correlated significantly with the mean plasma urea per cow, ranging from 3.2 to 6.6 mmol/L. The biological functions of 781 mapped genes were analysed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. These were predominantly associated with tissue turnover (e.g., BRINP1, FOXG1), immune function (e.g., IL17RB, CRISPLD2), inflammation (e.g., C3, SERPINF1, SERPINF2) and lipid metabolism (e.g., SCAP, ACBD5, SLC10A). Study 2 investigated the relationship between urea concentration and expression of 6 candidate genes (S100A8, HSP5A, IGF1R, IL17RB, BRINP1, CRISPLD2) in bovine endometrial cell culture. These were treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 mmol/L urea, equivalent to low, medium and high circulating values with or without challenge by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS increased S100A8 expression as expected but urea treatment had no effect on expression of any tested gene. Examination of the genes/pathways involved suggests that plasma urea levels may reflect variations in lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that it is the effects of lipid metabolism rather than the urea concentration which probably alter the rate of involution and innate immune response, in turn influencing subsequent fertility. PMID:26479384

  4. Heat Resistance of Salmonellae in Concentrated Milk

    PubMed Central

    Dega, C. A.; Goepfert, J. M.; Amundson, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    The heat resistance of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Salmonella alachua in milk solutions containing 10, 30, 42, and 51% (w/w) skim milk for total solids was determined. Increased milk-solids level effected a significant increase in the heat resistance of each organism. Although E. coli was more heat-resistant than both strains of Salmonella in 10% milk, the situation was reversed in 42 and 51% milk. Prior growth temperature was found to exert a profound effect on the heat resistance of S. typhimurium. Growth of S. typhimurium in 42% milk solids for 24 hr did not greatly enhance the thermal resistance of the organism when heated in a fresh 42% solids concentrate. Application of a partial vaccum during heating greatly diminished the decimal reduction times of S. typhimurium and E. coli and, in addition, virtually eliminated the protective effect of increased solids level. PMID:4552893

  5. Using milk urea nitrogen to evaluate diet formulation and environmental impact on dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Jonker, J S; Kohn, R A

    2001-10-18

    Reducing nitrogen (N) excretion by dairy cattle is the most effective means to reduce N losses (runoff, volatilization, and leaching) from dairy farms. The objectives of this review are to examine the use of milk urea nitrogen (MUN) to measure N excretion and utilization efficiency in lactating dairy cows and to examine impacts of overfeeding N to dairy cows in the Chesapeake Bay drainage basin. A mathematical model was developed and evaluated with an independent literature data set to integrate MUN and milk composition to predict urinary and fecal excretion, intake, and utilization efficiency for N in lactating dairy cows. This model was subsequently used to develop target MUN concentrations for lactating dairy cattle fed according to National Research Council (NRC) recommendations. Target values calculated in this manner were 8 to 14 mg/dl for a typical lactation and were most sensitive to change in milk production and crude protein intake. Routine use of MUN to monitor dairy cattle diets was introduced to dairy farms (n = 1156) in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Participating farmers (n = 454) were provided with the results of their MUN analyses and interpretive information monthly for a period of 6 months. The average MUN across all farms in the study increased in the spring, but the increase was 0.52 mg/dl lower for farmers receiving MUN results compared to those who did not participate in the program. This change indicated that participating farmers reduced N feeding compared to nonparticipants. Average efficiency of feed N utilization (N in milk / N in feed x 100) was 24.5% (SD = 4.5). On average, farmers fed 6.6% more N than recommended by the NRC, resulting in a 16% increase in urinary N and a 2.7% increase in fecal N compared to feeding to requirement. N loading to the Chesapeake Bay from overfeeding protein to lactating dairy cattle was estimated to be 7.6 million kg/year. MUN is a useful tool to measure diet adequacy and environmental impact from dairy farms. PMID:12805886

  6. Concentrate reduction and sequential roughage offer to dairy cows: effects on milk protein yield, protein efficiency and milk quality.

    PubMed

    Leiber, Florian; Dorn, Katharina; Probst, Johanna K; Isensee, Anne; Ackermann, Nick; Kuhn, Anton; Spengler Neff, Anet

    2015-08-01

    An experiment was conducted during 6 weeks to evaluate effects of a reduced dietary level of protein-rich concentrates in a moderate dairy production system on cows' performance, protein efficiency and milk quality including fatty acid profiles. Twenty-three lactating cows (Swiss Fleckvieh) were assigned either to a group receiving on average 2.4 kg/d individually fed concentrates (Prot+, n = 12) or to a group receiving no individually fed concentrates (Prot-, n = 11). All cows had ad-libitum access to a total mixed ration (TMR) mainly based on grass and maize silage, hay and little potatoes and soybean cake. In weeks 4-6 of the experiment, part of the hay was excluded from the TMR, and fed separately in the morning. Individual feed intake and milk yield were recorded during weeks 3 and 6 of the experiment; at the same time feed, faeces and milk samples were collected twice per week for analyses. Data were processed in linear mixed models. Omission of individual concentrates in Prot- was fully compensated by higher roughage intake in terms of dry matter. Crude protein (CP) and net energy intake was almost maintained. Despite a lower apparent CP digestibility in Prot-, the ratio of milk protein to ingested CP was the same in both groups, indicating a higher ruminal utilisation of degraded CP in Prot-. This corresponded with lower milk urea concentrations in Prot-. Milk quality was affected in terms of lower concentrations of linoleic and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat of Prot-. Concentrations of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk were increased in Prot-. Sequential offer of hay and TMR did not lead to considerable effects in intake, efficiency and milk quality. In conclusion, the results indicate that the efficiency of feed protein utilisation for milk protein is not impaired if concentrates are reduced in a moderate- to low-input dairy production system. PMID:25876988

  7. Urea

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Urea ; CASRN : 57 - 13 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects ) a

  8. Estrone and estrone sulfate concentrations in milk and milk fractions.

    PubMed

    Macrina, Ann L; Ott, Troy L; Roberts, Robert F; Kensinger, Ronald S

    2012-07-01

    Dairy products naturally contain estrogens, and some consumer groups contend these estrogens cause adverse health effects. The objectives of this research were to characterize estrone (E(1)) and estrone sulfate (E(1)S) concentrations in milk from a large number of individual cows, in skim and fat fractions of milk, and in retail milk to provide food and nutrition practitioners with information to estimate potential consumption. Milk was from Holstein cows. Data are presented as means and standard deviations. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences in E(1) and E(1)S content of whole milk and its skim and fat fractions. Mean E(1) and E(1)S concentrations (n=173 cows) were 7.0±12.7 and 46.7±62.1 pg/mL (25.89±46.96 and 172.74±229.71 pmol/L), respectively. Analysis of milk fractions (n=50 samples) demonstrated that 55% of E(1) and 14% of E(1)S were associated with the fat fraction with the remainder associated with the skim fraction. Concentrations of E(1) and E(1)S in pasteurized-homogenized whole milk (n=8) averaged 10.3±0.6 and 85.9±7.3 pg/mL (38.09±2.22 and 317.74±27.00 pmol/L), respectively. Production rates of E(1) plus estradiol in human beings range from 54,000 to 630,000 ng/day. US Food and Drug administration guidelines state that no physiologic effects occur when consumption is ≤1% of the endogenous quantities produced by the segment of the population with the lowest daily production. This threshold value for intake would be 540 ng/day. Estimated total E(1) intake from three servings of whole milk was 68 ng/day, which represents 0.01% to 0.1% of daily production rates in human beings. These findings support levels below the current guidelines for safe consumption. PMID:22561023

  9. Enzymatic determination of urea in milk by sequential injection with spectrophotometric and conductometric detection.

    PubMed

    Lima, M J Reis; Fernandes, Sílvia M V; Rangel, António O S S

    2004-11-17

    In this work, an analytical system based on the coupling of gas diffusion separation and sequential injection analysis for urea determination in milk is presented. A versatile manifold that could simultaneously be used for either spectrophotometric or conductometric detection was constructed. The sample and urease solution are sequentially aspirated into the holding coil and sent to a thermoreactor, where urea is enzymatically hydrolyzed by urease and converted into ammonium. This stream merges an alkaline solution at a confluence point where ammonia is formed. Ammonia diffuses through a hydrophobic membrane and modifies the bromothymol blue indicator color, when spectrophotometric detection is used, or changes the conductance of a boric acid solution acceptor stream, when conductometric detection is used. This methodology was applied to the determination of urea in 18 milk samples and the results were statistically comparable with those furnished by the enzymatic recommended procedure. The detection limits were 2.6 x 10(-4) and 2.8 x 10(-5) mol L(-1) for conductometric and spectrophotometric detection, respectively. Repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD) was better than 3.7% and 2.6% for conductometric and spectrophotometric detection, respectively. PMID:15537291

  10. Preferential Solvation in Urea Solutions at Different Concentrations: Properties from Simulation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kokubo, Hironori; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2007-04-21

    We performed molecular dynamics simulations of urea solutions at different concentrations with two urea models (OPLS and KBFF) to examine the structures responsible for the thermodynamic solution properties. Our simulation results showed that hydrogen-bonding properties such as the average number of hydrogen bonds and their lifetime distributions were nearly constant at all concentrations between infinite dilution and the solubility limit. This implies that the characterization of urea-water solutions in the molarity concentration scale as nearly ideal is a result of facile local hydrogen bonding rather than a global property. Thus, urea concentration does not influence the local propensity for hydrogen bonds, only how they are satisfied. By comparison, the KBFF model of urea donated fewer hydrogen bonds than OPLS. We found that the KBFF urea model in TIP3P water better reproduced the experimental density and diffusion constant data. Preferential solvation analysis showed that there were weak urea-urea and water-water associations in OPLS solution at short distances, but there were no strong associations. We divided urea molecules into large, medium, and small clusters to examine fluctuation properties and found that any particular urea molecule did not stay in the same cluster for a long time. We found neither persistent nor large clusters.

  11. Preferential Solvation in Urea Solutions at Different Concentrations: Properties from Simulation Studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Kokubo, Hironori; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2007-02-15

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We performed molecular dynamics simulations of urea solutions at different concentrations with two urea models (OPLS and KBFF) to examine the structures responsible for the thermodynamic solution properties. Our simulation results showed that hydrogen-bonding properties such as the average number of hydrogen bonds and their lifetime distributions were nearly constant at all concentrations between infinite dilution and the solubility limit. This implies that the characterization of urea-water solutions in the molarity concentration scale as nearly ideal is a result of facile local hydrogen bonding rather than a global property. Thus, urea concentration does not influence the local propensity for hydrogen bonds, only how they are satisfied. By comparison, the KBFF model of urea donated fewer hydrogen bonds than OPLS. We found that the KBFF urea model in TIP3P water better reproduced the experimental density and diffusion constant data. Preferential solvation analysis showed that there were weak urea-urea and water-water associations in OPLS solution at short distances, but there were no strong associations. We divided urea molecules into large, medium, and small clusters to examine fluctuation properties and found that any particular urea molecule did not stay in the same cluster for a long time. We found neither persistent nor large clusters.

  12. Transgenic Restoration of Urea Transporter A1 Confers Maximal Urinary Concentration in the Absence of Urea Transporter A3.

    PubMed

    Klein, Janet D; Wang, Yanhua; Mistry, Abinash; LaRocque, Lauren M; Molina, Patrick A; Rogers, Richard T; Blount, Mitsi A; Sands, Jeff M

    2016-05-01

    Urea has a critical role in urinary concentration. Mice lacking the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) urea transporter A1 (UT-A1) and urea transporter A3 (UT-A3) have very low levels of urea permeability and are unable to concentrate urine. To investigate the role of UT-A1 in the concentration of urine, we transgenically expressed UT-A1 in knockout mice lacking UT-A1 and UT-A3 using a construct with a UT-A1 gene that cannot be spliced to produce UT-A3. This construct was inserted behind the original UT-A promoter to yield a mouse expressing only UT-A1 (UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-)). Western blot analysis demonstrated UT-A1 in the inner medulla of UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) and wild-type mice, but not in UT-A1/UT-A3 knockout mice, and an absence of UT-A3 in UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) and UT-A1/UT-A3 knockout mice. Immunohistochemistry in UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) mice also showed negative UT-A3 staining in kidney and other tissues and positive UT-A1 staining only in the IMCD. Urea permeability in isolated perfused IMCDs showed basal permeability in the UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) mice was similar to levels in wild-type mice, but vasopressin stimulation of urea permeability in wild-type mice was significantly greater (100% increase) than in UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) mice (8% increase). Notably, basal urine osmolalities in both wild-type and UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) mice increased upon overnight water restriction. We conclude that transgenic expression of UT-A1 restores basal urea permeability to the level in wild-type mice but does not restore vasopressin-stimulated levels of urea permeability. This information suggests that transgenic expression of UT-A1 alone in mice lacking UT-A1 and UT-A3 is sufficient to restore urine-concentrating ability. PMID:26407594

  13. Adaptive network based on fuzzy inference system for equilibrated urea concentration prediction.

    PubMed

    Azar, Ahmad Taher

    2013-09-01

    Post-dialysis urea rebound (PDUR) has been attributed mostly to redistribution of urea from different compartments, which is determined by variations in regional blood flows and transcellular urea mass transfer coefficients. PDUR occurs after 30-90min of short or standard hemodialysis (HD) sessions and after 60min in long 8-h HD sessions, which is inconvenient. This paper presents adaptive network based on fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for predicting intradialytic (Cint) and post-dialysis urea concentrations (Cpost) in order to predict the equilibrated (Ceq) urea concentrations without any blood sampling from dialysis patients. The accuracy of the developed system was prospectively compared with other traditional methods for predicting equilibrated urea (Ceq), post dialysis urea rebound (PDUR) and equilibrated dialysis dose (eKt/V). This comparison is done based on root mean squares error (RMSE), normalized mean square error (NRMSE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The ANFIS predictor for Ceq achieved mean RMSE values of 0.3654 and 0.4920 for training and testing, respectively. The statistical analysis demonstrated that there is no statistically significant difference found between the predicted and the measured values. The percentage of MAE and RMSE for testing phase is 0.63% and 0.96%, respectively. PMID:23806679

  14. Effect of mastitis on milk perchlorate concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bannerman, D D; Paape, M J; Baldwin, R L; Rice, C P; Bialek, K; Capuco, A V

    2006-08-01

    Recent surveys have identified the presence of perchlorate, a natural compound and environmental contaminant, in forages and dairy milk. The ingestion of perchlorate is of concern because of its ability to competitively inhibit iodide uptake by the thyroid and to impair synthesis of thyroid hormones. A recent study established that milk perchlorate concentrations in cattle highly correlate with perchlorate intake. However, there is evidence that up to 80% of dietary perchlorate is metabolized in clinically healthy cows, thereby restricting the available transfer of ingested perchlorate into milk. The influence of mastitis on milk perchlorate levels, where there is an increase in mammary vascular permeability and an influx of blood-derived components into milk, remains unknown. The present study examined the effect of experimentally induced mastitis on milk perchlorate levels in cows receiving normal and perchlorate-supplemented diets. Over a 12-d period, cows were ruminally infused with 1 L/d of water or water containing 8 mg of perchlorate. Five days after the initiation of ruminal infusions, experimental mastitis was induced by the intramammary infusion of 100 microg of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Contralateral quarters infused with phosphate-buffered saline served as controls. A significant reduction in milk perchlorate concentration was observed in the LPS-challenged glands of animals ruminally infused with either water or perchlorate. In control glands, milk perchlorate concentrations remained constant throughout the study. A strong negative correlation was identified between mammary vascular permeability and milk perchlorate concentrations in LPS-infused glands. These findings, in the context of a recently published study, suggest that an active transport process is operative in the establishment of a perchlorate concentration gradient across the blood-mammary gland interface, and that increases in mammary epithelial and vascular endothelial permeability lead to a net outflow of milk perchlorate. The overall finding that mastitis results in lower milk perchlorate concentrations suggests that changes in udder health do not necessitate increased screening of milk for perchlorate. PMID:16840617

  15. Post-dialysis urea concentration: comparison between one- compartment model and two-compartment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrin, N. S. Ahmad; Ibrahim, N.

    2014-11-01

    The reduction of the urea concentration in blood can be numerically projected by using one-compartment model and two-compartment model with no variation in body fluid. This study aims to compare the simulated values of post-dialysis urea concentration for both models with the clinical data obtained from the hospital. The clinical assessment of adequacy of a treatment is based on the value of Kt/V. Further, direct calculation using clinical data and one-compartment model are presented in the form of ratio. It is found that the ratios of postdialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are higher compared to the ratios of post-dialysis urea concentration using one-compartment model. In addition, most values of post-dialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are much closer to the clinical data compared to values simulated using one-compartment model. Kt/V values calculated directly using clinical data are found to be higher than Kt/V values derived from one-compartment model.

  16. Measurements of liquid film thickness, concentration, and temperature of aqueous urea solution by NIR absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, R.; Jeffries, J. B.; Dreier, T.; Schulz, C.

    2016-01-01

    A multi-wavelength near-infrared (NIR) diode laser absorption sensor has been developed and demonstrated for real-time monitoring of the thickness, solute concentration, and temperature of thin films of urea-water solutions. The sensor monitors the transmittance of three near-infrared diode lasers through the thin liquid film. Film thickness, urea mass fraction, and liquid temperature were determined from measured transmittance ratios of suitable combinations of lasers. Available laser wavelengths were selected depending on the variation of the NIR absorption spectrum of the solution with temperature and solute concentration. The spectral database was measured by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer in the range 5500-8000 cm-1 for urea solutions between 5 and 40 wt% and temperatures between 298 and 338 K. A prototype sensor was constructed, and the sensor concept was first validated with measurements using a calibration cell providing liquid layers of variable thickness (200-1500 µm), urea mass fraction (5-40 wt%) and temperature (298-318 K). Temporal variations of film thickness and urea concentration were captured during the constant-temperature evaporation of a liquid film deposited on an optically polished heated quartz flat.

  17. Effects of crude protein concentration and degradability on performance, carcass characteristics, and serum urea nitrogen concentrations in finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Gleghorn, J F; Elam, N A; Galyean, M L; Duff, G C; Cole, N A; Rivera, J D

    2004-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted at two locations to determine the effects of dietary CP concentration and source on performance, carcass characteristics, and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) concentrations of finishing beef steers. British x Continental steers were blocked by BW (357 +/- 28 and 305 +/- 25 kg initial BW; n = 360 and 225; four and five pens per treatment in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively). Steam-flaked corn-based diets were arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial with three CP concentrations (11.5, 13, or 14.5% of DM) and three sources of supplemental CP (N basis): 100% urea; 50:50 blend of urea and cottonseed meal; or 100% cottonseed meal. Steers in both experiments were initially implanted with Ralgro and reimplanted with Revalor-S on d 56. Performance and carcass data were pooled across locations. Crude protein concentration x source interactions were not observed (P = 0.22 to 0.93) for performance and carcass data. Crude protein concentration affected ADG (P = 0.02) and carcass-adjusted (to a common dressing percent within location) ADG quadratically (P = 0.06). Increasing the concentration of supplemental urea linearly increased carcass-adjusted ADG and G:F (P < 0.05) and carcass-adjusted G:F (P < 0.001). Dry matter intake was not affected (P = 0.93) by either CP concentration or source. Hot carcass weight (HCW; P = 0.02), LM area (P = 0.05), and dressing percent (P = 0.03) increased linearly with increasing urea concentration, whereas increasing CP concentration quadratically affected HCW (P = 0.02), with a maximum at 13% CP. Differences in backfat thickness and yield grade were negligible across treatments. Neither marbling score nor percentage of carcasses grading USDA Choice was affected by CP concentration or source. At all times measured, SUN concentrations increased (P < 0.05) with increasing CP concentration, but effects of CP source were small and variable across time. Results indicate that increasing CP concentrations from 11.5 to 13% slightly increased ADG and carcass-adjusted ADG, whereas increasing the proportion of supplemental urea increased carcass-adjusted ADG, G:F, and carcass-adjusted G:F and increased HCW, LM area, and dressing percent. A CP concentration above 13% seemed detrimental to ADG and HCW. Serum urea N increased over time, with CP concentration having a greater effect than CP source. PMID:15446487

  18. A model to secure a stable iodine concentration in milk

    PubMed Central

    Trøan, Gisken; Dahl, Lisbeth; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Abel, Marianne Hope; Indahl, Ulf Geir; Haug, Anna; Prestløkken, Egil

    2015-01-01

    Background Dairy products account for approximately 60% of the iodine intake in the Norwegian population. The iodine concentration in cow's milk varies considerably, depending on feeding practices, season, and amount of iodine and rapeseed products in cow fodder. The variation in iodine in milk affects the risk of iodine deficiency or excess in the population. Objective The first goal of this study was to develop a model to predict the iodine concentration in milk based on the concentration of iodine and rapeseed or glucosinolate in feed, as a tool to securing stable iodine concentration in milk. A second aim was to estimate the impact of different iodine levels in milk on iodine nutrition in the Norwegian population. Design Two models were developed on the basis of results from eight published and two unpublished studies from the past 20 years. The models were based on different iodine concentrations in the fodder combined with either glucosinolate (Model 1) or rapeseed cake/meal (Model 2). To illustrate the impact of different iodine concentrations in milk on iodine intake, we simulated the iodine contribution from dairy products in different population groups based on food intake data in the most recent dietary surveys in Norway. Results The models developed could predict iodine concentration in milk. Cross-validation showed good fit and confirmed the explanatory power of the models. Our calculations showed that dairy products with current iodine level in milk (200 µg/kg) cover 68, 49, 108 and 56% of the daily iodine requirements for men, women, 2-year-old children, and pregnant women, respectively. Conclusions Securing a stable level of iodine in milk by adjusting iodine concentration in different cow feeds is thus important for preventing excess intake in small children and iodine deficiency in pregnant and non-pregnant women. PMID:26689316

  19. Effect of increased systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen in crossbred heifers on in vitro fertilization (IVF)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated levels of dietary N and hence systemic concentrations of urea-N have been shown to have a deleterious effect on reproductive processes. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding pubertal crossbred heifers diets with moderate (M-N; 64.8% corn silage, 30.0% alfalfa h...

  20. Effects of branched-chain amino acids and sodium caseinate on milk protein concentration and yield from dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mackle, T R; Dwyer, D A; Bauman, D E

    1999-01-01

    Our study investigated the separate and combined effects of branched-chain amino acids (AA) and sodium caseinate on milk protein concentration and yield. Four Holstein cows (112 d in milk) were abomasally infused with water, branched-chain AA (150 g/d), sodium caseinate (600 g/d), or branched-chain AA plus sodium caseinate (44 and 600 g/d, respectively) according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 8-d treatment periods. Cows were fed a dry diet based on alfalfa hay and concentrates for ad libitum intake. The ration was formulated to exceed requirements for metabolizable energy and protein using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System. Neither daily dry matter intake (24.2 +/- 0.4 kg/d; X +/- SEM) nor milk yield (32.9 +/-; 0.4 kg/d) was affected by any of the infusion treatments. Infusion of branched-chain AA had no effect on any milk production parameters, despite a 50% increase in their concentrations. Modest increases in milk protein concentration (0.1%) and milk protein yield (62 g/d) resulted from the infusion of sodium caseinate or branched-chain AA plus sodium caseinate. True protein and whey protein concentrations in milk were also marginally increased by infusion of sodium caseinate and branched-chain AA plus sodium caseinate, and infusion of branched-chain AA, sodium caseinate, or both elevated milk nonprotein N content. Plasma urea N concentrations were elevated by the sodium caseinate and branched-chain AA plus sodium caseinate treatments. No treatment effects on other plasma metabolites or hormones were observed. Our results show no benefit of supplementation with branched-chain AA and only modest effects of sodium caseinate on milk protein concentration and yield in well-fed cows. PMID:10022018

  1. Calcium release from milk concentrated by ultrafiltration and diafiltration.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Corredig, M

    2014-09-01

    The present work studied the solubilization of Ca during acidification in milk concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF) and diafiltration (DF). The effect of heating milk at 80°C for 15min was also evaluated. In addition to measuring buffering capacity, the amount of Ca released as a function of pH was determined. The area of the maximum peak in buffering capacity observed at pH ~5.1, related to the presence of colloidal Ca phosphate, was significantly affected by casein volume fraction but did not increase proportionally with casein concentration. In addition, a lower buffering capacity and less solubilized Ca were measured in 2× DF milk compared with 2× UF milk. Heat treatment did not change the buffering capacity or Ca release in 1× and 2× concentrated milk. On the other hand, at a higher volume fraction (4×), more Ca was present in the soluble phase in heated 4× UF and DF milk compared with unheated milk. This is the first comprehensive study on the effect of concentration, distinguishing the effect of UF from that of DF, before and after heating, on Ca solubilization. PMID:25022683

  2. Predicting perchlorate exposure in milk from concentrations in dairy feed.

    PubMed

    Rice, Clifford P; Baldwin Vi, Ransom L; Abbott, Linda C; Hapeman, Cathleen J; Capuco, Anthony V; Le, Anh; Bialek-Kalinski, Krystyna; Bannerman, Douglas D; Hare, William R; Paape, Max J; McCarty, Gregory W; Kauf, Adam C; Sadeghi, Ali M; Starr, James L; McConnell, Laura L; Van Tassell, Curtis P

    2007-10-17

    Perchlorate has been detected in U.S. milk samples from many different states. Applying data from a recently reported 9-week experiment in which 16 Holstein dairy cows were administered perchlorate allowed us to derive an equation for the dose-response relationship between perchlorate concentrations in feed/drinking water and its appearance in milk. Examination of background concentrations of perchlorate in the total mixed ration (TMR) fed in addition to the variable dose supplied to treated cows as a ruminal infusate revealed that cows receive significant and variable exposure to perchlorate from the TMR. Weekly examination of the TMR disclosed that a change in ingredients midway through the experiment caused a significant (78%) change in TMR perchlorate concentration. Analyses of the ingredients comprising the TMR revealed that 41.9% of the perchlorate came from corn silage, 22.9% came from alfalfa hay and 11.7% was supplied by sudan grass. Finally, USDA Food and Nutrition Survey data on fluid milk consumption were used to predict potential human exposure from milk that contained concentrations of perchlorate observed in our previous dosing study. The study suggests that reducing perchlorate concentration in dairy feed may reduce perchlorate concentrations in milk as well as the potential to reduce human exposure to perchlorate in milk. PMID:17892259

  3. Urea concentration in minor mucous gland secretions and the effect of salivary film velocity on urea metabolism by Streptococcus vestibularis in an artificial plaque.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, L M; Dawes, C

    1991-09-01

    Our purpose was to determine the urea concentration in minor mucous gland (MMG) secretions and the pH at proximal and distal aspects of the lower surface of artificial plaque in vitro during infusion of urea solutions over the surface, at different film velocities. Saliva is present in the mouth as a slowly moving film (ca. 0.1 mm thick) with an estimated velocity in the range of 0.8-8.0 mm/min. At low velocities, due to the accumulation of bacterial products, a progressive increase in their concentration may occur in both the plaque and the overlying salivary film at the distal edge (where the film leaves the plaque). S. vestibularis, an oral micro-organism possessing ureolytic activity, was combined with 1% agarose, to give a urease Vmax similar to that of natural plaque. The artificial plaque was in the chamber (6.0 x 6.0 square and 0.5 or 1.5 mm deep) of a diffusion apparatus, and a urea-containing artificial saliva (3.3 or 13.2 mmol/l) was infused over the surface, as a film 0.1 mm deep, at velocities of 0.8, 8.2 and 86.2 mm/min. At the lower (physiologically normal) urea concentration and the two lower film velocities, most urea appeared to be metabolized at the proximal end of the plaque, which developed a higher pH. At the higher urea concentration, and a film velocity of 8 mm/min, a higher pH was found at the distal end. This was probably due to the combination of greater urea availability and a reduced rate of ammonia loss distally. At a film velocity of 86.2 mm/min, proximal/distal pH gradients did not develop.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1832451

  4. Does the adequacy parameter Kt/V(urea) reflect uremic toxin concentrations in hemodialysis patients?

    PubMed

    Eloot, Sunny; Van Biesen, Wim; Glorieux, Griet; Neirynck, Nathalie; Dhondt, Annemieke; Vanholder, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Hemodialysis aims at removing uremic toxins thus decreasing their concentrations. The present study investigated whether Kt/V(urea), used as marker of dialysis adequacy, is correlated with these concentrations. Predialysis blood samples were taken before a midweek session in 71 chronic HD patients. Samples were analyzed by colorimetry, HPLC, or ELISA for a broad range of uremic solutes. Solute concentrations were divided into four groups according to quartiles of Kt/V(urea), and also of different other parameters with potential impact, such as age, body weight (BW), Protein equivalent of Nitrogen Appearance (PNA), Residual Renal Function (RRF), and dialysis vintage. Dichotomic concentration comparisons were performed for gender and Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Analysis of Variance in quartiles of Kt/V(urea) did not show significant differences for any of the solute concentrations. For PNA, however, concentrations showed significant differences for urea (P<0.001), uric acid (UA), p-cresylsulfate (PCS), and free PCS (all P<0.01), and for creatinine (Crea) and hippuric acid (HA) (both P<0.05). For RRF, concentrations varied for β₂-microglobulin (P<0.001), HA, free HA, free indoxyl sulfate, and free indole acetic acid (all P<0.01), and for p-cresylglucuronide (PCG), 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid (CMPF), free PCS, and free PCG (all P<0.05). Gender and body weight only showed differences for Crea and UA, while age, vintage, and diabetes mellitus only showed differences for one solute concentration (UA, UA, and free PCS, respectively). Multifactor analyses indicated a predominant association of concentration with protein intake and residual renal function. In conclusion, predialysis concentrations of uremic toxins seem to be dependent on protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance and residual renal function, and not on dialysis adequacy as assessed by Kt/V(urea). Efforts to control intestinal load of uremic toxin precursors by dietary or other interventions, and preserving RRF seem important approaches to decrease uremic solute concentration and by extension their toxicity. PMID:24236005

  5. Maternal and environmental determinants of breast-milk mercury concentrations.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S Songül; Yurdakök, Kadriye; Yalçin, Suzan; Engür-Karasimav, Defne; Coşkun, Turgay

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the maternal factors [including dietary habits, dental care, smoking, anemia, levels of breast-milk zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe), and levels of serum selenium (Se), Zn and copper (Cu)] that influence breast-milk mercury (Hg) concentrations and to investigate whether there is any relation between Hg concentrations and infant growth and development during the exclusive breastfeeding period and in the second year of life. Forty-four healthy mother-infant pairs in the 10-20-day postpartum period were enrolled in the study. Maternal history and blood samples for hemoglobin, Fe, Fe binding capacity, ferritin, Se, Zn, and Cu and breast-milk samples for Fe, Zn and Hg were taken. Infant growth and development during the exclusive breastfeeding period and in the second year of life were followed. The mean concentration of breast-milk Hg was 3.42 +/- 1.66 microg/L. Serum Se levels were negatively correlated with milk Hg levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that active/passive smoking and offal intake during pregnancy and presence of maternal anemia had an impact on increased milk Hg concentrations. Preventive strategies for mercury exposure should include management of iron deficiency anemia, cessation of smoking exposure and proper nutrition during the pregnancy period. PMID:20402060

  6. Zinc and Copper Concentrations in Human Milk and Infant Formulas

    PubMed Central

    Khaghani, Shahnaz; Ezzatpanah, Hamid; Mazhari, Najmeh; Givianrad, Mohammad Hadi; Mirmiranpour, Hossein; Sadrabadi, Fatemeh Shahi

    2010-01-01

    Objective Available accurate data on the concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in human milk throughout lactation and infant formulas is important both for formulating nutritional requirements for substances and to provide a base line for the understanding the physiology of their secretion. The objective of this study was to analyze the concentrations of zinc and copper in infant formulas and human milk during prolonged lactation. Levels of these metals were examined in relation to selected parameters such as age, weight, height, education and occupation of mothers. Methods Thirty mothers referred to the selected clinics in Tehran entered the study. Human milk samples were collected at 2 months postpartum. Zinc and copper concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Findings The mean values of Zn and Cu in human milk were 2.95±0.77mg/L and 0.36±0.11 mg/L. The mean values of Zn and Cu in infant formulas were 3.98±0.25 mg/L and 0.53±0.17mg/L. Conclusion No significant relationship was found between levels of trace elements in human milk and evaluated parameters such as age, weight, height, education and occupation of mothers. The concentrations of zinc and copper in breast milk were lower than those reported in the literature. PMID:23056682

  7. Concentration dependence of the subunit association of oligomers and viruses and the modification of the latter by urea binding.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, G; Da Poian, A T; Silva, J L

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical model is presented that accounts for the facilitation of the pressure dissociation of R17 phage, and for the partial restoration of the concentration dependence of the dissociation, by the presence of subdenaturing concentrations of urea. As an indifferent osmolyte urea should promote the stability of the protein aggregates under pressure, and the decrease in pressure stability with urea concentration demonstrates that such indirect solvent effects are not significant for this case, and that the progressive destabilization is the result of direct protein-urea interactions. By acting as a "homogenizer" of the properties of the phage particles, urea addition converts the pressure-induced deterministic dissociation of the phage into a limited stochastic equilibrium. The model establishes the origin of the uniform progression from the stochastic equilibrium of dimers, to the temperature-dependent and partially concentration-dependent association of tetramers, to the fully deterministic equilibrium observed in many multimers and in the virus capsids. PMID:8770195

  8. Statistical evaluation of factors and interactions affecting dairy herd improvement milk urea nitrogen in commercial midwest dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Wattiaux, M A; Nordheim, E V; Crump, P

    2005-08-01

    In this study, 400,729 Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) records collected on 77,178 cows in 692 Midwest herds over 29 mo (January 1999 to May 2001) were used to analyze milk urea nitrogen (MUN) as collected the day of the test in 6 breeds. Records of Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss were subjected to stepwise backward elimination analysis with a model including parity (primiparous vs. multiparous cows), sample type (morning vs. evening), milking frequency (2x vs. 3x [Holstein only]), season (winter, spring, summer, and fall), yield of fat-corrected milk (FCM) classified into 1 of 3 FCM categories (FCMc) and all possible higher-order interactions. Results indicated that FCMc contributed to test-day MUN variation in multiparous, but not primiparous, Holsteins. Sample type and season were significant in both parity groups; milking frequency was not significant, but milking frequency x season and milking frequency x FCMc were significant in both parity groups. The nature of these interactions differed for each parity group. For Jersey and Brown Swiss data analyzed by sample type separately, parity was not significant but tended to interact with FCMc, whereas season, FCMc, and season x FCMc were generally significant. Mean test-day MUN was 12.7, 14.6, and 14.4 mg/dL, with 24, 45, and 42% of records above 14.5 mg/dL in Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss in single-breed herds, respectively. In Holsteins, MUN peaked at 7 to 10 d in milk (DIM), declined until 28 to 35 DIM, and rose again thereafter. In primiparous Holsteins, MUN did not change with FCM

  9. Concentration dependent effects of urea binding to poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes: a combined experimental and numerical study.

    PubMed

    Micciulla, Samantha; Michalowsky, Julian; Schroer, Martin A; Holm, Christian; von Klitzing, Regine; Smiatek, Jens

    2016-02-10

    The binding effects of osmolytes on the conformational behavior of grafted polymers are studied in this work. In particular, we focus on the interactions between urea and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) brushes by monitoring the ellipsometric brush thickness for varying urea concentrations over a broad temperature range. The interpretation of the obtained data is supported by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, which provide detailed insights into the experimentally observed concentration-dependent effects on PNIPAM-urea interaction. In particular, in the low concentration regime (cu ≤ 0.5 mol L(-1)) a preferential exclusion of urea from PNIPAM chains is observed, while in the high concentration regime (2 ≤ cu ≤ 7 mol L(-1)) a preferential binding of the osmolyte to the polymer surface is found. In both regimes, the volume phase transition temperature (Ttr) decreases with increasing urea concentration. This phenomenon derives from two different effects depending on urea concentration: (i) for cu ≤ 0.5 mol L(-1), the decrease of Ttr is explained by a decrease of the chemical potential of bulk water in the surrounding aqueous phase; (ii) for cu ≥ 2 mol L(-1), the lower Ttr is explained by the favorable replacement of water molecules by urea, which can be regarded as a cross-linker between adjacent PNIPAM chains. Significant effects of the concentration-dependent urea binding on the brush conformation are noticed: at cu = 0.5 mol L(-1), although urea is loosely embedded between the hydrated polymer chains, it enhances the brush swelling by excluded volume effects. Beyond 0.5 mol L(-1), the stronger interaction between PNIPAM and urea reduces the chain hydration, which in combination with cross-linking of monomer units induces the shrinkage of the polymer brush. PMID:26817960

  10. Abatement of ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from dairy farms using milk urea N (MUN)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urinary urea N (UUN) excreted by dairy cows is the principal nitrogen (N) source that controls emissions of ammonia (which can be hazardous to human and ecosystem health) and nitrous oxide (the most potent agricultural greenhouse gas) from dairy manure. The objectives of this study were (1) to inves...

  11. Urinary concentrating defect in mice with selective deletion of phloretin-sensitive urea transporters in the renal collecting duct

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Robert A.; Chou, Chung-Lin; Stewart, Gavin S.; Smith, Craig P.; Knepper, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the role of inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) urea transporters in the renal concentrating mechanism, we deleted 3 kb of the UT-A urea transporter gene containing a single 140-bp exon (exon 10). Deletion of this segment selectively disrupted expression of the two known IMCD isoforms of UT-A, namely UT-A1 and UT-A3, producing UT-A1/3-/- mice. In isolated perfused IMCDs from UT-A1/3-/- mice, there was a complete absence of phloretin-sensitive or vasopressin-stimulated urea transport. On a normal protein intake (20% protein diet), UT-A1/3-/- mice had significantly greater fluid consumption and urine flow and a reduced maximal urinary osmolality relative to wild-type controls. These differences in urinary concentrating capacity were nearly eliminated when urea excretion was decreased by dietary protein restriction (4% by weight), consistent with the 1958 Berliner hypothesis stating that the chief role of IMCD urea transport in the concentrating mechanism is the prevention of urea-induced osmotic diuresis. Analysis of inner medullary tissue after water restriction revealed marked depletion of urea in UT-A1/3-/- mice, confirming the concept that phloretin-sensitive IMCD urea transporters play a central role in medullary urea accumulation. However, there were no significant differences in mean inner medullary Na+ or Cl- concentrations between UT-A1/3-/- mice and wild-type controls, indicating that the processes that concentrate NaCl were intact. Thus, these results do not corroborate the predictions of passive medullary concentrating models stating that NaCl accumulation in the inner medulla depends on rapid vasopressin-regulated urea transport across the IMCD epithelium. PMID:15123796

  12. Effect of milk fraction on concentrations of cephapirin and desacetylcephapirin in bovine milk after intramammary infusion of cephapirin sodium.

    PubMed

    Stockler, R M; Morin, D E; Lantz, R K; Hurley, W L; Constable, P D

    2009-08-01

    Clinical mastitis in dairy cows is commonly treated with intramammary (IMM) antimicrobial agents. Pharmacokinetic data are used to design treatment regimens and determine withholding times. In some pharmacokinetic studies, investigators measure antimicrobial concentrations in foremilk, whereas in others, they use bucket milk or do not specify the milk fraction sampled. Our objective was to compare antimicrobial concentrations in foremilk, bucket milk, and strippings after IMM treatment of six healthy Holsteins. One mammary gland/cow was infused with 200 mg of cephapirin (CEPH) after each of the two milkings, using different milking frequencies and treatment intervals in a randomized crossover design. Treated glands were sampled at the first milking following each infusion. Antimicrobial concentrations in milk were measured using HPLC/MS/MS. CEPH concentration was higher in foremilk (geometric mean 44.2 microg/mL) than in bucket milk (15.7 microg/mL) or strippings (18.5 microg/mL), as it was true for desacetylcephapirin (DAC) (59.5, 23.0, and 30.2 microg/mL, respectively). This finding, which was based on milk samples collected at the first milking after IMM infusion, suggests that pharmacokinetic data based on drug concentrations in foremilk may be misleading. Strippings were more representative of bucket milk than foremilk. The relationship between milk fraction and antimicrobial concentration should be investigated for other IMM antimicrobial agents. Meanwhile, it is essential that pharmacokinetic and residue studies report the fraction of milk that was analyzed. PMID:19614839

  13. Calcium montmorillonite clay in dairy feed reduces aflatoxin concentrations in milk without interfering with milk quality, composition or yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if a calcium montmorillonite clay (Novasil Plus, NSP), can significantly reduce aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) concentrations in milk without affecting dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition, vitamin A, or riboflavin concentrations. The study was designed us...

  14. Bisphenol A concentrations in maternal breast milk and infant urine

    PubMed Central

    Mendonca, K.; Hauser, R.; Calafat, A.M.; Arbuckle, T.E.; Duty, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The present report describes the distribution of breast milk and urinary free and total bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations, from 27 post-partum women and their 31 infants, and explores the influence of age, sex, and nutritional source on infant BPA urinary concentration. Methods Both free (unconjugated) and total (free plus conjugated) BPA concentrations from women’s breast milk samples and infants’ urine samples were measured by online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests of group comparisons were conducted. Results Total BPA was detected in 93% of urine samples in this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who were without known environmental exposure to BPA (interquartile range [IQR]=1.2 – 4.4 μg/L). Similarly, 75% of the mothers’ breast milk samples had detectable concentrations of total BPA (IQR=0.4 – 1.4 μg/L). The magnitude and frequency of detection of free BPA in the children’s urine and the mothers’ breast milk were much lower than the total concentrations. Conclusions Total BPA was detected in 93% of this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who are without known environmental exposure to BPA. Neither free nor total BPA urinary concentrations differed significantly by infant’s sex or by nutritional source (breast milk and/or formula) while age group was of borderline significance. There were no significant correlations between free or total BPA concentrations in mothers’ breast milk and their infants’ urine. PMID:23212895

  15. Effect of milk type and processing on iodine concentration of organic and conventional winter milk at retail: implications for nutrition.

    PubMed

    Payling, Laura M; Juniper, Darren T; Drake, Chris; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D Ian

    2015-07-01

    Milk is the largest source of iodine in UK diets and an earlier study showed that organic summer milk had significantly lower iodine concentration than conventional milk. There are no comparable studies with winter milk or the effect of milk fat class or heat processing method. Two retail studies with winter milk are reported. Study 1 showed no effect of fat class but organic milk was 32.2% lower in iodine than conventional milk (404 vs. 595 μg/L; P<0.001). Study 2 found no difference between conventional and Channel Island milk but organic milk contained 35.5% less iodine than conventional milk (474 vs. 306 μg/L; P<0.001). UHT and branded organic milk also had lower iodine concentrations than conventional milk (331 μg/L; P<0.001 and 268 μg/L: P<0.0001 respectively). The results indicate that replacement of conventional milk by organic or UHT milk will increase the risk of sub-optimal iodine status especially for pregnant/lactating women. PMID:25704719

  16. Short communication: Evaluation of milk urea nitrogen as a management tool to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Powell, J M; Wattiaux, M A; Broderick, G A

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compile and evaluate relationships between feed nitrogen (N) intake, milk urea N (MUN), urinary urea N (UUN), and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions from dairy farms to aid policy development. Regression relationships between MUN, UUN, and NH(3) emissions were compiled from studies conducted in Wisconsin, California, and the Netherlands. Relative reductions in NH(3) emissions were calculated as percentage decreases in NH(3) emissions associated with a baseline MUN level of 14 mg/dL (prevailing industry average). For 3 studies with cows in stanchion barns, relative NH(3) emission reductions of 10.3 to 28.2% were obtained when MUN declined from 14 to 10mg/dL. Similarly, analyses of 2 freestall studies provided relative NH(3) emission reductions of 10.5 to 33.7% when MUN levels declined from 14 to 10mg/dL. The relative reductions in NH(3) emissions from both stanchion and freestall barns can be associated directly with reductions in UUN excretion, which can be determined using MUN. The results of this study may help create new awareness, and perhaps eventual industry-based incentives, for management practices that enhance feed N use efficiency and reduce MUN, UUN, and NH(3) emissions from dairy farms. PMID:21854942

  17. Is it possible to screen for milk or whey protein adulteration with melamine, urea and ammonium sulphate, combining Kjeldahl and classical spectrophotometric methods?

    PubMed

    Finete, Virgínia de Lourdes Mendes; Gouvêa, Marcos Martins; Marques, Flávia Ferreira de Carvalho; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira

    2013-12-15

    The Kjeldahl method and four classic spectrophotometric methods (Biuret, Lowry, Bradford and Markwell) were applied to evaluate the protein content of samples of UHT whole milk deliberately adulterated with melamine, ammonium sulphate or urea, which can be used to defraud milk protein and whey contents. Compared with the Kjeldahl method, the response of the spectrophotometric methods was unaffected by the addition of the nitrogen compounds to milk or whey. The methods of Bradford and Markwell were most robust and did not exhibit interference subject to composition. However, the simultaneous interpretation of results obtained using these methods with those obtained using the Kjeldahl method indicated the addition of nitrogen-rich compounds to milk and/or whey. Therefore, this work suggests a combination of results of Kjeldahl and spectrophotometric methods should be used to screen for milk adulteration by these compounds. PMID:23993532

  18. Ammonia and urea determination in water samples using amberlite XAD-7 to concentrate indophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, P.; Sanchez, E.; Pons, A.; Palou, A.

    1986-03-01

    A modification of the indophenol method applied to the determination of ammonia and urea in the same sample is described. Indophenol, formed proportionally to the amount of ammonia available, is selectively concentrated in a single purification-concentration step, using simple and recyclable columns of Amberlite XAD-7 resin, thus increasing the method sensitivity. Its application to seawater samples is described. The procedure is applicable to analysis of large numbers of samples running simultaneously in routine studies and eliminates possible artifacts that may alter the precision and sensitivity of the method. 16 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  19. Ruminal nitrogen metabolism in steers as affected by feed intake and dietary urea concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Firkins, J.L.; Berger, L.L.; Merchen, N.R.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.; Mulvaney, R.L.

    1987-11-01

    Four multiple-cannulated steers (340 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Steers were fed a diet of 50% ground hay and 50% concentrate at two intakes (1.4 and 2.1% of BW), with urea and /sup 15/N-enriched ammonium sulfate infused continuously into the rumen at .4 or 1.2% of diet DM. Ratios of purines and diaminopimelic acid-N to N in fluid-associated and particulate-associated bacteria and in protozoa were similar among treatments but were lower for protozoa than for bacteria. Diaminopimelic acid-N:N was higher for fluid-associated vs. particulate-associated bacteria. Enrichment of /sup 15/N was similar between bacteria among treatments and was 30% lower for protozoa. Turnover rates of /sup 15/N in bacteria, NH/sub 3/N, and non-HN/sub 3/N pools were faster for steers infused with 1.2 than those infused with .4% urea, indicating less efficient usage of ammonia with higher urea. A method is described to estimate the proportion of duodenal nitrogen comprising bacterial and protozoal nitrogen.

  20. Estimation of low bacterial concentration: Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Broseta, Stphanie; Diot, Annabelle; Bastian, Suzanne; Rivire, Jacques; Cerf, Olivier

    2003-01-15

    A time-series bacteriological analysis has been carried out on milk collected on farms from 1997 to 2001 by a plant producing raw milk soft cheese, with the purpose of assessing the time course of the presence/absence of Listeria monocytogenes. A standard data collection procedure was used, in which farms were tested on a monthly or biweekly basis and 2-3 days after the detection of milk tanker contamination. This procedure yielded low figures for contamination frequencies. The average value and the median of the monthly prevalence of farms detected positive for L. monocytogenes were 2.4 and 0%, respectively. A seasonal effect (with peaks in winter) was observed. Between 1997 and 2001, there was no significant decrease of contamination rates, in spite of the efforts on the contaminated farms. Over the last year of the study (from March 2000 to February 2001), a new data collection procedure was implemented that allowed much better detection of sporadic occurrences. Milk samples were collected from the bulk tank of each participating farm just before pick-up, then stored and subsequently analysed whenever the milk tanker was found contaminated. The average value and the median of the monthly prevalence of positive farms were found equal to 7.7 and 0%, respectively (for a mean prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the milk tanker of 3.2%). These results confirm that farm milk contamination is, most often, a sporadic event In addition to this prevalence study, contamination levels were quantified by enumerating L. monocytogenes using direct plating of small volumes of farm milk previously tested positive. Most often, these levels were extremely low. A simple simulation model shows that, when milk tankers were found positive, contamination levels in the corresponding bulk-tank milk are themselves very low (typically, below 3 L. monocytogenes per millilitre with most probable concentration 0.1 Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/ml and median ranging from 5.10(-2) to 0.1 CFU/ml). Such low levels are very likely to be due to environmental contamination. PMID:12430767

  1. Detecting concentrations of milk components by an iterative optical technique.

    PubMed

    Yariv, Inbar; Kapp-Barnea, Yaara; Genzel, Eran; Duadi, Hamootal; Fixler, Dror

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces a theoretical and practical model for reconstructing the scattering properties of a participating media. Our theory is based on a robust generalization of the Gerchberg-Saxton (G-S) algorithm. At the end of this algorithm the reduced scattering coefficient μ's of a given substance, can be estimated from the standard deviation (STD) of the retrieved phase of the remitted light. We use the theory to compute the phase's STD that directly correlated to the optical properties for different types of milk components, and we derive a novel appearance model for milk parameterized by the lactose and protein contents. Our results show that we are able to detect the possibility of lactose and milk proteins' quantitative signature by the G-S optical tool, en route to the design of a novel milk-content-monitoring tool. Sketch of the experimental setup for light intensity measurements and reduced scattering coefficient reconstruction. The samples were prepared from various milk components: whey protein, sodium casienate and lactose, at different concentrations. PMID:25727334

  2. The effects of a probiotic on blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations in large felids.

    PubMed

    McCain, Stephanie; Allender, Matthew C; Schumacher, Juergen; Ramsay, Edward

    2011-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a common finding in older captive exotic felids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a probiotic to reduce blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in large felids. Fifteen adult, large felids (6 tigers [Panthera tigris], 5 lions [Panthera leo], 3 cougars [Puma concolor], and 1 leopard [Panthera pardus]) were administered a probiotic twice daily after a baseline complete blood cell count and plasma chemistry panel was obtained. Plasma chemistry values were rechecked at 2 mo (n = 14) and 6 mo (n = 9). There was no significant change in blood urea nitrogen over time; however, there was a significant change in creatinine over time (P = 0.04). Creatinine concentration decreased significantly between 2 and 6 mo (P = 0.02), and a decrease was seen between 0 and 6 mo, but this change was not significant (P = 0.05). There was no significant difference noted for creatinine concentration between 0 and 2 mo (P = 0.35). This probiotic may be helpful in large felids with elevated creatinine concentrations because of chronic kidney disease; however, further studies are warranted. PMID:22950314

  3. [Urea and potassium losses and changes in amino acid concentration after aortocoronary bypass operations].

    PubMed

    Behrendt, W

    1982-12-01

    Changes in urea nitrogen excretion, renal potassium losses, and changes of amino acid concentrations in plasma following aortocoronary bypass operations were observed in 10 patients. The observation time included the preoperative day, the day of operation, and 4 postoperative days. The patients were treated with a 5% glucose solution (800-1000 ml/m2). The additional spontaneous oral intake was estimated and reached approximately 600-800 kcal and 25-30 g protein on the 3rd and 4th postoperative day. The calculated urea nitrogen loss was between -8.2 g (operation day) and -11.2 g (4th postoperative day). The concentrations of serum amino acids in plasma were below normal preoperatively. It seems possible that this is due to longer preoperative fasting because only patients with normal body weight were admitted to operation. The amino acid concentrations fell significantly to lower than normal values during the postoperative period. There were massive renal losses of potassium of about 140 mEq/day on the day of operation and on the 1st postoperative day. High parenteral substitution was necessary to avoid severe falls in serum potassium levels and possible cardiac arrythmias. PMID:6819230

  4. Modification of the Kjeldahl noncasein nitrogen method to include bovine milk concentrates and milks from other species.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    The objective of our research was to modify the current indirect casein method for bovine milk to enable it to be applied to bovine milk, bovine milk concentrates, and milks of other species that contain a protein concentration up to 9% (wt/wt). Our work used a series of bovine milk concentrates from about 3 to 9% protein with the same casein as a percentage of true protein to determine the amount of buffer required and pH of the noncasein nitrogen (NCN) filtrate to achieve consistent estimates of casein and casein as percent of true protein. As the concentration of protein in milk increased (either in bovine milk concentrates or in milks of other species), the amount of buffer needed for the NCN sample preparation method to achieve a filtrate pH of 4.6 increased. In the first part of the study using a series of bovine milk concentrates, it was demonstrated that the method gave more consistent predictions of casein as a percentage of true protein when the final NCN filtrate pH was between 4.5 and 4.6 at 38°C. When the amount of buffer added to the sample was not sufficient (i.e., the filtrate pH was too high), the filtrates were not clear. A polynomial equation was developed for prediction of the amount of acetic acid or sodium acetate buffer required to achieve pH 4.5 to 4.6 for milk protein concentrations from 3 to 9% protein using bovine milk and milk concentrates. When the equation developed using cow milk was applied to goat, sheep, and water buffalo milks, it correctly predicted the volume of reagents needed to achieve a final NCN filtrate pH of 4.6 at 38°C. We also verified as part of this work that the ability to measure NPN content of milk was not influenced by protein content of milk in the range from 3 to 9% protein. The results of this study will be used as the basis for proposed changes in the official methods for measurement of the casein content of milk to expand the scope of the method so it can be used to achieve accurate results for milk concentrates and milks of other species. PMID:26298747

  5. Detection of low concentrations of ampicillin in milk.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Chrysafis; Mirsafavi, Rustin; Moskovits, Martin; Meinhart, Carl D

    2015-08-01

    Ampicillin, a common antibiotic, is detected at trace concentrations in milk using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy in a microfluidic device, using less than 20 μL of sample, in 10 minutes, with minimal off-chip preparation. The device is configured so as to favor the interaction of the analyte with colloidal silver, and the optimization of the aggregation of the silver nanoparticles so as to increase the SERS intensity and the consequential sensitivity of analyte detection. PMID:26087055

  6. Aerobic treatment of a concentrated urea wastewater with simultaneous stripping of ammonia.

    PubMed

    Rittstieg, K; Robra, K H; Somitsch, W

    2001-09-01

    An industrial wastewater containing a total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) of 12.80 g l(-1) was treated in a continuously fed activated sludge reactor. The main contaminant was urea (21.52 g l(-1)), together with minor amounts of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (0.46 g l(-1)) and free ammonia (0.56 g l(-1)). The wastewater was diluted 1:1 with water and treated under alkaline conditions (pH 9.4), enabling the simultaneous hydrolysis of urea and stripping of free ammonia in one aerobic reactor. Experiments were conducted to eliminate the remaining ammonia in a separate treatment unit by nitrification/denitrification. An adapted nitrifying bacterial population was isolated which was able to nitrify at a rate of 0.1 g nitrogen l(-1) day(-1) at a dicyandiamide concentration of 0.22 g l(-1). However, this was found to be too slow for an industrial-scale operation. Therefore, separate stripping with air or steam after pH adjustment to > or =10.5 is proposed. The diluted wastewater was treated with a hydraulic retention time of 6 days, corresponding to a volumetric nitrogen loading rate of 1.1 g nitrogen l(-1) day(-1) with an overall TKN reduction of 78.0%. PMID:11601636

  7. Major advances in concentrated and dry milk products, cheese, and milk fat-based spreads.

    PubMed

    Henning, D R; Baer, R J; Hassan, A N; Dave, R

    2006-04-01

    Advances in dairy foods and dairy foods processing since 1981 have influenced consumers and processors of dairy products. Consumer benefits include dairy products with enhanced nutrition and product functionality for specific applications. Processors convert raw milk to finished product with improved efficiencies and have developed processing technologies to improve traditional products and to introduce new products for expanding the dairy foods market. Membrane processing evolved from a laboratory technique to a major industrial process for milk and whey processing. Ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis have been used extensively in fractionation of milk and whey components. Advances in cheese manufacturing methods have included mechanization of the making process. Membrane processing has allowed uniform composition of the cheese milk and starter cultures have become more predictable. Cheese vats have become larger and enclosed as well as computer controlled. Researchers have learned to control many of the functional properties of cheese by understanding the role of fat and calcium distribution, as bound or unbound, in the cheese matrix. Processed cheese (cheese, foods, spreads, and products) maintain their importance in the industry as many product types can be produced to meet market needs and provide stable products for an extended shelf life. Cheese delivers concentrated nutrients of milk and bio-active peptides to consumers. The technologies for the production of concentrated and dried milk and whey products have not changed greatly in the last 25 yr. The size and efficiencies of the equipment have increased. Use of reverse osmosis in place of vacuum condensing has been proposed. Modifying the fatty acid composition of milkfat to alter the nutritional and functional properties of dairy spread has been a focus of research in the last 2 decades. Conjugated linoleic acid, which can be increased in milkfat by alteration of the cow's diet, has been reported to have anticancer, anti-atherogenic, antidiabetic, and antiobesity effects for human health. Separating milk fat into fractions has been accomplished to provide specific fractions to improve butter spreadability, modulate chocolate meltability, and provide texture for low-fat cheeses. PMID:16537951

  8. Functional Characteristics of Milk Protein Concentrates and Their Modification.

    PubMed

    Uluko, Hankie; Liu, Lu; Lv, Jia-Ping; Zhang, Shu-Wen

    2016-05-18

    A major deterrent to the usage of milk protein concentrate (MPC), a high-protein milk product with increasing demand as a food and sports drink ingredient, has been its poor functional characteristics when compared with other milk protein products such as whey protein concentrate and sodium caseinates. This review discusses the recent research on functional properties of MPC, focusing on factors that may contribute to the poor functional characteristics before, during, and after production. Current research, methods employed, and new understanding on the causes of poor solubility of MPC at mild temperatures (about 20°C) has been presented, including loss of solubility during storage as these areas have received unprecedented attention over the past decade, and also affects other useful functional properties of MPC, such as emulsifying properties, gelation, and foaming. Processing methods, which include heat treatment, high-pressure application, microwave heating, ultrasound application, and enzyme and salts modification, have been used or have potential to modify or improve the functional properties of MPCs. Future research on the effects of these processing methods on the functional properties, including effects of enzyme hydrolysis on bitterness and bioactivity, has also been discussed. PMID:26048645

  9. Breast milk lead concentrations of mothers living near tin smelters.

    PubMed

    Marques, Rejane C; Moreira, Maria de Fátima R; Bernardi, José Vicente E; Dórea, José G

    2013-11-01

    We compared Pb concentration in human milk from 37 mothers living in a neighborhood of tin-ore smelters to that from 45 mothers living in a fishing community. The median breast-milk-Pb (BM-Pb) concentration was significantly (p = 0.0000001) higher (11.3 μg L(-1); ≤0.96-29.4 μg L(-1)) in mothers living in the vicinity of smelters than that of rural mothers (1.9 μg L(-1); ≤0.96-20.0 μg L(-1)). These mothers also showed a statistically significant correlation between length of residence and BM-Pb concentration (Spearman r = 0.6864; p < 0.0001). The estimated median exposure (for infants <6 months) was 3.0 μg kg(-1) b.w. for rural infants compared to 7.5 μg kg(-1) b.w. for infants in the vicinity of metal smelters. Overall, most BM-Pb concentrations (79 %) in the metal smelter area were above the critical limit of 5.0 μg L(-1) set by the WHO. PMID:24068462

  10. Higher milk fat content is associated with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Vanderhout, Shelley M; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Lebovic, Gerald; Chen, Yang; O'Connor, Deborah L; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2016-05-01

    Current guidelines for cow's milk consumption in children older than age 2 years suggest 1% or 2% milk to reduce the risk of obesity. Given that milk is the main dietary source of vitamin D for North American children and that vitamin D is fat soluble, we hypothesized 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration to be positively associated with the fat content of milk. The objective was to determine the relationship between the fat content of milk consumed and the serum 25(OH)D concentration; our secondary objective was to explore the role that the volume of milk consumed played in this relationship. We completed a cross-sectional study of children aged 12-72 months in the TARGetKids! research network. Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between milk fat content and child 25(OH)D, adjusted for clinically relevant covariates. The interaction between volume of milk and fat content was examined. Two thousand eight hundred fifty-seven children were included in the analysis. The fat content of milk was positively associated with 25(OH)D (p = 0.03), and the interaction between the volume of milk consumed and the milk fat content was statistically significant (p = 0.005). Children who drank 1% milk needed 2.46 cups (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.38-2.54) of milk to have a 25(OH)D concentration similar to that of children who drank 1 cup of homogenized milk (3.25% fat). Children who consumed 1% milk had 2.05 (95% CI 1.73-2.42) times higher odds of having a 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/L compared with children who consumed homogenized milk. In conclusion, recommendations for children to drink lower-fat milk (1% or 2%) may compromise serum 25(OH)D levels and may require study to ensure optimal childhood health. PMID:27138972

  11. Salvage of blood urea nitrogen in sheep is highly dependent on plasma urea concentration and the efficiency of capture within the diegestive tract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to establish the relationships between transfer of blood urea-N to the digestive tract (GIT) and utilisation of recycled urea-N within the GIT, and to determine which of these two mechanisms of the urea recycling process places greater limits on N salvage by growing sheep. Four gro...

  12. Analysis of fluoride concentration in mother's milk substitutes.

    PubMed

    Pagliari, Ana Valéria; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Saliba, Orlando; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Sassaki, Kikue Takebayashi

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the fluoride concentration in some brands of mother's milk substitutes and evaluate the possibility of developing dental fluorosis by consuming these products. The products, all powdered, were divided into 3 groups: infant formulae (group I, n = 7), milk-based (group M, n = 8) and soy-based (group S, n = 3). Samples from 3 cans of different batches of each brand were reconstituted in deionized water and analyzed using the specific electrode method, after hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) facilitated diffusion. The fluoride content (mg F/L) of the products ranged from 0.044 to 0.326 (I), 0.014 to 0.045 (M) and 0.253 to 0.702 (S). There was significant difference in the fluoride content of cans from distinct batches (p < 0.05) in most of the brands. The reconstitution of all products in water with optimal fluoride concentration for consumption during the mineralization phase of the primary teeth could result in daily fluoride intake above 0.07 mg F/kg body weight/day. Therefore, the consumption of these products, especially when reconstituted with optimally fluoridated water, could increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis. PMID:17119712

  13. A Portable Low-Power Acquisition System with a Urease Bioelectrochemical Sensor for Potentiometric Detection of Urea Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wei-Jhe; Luo, Ching-Hsing; Lin, Jiun-Ling; Chou, Sin-Houng; Chen, Ping-Hung; Syu, Mei-Jywan; Kuo, Shin-Hung; Lai, Shin-Chi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a portable low-power battery-driven bioelectrochemical signal acquisition system for urea detection. The proposed design has several advantages, including high performance, low cost, low-power consumption, and high portability. A LT1789-1 low-supply-voltage instrumentation amplifier (IA) was used to measure and amplify the open-circuit potential (OCP) between the working and reference electrodes. An MSP430 micro-controller was programmed to process and transduce the signals to the custom-developed software by ZigBee RF module in wireless mode and UART in able mode. The immobilized urease sensor was prepared by embedding urease into the polymer (aniline-co-o-phenylenediamine) polymeric matrix and then coating/depositing it onto a MEMS-fabricated Au working electrode. The linear correlation established between the urea concentration and the potentiometric change is in the urea concentrations range of 3.16 × 10−4 to 3.16 × 10−2 M with a sensitivity of 31.12 mV/log [M] and a precision of 0.995 (R2 = 0.995). This portable device not only detects urea concentrations, but can also operate continuously with a 3.7 V rechargeab-le lithium-ion battery (500 mA·h) for at least four days. Accordingly, its use is feasible and even promising for home-care applications. PMID:27049390

  14. A Portable Low-Power Acquisition System with a Urease Bioelectrochemical Sensor for Potentiometric Detection of Urea Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei-Jhe; Luo, Ching-Hsing; Lin, Jiun-Ling; Chou, Sin-Houng; Chen, Ping-Hung; Syu, Mei-Jywan; Kuo, Shin-Hung; Lai, Shin-Chi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a portable low-power battery-driven bioelectrochemical signal acquisition system for urea detection. The proposed design has several advantages, including high performance, low cost, low-power consumption, and high portability. A LT1789-1 low-supply-voltage instrumentation amplifier (IA) was used to measure and amplify the open-circuit potential (OCP) between the working and reference electrodes. An MSP430 micro-controller was programmed to process and transduce the signals to the custom-developed software by ZigBee RF module in wireless mode and UART in able mode. The immobilized urease sensor was prepared by embedding urease into the polymer (aniline-co-o-phenylenediamine) polymeric matrix and then coating/depositing it onto a MEMS-fabricated Au working electrode. The linear correlation established between the urea concentration and the potentiometric change is in the urea concentrations range of 3.16 × 10(-4) to 3.16 × 10(-2) M with a sensitivity of 31.12 mV/log [M] and a precision of 0.995 (R² = 0.995). This portable device not only detects urea concentrations, but can also operate continuously with a 3.7 V rechargeab-le lithium-ion battery (500 mA·h) for at least four days. Accordingly, its use is feasible and even promising for home-care applications. PMID:27049390

  15. Copper, lead and zinc concentrations of human breast milk as affected by maternal dietary practices

    SciTech Connect

    Umoren, J.; Kies, C.

    1986-03-01

    Maternal dietary practices have been found to affect the concentrations of some nutrients in human breast milk. Lead toxicity is a concern in young children. Lead, copper and zinc are thought to compete for intestinal absorption sites. The objective of the current project was to compare copper, lead and zinc contents of breast milk from practicing lacto-vegetarian and omnivore, lactating women at approximately four months post-partum. Analyses were done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a carbon rod attachment. Copper concentrations were higher in milk samples from lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Milk samples from the omnivores had the highest lead and zinc concentrations. Lead and copper concentrations in milk were negatively correlated. The higher zinc concentrations in the milk of the omnivore women may have been related to better utilization of zinc from meat than from plant food sources.

  16. Iodine concentration of organic and conventional milk: implications for iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Button, Suzanne; Rayman, Margaret P

    2012-04-01

    Iodine is required for adequate thyroid hormone production, which is essential for brain development, particularly in the first trimester of pregnancy. Milk is the principal source of iodine in UK diets, and while small studies in Europe have shown organic milk to have a lower iodine concentration than conventional milk, no such study has been conducted in Britain. In view of the increasing popularity of organic milk in the UK, we aimed to compare the iodine concentration of retail organic and conventional milk and to evaluate regional influences in iodine levels. Samples of organic milk (n 92) and conventional milk (n 80), purchased from retail outlets in sixteen areas of the UK (southern England, Wales and Northern Ireland), were analysed for iodine using inductively coupled plasma MS. The region of origin of the milk was determined from information on the label. Organic milk was 42·1 % lower in iodine content than conventional milk (median iodine concentration 144·5 v. 249·5 ng/g; P < 0·001). There was no difference in the iodine concentration of either conventional or organic milk by area of purchase. However, a difference was seen in iodine concentration of organic milk by region of origin (P < 0·001). The lower iodine concentration of organic milk has public-health implications, particularly in view of emerging evidence of iodine deficiency in UK population sub-groups, including pregnant women. Individuals who choose organic milk should be aware that their iodine intake may be compromised and should ensure adequate iodine intake from alternative sources. PMID:21781365

  17. Short communication: Effects of nanofiltration and evaporation on the physiochemical properties of milk protein during processing of milk protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jialu; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Shaozong; Liu, Chang; Li, Yan; Li, Haimei; Zhang, Liebing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of nanofiltration and evaporation concentration technologies on the physiochemical properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC) during processing. Skim milk, ultrafiltered milk, evaporated milk, nanofiltered milk, evaporated MPC, and nanofiltered MPC samples were collected at different processing stages. Chemical composition, microstructure of casein micelles, free sulfhydryl content, and surface hydrophobicity of the samples were determined. The insolubility index of MPC was also determined. Casein micelles aggregated compactly after evaporation while surface hydrophobicity increased and free sulfhydryl content decreased in evaporated milk compared with skim milk. However, the microstructure of the casein micelles was relatively undisturbed after nanofiltration, with reduced surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl content. No significant difference was found in chemical composition between the 2 MPC preparations: approximately 61.40% protein and 28.49% lactose. In addition, the particulate microstructures of both MPC were similar. However, the insolubility index of evaporated MPC was significantly (0.58mL) higher than that of nanofiltered MPC. Nanofiltration may be an effective way to improve the solubility of MPC products. PMID:25465557

  18. Rennet-induced gelation of concentrated milk in the presence of sodium caseinate: differences between milk concentration using ultrafiltration and osmotic stressing.

    PubMed

    Krishnankutty Nair, P; Corredig, M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrating milk is a common unit operation in the dairy industry. With the reduction of water, the particles interact more frequently with each other and the functionality of the casein micelles may depend on the interactions occurring during concentration. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of concentration on the renneting properties of the casein micelles by comparing 2 concentration methods: ultrafiltration and osmotic stressing. Both methods selectively concentrate the protein fraction of milk, while the composition of the soluble phase is unaltered. To evaluate possible differences in the rearrangements of the casein micelles during concentration, renneting properties were evaluated with or without the addition of soluble caseins, added either before or after concentration. The results indicate that casein micelles undergo rearrangements during concentration and that shear during membrane filtration may play a role in affecting the final properties of the milk. PMID:25468692

  19. Non-enzymatic detection of urea using unmodified gold nanoparticles based aptasensor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Lambadi, Paramesh Ramulu; Navani, Naveen Kumar

    2015-10-15

    Biosensing nitrogenous compounds like urea is required to control the incidents of Economically Motivated Adulteration (EMA). In this study, we report the FluMag Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (FluMag-SELEX) method to isolate a urea specific DNA aptamer with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 232 nM. The interaction of DNA aptamer with urea has been confirmed by affinity assay, CD analysis, melting curve analysis and truncation studies. Unlike other urea sensing methods reported so far, using this urea aptamer, we demonstrate a simple, 'non-enzymatic' easy-to-use, dual readout aptasensor that exploits unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to transduce the signals of aptamer binding to urea in terms of intrinsic fluorescence differences and color changes simultaneously. This method is free from complicated sample processing and labeling steps. The urea aptasensor displays high selectivity for urea and is free from interference from common milk adulterants. The developed aptasensor reliably detects urea adulteration in milk. The response signals linearly correlate with the increasing concentrations of urea in milk ranging from 20mM to 150 mM with detection limit of 20mM. We also show that this aptasensor can also be used as a simple fluorescence based "turn-on" sensor. The results obtained in this study are comparable to the commercial urease based detection methods. PMID:26002019

  20. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mestorino, N; Marchetti, M L; Turic, E; Pesoa, J; Errecalde, J

    2009-04-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mgkg(-1)). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 microghmL(-1) and its elimination half life (T(beta)(1/2)) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T(beta)(1/2) from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal. PMID:19286009

  1. Lead concentration in breast milk of lactating women who were living in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Sedigheh; Shahverdy, Mohammad Reza; Mazhari, Najmeh; Abdi, Khosrou; Gerayesh Nejad, Siavash; Shams, Sedigheh; Alebooyeh, Elham; Khaghani, Shahnaz

    2014-01-01

    It is obvious that lead intake is of concern not for its beneficial/essential effects on metabolism, but rather for its toxic actions, which can be especially damaging to children. The objective of this study was to analyze the concentration of lead in milk of mothers during prolonged lactation. Milk samples from 43 mothers were collected at 2 months postpartum. Lead was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The value of lead in human milk was 23.66±22.43 μg/l. Lead concentration in human milk of mothers was higher than other countries and no significant relationship was found between levels of human milk lead and mother's education, age, parity, height and weight. The concentrations of lead in the milk samples were high, which makes a major public health hazard for the inhabitants, especially neonatal and children, of the industrial locations. PMID:24658989

  2. Concentrations of lead in maternal blood, cord blood, and breast milk.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, C N; Phoon, W O; Law, H Y; Tye, C Y; Lim, H H

    1985-01-01

    Lead concentrations in maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, and breast milk from 114 women who were not occupationally exposed to lead were determined by graphite atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations of lead in maternal blood, umbilical cord blood and breast milk were 0.7, 0.55, and 0.23 mumol/l, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between maternal and umbilical cord blood (r = 0.63). A lower correlation was noted between maternal blood and breast milk (r = 0.29). These results suggest that lead freely crosses the placental barrier from mother to fetus and the transfer of this heavy metal from maternal tissues to breast milk is possible, but the metabolic mechanisms are more complicated. In addition, a longitudinal study was conducted of concentrations of lead in breast milk in nine lactating women. Results suggested no significant change in the content of lead in breast milk during early lactation. PMID:4037861

  3. Essential trace and toxic element concentrations in organic and conventional milk in NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Rey-Crespo, F; Miranda, M; López-Alonso, M

    2013-05-01

    Dietary composition and husbandry practices largely determine essential trace element status and toxic element exposure of livestock, and consequently their concentrations in animal products. This study evaluates the main essential trace (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn) and toxic (As, Cd, Hg and Pb) element concentrations in milk from organic and conventional farms in NW Spain (n=50). Milk samples were acid digested and analyzed by ICP-MS. Essential trace element concentrations in organic milk were significantly lower compared to conventional milk, this was especially evident for elements that are routinely supplemented at high concentrations in the conventional concentrate feed: Cu (41.0 and 68.9μg/L in organic and conventional milk, respectively), Zn (3326 and 3933μg/L), I (78 and 265μg/L) and Se (9.4 and 19.2μg/L). Toxic metal concentrations in milk were in general very low and no statistically significant differences were observed between organic and conventional milk. In addition, the mineral content of organic milk showed a seasonal pattern, the significantly higher As (65%) and Fe (13%) concentrations found in the winter sampling possibly being related to a higher consumption of concentration feed and soil ingestion when grazing. PMID:23391598

  4. Effects of enzymatic dephosphorylation on infant in vitro gastrointestinal digestibility of milk protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dasong; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yun; Hu, Jinhua; Lu, Naiyan; Regenstein, Joe M; Wang, Miao; Zhou, Peng

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the effects of dephosphorylation extent on infant in vitro gastric clotting property and gastrointestinal digestibility of milk protein concentrate. Dephosphorylation was affected by phosphatase type and incubation pH. A series of milk protein concentrate with 0-69% dephosphorylation were obtained by incubation with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase at pH 6.5 for 0-420 min. Both β- and αs1-caseins in the modified milk protein concentrate showed multiply dephosphorylated isoforms with different numbers of phosphate groups depending on the extent of dephosphorylation. With increased dephosphorylation of milk protein concentrate, the gastric clotting extent decreased and the gastrointestinal digestibility increased under infant in vitro conditions. These results suggested the potential of developing a dephosphorylated milk protein concentrate, with improved gastric clotting property and gastrointestinal digestibility, to simulate the multiply phosphorylated patterns of human casein and hence to further the humanization of infant formula on a molecular level. PMID:26617031

  5. Milk selenium concentration and its association with udder health in Atlantic Canadian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Ceballos-Marquez, A; Barkema, H W; Stryhn, H; Dohoo, I R; Keefe, G P; Wichtel, J J

    2010-10-01

    Soils and plants in Atlantic Canadian provinces are known to contain low concentrations of selenium (Se). Earlier studies have indicated that dairy producers in Atlantic Canada are providing insufficient supplementary Se in the ration to meet the Se requirements of dairy cattle, as measured by herd-level milk Se concentration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between milk Se concentration and somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of new intramammary infection (IMI) in the dry period, in Atlantic Canadian dairy cows. Eighteen dairy farms participating in the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network cohort study were selected as a convenience sample. On each farm 15 cows to be dried off were selected. Quarter milk samples were collected at 4 and 2 wk before drying-off, within 24 h after calving, and at 7 d after calving to evaluate IMI status. Composite milk samples were analyzed for SCC and Se concentration. Mean milk Se concentration was marginal in 14% of the cows that were on pasture during the grazing season. Milk Se concentration was not associated with the overall odds of new IMI in the dry period; however, the odds of having a new Streptococcus spp. and other gram-positive pathogen IMI in the dry period increased with increasing milk Se concentration. Somatic cell count increased with milk Se concentration, even after adjusting for IMI status. The dairy population in our study had higher ranges for milk Se concentration, whereas ranges for prevalence of IMI, and SCC were lower, compared with those in studies where a negative relationship between Se status and udder health was first noted. Therefore, under the current management conditions, milk Se concentration did not appear to be a principal determinant of udder health. PMID:20855004

  6. Effects of feed intake and dietary urea concentration on ruminal dilution rate and efficiency of bacteria growth in steers

    SciTech Connect

    Firkins, J.L.; Lewis, S.M. Montgomery, L.; Berger, L.L.; Merchen, N.R.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.

    1987-11-01

    Four multiple-fistulated steers (340 kg) were fed a diet containing 50% ground grass hay, 20% dry distillers grains, and 30% concentrate at two intakes (7.2 or 4.8 kg DM/d). Urea (.4 or 1.2% of the diet) was infused continuously into the steers' rumens. The experimental design was a 4 x 4 Latin square with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Infusing urea at .4 or 1.2% of the diet resulted in ruminal NH/sub 3/ N concentration of 4.97 and 9.10 mg/dl, respectively. Feeding steers at high rather than low intake decreased ruminal and total tract digestibilities of organic matter, NDF, and ADF but did not increase ruminal escape of N. However, apparent N escape from the rumen calculated using purines, but not /sup 15/N, as a bacterial marker was higher when 1.2 vs. .4% urea was infused. Feeding at high rather than at low intake increased the total pool of viable bacteria per gram organic matter fermented in the rumen. Although ruminal fluid outflows and particulate dilution rates were greater when steers were fed at high than low intakes, efficiencies of bacterial protein synthesis were unaffected by intake. The possibility of increased N recycling within the rumen with feeding at the higher intake is discussed.

  7. Influence of provision of concentrate at milking on voluntary cow traffic in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Scott, V E; Thomson, P C; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2014-03-01

    The success of an automatic milking system is generally reliant upon the voluntary movement of cows around the farm system and the correct management of incentives to achieve a targeted level of cow traffic. The present study investigated the effect of providing a small feed reward as an incentive at milking on the premilking voluntary waiting time of cows milked on a prototype robotic rotary in an Australian pasture-based dairy. The 2 treatments were "feed on" (concentrate offered at milking) and "feed off" (no concentrate offered at milking), with data from a single herd of 168 lactating dairy cows collected over 16d. A survival analysis with time-varying covariates was used to model the voluntary waiting times of cows in the premilking yard. The median time cows spent waiting before milking was 129 min and after 4h just over 70% of the cows had exited the yard (volunteered for milking). When feed was provided, cows were faster to exit the premilking yard (shorter time spent waiting) and waited just over half the time (0.53×) they did during the "feed off" treatment. Heifers exited the premilking yard more rapidly than cows in later lactations, with older cows spending at least 1.40 times longer in the yard before milking. Average daily milk yield along with stage of lactation and fetching cows from the paddock also influenced cow traffic in the premilking yard. As the number of cows in the premilking yard increased, voluntary waiting time also increased. At a queue length of 20 or more cows, the negative effect on waiting time of an additional cow entering the yard was less than that when fewer than 20 cows were present. Results demonstrated that feeding a small reward on the robotic rotary platform can reduce the time cows spend in the premilking yard, leading to a potential reduction in the risk of congestion at the dairy, particularly during times of high demand. Minimizing congestion will likely benefit multiple aspects of the voluntary milking operation, including a potential improvement in robot utilization, a reduction in unnecessary time spent off pasture by cows in the milking herd, promoting cow welfare through reducing the risk of lameness, and enhancing productivity. Targeting strategies to minimize queue length to less than the threshold length, which in this study was 20 cows, could result in reduced time spent in the premilking yard. PMID:24440259

  8. Concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Gessner, D K; Most, E; Schlegel, G; Kupczyk, K; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) changes the concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows. To investigate this hypothesis, Holstein cows received daily from 3 weeks ante-partum to 14 weeks post-partum either 172 g of a CLA-free rumen-protected control fat (control group, n = 20) or the same amount of a rumen-protected CLA fat, supplying 4.3 g of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and 3.8 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA per d (CLA group, n = 20). Milk samples (collected at weeks 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 of lactation) were analysed for retinol, ?- and ?-tocopherol concentrations. Milk of cows supplemented with CLA had higher concentrations of retinol (+34%), ?-tocopherol (+44%) and ?-tocopherol (+21%) than milk of control cows (p < 0.05). The daily output of these vitamins via milk was also greater in cows of the CLA group than in cows of the control group (+36, 50 and 24% for retinol, ?-tocopherol and ?-tocopherol, respectively, p < 0.05). In agreement with higher concentrations of tocopherols, concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, determined in milk of week 5, were lower in cows of the CLA group than in control cows, indicative of a lower susceptibility of milk lipids to peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of retinol and ?-tocopherol, determined at 1 and 5 weeks post-partum, were not different between the two groups of cows. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementing dairy cows with a moderate amount of CLA causes an increase of the concentrations of vitamins A and E in the milk and results in an increased output of those vitamins via milk. These effects might be beneficial with respect to the nutritional value of dairy products and the susceptibility of milk fat to oxidative deterioration. PMID:25846729

  9. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration.

    PubMed

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, S; Hansen-Møller, J; Martinsson, K; Steinshamn, H; Gustavsson, A-M

    2012-08-01

    Phytoestrogens are hormone-like substances in plants that can substantially influence human health (positively or negatively), and when fed to dairy cows are partly transferred to their milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of varying the botanical composition and regrowth interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with α-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut red clover-grass silage diet (1,494 μg/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low. Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone concentration than the other diets (226 μg/kg of milk). Lengthening the regrowth interval increased the intake of secoisolariciresinol and decreased the recovery of lignans. Feeding long-term ley silage resulted in higher milk lignan concentrations but lower milk isoflavone concentrations than feeding short-term ley silage. The apparent recovery of all phytoestrogens except prunetin was highest on the 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet. No effect of α-tocopherol supplementation was observed on milk concentrations of any of the measured phytoestrogens. Variations were observed in milk concentrations of phytoestrogens, especially of equol, among cows, which could not be explained by variations in diet composition or phytoestrogen intake. The results show that milk phytoestrogen concentration is strongly influenced by silage botanical composition, but questions regarding phytoestrogen metabolism remain to be answered. PMID:22818467

  10. Effect of incremental urea supplementation of a conventional corn silage-based diet on ruminal ammonia concentration and synthesis of microbial protein.

    PubMed

    Boucher, S E; Ordway, R S; Whitehouse, N L; Lundy, F P; Kononoff, P J; Schwab, C G

    2007-12-01

    One primiparous and 3 multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the efficacy of adding urea to a corn silage-based diet on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis. Dietary treatments were 0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% urea in diet dry matter (DM); urea was manually top dressed and incorporated into the ration. The basal diet contained (DM basis) 52% forage (with 61% of forage provided as corn silage) and 48% concentrate ingredients. The basal diet was formulated to meet National Research Council (NRC, 2001) requirements for energy and all nutrients except rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and metabolizable protein. Experimental periods lasted 14 d with the first 9 d for adaptation. The basal diet, without urea addition, contained 9.2% RDP in DM and had a predicted RDP balance of -167 g/d (NRC, 2001). There were no effects of dietary treatment on ruminal true digestibility of organic matter or ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. Total ruminal volatile fatty acid concentrations increased linearly with increasing urea level. Feeding increasing amounts of urea quadratically increased rumen ammonia N concentrations (9.0, 11.9, 12.8, and 17.4 mg/dL at 0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% urea supplementation, respectively), passage of microbial N, and microbial N in duodenal digesta as a percentage of nonammonia N. The results of this study indicate that there were some positive effects of adding urea to the described lactating dairy cow diet, and that microbial protein synthesis was maximized at an average ruminal ammonia N concentration of 12.8 mg/dL when urea was added at 0.6% in diet DM. PMID:18024754

  11. Effects of high concentrations of dietary crude glycerin on dairy cow productivity and milk quality.

    PubMed

    Ezequiel, J M B; Sancanari, J B D; Machado Neto, O R; da Silva, Z F; Almeida, M T C; Silva, D A V; van Cleef, F O S; van Cleef, E H C B

    2015-11-01

    An increasing worldwide interest in alternative fuel sources and in a more diversified energy matrix has provided incentives for the biodiesel industry, generating large amounts of the by-product crude glycerin, a potential alternative feed for dairy cows. A replicated 3×3 Latin square study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high concentrations of crude glycerin on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of medium-yield cows. Ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (n=6; 587 ± 39 kg of body weight; 114 ± 29 d in milk; and 20 ± 1.5 kg/d milk yield) were used in the study. The experimental period included 2 wk for adaptation and 1 wk for data collection. Cows were fed diets containing 0 (control), 15, or 30% crude glycerin (83% glycerol). Cows were milked, milk weights were recorded twice daily, and milk samples were collected for milk quality analyses at d 18 and 19 in each experimental period. Feeding cows with crude glycerin linearly decreased dry-matter intake, the 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and the solid-corrected milk yield. Hepatic enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments, except gamma-glutamyl transferase, which was decreased with the 15% crude glycerin diet. Serum glucose and albumin showed quadratic effect with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Plasma cholesterol as well as total protein linearly decreased with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Milk fat concentration and yield showed a quadratic effect of treatments. Solid yield decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Odd-chain fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat linearly increased with addition of crude glycerin in the diets. Together, these results suggest that crude glycerin has potential to replace corn; however, feeding diets in which corn is replaced with crude glycerin at 30% of dietary DM greatly reduces animal performance. PMID:26298757

  12. The dopamine antagonist domperidone increases prolactin concentration and enhances milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lacasse, P; Ollier, S

    2015-11-01

    In previous studies, our team showed that the inhibition of prolactin (PRL) secretion by the dopamine agonist quinagolide reduces milk production in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of administration of a dopamine antagonist on basal and milking-induced PRL concentrations in blood and on milk production during positive energy balance and feed restriction in dairy cows. Eighteen mid-lactation Holstein cows received daily s.c. injections of either domperidone (300 mg, DOMP, n=9) or the vehicle, canola oil (CTL, n=9), for 5 wk. During wk 5, all cows were fed at 65% of their dry matter intake in the previous week. Blood and milk samples were collected before (for blood) and during (for milk) the a.m. milking thrice weekly from d -9 to 41 (8d after the last injection). In addition, blood samples were collected during the a.m. milking on d -1 (before the first injection), and on d 1, 28, and 34. Basal PRL concentration was similar in both groups before the start of the treatments. Domperidone injections caused a gradual increase in basal PRL concentration. Feed restriction reduced basal PRL concentration in both the CTL and DOMP cows, but PRL concentration remained higher in the DOMP cows. Prolactin concentration remained elevated in the DOMP cows 7d after the last injection. The milk concentration of PRL increased during the DOMP treatment, but the increase was smaller than that observed in serum. In the CTL cows, the milking-induced PRL release above the premilking concentration was similar on d -1, 1, and 28 but was reduced during feed restriction. In the DOMP cows, the milking-induced PRL release was similar on d -1 and 1 but was reduced on d 28 and 34. Milk production was similar for both groups before the treatments started but was greater in the DOMP cows during the treatment period, at 2.9 ± 0.6 and 2.4 ± 0.6 kg/d greater during wk 3 and 4 of treatment, respectively. Milk production declined in both groups during feed restriction but remained higher in the DOMP cows. Milk production became similar again for both groups after the last injection. In addition, dry matter intake was increased by DOMP. These results support the hypothesis that PRL is galactopoietic in dairy cattle. PMID:26298751

  13. Concentration of trichloroethylene in breast milk and household water from Nogales, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Luik, Catherine E; Abrell, Leif; Campos, Swilma; Martínez, María Elena; Sáez, A Eduardo

    2012-08-21

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has identified quantification of trichloroethylene (TCE), an industrial solvent, in breast milk as a high priority need for risk assessment. Water and milk samples were collected from 20 households by a lactation consultant in Nogales, Arizona. Separate water samples (including tap, bottled, and vending machine) were collected for all household uses: drinking, bathing, cooking, and laundry. A risk factor questionnaire was administered. Liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether was followed by GC-MS for TCE quantification in water. Breast milk underwent homogenization, lipid hydrolysis, and centrifugation prior to extraction. The limit of detection was 1.5 ng/mL. TCE was detected in 7 of 20 mothers' breast milk samples. The maximum concentration was 6 ng/mL. TCE concentration in breast milk was significantly correlated with the concentration in water used for bathing (ρ = 0.59, p = 0.008). Detection of TCE in breast milk was more likely if the infant had a body mass index <14 (RR = 5.2, p = 0.02). Based on average breast milk consumption, TCE intake for 5% of the infants may exceed the proposed U.S. EPA Reference Dose. Results of this exploratory study warrant more in depth studies to understand risk of TCE exposures from breast milk intake. PMID:22827160

  14. Concentration of Trichloroethylene in Breast Milk and Household Water from Nogales, Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Beamer, Paloma I.; Luik, Catherine E.; Abrell, Leif; Campos, Swilma; Martínez, María Elena; Sáez, A. Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has identified quantification of trichloroethylene (TCE), an industrial solvent, in breast milk as a high priority need for risk assessment. Water and milk samples were collected from 20 households by a lactation consultant in Nogales, Arizona. Separate water samples (including tap, bottled and vending machine) were collected for all household uses: drinking, bathing, cooking, and laundry. A risk factor questionnaire was administered. Liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether was followed by GC-MS for TCE quantification in water. Breast milk underwent homogenization, lipid hydrolysis and centrifugation prior to extraction. The limit of detection was 1.5 ng/mL. TCE was detected in 7 of 20 mothers’ breast milk samples. The maximum concentration was 6 ng/mL. TCE concentration in breast milk was significantly correlated with the concentration in water used for bathing (ρ=0.59, p=0.008). Detection of TCE in breast milk was more likely if the infant had a body mass index <14 (RR=5.2, p=0.02). Based on average breast milk consumption, TCE intake for 5% of the infants may exceed the proposed US EPA Reference Dose. Results of this exploratory study warrant more in depth studies to understand risk of TCE exposures from breast milk intake. PMID:22827160

  15. Milk production responses to a change in dietary starch concentration vary by production level in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of dietary starch concentration on yield of milk and milk components were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n=32; 115±22 d in milk) with a wide range in milk yield (28 to 62kg/d) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to a treatment sequence. Treatments were diets containing 30% dry ground corn (CG) or 30% soyhulls (SH) on a DM basis. Diets containing corn silage and alfalfa silage were formulated to contain 16% crude protein, 24% forage neutral detergent fiber, and either 27 or 44% neutral detergent fiber and 30 or 12% starch for CG and SH, respectively. Cows were fed a diet intermediate to the treatments during a preliminary 14-d period. Treatment periods were 28 d with measurements taken throughout the period for energy calculations and the final 5 d used for data and sample collection for production variables. Compared with SH, CG increased dry matter intake, and yields of milk, milk protein, milk fat, and energy-corrected milk, as well as milk protein concentration. Treatment did not affect milk fat concentration. Yield of de novo synthesized and preformed milk fatty acids increased with CG. Treatment interacted with level of preliminary milk production for several response variables (yields of milk, milk protein, milk fat, energy-corrected milk, and 3.5% fat-corrected milk). Compared with SH, the CG treatment increased energy-corrected milk in higher-producing cows with a lesser response to CG as milk yield decreased. The CG treatment increased milk:feed compared with the SH treatment, but not body weight or body condition score. In conclusion, higher-producing cows benefited from the high-starch diet, and lower-producing cows were able to maintain production when most of the starch was replaced with nonforage fiber. PMID:25981075

  16. Leptin concentration in breast milk and its relationship to duration of lactation and hormonal status

    PubMed Central

    Ilcol, Yesim Ozarda; Hizli, Z Banu; Ozkan, Tanju

    2006-01-01

    Background Leptin, a hormone present in breast milk, is involved in energy regulation and metabolism. The objectives of this study were to assess leptin concentrations in breast milk during the first 180 days postpartum, and to determine the relationship between the concentrations of milk leptin and circulating hormone levels in lactating women. Methods Between April 2005 and January 2006, blood and breast milk samples were collected from 160 breastfeeding women enrolled either in the first three days (n = 37; colostrum), days 4–14 (n = 27; transitional milk), days 15–30 (n = 16; early mature milk), days 31–90 (n = 37; mature milk) or days 91–180 (n = 43; late mature milk) postpartum. Milk and serum leptin levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay. Cortisol was measured by radioimmunoassay method. Serum insulin, estradiol, prolactin and thyroxine were measured by chemiluminescent immunometric method. Results Leptin concentrations in breast milk were highest (3.28 ± 0.41 ng/ml) in colostrum, decreased during the first 180 days of lactation, showing a significant inverse relation (r = -0.694, p < 0.001) with the days of lactation. Colostrum leptin concentrations correlated with maternal serum leptin (r = 0.425, p < 0.01), cortisol (r = 0.549, p < 0.01) and thyroxine (r = -0.530, p < 0.01). Mature milk leptin concentrations correlated with maternal serum leptin (r = 0.547, p < 0.001), insulin (r = 0.331, p < 0.05) and thyroxine (r = -0.329, p < 0.01). Serum leptin concentrations correlated with serum insulin (r = 0.648, p < 0.001), estradiol (r = 0.639, p < 0.001), prolactin (r = 0.530, p < 0.001) and thyroxine (r = -0.327, p < 0.05) concentrations during days 1–3 postpartum. During 15–180 postpartum days, serum leptin concentrations correlated with serum insulin (r = 0.271, p < 0.01), and thyroxine (r = -0.345, p < 0.001). Conclusion Leptin concentrations in breast milk decrease with time during lactation and show significant relationships with other maternal hormones. PMID:17109762

  17. The effect of serum iron concentration on iron secretion into mouse milk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peifang; Sawicki, Valerie; Lewis, Andy; Hanson, Linda; Monks, Jenifer; Neville, Margaret C

    2000-01-01

    The concentration of iron in mouse milk is approximately 3 times that of the serum. Although there is clear evidence for the presence of the transferrin receptor in the rodent mammary gland, the precise mechanisms of iron transfer into milk are not known. Milk iron was linearly related to the serum iron:transferrin ratio in lactating mice whose serum iron ranged from 8 to 66 μm. Increasing the iron binding capacity of the milk by 340 μm by targeting the lactoferrin transgene to the mammary gland did not alter the relation between milk iron and the serum iron:transferrin ratio. The steady-state distribution ratio of 125I-transferrin between plasma and milk was about 0.2, indicating that transcytosed transferrin contributed a maximum of 6% of the milk iron. Fluorescently labelled transferrin incubated with the in situ gland localized mainly near the basal surface of the mammary alveolar cells. These experiments provide evidence that the initial and rate-limiting step in the transfer of iron into milk is binding to a basal transferrin receptor. A theoretical model of the relation between milk and serum iron suggests that the affinity of apotransferrin for the basal recycling system may be higher than observed in many other cell types. PMID:10713971

  18. Rapid concentration of Bacillus and Clostridium spores from large volumes of milk, using continuous flow centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Agoston, Réka; Soni, Kamlesh A; McElhany, Katherine; Cepeda, Martha L; Zuckerman, Udi; Tzipori, Saul; Mohácsi-Farkas, Csilla; Pillai, Suresh D

    2009-03-01

    Deliberate or accidental contamination of foods such as milk, soft drinks, and drinking water with infectious agents or toxins is a major concern to health authorities. There is a critical need to develop technologies that can rapidly and efficiently separate and concentrate biothreat agents from food matrices. A key limitation of current centrifugation and filtration technologies is that they are batch processes with extensive hands-on involvement and processing times. The objective of our studies was to evaluate the continuous flow centrifugation (CFC) technique for the rapid separation and concentration of bacterial spores from large volumes of milk. We determined the effectiveness of the CFC technology for concentrating approximately 10(3) bacterial spores in 3.7 liters (1 gal) of whole milk and skim milk, using Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus atrophaeus, and Clostridium sporogenes spores as surrogates for biothreat agents. The spores in the concentrated samples were enumerated by using standard plating techniques. Three independent experiments were performed at 10,000 rpm and 0.7 liters/min flow rate. The mean B. subtilis spore recoveries were 71.3 and 56.5% in skim and whole milk, respectively, and those for B. atrophaeus were 55 and 59.3% in skim and whole milk, respectively. In contrast, mean C. sporogenes spore recoveries were 88.2 and 78.6% in skim and whole milk, respectively. The successful use of CFC to concentrate these bacterial spores from 3.7 liters of milk in 10 min shows promise for rapidly concentrating other spores from large volumes of milk. PMID:19343961

  19. Technical note: Vitamin D-fortified Cheddar type cheese produced from concentrated milk.

    PubMed

    Boivin-Piché, Jonathan; Vuillemard, Jean-Christophe; St-Gelais, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The technological challenge related to cheese fortification with vitamin D is the loss of a large proportion of vitamin D during the wheying-off step. The use of ultrafiltration (UF) to concentrate the milk before vitamin D enrichment and cheese manufacturing could be a way to reduce the volume of whey and consequently the vitamin D losses in cheese whey. Control (1.0×) and concentrated milks (1.4× and 1.8×) were fortified with vitamin D at a concentration of 450 IU per gram of milk. The 1.8× cheese milk concentration reduced slightly the vitamin D loss during the draining step (19.8%) compared with the control cheese (25.5%) and vitamin D remained stable during Cheddar cheese processing and ripening. PMID:27060834

  20. Longitudinal changes in lactoferrin concentrations in human milk: a global systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rai, Deshanie; Adelman, Alicia S; Zhuang, Weihong; Rai, Gyan P; Boettcher, Julia; Lnnerdal, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Lactoferrin is the second most abundant whey protein in human milk and is known for its functional benefits, particularly antimicrobial activities. We report a comprehensive evaluation of the published literature on quantitative changes in lactoferrin in term and preterm human milk through the course of lactation. We also considered methods used to quantify lactoferrin. We critically evaluated 94 articles on human milk with 52 meeting study inclusion criteria (2724 women). A descriptive analysis of the data was performed. Lactoferrin concentration was highest during early lactation and rapidly declined to remain relatively unchanged from 1 month to 2years of lactation. The unweighted mean of mean (SEM) concentrations of lactoferrin in early milk (<28days lactation) was 4.91 0.31g/L (range of means 0.34-17.94g/L; median 4.03). For mature milk, the mean of means was 2.10 0.87g/L (range of means 0.44-4.4g/L; median 1.91). The majority of data were derived from Europe with fewer studies from Africa and South America. There was a paucity of data on preterm milk. This comprehensive dataset explains in detail the longitudinal changes of lactoferrin concentrations in human milk throughout the world and briefly describes factors that may influence these concentrations. PMID:24580556

  1. Effects of iodine intake and teat-dipping practices on milk iodine concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castro, S I Borucki; Berthiaume, R; Robichaud, A; Lacasse, P

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary iodine and teat-dipping practices on iodine concentrations in milk. In the first study, 63 cows in mid lactation were assigned to a 33 factorial design in which the main effects were dietary iodine levels (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mg of dietary I/kg of dry matter) and 3 different postdip managements (chlorhexidine with dip cup, 1% iodine dip cup, and 1% iodine by manual spray). During the 13-d pre-experimental period and the 15-d experimental period, noniodized sanitizers were used in premilking management. During the pre-experimental period, the levels of milk iodine averaged 241.25.8 ?g/kg, and no relationship was found with lactation number, days in milk, or milk production. Milk iodine concentrations increased linearly with iodine intake. Although teat dipping with 1% iodine had no effect on milk iodine concentration, the same solution applied by spraying greatly increased milk iodine levels. The second study was conducted to determine the effects of udder preparation before milking on milk iodine concentrations. Thirty-two lactating cows were assigned to 4 treatments: no predip (Con); predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+complete cleaning (Comp); predip with a postdip solution containing 1% iodine+complete cleaning (Post); and predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+incomplete cleaning (Inc). During the 14-d pre-experimental period and the 19-d experimental period, cows were fed the same diet, and noniodized sanitizers were used for postmilking dipping. During the last week of treatment, milk iodine averaged 164, 189, 218, and 2529.8 ?g/kg for Con, Comp, Post, and Inc, respectively. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts indicated that predipping with a 0.5% iodine predip solution completely wiped off (Comp) tended to increase milk iodine content above that of the control and that the iodine content of Post and Inc were higher than that of the Comp treatment. The results of the first experiment confirm that, to preserve milk safety, iodine should not be fed above requirements. Spraying iodine-based teat-dipping solutions results in large increases in milk iodine content and should be avoided. Predipping teats with an iodine-based sanitizer is an acceptable practice, but must be performed with the appropriate product and completely wiped off before milking. PMID:22192200

  2. Predicting Perchlorate Exposure in Milk From Concentrations in Dairy Feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perchlorate has been detected in US milk samples from many different states. To attempt to manage this problem it is important to know the pathways for its possible accumulation. Data taken from a recently reported 9-week perchlorate experiment dosing 16 Holstein dairy cows allowed us to derive an...

  3. Effect of supplemental concentrate type on milk production and metabolic status in early-lactation dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass-based pasture.

    PubMed

    Whelan, S J; Pierce, K M; Flynn, B; Mulligan, F J

    2012-08-01

    Forty-four early-lactation dairy cows of mixed parity were used to examine the effect of 4 supplemental concentrate types (n=11) on milk production and metabolic status. Animals were blocked by parity and calving date, and blocks were balanced for previous milk yield and milk protein yield. Cows received grazed pasture plus 5.17 kg of DM/d of 1 of the following isoenergetic (1.1 units of energy for lactation) concentrates: 1) high crude protein (CP) with rolled barley (HP, 19% CP); b) low CP with rolled barley (LP, 15% CP); c) low CP with barley and a supplemental methionine hydroxy analog (HMBi; LP + HMBi, 15% CP); and d) low CP with ground corn (LP-corn, 15% CP). Milk yield was recorded from d 1 to 100 postpartum, with weekly milk sampling, body weight, and body condition score (BCS) measurements. Blood and rumen sampling were conducted weekly from wk 2 to 6 postpartum. Milk yield was lower for cows in the LP treatment compared with those offered other concentrate types (25.2 vs. 27.5 ± 0.39 kg/d). Animals in the HP group had a higher milk yield than those in the LP + HMBi group (28.2 vs. 26.8 ± 0.39 kg/d). Milk fat yield was lower from animals in the LP-corn group compared with those in the LP + HMBi group (0.94 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03 kg/d). Milk protein yield was lower in the LP group compared with those in the HP group (0.88 vs. 0.97 ± 0.02 kg/d). Animal body weight, BCS, and BCS loss were not affected by concentrate type. However, nonesterified fatty acids were higher from animals in the HP group than for those in the LP + HMBi group (0.41 vs. 0.33 ± 0.03 mmol/L), and β-hydroxy butyric acid was higher from animals in the HP group than for those in the other treatments (0.71 vs. 0.59 ± 0.03 mmol/L). Glucose was higher from animals in the LP-corn group than for those in the HP and LP groups (3.3 vs. 3.2 ± 0.05 mmol/L). Blood urea-N was higher from animals offered HP compared with those offered the other treatments (5.49.6 vs. 4.21 ± 0.44 mmol/L). However, rumen NH(3)-N and volatile fatty acid concentration in the rumen were not affected by supplemental concentrate type. Reducing supplemental concentrate CP reduced milk yield. However, milk fat production and energy-corrected milk were not different, reducing the likelihood of an improved energy balance or a more favorable blood metabolic profile in early-lactation dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass. Offering HMBi with low-CP concentrates or replacing rolled barley with ground maize improves milk production relative to low-CP concentrates and metabolic status relative to high-CP concentrates. PMID:22818468

  4. Validation of high-throughput methods for measuring blood urea nitrogen and urinary albumin concentrations in mice.

    PubMed

    Grindle, Susan; Garganta, Cheryl; Sheehan, Susan; Gile, Joe; Lapierre, Andree; Whitmore, Harry; Paigen, Beverly; DiPetrillo, Keith

    2006-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a substantial medical and economic burden. Animal models, including mice, are a crucial component of kidney disease research; however, recent studies disprove the ability of autoanalyzer methods to accurately quantify plasma creatinine levels, an established marker of kidney disease, in mice. Therefore, we validated autoanalyzer methods for measuring blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and urinary albumin concentrations, 2 common markers of kidney disease, in samples from mice. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to validate BUN concentrations measured using an autoanalyzer, and we utilized mouse albumin standards to determine the accuracy of the autoanalyzer over a wide range of albumin concentrations. We observed a significant, linear correlation between BUN concentrations measured by autoanalyzer and high-performance liquid chromatography. We also found a linear relationship between known and measured albumin concentrations, although the autoanalyzer method underestimated the known amount of albumin by 3.5- to 4-fold. We confirmed that plasma and urine constituents do not interfere with the autoanalyzer methods for measuring BUN and urinary albumin concentrations. In addition, we verified BUN and albuminuria as useful markers to detect kidney disease in aged mice and mice with 5/6-nephrectomy. We conclude that autoanalyzer methods are suitable for high-throughput analysis of BUN and albumin concentrations in mice. The autoanalyzer accurately quantifies BUN concentrations in mouse plasma samples and is useful for measuring urinary albumin concentrations when used with mouse albumin standards. PMID:17219778

  5. Detecting multiple adulterants in dry milk using Raman chemical imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Raman chemical imaging method was developed for detecting the presence of multiple chemical adulterants in dry milk powder. Four chemicals (ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea) were added in equal concentrations, between 0.1% and 5.0%, to nonfat dry milk. An area of 25×25 mm2 for e...

  6. Heating Process in Pasteurization and not in Sterilization Decreases the Iodine Concentration of Milk

    PubMed Central

    Nazeri, Pantea; Norouzian, Mohammad Ali; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hedayati, Mehdi; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iodine is a vital component of the thyroid hormones and is required for normal growth, development, and tissue metabolism in humans and animals. Objectives: This study for the first time compares the effects of heating during pasteurization and sterilization on the iodine concentration of milk for an adequate provision of dietary iodine. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on multiparous Holstein Friesian lactating cows. Thirty Holstein dairy cows were fed with a diet containing 10 mg of potassium iodide (KI) per kilogram dry matter of diet. Milk samples were obtained on days 4 and 2 before and again on days 2, 4, 6, and 8 after the inclusion of KI into the total mixed ration diet of the dairy cows. The milk samples were sterilized using ultra-high temperature, following which the effect of the heating process during sterilization on the cows’ iodine concentration was compared to that in the only previous documented study from Iran in which milk supplementation with KI was the same as ours. Milk in that study was pasteurized via the high-temperature short-time method, a method which involves temperatures in excess of 73°C for durations longer than 15 seconds. Results: The inclusion of KI in the diet of the dairy cows in these 2 separate experiments increased their milk iodine levels. Pasteurization decreased the iodine content of the milk (P < 0.05), while no significant difference was observed in the iodine concentration of the sterilized milk. Conclusions: The present study showed that the iodine concentration is not decreased during the heating process in sterilization, indicating that supplemented sterilized milk could be a good alternative vehicle for dietary iodine in the prevention of iodine deficiency. PMID:26587031

  7. HIV-1 concentrations in human breast milk before and after weaning

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Louise; Kim, Hae-Young; Walter, Jan; Thea, Donald M.; Sinkala, Moses; Mwiya, Mwiya; Kankasa, Chipepo; Decker, Don; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of HIV-1 RNA and DNA in mucosal compartments influence the risk of sexual transmission and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Breast milk production is physiologically regulated such that supply is a function of infant demand but whether demand also influences HIV-1 dynamics in breast milk is unknown. We tested whether minor and major changes in feeding frequency influence breast milk viral concentrations in 958 HIV-1-infected women, who were followed with their infants for 24 months as part of a trial in Lusaka, Zambia. Women were randomized to wean abruptly at 4 months or to continue breastfeeding for a duration of their own choosing. Two weeks after breastfeeding cessation i.e. weaning (4.5 months) HIV-1 concentrations in breast milk were substantially higher (median RNA 2,708 copies/ml and DNA 14 copies/ml) than if breastfeeding continued (median RNA <50 copies/ml and DNA <1 copy/ml, p<0.0001). Among those continuing breastfeeding, HIV-1 concentrations in milk were higher if breastfeeding was non-exclusive (median RNA 293 copies/ml and DNA 2 copies/ml, p=0.0006). Elevated milk viral concentrations after stopping breastfeeding explained higher than expected rates of late postnatal HIV transmission in those who weaned early. Changes in the frequency of breastfeeding peri-weaning and with non-exclusive breastfeeding influenced milk viral concentrations. This may explain the reduced risk of HIV-1 transmission associated with exclusive breastfeeding and may explain why early weaning does not achieve the magnitude of HIV prevention predicted by models. Our results support continuation of maternal antiretroviral drug interventions over the full duration of time when any breast milk exposures are likely to occur after planned weaning. PMID:23596203

  8. Effect of Digestion and Storage of Human Milk on Free Fatty Acid Concentration and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Alexander H.; Altshuler, Angelina E.; Small, James W.; Taylor, Sharon F.; Dobkins, Karen R.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Fat is digested in the intestine into free fatty acids (FFAs), which are detergents and therefore toxic to cells at micromolar concentration. The mucosal barrier protects cells in the adult intestine, but this barrier may not be fully developed in premature infants. Lipase-digested infant formula, but not fresh human milk, has elevated FFAs and is cytotoxic to intestinal cells, and therefore could contribute to intestinal injury in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). But even infants exclusively fed breast milk may develop NEC. Our objective was to determine if stored milk and milk from donor milk banks (DM) could also become cytotoxic, especially after digestion. Methods We exposed cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells or human neutrophils to DM and milk collected fresh and stored at 4 or −20 °C for up to 12 weeks and then treated for 2 hours (37°C) with 0.1 or 1 mg/ml pancreatic lipase and/or trypsin and chymotrypsin. Results DM and milk stored 3 days (at 4 or −20 °C) and then digested were cytotoxic. Storage at −20 °C for 8 and 12 weeks resulted in an additional increase in cytotoxicity. Protease digestion decreased, but did not eliminate cell death. Conclusions Current storage practices may allow milk to become cytotoxic and contribute to intestinal damage in NEC. PMID:24840512

  9. Cold-active alkaline phosphatase is irreversibly transformed into an inactive dimer by low urea concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hjörleifsson, Jens Guðmundur; Ásgeirsson, Bjarni

    2016-07-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is a homodimeric metallo-hydrolase where both Zn(2+) and Mg(2+) are important for catalysis and stability. Cold-adapted alkaline phosphatase variants have high activity at low temperatures and lower thermal stability compared with variants from mesophilic hosts. The instability, and thus inactivation, could be due to loose association of the dimers and/or loosely bound Mg(2)(+) in the active site, but this has not been studied in detail for the cold-adapted variants. Here, we focus on using the intrinsic fluorescence of Trp in alkaline phosphatase from the marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus (VAP) to probe for dimerization. Trp→Phe substitutions showed that two out of the five native Trp residues contributed mostly to the fluorescence emission. One residue, 15Å away from the active site (W460) and highly solvent excluded, was phosphorescent and had a distant role in substrate binding. An additional Trp residue was introduced to the dimer interface to act as a possible probe for dimerization. Urea denaturation curves indicated that an inactive dimer intermediate, structurally equivalent to the native state, was formed before dimer dissociation took place. This is the first example of the transition of a native dimer to an inactive dimer intermediate for alkaline phosphatase without using mutagenesis, ligands, or competitive inhibition. PMID:27043172

  10. Effect of ammonia-generating diet on ovine serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell functions.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Mondal, S; Pal, D T; Gupta, P S P

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of ammonia-generating diet on serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell growth and secretion parameters in ewes (Ovis aries). Ewes were fed with 14% CP diet (control) or ammonia-generating diet or ammonia-generating diet plus soluble sugar. The serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea level, serum oestrogen and progesterone levels and granulosa cell (obtained from ovaries of slaughtered ewes) growth parameters and secretory activities were estimated. Ammonia-generating diet (high-protein diet) increased the serum ammonia and urea concentration. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the ammonia concentration in serum with comparable levels as in control group; however, the urea level in the same group was higher than that observed in control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the follicular fluid ammonia concentration; however, the level was significantly higher compared to control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar brought down the follicular fluid urea level comparable to that observed in control group. Oestrogen and progesterone levels remained unchanged in ewes fed with different types of diet. Oestrogen and progesterone secretion were significantly lowered from granulosa cells recovered from ewes fed with high ammonia-generating diet. Low metabolic activity and high incidence of apoptosis were observed in granulosa cells obtained from ovaries of ewes fed with ammonia-generating diet. PMID:26211538

  11. Changes in the physical properties, solubility, and heat stability of milk protein concentrates prepared from partially acidified milk.

    PubMed

    Eshpari, H; Tong, P S; Corredig, M

    2014-12-01

    A limiting factor in using milk protein concentrates (MPC) as a high-quality protein source for different food applications is their poor reconstitutability. Solubilization of colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) from casein micelles during membrane filtration (e.g., through acidification) may affect the structural organization of these protein particles and consequently the rehydration and functional properties of the resulting MPC powder. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acidification of milk by glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) before ultrafiltration (UF) on the composition, physical properties, solubility, and thermal stability (after reconstitution) of MPC powders. The MPC samples were manufactured in duplicate, either by UF (65% protein, MPC65) or by UF followed by diafiltration (80% protein, MPC80), using pasteurized skim milk, at either the native milk pH (~pH 6.6) or at pH 6.0 after addition of GDL, followed by spray drying. Samples of different treatments were reconstituted at 5% (wt/wt) protein to compare their solubility and thermal stability. Powders were tested in duplicate for basic composition, calcium content, reconstitutability, particle size, particle density, and microstructure. Acidification of milk did not have any significant effect on the proximate composition, particle size, particle density, or surface morphology of the MPC powders; however, the total calcium content of MPC80 decreased significantly with acidification (from 1.84 ± 0.03 to 1.59 ± 0.03 g/100 g of powder). Calcium-depleted MPC80 powders were also more soluble than the control powders. Diafiltered dispersions were significantly less heat stable (at 120°C) than UF samples when dissolved at 5% solids. The present work contributes to a better understanding of the differences in MPC commonly observed during processing. PMID:25459904

  12. Concentrations of Phthalate Metabolites in Milk, Urine, Saliva, and Serum of Lactating North Carolina Women

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Erin P.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Silva, Manori J.; Mendola, Pauline; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Phthalates are ubiquitous in the environment, but concentrations in multiple media from breast-feeding U.S. women have not been evaluated. Objectives The objective of this study was to accurately measure and compare the concentrations of oxidative monoester phthalate metabolites in milk and surrogate fluids (serum, saliva, and urine) of 33 lactating North Carolina women. Methods We analyzed serum, saliva, urine, and milk for the oxidative phthalate metabolites mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate using isotope-dilution high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy. Because only urine lacks esterases, we analyzed it for the hydrolytic phthalate monoesters. Results We detected phthalate metabolites in few milk (< 10%) and saliva samples. MECPP was detected in > 80% of serum samples, but other metabolites were less common (3–22%). Seven of the 10 urinary metabolites were detectable in ≥ 85% of samples. Monoethyl phthalate had the highest mean concentration in urine. Metabolite concentrations differed by body fluid (urine > serum > milk and saliva). Questionnaire data suggest that frequent nail polish use, immunoglobulin A, and fasting serum glucose and triglyceride levels were increased among women with higher concentrations of urinary and/or serum phthalate metabolites; motor vehicle age was inversely correlated with certain urinary phthalate concentrations. Conclusions Our data suggest that phthalate metabolites are most frequently detected in urine of lactating women and are less often detected in serum, milk, or saliva. Urinary phthalate concentrations reflect maternal exposure and do not represent the concentrations of oxidative metabolites in other body fluids, especially milk. PMID:19165392

  13. Choline intake and genetic polymorphisms influence choline metabolite concentrations in human breast milk and plasma123

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Leslie M; da Costa, Kerry Ann; Galanko, Joseph; Sha, Wei; Stephenson, Brigitte; Vick, Julie; Zeisel, Steven H

    2010-01-01

    Background: Choline is essential for infant nutrition, and breast milk is a rich source of this nutrient. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) change dietary requirements for choline intake. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether total choline intake and/or SNPs influence concentrations of choline and its metabolites in human breast milk and plasma. Design: We gave a total of 103 pregnant women supplemental choline or a placebo from 18 wk gestation to 45 d postpartum and genotyped the women for 370 common SNPs. At 45 d postpartum, we measured choline metabolite concentrations in breast milk and plasma and assessed the dietary intake of choline by using a 3-d food record. Results: On average, lactating women in our study ate two-thirds of the recommended intake for choline (Adequate Intake = 550 mg choline/d). Dietary choline intake (no supplement) correlated with breast-milk phosphatidylcholine and plasma choline concentrations. A supplement further increased breast-milk choline, betaine, and phosphocholine concentrations and increased plasma choline and betaine concentrations. We identified 5 SNPs in MTHFR that altered the slope of the intake–metabolite concentration relations, and we identified 2 SNPs in PEMT that shifted these curves upward. Individuals who shared sets of common SNPs were outliers in plots of intake–metabolite concentration curves; we suggest that these SNPs should be further investigated to determine how they alter choline metabolism. Conclusion: Total intake of choline and genotype can influence the concentrations of choline and its metabolites in the breast milk and blood of lactating women and thereby affect the amount of choline available to the developing infant. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00678925. PMID:20534746

  14. Studies on the excretion of diazepam and nordazepam into milk for the prediction of milk-to-plasma drug concentration ratios.

    PubMed

    Stebler, T; Guentert, T W

    1992-10-01

    The influence of varying protein and fat content in milk of New Zealand White rabbits on the milk-to-plasma drug concentration (M/P) ratio of diazepam was studied. At various time points after littering, a bolus dose (1.5 mg/kg) followed by a 26-hr infusion (1.8 mg/h) of diazepam was administered to freely moving rabbits via a jugular vein catheter. Milk and blood samples were collected to allow characterization of milk composition and quantitative determination of diazepam and nordazepam in milk and plasma. At steady state diazepam showed M/P ratios between 3.7 and 9.5, whereas nordazepam showed ratios between 2.1 and 4.3, respectively. The relative importance of milk protein binding and milk-fat partitioning for the excretion of a drug into milk depended on the drug's affinity to milk fat. A stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that observed M/P ratios of diazepam could be explained by considering the fat content of milk alone. Nordazepam with a lower solubility in milk fat showed M/P ratios which could be best explained by considering protein and fat concentrations together. Using the data from the infusion studies, two recently published diffusional models to predict M/P ratios were evaluated. Neither model could accurately predict the M/P ratios of diazepam and nordazepam observed in rabbits. However, after extending the model described by Atkinson and Begg to take the actually measured partitioning between skim milk and milk fat into account, a great improvement in the predictive power for observed M/P ratios occurred.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1448430

  15. Genetic and nongenetic variation in plasma and milk β-hydroxybutyrate and milk acetone concentrations of early-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van der Drift, S G A; van Hulzen, K J E; Teweldemedhn, T G; Jorritsma, R; Nielen, M; Heuven, H C M

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed genetic variation, heritability estimates, and genetic correlations for concentrations of plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), milk BHBA, and milk acetone in early lactation to investigate differences between cows in susceptibility to hyperketonemia and possibilities to use test-day milk ketone bodies for genetic improvement. Blood and test-day milk samples were collected on randomly selected dairy farms in the Netherlands from cows of various parities between 5 and 60 d in milk. Plasma samples were analyzed for BHBA (reference test for hyperketonemia) and test-day milk samples were analyzed for BHBA and acetone using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The final data set consisted of plasma BHBA concentrations of 1,615 cows from 122 herds. Milk BHBA and milk acetone concentrations were determined for 1,565 cows. Genetic variation, heritability, and proportion of phenotypic variation attributable to the herd were estimated using an animal model with fixed effects for parity and season, a covariate for days in milk, and random effects for herd, animal, and error. Genetic correlations for plasma BHBA, milk BHBA, and milk acetone were estimated using bivariate analyses. The heritability estimate for plasma BHBA concentrations in early lactation was 0.17, whereas heritability estimates for milk BHBA and milk acetone were 0.16 and 0.10, respectively. This indicates that selective breeding may contribute to a lower incidence of hyperketonemia in early lactation. For the 3 traits, the proportion of variance attributable to herd was larger than the additive genetic variance, underlining the importance of on-farm feeding and management in the etiology of hyperketonemia in fresh cows. Prevention strategies for hyperketonemia can, therefore, include both feeding and management strategies at dairy farms (short-term) and genetic improvement through breeding programs (long-term). Genetic correlations between concentrations of plasma BHBA and milk BHBA (0.52) or milk acetone (0.52) were moderate. As milk ketone bodies can be routinely analyzed at test days, this may provide a practical alternative for breeding programs aimed at reducing hyperketonemia in early lactation. PMID:22939798

  16. Maternal milk concentration of zinc, iron, selenium, and iodine and its relationship to dietary intakes.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Mohammad A; Faraji, Bahram; Tanguma, Jesus; Longoria, Norma; Rodriguez, R C

    2009-01-01

    The dietary intake of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), and iodine (I) of 31 lactating Mexican-American women attending the Hidalgo County WIC program in Rio Grande Valley (RGV), Texas was estimated from 24-h dietary recall interviews. Milk samples were obtained from lactating mothers who had infants 3 months of age and younger. Milk samples were collected in two visits to assess change in breast milk composition after 1-3 months postpartum: group A--after 30-45 days and group B--75-90 days. Dietary intakes indicated that the study participants had significantly inadequate percent energy intakes than the DRI (Dietary Recommended Intakes) percent recommended kilocalorie values but protein intakes were substantially higher than the percent recommended values. The estimated percent Zn, Fe, Se, and I intakes were also significantly lower than the DRI percent recommended values. The lactating mothers consumed significantly less Zn, Se, and I when compared to the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) even though Fe intake was higher than the RDA value. Breast milk concentration of Zn, Fe, and Se were in agreement within the range of representative values for Constituents of Human Milk but I has significantly less concentration than the representative value. There was no statistically significant correlation observed between dietary intake and milk concentration of Zn, Fe, Se, and I. This study compares the estimated dietary intake of zinc, iron, selenium, and iodine to the concentration of these trace elements in the maternal milk of lactating women of Mexican-American heritage who attend the Rio Grande Valley WIC clinic. PMID:18802672

  17. Goat milk with and without increased concentrations of lysozyme improves repair of intestinal cell damage induced by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes diarrhea, malnutrition and poor growth in children. Human breast milk decreases disease-causing bacteria by supplying nutrients and antimicrobial factors such as lysozyme. Goat milk with and without human lysozyme (HLZ) may improve the repair of intestinal barrier function damage induced by EAEC. This work investigates the effect of the milks on intestinal barrier function repair, bacterial adherence in Caco-2 and HEp-2 cells, intestinal cell proliferation, migration, viability and apoptosis in IEC-6 cells in the absence or presence of EAEC. Methods Rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6, ATCC, Rockville, MD) were used for proliferation, migration and viability assays and human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2, ATCC, Rockville, MD) and human larynx carcinoma (HEp-2, ATCC, Rockville, MD) cells were used for bacterial adhesion assays. Goats expressing HLZ in their milk were generated and express HLZ in milk at concentration of 270 μg/ml . Cells were incubated with pasteurized milk from either transgenic goats expressing HLZ or non-transgenic control goats in the presence and absence of EAEC strain 042 (O44:H18). Results Cellular proliferation was significantly greater in the presence of both HLZ transgenic and control goat milk compared to cells with no milk. Cellular migration was significantly decreased in the presence of EAEC alone but was restored in the presence of milk. Milk from HLZ transgenic goats had significantly more migration compared to control milk. Both milks significantly reduced EAEC adhesion to Caco-2 cells and transgenic milk resulted in less colonization than control milk using a HEp-2 assay. Both milks had significantly increased cellular viability as well as less apoptosis in both the absence and presence of EAEC. Conclusions These data demonstrated that goat milk is able to repair intestinal barrier function damage induced by EAEC and that goat milk with a higher concentration of lysozyme offers additional protection. PMID:22883300

  18. Concentrations of environmental phenols and parabens in milk, urine and serum of lactating North Carolina women.

    PubMed

    Hines, Erin P; Mendola, Pauline; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2015-07-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

  19. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations and metabolism in breast milk, infant formula, and parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jesica A; Ninnis, Janet R; Hopper, Andrew O; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2014-09-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential nitrite-metabolizing enzymes. Nitrite concentrations averaged 0.07 ± 0.01 μM in milk of mothers of preterm infants, less than that of term infants (0.13 ± 0.02 μM) (P < .01). Nitrate concentrations averaged 13.6 ± 3.7 μM and 12.7 ± 4.9 μM, respectively. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations in infant formulas varied from undetectable to many-fold more than breast milk. Concentrations in parenteral nutrition were equivalent to or lower than those of breast milk. Freeze-thawing decreased nitrite concentration ~64%, falling with a half-life of 32 minutes at 37°C. The disappearance of nitrite was oxygen-dependent and prevented by ferricyanide and 3 inhibitors of lactoperoxidase. Nitrite concentrations in breast milk decrease with storage and freeze-thawing, a decline likely mediated by lactoperoxidase. Compared to adults, infants ingest relatively little nitrite and nitrate, which may be of importance in the modulation of blood flow and the bacterial flora of the infant GI tract, especially given the protective effects of swallowed nitrite. PMID:23894175

  20. Changes in vitamin C concentrations in plasma and milk from dairy cows after an intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Hogan, J S; Smith, K L

    2004-01-01

    Plasma and milk concentrations of ascorbic acid and dehydro-L-ascorbic acid (DHAA) were measured before and after 21 Holstein cows (approximately 26 DIM) were given an intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli. Blood, milk from the unchallenged quarters, and milk from the challenged gland were sampled immediately before challenge (d 0) and 24 h and 7 d postchallenge. Plasma vitamin C (ascorbic acid + DHAA) concentrations decreased 39%, and concentrations of vitamin C and ascorbic acid in milk from the challenged quarter decreased 52 and 62%, respectively, in samples taken 24 h postchallenge. No change was observed in vitamin C concentrations in milk from unchallenged quarters. The concentration of DHAA in milk from challenged quarters increased 67% 24 h postchallenge. The duration of clinical mastitis, peak body temperature, number of colony-forming units of E. coli isolated from the infected gland, and loss in milk yield were associated with a change in concentration of vitamin C in milk from the challenged quarter. Increased severity of clinical signs was associated with large decreases in concentration of vitamin C in milk from the challenged quarter. Similar, but statistically weaker, relationships were observed for changes in plasma vitamin C concentrations. PMID:14765807

  1. Effects of dietary crude protein and supplemental urea concentrations on nitrogen and phosphorus utilization by feedlot cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three dietary crude protein (CP) levels (11.5, 13.0, and 14.5% of DM) and 3 supplemental urea levels (100, 50, and 0% of supplemental N) were used in a completely randomized block design experiment conducted at 2 locations to determine N and P balance and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) of feedlot cattle....

  2. UREA-NITROGEN RECYCLING AND NITROGEN BALANCE IN LAMBS FED A HIGH-CONCENTRATE DIET AND INFUSED WITH DIFFERING PROPORTIONS OF CASEIN IN THE RUMEN AND ABOMASUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-five wether lambs (34 +/- 0.9 kg) fitted with ruminal and abomasal infusion catheters were used in a completely randomized design to determine the effects of differing proportions of ruminal and abomasal casein infusion on urea-N recycling and N balance in lambs fed a high-concentrate diet (1...

  3. The effect of zinc (Zn) supplementation during lactation on maternal Zn status and milk Zn concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, N.F.; Reidinger, C.; Westcott, J.L.; Hartley, S.; Hambidge, K.M. )

    1991-03-15

    The objective of this study was to longitudinally evaluate the effect of a dietary Zn supplement on maternal Zn states and milk Zn concentrations under a randomized, controlled, double-blinded study design. Sixty women, 30 {plus minus} 3.8 yrs, received either 15 mg Zn/day or placebo through {ge} 7 mos. of lactation. Dietary intake data, biochemical indices of Zn status and milk Zn concentrations were obtained at monthly intervals. Three day test-weighing was done at 2 wks and 3, 5, and 7 mos. Overall mean daily dietary intake for the non-Zn-supplemented group (n = 28) was 12.9 {plus minus} 2.2 mg, and for the Zn-supplemented group (n = 32), 25.7 {plus minus} 2.9 mg, including an average of 14 mg/d from a supplement. Plasma Zn concentrations did not differ between groups across lactation. Milk Zn concentrations were similar to those published previously and did not differ in monthly means or rate of decline according to group. Maternal Zn outputs to the infants at 2 wks and 3, 5 and 7 mos. were 2.17 {plus minus} 0.7, 0.92 {plus minus} 0.4, 0.72 {plus minus} 0.3, and 0.48 {plus minus} 0.26, respectively. The data suggest that average maternal Zn intake of {ge}10 mg/day during lactation is sufficient to maintain adequate maternal Zn status and milk Zn concentrations.

  4. Depressive Symptoms during Pregnancy and the Concentration of Fatty Acids in Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Keim, Sarah A.; Daniels, Julie L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dole, Nancy; Herring, Amy H.; Scheidt, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms in pregnancy and the concentration of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in breast milk. Women (n =287) enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in pregnancy (<20 and 24–29 weeks) and had LCPUFAs measured in breast milk (4 months postpartum). Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between depressive symptoms and breast milk LCPUFAs. Increasing depressive symptoms at <20 weeks were associated with lower docosahexaenoic acid concentrations (adjusted β=−1.15, 95% confidence interval =−2.12, −0.19). No similar associations were observed with other fatty acids nor between symptoms at 24–29 weeks and LCPUFAs. Depressive symptoms, even in the subclinical range, early in pregnancy are inversely associated with breast milk docosahexaenoic acid. This may have implications for the timing of screening and interventions for perinatal depression and the nutritional value of breast milk. PMID:22223516

  5. Refractometer assessment of colostral and serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimation of the quantity of colostral IgG or serum IgG absorbed following ingestion of colostrum by calves is essential for monitoring the effectiveness of colostrum feeding practices on dairy farms. Milk total solids concentrations determination is a critical part of quality assessment of nonsaleable whole milk prior to feeding to calves. To date, on-farm methods to assess colostral IgG, serum IgG or milk total solids concentrations have been performed separately with various instruments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a single electronic, hand-held refractometer for assessing colostral and serum IgG concentrations and milk total solids in dairy cattle. Colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations were determined by the refractometer. Corresponding analysis of colostral and serum IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion (RID) while milk total solids were determined by spectrophotometry. Sensitivity and specificity of the refractometer for colostrum and serum samples were calculated as determined by RID. Sensitivity and specificity of the refractometer for milk samples was calculated as determined by spectrophotometry. Results The sensitivity of the refractometer was 1 for colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids determinations. Specificity of the refractometer was 0.66, 0.24 and 0 for colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids determinations, respectively. The refractometer underestimated colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations compared to the concentrations determined by RID or spectrophotometry. Conclusions The refractometer was an acceptable, rapid, convenient on-farm method for determining colostral IgG and milk total solids. The refractometer was not an acceptable method for determination of serum IgG concentrations as it severely underestimated the serum IgG concentrations. PMID:25125217

  6. [Monitoring urea content during hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Eventov, V L; Andrianova, M Iu; Nefedkin, S I; Eventova, O V

    2003-01-01

    The urea content monitoring during hemodialysis enables the feed-back within the system "patient--artificial kidney--patient". The existing methods of determining the concentration of urea in the dialyzing solution require an expendable reagent, i.e. urease, they are discrete and need often a calibration. The electrochemical urea analyzer, worked out by the authors, is easy in use, it provides a continues information about the urea concentration and does not virtually need any calibration. Besides, the plotter, belonging to the set, provides the graphic information about the dynamic changes of urea content. PMID:12924215

  7. Manufacture of modified milk protein concentrate utilizing injection of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Marella, Chenchaiah; Salunke, P; Biswas, A C; Kommineni, A; Metzger, L E

    2015-06-01

    Dried milk protein concentrate is produced from skim milk using a combination of processes such as ultrafiltration (UF), evaporation or nanofiltration, and spray drying. It is well established that dried milk protein concentrate (MPC) that contains 80% (MPC80) and greater protein content (relative to dry matter) can lose solubility during storage as a result of protein-protein interactions and formation of insoluble complexes. Previous studies have shown that partial replacement of calcium with sodium improves MPC80 functionality and prevents the loss in solubility during storage. Those studies have used pH adjustment with the addition of acids, addition of monovalent salts, or ion exchange treatment of UF retentate. The objective of this study was to use carbon dioxide to produce MPC80 with improved functionality. In this study, reduced-calcium MPC80 (RCMPC) was produced from skim milk that was subjected to injection of 2,200 ppm of CO2 before UF, along with additional CO2 injection at a flow rate of 1.5 to 2 L/min during UF. A control MPC80 (CtrlMPC) was also produced from the same lot of skim milk without injection of CO2. The above processes were replicated 3 times, using different lots of skim milk for each replication. All the UF retentates were spray dried using a pilot-scale dryer. Skim milk and UF retentates were tested for ζ-potential (net negative charge), particle size, and viscosity. All the MPC were stored at room (22±1°C) and elevated (40°C) temperatures for 6 mo. Solubility was measured by dissolving the dried MPC in water at 22°C and at 10°C (cold solubility). Injection of CO2 and the resultant solubilization of calcium phosphate had a significant effect on UF performance, resulting in 10 and 20% loss in initial and average flux, respectively. Processing of skim milk with injection of CO2 also resulted in higher irreversible fouling resistances. Compared with control, the reduced-calcium MPC had 28 and 34% less ash and calcium, respectively. Injection of CO2 resulted in a significant decrease in ζ-potential and a significant increase in the size of the casein micelle. Moreover, RCMPC had a significantly higher solubility after storage at room temperature and at elevated temperature. This study demonstrates that MPC80 with a reduced calcium and mineral content can be produced with injection of CO2 before and during UF of skim milk. PMID:25828657

  8. Relation of a seafood diet to mercury, selenium, arsenic, and polychlorinated biphenyl and other organochlorine concentrations in human milk.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, P; Weihe, P; Needham, L L; Burse, V W; Patterson, D G; Sampson, E J; Jørgensen, P J; Vahter, M

    1995-10-01

    Human transition milk was sampled from 88 mothers at the Faroe Islands, where the seafood diet includes pilot whale meat and blubber. Milk mercury concentrations (median, 2.45 micrograms/liter) were significantly associated with mercury concentrations in cord blood and with the frequency of pilot whale dinners during pregnancy. Milk selenium concentrations (mean, 19.1 micrograms/liter) correlated significantly with concentrations in cord blood but not with seafood consumption. Arsenic concentrations were very low. Twenty-four of the milk samples were separated into four pools based on fish intake and milk mercury concentrations. The polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (1.8-3.5 micrograms/g lipid) were high and mainly due to congener numbers 153, 180, and 138. One pool contained a congener 77 concentration of 1380 ppt, which is the highest ever reported in a human specimen for a coplanar PCB. The highest PCB concentrations were seen in the pools from women who had eaten frequent whale dinners and whose milk contained high mercury concentrations. The concentrations of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans were not similarly elevated. Given the advantages associated with breast-feeding, advice to nursing mothers in this population should take into regard the possible risks associated with long-term exposure to milk contaminants. PMID:8757236

  9. Lead Concentrations in Raw Cow and Goat Milk Collected in Rural Areas of Croatia from 2010 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Sedak, Marija; Čalopek, Bruno; Luburić, Đurđica Božić; Solomun Kolanović, Božica; Varenina, Ivana; Đokić, Maja; Kmetič, Ivana; Murati, Teuta

    2016-05-01

    A total of 249 cow and 33 goat milk samples were collected in rural areas of Croatia during the period 2010-2014. Lead concentrations in milk samples were analyzed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mean Pb concentrations in milk ranged from (μg/kg): cow 10.8-12.2; goat 9.33-60.0. The highest Pb level of 131 μg/kg in cow milk was measured during 2014. There were no significant differences in Pb levels between cow and goat milk and also in goat milk among the analysed years. However, significant differences were found in cow milk among years. The highest Pb was determined in 2011 (157 μg/kg in goat milk). The calculated estimated weekly intakes of Pb concentrations for cow and goat milk contribute only 1.37 % and 1.84 % to the provisional tolerable weekly intake. Therefore, the consumption of milk from both species should not pose a consumer health risk. PMID:26858083

  10. Short communication: Factors affecting vitamin B12 concentration in milk of commercial dairy herds: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Pellerin, D; Cue, R I; Girard, C L

    2016-06-01

    Only bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12, and this requires adequate Co supply. The natural source of vitamin B12 in human diets comes from animal products, especially those from ruminants. This study aimed to describe variability regarding vitamin B12 concentration in milk among and within commercial dairy herds in early lactation. A secondary objective was to explore potential causes for this variability such as genetic variation and diet characteristics. In total, 399 dairy cows (135 primiparous and 264 multiparous; 386 Holstein and 13 Jersey cows) in 15 commercial herds were involved. Milk samples were taken at 27.4±4.1 and 55.4±4.1d in milk. Neither parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) nor sampling time affected milk concentrations of vitamin B12. Nevertheless, vitamin B12 concentration in milk was highly variable among and within dairy herds. The lowest vitamin B12 concentration in milk of cows was observed in the Jersey herd. Among herds, vitamin B12 concentration in milk ranged from 2,309 to 3,878 pg/mL; one glass (250mL) of milk from those herds would provide between 23 and 40% of the vitamin B12 recommended daily allowance. Among individual cows, however, this provision varied between 16 and 57% of the recommendation. In spite of the limited size of the studied population, the heritability value was 0.23, suggesting that genetic selection could modify milk vitamin B12 concentration. We observed a positive relationship between milk vitamin B12 concentration and dietary acid detergent fiber content and a negative relationship between milk concentration of vitamin B12 and dietary crude protein content. PMID:27040783

  11. Simultaneous detection of multiple adulterants in dry milk using macro-scale Raman chemical imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential of Raman chemical imaging for simultaneously detecting multiple adulterants in milk powder was investigated. Potential chemical adulterants, including ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea, were mixed together into skim dry milk in the concentration range of 0.1–5.0% for ...

  12. Development of a Raman chemical image detection algorithm for authenticating dry milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research developed a Raman chemical imaging method for detecting multiple adulterants in skim milk powder. Ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea were mixed into the milk powder as chemical adulterants in the concentration range of 0.1–5.0%. A Raman imaging system using a 785-nm la...

  13. Protection by milk immunoglobulin concentrate against oral challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tacket, C O; Losonsky, G; Link, H; Hoang, Y; Guesry, P; Hilpert, H; Levine, M M

    1988-05-12

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is a common cause of traveler's diarrhea. Prophylaxis against traveler's diarrhea has been associated with side effects from bismuth subsalicylate and the development of resistance to antimicrobial agents. We undertook a double-blind controlled trial in which a bovine milk immunoglobulin concentrate with high titers of antibodies against enterotoxigenic E. coli was used as prophylaxis against E. coli challenge in volunteers. Lyophilized milk immunoglobulins were prepared from the colostrum of cows immunized with several enterotoxigenic E. coli serotypes and fimbria types, E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin, and cholera toxin. As a control, an immunoglobulin concentrate with no anti-E. coli activity was prepared. Ten volunteers received buffered immunoglobulin concentrate against enterotoxigenic E. coli, and 10 received the control immunoglobulin concentrate, dissolved in water, three times a day. No side effects were observed. On the third day of immunoglobulin prophylaxis, the volunteers were given 10(9) colony-forming units of enterotoxigenic E. coli H10407 (O78:H11). This strain produces colonization factor antigen I and heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins. None of the 10 volunteers receiving the immunoglobulin concentrate against E. coli had diarrhea, but 9 of the 10 controls did (P less than 0.0001). All volunteers excreted E. coli H10407. We conclude from these preliminary results that milk immunoglobulin concentrate may be an effective prophylaxis against traveler's diarrhea. PMID:3283555

  14. Influence of prematurity and birth weight on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum milk

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Lira, Larissa Queiroz; Dimenstein, Roberto; Ribeiro, Karla Danielly da S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin E levels in the breast milk, analyzing the prematurity and the birth weight influence in α-tocopherol concentration of colostrum milk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, in which the colostrum was collected from 93 nursing mothers in a public maternity of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. The newborns were classified based on gestational age and birth weight. The analysis of α-tocopherol in the milk was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born at term was 1,093.6±532.4µg/dL; for preterm infants, the concentration was 1,321.6±708.5µg/dL (p=0.109). In the preterm group, the α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born with low and normal birth weight was 1,316.0±790.7 and 1,327.2±655.0µg/dL, respectively (p=0.971). In the term group, the α-tocopherol levels were higher in mothers of children with birth weight >4000g, being 1,821.0±575.4µg/dL, compared to 869.5±532.1µg/dL and 1,039.6±477.5µg/dL with low and adequate birth weight, respectively (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity did not influence α-tocopherol levels in the colostrum milk. Mothers who had macrossomic term neonates presented increased α-tocopherol levels. These results indicate that birth weight can influence α-tocopherol leves in the colostrum milk. PMID:24473952

  15. Genetic ancestry modifies fatty acid concentrations in different adipose tissue depots and milk fat.

    PubMed

    Meier, Susanne; Verkerk, Gwyneth A; Kay, Jane K; Macdonald, Kevin A; Roche, John R

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of cow genetic strain on fatty acid (FA) profiles in adipose tissue and milk. Adipose samples from two subcutaneous (shoulder and tail-head) and three visceral (kidney channel, mesenteric and omental) depots were obtained post mortem from New Zealand (NZ; n = 8) and North American (NA; n = 8) Holstein-Friesian cows. At the time of slaughter cows were in similar body condition (NZ: 4.0 ± 0.03, NA: 4.0 ± 0.02; ± SD) and stage of lactation (NZ: 90 ± 11.2 d; NA: 83 ± 4.3 d; ± SD). Milk was collected during the a.m. milking prior to slaughter and milk fat was extracted. Adipose and milk fat FA were quantified using gas chromatography. NZ cows had a lower proportion of saturated FA in shoulder, tail-head and omental adipose tissue and a greater proportion of mono-unsaturated FA and an elevated Δ9-desaturase index in shoulder and tail-head adipose tissue. The proportions of individual FA differed between adipose depots, with proportions of de-novo FA greater in subcutaneous compared with visceral adipose depots. Milk from NZ cows contained greater concentrations of short chain FA (C8 : 0-12 : 0) and CLA, and less cis-9 18 : 1 than milk from NA cows. Regression analysis identified moderate associations between milk FA and shoulder adipose tissue FA for 18 : 2 (R(2) = 0.24), 18 : 3 n - 3 (R(2) = 0.39), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (R(2) = 0.38). Results from this study support the hypothesis that genetic strain dictates FA profiles in adipose tissue and milk and may alter the metabolic status of the various adipose depots differently. The data further support the premise that genetic strain affects the metabolic status of the various adipose depots differently. Elucidating the mechanisms that regulate the different adipose depots in the NZ and NA strains will increase our understanding of tissue mobilization and replenishment. PMID:23445567

  16. Milk yield and composition of dairy cows fed concentrate based on naked oats.

    PubMed

    Petit, H V; Alary, S

    1999-05-01

    A 1.5-yr study was designed to determine the effects of feeding isonitrogenous and isoenergetic concentrates based on naked oats, corn, or a mixture (50: 50 on as-fed basis) of naked oats and corn on milk yield and composition. In vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility and ruminal degradabilities of DM, N, and starch of naked oats were compared with those of covered oats. Twenty-seven multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by similar calving date and assigned to 9 replicates. All cows were fed a mixture of grass silage, protein supplement, concentrate, and a vitamin and mineral mix for ad libitum intake. Treatment diets were fed from 3 to 36 wk of lactation. Milk yield and composition, yield of 4% fat-corrected milk, and yield of protein and fat were similar among treatments. Ruminal effective degradabilities of DM were higher for naked oats than for covered oats, but the ruminal degradabilities of crude protein and starch were similar. The rapidly degradable fractions of DM, crude protein, and starch were greater for naked than covered oats; the potentially degradable fractions were less. In vitro DM digestibility of naked oats was higher than was that of covered oats. Naked oats may be a good alternative to corn for milk yield. PMID:10342239

  17. Short communication: Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in milk of lactating ewes.

    PubMed

    Zeitz, J O; Most, E; Eder, K

    2015-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are well known as milk fat-reducing feed supplements in diets for lactating ruminants. However, their effects on milk concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins are unknown. This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that CLA affect the concentrations of retinol and tocopherol in ewe milk. For that purpose, group-housed Merino ewes (101 ± 13.7 kg) nursing twin lambs and fed with a hay:concentrate diet were supplemented with either 45 g of a rumen-protected CLA supplement containing 3.4 g of cis-9,trans-11-CLA and 3.4 g of trans-10,cis-12-CLA (CLA group, n=11) or with 45 g of a hydrogenated vegetable fat (control group, n=12) per ewe per day during the first 6 wk of lactation. Feed intake was recorded daily (concentrate) or weekly (hay) per group. Milk spot samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment (5 ± 2.4 d postpartum) and then weekly after lambs had been separated for 2 h from their mothers. The milk fat content was determined and feed and milk were analyzed for concentrations of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol and for retinol by HPLC. Dietary intake of tocopherol and retinol was similar in both groups. Feeding CLA decreased milk fat concentration by 23% on average, and during the first 3 wk of the study milk tocopherol concentration tended to be increased by feeding CLA (+17%), but retinol concentrations were not influenced. When related to milk fat, CLA feeding significantly increased both milk tocopherol (+40%) and retinol (+32%) and these effects were evident during the whole experimental period corresponding to the first half of lactation. PMID:26254518

  18. Breast Milk Concentration of Rubidium in Lactating Mothers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Method

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Parvaresh, Pouya; Parvaresh, Parviz; Madani Kouchak, Sara Sadat; Khorsandi, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the trace elements content of human milk from different countries. This has not been fully investigated especially among Iranian women. This study aimed to assess the concentration of Rubidium (Rb) as a poisonous trace element in transitional breast milk of lactating mothers living in Mashhad. Methods: Forty nursing mothers in early lactation 3 days to 15 days postpartum, free from any medical disorder and/or medication were randomly selected. We have applied Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to assess the long-lived isotope trace element Rb in transitional milk of these economically moderate 18–39 year old Iranian women. Findings: The average concentration level of Rb was 32.176 ppm dry weight (min 8.660, max 107.210 ppm). No significant correlation was observed between Rb concentration and maternal weight and age (P=0.06, P=0.05 respectively) and newborns’ weight, age and sex (P=0.07, P=0.2, P=0.2 respectively). Conclusion: Although the Rubidium concentration found in this study is among the highest reported in the literature, it could not be compared to other studies because of differences in analytical performance, state of lactation, and unavailable reference ranges, so this finding needs further investigations. PMID:26019773

  19. Milk and serum concentration of ceftiofur following intramammary infusion in goats.

    PubMed

    Garrett, E F; Dirikolu, L; Grover, G S

    2015-12-01

    Five dairy goats were used to determine the milk and serum concentrations along with elimination characteristics of ceftiofur following intramammary administration. One udder half of each goat was infused twice with 125 mg ceftiofur with a 24-h interval between infusions. Milk samples were collected at 1, 2, 8, and 12 h after the last infusion and then every 12 h for a total of 7 days. Blood was collected from each animal at 3, 8, 12, and 24 h after infusion and then every 24 h for 6 days. Following a washout period of 1 week, the experiment was repeated using the opposite udder half. The elimination half-life of ceftiofur from the mammary gland was 4.7 h. The concentration of ceftiofur was greater than published MIC90 values for Staphylococcus spp. bacteria for 24 h. Ceftiofur was absorbed into systemic circulation from the mammary gland. The maximum concentration was 552 ng/mL at 3 h after infusion, and the serum elimination half-life was 10 h. Intramammary infusion of 125 mg ceftiofur every 24 h can be expected to maintain drug concentration in milk above published MIC90 for Staphylococcus spp. PMID:25707268

  20. Acute administration of cefepime lowers L-carnitine concentrations in early lactation stage rat milk.

    PubMed

    Ling, Binbing; Alcorn, Jane

    2008-07-01

    Our study investigated the potential for important in vivo drug-nutrient transport interactions at the lactating mammary gland using the L-carnitine transporter substrates, cefepime and L-carnitine, as proof-of-concept. On d 4 (n = 6/treatment) and d 10 (n = 6/treatment) of lactation, rats were administered cefepime (250 mg/h) or saline by continuous i.v. infusion (4 h). Serum and milk L-carnitine and cefepime concentrations were quantified by HPLC-UV. In whole mammary gland, organic cation/carnitine transporter (OCTN)1, OCTN2, OCTN3, amino acid transporter B(0,+) (ATB(0,+)), and L-carnitine transporter 2 expression were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and by western blot and immunohistochemistry when possible. Cefepime caused a 56% decrease in milk L-carnitine concentrations on lactation d 4 (P = 0.0048) but did not affect milk L-carnitine at lactation d 10 or serum L-carnitine concentrations at either time. The mean L-carnitine and cefepime milk:serum ratios (M/S) decreased from 9.1 +/- 0.4 to 4.9 +/- 0.6 (P < 0.0001) and 0.89 +/- 0.3 to 0.12 +/- 0.02 (P = 0.0473), respectively, between d 4 and d 10 of lactation. In both groups, OCTN2 (P < 0.0001), OCTN3 (P = 0.0039), and ATB(0,+) (P = 0.004) mRNA expression and OCTN2 protein (P < 0.0001) were higher in mammary glands at d 4 of lactation compared with d 10. Immunohistochemistry revealed OCTN1 and OCTN2 localization in the mammary alveolar epithelium and OCTN3 expression in the interstitial space and blood vessel endothelium. In conclusion, cefepime significantly decreased milk L-carnitine concentrations only at d 4 of lactation. Relative to d 10, enhanced expression of OCTN2 and ATB(0,+) in mammary glands at d 4 of lactation and higher M/S (L-carnitine and cefepime) suggests cefepime competes with L-carnitine for L-carnitine transporters expressed in the lactating mammary gland to adversely affect L-carnitine milk concentrations and these effects depend upon lactation stage. PMID:18567754

  1. Effects of Protein Level and Mangosteen Peel Pellets (Mago-pel) in Concentrate Diets on Rumen Fermentation and Milk Production in Lactating Dairy Crossbreds

    PubMed Central

    Norrapoke, T.; Wanapat, M.; Wanapat, S.

    2012-01-01

    Four, lactating dairy crossbreds (50%×50% Holstein Friesian×Native Zebu cattle) were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement (two protein levels and two levels of mangosteen peel pellets (Mago-pel)) in a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. All cows received concentrate at a proportion of 1 kg concentrate per 2 kg of milk yield, and urea-treated 5% rice straw (UTRS) was given ad libitum. It was found that total dry matter intakes, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and NH3-N concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by treatments. Concentrations of ruminal pH and NH3-N were not affected by dietary treatments although the concentration of BUN varied significantly (p<0.05) between protein levels (p<0.05). The populations of rumen bacteria and fungal zoospores did not differ among treatments (p>0.05); however, the population of protozoa was decreased (p<0.05) when cows received Mago-pel supplementation. The composition of the population of bacteria, identified by real-time PCR technique, including total bacteria, methanogens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus was similar (p>0.05) among dietary treatments (p>0.05); however, copy numbers of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was increased when protein level increased (p<0.05). Microbial protein synthesis, in terms of both quantity and efficiency, was enriched by Mago-pel supplementation. Milk yield was greatest in cows fed UTRS based diets with concentrate containing protein at 16% CP with Mago-pel, but were lowest without Mago-pel (p<0.05). In addition, protein level and supplementation of Mago-pel did not affect (p>0.05) milk composition except solids-not-fat which was higher in cows fed the diet with 19% CP. Therefore, feeding a concentrate containing 16% CP together with 300 g/hd/d Mago-pel supplementation results in changes in rumen fermentation and microbial population and improvements in milk production in lactating dairy crossbreds fed on UTRS. PMID:25049652

  2. Fat source and dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio influences milk fatty-acid composition in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Vazirigohar, M; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Rezayazdi, K; Krizsan, S J; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Shingfield, K J

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the potential benefits to human health there is an increased interest in producing milk containing lower-saturated fatty acid (SFA) and higher unsaturated fatty acid (FA) concentrations, including cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were used in two experiments according to a completely randomized block design, with 21-day periods to examine the effects of incremental replacement of prilled palm fat (PALM) with sunflower oil (SFO) in high-concentrate diets containing 30 g/kg dry matter (DM) of supplemental fat (Experiment 1) or increases in the forage-to-concentrate (F : C) ratio from 39 : 61 to 48 : 52 of diets containing 30 g/kg DM of SFO (Experiment 2) on milk production, digestibility and milk FA composition. Replacing PALM with SFO had no effect on DM intake, but tended to increase organic matter digestibility, yields of milk, protein and lactose, and decreased linearly milk fat content. Substituting SFO for PALM decreased linearly milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and cis-9 16:1, and increased linearly 18:0, cis-9 18:1, trans-18:1 (��4 to 16), 18:2 and CLA concentrations. Increases in the F : C ratio of diets containing SFO had no effect on intake, yields of milk, milk protein or milk lactose, lowered milk protein content in a quadratic manner, and increased linearly NDF digestion and milk fat secretion. Replacing concentrates with forages in diets containing SFO increased milk fat 4:0 to 10:0 concentrations in a linear or quadratic manner, decreased linearly cis-9 16:1, trans-6 to -10 18:1, 18:2n-6, trans-7, cis-9 CLA, trans-9, cis-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA, without altering milk fat 14:0 to 16:0, trans-11 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 CLA or 18:3n-3 concentrations. In conclusion, replacing prilled palm fat on with SFO in high-concentrate diets had no adverse effects on intake or milk production, other than decreasing milk fat content, but lowered milk fat medium-chain SFA and increased trans FA and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Increases in the proportion of forage in diets containing SFO increased milk fat synthesis, elevated short-chain SFA and lowered trans FA concentrations, without altering milk polyunsaturated FA content. Changes in fat yield on high-concentrate diets containing SFO varied between experiments and individual animals, with decreases in milk fat secretion being associated with increases in milk fat trans-10 18:1, trans-10, cis-12 CLA and trans-9, cis-11 CLA concentrations. PMID:24176091

  3. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation. PMID:24635025

  4. Selenium concentration in the milk of breast-feeding mothers and its geographic distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Zachara, B A; Pilecki, A

    2000-01-01

    A total of 905 human milk samples collected in all provinces of Poland, between 12 and 75 days of lactation, were analyzed for selenium concentration. The distribution of Se levels in milk between the provinces was narrow and varied from 8.81 to 11.58 ng/mL, with the mean value (+/- SD) of 10.24 +/- 2.82 ng/mL. The regions with lower levels of Se were in the central and eastern part of Poland; the areas with higher values were in the northern, western, and southern parts of Poland. No significant correlations were found between Se levels in milk and the age of lactating mothers or between Se levels and the postpartum period. The calculated daily Se intakes by breast-fed infants varied from 6.46 to 8.50 microg/day, with the mean value of 7.52 microg/day. This amount does not meet the recommended dietary allowances for infants between 0 and 6 months of age. Based on Se levels in human milk, we present a selenium map of Poland. PMID:11102294

  5. Comparison of DDT and its metabolites concentrations in cow milk from agricultural and industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Kuba, Jarosław; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tarasewicz, Natalia; Pilarczyk, Renata; Ligocki, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The risk of pesticidal intoxication in humans is severe, especially because of the strongly negative impact on human health. The consequences of the exposure to these substances may include cancerogenesis or endocrine abnormalities resulting for example in decreased fertility. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the content of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in cow milk from two regions of Poland, varying by level of industrialization. Samples were collected from agricultural (n = 25) and industrial (n = 25) areas, and the concentrations of DDT and its metabolites were evaluated by gas chromatography. Residues of DDT were detected in all the milk samples tested, mostly in the samples from the agricultural area, where a total DDT median concentration reached 0.336 μg L(-1). In the milk samples from the industrial area, the median concentration was lower, at 0.131 μg L(-1). 4,4'-DDT was the main metabolite, constituting 83% of total DDT metabolites. Although none of the samples exceeded the level above which they should be considered dangerous, the results showed that the problem of DDT had not diminished and so should be constantly monitored. PMID:25421622

  6. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p < 0.047). In contrast, the mothers who took daily supplements had much higher iron concentrations in their milk (p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of zinc, copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth. PMID:26839873

  7. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun Kyung; Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon; Kim, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p < 0.047). In contrast, the mothers who took daily supplements had much higher iron concentrations in their milk (p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of zinc, copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth. PMID:26839873

  8. Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in plasma and milk samples for early pregnancy diagnosis in Lacaune dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    El Amiri, B; Sousa, N M; Alvarez Oxiley, A; Hadarbach, D; Beckers, J F

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, four RIA systems (RIA-1 to -4) based on two antisera raised against ovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (ovPAGs), combined with an ovine or a bovine PAG tracer were used to measure PAG concentrations in plasma and milk samples of dairy ewes. Blood and milk samples were collected on different days of gestation: 0, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 32, 42, and 49. From day 20 onward, the PAG in plasma could be detected in all pregnant ewes using the four RIA systems. By using milk, except for RIA-1, the other systems showed a sensitivity of 100% from day 28 of gestation onward. In plasma, PAG concentrations were higher in multiple than in single pregnancies, while no clear relationship was observed in milk. In conclusion, milk is a good alternative to plasma for early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep from day 28 to day 42. PMID:25613086

  9. Effects of dietary vitamin E concentration and source on sow, milk, and pig concentrations of α-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Shelton, N W; Dritz, S S; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M; Yang, H; Hill, D A; Holzgraefe, D; Hall, D H; Mahan, D C

    2014-09-01

    A total of 126 gilts and sows (PIC 1050) and their litters were used to determine the effects of dietary vitamin E concentration and source on sow plasma, milk, and pig concentrations of α-tocopherol. Additionally, we estimated the bioavailability of D-α-tocopheryl acetate (D-α-TAc) relative to DL-α-tocopheryl acetate (DL-α-TAc) when fed in diets containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The 6 dietary treatments included DL-α-TAc at 44 and 66 mg/kg and D-α-TAc at 11, 22, 33, and 44 mg/kg. From breeding to d 69 of gestation, sows were fed 2.0 kg/d of a diet containing 40%-DDGS, 0.30 mg/kg added Se, and no added vitamin E. Vitamin E treatments were fed from d 70 of gestation through weaning. Plasma was collected from sows on d 69 and 100 of gestation, at farrowing, and at weaning. Colostrum and milk samples were also collected. Plasma from 3 pigs per litter and heart and liver samples from 1 pig per litter were collected at weaning. Plasma, milk, and tissues from 6 litters per treatment were analyzed for α-tocopherol. Although tissue, plasma, and milk concentrations of α-tocopherol were the primary response criteria of interest, sow and litter performance were measured. As expected, treatment effects were not observed (P > 0.10) for lactation feed intake, sow BW, or backfat measurements. A trend (P = 0.085) for a treatment effect on average pig BW at weaning was detected, with pigs nursing sows fed 44 mg/kg DL-α-TAc weighing less because of a younger weaning age. No other differences in litter performance were observed (P > 0.10). As D-α-TAc increased in the diet, sow plasma, colostrum, milk, pig plasma, and pig heart concentrations of α-tocopherol increased (linear, P < 0.03). Sows fed diets with 44 mg/kg D-α-TAc had increased (P < 0.03) plasma, colostrum, and pig plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol compared with sows fed 44 mg/kg of DL-α-TAc. Sows fed 66 mg/kg DL-α-TAc also had greater (P = 0.022) plasma α-tocopherol at weaning than sows fed 44 mg/kg DL-α-TAc. Bioavailability coefficients for D-α-TAc relative to DL-α-TAc ranged from 1.9 to 4.2 for sow and pig plasma α-tocopherol, 2.9 to 3.6 for colostrum α-tocopherol, 1.6 for milk α-tocopherol, and 1.7 to 2.0 for pig heart and liver α-tocopherol. Overall, this study indicates that the relative bioavailability for D-α-TAc relative to DL-α-TAc varies depending on the response criteria but is greater than the standard potency value of 1.36. PMID:25184844

  10. Effects of dietary vitamin E concentration and source on sow, milk, and pig concentrations of α-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Shelton, N W; Dritz, S S; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M; Yang, H; Hill, D A; Holzgraefe, D; Hall, D H; Mahan, D C

    2014-10-01

    A total of 126 gilts and sows (PIC 1050) and their litters were used to determine the effects of dietary vitamin E concentration and source on sow plasma, milk, and pig concentrations of α-tocopherol. Additionally, we estimated the bioavailability of D-α-tocopheryl acetate (D-α-TAc) relative to DL-α-tocopheryl acetate (DL-α-TAc) when fed in diets containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The 6 dietary treatments included DL-α-TAc at 44 and 66 mg/kg and D-α-TAc at 11, 22, 33, and 44 mg/kg. From breeding to d 69 of gestation, sows were fed 2.0 kg/d of a diet containing 40% DDGS, 0.30 mg/kg added Se, and no added vitamin E. Vitamin E treatments were fed from d 70 of gestation through weaning. Plasma was collected from sows on d 69 and 100 of gestation, at farrowing, and at weaning. Colostrum and milk samples were also collected. Plasma from 3 pigs per litter and heart and liver samples from 1 pig per litter were collected at weaning. Plasma, milk, and tissues from 6 litters per treatment were analyzed for α-tocopherol. Although tissue, plasma, and milk concentrations of α-tocopherol were the primary response criteria of interest, sow and litter performance were measured. As expected, treatment effects were not observed for lactation feed intake, sow BW, or backfat measurements. A trend (P = 0.085) for a treatment effect on average pig BW at weaning was detected, with pigs nursing sows fed 44 mg/kg DL-α-TAc weighing less because of a younger weaning age. No other differences in litter performance were observed. As D-α-TAc increased in the diet, sow plasma, colostrum, and milk, pig plasma, and pig heart concentrations of α-tocopherol increased (linear, P < 0.03). Sows fed diets with 44 mg/kg D-α-TAc had increased (P < 0.03) plasma and colostrum and pig plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol compared with sows fed 44 mg/kg of DL-α-TAc. Sows fed 66 mg/kg DL-α-TAc also had greater (P = 0.022) plasma α-tocopherol at weaning than sows fed 44 mg/kg DL-α-TAc. Bioavailability coefficients for D-α-TAc relative to DL-α-TAc ranged from 1.9 to 4.2 for sow and pig plasma α-tocopherol, 2.9 to 3.6 for colostrum α-tocopherol, 1.6 for milk α-tocopherol, and 1.7 to 2.0 for pig heart and liver α-tocopherol. Overall, this study indicates the bioavailability for D-α-TAc relative to DL-α-TAc varies depending on the response criteria but is greater than the standard potency value of 1.36. PMID:25267996

  11. Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

    2015-05-01

    Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ∆-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 concentrations. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 concentrations (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 concentration (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (Δ9 to 11), trans-18:1 (Δ6 to 11), trans-18:2, CLA (cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11, trans-8,trans-10 and trans-7,trans-9) and 20- and 22-carbon FA concentrations. Overall, EL resulted in a relatively high cis-9 18:1 concentration and an increase in the 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 ratio, whereas combining EL and FO resulted in substantial increases in trans-FA, marginal enrichment in 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 and lower 16:0 concentration changes associated with a decrease in milk fat content. In conclusion, data provide further evidence of differential mammary lipogenic responses to diet in the goat compared with the cow and sheep. PMID:25491438

  12. Effects of a polymer-coated urea product on nitrogen metabolism in lactating Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Galo, E; Emanuele, S M; Sniffen, C J; White, J H; Knapp, J R

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of polymer-coated urea on nitrogen retention, rumen microbial growth, and milk production and composition. Coated urea (CU) that is more slowly hydrolyzed to ammonia than unprotected urea could potentially be used more efficiently by rumen microorganisms. Eight cows were offered each of three diets in a randomized crossover design. Each treatment period consisted of a 14-d adjustment period and a 5-d collection period. Diets were formulated to maintain milk production while reducing plasma urea nitrogen concentrations and urinary nitrogen excretion. Diets consisted of corn silage, mixed grass/legume haylage, chopped alfalfa hay, corn meal, protein, vitamin and mineral supplements, in a total mixed ration and fed ad libitum. The diets contained 17.9%, 18.1%, and 16.4% CP and 0, 0.77%, and 0.77% CU (dry matter basis) and are denoted as CP18-CU, CP18+CU, and CP16+CU, respectively. Individual feed intakes were measured, and total fecal, and urine collections were conducted. Cows were milked twice daily at 0500 and 1700 h, and the milk sampled for composition and milk urea N analysis. Dry matter intake averaged 23.5 +/- 0.2 kg/d and was not altered by diet. Also, milk fat and true protein were not altered by diet and averaged 3.72 and 3.07%, respectively. Milk yield was highest for diets CP18-CU and CP18+CU. Significant differences were observed in N intake and excretion in urine, feces, and milk between dietary treatments. Cows fed CP16+CU consumed 11% less N than in CP18-CU. Cows fed CP18+CU showed the highest excretion of N in urine, and together with CP16+CU, the lowest N excretion in feces. Nitrogen excretion in milk was lower for cows fed CP16+CU. Calculated N balance was not significantly different between diets nor was it significantly different from zero. Efficiency of N capture in milk protein as a function of N intake was higher for animals on CP16+CU. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives was not different between diets, and estimated microbial CP was also similar. Coated urea was not effective at reducing nitrogen excretion by dairy cattle. PMID:12836952

  13. Increased Milk Protein Concentration in a Rehydration Drink Enhances Fluid Retention Caused by Water Reabsorption in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kentaro; Saito, Yuri; Ashida, Kinya; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2015-01-01

    A fluid-retention effect is required for beverages that are designed to prevent dehydration. That is, fluid absorbed from the intestines should not be excreted quickly; long-term retention is desirable. Here, we focused on the effect of milk protein on fluid retention, and propose a new effective oral rehydration method that can be used daily for preventing dehydration. We first evaluated the effects of different concentrations of milk protein on fluid retention by measuring the urinary volumes of rats fed fluid containing milk protein at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10%. We next compared the fluid-retention effect of milk protein-enriched drink (MPD) with those of distilled water (DW) and a sports drink (SD) by the same method. Third, to investigate the mechanism of fluid retention, we measured plasma insulin changes in rats after ingesting these three drinks. We found that the addition of milk protein at 5 or 10% reduced urinary volume in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of the MPD containing 4.6% milk protein resulted in lower urinary volumes than DW and SD. MPD also showed a higher water reabsorption rate in the kidneys and higher concentrations of plasma insulin than DW and SD. These results suggest that increasing milk protein concentration in a beverage enhances fluid retention, which may allow the possibility to develop rehydration beverages that are more effective than SDs. In addition, insulin-modifying renal water reabsorption may contribute to the fluid-retention effect of MPD. PMID:26235579

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations in the breast milk of women in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P; Laliberté, C; Weber, J P; Gingras, S; Nantel, A J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study documented the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) in the breast milk of women from Quebec, Canada, and assessed the impact of various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on these levels. METHODS: From 1988 to 1990, milk samples were obtained from 536 Quebec women and analyzed for seven PCB congeners and p,p'-DDE. Information was obtained on subjects' physical, sociodemographic, and lifestyle characteristics. RESULTS: Mean concentrations were 0.52 mg/kg lipids (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.50, 0.54) and 0.34 mg/kg lipids (95% CI = 0.32, 0.35) for PCBs (Aroclor 1260) and DDE, respectively. Age and history of breast-feeding showed statistically significant correlations with PCB and DDE concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of PCBs and DDE measured in this study are at the lower end of the concentration range recently reported for women living in industrialized countries. The modulating factors identified here should be considered when conducting studies on organochlorine exposure and disease. PMID:8806375

  15. Studies on the increase in serum concentrations of urea cycle amino acids among subjects exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, H.; Shiroishi, K. ); Kagamimori, S.; Naruse, Y. ); Watanabe, M. )

    1988-05-01

    Itai-itai disease (I disease) is a combination of renal tubular damage and osteomalacia accompanied by osteoporosis among subjects exposed to cadmium (Cd). When the renal tubular damage progresses, the excretion of amino acids, especially, threonine, hydroxyproline, proline, citrulline, ornithine, arginine, etc. increase in urine. It was reported that the increase in urinary excretion of citrulline, arginine and ornithine may be associated with an inhibition of urea synthesis in the urea cycle. The authors have found that serum citrulline, arginine and ornithine also increased in I disease patients. In order to investigate the mechanism of the increase in these serum amino acids, comparative studies were performed using both healthy subjects and patients with renal disease as control groups.

  16. Milk synthetic response of the bovine mammary gland to an increase in the local concentration of amino acids and acetate.

    PubMed

    Purdie, N G; Trout, D R; Poppi, D P; Cant, J P

    2008-01-01

    Rates of secretion of components into milk are a function of precursor concentrations and parameters that describe expression of the milk synthetic enzymes and their sensitivity to precursor concentrations. To establish the enzymatic sensitivities of milk fat yield and mammary acetate utilization to circulating acetate concentration, lactating cows were infused for 10 h with 0 or 40 g of acetate/h in an external iliac artery supplying one udder half. In addition, to investigate the possibility that energy supply influences the milk protein response to an elevated amino acid (AA) concentration, 2 different AA profiles were infused with and without acetate. Six cows, fed a total mixed ration of 21% crude protein ad libitum, were infused with AA at 0 g/h, 30 g/h in the profile of rumen microbes, or 30 g/h in the profile of milk proteins, in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement with the 2 acetate treatments of 0 and 40 g/h, all in a 6 x 6 Latin square. Amino acid infusion caused a 60% increase, on average, in plasma concentration of AA entering the infused udder half. From the microbial AA profile, 49% of infused AA were taken up by the udder half, 42% of which occurred during the first pass. From the milk AA profile, 44% of infused AA were taken up by the udder half, 50% of which occurred during the first pass. There was an 8% increase in yield of milk protein with AA infusion, representing 7% capture, but no effect of the infused profile. Acetate infusion caused a decrease in the yields of milk protein and lactose when AA were infused, but not when AA were absent. Milk fat yields were not affected, although acetate concentrations in plasma entering the infused udder half increased by 123% and mammary uptakes increased by 128%. Mammary uptakes of long-chain fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate were not affected by acetate infusion, whereas glucose uptakes tended to increase. It was suggested that excess acetate may have been sequestered in adipose tissue in the udder. Yields of both protein and fat in milk showed a low sensitivity to the concentration of their precursors in circulation. It was concluded that the Km in Michaelis-Menten-type equations describing milk synthesis should be assigned a low value, and that the Vmax is regulated to bring about changes in milk yield and composition. PMID:18096943

  17. Organochlorine concentrations in breast milk and prevalence of allergic disorders in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Masuzaki, Yuko; Sato, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Yoshirou; Chisaki, Youichi; Arakawa, Masashi

    2011-10-01

    Persistent organic pollutants have been shown to have immunomodulating effects in humans. However, epidemiological evidence regarding the relationships between organochlorine compound exposure and allergic disorders coming from studies of children has been limited and inconsistent. The current cross-sectional study examined the associations between the concentrations of β-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and trans-nonachlordane in breast milk and the prevalence of allergic disorders in 124 adult Japanese women. The definition of wheeze and asthma was based on criteria from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey whereas that of eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis was based on criteria from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Adjustment was made for age, smoking, family history of allergic disorders, and education. The prevalence values of wheeze, asthma, eczema, and rhinoconjunctivitis in the past 12 months were 9.7%, 4.8%, 13.7%, and 29.8%, respectively. The median concentrations of β-HCH, HCB, p,p'-DDE, and trans-nonachlordane in breast milk were 28.3, 7.0, 71.6, and 23.9 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively (range, 4.5-253, 2.1-14.5, 7.5-362, and 1.8-130 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively). When the exposures were treated as continuous variables, no significant associations were found between concentrations of HCB, β-HCH, p,p'-DDE, or trans-nonachlordane and the prevalence of wheeze, asthma, eczema, or rhinoconjunctivitis. Our results suggest that concentrations of β-HCH, HCB, p,p'-DDE, and trans-nonachlordane in breast milk are not evidently associated with the prevalence of wheeze, asthma, eczema, or rhinoconjunctivitis in young female Japanese adults. PMID:21802112

  18. Urea Utilization by Leptospira

    PubMed Central

    Kadis, Solomon; Pugh, William L.

    1974-01-01

    One representative of each of five different pathogenic serotypes of Leptospira as well as one saprophytic strain were capable of growing on medium containing urea in place of an ammonium salt as a nitrogen source. Growth of all of the organisms tested on 1% urea was substantial, but only those that exhibited strong urease activity could grow to any appreciable extent on urea at a concentration as high as 2%. Intact urea-grown cells of the pathogenic serotypes tested (grippotyphosa and icterohaemorrhagiae) exhibited urease activity, with the level of activity of the former being considerably greater. No urease could be detected in cells of the saprophytic strain. When the pathogenic leptospires were sonicated or treated with toluene, the urease activity was greatly enhanced. When cultivated on NH4Cl, neither intact nor disrupted cells of any of the strains tested exhibited any urease activity. Cells of the grippotyphosa and icterohaemorrhagiae strains exhibited diauxic growth when cultivated in the presence of both NH4Cl and urea, whereas only monophasic growth could be detected for the saprophytic test strain. The experimental data on urea utilization and urease activity, when considered in the light of previously reported findings on leptospiral pathology, renal physiology, and the role of urease in other bacterial infections, suggests a significant role for leptospiral urease (in addition to other factors) in determining localization of the organism in the kidney and contributing to the resultant kidney pathology. PMID:4426709

  19. Effect of postpartum propylene glycol allocation to over-conditioned Holstein cows on concentrations of milk metabolites.

    PubMed

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Storm, Adam C; Vestergaard, Mogens; Larsen, Mogens; Larsen, Torben

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of propylene glycol (PG) allocation on concentrations of milk metabolites with potential use as indicators of glucogenic status in high yielding postpartum dairy cows. At time of calving, nine ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned to ruminal dosing of 500 g/d tap water (CON, n = 4) or 500 g/d PG (PPG, n = 5). The PG was given with the morning feeding week 1-4 postpartum (treatment period) and cows were further followed during week 5-8 postpartum (follow-up period). All cows were fed the same postpartum diet. Milk samples were obtained at each milking (3 times/d) in the treatment period, and at morning milking during the follow-up period. Weekly blood samples were obtained from -4 to +8 weeks relative to calving and daily blood samples from -7 until +7 d relative to calving. The main effect of PG allocation was an increased glucogenic status, e.g. visualised by a prompt marked increase in blood fructosamine. During the treatment period, milk concentration of free glucose tended to be greater, whereas milk concentrations of isocitrate and BHBA were lower for PPG compared with CON. It is proposed that the ratio between free glucose and isocitrate in milk may be a potential biomarker for glucogenic status in the vulnerable early postpartum period. We will pursue this issue in the future. PMID:27032705

  20. Levels and Concentration Ratios of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Serum and Breast Milk in Japanese Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kayoko; Harada, Kouji; Takenaka, Katsunobu; Uehara, Shigeki; Kono, Makoto; Shimizu, Takashi; Takasuga, Takumi; Senthilkumar, Kurunthachalam; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Koizumi, Akio

    2006-01-01

    Blood and/or breast milk have been used to assess human exposure to various environmental contaminants. Few studies have been available to compare the concentrations in one matrix with those in another. The goals of this study were to determine the current levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Japanese women, with analysis of the effects of lifestyle and dietary habits on these levels, and to develop a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) with which to predict the ratio of serum concentration to breast milk concentration. We measured PBDEs and PCBs in 89 paired samples of serum and breast milk collected in four regions of Japan in 2005. The geometric means of the total concentrations of PBDE (13 congeners) in milk and serum were 1.56 and 2.89 ng/g lipid, respectively, whereas those of total PCBs (15 congeners) were 63.9 and 37.5 ng/g lipid, respectively. The major determinant of total PBDE concentration in serum and milk was the geographic area within Japan, whereas nursing duration was the major determinant of PCB concentration. BDE-209 was the most predominant PBDE congener in serum but not in milk. The excretion of BDE 209 in milk was lower than that of BDE 47 and BDE 153. QSAR analysis revealed that two parameters, calculated octanol/water partition and number of hydrogen-bond acceptors, were significant descriptors. During the first weeks of lactation, the predicted partitioning of PBDE and PCB congeners from serum to milk agreed with the observed values. However, the prediction became weaker after 10 weeks of nursing. PMID:16882522

  1. Influence of weather conditions on milk production and rectal temperature of Holsteins fed two levels of concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabuga, J. D.; Sarpong, K.

    1991-12-01

    Twelve lactating Holstein cows in 2nd lactation were allocated randomly, six each, to two feeding treatments: high concentrate (1 kg dairy concentrate to 2 kg milk produced) and low concentrate (1 kg dairy concentrate to 4 kg milk produced) from 7 to 106 days postcalving. Forage and water were provided adalibitum. Milk and butter fat yields and rectal temperatures were examined in relation to 9 weather variables (minimum, maximum and mean temperatures, relative humidity, temperature-humidity index (THI), radiation, wind velocity and mean temperature of the previous day). Averages for milk yield, fat yield and rectal temperature were respectively 20.4 kg, 0.7 kg and 38.9°C for the high concentrate treatment and 18.4 kg, 0.6 kg and 38.6°C for the low concentrate treatment. Weather conditions accounted for 5.6%, 0.8% and 10.8% of the day to day variation in milk yield, fat yield and rectal remperature, respectively, for the high concentrate group and 29.4%, 9.7% and 0.6%, respectively, for the low concentrate group. Only measures of ambient temperature, especially mean temperature, were closely associated with these traits.

  2. Concentration of thyroid hormones and prolactin in dairy cattle serum and milk at three stages of lactation

    SciTech Connect

    Akasha, M.A.; Anderson, R.R.; Ellersieck, M.; Nixon, D.A.

    1987-02-01

    Eighteen lactating Holstein cows were used with six each in early, mid, and late lactation. Blood samples were obtained on 7 successive d. Blood serum and milk were measured by radioimmunoassay for thyroxine, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine. Prolactin was also measured in serum by radioimmunoassay. Serum thyroxine increased as lactation progressed and milk production declined (50, 55, and 62 ng/ml). Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine and reverse triiodothyronine were unchanged throughout lactation. Prolactin in serum declined as lactation advanced linearly (14.4, 11.8, and 10.5 ng/ml). Concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in milk declined significantly between early and mid but not mid and late lactation. Reverse triiodothyronine in milk did not change over the lactation. Serum triiodothyronine contained 1200 to 1300 pg/ml, whereas that in milk was 200 to 300 pg/ml. Reverse triiodothyronine was over 300 pg/ml in serum and only 80 to 90 pg/ml in milk. Amounts of thyroxine and triiodothyronine available to offspring from milk were calculated to be minor sources (4 to 5%) of total requirements for maintenance of metabolic function.

  3. Slow-release urea and highly fermentable sugars in diets fed to lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Golombeski, G L; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R; Schingoethe, D J

    2006-11-01

    This experiment was designed to test the inclusion of highly fermentable sugars (FS) in dairy rations and their interactions with a slow-release urea (SU) product. The FS are a blend of liquid coproducts from the corn milling and cheese industries, and the SU is calcium chloride urea. Eight multiparous and 4 primiparous Brown Swiss cows (117 +/- 46 d in milk) were blocked by parity and utilized in a multiple Latin square design. Basal diets were formulated for 16.6% crude protein and 1.55 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation and contained 35% of dietary dry matter as corn silage, 15% alfalfa hay, 34% of a concentrate mix containing varying proportions of ground shelled corn and soybean meal, and 16% of a constant concentrate premix. The premix consisted of equal proportions of corn distillers grains, soybean hulls, expeller soybean meal, vitamins, and minerals across all diets. Diets contained either no supplemental FS (NFS) or FS (8.64% RationMate) and either no SU (NSU) or SU (0.61% Ruma Pro) in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Feeding FS tended to decrease milk production compared with feeding NFS. Milk fat percentage was increased for cows fed FS compared with NFS. Feeding SU decreased dry matter intake and increased feed efficiency compared with cows fed NSU. Dietary treatment had no effect on energy-corrected milk, milk fat yield, milk protein percentage, or milk urea N. Feeding FS increased the molar proportion of ruminal butyrate and decreased the molar proportion of propionate; however, no other effects were observed on ruminal fermentation. No interactions between FS and SU were observed. It was concluded that the replacement of corn and soybean meal with dietary FS increased milk fat percentage and that the replacement of soybean meal with SU significantly improved feed efficiency. PMID:17033027

  4. Longitudinal evolution of the concentration of gangliosides GM3 and GD3 in human milk.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida, Francesca; Elmelegy, Isabelle Masserey; Thakkar, Sagar K; Marmet, Cynthia; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    It has been reported that dietary gangliosides may have an important role in preventing infections and in brain development during early infancy. However, data related to the evolution of their concentration over the different stages of lactation are scarce. Liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometer (LC/ESI-HR-MS) has been optimized to quantify the two major ganglioside classes, i.e., aNeu5Ac(2-8)aNeu5Ac(2-3)bDGalp(1-4)bDGlcp(1-1)Cer (GD3) and aNeu5Ac(2-3)bDGalp(1-4)bDGlcp(1-1)Cer (GM3) in human milk. Gangliosides were extracted using chloroform and methanol, further purified by solid-phase extraction and separated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Repeatability, intermediate reproducibility, and recovery values were assessed to validate the method. In human milk, GD3 and GM3 could be quantified at the level of 0.1 and 0.2 μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviation of repeatability [CV(r)] and intermediate reproducibility [CV(iR)] values ranging from 1.9 to 15.0 % and 1.9 to 22.5 %, respectively. The described method was used to quantify GD3 and GM3 in human milk samples collected from 450 volunteers between 0 and 11 days and at 30, 60 and 120 days postpartum, providing for the first time the concentration of these minor lipids in a large cohort. The content of total gangliosides ranged from 8.1 and 10.7 μg/mL and the mean intake of gangliosides in infants 30, 60 and 120 days postpartum could be estimated at about 5.5, 7.0 and 8.6 mg of total gangliosides per day, respectively, when infants were exclusively breastfed. PMID:25186772

  5. Association of CXCR1 polymorphisms with apoptosis, necrosis and concentration of milk neutrophils in early lactating dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Joren; Piepers, Sofie; Peelman, Luc; Van Poucke, Mario; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2014-08-01

    Associations between polymorphisms in the candidate gene CXCR1, encoding the chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1, and udder health have been identified before. In the present study, associations between the CXCR1 genotype (whole coding region) and apoptosis, necrosis, and concentration of milk polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte (PMNL) of 292 quarters belonging to 73 early lactating dairy heifers were studied. In uninfected quarters, % milk PMNL apoptosis was higher in c.980GG heifers [least squares means (LSM) 27%] compared to c.980AG heifers (LSM 16%), whereas in infected quarters, % milk PMNL apoptosis was higher in c.642GG heifers (LSM 29%) compared to c.642AG heifers (LSM 18%). Differences in milk PMNL concentration between infected and uninfected quarters were smaller in c.980AG heifers than in c.980GG heifers. An association between the CXCR1 genotype and necrosis of milk PMNL could not be demonstrated. Results indicate that CXCR1 polymorphisms influence viability and concentration of milk PMNL and provide a foundation for future research. PMID:24934516

  6. The essential mineral concentration of Torba yoghurts and their wheys compared with yoghurt made with cows', ewes' and goats' milks.

    PubMed

    Güler, Zehra; Sanal, Hasan

    2009-03-01

    Comparative studies on yoghurts made from cows', ewes' and goats' milks with respect to mineral concentrations are limited and warrant further investigation. The objective of this study was to analyse the gross chemical composition as well as the concentration of essential minerals in concentrated (torba) yoghurts made from cows', ewes' and goats' milk compared with those in regular yoghurts and wheys. The elements were determined by simultaneous inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Ewe torba yoghurt was significantly higher in calcium, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, selenium, zinc, cobalt, copper and iron concentrations compared with goat and cow torba yoghurts. It is recommended that torba yoghurts made from different types of milk may be considered an important source of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, selenium and zinc over the regular yoghurts and wheys. Whey samples are also an excellent source of lactose as well as sodium and potassium. PMID:18608571

  7. Partial calcium depletion during membrane filtration affects gelation of reconstituted milk protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Eshpari, H; Jimenez-Flores, R; Tong, P S; Corredig, M

    2015-12-01

    Milk protein concentrate powders (MPC) with improved rehydration properties are often manufactured using processing steps, such as acidification and high-pressure processing, and with addition of other ingredients, such as sodium chloride, during their production. These steps are known to increase the amount of serum caseins or modify the mineral equilibrium, hence improving solubility of the retentates. The processing functionality of the micelles may be affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of partial acidification by adding glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) to skim milk during membrane filtration on the structural changes of the casein micelles by observing their chymosin-induced coagulation behavior, as such coagulation is affected by both the supramolecular structure of the caseins and calcium equilibrium. Milk protein concentrates were prepared by preacidification with GDL to pH 6 using ultrafiltration (UF) and diafiltration (DF) followed by spray-drying. Reconstituted UF and DF samples (3.2% protein) treated with GDL showed significantly increased amounts of soluble calcium and nonsedimentable caseins compared with their respective controls, as measured by ion chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE electrophoresis, respectively. The primary phase of chymosin-induced gelation was not significantly different between treatments as measured by the amount of caseino-macropeptide released. The rheological properties of the reconstituted MPC powders were determined immediately after addition of chymosin, both before and after dialysis against skim milk, to ensure similar serum composition for all samples. Reconstituted samples before dialysis showed no gelation (defined as tan δ=1), and after re-equilibration only control UF and DF samples showed gelation. The gelation properties of reconstituted MPC powders were negatively affected by the presence of soluble casein, and positively affected by the amount of both soluble and insoluble calcium present after reconstitution. This work, testing the chymosin-induced gelation behavior of various reconstituted MPC samples, clearly demonstrated that a decrease in pH to 6.0 during membrane filtration affects the integrity of the casein micelles supramolecular structure with important consequences to their processing functionality. PMID:26454287

  8. Effect of bleaching permeate from microfiltered skim milk on 80% serum protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rachel E; Adams, Michael C; Drake, Maryanne; Barbano, David M

    2013-03-01

    Whey proteins that have been removed before the cheese-making process are referred to as "native" whey proteins or milk serum proteins. Because serum proteins isolated directly from milk are not exposed to the cheese-making process, they are free from functional or sensory effects arising from this process. Whey proteins used in food and beverage applications are largely derived from annatto-colored Cheddar cheese. Some of the annatto is left in the whey and this color is converted to a colorless compound by bleaching. The effect of bleaching serum proteins on flavor and functionality of spray-dried protein provides a platform to investigate the effect of bleaching free from the confounding effects of cheese manufacture. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the sensory and functional properties of 80% milk serum protein concentrate (SPC80) produced from bleached and unbleached microfiltration (MF) permeate made from skim milk with and without added annatto color. Colored and uncolored MF permeates were bleached with benzoyl peroxide (BP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP), ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried. The SPC80 from unbleached colored and uncolored MF permeates were manufactured as controls. All treatments were manufactured in triplicate. All SPC80 were evaluated by sensory testing, instrumental analyses, functionality, color, and proximate analysis. The HP-bleached SPC80 was higher in lipid oxidation compounds than BP-bleached or unbleached SPC80, specifically hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, and 2,3-octadienone. The HP treatments were higher in aroma intensity and cardboard and fatty flavors compared with the unbleached and BP-bleached SPC80. The SPC80 bleached with BP had lower concentrations of norbixin compared with SPC80 bleached with HP. Functionality testing demonstrated that HP treatments had more soluble protein after 10min of heating at 90°C and pH 4.6 and pH 7 compared with the no bleach and BP treatments, regardless of additional color. Foams generated from bleached SPC80 were more stable than those from unbleached SPC80, and those bleached with HP were lower in yield stress than other SPC80. Overall, HP bleaching destroyed less norbixin and caused more lipid oxidation and subsequent off-flavors than did BP bleaching. However, the heat stability of SPC80 was enhanced by HP bleaching compared with control treatments or BP bleaching. PMID:23295111

  9. The brominated flame retardants, PBDEs and HBCD, in Canadian human milk samples collected from 1992 to 2005; concentrations and trends.

    PubMed

    Ryan, John Jake; Rawn, Dorothea F K

    2014-09-01

    Human milk samples were collected from individuals residing in various regions across Canada mostly in the years 1992 to 2005. These included five large cities in southern Canada as well as samples from Nunavik in northern Quebec. Comparative samples were also collected from residents of Austin, Texas, USA in 2002 and 2004. More than 300 milk samples were analysed for the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), PBDEs and HBCD, by extraction, purification and quantification using either isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-MS. The Canadian total PBDE values in the years 2002-2005 show median levels of about 20μg/kg on a lipid basis; a value significantly higher than in the 1980s and 1990s. Milk samples from Inuit donors in the northern region of Nunavik were slightly lower in PBDE concentrations than those from populated regions in the south of Quebec. Milk samples from Ontario contained slightly lower amounts of PBDEs in two time periods than those from Texas. HBCD levels in most milk samples were usually less than 1ppb milk lipid and dominated by the α-isomer. This large data set of BFRs in Canadian human milk demonstrates an increase in the last few decades in human exposure to BFRs which now appears to have stabilized. PMID:24879366

  10. Dietary phospholipid concentrate from bovine milk improves epidermal function in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Yuko; Kato, Ken; Yoshioka, Toshimitsu

    2008-08-01

    We investigated the effect of dietary phospholipid (PL) concentrate from bovine milk on the epidermis. Thirteen-week-old hairless male and female mice (Hos:HR-1) were separated into two experimental groups, each fed two experimental diets: the control group and the PL group. The mice were given the experimental diets for 6 weeks. Stratum corneum hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were measured using Corneometer CM825 and Tewameter TM300 (Courage and Khazaka Electronics, Cologne, Germany) at 3 weeks and 6 weeks. After the feeding period, ceramides in stratum corneum were analyzed. We found that stratum corneum hydration and ceramides in the PL group were significantly higher than those in the control group and that TEWL in the PL group tended to decrease. These results indicate that dietary PL concentrate improves epidermal function by increasing the amount of ceramides, resulting in higher hydration. PMID:18685188

  11. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

  12. Comparison of breast milk vitamin A concentration measured in fresh milk by a rapid field assay (the iCheck FLUORO) with standard measurement of stored milk by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Engle-Stone, R; Haskell, M J; La Frano, M R; Ndjebayi, A O; Nankap, M; Brown, K H

    2014-08-01

    Availability of rapid, point-of-contact analytical methods would facilitate the use of breast milk vitamin A concentration (BMVA) to assess vitamin A (VA) status. We compared BMVA concentrations measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (the standard technique) with those by iCheck FLUORO, a new portable fluorometer that can rapidly quantify BMVA. Casual breast milk samples (n=154) were collected during a representative survey in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon. Milk fat and BMVA concentrations (by iCheck) were measured in fresh milk in the field. After storage at <-20 °C, BMVA concentrations were also measured by HPLC. BMVA values from the two methods were highly correlated (R(2)=0.72 for BMVA/l; R(2)=0.62 for BMVA/g fat, both P<0.0001). HPLC values were greater than iCheck values on average, and the difference increased with increasing BMVA. The iCheck FLUORO could be useful for monitoring fortification programs, but before-after surveys to assess change in BMVA concentrations should use one method consistently. PMID:24736678

  13. In vitro activity of subinhibitory concentrations of quinolones on urea-splitting bacteria: effect on urease activity and on cell surface hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, M A; Tawfik, A F; el-Kersh, T A; Shibl, A M

    1995-02-01

    The effect of subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and sparfloxacin on urease activity and on cell surface hydrophobicity of urea-splitting bacteria was examined. Quinolones at 0.5 MICs demonstrated variable effects on bacterial-urease activity. Norfloxacin inhibited enzyme activity in Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis, while other quinolones had no effects. In Morganella morganii, sparfloxacin and ciprofloxacin enhanced urease activity, particularly at the initial phase of growth. All quinolones tested showed no marked effect on urease activity by Providencia rettgeri. Quinolones at the same concentrations induced an increase in the cell surface hydrophobicity, which was strain-dependent. There was no correlation between urease inhibition and cell surface hydrophobicity. Inhibition of urease activity by quinolones, in addition to their antibacterial activities, may prevent the progression of urinary tissue damage and stone formation. PMID:7844396

  14. Copper status, serum cholesterol, and milk fatty acid profile in Holstein cows fed varying concentrations of copper.

    PubMed

    Engle, T E; Fellner, V; Spears, J W

    2001-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary copper (Cu) on Cu status and lipid metabolism in Holstein cows. Three primiparous and 21 multiparous Holstein cows were utilized in this experiment. Groups of three cows similar in parity, days in milk, and milk yield were assigned randomly to one of the following three treatments: 1) control (no supplemental Cu), 2) 10 mg of Cu/kg of DM from Cu sulfate (CuSO4), and 3) 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM from CuSO4. Liver Cu concentrations were higher in Cu supplemented cows at the end of the 61-d study. Cows receiving 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM had higher liver Cu concentrations than cows receiving 10 mg of Cu. Plasma Cu concentrations were similar across treatments. Total serum cholesterol concentrations were higher in cows receiving supplemental Cu. Cows receiving 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM had higher serum cholesterol concentrations than cows receiving 10 mg of Cu. Dry matter intake, average daily milk production, and milk lipid, protein, and somatic cell numbers were similar across treatments. On d 61, milk fatty acids C18:1 trans and C18-conjugated dienes were lower in cows receiving supplemental Cu relative to the nonsupplemented controls. Cows receiving 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM had higher C12:0 and lower C18:2 and total polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk than cows receiving 10 mg of Cu/kg of DM. These results indicate that Cu supplementation alters lipid metabolism in high producing dairy cows and that Cu supplementation at 40 mg/kg of DM for 61 d can elevate liver Cu concentrations to levels considered to be marginally toxic in dairy cattle. PMID:11699463

  15. Effect of ceramic membrane channel diameter on limiting retentate protein concentration during skim milk microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Barbano, David M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of retentate flow channel diameter (4 or 6mm) of nongraded permeability 100-nm pore size ceramic membranes operated in nonuniform transmembrane pressure mode on the limiting retentate protein concentration (LRPC) while microfiltering (MF) skim milk at a temperature of 50°C, a flux of 55kg·m(-2)·h(-1), and an average cross-flow velocity of 7 m·s(-1). At the above conditions, the retentate true protein concentration was incrementally increased from 7 to 11.5%. When temperature, flux, and average cross-flow velocity were controlled, ceramic membrane retentate flow channel diameter did not affect the LRPC. This indicates that LRPC is not a function of the Reynolds number. Computational fluid dynamics data, which indicated that both membranes had similar radial velocity profiles within their retentate flow channels, supported this finding. Membranes with 6-mm flow channels can be operated at a lower pressure decrease from membrane inlet to membrane outlet (ΔP) or at a higher cross-flow velocity, depending on which is controlled, than membranes with 4-mm flow channels. This implies that 6-mm membranes could achieve a higher LRPC than 4-mm membranes at the same ΔP due to an increase in cross-flow velocity. In theory, the higher LRPC of the 6-mm membranes could facilitate 95% serum protein removal in 2 MF stages with diafiltration between stages if no serum protein were rejected by the membrane. At the same flux, retentate protein concentration, and average cross-flow velocity, 4-mm membranes require 21% more energy to remove a given amount of permeate than 6-mm membranes, despite the lower surface area of the 6-mm membranes. Equations to predict skim milk MF retentate viscosity as a function of protein concentration and temperature are provided. Retentate viscosity, retentate recirculation pump frequency required to maintain a given cross-flow velocity at a given retentate viscosity, and retentate protein determination by mid-infrared spectrophotometry were all useful tools for monitoring the retentate protein concentration to ensure a sustainable MF process. Using 6-mm membranes instead of 4-mm membranes would be advantageous for processors who wish to reduce energy costs or maximize the protein concentration of a MF retentate. PMID:26519975

  16. [Problems with feeding concentrated milk by-products to veal calves].

    PubMed

    Regi, G; Morel-Egger, I; Huber, H U; Meisser, A; Wanner, M; Hässig, M

    2003-08-01

    In Switzerland between 35,000 and 50,000 farm calves per year are fed rations containing concentrated whey. If the ration is balanced, whey has no adverse effects on health and growth rates of calves. Feeding whey to farm animals makes ecological and economical sense and constitutes a sound management for the disposal of milk by-products. The described case consisted of 53 calves of which 7 (13.2%) died within the feedlot-period. Based on clinical and management findings, salt-intoxication was diagnosed because of deprivation of free access to water. When large amounts of hypertonic feed containing low quality whey are fed to calves, their health is adversely affected. Therefore, article 16 of the Swiss Animal Protection Regulation should be changed. PMID:12951906

  17. Preparation of iron bound succinylated milk protein concentrate and evaluation of its stability.

    PubMed

    Shilpashree, B G; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek; Bajaj, Rajesh Kumar; Tomar, S K

    2016-04-01

    Major problems associated with the fortification of soluble iron salts include chemical reactivity and incompatibility with other components. Milk protein concentrate (MPC) are able to bind significant amount of iron due to the presence of both casein and whey protein. MPC in its native state possess very poor solubility, therefore, succinylated derivatives of MPC (succ. MPC) were also used for the preparation of protein-iron complex. Preparation of the complex involved centrifugation (to remove insoluble iron), ultrafiltration (to remove unbound iron) and lyophilisation (to attain in dry form). Iron binding ability of MPC enhanced significantly (P<0.05) upon succinylation. Stability of bound iron from both varieties of complexes was monitored under different conditions encountered during processing. Higher stability (P<0.05) of bound iron was observed in succ. MPC-iron complex than native protein complex. This method could be adopted for the production of stable iron enriched protein, an organic iron source. PMID:26593557

  18. Feeding a High Concentrate Diet Down-Regulates Expression of ACACA, LPL and SCD and Modifies Milk Composition in Lactating Goats

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hui; Chang, Guangjun; Xu, Tianle; Zhao, Huajian; Zhang, Kai; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2015-01-01

    High concentrate diets are fed to early and mid-lactation stages dairy ruminants to meet the energy demands for high milk production in modern milk industry. The present study evaluated the effects of a high concentrate diet on milk fat and milk composition, especially, cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk and gene expression of lactating goats. Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen fistula were randomly assigned into a high concentrate diet (HCD) group and low concentrate diet (LCD) group. High concentrate diet feeding significantly increased lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in plasma and decreased milk fat content, vaccenic acid (VA) and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk of the lactating goats. The mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein B 1c (SREBP1c), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthetase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACACA, ACCα) involving in lipid metabolism were analyzed, and ACACA and LPL all decreased in their expression level in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. DNA methylation rate of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was elevated and decreased, and SCD mRNA and protein expression was reduced significantly in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. In conclusion, feeding a high concentrate diet to lactating goats decreases milk fat and reduced expression of SCD in the mammary gland, which finally induced cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk. PMID:26086219

  19. Performance of calves fed milk replacer once daily at various fluid intakes and dry matter concentrations.

    PubMed

    Jenny, B F; Van Dijk, H J; Grimes, L W

    1982-12-01

    Ninety-six Holstein calves were fed 1 of 12 liquid diets once daily under two feeding options. Diets consisted of milk replacer (22% crude protein, 10% fat) fed at fluid intakes of 6, 8, and 10% body weight and dry matter concentrations of 10, 13, 16, and 19%. Feeding options consisted of calculating fluid intake and dry matter concentration based on initial weight and holding this constant through weaning or adjusting weekly according to change in body weight. Water and a complete calf starter (minimum 15% crude protein) were available ad libitum. Calves were weaned abruptly at 4 wk of age and observed until 6 wk of age for immediate postweaning performance. Fluid intake and dry matter concentration had a positive effect on weight gain during wk 0 to 4. However, during the immediate postweaning period, gain decreased in calves previously fed replacer at the higher intake. Overall gain (wk 0 to 6) was not affected by fluid intake or dry matter concentration. Starter intake decreased with increasing fluid intake or dry matter concentration during wk 4 and wk 0 to 4. Total intakes of dry matter were not affected by treatment. Incidence of scours increased linearly with dry matter concentration, and both fluid intake and dry matter concentration had a positive linear effect on fecal score and duration of scours. Feeding option had no effect on any measures. Calves fed replacer containing between 10 and 13% dry matter and offered at 8% body weight had fewer intestinal disturbances during the replacer feeding period and obtained recommended gains over the entire 6 wk. PMID:7161432

  20. Effect of adjusted pH prior to ultrafiltration of skim milk on membrane performance and physical functionality of milk protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Luo, X; Vasiljevic, T; Ramchandran, L

    2016-02-01

    Processing conditions during ultrafiltration of skim milk influence properties of the casein micelle and thereby the physical properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC). The aim of the study was to establish the effects of pH adjustment of skim milk feed to obtain MPC with desired emulsification properties. The ultrafiltration was conducted using commercially pasteurized skim milk with the pH adjusted to 6.7 (control), 6.3, 5.9, or 5.5 at 15°C until a volume concentration factor of 5 was reached. Effects of pH adjustment on selected physico-chemical properties (Ca content, particle size, ζ-potential) and functionalities (solubility, heat stability, emulsification capacity, and stability) of MPC were determined. Lowering the feed pH solubilized colloidal calcium phosphate that substantially contributed to modifying the properties of casein. This caused a reduction in the particle size while increasing the net negative charge. The structural modifications in proteins were manifested in the Fourier transform infrared spectra. Subsequent concentration did not induce any further protein structural changes. Such modifications to the casein micelles and colloidal calcium phosphate negatively affected the solubility and heat stability of the corresponding MPC powders. However, the emulsion activity index improved only until the pH of the feed was lowered to 5.9 and declined when pH was dropped to 5.5, followed with the loss of stability. Readjusting the pH of MPC powder dispersions to 6.7 restored their surface properties and thereby their functionality. Lowering the feed pH also negatively affected the membrane performance by clogging the membrane pores and lowering the flux, particularly at pH 5.5. Adjusting pH to 5.9 produced MPC with optimum emulsifying properties with minimal influence on membrane performance. PMID:26686705

  1. Effect of diet fermentability and unsaturated fatty acid concentration on recovery from diet-induced milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    Rico, D E; Holloway, A W; Harvatine, K J

    2015-11-01

    Diet-induced milk fat depression is caused by highly fermentable and high-unsaturated fatty acid (FA) diets, and results in reduced milk fat concentration and yield, reduced de novo FA, and increased trans isomers of the alternate biohydrogenation pathways. The hypothesis of the current experiment was that a diet higher in fermentability and lower in unsaturated FA (UFA) would accelerate recovery compared with a high-UFA and lower-fermentability diet. Eight ruminally cannulated and 9 noncannulated multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated Latin square design. During each period milk fat depression was induced for 10 d by feeding a low-fiber, high-UFA diet [25.9% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 3.3% C18:2]. Following the induction phase, cows were switched to recovery treatments for 18 d designed to correct dietary fermentability, UFA, or both fermentability and UFA concentration. Treatments during recovery were (1) correction of fiber and UFA diet [control; 31.8% NDF and 1.65% C18:2], (2) a diet predominantly correcting fiber, but not UFA [high oil (HO); 31.3% NDF and 2.99% C18:2], and (3) a diet predominantly correcting UFA, but not fiber concentration [low fiber (LF); 28.4% NDF and 1.71% C18:2]. Milk and milk component yield, milk FA profile, ruminal pH, and 11 rumen microbial taxa were measured every third day during recovery. Milk yield decreased progressively in HO and control, whereas it was maintained in the LF diet. Milk fat concentration increased progressively during recovery in all treatments, but was on average 9% lower in LF than control from d 12 to 18. Milk fat yield increased progressively in all treatments and was not different between control and LF at any time point, but was lower in HO than control on d 15. Milk trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreased progressively in all treatments, but was higher in HO than control from d 3 to 18 [136 ± 50 and 188 ± 57% (mean ± SD)], whereas LF caused a smaller increase in these FA compared with control (67 ± 25 and 90 ± 22%). Additionally, milk trans-11 C18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid was decreased in control and LF and increased in HO during recovery. Selected microbial species observed changed during recovery, but major treatment differences were only observed for Streptococcus bovis. The LF diet that was similar in UFA but 3.4% units lower in NDF compared with to the control had a similar decrease in alternate trans biohydrogenation intermediates in milk. The HO diet that was similar in NDF but 2.0% units higher in UFA compared with the control had higher alternate trans biohydrogenation intermediates in milk compared with control. However, recovery of milk fat yield was similar between treatments at most time points. PMID:26298764

  2. Effect of insoluble calcium concentration on endogenous syneresis rate in rennet-coagulated bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Choi, J; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

    2015-09-01

    The rennet coagulation of milk has been extensively studied. Mathematical modeling of the gelation process has been performed, mainly for the purpose of predicting the gel point. Rheological profiles of rennet gels during aging (long reaction times) have indicated that the gel stiffness (modulus) attains a maximum and thereafter decreases. We wanted to model this type of behavior and used the Carlson model, which includes terms for the proteolysis of κ-casein hairs (creating active sites) and the crosslinking of these activated sites. To account for the observed decrease in the gel modulus with time, we modified the Carlson model by adding an exponential decay term, which we ascribe to endogenous syneresis. We believe that this decay (i.e., syneresis rate) would likely be influenced by the mobility of bonds within casein micelles (in gels as indicated by the rheological loss tangent parameter). To modify the internal structural bonding of casein micelles, reconstituted skim milk was acidified to pH values 6.4, 6.0, 5.8, 5.6, and 5.4, or EDTA was added to milk at concentrations of 0, 2, 4, and 6mM, and the final pH values of EDTA-treated samples were subsequently adjusted to pH 6.0. These treatments were then used to prepare rennet gel samples that were monitored by dynamic low amplitude oscillatory rheometry. When the modified Carlson model was fitted to the actual experimental storage modulus values of each sample, it fitted the data reasonably well (especially the pH trial data). As the pH values of milk decreased, the modulus values at infinite reaction time (G'∞) increased; however, G'∞ decreased with an increase in the EDTA concentration. In the pH trial, the rate constants for the proteolysis of κ-casein hairs and the crosslinking of these activated sites exhibited a maximum at pH 5.6 and 6.0, respectively. The rate constant for endogenous syneresis increased at pH values <6.0. The rate constant for endogenous syneresis was significantly positively correlated (r≥0.96) with the loss tangent values of gels (indicating greater mobility), probably due to the loss of insoluble calcium phosphate crosslinking within micelles, which was significantly negatively correlated (r≥0.81) with the rate constant for endogenous syneresis. In the EDTA trial, with an increase in the EDTA concentration no maximum was observed in the rate constants related to proteolysis of κ-casein hairs or crosslinking of these activated sites. The rate constant for endogenous syneresis decreased at higher EDTA levels. The different rheological/modeling behavior in the EDTA trials was likely due to the very significant inhibition of rennet gelation induced by the use of EDTA, which also resulted in extremely long reaction times. Our modified Carlson model fit our experimental pH trial data very well, which indicates that the rennet gel system has the potential to synerese from the start; indeed this ability is an innate property of the casein micelle. Endogenous syneresis was enhanced by the loss of insoluble calcium phosphate crosslinking within casein micelles as this increased bond mobility within rennet gels. PMID:26188568

  3. Effects of slow-release urea and rumen-protected methionine and histidine on performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giallongo, F; Hristov, A N; Oh, J; Frederick, T; Weeks, H; Werner, J; Lapierre, H; Patton, R A; Gehman, A; Parys, C

    2015-05-01

    This experiment was conducted with the objective to investigate the effects of slow-release urea and rumen-protected (RP) Met and His supplementation of a metabolizable protein (MP)-deficient diet (according to NRC, 2001) on lactation performance of dairy cows. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were used in a 10-wk randomized complete block-design trial. Cows were fed a covariate diet for 2 wk and then assigned to one of the following treatments for an 8-wk experimental period: (1) MP-adequate diet [AMP; 107% of MP requirements, based on the National Research Council (NRC, 2001)]; (2) MP-deficient diet (DMP; 95% of MP requirements); (3) DMP supplemented with slow-release urea (DMPU); (4) DMPU supplemented with RPMet (DMPUM); and (5) DMPUM supplemented with RPHis (DMPUMH). Total-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein, and urinary N and urea-N excretions were decreased by DMP, compared with AMP. Addition of slow-release urea to the DMP diet increased urinary urea-N excretion. Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield (on average 44.0±0.9kg/d) were not affected by treatments, except DMPUMH increased DMI and numerically increased milk yield, compared with DMPUM. Milk true protein concentration and yield were increased and milk fat concentration tended to be decreased by DMPUMH, compared with DMPUM. Cows gained less body weight on the DMP diet, compared with AMP. Plasma concentrations of His and Lys were not affected by treatments, whereas supplementation of RPMet increased plasma Met concentration. Plasma concentration of 3-methylhistidine was or tended to be higher for DMP compared with AMP and DMPU, respectively. Addition of RPHis to the DMPUM diet tended to increase plasma glucose and creatinine. In conclusion, feeding a 5% MP-deficient diet (according to NRC, 2001) did not decrease DMI and yields of milk and milk components, despite a reduction in nutrient digestibility. Supplementation of RPHis increased DMI and milk protein concentration and yield. These results are in line with our previous data and suggest that His may have a positive effect on voluntary feed intake and milk production and composition in high-yielding dairy cows fed MP-deficient diets. PMID:25726096

  4. Effect of subacute ruminal acidosis on milk fat concentration, yield and fatty acid profile of dairy cows receiving soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Alzahal, Ousama; Or-Rashid, Mamun M; Greenwood, Sabrina L; McBride, Brian W

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ruminal infusion of soybean oil (SBO) with either a moderate- or high-forage diet on fat concentration, yield and composition in milk from dairy cows. Six rumen-fistulated Holstein dairy cows (639+/-51 kg body weight, 140+/-59 days in milk) were used in the study. Cows were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments, a high forage:concentrate (HFC, 74:26) or a moderate forage:concentrate (MFC, 56:44) total mixed ration. Cows were fed at 08.00 and 13.00 h and pulse-dosed ruminally at 13.00 h over a 10-min duration with 2% of diet dry matter of SBO. Ruminal pH was recorded continuously. Cows receiving the MFC treatment had lower daily mean ruminal pH and ruminal pH was below 6.0 for a longer duration compared with the HFC treatment (640 vs. 262 min/d, P<0.05). Cows receiving the MFC treatment had a greater reduction (diet by week interaction, P<0.05) in milk fat concentration and yield than cows receiving the HFC treatment (42 vs. 22% and 45 vs. 21%, respectively). Additionally, cows receiving the MFC diet had a greater reduction in milk fat concentration (g/100 g FA) of FA concentration of FA >C16 (17 vs. 9%), trans-10 18:1 (159 vs. 21%) and trans-9, cis-11 conjugated linoleic acid (121 vs. 55%) (P<0.05) compared with cows receiving the HFC diet. This study demonstrated that cows fed the MFC diet had lower ruminal pH and showed a greater rate of milk fat depression when infused with SBO. PMID:20529409

  5. Improving Infant Exposure and Health Risk Estimates: Using Serum Data to Predict Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Concentrations in Breast Milk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Women in the United States have breast milk concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) that are among the highest in the world, leading to concerns over the potential health implications to breastfeeding infants during critical stages of growth and development. Deve...

  6. High concentrations of haptocorrin interfere with routine measurement of cobalamins in human serum and milk. A problem and its solution.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Human milk and occasional serum samples contain high concentrations of unsaturated haptocorrin (apoHC), which may influence measurement of cobalamins (Cbl). Methods: Cbl in serum samples spiked with increasing amounts of apoHC were measured employing the Centaur, Cobas and Architect anal...

  7. Microstructural Changes in High-Protein Nutrition Bars Formulated with Extruded or Toasted Milk Protein Concentrate.

    PubMed

    Banach, J C; Clark, S; Lamsal, B P

    2016-02-01

    Milk protein concentrates with more than 80% protein (that is, MPC80) are underutilized as the primary protein source in high-protein nutrition bars as they impart crumbliness and cause hardening during storage. High-protein nutrition bar texture changes are often associated with internal protein aggregations and macronutrient phase separation. These changes were investigated in model high-protein nutrition bars formulated with MPC80 and physically modified MPC80s. High-protein nutrition bars formulated with extruded MPC80s hardened slower than those formulated with toasted or unmodified MPC80. Extruded MPC80 had reduced free sulfhydryl group exposure, whereas measurable increases were seen in the toasted MPC80. High-protein nutrition bar textural performance may be related to the number of exposed free sulfhydryl groups in MPC80. Protein aggregations resulting from ingredient modification and high-protein nutrition bar storage were studied with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Disulfide-based protein aggregations and changes in free sulfhydryl concentration were not consistently relatable to high-protein nutrition bar texture change. However, the high-protein nutrition bars formulated with extruded MPC80 were less prone to phase separations, as depicted by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and underwent less texture change during storage than those formulated with toasted or unmodified MPC80. PMID:26748454

  8. Review-Factors involving in fluctuation of trace metals concentrations in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Perween, Rubina

    2015-05-01

    Milk makes a significant contribution to human diet through provision of macronutrients, vitamins and minerals. The exact composition of milk varies with species among domestic animals according to their neonatal needs. It is recognized that imbalance in the quantity of minerals and trace elements is a serious health hazard especially for infants. Many studies reported the fluctuation in the level of metals in milk due to the influence of several factors such as geographical and exposure to environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic activity. Amongst all sources, industries take lion's share to alter the metal content in milk. The importance of different nutritional and toxic metals in milk from different geographical areas is discussed. PMID:26004711

  9. Dynamics of lingual antimicrobial peptide, lactoferrin concentrations and lactoperoxidase activity in the milk of cows treated for clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kazuhiro; Korematsu, Kiyoshi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Okita, Miki; Yoshimura, Yukinori; Isobe, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine changes in innate immune factors in the milk of mastitic dairy cows treated with antibiotics. Cows in the antibiotics group (n = 13) were infused into the mammary gland with cefazolin on the sixth day after mastitis was diagnosed (the day of the mastitis diagnosis = day -6). The control group (n = 12) was not treated. Milk samples were collected once every 2 days from days -6 to 12 and somatic cell count (SCC), lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), and lactoferrin (LF) concentrations and lactoperoxidase (LPO) activity were measured. SCC and LF concentrations in the antibiotics group markedly decreased after the antibiotic treatment. When cows in the antibiotics group were divided according to SCC on day 0, LAP concentrations and LPO activity in cows with a lower SCC on day 0 (<5 × 10(6) cell/mL) were significantly higher and lower than those in cows with a higher SCC, respectively. These results suggest that LF concentration decreased with decrease in SCC after treatment and that LAP concentration and LPO activity differed depending on the severity of mastitis. This is the first report to reveal the dynamics of innate immune factor in milk of cows treated for clinical mastitis. PMID:25185977

  10. UREA INFRASTRUCTURE FOR UREA SCR NOX REDUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, Bruce G.

    2000-08-20

    Urea SCR is currently the only proven NOX aftertreatment for diesel engines - high NOX reduction possible - some SCR catalyst systems are robust against fuel sulfur - durability has been demonstrated - many systems in the field - long history in other markets - Major limitations to acceptance - distribution of urea solution to end user - ensuring that urea solution is added to vehicle.

  11. Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin implants on serum concentrations of somatotropin, insulin-like growth factor-I and blood urea nitrogen in steers.

    PubMed

    Roeder, R A; Garber, M J; Dalke, B S; Kasser, T R; Veenhuizen, J; Schelling, G T

    1994-09-01

    Four cross-bred beef steers averaging 346 kg were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of prolonged-release recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbGH) implants on serum concentrations of somatotropin (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Recombinant bGH implants of 0, 40, 80 or 160 mg were administered subcutaneously in the tailhead during the 4 trial periods. Each steer received each treatment starting at 06:00 on day 0 with 21 days between treatments. Jugular vein blood samples were collected on days 0, 1, 2 and 3 (4 day time course for GH, IGF-I and BUN) and every 15 min (GH profile) for 6 h on day 3. Serum baseline GH values were higher (P < 0.10) for the 80 and 160 mg treatments than for the control, and peak amplitude was decreased (P < 0.05) by the 40 and 160 mg treatments. There was a trend (P < 0.11) for fewer GH peaks during the 160 mg treatment. Somatotropin concentrations decreased from day 1 to day 3 (P < 0.05) in a linear manner. Serum IGF-I concentrations increased (P < 0.05) in a linear dose-dependent manner from the 0 mg to the 160 mg treatment. BUN concentrations were not significantly altered by rbGH treatment. Results from this experiment indicate that rbGH implants significantly increase serum IGF-I and GH baseline concentrations while suppressing GH peak amplitude in finishing steers. PMID:7858482

  12. Concentrations of toxic heavy metals and trace elements in raw milk of Simmental and Holstein-Friesian cows from organic farm.

    PubMed

    Pilarczyk, Renata; Wójcik, Jerzy; Czerniak, Paweł; Sablik, Piotr; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka

    2013-10-01

    Concentrations of toxic heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb)) and major nutritional and trace elements (Ca, Mg, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn) were analyzed in the milk of Simmental (n = 20) and Holstein-Friesian (n = 20) cows from an organic farm. Elements were determined using inductively coupled plasma emission atomic spectrometry. The conducted research showed that the milk of Simmental cows was characterized by the more advantageous mineral composition and lower concentration of noxious heavy metals compared to the milk of Holstein-Friesian cows. In the milk of Simmental cows, significantly lower concentrations of Pb and Cd (P < 0.001) and Cu (P < 0.05) and significantly higher concentrations of Fe and Mg (P < 0.05) as well as nonsignificantly higher concentrations of Ca, Mn, and Se were found. In the milk of both breeds, very low Cu concentrations were recorded. The higher-than-recommended concentration of Pb in milk was also found. In the milk of both breeds, the significant positive correlations between concentrations of the following elements were observed: Pb-Cd, Pb-Se, Cd-Se, Cd-Mn, Zn-Cu, Zn-P, Ca-P, Ca-Mg, and Mg-P. The correlations between other elements within each of the analyzed breeds separately were also found. PMID:23572404

  13. Ingestion of Milk Containing Very Low Concentration of Antimicrobials: Longitudinal Effect on Fecal Microbiota Composition in Preweaned Calves

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleck Pereira, Richard; Lima, Svetlana; Siler, Julie D.; Foditsch, Carla; Warnick, Lorin D.; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Although antimicrobial drugs are central to combat disease in modern medicine, the use of these drugs can have undesired consequences for human and animal health. One consequence is the post-therapy excretion of pharmacological agents, such as the elimination of drug residues at very low concentrations in the milk of lactating mammals. Limited information is currently available on the impact from the exposure of the gut microbiota to drug residues using in vivo natural models. The objective of our study was to address this knowledge gap and evaluate the effect on the fecal microbiota composition from feeding preweaned dairy calves raw milk with residual concentrations of ampicillin, ceftiofur, penicillin, and oxytetracycline from birth to weaning. At birth, thirty calves were randomly assigned to a controlled feeding trial where: 15 calves were fed raw milk with no drug residues (NR), and 15 calves were fed raw milk with drug residues (DR) by adding ceftiofur, penicillin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline at final concentrations in the milk of 0.1, 0.005, 0.01, and 0.3 μg/ml, respectively. Fecal samples were rectally collected from each calf once a week starting at birth, prior to the first feeding in the trial (pre-treatment), until 6 weeks of age. Sequencing of the microbial 16S rRNA genes was conducted using the Illumina MiSeq, which provides a high resolution of the microbiota down to the genus level. Discriminant analysis showed that, except for pre-treatment samples, calves fed milk with drug residues and calves fed milk without drug residues easily discriminated at the genus level on their weekly microbial profile. However, analysis comparing the abundance of taxon between NR and DR showed significant differences only at the genus levels, and not at the phylum, class, order or family levels. These results suggest that although drug residues can result in clear discriminate gut microbial communities, they do not result in disruption of taxonomic levels above the genus. PMID:26808865

  14. Ingestion of Milk Containing Very Low Concentration of Antimicrobials: Longitudinal Effect on Fecal Microbiota Composition in Preweaned Calves.

    PubMed

    Van Vleck Pereira, Richard; Lima, Svetlana; Siler, Julie D; Foditsch, Carla; Warnick, Lorin D; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Although antimicrobial drugs are central to combat disease in modern medicine, the use of these drugs can have undesired consequences for human and animal health. One consequence is the post-therapy excretion of pharmacological agents, such as the elimination of drug residues at very low concentrations in the milk of lactating mammals. Limited information is currently available on the impact from the exposure of the gut microbiota to drug residues using in vivo natural models. The objective of our study was to address this knowledge gap and evaluate the effect on the fecal microbiota composition from feeding preweaned dairy calves raw milk with residual concentrations of ampicillin, ceftiofur, penicillin, and oxytetracycline from birth to weaning. At birth, thirty calves were randomly assigned to a controlled feeding trial where: 15 calves were fed raw milk with no drug residues (NR), and 15 calves were fed raw milk with drug residues (DR) by adding ceftiofur, penicillin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline at final concentrations in the milk of 0.1, 0.005, 0.01, and 0.3 μg/ml, respectively. Fecal samples were rectally collected from each calf once a week starting at birth, prior to the first feeding in the trial (pre-treatment), until 6 weeks of age. Sequencing of the microbial 16S rRNA genes was conducted using the Illumina MiSeq, which provides a high resolution of the microbiota down to the genus level. Discriminant analysis showed that, except for pre-treatment samples, calves fed milk with drug residues and calves fed milk without drug residues easily discriminated at the genus level on their weekly microbial profile. However, analysis comparing the abundance of taxon between NR and DR showed significant differences only at the genus levels, and not at the phylum, class, order or family levels. These results suggest that although drug residues can result in clear discriminate gut microbial communities, they do not result in disruption of taxonomic levels above the genus. PMID:26808865

  15. Short communication: plasma concentration of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide may regulate milk energy production in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Relling, A E; Crompton, L A; Loerch, S C; Reynolds, C K

    2014-01-01

    In dairy cows, an increase in plasma concentration of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is associated with an increase in metabolizable energy intake, but the role of GIP in energy partitioning of dairy cattle is not certain. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between plasma GIP concentrations and energy partitioning toward milk production. Four mid-lactation, primiparous, rumen-fistulated Holstein-Friesian cows were fed a control diet of 55% forage and 45% concentrate [dry matter (DM) basis] in a 4×4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods. The 4 treatments were (1) control diet fed at 1000 and 1600h, and (2) once-daily (1000h) feeding, (3) twice-daily (1000 and 1600h) feeding, and (4) 4 times/d (1000, 1600, 2200 and 0400h) feeding of the control diet plus 1 dose (1.75kg on a DM basis at 0955h) into the rumen of supplemental vegetable proteins (Amino Green; SCA NuTec Ltd., Thirsk, UK). Measurements of respiratory exchange and energy balance were obtained over 4d during the last week of each period while cows were housed in open-circuit respiration chambers. Blood was collected from the jugular vein every 30min for 12h, using indwelling catheters, starting at 0800h on d 20 of each period. Plasma GIP concentration was measured in samples pooled over each 5 consecutive blood samplings. The relationships between plasma GIP, DM intake, heat production, respiratory quotient (RQ), milk yield, and milk energy output were analyzed using linear correlation procedures, with metabolizable intake as a partial variant. Plasma GIP concentration was not correlated with heat production, or milk yield, but was positively correlated with milk energy yield (correlation coefficient=0.67) and negatively correlated with RQ (correlation coefficient=-0.72). The correlations between GIP with RQ and milk energy output do not imply causality, but support a role for GIP in the regulation of energy metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:24485682

  16. A Sustainable Alternative to a Breast Milk Monitoring Program: Using NHANES Serum Data to Estimate Breast Milk PBDE Concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are high-production-volume chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in a variety of consumer products. PBDE concentrations in the environment, wildlife, and humans have been increasing for several decades. Concentrations in t...

  17. A perfusion study of the handling of urea and urea analogues by the gills of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias)

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Hon Jung; De Boeck, Gudrun; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    The branchial mechanism of urea retention in elasmobranchs was investigated using an in vitro isolated-perfused head preparation, as well as in vivo samples, in the spiny dogfish shark. Both in vivo and in control saline perfusions containing 350 mmol L−1 urea, calculated intracellular urea concentrations in gill epithelial cells were close to extracellular concentrations. Urea efflux to the external water fell only non-significantly, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentration did not change when perfusate urea concentration was reduced from 350 to 175 mmol L−1 with osmotic compensation by 175 mmol L−1 mannitol. However, when the urea analogues thiourea or acetamide were present in the perfusate at concentrations equimolar (175 mmol L−1) to those of urea (175 mmol L−1), urea efflux rates were increased 4-fold and 6.5-fold respectively, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentrations were depressed by about 55%. Analogue efflux rates were similar to urea efflux rates. Previous studies have argued that either the basolateral or apical membranes provided the limiting permeability barrier, and/or that a back-transporter on the basolateral membranes of gill cells is responsible for urea retention. The present results provide new evidence that the apical membrane is the limiting factor in maintaining gill urea impermeability, and raise the prospect that a urea back-transporter, which can be competitively inhibited by thiourea and acetamide, operates at the apical membrane. PMID:23638369

  18. A perfusion study of the handling of urea and urea analogues by the gills of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias).

    PubMed

    Wood, Chris M; Liew, Hon Jung; De Boeck, Gudrun; Walsh, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    The branchial mechanism of urea retention in elasmobranchs was investigated using an in vitro isolated-perfused head preparation, as well as in vivo samples, in the spiny dogfish shark. Both in vivo and in control saline perfusions containing 350 mmol L(-1) urea, calculated intracellular urea concentrations in gill epithelial cells were close to extracellular concentrations. Urea efflux to the external water fell only non-significantly, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentration did not change when perfusate urea concentration was reduced from 350 to 175 mmol L(-1) with osmotic compensation by 175 mmol L(-1) mannitol. However, when the urea analogues thiourea or acetamide were present in the perfusate at concentrations equimolar (175 mmol L(-1)) to those of urea (175 mmol L(-1)), urea efflux rates were increased 4-fold and 6.5-fold respectively, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentrations were depressed by about 55%. Analogue efflux rates were similar to urea efflux rates. Previous studies have argued that either the basolateral or apical membranes provided the limiting permeability barrier, and/or that a back-transporter on the basolateral membranes of gill cells is responsible for urea retention. The present results provide new evidence that the apical membrane is the limiting factor in maintaining gill urea impermeability, and raise the prospect that a urea back-transporter, which can be competitively inhibited by thiourea and acetamide, operates at the apical membrane. PMID:23638369

  19. The effect of herbage allowance and concentrate supplementation on milk production performance and dry matter intake of spring-calving dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, M; Kennedy, E; Murphy, J P; Boland, T M; Delaby, L; O'Donovan, M

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of daily herbage allowance (DHA) and concentrate level on milk production and dry matter intake of spring-calving dairy cows in early lactation. Seventy-two Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (mean calving date February 2) were randomly assigned across 6 treatments (n = 12) in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. The 6 treatments consisted of 2 DHA ( > 4 cm) and 3 concentrate levels: 13 kg of herbage dry matter/cow per d (low) or 17 kg of herbage dry matter/cow per d (high) DHA and unsupplemented, 3 kg, or 6 kg of dry matter concentrate/cow per d. The experimental period (period I) lasted 77 d and was followed by a carryover period (period II) during which animals were randomly reassigned across 2 grazing treatments offering 17 or 21 kg of herbage dry matter/cow per d. Increasing DHA significantly increased milk (+1.85 kg), solids-corrected milk, protein (+79.5 g), and lactose yields, protein concentration, and mean body weight (BW). Mean body condition score (BCS) and end-point BCS were also significantly higher with the high-DHA treatments. There was a linear response in milk yield, milk lactose concentration, and solids-corrected milk to concentrate supplementation. There was a significant difference in mean BW as concentrate increased from 0 to 3 kg (506 and 524 kg, respectively); there was no further increase in BW when 6 kg of concentrate was offered. Cows offered the low DHA had significantly lower grass dry matter intake (13.3 kg) and total dry matter intake (16.3 kg) than the high-DHA cows during period I. Concentrate supplementation significantly increased total dry matter intake. During period II, previous DHA continued to have a significant carryover effect on milk protein concentration, BW change, mean BCS, and end-point BCS. Concentrate supplementation during period I continued to have a significant carryover effect in period II on milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; solids-corrected milk yield; BW; and mean BCS. Results from this study indicate that offering a medium level of DHA (17 kg of herbage dry matter) in early lactation will increase milk production. Offering concentrate will result in a linear increase in milk production. In an early spring feed-budgeting scenario, when grass supply is in deficit, offering 3 kg of dry matter concentrate with 17 kg of DHA has the additive effect of maintaining the grazing rotation at the target length as well as ensuring the herd is adequately fed. PMID:18292284

  20. First parity evaluation of peak milk yield for range cows developed in the same ecophysiological system but receiving different concentrations of harvested feed inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of harvested feed inputs during heifer development could optimize range livestock production and improve economic feasibility. The objective for this two year study was to measure milk production (kg/d) and milk constituent concentrations (g/d) for 16 primiparous beef cows each year that w...

  1. Rumen Fermentation and Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Affected by Physical Forms and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw

    PubMed Central

    Gunun, P.; Wanapat, M.; Anantasook, N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different physical forms and urea treatment of rice straw on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and milk production. Four, multiparous Holstein crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation with initial body weight (BW) of 409±20 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were as follows: untreated, long form rice straw (LRS), urea-treated (5%), long form rice straw (5% ULRS), urea-treated (2.5%), long form rice straw (2.5% ULRS) and urea-treated (2.5%), chopped (4 cm) rice straw (2.5% UCRS). Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2 and rice straw was fed ad libitum. The findings revealed significant improvements in total DM intake and digestibility by using long and short forms of urea-treated rice straw (p<0.05). Ruminal pH was not altered among all treatments (p>0.05), whereas ruminal NH3-N, BUN and MUN were found to be increased (p<0.01) by urea-treated rice straw as compared with untreated rice straw. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentrations especially those of acetic acid were decreased (p<0.05) and those of propionic acid were increased (p<0.05), thus acetic acid:propionic acid was subsequently lowered (p<0.05) in cows fed with long or short forms of urea-treated rice straw. The 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS had greater microbial protein synthesis and was greatest when cows were fed with 5% ULRS. The urea-treated rice straw fed groups had increased milk yield (p<0.05), while lower feed cost and greater economic return was in the 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS (p<0.01). From these results, it could be concluded that 2.5% ULRS could replace 5% ULRS used as a roughage source to maintain feed intake, rumen fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, milk production and economical return in mid-lactating dairy cows. PMID:25049912

  2. Effects of application in spring of urea fertiliser on aspects of reproductive performance of pasture-fed dairy cows.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Ordonez A; Parkinson TJ; Matthew C; Holmes CW; Miller RD; Lopez-Villalobos N; Burke J; Brookes I

    2007-04-01

    AIMS: To assess if raising concentrations of crude protein (CP) in pasture in spring by the frequent application of urea fertiliser would affect ovarian follicular dynamics, luteal function, onset of oestrus and reproductive performance of dairy cows under farming conditions in New Zealand.METHODS: Spring-calved dairy cows were grazed for 101 days in paddocks that were either not fertilised (Control; n=20) during the course of the study, or were fertilised with 40-50 kg nitrogen (N)/ha every 4-6 weeks (High-N; n=20). Similar generous pasture allowances were offered to both groups. Concentrations of CP in pasture, urea in serum and progesterone in milk were measured. Ovarian follicular and luteal dynamics were determined using ultrasonography. Oestrous behaviour and the number, time and outcome of inseminations were also recorded.RESULTS: Mean concentrations of CP in pasture and urea in serum was higher in the High-N than the Control group (25.2 vs 21.6 and 8.3 vs 5.4 mmol/L for CP and urea, respectively; p<0.001). Intervals between calving and first oestrus, first insemination and conception, the time of first emergence of a dominant follicle, milk progesterone concentration, and the diameter of the corpus luteum (CL) in the first luteal phase did not differ significantly between groups. The interval from calving to first ovulation tended (p=0.10) to be lower and the diameter of the dominant follicle of the oestrous cycle at which cows conceived was greater (p=0.02) in Control than High-N cows.CONCLUSIONS: The use of large amounts of urea fertiliser during spring and the consequent increases in concentrations of CP in pasture and urea in serum did not negatively affect any of the parameters of reproductive performance of pasture-fed dairy cows that were assessed in this study.

  3. Digestibility and blood parameters in the preruminant calf fed a clotting or a nonclotting milk replacer.

    PubMed

    Petit, H V; Ivan, M; Brisson, G J

    1988-04-01

    Eight male Holstein calves 7 to 10 d of age were fed a milk replacer containing a skim milk powder subjected to low-temperature drying either with or without addition of an oxalate-NaOH buffer known to prevent curd formation. The calves were used in a completely randomized design to study the effect of milk clotting on digestibility and blood parameters. Plasma glucose and plasma insulin were similar (P greater than .05) for the clotting and the nonclotting milk replacers. For both treatments, concentrations of glucose and insulin reached a peak 2 h postfeeding (P less than .01). Plasma triglycerides were higher (P less than .01) postfeeding for the nonclotting than for the clotting milk replacer. Plasma essential amino acids and plasma urea were higher, whereas plasma calcium was lower, for the nonclotting milk (P less than .01). Digestibility of dry matter, protein and fat was similar (P greater than .05) between clotting and nonclotting milk. The dry matter content of feces was not affected by clotting (P greater than .05). The data are interpreted to indicate that clotting of the milk replacer modifies blood concentrations of triglycerides, essential amino acids and urea without changing the digestibility of the diet. PMID:3288602

  4. Effects of solid feed level and roughage-to-concentrate ratio on ruminal drinking and passage kinetics of milk replacer, concentrates, and roughage in veal calves.

    PubMed

    Berends, H; van den Borne, J J G C; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N; Gilbert, M S; Zandstra, T; Pellikaan, W F; van Reenen, C G; Bokkers, E A M; Gerrits, W J J

    2015-08-01

    Effects of solid feed (SF) level and roughage-to-concentrate (R:C) ratio on ruminal drinking and passage kinetics of milk replacer, concentrate, and roughage were studied in veal calves. In total, 80 male Holstein-Friesian calves (45±0.2kg of body weight) were divided over 16 pens (5 calves per pen). Pens were randomly assigned to either a low (LSF) or a high (HSF) SF level and to 1 of 2 R:C ratios: 20:80 or 50:50 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Roughage was composed of 50% corn silage and 50% chopped wheat straw on a DM basis. At 27 wk of age, measurements were conducted in 32 calves. During the measurement period, SF intake was 1.2kg of DM/d for LSF and 3.0kg of DM/d for HSF, and milk replacer intake averaged 2.3kg of DM/d for LSF and 1.3kg of DM/d for HSF. To estimate passage kinetics of milk replacer, concentrate, and straw, indigestible markers (CoEDTA, hexatriacontane C36, Cr-neutral detergent fiber) were supplied with the feed as a single dose 4, 24, and 48h before assessment of their quantitative recovery in the rumen, abomasum, small intestine, and large intestine. Rumen Co recovery averaged 20% of the last milk replacer meal. Recoveries of Co remained largely unaffected by SF level and R:C ratio. The R:C ratio did not affect rumen recovery of C36 or Cr. Rumen fractional passage rate of concentrate was estimated from recovery of C36 in the rumen and increased from 3.3%/h for LSF to 4.9%/h for HSF. Rumen fractional passage rate of straw was estimated from Cr recovery in the rumen and increased from 1.3%/h for LSF to 1.7%/h for HSF. An increase in SF level was accompanied by an increase in fresh and dry rumen contents. In HSF calves, pH decreased and VFA concentrations increased with increasing concentrate proportion, indicating increased fermentation. The ratio between Cr and C36 was similar in the small and large intestine, indicating that passage of concentrate and straw is mainly determined by rumen and abomasum emptying. In conclusion, increasing SF level introduces large variation in passage kinetics of dietary components, predominantly in the rumen compartment. The SF level, rather than the R:C ratio, influences rumen recovery of concentrate and roughage. Our data provide insight in passage kinetics of milk (Co representing the milk replacer) and SF (Cr and C36 representing roughage and concentrate, respectively) and may contribute to the development of feed evaluation models for calves fed milk and SF. PMID:26094215

  5. Effect of short term oral zinc supplementation on the concentration of zinc in breast milk of American and Egyptian women

    SciTech Connect

    Karra, M.V.; Kirksey, A.; Bassily, N.

    1986-03-01

    The present study was conducted to observe the effects of short-term maternal oral zinc supplementation on concentration of zinc in milk obtained from American and Egyptian women. Thirty-three American women and 30 Egyptian women were divided into four groups. One group, in each country, was supplemented with 50 mg of zinc as zinc sulfate while the other group did not receive any extra zinc over that obtained from the diet. Milk samples were obtained before supplementation was begun and then again after 10, 15, 20 and 30 days on the supplement and analyzed for zinc by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Concentration of zinc in milk among the four groups was not significantly different at the beginning of the study. Concentration of zinc decreased in all four groups during the study. However, the unsupplemented American women had a significantly (p < .05) greater decrease (-24.45 +/- 9.57% Mean +SE) than those who received the 50 mg zinc supplement (-4.35 +/- 9.57%). Between the unsupplemented and supplemented groups in Egypt, however, there was no significant difference in the change in zinc levels during this 34-day period (-9.47 +/- 5.12% and -8.94 +/- 5.23% respectively.

  6. Characterisation of the Metabolites of 1,8-Cineole Transferred into Human Milk: Concentrations and Ratio of Enantiomers

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Frauke; Buettner, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    1,8-Cineole is a widely distributed odorant that also shows physiological effects, but whose human metabolism has hitherto not been extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was, thus, to characterise the metabolites of 1,8-cineole, identified previously in human milk, after the oral intake of 100 mg of this substance. Special emphasis was placed on the enantiomeric composition of the metabolites since these data may provide important insights into potential biotransformation pathways, as well as potential biological activities of these substances, for example on the breastfed child. The volatile fraction of the human milk samples was therefore isolated via Solvent Assisted Flavour Evaporation (SAFE) and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The absolute concentrations of each metabolite were determined by matrix calibration with an internal standard, and the ratios of enantiomers were analysed on chiral capillaries. The concentrations varied over a broad range, from traces in the upper ng/kg region up to 40 µg/kg milk, with the exception of the main metabolite α2-hydroxy-1,8-cineole that showed concentrations of 100–250 µg/kg. Also, large inter- and intra-individual variations were recorded for the enantiomers, with nearly enantiomerically pure α2-hydroxy- and 3-oxo-1,8-cineole, while all other metabolites showed ratios of ~30:70 to 80:20. PMID:24957890

  7. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p < 0.05). In addition, propionic acid and milk production increased while acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, methane production, methanogens and protozoal population decreased with RPM and/or PO supplementation. Furthermore, addition of PO and RPO in the diets increased milk fat while supplementation of RPM resulted in greater milk protein and Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers (p < 0.05). The population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus were not affected by any treatments. The findings on the present study showed that supplementation with RPM and RPO to diets of cows improved the rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat. PMID:24814291

  8. Illness in breastfeeding infants relates to concentration of lactoferrin and secretory Immunoglobulin A in mother’s milk

    PubMed Central

    Breakey, Alicia A.; Hinde, Katie; Valeggia, Claudia R.; Sinofsky, Allison; Ellison, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: This study aims to better understand the relationship between immune compounds in human milk and infant health. We hypothesized that the concentration of immune compounds in milk would relate to infant illness symptoms according to two possible theoretical paradigms. In the ‘protective’ paradigm, high concentrations of immune compounds prevent infant illness. The converse, the ‘responsive’ framework, posits that concentrations of immune compounds are elevated in response to infection. Methodology: Milk samples (n = 110) and illness data were collected among the Toba of Argentina from 30 mother–infant dyads. Samples were assayed for two immune proteins, lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relationship between immune composition of milk and symptoms of illness in infants. Results: Lactoferrin was positively associated with symptoms of illness in infants (odds ratios >1), both in the month preceding the sample collection and the subsequent month. sIgA was negatively associated with symptoms (odds ratios <1) in the preceding and subsequent months, an association which was particularly strong for gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusions and implications: The two compounds investigated in our study had opposite relationships with symptoms of illness; the positive relationship between lactoferrin and illness lends support to our ‘responsive’ paradigm, and the negative relationship between sIgA and symptoms of illness was consistent with our ‘protective’ framework. That elevated lactoferrin is restricted to periods of illness suggests that there may be a cost to mother or infant associated with persistently elevated lactoferrin that is not incurred with elevated sIgA. PMID:25608691

  9. Effect of microfiltration concentration factor on serum protein removal from skim milk using spiral-wound polymeric membranes.

    PubMed

    Beckman, S L; Barbano, D M

    2013-10-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of concentration factor (CF) on the removal of serum protein (SP) from skim milk during microfiltration (MF) at 50 °C using a 0.3-μm-pore-size spiral-wound (SW) polymeric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Pasteurized (72°C for 16 s) skim milk was MF (50 °C) at 3 CF (1.50, 2.25, and 3.00×), each on a separate day of processing starting with skim milk. Two phases of MF were used at each CF, with an initial startup-stabilization phase (40 min in full recycle mode) to achieve the desired CF, followed by a steady-state phase (90-min feed-and-bleed with recycle) where data was collected. The experiment was replicated 3 times, and SP removal from skim milk was quantified at each CF. System pressures, flow rates, CF, and fluxes were monitored during the 90-min run. Permeate flux increased (12.8, 15.3, and 19.0 kg/m(2) per hour) with decreasing CF from 3.00 to 1.50×, whereas fouled water flux did not differ among CF, indicating that the effect of membrane fouling on hydraulic resistance of the membrane was similar at all CF. However, the CF used when microfiltering skim milk (50°C) with a 0.3-μm polymeric SW PVDF membrane did affect the percentage of SP removed. As CF increased from 1.50 to 3.00×, the percentage of SP removed from skim milk increased from 10.56 to 35.57%, in a single stage bleed-and-feed MF system. Percentage SP removal from skim milk was lower than the theoretical value. Rejection of SP during MF of skim milk with SW PVDF membranes was caused by fouling of the membrane, not by the membrane itself and differences in the foulant characteristic among CF influenced SP rejection more than it influenced hydraulic resistance. We hypothesize that differences in the conditions near the surface of the membrane and within the pores during the first few minutes of processing, when casein micelles pass through the membrane, influenced the rejection of SP because more pore size narrowing and plugging occurred at low CF than at high CF due to a slower rate of gel layer formation at low CF. It is possible that percentage removal of SP from skim milk at 50 °C could be improved by optimization of the membrane pore size, feed solution composition and concentration, and controlling the rate of formation of the concentration polarization-derived gel layer at the surface of the membrane during the first few minutes of processing. PMID:23891300

  10. Invited review: technical solutions for analysis of milk constituents and abnormal milk.

    PubMed

    Brandt, M; Haeussermann, A; Hartung, E

    2010-02-01

    Information about constituents of milk and visual alterations can be used for management support in improving mastitis detection, monitoring fertility and reproduction, and adapting individual diets. Numerous sensors that gather this information are either currently available or in development. Nevertheless, there is still a need to adapt these sensors to special requirements of on-farm utilization such as robustness, calibration and maintenance, costs, operating cycle duration, and high sensitivity and specificity. This paper provides an overview of available sensors, ongoing research, and areas of application for analysis of milk constituents. Currently, the recognition of abnormal milk and the control of udder health is achieved mainly by recording electrical conductivity and changes in milk color. Further indicators of inflammation were recently investigated either to satisfy the high specificity necessary for automatic separation of milk or to create reliable alarm lists. Likewise, milk composition, especially fat:protein ratio, milk urea nitrogen content, and concentration of ketone bodies, provides suitable information about energy and protein supply, roughage fraction in the diet, and metabolic imbalances in dairy cows. In this regard, future prospects are to use frequent on-farm measurements of milk constituents for short-term automatic nutritional management. Finally, measuring progesterone concentration in milk helps farmers detect ovulation, pregnancy, and infertility. Monitoring systems for on-farm or on-line analysis of milk composition are mostly based on infrared spectroscopy, optical methods, biosensors, or sensor arrays. Their calibration and maintenance requirements have to be checked thoroughly before they can be regularly implemented on dairy farms. PMID:20105515

  11. Relation of Lake Ontario fish consumption, lifetime lactation, and parity to breast milk polychlorobiphenyl and pesticide concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Kostyniak, P.J.; Stinson, C.; Hreizerstein, H.B.; Vena, J.; Buck, G.; Mendola, P.

    1999-02-01

    Lactating female members and spouses of male members of the New York State Angler Cohort who agreed to provide breast milk samples were the subjects of this study. Milk samples were analyzed for 77 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (DDE), a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1a,2,2,3,3a,4,5,5,5a,5b,6-dodecachlorooctahydro-1,3,4-methano-1H-cyclobuta[cd]pentalene (Mirex). The percentage of samples with quantifiable levels, above the limit of detection (LOD), varied among the individual congeners from 10 to 100%. Nine PCB congeners and DDE were found in all of the 100 samples analyzed. Fish eaters had a significantly higher level of several major PCB congeners with congeners 153 and 138 being 1.36 and 1.34 times higher, respectively. PCB and DDE concentrations, expressed on a lipid basis, varied inversely with parity. The total number of months of lifetime lactation varied inversely with the total PCB concentration in breast milk.

  12. Concentration of Fluoride in Cow’s and Buffalo’s Milk in Relation to Varying Levels of Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water of Mathura City in India– A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Meena, Komal; Moon, Ninad Joshirao; Kumar, Puneet; Kaur, Ravneet

    2015-01-01

    Aim To estimate fluoride concentration in drinking water, cow’s milk and buffalo’s milk and to correlate the concentration of fluoride in cow’s milk and buffalo’s milk with varying levels of fluoride concentration in drinking water. Materials and Methods Ten households having both cows and buffalo's were selected by convenience in each of the 3 zones (below optimum fluoride <0.7 ppm (parts per million), optimum fluoride 0.7-1.2 ppm and above optimum fluoride areas > 1.2 ppm). From these selected households, 200 ml of fresh milk of both cows and buffaloes was collected along with 200 ml of drinking water for estimation of fluoride concentration by using a fluoride ion selective electrode method. The data was analysed using SPSS, version 11.5 for windows. Results The mean fluoride concentration of drinking water, cow’s milk and buffalo’s milk in three different fluoride zones was 0.89±0.39, 0.09±0.07, 0.09±0.08 respectively. Pearson’s correlation found a statistically significant correlation between fluoride concentrations in cow’s and buffalo’s milk with varying levels of fluoride concentration in drinking water in zone B and zone C. However, this correlation was not statistically significant in zone A. Conclusion With an increase in fluoride concentration in drinking water there was an increase in concentration of fluoride in cow’s and buffalo’s milk. We conclude that this association is seen in conjunction to not only a single factor but rather due to culmination of several other aspects. So, there is a need to elucidate the other factors that might be contributing to this increase and dental fluorosis. PMID:26155499

  13. The partial replacement of soyabean meal and rapeseed meal with feed grade urea or a slow-release urea and its effect on the performance, metabolism and digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, L A; Blake, C W; Griffin, P; Jones, G H

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the effect of the partial replacement of soyabean meal and rapeseed meal with feed grade urea or a slow-release urea on the performance, metabolism and whole-tract digestibility in mid-lactation dairy cows. Forty-two Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to one of three dietary treatments in each of three periods of 5 weeks duration in a Latin square design. Control (C) cows were offered a total mixed ration based on grass and maize silages and straight feeds that included 93 g/kg dry matter (DM) soyabean meal and 61 g/kg DM rapeseed meal. Cows that received either of the other two treatments were offered the same basal ration with the replacement of 28 g/kg DM soyabean and 19 g/kg DM rapeseed meal with either 5 g/kg DM feed grade urea (U) or 5.5 g/kg DM of the slow-release urea (S; Optigen®; Alltech Inc., Kentucky, USA), with the content of maize silage increasing. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of dietary treatment on DM intake, which averaged 22.5 kg/day. Similarly, there was no effect (P > 0.05) of treatment on daily milk or milk fat yield but there was a trend (P = 0.09) for cows offered either of the diets containing urea to have a higher milk fat content (average of 40.1 g/kg for U and S v. 38.9 g/kg for C). Milk true protein concentration and yield were not affected by treatment (P > 0.05). Milk yield from forage and N efficiency (g milk N output/g N intake) were highest (P < 0.01) in cows when offered S and lowest in C, with cows receiving U having intermediate values. Cows offered S also tended to have the highest live weight gain (0.38 kg/day) followed by U (0.23 kg/day) and C (0.01 kg/day; P = 0.07). Plasma urea concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) at 2 and 4 h post feeding in cows when offered U and lowest in C, with animals receiving S having intermediate values. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of treatment on whole-tract digestibility. In conclusion, the partial replacement of soyabean meal and rapeseed meal with feed grade urea or a slow-release urea can be achieved without affecting milk performance or diet digestibility, with the efficiency of conversion of dietary N into milk being improved when the slow-release urea was fed. PMID:22558962

  14. A pilot study of synbiotic supplementation on breast milk mineral concentrations and growth of exclusively breast fed infants.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Reza; Taghipour, Sharare; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Nikniaz, Leila; Hezaveh, Seyed Jamal Ghaemmaghami

    2015-04-01

    Despite the crucial role of breast milk mineral contents for health and growth of the infants, they decrease with the duration of lactation. So, this pilot study aimed to determine the effects of synbiotic supplementation on breast milk mineral composition and infants' growth. In this pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 57 lactating mothers were randomly divided into two groups to receive a daily supplement of synbiotic (n=30) or a placebo (n=27) for 30 days. Breast milk zinc, copper, Iron, magnesium and, calcium concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Weight for age Z-score (WAZ) and height for age Z-score (HAZ) were assessed for infants. Dietary intake was collected from lactating women using the 24-h recall method. Data analyses were carried out using nutritionist IV, Epi Info and SPSS soft wares. Synbiotic supplementation led to an insignificant increase of the mean breast milk levels of zinc (from 2.44±0.65 to 2.55±0.55mgL(-1)), copper (from 0.35±0.24 to 0.40±0.26mgL(-1)), iron (from 0.28±0.42 to 0.31±0.38mgL(-1)), magnesium (from 17.14±1.35 to 17.17±1.09mgL(-1)), and calcium (from 189±25.3 to 189.9±21.7mgL(-1)); whilst in the placebo group, these variables decreased significantly (P=0.001). The observed changes between two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Although WAZ and HAZ of infants increased slightly in the supplemented group (from 1.19±0.79 to 1.20±0.69 and 0.36±0.86 to 0.37±0.85 respectively), these two parameters decreased in the placebo group which was significant only for WAZ (P=0.01). Moreover, no significant association was found between mineral intake and breast milk mineral contents. It seems, synbiotic supplementation may have positive effects on breast milk mineral contents. PMID:25744506

  15. Extraction of urea and ammonium ion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmi, R. T.; Husted, R. R.; Schulz, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Water purification system keeps urea and ammonium ion concentration below toxic limits in recirculated water of closed loop aquatic habitat. Urea is first converted to ammonium ions and carbon dioxide by enzygmatic action. Ammonium ions are removed by ion exchange. Bioburden is controlled by filtration through 0.45 micron millipore filters.

  16. Ultrafiltration of skimmed goat milk increases its nutritional value by concentrating nonfat solids such as proteins, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Olalla, Manuel; Giménez-Martínez, Rafael; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Artacho, Reyes; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    Goat milk has been reported to possess good nutritional and health-promoting properties. Usually, it must be concentrated before fermented products can be obtained. The aim of this study was to compare physicochemical and nutritional variables among raw (RM), skimmed (SM), and ultrafiltration-concentrated skimmed (UFM) goat milk. The density, acidity, ash, protein, casein, whey protein, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn values were significantly higher in UFM than in RM or SM. Dry extract and fat levels were significantly higher in UFM than in SM, and Mg content was significantly higher in UFM than in RM. Ultrafiltration also increased the solubility of Ca and Mg, changing their distribution in the milk. The higher concentrations of minerals and proteins, especially caseins, increase the nutritional value of UFM, which may therefore be more appropriate for goat milk yogurt manufacturing in comparison to RM or SM. PMID:26342988

  17. Epidermal Growth Factor and Parathyroid Hormone-related Peptide mRNA in the Mammary Gland and their Concentrations in Milk

    PubMed Central

    Bruder, E. D.; Van Hoof, J.; Young, J. B.; Raff, H.

    2008-01-01

    The physiological adaptations of the neonatal rat to hypoxia from birth include changes in gastrointestinal function and intermediary metabolism. We hypothesized that the hypoxic lactating dam would exhibit alterations in mammary gland function leading to changes in the concentration of milk peptides that are important in neonatal gastrointestinal development. The present study assessed the effects of chronic hypoxia on peptides produced by the mammary glands and present in milk. Chronic hypoxia decreased the concentration of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in expressed milk and pup stomach contents and decreased maternal mammary gland Egf mRNA. The concentration of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrp) was unchanged in milk and decreased in pup stomach contents; however, mammary Pthlh mRNA was increased by hypoxia. There was a significant increase in adiponectin concentrations in milk from hypoxic dams. Chronic hypoxia decreased maternal body weight, and pair feeding normoxic dams an amount of food equivalent to hypoxic dam food intake decreased body weight to an equivalent degree. Decreased food intake did not affect the expression of Egf, Pthlh, or Lep mRNA in mammary tissue. The results indicated that chronic hypoxia modulated mammary function independently of hypoxia-induced decreases in maternal food intake. Decreased EGF and increased adiponectin concentrations in milk from hypoxic dams likely affect the development of neonatal intestinal function. PMID:18401831

  18. Short communication: ketone body concentration in milk determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: value for the detection of hyperketonemia in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van Knegsel, A T M; van der Drift, S G A; Horneman, M; de Roos, A P W; Kemp, B; Graat, E A M

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry to measure milk ketone bodies to detect hyperketonemic cows and compare this method with milk fat to protein ratio to detect hyperketonemia. Plasma and milk samples were obtained weekly from calving to wk 9 postpartum from 69 high-producing dairy cows. The reference test for hyperketonemia was defined as plasma concentration of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) >or=1,200 micromol/L. The weekly prevalence of hyperketonemia during the first 9 wk of lactation was, on average, 7.1%. Both BHBA and acetone in milk, determined by FTIR, had a higher sensitivity (80%) to detect hyperketonemia compared with milk fat to protein ratio (66%). Specificity was similar for the 3 diagnostic tests (71, 70, and 71%). In conclusion, FTIR predictions of BHBA or acetone in milk can detect cows with hyperketonemia in early lactation with a higher accuracy compared with the use of milk fat to protein ratio. Because of the high proportion of false-positive tests, there are concerns about the practical applicability of FTIR predictions of acetone, BHBA, and fat to protein ratio in milk to detect hyperketonemic cows. PMID:20630223

  19. Effects of a long daily photoperiod on milk yield and circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1.

    PubMed

    Dahl, G E; Elsasser, T H; Capuco, A V; Erdman, R A; Peters, R R

    1997-11-01

    Relative to a short daily (24-h) photoperiod, exposure to a long daily photoperiod increases the milk yield of dairy cows. However, the endocrine basis for this phenomenon is unknown. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that a long daily photoperiod is associated with increased circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, a hormone that is galactopoietic in ruminants. Forty lactating cows were exposed to either a natural photoperiod (< or = 13 h of light/d) or to a long daily photoperiod (18 h of light and 6 h of darkness) between January and April 1995. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake a total mixed diet formulated to meet the nutritional demands of lactation. Milk yield and dry matter intake were quantitated each day, and blood samples were collected by coccygeal venipuncture every 14 d. Plasma was harvested and assayed for IGF-I. The long photoperiod increased milk yield relative to the natural photoperiod (36.1 +/ 0.6 vs. 33.9 +/ 0.6 kg/d); the increase became significant after 28 d of treatment and was maintained for the duration of the study. In addition, cows exposed to a long photoperiod had greater circulating concentrations of IGF-I than did cows exposed to the ambient natural photoperiod (60.1 +/ 2.0 vs. 52.6 +/ 2.0 ng/ml). Concentrations of IGF binding protein -2 and -3 in plasma did not differ between treatments. These results support the hypothesis that a long daily photoperiod increases circulating concentrations of IGF-I in lactating cows and reveal a possible endocrine mechanism for the galactopoietic response to a long daily photoperiod. PMID:9406069

  20. Methylmercury exposure during lactation: Milk concentration and tissue uptake of mercury in the neonatal rat

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, J.; Oskarsson, A.; Albanus, L. )

    1991-02-01

    In recent years toxicological interest in mercury has predominantly been focused on the effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury on the physical and mental development of children. Thus, there has been a general concern to limit the exposure of pregnant women to methylmercury. Much less attention has been paid to postnatal exposure to mercury. However, there is also a possibility of elevated mercury exposure in the newborn due to exposure via breast milk. There is a lack of data from both humans and animals on lactational transfer of many metals. However, metabolic evidence suggests that during the neonatal period the infant is sensitive to effects of these compounds. Thus, the gastrointestinal absorption and the retention of metals is higher during this period than adult life. In the present study the dose-dependent transfer of mercury into milk was studied in lactating rats treated with methyl-mercury. The uptake of mercury in tissues and blood was followed in the offspring exposed via milk.

  1. Identification, quantification, and relative concentrations of carotenoids and their metabolites in human milk and serum.

    PubMed

    Khachik, F; Spangler, C J; Smith, J C; Canfield, L M; Steck, A; Pfander, H

    1997-05-15

    Thirty-four carotenoids, including 13 geometrical isomers and eight metabolites, in breast milk and serum of three lactating mothers have been separated, identified, quantified, and compared by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array (PDA) detection-mass spectrometry (MS). Among the metabolites were two oxidation products of lycopene and four of lutein/ zeaxanthin. In addition, two metabolites of lutein, formed as a result of dehydration of this dihydroxycarotenoid under acidic conditions similar to those of the stomach, have also been identified in plasma and breast milk. The oxidative metabolites of lycopene with a novel five-membered-ring end group have been identified as epimeric 2,6-cyclolycopene-1,5-diols by comparison of their HPLC-UV/visible-MS profiles with those of fully characterized (1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy) synthetic compounds. The HPLC procedures employed also detected vitamin A, two forms of vitamin E (gamma- and alpha-tocopherol), and two non-carotenoid food components, i.e., piperine and caffeine, in serum and breast milk. PMID:9164160

  2. Urea Transporter Physiology Studied in Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuechen; Chen, Guangping; Yang, Baoxue

    2012-01-01

    In mammals, there are two types of urea transporters; urea transporter (UT)-A and UT-B. The UT-A transporters are mainly expressed in kidney epithelial cells while UT-B demonstrates a broader distribution in kidney, heart, brain, testis, urinary tract, and other tissues. Over the past few years, multiple urea transporter knockout mouse models have been generated enabling us to explore the physiological roles of the different urea transporters. In the kidney, deletion of UT-A1/UT-A3 results in polyuria and a severe urine concentrating defect, indicating that intrarenal recycling of urea plays a crucial role in the overall capacity to concentrate urine. Since UT-B has a wide tissue distribution, multiple phenotypic abnormalities have been found in UT-B null mice, such as defective urine concentration, exacerbated heart blockage with aging, depression-like behavior, and earlier male sexual maturation. This review summarizes the new insights of urea transporter functions in different organs, gleaned from studies of urea transporter knockout mice, and explores some of the potential pharmacological prospects of urea transporters. PMID:22745630

  3. The effect of long term under- and over-feeding of sheep on milk and plasma fatty acid profiles and on insulin and leptin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Chadio, Stella; Zervas, George

    2012-05-01

    Since sheep's milk is mainly used for cheese making and milk chemical composition and fatty acids (FA) profile affect cheese yield and quality, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of different feeding levels on milk chemical composition and FA profile, as well as on plasma FA profile, and on insulin and leptin concentrations. Twenty-four sheep were assigned to three homogeneous sub-groups. Throughout the experimental period each group was fed the same diet but in quantities which met 70% (under-feeding), 100% (control) and 130% (over-feeding) of their respective energy and crude protein requirements. The results showed that the underfed sheep had higher milk fat content compared with overfed. In blood plasma the concentrations of C18:0 and C18:1 in the underfed sheep were significantly higher compared with control and overfed sheep. The concentrations of leptin and insulin were significantly higher in overfed compared with underfed sheep. Underfeeding reduced the concentrations of short chain FA (SCFA) and medium chain FA (MCFA) and increased that of C18:0 and mono unsaturated FA (MUFA) in sheep milk fat compared with controls and overfed. The concentrations of C18:0, long chain FA (LCFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) in milk were significantly higher and those of SCFA, MCFA and saturated FA (SFA) significantly lower in the underfed compared with the overfed sheep. In conclusion, long term under- and over-feeding affected the sheep milk chemical composition and FA profile which consequently has an impact on milk products yield (cheese and yogurt) and quality (human health). PMID:22341044

  4. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late) and 2 cuts in summer season (early and late) combined with high FCR (80:20; HFCR) and low FCR (50:50; LFCR). The experiment included 24 lactating Holstein cows arranged as 2 repeated 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 21-d periods and included measurements of feed composition, feed intake, milk production and composition, chewing activities, digestibilities, and fecal dry matter (DM) concentration and scoring. Forages were fed as two-thirds grass-clover and one-third corn silage supplemented with either 20 or 50% concentrate. Rations were fed ad libitum as total mixed rations. Early maturity cuts were more digestible than late maturity cuts, which was also reflected in a lower concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in early maturity cuts, whereas summer cuts had a higher crude protein concentration than spring cuts. Increased maturity decreased the intake of DM and energy, increased NDF intake, and decreased the yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM). Summer cuts increased the ECM yield compared with spring cuts. Milk yield (kg and kilogram of ECM) was numerically higher for cows fed early summer cut, independent of FCR in the ration. Milk protein concentration decreased, or tended to decrease, with maturity. For LFCR, the milk fat concentration increased with maturity resulting in a decreased protein:fat ratio. At HFCR, increased maturity increased the time spent chewing per kilogram of DM. Digestibility of silages was positively correlated with the fecal DM concentration. The DM intake and ECM yield showed no significant response to FCR in the ration, but the milk composition was affected. The LFCR decreased the milk fat percentage and increased the milk protein percentage numerically followed by a higher protein:fat ratio. Total chewing time per kilogram of DM decreased and total chewing time per kilogram of NDF increased with LFCR. This study indicates that silages from summer cuts have a similar value for milk production as do spring cuts, when forage digestibility is taken into account. Moreover, it appears that supplementation of extra concentrate has no effect on ECM production when forages with a high digestibility are fed, and that the physical structural value is adequate even when feeding high digestible forages. PMID:26506543

  5. Effect of N-(n-butyl) Phosphoric Triamide (NPBT) and a Linalool or Pine Oil Extract on Urea Concentration, Odorants, and Coliform Bacteria in Cattle Feedlot Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of a urease inhibitor (NBPT) in combination with plant oils for their ability to maintain urea in feedlot manure, control odor production, and reduce pathogens. Initially, NBPT (40 ppm) and a linalool extract (LE; 4000 ppm) were sprayed on...

  6. EFFECTS OF PHASE FEEDING OF PROTEIN ON PERFORMANCE, BLOOD UREA NITROGEN CONCENTRATION, MANURE N:P RATIO AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF FEEDLOT CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two randomized complete block design experiments were conducted to determine the effects of phase feeding of crude protein on performance, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), manure N:P ratio, and carcass characteristics of steers fed in a feedlot. In experiment 1, 45 crossbred steers (BW=423 kg) were indivi...

  7. Spraying Leaves of Pear Nursery Trees with Urea and Copper Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Alters Tree Nitrogen Concentration without Influencing Tree Susceptibility to Phytophthora syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effects of nitrogen (N) availability and spraying trees with urea, copper chelate (CuEDTA), and phosphonate-containing fungicides on tree N status and susceptibility to infection by Phytophthora syringae. Increasing soil N availability increased susceptibility and increased N and...

  8. Continuous milking of dairy cows disrupts timing of peak IgG concentration appearance in mammary secretions.

    PubMed

    Baumrucker, Craig R; Zbinden, Rahel S; van Dorland, H Anette; Remmelink, Gerrit J; Kemp, Bas; van Knegsel, Ariette T M; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2014-11-01

    The length of the dry period in commercial dairy production is under close scrutiny. While the main concern is the composition and volume of milk produced, the evaluation of colostrum quality under these new paradigms has suggested a decline in IgG concentrations, while some reports indicate no change. Colostrum quality has been defined as an adequate concentration (>50 mg/ml) of immunoglobulin in the secretions to provide the newborn with maximal disease resistance. We investigated the appearance of IgG in mammary pre- and post partum secretions in cows without a dry period (continuously milked, Dry0) and compared the secretions with cows that experienced a dry period of 60 d (Dry60). Blood was collected during the experimental period and plasma analysed for progesterone (P4) and prolactin (Prl). Approximately -6 d relative to parturition, the Dry0 animals exhibited increased concentration of IgG in their secretions to an average of ∼35 mg/ml that remained rather constant through subsequent pregnancy and following parturition. Dry0 cows were producing an average IgG concentration in parturition colostrum of 44·2±17·6 mg/ml that was not different than that of controls (66·86±16·8 mg/ml). However, Dry0 cows exhibited high variation, different peak times (day) of IgG concentration including times that occurred both pre and post parturition. IgG mass of the Dry0 cows remained rather constant pre- and post partum and did not show the same declining mass following parturition that was shown for the Dry60 cows. The change in plasma P4 and Prl were shown to have no timing effect on colostrum IgG concentration. PMID:24955588

  9. Lactational changes in concentration and distribution of ganglioside molecular species in human breast milk from Chinese mothers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Liu, Xihong; MacGibbon, Alastair K H; Rowan, Angela; McJarrow, Paul; Fong, Bertram Y

    2015-11-01

    Gangliosides play a critical role in human brain development and function. Human breast milk (HBM) is an important dietary source of gangliosides for the growing infant. In this study, ganglioside concentrations were measured in the breast milk from a cross-sectional sample of Chinese mothers over an 8-month lactation period. The average total ganglioside concentration increased from 13.1 mg/l during the first month to 20.9 mg/l by 8 months of lactation. The average concentration during the typically solely breast-feeding period of 1‒6 months was 18.9 mg/l. This is the first study to report the relative distribution of the individual ganglioside molecular species through lactation for any population group. The ganglioside molecular species are made up of different fatty acid moieties that influence the physical properties of these gangliosides, and hence affect their function. The GM(3) molecular species containing long-chain acyl fatty acids had the most prominent changes, increasing in both concentration and relative distribution. The equivalent long-chain acyl fatty acid GD(3) molecular species typically decreased in concentration and relative distribution. The lactational trends for both concentration and relative distribution for the very long-chain acyl fatty acid molecular species were more varied. The major GM(3) and GD(3) molecular species during lactation were d40:1 and d42:1, respectively. An understanding of ganglioside molecular species distribution in HBM is essential for accurate application of mass spectrometry methods for ganglioside quantification. PMID:26404454

  10. Short communication: Effects of feeding sweet sorghum silage on milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Amer, S; Seguin, P; Mustafa, A F

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feeding value of sweet sorghum silage (SS) for dairy cows compared with alfalfa silage (AS). Two diets were formulated with a 50:50 forage:concentrate ratio. Sweet sorghum silage and AS constituted 70% of the forage in each diet (dry matter basis). Twelve lactating Holstein cows in early lactation were used in a crossover experiment. Relative to AS, SS contained 58% more neutral detergent fiber and 36.6 and 72.7% less acid detergent lignin and crude protein, respectively. Milk yield (33.0 vs. 36.7 kg/d) was lower for cows fed SS than for those fed AS. However, dry matter intake, energy-corrected milk, and feed efficiency were similar for both dietary treatments. Replacing AS with SS increased concentrations of milk fat (4.44 vs. 3.80%) and total solids (13.31 vs. 12.88%) and reduced concentrations of milk lactose (4.55 vs. 4.61%), milk solids-not-fat (8.88 vs. 9.08%), and milk urea nitrogen (10.0 vs. 14.0 mg/dL). We concluded that replacing AS with SS had negative effects on milk yield, whereas dry matter intake, energy-corrected milk, and milk efficiency were similar. PMID:22281350

  11. An oxalate-sodium hydroxide buffer to study the role of milk replacer coagulation in preruminant calves.

    PubMed

    Petit, H V; Ivan, M; Brisson, G J

    1987-12-01

    An oxalate-NaOH buffer, which prevents coagulation in the abomasum of young calves, was added to a nonclotting milk replacer based on high heat skim milk powder, to investigate effects of this buffer on digestibility and metabolism of dietary components. Twelve Holstein male calves were allotted at random in two groups of six animals each and fed the experimental milk replacers from 3 to 17 d of age. Digestibility of dry matter, protein, and fat was similar for both control and buffered milk replacers. Concentrations of plasma glucose, triglycerides, alpha-amino nitrogen, and urea were the same in animals receiving buffer treated milk replacer and control diets. The data suggests that this oxalate-NaOH buffer would be suitable to prevent milk clotting in studies dealing with the importance of coagulation in digestion and metabolism in preruminant calves. PMID:3448107

  12. Effects of milk proteins on sperm binding to the zona pellucida and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in stallion sperm.

    PubMed

    Coutinho da Silva, Marco A; Seidel, George E; Squires, Edward L; Graham, James K; Carnevale, Elaine M

    2014-11-10

    Objectives were to determine the effects of extracellular Ca(2+) and milk proteins on intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in stallion sperm; and to determine the effects of single caseins on sperm binding to the zona pellucida (ZP). In Experiment I, sperm were incubated in media containing 2 or 4mM Ca(2+) and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was determined after ionomycin treatment and long-term incubation (3h). Extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations (2 compared with 4mM) did not affect baseline intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of sperm. However, incubating sperm in a medium containing 4 compared with 2mM Ca(2+) resulted in greater (P<0.05) influx of Ca(2+) into sperm. In Experiment II, sperm incubated in media containing 1mg/mL of native phosphocaseinate (NP) or sodium caseinate (SC) showed similar baseline intracellular Ca(2+) and influx of Ca(2+) than control (TALP). In Experiment III, sperm-ZP binding assays were performed in TALP medium containing: no additions (TALP); 1mg/mL SC; 1 or 3mg/mL of α-casein; 1 or 3mg/mL of β-casein; and 1 or 3mg/mL of κ-casein. The number of stallion sperm bound to bovine ZP was greatest (P<0.05) when SC was used. Co-incubation in media containing single caseins (α-, β- or κ-casein) resulted in similar results to TALP; however, a dose effect (P<0.05) was observed for β- and κ-caseins. In conclusion, extracellular Ca(2+) concentration and milk proteins did not affect baseline intracellular calcium in stallion sperm. It appears that β- and κ-caseins may be responsible for enhancing sperm binding to ZP, but the mechanism remains unknown. PMID:25213434

  13. Application of hand-held and portable infrared spectrometers in bovine milk analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Poliana M; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2013-02-13

    A simple and fast method for the detection and quantification of milk adulteration was developed using portable and hand-held infrared (IR) spectrometers. Milk samples were purchased from local supermarkets (Columbus, OH, USA) and spiked with tap water, whey, hydrogen peroxide, synthetic urine, urea, and synthetic milk in different concentrations. Spectral data were collected using mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification models exhibited tight and well-separated clusters allowing the discrimination of control from adulterated milk samples. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to estimate adulteration levels, and results showed high coefficients of determination (R(2)) and low standard errors of prediction (SEP). Classification and quantification models indicated that the tested MIR systems were superior to NIR systems in monitoring milk adulteration. This method can be potentially used as an alternative to traditional methods due to their simplicity, sensitivity, low energy cost, and portability. PMID:23339381

  14. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1).

    PubMed

    Resende, T L; Kraft, J; Soder, K J; Pereira, A B D; Woitschach, D E; Reis, R B; Brito, A F

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFX) on milk yield and concentrations and yields of milk components, milk fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112±68d in milk and 441±21kg of body weight and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 98±43d in milk and 401±43kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21d with 14d for diet adaptation and 7d for data and sample collection. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration (63:37 forage-to-concentrate ratio) with corn meal and soybean meal replaced by incremental levels (i.e., 0, 5, 10, or 15% diet dry matter) of GFX. The ruminal molar proportions of acetate and butyrate decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, whereas the ruminal molar proportion of propionate increased linearly resulting in decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of nutrients either decreased (dry matter) or tended to decrease (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber) linearly in cows fed GFX. Milk yield decreased linearly in cows fed increasing amounts of GFX, which is explained by the linear reduction in dry matter intake. Except for the concentrations of milk protein and urea N, which decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, no other changes in the concentration of milk components were observed. However, yields of milk protein and fat decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. The linear decrease in the yields of milk fat and protein are explained by reduced milk yield, whereas that in milk urea N is explained by decreased crude protein intake. No treatment effects were observed for plasma urea N and nonesterified fatty acids, serum cortisol, and body weight change. Milk odd- and branched-chain FA and saturated FA decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. Milk trans-11 18:1, α-linolenic acid, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, and the sum of n-3 FA all increased linearly and quadratically, whereas the milk ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased linearly in cows fed GFX. Overall, compared with the control diet (0% GFX), the diet with 15% GFX supplementation resulted in the lowest milk yield but highest milk proportions and yields (data not shown) of cis-9,trans-11 18:2 and n-3 FA. PMID:25958281

  15. Pelleting in Associated with Sodium Monensin Increases the Conjugated Linoleic Acids Concentration in the Milk of Dairy Cows Fed Canola Seeds.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Francilaine Eloise; Romero, Jakeline Vieira; Damasceno, Julio Cesar; Grande, Paula Adriana; Zeoula, Lúcia Maria; Dos Santos, Geraldo Tadeu

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of the pelleting and the addition of sodium monensin on production, the chemical and lipid composition of milk and butter physical characteristics, 4 Holstein dairy cows (135 days of lactation) with an average milk production of 14.7 kg/d, were supplemented with a concentrate containing ground canola seeds. The cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments: i) ground maize, soybean meal, mineral and vitamin supplements, and ground canola seeds (CG); ii) CG concentrate with 31.5 mg of monensin added per kg of dry matter (DM); iii) CG pelleted concentrate; iv) CG concentrate with monensin addition pelleted. There was no difference in milk production and composition. The addition of monensin increased milk concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the PUFA/saturated fatty acids (SFA) ratio, and omega 6. The pelleting increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids, the PUFA/SFA ratio, and the omega 6/omega 3 ratio, but decreased the concentration of SFA. The association between pelleting and the addition of monensin increased the concentration of conjugated linoleic acids by 46.9%. The physical characteristics of butter were not affected by the evaluated diets. We concluded that the concentrate with 31.5 mg of monensin added per kg DM basis combined with the pelleting improves the lipid composition of milk from Holstein cows that are on pasture and supplemented with ground canola seeds, without changing the production, milk composition, and spreadability of butter. PMID:26104517

  16. Pelleting in Associated with Sodium Monensin Increases the Conjugated Linoleic Acids Concentration in the Milk of Dairy Cows Fed Canola Seeds

    PubMed Central

    De Marchi, Francilaine Eloise; Romero, Jakeline Vieira; Damasceno, Julio Cesar; Grande, Paula Adriana; Zeoula, Lúcia Maria; dos Santos, Geraldo Tadeu

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the pelleting and the addition of sodium monensin on production, the chemical and lipid composition of milk and butter physical characteristics, 4 Holstein dairy cows (135 days of lactation) with an average milk production of 14.7 kg/d, were supplemented with a concentrate containing ground canola seeds. The cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments: i) ground maize, soybean meal, mineral and vitamin supplements, and ground canola seeds (CG); ii) CG concentrate with 31.5 mg of monensin added per kg of dry matter (DM); iii) CG pelleted concentrate; iv) CG concentrate with monensin addition pelleted. There was no difference in milk production and composition. The addition of monensin increased milk concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the PUFA/saturated fatty acids (SFA) ratio, and omega 6. The pelleting increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids, the PUFA/SFA ratio, and the omega 6/omega 3 ratio, but decreased the concentration of SFA. The association between pelleting and the addition of monensin increased the concentration of conjugated linoleic acids by 46.9%. The physical characteristics of butter were not affected by the evaluated diets. We concluded that the concentrate with 31.5 mg of monensin added per kg DM basis combined with the pelleting improves the lipid composition of milk from Holstein cows that are on pasture and supplemented with ground canola seeds, without changing the production, milk composition, and spreadability of butter. PMID:26104517

  17. The influence of grass silage-to-maize silage ratio and concentrate composition on methane emissions, performance and milk composition of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hart, K J; Huntington, J A; Wilkinson, R G; Bartram, C G; Sinclair, L A

    2015-06-01

    It is well-established that altering the proportion of starch and fibre in ruminant diets can alter ruminal and post-ruminal digestion, although quantitative evidence that this reduces enteric methane (CH4) production in dairy cattle is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of varying grass-to-maize silage ratio (70 : 30 and 30 : 70 DM basis), offered ad libitum, with either a concentrate that was high in starch or fibre, on CH4 production, intake, performance and milk composition of dairy cows. A total of 20 cows were allocated to one of the four experimental diets in a two-by-two factorial design run as a Latin square with each period lasting 28 days. Measurements were conducted during the final 7 days of each period. Cows offered the high maize silage ration had a higher dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk energy output and lower CH4 emissions when expressed per kg DMI and per unit of ingested gross energy, but there was no difference in total CH4 production. Several of the milk long-chain fatty acids (FA) were affected by forage treatment with the most notable being an increase in 18:0, 18:1 c9, 18:2 c9 c12 and total mono unsaturated FA, observed in cows offered the higher inclusion of maize silage, and an increase in 18:3 c9 c12 c15 when offered the higher grass silage ration. Varying the composition of the concentrate had no effect on DMI or milk production; however, when the high-starch concentrate was fed, milk protein concentration and milk FAs, 10:0, 14:1, 15:0, 16:1, increased and 18:0 decreased. Interactions were observed for milk fat concentration, being lower in cows offered high-grass silage and high-fibre concentrates compared with the high-starch concentrate, and FA 17:0, which was the highest in milk from cows fed the high-grass silage diet supplemented with the high-starch concentrate. In conclusion, increasing the proportion of maize silage in the diets of dairy cows increased intake and performance, and reduced CH4 production, but only when expressed on a DM or energy intake basis, whereas starch-to-fibre ratio in the concentrate had little effect on performance or CH4 production. PMID:25708202

  18. Dietary vitamin A modulates the concentrations of RRR-alpha-tocopherol in plasma lipoproteins from calves fed milk replacer.

    PubMed

    Ametaj, B N; Nonnecke, B J; Franklin, S T; Horst, R L; Bidlack, W R; Stuart, R L; Beitz, D C

    2000-03-01

    The practice of supplementing milk replacers fed to neonatal calves with high concentrations of vitamin A has raised concerns regarding the effect of excess vitamin A on the bioavailability of vitamin E. A 4 x 2 factorial experiment evaluated the effects of four dietary amounts of vitamin A [0, 1.78 [National Research Council (NRC)(6) requirement, control], 35.6 and 71.2 micromol daily as retinyl acetate] and two forms of vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol and RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate, 155 micromol daily) on plasma RRR-alpha-tocopherol and RRR-gamma-tocopherol and RRR-alpha-tocopherol associated with plasma lipoproteins (Lp) from milk replacer-fed Holstein calves from birth to 28 d of age. The VLDL, LDL, HDL and very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) fractions were separated by ultracentrifugal flotation, and the amount of vitamin E associated with each fraction was determined by normal-phase HPLC. The amount and distribution of RRR-alpha-tocopherol in Lp fractions were unaffected by the form of dietary vitamin E. Plasma and Lp RRR-alpha-tocopherol concentrations increased with age (P < 0.0001) and were maximal at 28 d of age. Concentrations of RRR-alpha-tocopherol associated with Lp were 25% (P < 0.01) to 39% (P < 0.0001) lower in calves fed 35.6 and 71.2 micromol of vitamin A daily than in control calves at 28 d of age. The RRR-gamma-tocopherol concentrations were unaffected by dietary vitamin A (P >/= 0.05). In conclusion, dietary vitamin A modulated the amount and distribution of RRR-alpha-tocopherol in the circulation of milk replacer-fed neonatal calves. Because of the essential antioxidant role of vitamin E, the health-related consequences associated with the depression of the LP RRR-alpha-tocopherol concentrations in calves fed vitamin A at 35.6 and 71.2 micromol need to be investigated. PMID:10702596

  19. Urea transport through composite polyallylamine membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E. V.; Kubo, L. Y.; Spitze, L. A.; Wydeven, T.; Clark, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Polyallylamine composite reverse osmosis membranes were prepared by plasma polymerization and deposition onto small-pored cellulose acetate/cellulose nitrate films. The polyallylamine coated the porous substrate with a thin uniform polymer film which exhibited water permeability and urea rejection, of interest because of the potential application of reverse osmosis to urine purification in closed environmental systems. The flux of C-14 labeled urea was studied under the influence of osmotic gradients provided by sodium chloride solutions. The urea flux was found to be enhanced by an osmotic pressure gradient in the same direction and diminished, but not prevented, by an opposing osmotic pressure gradient. Consideration is given to the mechanism of the urea transport, as well as to the influence of concentration polarization on the experimental results. The minimization of coupled flow in pores of a critical size range is apparently necessary to improve urea rejection.

  20. Milk intake and feeding behavior in the first week of life and its relationship to cord blood ghrelin, leptin, and insulin concentrations.

    PubMed

    James, Rachel J A; James, Andrew; Drewett, Robert F; Cheetham, Tim D

    2007-12-01

    Our aim was to study the feeding behavior of healthy term infants in the first week of life and determine whether this was related to cord blood leptin, ghrelin, and insulin. A total of 100 healthy bottle-fed infants were studied by weighing bottles of milk before and after feeds. Leptin, total ghrelin, and insulin concentrations were measured in cord blood. Mean (SD) birth weight was 3.46 (0.43) kg. Mean milk intake increased from 196.7 (83.0) g on d 1 to 585.0 (128.4) g on d 7. Milk intake over the first 6 d was significantly associated with weight gain to d 7. There was no relationship between cord ghrelin or leptin and milk intake or feed frequency. Cord blood insulin was inversely related to the mean daily number of feeds over the first 6 d (r = -0.21, p < 0.05). Birth weight and milk intake are the major determinants of weight gain in the first week of life in healthy bottle-fed infants. Total cord ghrelin and leptin are not directly related to milk intake or feed frequency in the first week of life. Circulating insulin concentrations may have a role in the initiation of feeding behavior. PMID:17957153

  1. Influence of temperature and fat content on ideal sucrose concentration, sweetening power, and sweetness equivalence of different sweeteners in chocolate milk beverage.

    PubMed

    Paixão, J A; Rodrigues, J B; Esmerino, E A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of new products catering to specific dietary needs and the corresponding changes in the consumer profile reflect a growing demand for diet and “light” products. However, little information is available regarding the sensory effects of different sweeteners in products consumed at different temperatures and with varying fat contents. In this regard, this study aimed to determine the influence of temperature and fat content on the ideal sucrose concentration and the sweetness equivalence and sweetening power of different sweeteners: Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL), aspartame, neosucralose, sucralose, and stevia (95% rebaudioside A), with sucrose as reference, in a chocolate milk beverage using a just-about-right (JAR) scale and magnitude estimation. Increasing temperature of consumption had an inverse effect on the ideal sucrose concentration in whole milk beverages, whereas no difference was noted in beverages made skim milk. In addition, a decrease in sweetening power was observed for all of the sweeteners analyzed considering the same conditions. The findings suggest that different optimal conditions exist for consumption of chocolate milk beverage related to sweetness perception, which depends on the fat level of milk used in the formulation. This information can be used by researchers and dairy processors when developing chocolate milk beverage formulations. PMID:25606602

  2. Expression of cathelicidins mRNA in the goat mammary gland and effect of the intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide on milk cathelicidin-2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gong-Wei; Lai, Song-Jia; Yoshimura, Yukinori; Isobe, Naoki

    2014-05-14

    Cathelicidins are a family of antimicrobial peptides found in neutrophils and the epithelium that have broad-spectrum activity against bacteria. This study aimed to investigative the mRNA expression of cathelicidins and protein localization of cathelicidin-2 in the goat mammary gland and its secretion into milk. The mRNA expression of cathelicidins was examined in different regions of the mammary gland by reverse transcription PCR. A cathelicidin-2 antibody was raised in rabbits by immunization with a synthetic cathelicidin-2 peptide consisting of 17 amino acids. The protein localization of cathelicidin-2 was investigated in the mammary gland by immunohistochemistry. Skim milk was collected before (0 h) and 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24h after the intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide and saline, and the concentration of cathelicidin-2 was examined by an enzyme immunoassay. The mRNAs of cathelicidin-1, 2, 3, 6, and 7 were expressed in both the teat and deep region of the mammary gland from healthy and mastitic goats. Immunoreactive cathelicidin-2 was not localized in the epithelial cells of the teat skin, teat cistern, or mammary alveoli, whereas it was localized in polymorphonuclear cells in the mammary gland and those collected from the blood and milk. Cathelicidin-2 was detected in skim milk by Western blotting. The concentration of cathelicidin-2 in milk increased 4h after the intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide. These results suggest that cathelicidin-2 is expressed in polymorphonuclear cells and is secreted into milk in goat. PMID:24572177

  3. [Urea formation in the after operational liver].

    PubMed

    Savilov, P N

    2016-01-01

    The effect of resection of the left lobe of the liver (LR, 15-20% og the organ weight) on hepatic urea formation was investigated in 84 albino rats. The objects of study were the surgery left (LLP), inoperable middle (MLP) lobe of the liver, blood (aorta, v. hepatica, v. porta) and choledochal bile. They studied the urea content. Arginase activity was examined in liver homogenate. On the day 3 and day 7 after resection reduced arginase activity was detected. LR caused a decrease of urea in v. hepatica, but increased urea content in the arterial blood and v. porta. Increase in bile urea on day 7 it was replaced by a decrease observed on day 14 of the postsurgery period. The concentration of urea in the liver on the 3rd day after LR was below the norm, and on the 7th and 14th day was within it. The results indicate a violation of urea operated by hepatocytes of the liver and extrahepatic activation mechanisms of the formation of urea. PMID:26973192

  4. Vitamin D-fortified milk achieves the targeted serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration without affecting that of parathyroid hormone in New Zealand toddlers.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Lisa A; Gray, Andrew R; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2011-10-01

    For young children, the level of vitamin D required to ensure that most achieve targeted serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] ≥50 nmol/L has not been studied. We aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D-fortified milk on serum 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations and to examine the dose-response relationship between vitamin D intake from study milks and serum 25(OH)D concentrations in healthy toddlers aged 12-20 mo living in Dunedin, New Zealand (latitude 46°S). Data from a 20-wk, partially blinded, randomized trial that investigated the effect of providing red meat or fortified toddler milk on the iron, zinc, iodine, and vitamin D status in young New Zealand children (n = 181; mean age 17 mo) were used. Adherence to the intervention was assessed by 7-d weighed diaries at wk 2, 7, 11, 15, and 19. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured at baseline and wk 20. Mean vitamin D intake provided by fortified milk was 3.7 μg/d (range, 0-10.4 μg/d). After 20 wk, serum 25(OH)D concentrations but not PTH were significantly different in the milk groups. The prevalence of having a serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L remained relatively unchanged at 43% in the meat group, whereas it significantly decreased to between 11 and 15% in those consuming fortified study milk. In New Zealand, vitamin D intake in young children is minimal. Our findings indicate that habitual consumption of vitamin D-fortified milk providing a mean intake of nearly 4 μg/d was effective in achieving adequate year-round serum 25(OH)D for most children. PMID:21832027

  5. Cow hair allergen concentrations in dairy farms with automatic and conventional milking systems: From stable to bedroom.

    PubMed

    Böhlandt, A; Schierl, R; Heizinger, J; Dietrich-Gümperlein, G; Zahradnik, E; Bruckmaier, L; Sültz, J; Raulf, M; Nowak, D

    2016-01-01

    Bovine hair and dander are considered to be a notable risk factor for sensitization and allergic symptoms in occupationally exposed cattle farmers due to various IgE binding proteins. Farmers are suspected not only to be exposed during their work inside the stables but also inside their homes as allergens could be transferred via hair and clothes resulting in continued bovine allergen exposure in private areas. In recent years a new sensitive sandwich ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) test has been developed to measure the cow hair allergen (CHA) concentration in dust. The aim of the present study was to determine the CHA concentration in airborne and settled dust samples in stables and private rooms of dairy cattle farms with automatic milking systems (AM) and conventional milking systems (CM), also with respect to questionnaire data on farming characteristics. For this purpose different sampling techniques were applied, and results and practicability of the techniques were compared. Dust sampling was performed in the stable, computer room (only AM), changing room, living room and bedroom (mattress) of 12 dairy farms with automatic milking systems (AM group) and eight dairy farms with conventional milking systems (CM group). Altogether, 90 samples were taken by ALK filter dust collectors from all locations, while 32 samples were collected by an ion charging device (ICD) and 24 samples by an electronic dust fall collector (EDC) in computer rooms (AM) and/or changing and living rooms (not stables). The dust samples were extracted and analyzed for CHA content with a sandwich ELISA. At all investigated locations, CHA concentrations were above the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 ng/ml dust extract. The median CHA concentrations in dust collected by ALK filters ranged from 63 to 7154 μg/g dust in AM farms and from 121 to 5627 μg/g dust in CM farms with a steep concentration gradient from stables to bedrooms. ICD sampling revealed median CHA contents of 112 μg/g airborne dust in the computer rooms of the AM farms and median CHA loads of 5.6 μg/g (AM farms) and 19.8 μg/g (CM farms) in the living rooms. Passive dust sampling by EDC was performed only at two locations in the AM group resulting in median CHA values of 116 μg/m(2) (computer room) and 55.0 μg/m(2) (changing room). Except for the stable samples the median CHA load was lower in AM farms compared to CM farms. The CHA contents of ALK filter samples were significantly correlated in most locations. Differences between the farming types were not significant. Although allergen transfer to the private area of the farmers has been found and results from several locations were correlated, differences in CHA concentrations were not significant with respect to questionnaire data such as the wearing of stable clothes in living room, free access of pets to stable and home, frequency of hair washing. All sampling techniques seem to being practicable for simple and effective CHA measurement. PMID:26424445

  6. A triad of highly divergent polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (PIGR) haplotypes with major effect on IgA concentration in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Berry, Sarah; Coppieters, Wouter; Davis, Stephen; Burrett, Alayna; Thomas, Natalie; Palmer, David; Kelly, Van; Obolonkin, Vladimir; Sanders, Kathryn; Spelman, Richard; Georges, Michel; Lehnert, Klaus; Snell, Russell

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a genetic basis for IgA concentration in milk of Bos taurus. We used a Holstein-Friesian x Jersey F2 crossbred pedigree to undertake a genome-wide search for QTL influencing IgA concentration and yield in colostrum and milk. We identified a single genome-wide significant QTL on chromosome 16, maximising at 4.8 Mbp. The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor gene (PIGR) was within the confidence interval of the QTL. In addition, mRNA expression analysis revealed a liver PIGR expression QTL mapping to the same locus as the IgA quantitative trait locus. Sequencing and subsequent genotyping of the PIGR gene revealed three divergent haplotypes that explained the variance of both the IgA QTL and the PIGR expression QTL. Genetic selection based on these markers will facilitate the production of bovine herds producing milk with higher concentrations of IgA. PMID:23536764

  7. Urea retranslocation from senescing Arabidopsis leaves is promoted by DUR3-mediated urea retrieval from leaf apoplast

    PubMed Central

    Bohner, Anne; Kojima, Soichi; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Melzer, Michael; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2015-01-01

    In plants, urea derives either from root uptake or protein degradation. Although large quantities of urea are released during senescence, urea is mainly seen as a short-lived nitrogen (N) catabolite serving urease-mediated hydrolysis to ammonium. Here, we investigated the roles of DUR3 and of urea in N remobilization. During natural leaf senescence urea concentrations and DUR3 transcript levels showed a parallel increase with senescence markers like ORE1 in a plant age- and leaf age-dependent manner. Deletion of DUR3 decreased urea accumulation in leaves, whereas the fraction of urea lost to the leaf apoplast was enhanced. Under natural and N deficiency-induced senescence DUR3 promoter activity was highest in the vasculature, but was also found in surrounding bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. An analysis of petiole exudates from wild-type leaves revealed that N from urea accounted for >13% of amino acid N. Urea export from senescent leaves further increased in ureG-2 deletion mutants lacking urease activity. In the dur3 ureG double insertion line the absence of DUR3 reduced urea export from leaf petioles. These results indicate that urea can serve as an early metabolic marker for leaf senescence, and that DUR3-mediated urea retrieval contributes to the retranslocation of N from urea during leaf senescence. PMID:25440717

  8. Urea retranslocation from senescing Arabidopsis leaves is promoted by DUR3-mediated urea retrieval from leaf apoplast.

    PubMed

    Bohner, Anne; Kojima, Soichi; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Melzer, Michael; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2015-02-01

    In plants, urea derives either from root uptake or protein degradation. Although large quantities of urea are released during senescence, urea is mainly seen as a short-lived nitrogen (N) catabolite serving urease-mediated hydrolysis to ammonium. Here, we investigated the roles of DUR3 and of urea in N remobilization. During natural leaf senescence urea concentrations and DUR3 transcript levels showed a parallel increase with senescence markers like ORE1 in a plant age- and leaf age-dependent manner. Deletion of DUR3 decreased urea accumulation in leaves, whereas the fraction of urea lost to the leaf apoplast was enhanced. Under natural and N deficiency-induced senescence DUR3 promoter activity was highest in the vasculature, but was also found in surrounding bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. An analysis of petiole exudates from wild-type leaves revealed that N from urea accounted for >13% of amino acid N. Urea export from senescent leaves further increased in ureG-2 deletion mutants lacking urease activity. In the dur3 ureG double insertion line the absence of DUR3 reduced urea export from leaf petioles. These results indicate that urea can serve as an early metabolic marker for leaf senescence, and that DUR3-mediated urea retrieval contributes to the retranslocation of N from urea during leaf senescence. PMID:25440717

  9. The composition and functional properties of whey protein concentrates produced from buttermilk are comparable with those of whey protein concentrates produced from skimmed milk.

    PubMed

    Svanborg, Sigrid; Johansen, Anne-Grethe; Abrahamsen, Roger K; Skeie, Siv B

    2015-09-01

    The demand for whey protein is increasing in the food industry. Traditionally, whey protein concentrates (WPC) and isolates are produced from cheese whey. At present, microfiltration (MF) enables the utilization of whey from skim milk (SM) through milk protein fractionation. This study demonstrates that buttermilk (BM) can be a potential source for the production of a WPC with a comparable composition and functional properties to a WPC obtained by MF of SM. Through the production of WPC powder and a casein- and phospholipid (PL)-rich fraction by the MF of BM, sweet BM may be used in a more optimal and economical way. Sweet cream BM from industrial churning was skimmed before MF with 0.2-µm ceramic membranes at 55 to 58°C. The fractionations of BM and SM were performed under the same conditions using the same process, and the whey protein fractions from BM and SM were concentrated by ultrafiltration and diafiltration. The ultrafiltration and diafiltration was performed at 50°C using pasteurized tap water and a membrane with a 20-kDa cut-off to retain as little lactose as possible in the final WPC powders. The ultrafiltrates were subsequently spray dried, and their functional properties and chemical compositions were compared. The amounts of whey protein and PL in the WPC powder from BM (BMWPC) were comparable to the amounts found in the WPC from SM (SMWPC); however, the composition of the PL classes differed. The BMWPC contained less total protein, casein, and lactose compared with SMWPC, as well as higher contents of fat and citric acid. No difference in protein solubility was observed at pH values of 4.6 and 7.0, and the overrun was the same for BMWPC and SMWPC; however, the BMWPC made less stable foam than SMWPC. PMID:26142868

  10. The relationship between oxidative damage and vitamin E concentration in blood, milk, and liver tissue from vitamin E supplemented and nonsupplemented periparturient heifers.

    PubMed

    Bouwstra, R J; Goselink, R M A; Dobbelaar, P; Nielen, M; Newbold, J R; van Werven, T

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated the relationship between oxidative damage and the effect of vitamin E supplementation in blood, milk, and liver tissue in 16 periparturient heifers. The question is whether measurements of oxidative and vitamin E status in blood of a periparturient cow are representative of the total body, given that blood concentrations of both vitamin E and oxidative stress products change around this period. The daily vitamin E intake of the vitamin E-supplemented Holstein-Friesian heifers (n = 8) was 3,000 international units and was started 2 mo before calving; the control heifers (n = 8) were not supplemented. Oxidative damage was determined on the basis of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Blood was sampled 9 times before calving, on calving day, and twice after calving. Liver biopsies were taken at wk -5, -1, and 2 relative to calving day. Milk was obtained from all heifers immediately after calving, the first 2 milkings and on d 3, 7, and 14 at 0600 h. Serum and liver tissue were analyzed for vitamin E, cholesterol, and MDA; and milk samples were analyzed for vitamin E, MDA, fat, protein, and somatic cell count. The results showed that vitamin E supplements increased both absolute vitamin E concentrations and the ratio of vitamin E to cholesterol in blood and liver tissue. Absolute vitamin E concentration in milk tended to be greater in supplemented cows. Based on the increased MDA blood concentrations at calving, it seems that dairy heifers experience oxidative stress. The effect of vitamin E on MDA differs between the blood, liver, and mammary gland. Vitamin E supplementation could not prevent the increase in blood MDA at calving, but the significantly lower MDA blood concentrations of supplemented cows in the 2 wk after calving suggest that vitamin E has a role in recovery from parturition-related oxidative stress. Vitamin E supplementation reduced oxidative damage in liver, whereas no obvious effect was found on milk MDA concentrations. A strong relationship was found between blood and liver vitamin E and the ratio of vitamin E to cholesterol. Concentrations of MDA in blood and milk were also strongly related. The results show that the relationship between oxidative damage and vitamin E differs within blood, liver tissue, and milk. This implies that oxidative and vitamin E status calculated on the basis of blood values alone should be interpreted with caution and cannot be extrapolated to the whole animal. PMID:18292253

  11. Effect of duration and level of supplementation of diets of lactating dairy cows with selenized yeast on selenium concentrations in milk and blood after the withdrawal of supplementation.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, C R; Gill, H S

    2011-05-01

    Cows' milk containing elevated concentrations of Se provides a rich nutritional source of this essential element for meeting daily nutritional requirements or providing health benefits in humans with low immune function or at risk of cancer. An experiment involving either 2 or 6 wk of dietary supplementation with Se yeast (with the yeast supplying about 30, 40, and 60 mg of Se/d for cows supplemented for 2 wk, and about 20, 30, 40, and 60 mg of Se/d for cows supplemented for 6 wk), and 21 wk of monitoring of Se status after the withdrawal of supplementation, was undertaken between September 2008 and April 2009 using 35 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows. Using milk and blood Se concentrations as surrogates, the research examined the time taken for Se build-up in tissue due to supplementation of lactating dairy cows with Se yeast to dissipate back to normal levels. At the end of Se supplementation, a significant relationship was found between milk Se concentration and Se intake, whereby milk Se concentration had increased by 4.5 μg of Se/kg of milk for each mg of Se eaten per day, but no effect of duration of supplementation on this relationship was observed. At the same time, both Se intake and duration of supplementation affected blood Se concentration; it increased by 3.6 μg of Se/kg of blood for each mg of Se eaten per day, and was 86 μg of Se/kg higher after 6 wk compared with 2 wk of supplementation. After the withdrawal of Se supplementation, milk Se concentrations responded quickly to the change in the quantity of Se consumed, and again, duration of supplementation had no effect on the response, but any effect that Se intake had on milk Se had completely dissipated by 4 wk. In contrast to milk, blood Se concentrations continued to be affected by both amount and duration of Se supplementation for at least 4 mo after the withdrawal of supplementation, although by 5 mo the effects of the previous supplementation treatments had virtually disappeared. The slow decline in blood Se concentrations after the withdrawal of supplementation would most likely be due to the protracted clearance of Se from the various tissues that had accumulated Se during supplementation and the rate of erythrocyte turnover. When undertaking an on-farm Se enhancement program to generate milk for the manufacture of Se-enriched milk products, post-supplementation milk Se concentrations are unlikely to create any problems at the milk factory beyond 4 wk, but the high residual blood/tissue Se concentrations that take considerably more time to dissipate may provide the potential for possible unintended consequences at the food chain/farm environment level. PMID:21524524

  12. Effect of dietary sugar concentration and sunflower seed supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Razzaghi, A; Valizadeh, R; Naserian, A A; Mesgaran, M Danesh; Carpenter, A J; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has shown that both sunflower seed (SF) and sucrose (SC) supplementation can result in variation in milk fat concentration and composition, possibly due to altered fermentation patterns and biohydrogenation of fatty acids in the rumen. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different sugar concentrations with or without SF supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein dairy cows (body weight=620±15kg, 60±10 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each 21-d period consisted of a 14-d diet adaptation period and 7-d collection period. Dairy cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets: (1) no additional SC without SF supplementation (NSC-SF), (2) no additional SC with SF supplementation (NSC+SF), (3) SC without SF supplementation (SC-SF), and (4) SC with SF supplementation (SC+SF). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage and alfalfa hay). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated by replacing corn grain with SC and SF and balanced using change in proportions of canola meal and sugar beet pulp. No interaction was detected between SC and SF supplementation with respect to dry matter intake, milk yield, and composition. A tendency was found for an interaction between inclusion of SC and SF on energy-corrected milk with the highest amount in the SC-SF diet. Ruminal pH and the molar proportion of acetate were affected by SC inclusion, with an increase related to the SC-SF diet. Diets containing SF decreased the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (4:0 to 10:0) and medium-chain fatty acids (12:0 to 16:0) in milk fat. The addition of SC tended to decrease the concentration of total trans-18:1. These data provide evidence that exchanging SC for corn at 4% of dietary dry matter influenced milk fat content and rumen pH, resulting in a tendency for decreased concentration of trans-18:1 in milk fat. Sucrose alone did not alter the milk fatty acid profile when cows were fed a combination of unsaturated fat and sugar, although several significant interactions between sugar and unsaturated fat were observed. PMID:26971160

  13. Milk Yield, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Dairy Cows Fed a High-concentrate Diet Blended with Oil Mixtures Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding linseed oil or/and sunflower oil mixed with fish oil on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet, 24 crossbred primiparous lactating dairy cows in early lactation were assigned to a completely randomized design experiment. All cows were fed a high-concentrate basal diet and 0.38 kg dry matter (DM) molasses per day. Treatments were composed of a basal diet without oil supplement (Control), or diets of (DM basis) 3% linseed and fish oils (1:1, w/w, LSO-FO), or 3% sunflower and fish oils (1:1, w/w, SFO-FO), or 3% mixture (1:1:1, w/w) of linseed, sunflower, and fish oils (MIX-O). The animals fed SFO-FO had a 13.12% decrease in total dry matter intake compared with the control diet (p<0.05). No significant change was detected for milk yield; however, the animals fed the diet supplemented with SFO-FO showed a depressed milk fat yield and concentration by 35.42% and 27.20%, respectively, compared to those fed the control diet (p<0.05). Milk c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion increased by 198.11% in the LSO-FO group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Milk C18:3n-3 (ALA) proportion was enhanced by 227.27% supplementing with LSO-FO relative to the control group (p<0.01). The proportions of milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly increased (p<0.01) in the cows fed LSO-FO (0.38%) and MIX-O (0.23%) compared to the control group (0.01%). Dietary inclusion of LSO-FO mainly increased milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), whereas feeding MIX-O improved preformed FA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). While the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio was found in the LSO-FO, the decreased atherogenecity index (AI) and thrombogenicity index (TI) seemed to be more extent in the MIX-O. Therefore, to maximize milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 PUFA and to minimize milk n-6/n-3 ratio, AI and TI, an ideal supplement would appear to be either LSO-FO or MIX-O. PMID:25925057

  14. Milk Yield, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Dairy Cows Fed a High-concentrate Diet Blended with Oil Mixtures Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding linseed oil or/and sunflower oil mixed with fish oil on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet, 24 crossbred primiparous lactating dairy cows in early lactation were assigned to a completely randomized design experiment. All cows were fed a high-concentrate basal diet and 0.38 kg dry matter (DM) molasses per day. Treatments were composed of a basal diet without oil supplement (Control), or diets of (DM basis) 3% linseed and fish oils (1:1, w/w, LSO-FO), or 3% sunflower and fish oils (1:1, w/w, SFO-FO), or 3% mixture (1:1:1, w/w) of linseed, sunflower, and fish oils (MIX-O). The animals fed SFO-FO had a 13.12% decrease in total dry matter intake compared with the control diet (p<0.05). No significant change was detected for milk yield; however, the animals fed the diet supplemented with SFO-FO showed a depressed milk fat yield and concentration by 35.42% and 27.20%, respectively, compared to those fed the control diet (p<0.05). Milk c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion increased by 198.11% in the LSO-FO group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Milk C18:3n-3 (ALA) proportion was enhanced by 227.27% supplementing with LSO-FO relative to the control group (p<0.01). The proportions of milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly increased (p<0.01) in the cows fed LSO-FO (0.38%) and MIX-O (0.23%) compared to the control group (0.01%). Dietary inclusion of LSO-FO mainly increased milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), whereas feeding MIX-O improved preformed FA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). While the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio was found in the LSO-FO, the decreased atherogenecity index (AI) and thrombogenicity index (TI) seemed to be more extent in the MIX-O. Therefore, to maximize milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 PUFA and to minimize milk n-6/n-3 ratio, AI and TI, an ideal supplement would appear to be either LSO-FO or MIX-O. PMID:25925057

  15. Ammonia sanitisation of sewage sludge using urea.

    PubMed

    Fidjeland, Jørgen; Lalander, Cecilia; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a simple, low-cost treatment for sewage sludge using urea as a sanitising agent. Sewage sludge was spiked with Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella typhimurium, treated with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% w/w urea at laboratory scale, and the viability was monitored during 4 months of storage at 4, 10 and 22 °C (only 0.5%). A linear relationship was identified between Salmonella spp. inactivation rate and ammonia (NH3) concentration. Temperature had a positive impact on Salmonella spp. inactivation at higher temperatures, but in the range 4-10 °C temperature influenced this inactivation merely by its impact on the ammonia equilibrium. Enterococcus spp. was more persistent and a lag phase of up to 11 weeks was observed. Higher temperature and ammonia concentration reduced the lag phase duration significantly, and also had a clear effect on the inactivation rate for the treatments with 0.5% urea at 22 °C and 2% urea at 4 and 10 °C. Urea sanitisation of sewage sludge can give a 2 log10 reduction of Enterococcus spp. and more than a 5 log10 reduction of Salmonella spp. within 6 weeks with either 0.5% w/w urea at 22 °C or 2% urea at 10 °C. PMID:24185072

  16. The effect of dietary fiber level on milk fat concentration and fatty acid profile of cows fed diets containing low levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Alzahal, O; Or-Rashid, M M; Greenwood, S L; Douglas, M S; McBride, B W

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary fiber level on milk fat concentration, yield, and fatty acid (FA) profile of cows fed diets low in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Six rumen-fistulated Holstein dairy cows (639 +/- 51 kg of body weight) were used in the study. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments, a high fiber (HF; % of dry matter, 40% corn silage, 27% alfalfa silage, 7% alfalfa hay, 18% protein supplement, 4% ground corn, and 4% wheat bran) or a low fiber (LF; % of dry matter, 31% corn silage, 20% alfalfa silage, 5% alfalfa hay, 15% protein supplement, 19% ground wheat, and 10% ground barley) total mixed ration. The diets contained similar levels of PUFA. The experiment was conducted over a period of 4 wk. Ruminal pH was continuously recorded and milk samples were collected 3 times a week. Milk yield and dry matter intake were recorded daily. The rumen fluid in cows receiving the LF diet was below pH 5.6 for a longer duration than in cows receiving the HF diet (357 vs. 103 min/d). Neither diet nor diet by week interaction had an effect on milk yield (kg/d), milk fat concentration and yield, or milk protein concentration and yield. During wk 4, milk fat concentration and milk fat yield were high and not different between treatments (4.30% and 1.36 kg/d for the HF treatment and 4.31% and 1.33 kg/d for the LF treatment, respectively). Cows receiving the LF diet had greater milk concentrations (g/100 g of FA) of 7:0; 9:0; 10:0; 11:0; 12:0; 12:1; 13:0; 15:0; linoleic acid; FA concentrations of iso 15:0; 18:0; trans-9 18:1; cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA); trans-9, cis-12 18:2; 20:0; and cis-9 20:1 compared with cows receiving the HF diet. Milk concentrations (g/100 g of FA) of total trans 18:1; trans-10 18:1; trans-11 18:1; trans-10, cis-12 CLA, and trans-9, cis-11 CLA were not different between treatments. The study demonstrated that cows fed a diet low in fiber and low in PUFA may exhibit subacute ruminal acidosis and moderate changes to milk fatty acid profile but without concomitant milk fat depression. The changes in FA profile may be useful for the diagnosis of SARA even in the absence of milk fat depression. PMID:19233803

  17. Concentration of milk secretory immunoglobulin A against Shigella virulence plasmid-associated antigens as a predictor of symptom status in Shigella-infected breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Hayani, K C; Guerrero, M L; Morrow, A L; Gomez, H F; Winsor, D K; Ruiz-Palacios, G M; Cleary, T G

    1992-12-01

    We conducted a prospective, community-based study of healthy breast-fed Mexican infants to determine the protective effects of anti-Shigella secretory IgA antibodies in milk. Milk samples were collected monthly, and stool culture specimens were obtained weekly and at the time of episodes of diarrhea. Nineteen breast-fed infants were found to have Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii, or Shigella sonnei in stool samples. Ages of the 10 infants with symptomatic infection and the nine with asymptomatic infection did not differ significantly. Milk samples collected up to 12 weeks before infection were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for secretory IgA antibodies against lipopolysaccharides of S. flexneri, S. boydii serotype 2, S. sonnei, and virulence plasmid-associated antigens. The geometric mean titers of anti-Shigella antibodies to virulence plasmid-associated antigens in milk received before infection were eightfold higher in infants who remained well than in those in whom diarrhea developed. The significance of milk secretory IgA directed against lipopolysaccharide was less clear. We conclude that human milk protects infants against symptomatic shigella infection when it contains high concentrations of secretory IgA against virulence plasmid-associated antigens. PMID:1447644

  18. Stability of fatty acid composition after thermal, high pressure, and microwave processing of cow milk as affected by polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Alcalá, L M; Alonso, L; Fontecha, J

    2014-12-01

    Interest has been increasing to enhance the contents of healthy polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in milk. However, trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can be altered after thermal processing and high pressures disrupt the milk fat globule membrane, exposing the lipid core and helping its oxidation. The objective of the present research was to study whether processing can alter the fatty acid composition of milk and if these changes are affected by PUFA concentration as previous studies suggest. Two cow milk batches (500 L each), one naturally enriched in PUFA, were processed to obtain pasteurized; high temperature, short time; UHT; high pressure; and microwave pasteurized samples. The detailed fatty acid composition was analyzed with special attention to trans fatty acids and CLA isomers. Results showed that after high temperature, short time processing, total CLA content increased in both milk batches, whereas sterilization resulted in a sigmatropic rearrangement of C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 to C18:2 trans-9,trans-11. The extent of these effects was greater in milks naturally enriched in PUFA. PMID:25459902

  19. Adulteration detection in milk using infrared spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bin; Liu, Rong; Yang, Renjie; Xu, Kexin

    2010-02-01

    Adulteration of milk and dairy products has brought serious threats to human health as well as enormous economic losses to the food industry. Considering the diversity of adulterants possibly mixed in milk, such as melamine, urea, tetracycline, sugar/salt and so forth, a rapid, widely available, high-throughput, cost-effective method is needed for detecting each of the components in milk at once. In this paper, a method using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy is established for the discriminative analysis of adulteration in milk. Firstly, the characteristic peaks of the raw milk are found in the 4000-400 cm-1 region by its original spectra. Secondly, the adulterant samples are respectively detected with the same method to establish a spectral database for subsequent comparison. Then, 2D correlation spectra of the samples are obtained which have high time resolution and can provide information about concentration-dependent intensity changes not readily accessible from one-dimensional spectra. And the characteristic peaks in the synchronous 2D correlation spectra of the suspected samples are compared with those of raw milk. The differences among their synchronous spectra imply that the suspected milk sample must contain some kinds of adulterants. Melamine, urea, tetracycline and glucose adulterants in milk are identified respectively. This nondestructive method can be used for a correct discrimination on whether the milk and dairy products are adulterated with deleterious substances and it provides a new simple and cost-effective alternative to test the components of milk.

  20. Concentrations of DDT, PVBs, HCB, and HCH isomers in the liver and adipose tissue of newborn mice receiving an extract of human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Sitarska, E.; Gorski, T.; Ludwick, J.K.

    1987-11-01

    Persistent organic chlorine compounds, such as DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) circulate in the food chain of the ecosystem. Most data on the toxicity and accumulation of organic chlorine compounds have been obtained from animal experiments after chronic or acute poisoning with marketed preparations or standards of the used components of these preparations. In food products of animal origin and in human milk these compounds and their metabolites are present after multiple metabolic steps in varying proportions and concentrations. Their variable amounts are passed to newborns with mother's milk. The purpose of the present study was to investigate in an experimental model of newborn mice the degree of accumulation of these compounds in the liver and adipose tissue after long-standing feeding them with an extract of human milk with added organic chlorine compounds in doses received by human newborns with milk. In the assessment of the relationship between the degree of accumulation of various compounds in the tissues of newborn mice and the daily dose concentrations were used similar to those found in human milk.

  1. Rapid detection and quantification of milk adulteration using infrared microspectroscopy and chemometrics analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, P M; Pereira-Filho, E R; Rodriguez-Saona, L E

    2013-05-01

    The application of attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared microspectroscopy (MIR-microspectroscopy) was evaluated as a rapid method for detection and quantification of milk adulteration. Milk samples were purchased from local grocery stores (Columbus, OH, USA) and spiked at different concentrations of whey, hydrogen peroxide, synthetic urine, urea and synthetic milk. Samples were place on a 192-well microarray slide, air-dried and spectra were collected by using MIR-microspectroscopy. Pattern recognition analysis by Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) showed tight and well-separated clusters allowing discrimination of control samples from adulterated milk. Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) showed standard error of prediction (SEP) ~2.33, 0.06, 0.41, 0.30 and 0.014 g/L for estimation of levels of adulteration with whey, synthetic milk, synthetic urine, urea and hydrogen peroxide, respectively. Results showed that MIR-microspectroscopy can provide an alternative methodology to the dairy industry for screening potential fraudulent practice for economic adulteration of cow's milk. PMID:23265450

  2. BORON CONCENTRATIONS IN MILK FROM MOTHERS OF EXCLUSIVELY BREAST-FED HEALTHY FULL-TERM INFANTS ARE STABLE DURING THE FIRST FOUR MONTHS OF LACTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because boron is a bioactive element that satisfies several of the criteria for essentiality in humans, the aim of the present work was to determine the profile of boron metabolism in human milk during the first 4 mo of lactation. The concentration of boron and other minerals was determined in arch...

  3. THE EFFECT OF HIGH-DOSE VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENTATION ON SERUM VITAMIN D LEVELS AND MILK CALCIUM CONCENTRATION IN LACTATING WOMEN AND THEIR INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Improve vitamin D status in lactating women and their recipient infants, and measure breast milk calcium concentration ([Ca]) as a function of vitamin D regimen. Design/Methods: Fully breastfeeding mothers were randomized at one month postpartum to 2,000 (n = 12) or 4,000 (n = 13) IU/d...

  4. Effect of PEF, HHP and Thermal Treatment on PME Inactivation and Volatile Compounds Concentration of an Orange Juice-Milk Based Beverage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of thermal, pulsed electric field (PEF) and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity and concentrations of volatile compounds in an orange juice-milk beverage were studied. Thermal treatment (85 C for 1 min), PEF treatment (25 kV/cm at 65 C init...

  5. Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations of Guatemalan women are correlated with maternal but not infant vitamin B–12 status at 12 months postpartum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our previous studies one third of lactating Guatemalan women, infants and children had deficient or marginal serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Relationships among maternal and infant status and breast milk vitamin B-12, however, have not been investigated in such populations. Our purpose was to ...

  6. A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-Jiao; Li, Hong-Tian; Yu, Li-Xia; Xu, Gao-Sheng; Ge, Hua; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhou, Yu-Bo; Li, You; Bai, Man-Xi; Liu, Jian-Meng

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum) were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland) and Baotou (inland) city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET). DHA dietary intake (mg/day) was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009). In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL) and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p < 0.05). The median DHA dietary intake varied significantly across areas (p < 0.05), which was highest in the coastland (24.32 mg/day), followed by lakeland (13.69 mg/day), and lowest in the inland (8.84 mg/day). The overall relative and absolute DHA concentrations in breast milk were 0.36% ± 0.23% and 141.49 ± 107.41 μg/mL; the concentrations were significantly lower in inland women than those from coastland and lakeland. We conclude that DHA dietary intake is positively correlated with DHA concentrations in blood and breast milk in Chinese lactating women, suggesting that the tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, DIET, is a valid tool for the assessment of DHA dietary intake. PMID:27213448

  7. A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng-Jiao; Li, Hong-Tian; Yu, Li-Xia; Xu, Gao-Sheng; Ge, Hua; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhou, Yu-Bo; Li, You; Bai, Man-Xi; Liu, Jian-Meng

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum) were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland) and Baotou (inland) city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET). DHA dietary intake (mg/day) was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009). In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL) and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p < 0.05). The median DHA dietary intake varied significantly across areas (p < 0.05), which was highest in the coastland (24.32 mg/day), followed by lakeland (13.69 mg/day), and lowest in the inland (8.84 mg/day). The overall relative and absolute DHA concentrations in breast milk were 0.36% ± 0.23% and 141.49 ± 107.41 μg/mL; the concentrations were significantly lower in inland women than those from coastland and lakeland. We conclude that DHA dietary intake is positively correlated with DHA concentrations in blood and breast milk in Chinese lactating women, suggesting that the tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, DIET, is a valid tool for the assessment of DHA dietary intake. PMID:27213448

  8. Combined urea-thin layer chromatography and silver nitrate-thin layer chromatography for micro separation and determination of hard-to-detect branched chain fatty acids in natural lipids.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xingguo; Liu, Yijun; Xiang, Jingying; Wang, Xiaosan; Zhang, Huijun; Yao, Yunping; Liu, Ruijie; Zou, Xiaoqiang; Huang, Jianhua; Jin, Qingzhe

    2015-12-18

    A simple, fast and efficient procedure was developed for micro separation and enrichment of branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) from natural products using successive thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique coupling novel urea-TLC with AgNO3-TLC, which rely on the formation of urea adduction and AgNO3 bonding in methanol. These natural lipids contain a significant amount of straight chain fatty acids (FA). Fresh and fast urea-TLC and AgNO3-TLC plate making techniques were developed with more even coating and less coating material contamination before being utilized for separation. Goat milk fat was used as a model. Various experimental parameters that affect urea-TLC and AgNO3-TLC separation of BCFA were investigated and optimized, including coating of urea, concentration of original oil sample, mobile phase and sample application format. High efficiency of removal of straight chain FA was achieved with a low amount of sample in an easy and fast way. A total BCFA mix with much higher purity than previous studies was successfully achieved. The developed method has also been applied for the concentration and analysis of BCFA in cow milk fat and Anchovy oil. PMID:26614174

  9. Diet and cooling interactions on physiological responses of grazing dairy cows, milk production and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, M. R.; Valtorta, S. E.; Leva, P. E.; Gaggiotti, M. C.; Conti, G. A.; Gregoret, R. F.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of diet and cooling in the holding pen before milking on rectal temperature, respiration rate and milk production and composition. Fifty-eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a factorial split-plot design, at Rafaela Experimental Station from 12 January to 3 March 2003. The treatments were combinations of two diets: control (CD) and balanced (BD) with two levels of cooling before milking: none (NSF) and a sprinkler and fans (SF). Forage:concentrate ratios for CD and BD were 81:19 and 68:32, respectively. Cows were milked twice daily. Milk production was recorded daily, and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) was analysed twice a week. The physiological data were recorded once a week, before the cattle entered the holding pen and after milking, in the afternoon. Average maximum weekly temperature humidity index was 75.4 and ranged from 61.4 to 83. There were highly significant effects of cooling on physiological responses. Milk production was affected by diet and cooling, with no interaction; the highest and lowest production of milk was 22.42 and 20.07 l/cow per day, for BD+SF and CD+NSF, respectively. Protein was affected by diet, and was higher for BD (3.17 vs. 3.08%). There were interaction effects on milk fat at the 8% level, the highest concentration being 3.65% for BD+NFS. It was concluded that under grazing conditions, cooling by sprinkler and fans before milking improves the comfort of dairy cows, and that the effects on milk production and composition are enhanced when diets are specially formulated for heat-stress periods.

  10. Ammonia and urea excretion in the tidepool sculpin (Oligocottus maculosus): sites of excretion, effects of reduced salinity and mechanisms of urea transport.

    PubMed

    Wright, P A; Part, P; Wood, C M

    1995-04-01

    Tidepool sculpins live in a variable environment where water temperature, salinity, gas tensions, and pH can change considerably with the daily tide cycle. Tidepool sculpins are primarily ammoniotelic, with 8-17% of nitrogen wastes excreted as urea. The majority of net ammonia (J(net) amm; 85%) and urea (J(net) urea; 74%) excretion occurred across the gill, with the remainder excreted across the skin, the kidney, and/or gut. Acute (2h) exposure to 50% seawater significantly increased J(net) urea (2.8-fold), but reduced J(net) amm (3.5-fold). In fish exposed to 50% seawater for 1 week, J(net) urea returned to control values, but J(net) amm remained slightly depressed. Unidirectional urea influx (J(in) urea) and efflux (J(out) urea) were measured using(14)C-urea to determine if urea was excreted across the gills by simple diffusion or by a carrier-mediated mechanism. J(in) urea increased in a linear manner with increasing urea water levels (0-11 mmol N l(-1)), while J(out) urea was independent of external urea concentrations. As well, J(net) urea and J(out inurea) were not significantly different from one another, indicating the absence of "back transport". Urea analogs and transport inhibitors added to the water did not have any consistent effect on unidirectional urea flux. These results demonstrate that ammonia and urea excretion rates and sites of excretion in tidepool sculpins are very similar to those found in other marine and freshwater teleosts. Urea and ammonia may play a role in osmoregulation as excretion rates and tissue levels were influenced by changes in water salinity. Finally, we found no evidence for a specific urea carrier; branchial urea excretion is likely dependent on simple diffusion. PMID:24197359

  11. Blood levels of critical amino acids in very low birthweight infants on a high human milk protein intake.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, B S; Hagelberg, S; Lundsjö, A

    1982-01-01

    A method for a semi-industrial production of human milk subfractions (human milk protein and human milk fat isolates) is described. Four very low birthweight (VLBW) newborn were given a human milk protein isolate added to the mother's own fresh expressed milk in addition to sodium chloride up to 20 mEkv/liter. Growth followed the intrauterine growth curve. Urea levels did not increase in spite of providing a double-normal protein intake. There was no metabolic acidosis and the blood levels of free amino acids determined with a micro-method did not exceed those seen after a normal meal. The concentrated human milk protein product showed a considerable specific sIgA activity against E. coli 0-antigen. It seems possible to use similar "lacto-engineering"-techniques in order to satisfy the increased protein requirements of the VLBW infant, while providing the caloric requirements, without causing any visible disturbance of blood-homeostasis of urea, amino acids or base excess. The method could provide knowledge about the "human milk protein requirements" and a controlled study has been started. PMID:6961736

  12. Replacing soybean meal for wet brewer's grains or urea on the performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Hugo; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) for wet brewer's grains (WBG) or urea on the performance of lactating dairy cows. The second investigated whether WBG ensiled with corn kept animal performance in low- and high-producing dairy cows compared with WBG. In experiment I, 40 Holstein cows were used in 4 × 4 Latin square design. The treatments comprised WBG or urea as partial replacement for SBM, as follows: control (diet based on SBM and 1 % of urea), 10 % of WBG, 20 % of WBG, and 2 % of urea. Dry matter intake (DMI) was not affected by treatments. WBG increased milk yield linearly, but it decreased with urea. Milk fat content responded quadratically to WBG levels. Milk protein content decreased, while plasma urea nitrogen increased with high urea addition. In experiment II, 42 Holstein cows were divided into two groups according to production levels. Eighteen cows composed the group of low producing, while the high-producing group comprised 24 cows. The experimental design was a crossover with two periods of 14 days. The experimental treatments consisted of feeding WBG or WBG ensiled with ground corn. Regardless of the production level, no difference in milk yield and milk composition between treatments was observed. PMID:25854784

  13. COMPARISON OF THREE ANALYTICAL METHODS TO ASSESS UREA NITROGEN IN COLOSTRUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) obtained from cows fed mid to late lactation diets has been used as an indicator of diet composition adequacy and can be used to predict urine urea nitrogen. However, recent research has suggested that in early lactation, MUN was positively correlated with feed efficiency (...

  14. The daily rhythm of milk synthesis is dependent on the timing of feed intake in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Rottman, L. Whitney; Ying, Yun; Zhou, Kan; Bartell, Paul A.; Harvatine, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Regulation of the daily rhythm of milk synthesis is important to production animals and breastfeeding, but is difficult to observe in nursing animals. The rate of food intake varies over the day and is expected to create a daily rhythm of nutrient absorption. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of food intake entrains a daily pattern of milk synthesis. Seventeen Holstein cows were used in a crossover design. Treatments were ad libitum feeding of a total mixed ration once daily (1× fed) or fed in four equal meals every 6 h (4× fed). Cows were milked every 6 h the last 7 days of each period. There was a treatment by time of day interaction for milk and milk component yield and concentration. Milk fat and protein concentration and yield exhibited a daily rhythm and the amplitude of the rhythm was reduced in 4× fed. In addition, milk fat percent was higher in 4× fed than 1× fed at three of the four milking intervals (0.22–0.45% higher) and 4× fed increased daily milk fat yield. Treatment by time of day interactions were detected for plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen. These variables also fit a cosine function with a 24 h period and the amplitudes of plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen rhythms were decreased by 4× feeding. In conclusion, there is a circadian pattern of milk synthesis in the dairy cow that is responsive to the timing of food intake. PMID:24963033

  15. Short communication: Variation of total immunoglobulin G and β-lactoglobulin concentrations in colostrum and milk from Canadian Holsteins classified as high, average, or low immune responders.

    PubMed

    Fleming, K; Thompson-Crispi, K A; Hodgins, D C; Miglior, F; Corredig, M; Mallard, B A

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate IgG and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) concentrations in colostrum and milk of Canadian Holsteins (n=108) classified as high (H), average (A), or low (L) for antibody-mediated (AMIR) or cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR) based on estimated breeding values. It was hypothesized that H-AMIR and H-CMIR cows produce colostrum (first milking) and milk (d 5 postcalving) with higher concentrations of IgG and β-LG. Data for IgG and β-LG in colostrum and milk were analyzed independently using mixed linear models. Least squares means were compared using Tukey's test. Cows classified as H-AMIR had higher IgG and β-LG concentrations in colostrum compared with A- and L-AMIR cows; 84% of H-AMIR, 69% of A-AMIR, and 68% of L-AMIR cows had over 5,000mg/dL IgG in colostrum. No differences in IgG and β-LG concentrations in colostrum were noted among cows ranked on CMIR or in milk of cows ranked on AMIR. β-Lactoglobulin and IgG concentrations were positively correlated in colostrum. Breeding cows for H-AMIR status may reduce failure of passive transfer of IgG in their calves; β-LG may play a role in bovine immune defenses. Colostrum from H-AMIR cows may serve as a more economical feedstock source for manufacturing natural health products. PMID:26774725

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in lactating women increases breast milk and plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentrations and alters infant omega 6:3 fatty acid ratio.

    PubMed

    Sherry, C L; Oliver, J S; Marriage, B J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on the fatty acid composition of breast milk and plasma concentrations in lactating women and their infants. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 weeks post-partum received placebo, 200 mg or 400 mg DHA for 6 weeks with usual diets. Breast milk fatty acids and maternal plasma fatty acids were measured at the beginning and end of the study and infant plasma at the end of the study. Breast milk and maternal plasma DHA were significantly greater with 200 mg and 400 mg DHA compared with placebo (50% and 123% breast milk p<0.05; 71% and 101% plasma, p<0.0001), respectively. Infant plasma omega 6:3 and arachidonic acid (AA):DHA were significantly greater in the placebo group compared to both supplement groups (67% and 106%; 71% and 116%, respectively, p<0.05). DHA supplementation impacts infant fatty acids important for brain development and breast milk fatty acid composition. PMID:25701002

  17. Effects of urea formaldehyde condensation polymer treatment of flaxseed on ruminal digestion and lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, A; Yuan, K; Armendariz, C K; Highland, G; Bello, N M; Winowiski, T; Drouillard, J S; Titgemeyer, E C; Bradford, B J

    2013-06-01

    Flaxseed is a potent source of the n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), yet most ALA is lost during ruminal biohydrogenation when ground flaxseed is fed to ruminants. Heat processing and urea formaldehyde condensation polymer (UFCP) treatment of flaxseed were investigated as possible means of protecting ALA from ruminal degradation. Ground flaxseed (GF), heated ground flaxseed (HGF), or UFCP-treated ground flaxseed (UFCPGF) were incubated for 0, 4, 8, and 12h in 4 ruminally cannulated multiparous lactating Holstein cows. Compared with GF, HGF and UFCPGF decreased ruminal disappearance of dry matter, crude protein, and ALA. Pepsin-digestible protein remaining after 12h of ruminal incubation was greater for UFCPGF and HGF than for GF. Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows (207 ± 37 d in milk, 668 ± 66 kg of body weight, and 1.33 ± 0.56 lactations) were then used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a basal feeding period to assess effects of flaxseed treatment on ALA enrichment of plasma and milk as well as lactational performance. No evidence existed that supplementation of HGF and UFCPGF affected dry matter intake, milk fat content, milk protein content, or energy-corrected milk yield, but UFCPGF marginally decreased milk yield compared with HGF. Plasma concentration of ALA was not affected by treatment. Concentrations of n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in milk fat were increased by UFCPGF relative to HGF, but ALA yield was not affected. Taken together, in situ results suggest that heat-treated flaxseed, with or without UFCP treatment, slowed ruminal disappearance of ALA. Feeding UFCP-treated flaxseed failed to alter ALA content of plasma or milk ALA yield relative to heating alone. PMID:23548281

  18. Physiochemical properties, microstructure, and probiotic survivability of nonfat goats' milk yogurt using heat-treated whey protein concentrate as fat replacer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tiehua; McCarthy, James; Wang, Guorong; Liu, Yanyan; Guo, Mingruo

    2015-04-01

    There is a market demand for nonfat fermented goats' milk products. A nonfat goats' milk yogurt containing probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium spp.) was developed using heat-treated whey protein concentrate (HWPC) as a fat replacer and pectin as a thickening agent. Yogurts containing untreated whey protein concentrate (WPC) and pectin, and the one with only pectin were also prepared. Skim cows' milk yogurt with pectin was also made as a control. The yogurts were analyzed for chemical composition, water holding capacity (syneresis), microstructure, changes in pH and viscosity, mold, yeast and coliform counts, and probiotic survivability during storage at 4 °C for 10 wk. The results showed that the nonfat goats' milk yogurt made with 1.2% HWPC (WPC solution heated at 85 °C for 30 min at pH 8.5) and 0.35% pectin had significantly higher viscosity (P < 0.01) than any of the other yogurts and lower syneresis than the goats' yogurt with only pectin (P < 0.01). Viscosity and pH of all the yogurt samples did not change much throughout storage. Bifidobacterium spp. remained stable and was above 10(6) CFU g(-1) during the 10-wk storage. However, the population of Lactobacillus acidophilus dropped to below 10(6) CFU g(-1) after 2 wk of storage. Microstructure analysis of the nonfat goats' milk yogurt by scanning electron microscopy revealed that HWPC interacted with casein micelles to form a relatively compact network in the yogurt gel. The results indicated that HWPC could be used as a fat replacer for improving the consistency of nonfat goats' milk yogurt and other similar products. PMID:25808084

  19. Osmoregulation in Drosophila melanogaster selected for urea tolerance.

    PubMed

    Pierce, V A; Mueller, L D; Gibbs, A G

    1999-09-01

    Animals may adapt to hyperosmolar environments by either osmoregulating or osmoconforming. Osmoconforming animals generally accumulate organic osmolytes including sugars, amino acids or, in a few cases, urea. In the latter case, they also accumulate 'urea-counteracting' solutes to mitigate the toxic effects of urea. We examined the osmoregulatory adaptation of Drosophila melanogaster larvae selected to live in 300 mmol l(-)(1) urea. Larvae are strong osmoregulators in environments with high NaCl or sucrose levels, but have increased hemolymph osmolarity on urea food. The increase in osmolarity on urea food is smaller in the selected larvae relative to unselected control larvae, and their respective hemolymph urea concentrations can account for the observed increases in total osmolarity. No other hemolymph components appear to act as urea-counteractants. Urea is calculated to be in equilibrium across body compartments in both selected and control larvae, indicating that the selected larvae are not sequestering it to lower their hemolymph osmolarity. The major physiological adaptation to urea does not appear to involve increased tolerance or improved osmoregulation per se, but rather mechanisms (e.g. metabolism, decreased uptake or increased excretion) that reduce overall urea levels and the consequent toxicity. PMID:10441086

  20. Higher PUFA and n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid, α-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- and redundancy analyses.

    PubMed

    Średnicka-Tober, Dominika; Barański, Marcin; Seal, Chris J; Sanderson, Roy; Benbrook, Charles; Steinshamn, Håvard; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Eyre, Mick; Cozzi, Giulio; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Jordon, Teresa; Niggli, Urs; Sakowski, Tomasz; Calder, Philip C; Burdge, Graham C; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Stergiadis, Sokratis; Yolcu, Halil; Chatzidimitriou, Eleni; Butler, Gillian; Stewart, Gavin; Leifert, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    Demand for organic milk is partially driven by consumer perceptions that it is more nutritious. However, there is still considerable uncertainty over whether the use of organic production standards affects milk quality. Here we report results of meta-analyses based on 170 published studies comparing the nutrient content of organic and conventional bovine milk. There were no significant differences in total SFA and MUFA concentrations between organic and conventional milk. However, concentrations of total PUFA and n-3 PUFA were significantly higher in organic milk, by an estimated 7 (95 % CI -1, 15) % and 56 (95 % CI 38, 74) %, respectively. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid (ALA), very long-chain n-3 fatty acids (EPA+DPA+DHA) and conjugated linoleic acid were also significantly higher in organic milk, by an 69 (95 % CI 53, 84) %, 57 (95 % CI 27, 87) % and 41 (95 % CI 14, 68) %, respectively. As there were no significant differences in total n-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations, the n-6:n-3 and LA:ALA ratios were lower in organic milk, by an estimated 71 (95 % CI -122, -20) % and 93 (95 % CI -116, -70) %. It is concluded that organic bovine milk has a more desirable fatty acid composition than conventional milk. Meta-analyses also showed that organic milk has significantly higher α-tocopherol and Fe, but lower I and Se concentrations. Redundancy analysis of data from a large cross-European milk quality survey indicates that the higher grazing/conserved forage intakes in organic systems were the main reason for milk composition differences. PMID:26878105

  1. Determination of total antioxidant capacity of milk by CUPRAC and ABTS methods with separate characterisation of milk protein fractions.

    PubMed

    Çekiç, Sema Demirci; Demir, Aslı; Başkan, Kevser Sözgen; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Reşat

    2015-05-01

    Most milk-applied antioxidant assays in literature are based on the isolation and quantification of individual antioxidative compounds, whereas total antioxidant capacity (TAC) gives a more holistic picture due to cooperative action of antioxidants. Recently, the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method has been modified to measure the antioxidant capacities of thiol-containing proteins, where the classical ammonium acetate buffer - that may otherwise precipitate proteins- was replaced with concentrated urea buffer (able to expose embedded thiol groups of proteins to oxidative attack) adjusted to pH 7.0. Thus, antioxidant capacity of milk was investigated with two competing TAC assays, namely CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid))/persulphate, because only these assays were capable of evaluating protein contribution to the observed TAC value. As milk fat caused turbidity, experiments were carried out with skim milk or defatted milk samples. To determine TAC, modified CUPRAC method was applied to whole milk, separated and redissolved protein fractions, and the remaining liquid phase after necessary operations. Both TAC methods were investigated for their dilution sensitivity and antioxidant power assessment of separate milk fractions such as casein and whey. Proteins like β-lactoglobulin and casein (but not simple thiols) exhibited enhanced CUPRAC reactivity with surfactant (SDS) addition. Addition of milk protein fractions to whole skim milk produced significant 'negative-biased' deviations (up to -26% relative standard error) from TAC absorbance additivity in the application of the ABTS method, as opposed to that of the CUPRAC method less affected by chemical deviations from Beer's law thereby producing much smaller deviations from additivity (i.e. the property of additivity is valid when the measured TAC of a mixture is equal to the sum of individual antioxidant capacities of its constituents). PMID:25731579

  2. Fractionized milk composition during removal of colostrum and mature milk.

    PubMed

    Ontsouka, C E; Bruckmaier, R M; Blum, J W

    2003-06-01

    Experiments were designed to study compositional differences in colostrum and mature milk and during the course of milk removal. Fractionized milk samples during the course of machine milking were analyzed in single (right rear) quarters in the cisternal fraction, after 25, 50, 75, and 100% of spontaneously removed milk, in residual milk, and in composite samples from all quarters on d 2 (colostrum) and in wk 4 (mature milk) of lactation. Somatic cell counts; concentrations of dry matter, total protein, insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin, prolactin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Na, and Cl; gamma-glutamyltransferase activity; and electrical conductivity were higher, whereas lactose concentration was lower on d 2 than in wk 4. Concentrations of fat, potassium chloride, and osmolarity did not differ between lactational periods. During the course of milking, concentrations of dry matter, fat, lactose, and potassium, and osmolarity increased, whereas somatic cell counts, protein, insulin like-growth factor-I, insulin, prolactin, and sodium concentrations, electrical conductivity and gamma-glutamyltransferase activity decreased on d 2, and protein, sodium, and electrical conductivity decreased in wk 4. In conclusion, various milk constituents differed considerably between lactational periods (colostrum and mature milk). Milk isotonicity was only in part associated with lactose concentration. Electrical conductivity was associated with Na, K, and fat concentrations and was highest in the cisternal fraction. Changes in milk constituents during milking need to be considered if milk samples are taken for analytical purposes and to evaluate the health status of the udder. PMID:12836936

  3. Effect of rumen-protected methionine on feed intake, milk production, true milk protein concentration, and true milk protein yield, and the factors that influence these effects: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Patton, R A

    2010-05-01

    A meta-analysis of published studies was used to investigate the effect of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) added to the diets of lactating dairy cattle on dry matter intake, milk production, true milk protein (TMP) production, and milk fat yield. Differences in responses between 2 commonly used RPM products, Mepron (Evonik Industries, Hanau, Germany) and Smartamine (Adisseo, Antony, France), were investigated as well as dietary and animal factors that could influence responses. Diets were coded with respect to the amino acid (AA) deficiency of the control diet as predicted by the AminoCow model (version 3.5.2, http://www.makemilknotmanure.com/aminocow.php; 0=no AA deficiency, 1=Met deficiency, 2=Met and Lys deficiency, 3=Met and Lys plus at least 1 other AA deficiency) to test the effect of AA deficiencies on RPM response. Thirty-five studies were identified, 17 studies evaluating Mepron, 18 studies evaluating Smartamine, and 1 study evaluating both. This permitted 75 dietary comparisons between control and RPM-added diets. Diets were entered into the AminoCow and the 2001 National Research Council models to compare predictions of Met, Lys, and metabolizable protein (MP) flow. Mean Met and Lys in diets where RPM was fed were estimated to be 2.35 and 6.33% of MP, respectively. Predictions of flows between models were similar. Overall, RPM addition to diets increased production of TMP, both as percentage (0.07%) and yield (27 g/d). Dry matter intake and milk fat percentage were slightly decreased, whereas milk production was slightly increased. Differences between products were detected for all production variables, with Mepron-fed cows producing less TMP percentage but greater milk production, resulting in twice as much TMP yield. Milk protein response to RPM was not related to predicted AA deficiency, calculated Met deficiency, or Met as a percentage of MP. Other dietary factors, including Lys flow (g/d), Lys as percentage of MP, neutral detergent fiber percentage, crude protein percentage, or energy balance, had no detectable effects on TMP response. When cows with a predicted positive AA balance were fed RPM, milk production increased, but when AA balance was negative, milk production decreased. Amount of RPM added to the diet was not correlated to TMP response. This study does not support the necessity of a high Lys level as a prerequisite to obtaining a TMP response to feeding RPM or the MP requirement suggested by the National Research Council model (2001). However, more dose-response studies over a wide range of milk production and dietary regimens will be required to more clearly establish AA requirements and to predict responses to RPM supplementation. PMID:20412926

  4. Instrumental and Sensory Texture Attributes of High-Protein Nutrition Bars Formulated with Extruded Milk Protein Concentrate.

    PubMed

    Banach, J C; Clark, S; Lamsal, B P

    2016-05-01

    Previous instrumental study of high-protein nutrition (HPN) bars formulated with extruded milk protein concentrate (MPC) indicated slower hardening compared to bars formulated with unmodified MPC. However, hardness, and its change during storage, insufficiently characterizes HPN bar texture. In this study, MPC80 was extruded at 2 different conditions and model HPN bars were prepared. A trained sensory panel and instrumental techniques were used to measure HPN bar firmness, crumbliness, fracturability, hardness, cohesiveness, and other attributes to characterize texture change during storage. Extrusion modification, storage temperature, and storage time significantly affected the instrumental and sensory panel measured texture attributes. The HPN bars became firmer and less cohesive during storage. When evaluated at the same storage conditions, the texture attributes of the HPN bars formulated with the different extrudates did not differ significantly from each other. However, textural differences were noted most of the time between the control and the HPN bars formulated with extruded MPC80. An adapted HPN bar crumbliness measurement technique produced results that were correlated with sensory panel measured crumbliness (r = 0.85) and cohesiveness (r = -0.84). Overall, the HPN bars formulated with extruded MPC80 were significantly softer, less crumbly, and more cohesive than the control during storage. PMID:27037608

  5. Use of UPLC-ESI-MS/MS to quantitate free amino acid concentrations in micro-samples of mammalian milk.

    PubMed

    Roucher, Véronique Ferchaud; Desnots, Emmanuelle; Naël, Charlotte; Agnoux, Aurore Martin; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Darmaun, Dominique; Boquien, Clair-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Although free amino acids (FAA) account for a small fraction of total nitrogen in mammalian milk, they are more abundant in human milk than in most formulas, and may serve as a readily available source of amino acids for protein synthesis, as well as fulfill specific physiologic roles. We used reversed phase Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) technique for FAA profiling in milks from three species (human, rat and cow) with a simple and rapid sample preparation. The derivatization procedure chosen, combined with UPLC-ESI-MS/MS allowed the quantitation of 21 FAA using labeled amino acids (Internal Standards) over a 10 min run time in micro-samples of mammalian milk (50 μL). The low limit of quantitation was 0.05 pmol/μL for most FAA with good repeatability and reproducibility (mean CV of 5.1%). Higher levels of total FAA were found in human (3032 μM) and rat milk (3460 μM) than in bovine milk (240 μM), with wide differences in the abundances of specific FAA between species. This robust analytical method could be applied to monitor FAA profile in human breast milk, and open the way to individualized adjustment of FAA content for the nutritional management of infants. PMID:24298434

  6. Production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk highly enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids from dairy cows fed alfalfa protein concentrate or supplemental vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Fauteux, M-C; Gervais, R; Rico, D E; Lebeuf, Y; Chouinard, P Y

    2016-06-01

    Given its elevated content of carotenoids, alfalfa protein concentrates (APC) have the potential to prevent oxidation of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The effects of feeding APC or supplemental vitamin E on production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids were evaluated using 6 lactating Holstein cows (224±18d in milk) in a replicated 3×3 Latin square (21-d periods, 14d for adaptation). Treatment diets contained (dry matter basis) (1) 9% soybean meal (control, CTL); (2) 9% soybean meal + 300 IU of vitamin E/kg (VitE treatment); or (3) 9% APC (APC treatment). Cows received a continuous abomasal infusion of 450g/d of linseed oil. As a result, milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 increased from 1.08±0.13 to 3.9±0.40% (mean ± SD), whereas cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased from 0.40±0.04 to 14.27±1.81% during the experimental period compared with the pretrial period. Milk yield tended to be higher for APC (14.7kg/d) compared with CTL (13.4kg/d), and was greater than that for VitE (13.0kg/d). Protein yield was higher in cows fed APC (518g/d) compared with VitE (445g/d) but was not different from that in cows fed CTL (483g/d). These effects resulted in improved milk N efficiency in cows fed APC (26.1% of N intake secreted in milk) compared with CTL (23.0%) and VitE (22.9%). Feeding APC increased milk fat content of lutein (252μg/g) compared with CTL (204μg/g) and VitE (190μg/g). Milk fat content of vitamin E was higher for APC (34.5μg/g) compared with CTL (19.0μg/g) and tended to be lower than that with VitE (44.9μg/g). Redox potential of fresh milk from cows fed APC (152mV) was similar to that of VitE (144mV), but lower than that of CTL (189mV). Treatments had no effect on fresh milk contents of dissolved oxygen (8.1±1.5mg/L), and conjugated diene hydroperoxides (2.7±0.5mmol/L). The concentrations of volatile lipid oxidation products (propanal, hexanal, hept-cis-4-enal, 1-octen-3-one) tended to be decreased by APC relative to CTL, whereas similar values were observed for VitE, except for hexanal, which was reduced by 40% in VitE. In conclusion, feeding APC to lactating dairy cows could serve as a source of dietary protein that improves dietary N utilization efficiency, and also as a preharvest technology to increase natural antioxidant levels in milk to limit oxidation. PMID:26995133

  7. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in breast milk correlated to maternal age, education level, and occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Chao, H Albert; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Chang, Ching-Mine; Koh, Teck-Wai; Chang-Chien, Gou-Ping; Ouyang, Eileen; Lin, Show-Lian; Shy, Cherng-Gueih; Chen, Fu-An; Chao, How-Ran

    2010-03-15

    The aim of the present study is to determine whether levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in breast milk in the general population are associated with demographic parameters, socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, and occupational exposure. Forty-six participants are randomly selected from healthy women recruited between April 2007 and April 2008 from local hospitals in southern Taiwan. Thirty PBDE isomers in breast milk are analyzed using a gas chromatograph with a high resolution mass spectrometer. The mean+/-standard deviation of Sigma PBDEs in breast milk is 3.59+/-1.07 ng/g lipid. Our current value of Sigma PBDEs in breast milk is 0.7-fold lower compared to the past value in our previous study between 2000 and 2001. Higher levels of Sigma PBDEs might be significantly associated with older maternal age and maternal age of the present study is between 22 and 42 years old. Levels of Sigma PBDEs and certain PBDEs in breast milk are not correlated with maternal pre-pregnant BMI (Body mass index), parity, and lipid contents of breast milk. The Sigma PBDEs level in breast milk is lower in more educated women after controlling for age and pre-pregnancy BMI in our subjects. The main factors associated with Sigma PBDEs in breast milk are age and education level among the binary variables of demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle characteristics in this report. The exploratory relationships are found between PBDEs in breast milk and age, education level, or occupational exposure due to small sampling size. PMID:19897300

  8. The electrophoresis of transferrins in urea/polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R W; Williams, J

    1980-01-01

    The denaturation of transferrin by urea has been studied by (a) electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels incorporating a urea gradient, (b) measurements of the loss of iron-binding capacity and (c) u.v. difference spectrometry. In human serum transferrin and hen ovotransferrin the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of the iron-free protein were found to denature at different urea concentrations. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:7213345

  9. The effect of feeding canola meal on concentrations of plasma amino acids.

    PubMed

    Martineau, R; Ouellet, D R; Lapierre, H

    2014-03-01

    An initial meta-analysis on isonitrogenous experiments where a protein source was replaced by canola meal (CM) showed that CM feeding increased yields of milk and milk protein and apparent N efficiency. The objective of the current study was to determine if these responses were related to increased changes in plasma AA concentrations. Although only half of the experiments of the initial meta-analysis reported concentrations of plasma AA and could be used in the current meta-analysis, lactational responses to CM feeding were similar to those reported previously. In the current meta-analysis, CM feeding increased plasma concentrations of total AA, total essential AA (EAA) and all individual EAA, but decreased concentrations of blood and milk urea-N. The current meta-analysis suggests that CM feeding increased the absorption of EAA, which would be responsible for the increased milk protein secretion and the increased apparent N efficiency. PMID:24440260

  10. Molecular Basis of the Apparent Near Ideality of Urea Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kokubo, Hironori; Rsgen, Jrg; Bolen, D. Wayne; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2007-01-01

    Activity coefficients of urea solutions are calculated to explore the mechanism of its solution properties, which form the basis for its well-known use as a strong protein denaturant. We perform free energy simulations of urea solutions in different urea concentrations using two urea models (OPLS and KBFF models) to calculate and decompose the activity coefficients. For the case of urea, we clarify the concept of the ideal solution in different concentration scales and standard states and its effect on our subsequent analysis. The analytical form of activity coefficients depends on the concentration units and standard states. For both models studied, urea displays a weak concentration dependence for excess chemical potential. However, for the OPLS force-field model, this results from contributions that are independent of concentration to the van der Waals and electrostatic components whereas for the KBFF model those components are nontrivial but oppose each other. The strong ideality of urea solutions in some concentration scales (incidentally implying a lack of water perturbation) is discussed in terms of recent data and ideas on the mechanism of urea denaturation of proteins. PMID:17693466

  11. Effects of alfalfa hay particle size in high-concentrate diets supplemented with unsaturated fat: chewing behavior, total-tract digestibility, and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kahyani, A; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of increasing the physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) intake of lactating dairy cows fed high-concentrate diets supplemented with unsaturated fat on intake, eating behavior, diet sorting, chewing activity, total-tract digestibility, and milk production and composition. Diets contained 24% alfalfa hay (AH), 16% corn silage, 58% concentrate, and 2% yellow grease [dry matter (DM) basis], and dietary peNDF content was increased by varying the particle size (PS) of the AH. Nine multiparous cows averaging 87.8 ± 14.8d in milk and weighing 653 ± 53 kg were randomly assigned to a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square. During each 21-d period, cows were offered 1 of 3 total mixed rations that varied in PS of AH: fine, medium, and long, with a geometric mean particle length of 3.00, 3.57 and 3.87 mm, respectively. Increasing PS quadratically affected DM intake (DMI; 24.7, 25.4, and 23.7 kg/d, for fine, medium, and long, respectively), but cumulative DMI at 2, 4, and 6h after feeding was similar across treatments, averaging 23.4, 35.6 and 46.4% of total DMI for the 3 time points, respectively. Increased peNDF intake did not affect feed sorting, but increased daily eating time, and eating and total chewing time per kilogram of DMI. Daily rumination time exhibited a quadratic response, with highest rumination time for the medium diet. Dietary PS had no effects on digestibility in the total tract, but we observed, for fine, medium, and long diets, quadratic responses in milk production (41.5, 43.3, and 40.4 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk production, and milk protein yield. Milk fat content decreased linearly with increasing PS, but milk fat content and fat:protein ratio were low for all treatments, likely due to adding unsaturated fat to a diet containing a high level of nonfiber carbohydrates (42.2% of DM). The composition, degree of saturation, and total conjugated linoleic acid content of fatty acids in milk fat were not affected by the change in peNDF content of the diet. The study indicates that a moderate increase in the PS of AH in diets containing unsaturated fat elevates peNDF intake and increases chewing activity, DMI, milk yield and milk fat production. However, the effects of dietary PS were quadratic, with maximum DMI and milk production observed with diets supplying 24% dietary peNDF (measured as the proportion of the ration retained on sieves >1.18 mm multiplied by dietary neutral detergent fiber content; DM basis). PMID:24054282

  12. Vitamin D fortification of growing up milk prevents decrease of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations during winter: a clinical intervention study in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hower, Jürgen; Knoll, Anette; Ritzenthaler, Kristin L; Steiner, Claudia; Berwind, Regina

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in human health. Current recommendations for vitamin D intake and endogenous supply through sun exposure are not met in German pre-school children, and suboptimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, especially during the winter months, are common. Consequently, vitamin D supplementation or fortification have gained increased acceptance. The KiMi trial (Kindermilch=growing up milk) was a prospective, randomized, and double-blind study in which young children (2-6 years of age, n=92) were assigned to receive either vitamin D-fortified growing up milk (2.85 μg/100 ml) or semi skimmed cow's milk without added vitamin D. Daily consumption of fortified growing up milk contributed to the prevention of an otherwise frequently observed decrease in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration during winter (before winter: median 21.5 ng/mL (10.1-43.0 ng/mL) intervention vs. median 18.4 ng/mL (11.0-44.9 ng/mL) control; after winter: median 24.8 ng/mL (7.0-48.2 ng/mL) intervention vs. median 13.6 ng/mL (7.0-36.8 ng/mL) control) and proved to be safe during summer (median 27.6 ng/mL (18.8-40.5 ng/mL) intervention vs. median 27.4 ng/mL (17.8-38.7 ng/mL) control). Due to the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, fortification of growing up milk with vitamin D at a level used in this study could be an effective measure to improve vitamin D status. PMID:23851699

  13. Messenger RNA expression and immunolocalization of psoriasin in the goat mammary gland and its milk concentration after an intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G W; Lai, S J; Yoshimura, Y; Isobe, N

    2014-10-01

    Psoriasin (S100A7) is a member of the S100 protein family of calcium-binding proteins and plays a crucial role in local host defenses. The present study aimed to identify the expression of S100A7 in the goat mammary gland and in milk. The goat S100A7 coding DNA sequence was identified using direct sequencing. An S100A7 antibody was raised in rabbits by immunization with a synthetic S100A7 peptide consisting of 13 amino acids. Messenger RNA expression and protein localization in different regions of a healthy mammary gland were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Changes in the concentration of S100A7 in the milk after an intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were examined by an enzyme immunoassay. The goat S100A7 peptide had 98% and 86% sequence similarity to that of sheep and bovines, respectively. The S100A7 mRNA expression was higher in the teat and udder skin than in the cistern and parenchyma of the mammary gland. Immunoreactive S100A7 was localized in the epithelial cells of the alveolus and gland cistern, and stratified squamous epithelium of the teat. Psoriasin as a secreted protein was detectable in healthy milk, and an intramammary LPS infusion increased the concentration of S100A7 in the milk. The results suggest that S100A7 is produced in the epithelial cells of the mammary gland and is secreted into the milk. PMID:25023088

  14. Increase of calcium and reduction of lactose concentration in milk by treatment with kefir grains and eggshell.

    PubMed

    Fina, Brenda L; Brun, Lucas R; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2016-03-01

    Dairy products are the main source of calcium (Ca), but the loss of the consumption habit contributes to low consumption in adulthood, which leads to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Domestic use of kefir is straightforward and the eggshell is a natural discarded source of Ca. This paper proposes the development of an enriched Ca reduced lactose milk using eggshell and kefir. During the in vitro preparation, the pH, Ca and lactose contents were measured. Ca intestinal absorption of untreated milk and milk with kefir was compared. Finally, human volunteers consumed this dairy product and 24-h urine Ca was measured. Results showed that the beverage has lower lactose and higher Ca than untreated milk and milk with kefir. Intestinal Ca absorption was not different between both milks and an increase in urinary Ca excretion was observed in humans. This study provides a methodology to prepare at home a dairy product that could contribute to improve the Ca intake in adults. PMID:26828282

  15. More milk from forage: Milk production, blood metabolites, and forage intake of dairy cows grazing pasture mixtures and spatially adjacent monocultures.

    PubMed

    Pembleton, Keith G; Hills, James L; Freeman, Mark J; McLaren, David K; French, Marion; Rawnsley, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is interest in the reincorporation of legumes and forbs into pasture-based dairy production systems as a means of increasing milk production through addressing the nutritive value limitations of grass pastures. The experiments reported in this paper were undertaken to evaluate milk production, blood metabolite concentrations, and forage intake levels of cows grazing either pasture mixtures or spatially adjacent monocultures containing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens), and plantain (Plantago lanceolata) compared with cows grazing monocultures of perennial ryegrass. Four replicate herds, each containing 4 spring-calving, cross-bred dairy cows, grazed 4 different forage treatments over the periods of early, mid, and late lactation. Forage treatments were perennial ryegrass monoculture (PRG), a mixture of white clover and plantain (CPM), a mixture of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain (RCPM), and spatially adjacent monocultures (SAM) of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain. Milk volume, milk composition, blood fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, blood urea N concentrations, live weight change, and estimated forage intake were monitored over a 5-d response period occurring after acclimation to each of the forage treatments. The acclimation period for the early, mid, and late lactation experiments were 13, 13, and 10 d, respectively. Milk yield (volume and milk protein) increased for cows grazing the RCPM and SAM in the early lactation experiment compared with cows grazing the PRG, whereas in the mid lactation experiment, milk fat increased for the cows grazing the RCPM and SAM when compared with the PRG treatments. Improvements in milk production from grazing the RCPM and SAM treatments are attributed to improved nutritive value (particularly lower neutral detergent fiber concentrations) and a potential increase in forage intake. Pasture mixtures or SAM containing plantain and white clover could be a strategy for alleviating the nutritive limitations of perennial ryegrass monocultures, leading to an increase in milk production for spring calving dairy cows during early and mid lactation. PMID:26923052

  16. Urea recycling from the renal pelvis in sheep: A study with ( sup 14 C)urea

    SciTech Connect

    Cirio, A.; Boivin, R. )

    1990-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that urea can be recycled from the renal pelvis, (14C)urea diluted in native urine (1 microCi/ml) was perfused (0.5 ml/min) into one of the pelvises of sheep fed either normal (NP) or low (LP)-protein diets. Blood samples were obtained from the ipsilateral renal vein and from the carotid artery throughout the perfusions. 14C activity determinations in urine and plasma demonstrated a flux of (14C)urea from the pelvis to renal vein blood (40,000 in NP and 130,000 disintegrations/min in LP sheep, P less than 0.01). The corresponding flux of native urea was only 1.5 times higher in NP than in LP sheep (6.8 +/- 1.1 vs. 4.7 +/- 2.9 mumol/min, not significant) despite their 8 times higher urinary concentration of urea. The fraction of filtered urea that was reabsorbed in the pelvis was larger in LP sheep (7.5 +/- 3.7 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.7% in NP sheep, P less than 0.05). A fraction of urea is thus actually recycled from the renal pelvis in sheep, and this pelvic retention is enhanced in LP animals. The importance of this phenomenon in the nitrogen economy is discussed.

  17. Chemiresistor urea sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.

    1997-01-01

    A sensor to detect and quantify urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures, and in blood and other body fluids. The sensor is based upon a chemiresistor, which consists of an interdigitated array of metal fingers between which a resistance measured. The interdigitated array is fabricated on a suitable substrate. The surface of the array of fingers is covered with a coating containing the enzyme urease which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form the ammonium ion, the bicarbonate ion, and hydroxide-chemical products which provide the basis for the measured signal. In a typical application, the sensor could be used at bedside, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. Also, the chemiresistor used to detect urea, can be utilized with a reference chemiresistor which does not contain urease, and connected in a differential measurement arrangement, such that the reference chemiresistor would cancel out any fluctuations due to background effects.

  18. Recent Developments In Urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosker, Mark J.

    1987-03-01

    Recent developments relating to the application of the urea crystal to non-linear optics reviewed. The urea crystal has been shown to be a useful material for non-linear optics applications. Urea has been studied within the context of both frequency upconversion1 and, more recently, optical parametric oscillation (0P0).2-4 It is particularly the latter application which will be discussed. Urea is an organic crystal within the 42m space group class, the same as the ADP ismorphs. It is optically clear from 200 nm to 1.4 μm, which is consistent with parametric oscillation in the visible and near infrared. Its birefringence is approximately twice that of ADP, which leads to an OPO producing light at shorter wavelengths than for most other non-linear crystals. The non-linear coefficient of urea is approximately 2.5 times that of ADP. While a relatively soft crystal, urea can be optically polished to a flatness of less than an optical wavelength using methods similar to those of ADP. The thermal behavior of urea is excellent; the temperature-dependence of the phase-matching angle is much smaller then ADP. Urea is a hygroscopic crystal, a fact which complicates its practical use. Typically, this problem is overcome by immersing the crystal in an index matching liquid such as hexane. The most difficult problem with regards to the use of urea has been and continues to crystal growth. However, high quality urea crystals of length greater than 20 mm in the (110) direction have been grown from solution in the laboratory. Solution growth requires precise temperature control over very long growth times (on the order of one year). Recently, crystal sizes on the order of 1 cm3 have become commercially available. The urea crystal is positive uniaxial, a characteristic which is advantageous for OPO ications. By utilizing type II (o -> o + e) phase-matching and resonating the ordinary wave, the degree of Poynting vector walk-off of the signal from the pump due to double action is significantly reduced. Furthermore, noncritical phase matching is allowed use the effective d coefficient is a maximum at 90°. The urea optical parametric oscillator has generally consisted of a very simple design. Feedback is accomplished by the use of flat dichroic mirrors, which allow for only one of the generated waves to be resonated. The pump wave is collinear with these generated waves. The pump frequency has usually been 355 nm. Frequency tuning is accomplished through the angular rotation of the crystal. The frequency range covered extends from 498 to 1.23 μm, which is obtained with a single crystal and a single set of dichroic mirrors. Never, a small gap between 640 and 790 nm exists in this range; this is due to metrical obstructions of the particular crystals used and is not thought to be intrinsic.) The mirror reflectivity at the resonated wavelength need not be high, as the total number of round trips allowed during the 7 ns pump pulse is small. The linewidth of the oscillator output was measured to be about 1.2 A near 90° phase-matching.

  19. Intraduodenal milk protein concentrate augments the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of DPP-IV inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Olivos, Diana R.; McGrath, Lauren E.; Turner, Christopher A.; Montaubin, Orianne; Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G.

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone released from intestinal L-cells in response to food entering into the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1-based pharmaceuticals improve blood glucose regulation and may hold promise for obesity treatment, as GLP-1 drugs reduce food intake and body weight in humans and animals. In an effort to improve GLP-1 pharmacotherapies, we focused our attention on macronutrients that, when present in the gastrointestinal tract, may enhance GLP-1 secretion and improve glycemic regulation and food intake suppression when combined with systemic administration of sitagliptin, a pharmacological inhibitor of DPP-IV (enzyme responsible for GLP-1 degradation). In particular, previous data suggest that specific macronutrient constituents found in dairy foods may act as potent secretagogues for GLP-1 and therefore may potentially serve as an adjunct dietary therapy in combination with sitagliptin. To directly test this hypothesis, rats received intraperitoneal injections of sitagliptin (6 mg/kg) or saline vehicle followed by intraduodenal infusions of either milk protein concentrate (MPC; 80/20% casein/whey; 4 kcal), soy protein (nondairy control infusate; 4 kcal), or 0.9% NaCl. Food intake was assessed 30 min postinfusion. In separate studies, regulation of blood glucose was examined via a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (2 g/kg) following identical sitagliptin treatment and intraduodenal nutrient infusions. Collectively, results show that intraduodenal MPC, but not soy protein, significantly enhances both the food intake suppression and improved control of blood glucose produced by sitagliptin. These data support the hypothesis that dietary intake of dairy protein may be beneficial as an adjunct behavioral therapy to enhance the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of GLP-1-based pharmacotherapies. PMID:24352410

  20. Urea Cycle Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kleppe, Soledad; Mian, Asad; Lee, Brendan

    2003-07-01

    Urea cycle disorders comprise a group of inborn errors of metabolism that represent unique gene-nutrient interactions whose significant morbidity arises from acute and chronic neurotoxicity associated with often massive hyperammonemia. Current paradigms of treatment are focused on controlling the flux of nitrogen transfer through the hepatic urea cycle by a combination of dietary and pharmacologic approaches. Evolving paradigms include the development of cell and gene therapies. Current research is focused on understanding the pathophysiology of ammonia-mediated toxicity and prevention of neural injury. PMID:12791198

  1. The effects of inclusion levels of urea-treated potato pulp silage in concentrate and roughage sources on finishing performance and carcass quality in cull beef cows.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Masahito; Saito, Waka; Ooi, Motoki; Sato, Yukinobu; Saito, Toshiro

    2009-06-01

    ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of inclusion levels of potato pulp silage in concentrate (0, 15, 30 or 45%; on a dry matter basis) and roughage sources (rice straw or wheat straw) on finishing performance and carcass quality of cull beef cows. Sixteen Japanese Black (Wagyu) mature cull cows (490 +/- 31 kg of BW) were used in this experiment. Increasing the levels of potato pulp silage in concentrate and roughage sources did not significantly affect feed intake in cows. In addition, the final body weight, daily gain and feed : gain ratio were not influenced by the inclusion levels of potato pulp silage in concentrate and the type of roughage. Increasing the inclusion levels of potato pulp silage in concentrate would probably decrease the marbling score. The L* values of the longissimus muscle (LM) tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.078) as the inclusion levels of potato pulp silage in concentrate increased, and was lowest for cows fed the concentrate which included 30% potato pulp silage. The a* and b* values of the LM and fat color were not affected by the inclusion levels of potato pulp silage in concentrate. No effects of roughage sources on finishing performance were observed. PMID:20163636

  2. Effect of feeding colostrum at different volumes and subsequent number of transition milk feeds on the serum immunoglobulin G concentration and health status of dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Conneely, M; Berry, D P; Murphy, J P; Lorenz, I; Doherty, M L; Kennedy, E

    2014-11-01

    Transfer of sufficient IgG to the newborn calf via colostrum is vital to provide it with adequate immunological protection and resistance to disease. The objectives of the present study were to compare serum IgG concentration and health parameters of calves (1) fed different volumes of colostrum [7, 8.5, or 10% of body weight (BW)] within 2h of birth and (2) given 0, 2, or 4 subsequent feedings of transition milk (i.e., milkings 2 to 6 postcalving). Ninety-nine dairy calves were fed 7, 8.5, or 10% of BW in colostrum within 2h of birth and given 0, 2, or 4 subsequent feedings of transition milk. The concentration of IgG in the serum of calves was measured at 24, 48, 72, and 642 h of age by an ELISA. The apparent efficiency of absorption for IgG was determined. Health scores were assigned to calves twice per week and all episodes of disease were recorded. The effect of experimental treatment on calf serum IgG concentration differed by the age of the calf. Calves fed 8.5% of BW in colostrum had a greater mean serum IgG concentration than calves fed 7 or 10% of BW at 24, 48, and 72 h of age. At 642 h of age, serum IgG concentrations of calves fed 8.5% of BW (24.2g/L) and calves fed 10% of BW (21.6g/L) did not differ, although the serum IgG concentration of calves fed 8.5% of BW was still greater than that of calves fed 7% of BW (20.7 g/L). No difference in serum IgG concentration existed between calves fed 7% of BW and those fed 10% of BW at any age. No significant effect of number of subsequent feedings of transition milk on calf serum IgG concentration was detected. The apparent efficiency of absorption of calves fed 8.5% of BW in colostrum (38%) was greater than calves fed 7% of BW in colostrum (26%) and tended to be greater than in calves fed 10% of BW (29%). Calves fed further feedings of transition milk after the initial feeding of colostrum had a lower odds (0.62; 95% confidence interval: 0.41 to 0.93) of being assigned a worse eye/ear score (i.e., a more copious ocular discharge or pronounced ear droop) and a lower odds (0.5; 95% confidence interval: 0.32 to 0.79) of being assigned a worse nasal score (i.e., a more copious and purulent nasal discharge) during the study period relative to calves that received no further feedings of transition milk. In conclusion, calves fed 8.5% of BW in colostrum within 2h of birth achieved a greater concentration of IgG in serum in the first 3 d of life than calves fed either 7 or 10% of BW. Feeding calves transition milk subsequently reduced their odds of being assigned a worse eye/ear and nasal score. PMID:25200772

  3. Variovorax sp.-mediated biodegradation of the phenyl urea herbicide linuron at micropollutant concentrations and effects of natural dissolved organic matter as supplementary carbon source.

    PubMed

    Horemans, Benjamin; Vandermaesen, Johanna; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Smolders, Erik; Springael, Dirk

    2013-11-01

    In nature, pesticides are often present as micropollutants with concentrations too low for efficient biodegradation and growth of heterotrophic pollutant-degrading bacteria. Instead, organic carbon present in environmental dissolved organic matter (eDOM) constitutes the main carbon source in nature. Information on how natural organic carbon affects degradation of pollutants and micropollutants, in particular, is however poor. Linuron-degrading Variovorax sp. strains SRS16, WDL1, and PBLH6 and a triple-species bacterial consortium, from which WDL1 originated, were examined for their ability to degrade linuron at micropollutant concentrations and the effect hereon of different eDOM formulations of varying biodegradability as supplementary C-source was explored. Individual strains and the consortium degraded linuron at initial concentrations as low as 1 μg L(-1) till concentrations below 4 ng L(-1). Degradation kinetics differed among strains with rates that differed up to 70-fold at the lowest linuron concentrations and with lag phases ranging from 0 to 7 days. Linuron biodegradation by the individual strains was inhibited by an easily biodegradable compound such as citrate but stimulated by eDOM at a linuron concentration of 10 mg L(-1). Effects were strongly reduced or became non-existent at micropollutant linuron concentrations. Effects of eDOM on degradation at 10 mg L(-1) linuron by WDL1 were reduced when WDL1 was incubated together with its original consortium members. This is the first report on eDOM effects on degradation of pesticides at micropollutant concentrations and indicates these effects are limited and depend on linuron and eDOM concentrations, eDOM quality, and the bacterial culture. PMID:23339013

  4. The SLC14 gene family of urea transporters.

    PubMed

    Shayakul, Chairat; Hediger, Matthias A

    2004-02-01

    Carrier-mediated urea transport allows rapid urea movement across the cell membrane, which is particularly important in the process of urinary concentration and for rapid urea equilibrium in non-renal tissues. Urea transporters mediate passive urea uptake that is inhibited by phloretin and urea analogues. Facilitated urea transporters are divided into two classes: (1) the renal tubular/testicular type of urea transporter, UT-A1 to -A5, encoded by alternative splicing of the SLC14A2 gene, and (2) the erythrocyte urea transporter UT-B1 encoded by the SLC14A1 gene. The primary structure of urea transporters is unique, consisting of two extended, hydrophobic, membrane-spanning domains and an extracellular glycosylated-connecting loop. UT-A1 is the result of a gene duplication of this two-halves-structure, and the duplicated portions are linked together by a large intracellular hydrophilic loop, carrying several putative protein kinase A (PKA) and -C (PKC) phosphorylation sites. UT-A1 is located in the apical membrane of the kidney inner medullary collecting duct cells, where it is stimulated acutely by cAMP-mediated phosphorylation in response to the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. Vasopressin also up-regulates UT-A2 mRNA/protein expression in the descending thin limb of the loops of Henle. UT-A1 and UT-A2 are regulated independently and respond differently to changes in dietary protein content. UT-A3 and UT-A4 are located in the rat kidney medulla and UT-A5 in the mouse testis. The widely expressed UT-B participates in urea recycling in the descending vasa recta, as demonstrated by a relatively mild "urea-selective" urinary concentrating defect in transgenic UT-B null mice and individuals with the Jk(null) blood group. PMID:12856182

  5. Maternal risk factors associated with increased dioxin concentrations in breast milk in a hot spot of dioxin contamination in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Maruzeni, Shoko; Morikawa, Yuko; Anh, Tran Hai; Van Luong, Hoang; Dam, Pham Minh; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Son, Le Ke; Nishijo, Hisao

    2014-01-01

    This study looked to identify determinants of exposure to dioxin in breast milk from breast-feeding women in a hot spot of dioxin exposure in Vietnam. Breast milk was collected from 140 mothers 1 month after delivery. The risk factors investigated included length of residency, drinking of well water and the frequency of animal food consumption. Cluster analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns of fish and meat portions, fish variety and egg variety. Residency, age and parity were clearly associated with increased dioxin levels. Drinking well water and the consumption of marine crab and shrimps were related to higher levels of furans in breast milk. The consumption of quail eggs also appeared to be associated with increased levels of some dioxin isomers in this area. Some mothers who ate no or less meat than fish and mothers who consumed more freshwater fish than marine fish had lower levels of dioxins in their breast milk. However, the type of water and the eating habits of mothers contributed only partly to the increased dioxin levels in their breast milk; the length of residency was the most important risk factor associated with increased dioxin body burdens of mothers. PMID:24149970

  6. Effects of corn silage particle size, supplemental hay, and forage-to-concentrate ratio on rumen pH, feed preference, and milk fat profile of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kmicikewycz, A D; Harvatine, K J; Heinrichs, A J

    2015-07-01

    Two experiments (Exp.) were conducted to study effects of feeding long or short corn silage total mixed rations (TMR) on rumen pH, feed preference, and dairy cow performance and to determine the rate of recovery from grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Both experiments utilized a crossover design with 12 lactating, multiparous, Holstein cows each (including 4 ruminally cannulated cows) and consisted of two 26-d periods. Each period consisted of 12d of adaptation followed by 14d of data collection. Each period was divided into 4 phases: adaptation, d 1 to 12; baseline, d 13 to 14; challenge, d 15 to 19; and recovery, d 20 to 26. Treatments in Exp. 1 were TMR based on corn silage with long (L) or short (ST) particle size in a 65:35 forage-to-concentrate (F:C) diet. Treatments in Exp. 2 were TMR based on corn silage with short (SH) or long (LH) particle size in a 65:35 F:C diet with 3.3% (DM basis) orchardgrass hay offered as a supplement to the diet. In both experiments, during the challenge phase cows received a 50:50 F:C diet to initiate SARA. Animals were housed individually, milked twice per day, and fed once per day for 10% refusal rate on an as-fed basis. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. Feeding L and LH diets increased acetate-to-propionate ratio in the rumen, which resulted in the maintenance of a ratio >2 from the start of the SARA challenge through recovery. In Exp. 1, feeding long corn silage TMR resulted in lower milk fat concentration on the third day of the challenge, whereas cows fed short corn silage TMR had lower milk fat concentration on the final day of the challenge compared with d 13. Providing supplemental hay to cows fed TMR based on long or short corn silage in Exp. 2 prevented acidosis when cows were challenged with a high-grain diet. Milk fat concentrations substantially decreased during the challenge phase in both diets supplemented with hay, but feeding LH did not lower milk fat concentrations until d 20 compared with d 17 for cows fed SH. Under the conditions of these experiments, cows selected for shorter particles compared with longer particles, despite the rumen challenge. However, when feeding a 50:50 F:C diet, feeding long corn silage TMR or supplementing the diet with grass hay increased rumen pH, acetate-to-propionate ratio in the rumen, and rate of recovery from SARA. PMID:25958273

  7. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Petit, H V; Pereira, A B D; Soder, K J; Ross, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the interactions of corn meal or molasses [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) supplements] with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) supplements] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay diets. Eight multiparous and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 135±49d in milk and 386±61kg of body weight in the beginning of the study were randomly assigned to 4 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period lasted 19d with 14d for diet adaptation and 5d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed diets composed of mixed-mostly grass hay plus 1 of the following 4 concentrate blends: (1) corn meal plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; (2) corn meal plus flaxseed meal; (3) liquid molasses plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; or (4) liquid molasses plus flaxseed meal. Data were analyzed for main effects of NSC and RDP supplements, and the NSC × RDP supplement interactions. Significant NSC × RDP supplement interactions were observed for milk urea N, milk N efficiency, and the sums of milk saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. No effect of NSC supplements was observed for nutrient intake and milk yield. However, 4% fat-corrected milk (-0.70kg/d) and energy-corrected milk (-0.60kg/d) were significantly reduced in cows fed liquid molasses due to a trend to decreased concentration of milk fat (-0.17%). Diets with liquid molasses resulted in increased (+35%) concentration and yield of milk enterolactone, indicating that this mammalian lignan can be modulated by supplements with different NSC profiles. Overall, NSC and RDP supplements profoundly changed the milk fatty acid profile, likely because of differences in fatty acids intake, Δ(9)-desaturase indices, and ruminal biohydrogenation pathways. Feeding liquid molasses significantly reduced plasma urea N (-1.2mg/dL), urinary N excretion (-20g/d), and N digestibility (-3.2 percentage units). Flaxseed meal significantly reduced yields of milk (-1.3kg/d), milk fat (-90g/d), and milk lactose (-60g/d), but significantly increased the concentration and yield of milk enterolactone. Further research is needed to elucidate the negative responses of flaxseed meal on yields of milk and milk components. PMID:25465544

  8. Crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of the kidney urea transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Elena J.; Quick, Matthias; Zhou, Ming

    2010-03-19

    Urea is highly concentrated in the mammalian kidney to produce the osmotic gradient necessary for water re-absorption. Free diffusion of urea across cell membranes is slow owing to its high polarity, and specialized urea transporters have evolved to achieve rapid and selective urea permeation. Here we present the 2.3 {angstrom} structure of a functional urea transporter from the bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The transporter is a homotrimer, and each subunit contains a continuous membrane-spanning pore formed by the two homologous halves of the protein. The pore contains a constricted selectivity filter that can accommodate several dehydrated urea molecules in single file. Backbone and side-chain oxygen atoms provide continuous coordination of urea as it progresses through the filter, and well-placed {alpha}-helix dipoles provide further compensation for dehydration energy. These results establish that the urea transporter operates by a channel-like mechanism and reveal the physical and chemical basis of urea selectivity.

  9. Maternal High-Fat Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation Influences Obestatin and Ghrelin Concentrations in Milk and Plasma of Wistar Rat Dams and Their Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Słupecka, Monika; Romanowicz, Katarzyna; Woliński, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to establish the effect of a maternal high-fat diet on obestatin concentration, total ghrelin, and ghrelin/obestatin ratio during pregnancy and lactation of Wistar rats and their offspring in the first 21 days of life. On the mating day, females were randomly allocated and fed either a high-fat diet (30% of fat; HF) or breeding diet (5% fat; BD) till the 21st day of lactation. Hormones were analyzed in the blood plasma and milk of rat dams as well as in the blood plasma of their offspring. HF resulted in a significant decrease in obestatin level on the 14th day of lactation and elevation on the 21st day. Plasma obestatin in HFD offspring was significantly higher than in BD ones. HF diet did not significantly affect dam plasma ghrelin until the 21st day of lactation. The ghrelin concentrations in milk after both diets were significantly lower than in blood plasma. Milk ghrelin in HF dams was significantly higher than in the BD ones. Plasma ghrelin from HF offspring was significantly higher than that from BD dams. Our results demonstrate that a maternal HF diet during pregnancy and lactation influences ghrelin and obestatin level in both dams and their offspring. PMID:27127509

  10. Hereditary urea cycle abnormality

    MedlinePlus

    ... and get enough fluids. Most patients with urea cycle disorders will need to stay in the hospital at some point. During such times, they may be treated with medicines that help the body remove nitrogen-containing wastes. Dialysis may help rid the body ...

  11. Growth and metabolic responses in preterm infants fed fortified human milk or a preterm formula.

    PubMed

    Warner, J T; Linton, H R; Dunstan, F D; Cartlidge, P H

    1998-06-01

    Preterm infants fed human milk have been shown to grow poorly and develop mineral deficiencies that may lead to osteopenia. This study has investigated the efficacy of a human milk fortifier made up of glucose polymers, a mixture of bovine milk protein fractions and free amino acids, minerals and vitamins designed to improve these nutritional deficiencies. Growth and bone mineral deficiencies were compared in 38 preterm infants fed fortified mother's milk and 21 preterm infants fed a preterm formula until they reached 1800 g; all had a birthweight below 1600 g. Weight gain was similar in each group with a mean (SD) increase of 19.6 (3.5) g/kg/day in the fortified group and 19.9 (4.1) g/kg/day in the preterm formula group. There were also no significant differences in linear growth, head circumference, skin fold thickness or mid-arm circumference. Serum phosphate, alkaline phosphatase and plasma urea concentrations were similar and there was no clinical evidence of osteopenia. These results indicate that the growth and metabolic disadvantages associated with feeding human milk to preterm infants are ameliorated by the addition of a milk fortifier that increases the calorific, protein and mineral content of breast milk. PMID:9744147

  12. Effects of phase-feeding of crude protein on performance, carcass characteristics, serum urea nitrogen concentrations, and manure nitrogen of finishing beef steers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As cattle mature the dietary protein requirement, as a percentage of the diet decreases. Thus, decreasing the dietary CP concentration during the latter part of the finishing period might decrease feed costs and N losses to the environment. Three hundred eighteen medium-framed crossbred steers (315...

  13. The effect of dietary crude protein and phosphorus on grass-fed dairy cow production, nutrient status, and milk heat stability.

    PubMed

    Reid, M; O'Donovan, M; Elliott, C T; Bailey, J S; Watson, C J; Lalor, S T J; Corrigan, B; Fenelon, M A; Lewis, E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary crude protein (CP) and phosphorus (P) have the potential to alter dairy cow production, nutrient status, and milk heat stability, specifically in early lactation. This study examined the effect of supplementary concentrates with different CP and P concentrations on blood N and P status and on milk yield, composition, and heat stability. The concentrates [4kg of dry matter (DM) concentrate per cow daily] were fed to grazing dairy cows (13kg DM grass) during early lactation. Forty-eight spring-calving dairy cows were allocated to 4 treatments: high CP, high P (HPrHP; 302g/kg DM CP, 6.8g/kg DM P), medium CP, high P (MPrHP; 202g/kg DM CP, 4.7g/kg DM P), low CP, high P (LPrHP; 101g/kg DM CP, 5.1g/kg DM P), and low CP, low P (LPrLP; 101g/kg DM CP, 0.058g/kg DM P), for 8wk. Levels of N excretion were significantly higher in animals fed the HPrHP and MPrHP concentrates; P excretion was significantly lower in animals fed the LPrLP concentrate. Reducing the level of P in the diet (LPrLP concentrate) resulted in a significantly lower blood P concentration, whereas milk yield and composition (fat and protein) were not affected by either CP or P in the diet. The effect of the interaction between treatment and time on milk urea N was significant, reflecting the positive correlation between dietary CP and milk nonprotein N. Increasing supplementary CP and P (HPrHP) in the diet resulted in significantly lower milk heat stability at pH 6.8. The findings show that increasing dietary CP caused a decrease in milk heat stability, which reduced the suitability of milk for processing. The study also found that increasing dietary CP increased milk urea N and milk nonprotein N. Increasing dietary P increased fecal P excretion. These are important considerations for milk processors and producers for control of milk processing and environmental parameters. PMID:25465549

  14. Enteric methane production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows fed grass silage- or corn silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    van Gastelen, S; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Klop, G; Alferink, S J J; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing grass silage (GS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric methane (CH4) production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. A completely randomized block design experiment was conducted with 32 multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Four dietary treatments were used, all having a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 80:20 based on dry matter (DM). The roughage consisted of either 100% GS, 67% GS and 33% CS, 33% GS and 67% CS, or 100% CS (all DM basis). Feed intake was restricted (95% of ad libitum DM intake) to avoid confounding effects of DM intake on CH4 production. Nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) and energy balance, and CH4 production were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after adaptation to the diet for 12 d. Increasing CS proportion linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber and crude protein intake and linearly increased starch intake. Milk production and milk fat content (on average 23.4 kg/d and 4.68%, respectively) were not affected by increasing CS inclusion, whereas milk protein content increased quadratically. Rumen variables were unaffected by increasing CS inclusion, except the molar proportion of butyrate, which increased linearly. Methane production (expressed as grams per day, grams per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, and as a percent of gross energy intake) decreased quadratically with increasing CS inclusion, and decreased linearly when expressed as grams of CH4 per kilogram of DM intake. In comparison with 100% GS, CH4 production was 11 and 8% reduced for the 100% CS diet when expressed per unit of DM intake and per unit fat- and protein-corrected milk, respectively. Nitrogen efficiency increased linearly with increased inclusion of CS. The concentration of trans C18:1 FA, C18:1 cis-12, and total CLA increased quadratically, and iso C16:0, C18:1 cis-13, and C18:2n-6 increased linearly, whereas the concentration of C15:0, iso C15:0, C17:0, and C18:3n-3 decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of CS. No differences were found in short- and medium-straight, even-chain FA concentrations, with the exception of C4:0 which increased linearly with increased inclusion of CS. Replacing GS with CS in a common forage-based diet for dairy cattle offers an effective strategy to decrease enteric CH4 production without negatively affecting dairy cow performance, although a critical level of starch in the diet seems to be needed. PMID:25582590

  15. A Sustainable Alternative to a U.S. Breast Milk Monitoring Program: Using NHANES Serum Data to Estimate Breast Milk PBDE Concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are high-production-volume chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in a variety of consumer products. PBDE concentrations in the environment, wildlife, and humans have been increasing for several decades. Concentrations in t...

  16. Concentrations of phthalate metabolites in breast milk in Korea: estimating exposure to phthalates and potential risks among breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Jangwoo; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Cho, Geumjoon; Kim, Gun-Ha; Eun, So-Hee; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Suh, Eunsook; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Young Don; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Seunghyo; Eom, Soyong; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-03-01

    Phthalates have been associated with endocrine disruption and developmental effects in many experimental and epidemiological studies. Developing infants are among the most susceptible populations to endocrine disruption. However, limited information is available on phthalate exposure and its associated risks among breast-fed newborn infants. In the present study, breast milk samples were collected from 62 lactating mothers at 1 month post-partum from four cities of Korea in 2012 and were evaluated for six phthalate metabolites (mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP)). MEP was detected in all breast milk samples, with a median concentration of 0.37 μg/L, and MiBP, MnBP and MEHP were detected in 79-89% of samples, with median concentrations of 1.10, 1.70, and 2.08 μg/L, respectively. However, MEHHP and MEOHP, the oxidized forms of di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP), were detected in only one sample. For exposure assessment, the levels of phthalate diesters were estimated based on the parent:metabolite ratios in the breast milk that are reported elsewhere. For risk assessment, the endocrine-related toxicity of the monoester was assumed to be the same as that of its diester form. Median daily intake estimates of phthalates, including both monoester and diester forms, through breast milk consumption ranged between 0.91 and 6.52 μg/kg body weight (bw) for DEHP and between 0.38 and 1.43 μg/kg bw for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). Based on the estimated daily intake, up to 8% of infants exceeded the reference dose of anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) for DEHP, and 6% of infants exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for DnBP. Breast milk MiBP and MnBP concentrations showed significant positive associations with maternal consumption of whipped cream or purified water. Considering vulnerability of young infants, efforts to mitigate phthalate exposure among lactating women are warranted. PMID:25437948

  17. Short communication: Supplementing lysine and methionine in a lactation diet containing a high concentration of wet corn gluten feed did not alter milk protein yield.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Weber, D; Block, E; Smith, J F; Brouk, M J; Bradford, B J

    2013-08-01

    Primiparous (n=33) and multiparous (n=63) lactating Holstein cows (186±51 d in milk) were used to evaluate the effects of supplementing metabolizable amino acids using lysine in a matrix of Ca salts of fatty acids (Megamine-L, Arm & Hammer Animal Nutrition, Princeton, NJ) and the isopropyl ester of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (MetaSmart, Adisseo Inc., Antony, France) in diets containing >26% wet corn gluten feed (dry matter basis). Cows were blocked by production level, parity, and pregnancy status, then randomly assigned to 1 of 8 pens and allowed a 7-d adaption period before receiving dietary treatments for 28 d. Pens were assigned randomly to either of 2 diets formulated to differ by metabolizable amino acid supply. Dry matter intake and production were monitored daily and milk components analyzed 3d/wk. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. The original design of the study consisted of a control diet predicted to be deficient in lysine and methionine; however, after ingredient nutrients were analyzed and modeled with animal requirements at dry matter intake [26.6±0.35 kg/d (mean ± SEM)] and milk production levels achieved during the study (40.1±0.46 kg/d), only marginal deficiencies were predicted for the control (-8.1g/d for lysine; -1g/d for methionine) according to the National Research Council method, whereas the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System 5.0 and 6.1 models indicated positive balances for these amino acids (25.9 and 21.8 g/d for lysine, 14.7 and 18.9 g/d for methionine, respectively). Supplementing 30 g/d of metabolizable lysine in a Ca soap matrix and 2.4 g/d of metabolizable methionine as 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid led to positive predicted lysine and methionine balances by all 3 models, and predicted metabolizable lysine-to-methionine ratios ranging from 2.9 to 3.1. No treatment effects were observed for dry matter intake, milk yield, milk component concentrations or yields, or energy-corrected milk yield. Despite the negative lysine balance and low lysine-to-methionine ratio predicted by the National Research Council model, results provided no evidence of a lysine deficiency in the control diet. PMID:23746581

  18. Effect of oral mineral and energy supplementation on blood mineral concentrations, energetic and inflammatory profile, and milk yield in dairy cows affected with dystocia.

    PubMed

    Benzaquen, M; Galvão, K N; Coleman, A E; Santos, J E P; Goff, J P; Risco, C A

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of mineral/energy supplementation of dairy cows with dystocia on blood mineral concentrations, energetic and inflammatory profiles, and milk yield. Multiparous Holstein cows with dystocia were randomly assigned into two groups, (1) treated with a mineral/energy supplement (DME, n= 18) and (2) not treated (DNT, n= 22). A group of cows with normal parturition were randomly selected and were left untreated (NNT, n= 25). Cows in DME received an oral drench of 110 g of calcium and 400 g of propionate as calcium propionate plus 110 g potassium chloride and 150 g of magnesium sulfate administered within 6 h of calving and again 3 days post-partum. Compared to cows with a normal parturition, dystocic cows had decreased plasma calcium concentrations, increased plasma haptoglobin, decreased milk yield at 1 day post-partum, and tended to have increased rectal temperatures from 1 to 12 days post-partum. Compared with cows in DNT, those in DME had decreased plasma calcium concentrations and increased plasma magnesium concentrations 2 and 3 days post-partum, and a tendency for an increase in rectal temperature from 1 to 12 days post-partum. Dystocia is detrimental to calcium homeostasis post-partum, but mineral/energy supplementation as undertaken in this study is not recommended for use in cows with dystocia. PMID:25900193

  19. Long-Term Effects of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA) on Milk Quality and Hepatic Gene Expression in Lactating Goats Fed a High-Concentrate Diet

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Haibo; Wang, Shaoqing; Jia, Yuanyuan; Ni, Yingdong; Zhang, Yuanshu; Zhuang, Su; Shen, Xiangzhen; Zhao, Ruqian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The mechanism underlying the decline in milk quality during periods of feeding high-concentrate diets to dairy ruminants is not well documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolic changes in the liver that contribute to the input of substrate precursors to the mammary gland after feeding a high-concentrate diet to lactating goats for a long period. Experimental Design Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen cannulas were randomly assigned to two groups. For 9 weeks, the treatment group was fed a high-concentrate diet (60% concentrate of dry matter, HC) and the control group was fed a low-concentrate diet (40% concentrate of dry matter, LC). Ruminal fluid, plasma, and liver tissues were sampled, microarray techniques and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate metabolic parameters and gene expression in liver. Results Feeding a 60%-concentrate diet for 9 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in rumen pH. Changes in fat and protein content also occurred, which negatively affected milk quality. Plasma levels of leptin (p = 0.058), non-esterified fatty acid (p = 0.071), and glucose (p = 0.014) increased markedly in HC group. Plasma cortisol concentration was significantly elevated in the treatment group (p<0.05). Expression of the glucocorticoid receptor protein gene was significantly down-regulated (p<0.05) in the liver. The expression of genes for interleukin 1β, serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, and haptoglobin mRNA was significantly increased (p<0.05) in the HC group. GeneRelNet analysis showed that gene expression involved in inflammatory responses and the metabolism of lipids, protein, and carbohydrate were significantly altered by feeding a high-concentrate diet for 9 weeks. Conclusions Activation of the acute phase response and the inflammatory response may contribute to nutrient partitioning and re-distribution of energy in the liver, and ultimately lead to a decline in milk quality. PMID:24376594

  20. Chemiresistor urea sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.

    1997-12-16

    A sensor is disclosed to detect and quantify urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures, and in blood and other body fluids. The sensor is based upon a chemiresistor, which consists of an interdigitated array of metal fingers between which a resistance measured. The interdigitated array is fabricated on a suitable substrate. The surface of the array of fingers is covered with a coating containing the enzyme urease which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form the ammonium ion, the bicarbonate ion, and hydroxide-chemical products which provide the basis for the measured signal. In a typical application, the sensor could be used at bedside, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. Also, the chemiresistor used to detect urea, can be utilized with a reference chemiresistor which does not contain urease, and connected in a differential measurement arrangement, such that the reference chemiresistor would cancel out any fluctuations due to background effects. 16 figs.

  1. An examination of two concentrate allocation strategies which are based on the early lactation milk yield of autumn calving Holstein Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, D; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of two concentrate feeding strategies offered with a grass silage and maize silage diet on the dry matter (DM) intake, milk production (MP) and estimated energy balance of autumn calved dairy cows. Over a 2-year period, 180 autumn calving Holstein Friesian cows were examined. Within year, cows were blocked into three MP sub-groups (n=9) (high (HMP), medium (MMP) and low (LMP)) based on the average MP data from weeks 3 and 4 of lactation. Within a block cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments (n=54), flat rate (FR) concentrate feeding or feed to yield (FY) based on MP sub-group. Cows on the FR treatment were offered a fixed rate of concentrate (5.5 kg DM/cow per day) irrespective of MP sub-group. In the FY treatment HMP, MMP and LMP cows were allocated 7.3, 5.5 and 3.7 kg DM of concentrate, respectively. The mean concentrate offered to the FR and FY treatments was the same. On the FR treatment there was no significant difference in total dry matter intake (TDMI, 17.3 kg) between MP sub-groups. In the FY treatment, however, the TDMI of HMP-FY was 2.2 kg greater than MMP-FY, and 4.5 kg greater than LMP-FY (15.2 kg DM). The milk yield of LMP-FR was 3.5 kg less than the mean of the HMP-FR and MMP-FR treatments (24.5 kg). The milk yield of the HMP-FY treatment was 3.6 and 7.9 kg greater than the MMP-FY and LMP-FY treatments, respectively. The difference in MP between the HMP sub-groups was 2.6 kg, which translates to a response of 1.4 kg of milk per additional 1 kg of concentrate offered. There was no significant difference in MP between the two LMP sub-groups; however, MP increased 0.8 kg per additional 1 kg of concentrate offered between cows on the LMP-FR and LMP-FY treatments. The estimated energy balance was positive for cows on the LMP-FR treatment, but negative for cows on the other treatments. The experiment highlights the variation within a herd in MP response to concentrate, as cows with a lower MP potential are less responsive to additional energy input than cows with a greater MP potential. Cows with a greater MP capacity did not substitute additional concentrate for the basal forage, which indicates an additional demand for energy based on ability of individual cows to produce milk. PMID:26670481

  2. Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pirondini, M; Colombini, S; Mele, M; Malagutti, L; Rapetti, L; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch concentrations and fish oil (FO) supplementation on lactation performance, in vivo total-tract nutrient digestibility, N balance, and methane (CH4) emissions in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 2 concentrations of dietary starch [low vs. high: 23.7 and 27.7% on a dry matter (DM) basis; neutral detergent fiber/starch ratios: 1.47 and 1.12], the presence or absence of FO supplement (0.80% on a DM basis), and their interaction were evaluated. Four Italian Friesian cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets in 4 consecutive 26-d periods: (1) low starch (LS), (2) low starch plus FO (LSO), (3) high starch (HS), and (4) high starch plus FO (HSO). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage, alfalfa and meadow hays). The starch concentration was balanced using different proportions of corn meal and soybean hulls. The cows were housed in metabolic stalls inside open-circuit respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emission and the collection of separate urine and feces. No differences among treatments were observed for DM intake. We observed a trend for FO to increase milk yield: 29.2 and 27.5kg/d, on average, for diets with and without FO, respectively. Milk fat was affected by the interaction between dietary starch and FO: milk fat decreased only in the HSO diet. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO on the LS diet. Fish oil supplementation decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids. High-starch diets negatively influenced all digestibility parameters measured except starch, whereas FO improved neutral detergent fiber digestibility (41.9 vs. 46.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively, and ether extract digestibility (53.7 vs. 67.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively). We observed a trend for lower CH4 emission (g/d) and intensity (g/kg of milk) with the high-starch diets compared with the low-starch diets: 396 versus 415g/d on average, respectively, and 14.1 versus 14.9g/kg of milk, respectively. Methane intensity per kilogram of ECM was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO for the LS diet: 14.5 versus 13.3g of CH4/kg of ECM for LS and LSO diets, respectively. PMID:25465540

  3. Discriminant analysis of milk adulteration based on near-infrared spectroscopy and pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rong; Lv, Guorong; He, Bin; Xu, Kexin

    2011-03-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, the issue of food safety is becoming a global concern. It is very important to develop a rapid, cost-effective, and widely available method for food adulteration detection. In this paper, near-infrared spectroscopy techniques and pattern recognition were applied to study the qualitative discriminant analysis method. The samples were prepared and adulterated with one of the three adulterants, urea, glucose and melamine with different concentrations. First, the spectral characteristics of milk and adulterant samples were analyzed. Then, pattern recognition methods were used for qualitative discriminant analysis of milk adulteration. Soft independent modeling of class analogy and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) were used to construct discriminant models, respectively. Furthermore, the optimization method of the model was studied. The best spectral pretreatment methods and the optimal band were determined. In the optimal conditions, PLSDA models were constructed respectively for each type of adulterated sample sets (urea, melamine and glucose) and all the three types of adulterated sample sets. Results showed that, the discrimination accuracy of model achieved 93.2% in the classification of different adulterated and unadulterated milk samples. Thus, it can be concluded that near-infrared spectroscopy and PLSDA can be used to identify whether the milk has been adulterated or not and the type of adulterant used.

  4. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    PubMed

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the individual cow treatment to lose more body weight to nadir than cows on the group treatment, concentrate allocation strategy had little effect on either body weight or body condition score over the experimental period. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a higher pregnancy rate to first and second service and tended to have a higher 100-d in calf rate than cows on the group treatment. This study demonstrates that concentrate allocation strategy had little effect on overall production performance. PMID:26995122

  5. Microdetermination of urea in urine using p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde /PDAB/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, P. J.

    1969-01-01

    Adaptation of the p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde method for determining urea concentration in urine is an improved micromechanical method. Accuracy and precision are satisfactory. This method avoids extra steps of deproteinizing or removing normal urinary chromogens.

  6. Comparison of performances of four ELISA kits in the detection of BLV antibodies in bulk tank milk or concentrated lactoserum from herds with low prevalence of infection.

    PubMed

    Eloit, M; Kuzmak, J; Dheiller, M; Bénet, J J; Toma, B

    1990-01-01

    Performances of four ELISA kits in the detection of BLV antibodies in bulk tank milk was studied in 76 non-infected herds and 44 herds with low prevalence of BLV infection. None of the kits gave false positive results. On the other hand, there was an important variation in sensitivity. The kits with the highest sensitivity identified 43% of infected herds, which included 65% of infected cows. When concentrated lactoserum was tested, 59% of infected herds, which included 73% of infected cows, could be identified. PMID:2156535

  7. The effect of pH on the inhibition of bacterial growth by physiological concentrations of butyric acid: implications for neonates fed on suckled milk.

    PubMed

    Sun, C Q; O'Connor, C J; Turner, S J; Lewis, G D; Stanley, R A; Roberton, A M

    1998-05-15

    Butyric acid is released from milk by pre-intestinal lipases during suckling. It is also known to inhibit bacterial growth. To investigate whether butyric acid may be a significant factor in controlling bacterial growth in the stomach of pre-weaned animals, the ability of butyric acid to inhibit growth of selected bacteria was tested over physiological ranges of pH and butyric acid concentrations. Six enteric and environmental strains of bacteria were used: two strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus casseliflavus. At pH 4.5 and 5.0, the growth of all organisms was significantly inhibited in the presence of butyrate, and in some cases growth was completely arrested. At pH 6.0, butyric acid did not affect bacterial growth until the concentration reached 40 mM. The maximum concentration of butyric acid available in cow's milk after incubation with pre-gastric lipase is approximately 16 mM, which would be sufficient to prevent growth of the organisms tested at pH values occurring in the stomach. Therefore, butyric acid inhibition of bacterial growth may explain in part, the role of pre-intestinal lipases in young animals' natural defenses against bacteria in ingested food prior to weaning. PMID:9717513

  8. Milk Thistle

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Milk Thistle Share: On This Page Introduction What the ... Effects and Cautions For More Information Key References milk_thistle.jpg © Steven Foster Common Names: milk thistle, ...

  9. Use of polyurea from urea for coating of urea granules.

    PubMed

    Lu, Panfang; Zhang, Yanfei; Jia, Cong; Li, Yufeng; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    A new type of controlled release fertilizers coated with polyurea was prepared. The granulated urea was firstly changed into a liquid urea by heating as the coating liquid. By spraying uniformly the urea was coated with the polyurea synthesized by the reaction of isocyanates with a liquid urea. The effects of different modifiers on N release characteristics of polyurea-coated urea (PCU) were studied. The morphology and chemical structure of PCU coating materials was investigated by SEM and FTIR. We studied the nitrogen release characteristics of the PCU applied in both water and soil, and the biodegradability of PCU coating after buried in soil. The results showed that PCU reduced nitrogen release rate and exhibited excellent controlled release property. The PCU coating materials could biodegrade in soil. This indicated that the low cost PCU products from urea are expected to use in agricultural and horticultural applications. PMID:27119061

  10. Effect of dietary cation-anion difference on performance of lactating dairy cows and stability of milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Martins, C M M R; Arcari, M A; Welter, K C; Netto, A S; Oliveira, C A F; Santos, M V

    2015-04-01

    Casein micelle stability is negatively correlated with milk concentrations of ionic calcium, which may change according to the metabolic and nutritional status of dairy cows. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on concentrations of casein subunits, whey proteins, ionic calcium, and milk heat and ethanol stability. Sixteen Holstein cows were distributed in 4 contemporary 4 × 4 Latin square designs, which consisted of 4 periods of 21 d and 4 treatments according to DCAD: 290, 192, 98, and -71 mEq/kg of dry matter (DM). The milk concentrations of ionic calcium and κ-casein were reduced as DCAD increased, whereas the milk urea nitrogen and β-lactoglobulin concentrations were increased. As a result of these alterations, the milk ethanol stability and milk stability during heating at 140 °C were increased linearly with increasing DCAD [Y = 74.87 (standard error = 0.87) + 0.01174 (standard error = 0.0025) × DCAD (mEq/kg of DM) and Y = 3.95 (standard error = 1.02) + 0.01234 (standard error = 0.0032) × DCAD (mEq/kg of DM), respectively]. In addition, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and fat, lactose, and total milk solids contents were linearly increased by 13.52, 8.78, 2.5, and 2.6%, respectively, according to DCAD increases from -71 to 290 mEq/kg of DM, whereas crude protein and casein content were linearly reduced by 4.83 and 4.49%, respectively. In conclusion, control of metabolic changes in lactating dairy cows to maintain blood acid-base equilibrium plays an important role in keeping milk stable to ethanol and during heat treatments. PMID:25622868

  11. Discrimination of adulterated milk based on two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) combined with kernel orthogonal projection to latent structure (K-OPLS).

    PubMed

    Yang, Renjie; Liu, Rong; Xu, Kexin; Yang, Yanrong

    2013-12-01

    A new method for discrimination analysis of adulterated milk and pure milk is proposed by combining two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) with kernel orthogonal projection to latent structure (K-OPLS). Three adulteration types of milk with urea, melamine, and glucose were prepared, respectively. The synchronous 2D spectra of adulterated milk and pure milk samples were calculated. Based on the characteristics of 2D correlation spectra of adulterated milk and pure milk, a discriminant model of urea-tainted milk, melamine-tainted milk, glucose-tainted milk, and pure milk was built by K-OPLS. The classification accuracy rates of unknown samples were 85.7, 92.3, 100, and 87.5%, respectively. The results show that this method has great potential in the rapid discrimination analysis of adulterated milk and pure milk. PMID:24359648

  12. Effect of season on milk temperature, milk growth hormone, prolactin, and somatic cell counts of lactating cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igono, M. O.; Johnson, H. D.; Steevens, B. J.; Hainen, W. A.; Shanklin, M. D.

    1988-09-01

    Monthly fluctuations in milk temperature, somatic cell counts, milk growth hormone and prolactin of lactating cows were measured in milk samples over a 1 year period. The seasonal patterns in milk temperature, somatic cell count and milk prolactin concentration showed a positive trend with increasing environmental temperatures. Milk growth hormone concentration increased with lactation level and declined significantly during summer heat. Milk temperature and the measured hormonal levels may serve as indicators of the impact of the climatic environment on lactating cattle.

  13. Scale control in urea solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dubin, L.; Diep, D.V.

    1997-08-01

    Legislation to control NO{sub x} emissions, one cause of acid rain and ozone induced smog, has created an impetus to control NO{sub x} emissions. Selective Non Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) using urea chemistry is utilized to control NO{sub x} emissions from boilers, municipal waste incinerators, refinery furnaces, recovery boilers, utilities and other stationary combustion sources. Control requires injecting urea-based solutions into the flue gas at specified temperatures. Urea solutions accelerate CaCO{sub 3} precipitation in industrial waters used for dilution, and thereby interfere with proper application of the urea solution. The negative effect of urea solutions on hardness stability is discussed as well as how CaCO{sub 3} precipitation in urea solution can be controlled by suitable scale inhibitors.

  14. Lead content of milk and infant formula

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.

    1980-03-01

    Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

  15. Urea in dry-rolled corn diets: finishing steer performance, nutrient digestion, and microbial protein production.

    PubMed

    Milton, C T; Brandt, R T; Titgemeyer, E C

    1997-05-01

    In Exp. 1, 88 yearling steers (332 kg) were fed dry-rolled corn finishing diets to evaluate effects of dietary urea level on performance and carcass characteristics. Diets contained 0, .5, 1.0, or 1.5% urea (DM basis), which supplied all supplemental N, and 10% chopped prairie hay. Gains (P = .10) and gain efficiency (G/F; P < .05) were increased by .5% urea, with little improvement by additional urea. Regression analysis estimated optimal dietary urea at .9% of DM for ADG and G/F. Fat thickness (P < .05) and yield grade (P < .10) increased linearly with dietary urea level. In Exp. 2, four ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (557 kg) were fed the diets used in Exp. 1 to evaluate effects of dietary urea on site and extent of digestion. True ruminal OM and starch digestion were increased 25 and 37%, respectively, by .5% urea, but higher urea levels did not differ from .5%. Flows of total N and microbial N to the duodenum were not affected by urea level. In Exp. 3, 100 yearling steers (347 kg) were fed dry-rolled corn finishing diets that contained 10% alfalfa hay as the dietary roughage to evaluate effects of dietary urea level on performance and carcass characteristics. Urea levels were 0, .35, .70, 1.05, or 1.40% urea (DM basis), with no other supplemental N provided. Dry matter intake (P = .10), ADG (P < .05), and G/F (P < .05) increased with intermediate concentrations of urea but decreased with the highest concentration. Regression analysis indicated that the optimal dietary urea level was .5% of DM for ADG and G/F. Urea increased dietary energy utilization but not metabolizable protein supply. PMID:9159292

  16. Effect of Cassava Hay and Rice Bran Oil Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Lunsin, R.; Wanapat, M.; Rowlinson, P.

    2012-01-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production and composition in dairy cows, while fatty acid composition of milk was influenced by RBO supplementation, and resulted in significantly lower (p<0.05) concentrations of both short-chain and medium-chain FA, and increased (p<0.05) the proportion of long-chain FA in milk fat, as well as significantly increased cis-9, trans-11 CLA and total CLA. In conclusion, RBO or CH exhibited specific effects on DM, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition in lactating dairy cows, which were not interactions between CH and RBO in the diets. Feeding lactating dairy cows with RBO could improve fatty acid in milk fat by increasing cis-9, trans-11 CLA. PMID:25049491

  17. Separation and concentration of sulfonylurea herbicides in milk by ionic-liquid-based foam flotation solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyuan; Cao, Bocheng; Yao, Di; Yu, Runzhong; Yu, Changqing; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2015-05-01

    The ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid foam flotation solid-phase extraction of sulfonylurea herbicides in milk was developed and validated. The proteins and lipids were isolated from the sample matrix by adding salt and adjusting the pH value. The target analytes eluted from the solid-phase extraction cartridge were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Some experimental parameters, including the pH value of sample solution, amount of NaCl, ionic liquid type, extraction time, flow rate of carrier gas, flotation time, and solid-phase extraction cartridge type were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the limits of detection for metsulfuron, pyrazosulfuron, chlorimuron-ethyl, and nicosulfuron were 1.3, 0.6, 0.7, and 1.1 μg/L, respectively. When the present method was applied to the analysis of milk samples the recoveries of the analytes ranged from 84.3 to 105.2% and relative standard deviations were >5.7%. PMID:25727190

  18. Effect of milking frequency on oxytocin release and milk production in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Negrão, J A.; Marnet, P G.; Labussière, J

    2001-02-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of milking stimulus on oxytocin release and to compare the effect of milking frequency on plasma levels of oxytocin and milk parameters. Twelve Lacaune ewes were subjected to six treatments (T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T7 daily milkings) during 6 days. At each milking, blood was sampled and plasma oxytocin levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Baseline levels of oxytocin were similar for all milking frequencies. The start of milking was followed by a significant increase in oxytocin levels for all milking frequencies. One daily milking induced significantly higher oxytocin levels than 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 daily milkings. Milk yield was significantly increased between 4 (1787.0+/-141.5ml) and 7 (1780.0+/-53.6ml) daily milkings compared to 1 (1104.0+/-81.2ml) daily milking. Total concentration of milk protein did not change, but the total milk fat yield for 5 (73.0+/-2.0g/l) and 7 (72.8+/-1.4g/l) daily milkings were significantly higher than for 1 (58.1+/-4.3g/l) daily milking. This study confirmed milk yield gains caused by frequent milk ejection and also showed that oxytocin release was not a limiting factor for milk yield gain when daily milking frequency was increased. PMID:11182311

  19. Effect of adding a mycotoxin-sequestering agent on milk aflatoxin M₁ concentration and the performance and immune response of dairy cattle fed an aflatoxin B₁-contaminated diet.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, O C M; Han, J H; Staples, C R; Adesogan, A T

    2012-10-01

    This project aimed to examine the effects of adding 2 doses of a montmorillonite-based mycotoxin adsorbent on milk aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) concentrations and the performance and innate immune response of dairy cows fed an aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-contaminated diet. Eight lactating cows were used in a duplicated 4×4 Latin square design with 12-d periods. Treatments included the following: (1) control diet (C), (2) aflatoxin diet (T) containing C and 75 µg of AFB(1)/kg, 3) low-clay (LC) diet containing T and Calibrin A (Amlan International, Chicago, IL) added at 0.2% of the diet dry matter (DM), and 4) high-clay diet (HC) containing T and Calibrin A added at 1% of the diet DM. Milk production and DM intake were recorded daily and milk was sampled twice daily on d 5, 9, 10, 11, and 12 in each period. Blood samples were collected on d 5 and 9 of each period. Dietary treatments did not affect DM intake, milk yield, or feed efficiency. Even though cows were limit fed, feeding T instead of C reduced milk fat yield (0.67 vs. 0.74 kg/d) and milk protein concentration (3.28 vs. 3.36%). Concentrations of AFM(1) in milk of cows fed the T and LC diets were similar (0.57 and 0.64 µg/kg) and greater than those of cows fed the HC diet (0.46 µg/kg). Haptoglobin concentration was greater (22.0 vs. 14.4) and β(2)-integrin expression (220 vs. 131) tended to be greater in cows fed diet T instead of C, but values for cows fed LC, HC, and C did not differ. In comparison to C, feeding T increased the innate immune response and decreased milk fat yield and milk protein concentration, but feeding LC and HC did not affect these measures. Only the HC diet reduced milk AFM(1) concentration. PMID:22901480

  20. [Effect of urea on penetration kinetics of vitamin A acid in human skin].

    PubMed

    Wohlrab, W

    1990-09-01

    It is well known that urea can considerably increase the release of drugs from ointment bases and that it is one of the most effective penetration promoters for topically applied drugs. In our present study, therefore, we investigated the influence of urea on the penetration kinetics of vitamin A acid (VAA) into the various layers of human skin. When a vehicle containing urea was applied to the skin, we found increased VAA concentrations depending on the penetration of urea. We discuss the significance of the synergistic properties of VAA and urea in the topical treatment of various skin disease. PMID:2264369

  1. Urea and ureolytic activity in lakes of different trophic status.

    PubMed

    Siuda, Waldemar; Chróst, Ryszard J

    2006-01-01

    Urea and uraease (U-ase) activity were determined in water samples taken from the surface layers of 17 lakes of different trophic status. Urea concentrations were inversely correlated with the trophic status of the studied lakes and varied from below the detection limit to 25 micromol l(-1). Maximal potential ureolytic activity (V(max)) ranged from 0.2 to 7.0 micromol l(-1) h(-1). The highest urea concentrations and the lowest U-ase activities were recorded in the spring, whereas the lowest urea concentrations and the highest rates of urea hydrolysis were observed late in summer, during heavy phytoplankton blooms. Since in the majority of the Great Mazurian Lakes microplankton growth was limited by nitrogen supply, urea was an important N source for both auto- and heterotrophic planktonic microorganisms throughout the growth period. U-ase activity was mainly related to the seston. Only up to 25% of total activity could be attributed to free enzymes dissolved in lake water. In epilimnetic water samples the bulk of the ureolytic activity originated from seston-attached bacteria. However, a positive, statistically significant correlation between ureolytic activity and chlorophyll a (Chl(a)) concentrations suggests that phytoplankton may also be responsible for at least a some of the observed ureolytic activity in the highly eutrophic Great Mazurian Lakes. PMID:17338274

  2. Influence of Ficoll on urea induced denaturation of fibrinogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaranarayanan, Kamatchi; Meenakshisundaram, N.

    2016-03-01

    Ficoll is a neutral, highly branched polymer used as a molecular crowder in the study of proteins. Ficoll is also part of Ficoll-Paque used in biology laboratories to separate blood to its components (erythrocytes, leukocytes etc.,). Role of Ficoll in the urea induced denaturation of protein Fibrinogen (Fg) has been analyzed using fluorescence, circular dichroism, molecular docking and interfacial studies. Fluorescence studies show that Ficoll prevents quenching of Fg in the presence of urea. From the circular dichroism spectra, Fg shows conformational transition to random coil with urea of 6 M concentration. Ficoll helps to shift this denaturation concentration to 8 M and thus constraints by shielding Fg during the process. Molecular docking studies indicate that Ficoll interacts favorably with the protein than urea. The surface tension and shear viscosity analysis shows clearly that the protein is shielded by Ficoll.

  3. Blood responses of calves fed milk substitutes containing hydrolyzed fish protein and lime-treated corn flour.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Castaneda, M; Brisson, G J

    1989-08-01

    Two experiments involving 3- to 5-d-old dairy calves were carried out. In Experiment 1, lime-treated corn flour (Nixtamal) supplied 50 to 100% of carbohydrates in a milk substitute based on sodium caseinate, lard, and cerelose. In Experiment 2, partially hydrolyzed fish protein concentrate replaced 50% of 67% of proteins in milk substitutes based on skim milk powder, lard, and 35% Nixtamal. Increasing the proportion of carbohydrates supplied by Nixtamal was associated with a linear decrease of postprandial serum glucose and insulin. Postprandial fluctuations in blood glucose were less in calves fed Nixtamal than in controls. Nixtamal probably was trapped within the casein clot in the abomasum, leading to delayed rate of passage of Nixtamal carbohydrates into the intestine. Replacing skim milk protein with hydrolyzed fish protein in diets containing Nixtamal had no effect on blood glucose or insulin but elevated free essential amino acids, which promoted glucagon secretion. More uniform concentrations of blood essential amino acids and glucose were related to lower blood urea at 54 d in calves fed diets based on hydrolyzed fish protein and Nixtamal, than that of control calves. It is suggested that more uniform postprandial blood glucose concentrations might reduce amino acid degradation for energy purposes and stimulate protein synthesis. Young dairy calves may adapt to milk substitutes based on Nixtamal and hydrolyzed fish protein despite changes in the concentration patterns of several blood components. PMID:2677072

  4. Effects of carbon dioxide on bacterial growth parameters in milk as measured by conductivity.

    PubMed

    Martin, J D; Werner, B G; Hotchkiss, J H

    2003-06-01

    Inhibition of bacterial growth by dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) has been well established in many foods including dairy foods. However, the effects of dissolved CO2 on specific growth parameters such as length of lag phase, time to maximum growth rate, and numbers of organisms at the stationary phase have not been quantified for organisms of concern in milk. The effect of dissolved CO2 concentrations of 0.6 to 61.4 mM on specific bacterial growth parameters in raw or single organism inoculated sterile milk was determined at 15 degrees C by conductance. Commingled raw or sterile milks were amended to a final concentration of 0.5 mg/ml each of urea and arginine HCl. Sterile milks were inoculated singly with one of six different microorganisms to a final concentration of approximately 10(2) to 10(3) cfu/ml; raw milk was adjusted to a final indigenous bacterial population of approximately 10(3) cfu/ml. Conductivity of the milk was recorded every 60 s over 4 to 5 d in a circulating apparatus at 15 degrees C. Conductivity values were fit to Gompertz equations and growth parameters calculated. Conductance correlated with plate counts and was satisfactory for monitoring microbial growth. Data fit the Gompertz equation with high correlation (R2 = 0.96 to 1.00). In all cases, dissolved CO2 significantly inhibited growth of raw milk bacteria, influencing lag, exponential, and stationary growth phases as well as all tested monocultures. PMID:12836927

  5. Effect of protein supplementation on milk production and metabolism of dairy cows grazing tropical grass.

    PubMed

    Danes, M A C; Chagas, L J; Pedroso, A M; Santos, F A P

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if midlactation dairy cows (Bos taurus L.) grazing intensively managed elephantgrass would have their protein requirement met exclusively with the pasture and an energy concentrate, making the use of protein ingredients unnecessary, as well as to determine the dietary crude protein (CP) content that would optimize the efficiency of N utilization (ENU). Thirty-three Holstein and crossbred (Holstein × Jersey) midlactation dairy cows, producing approximately 20 kg/d, were grouped within breed into 11 blocks according to milk yield and days in milk. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments and remained in the study for 11 wk. The control treatment contained only finely ground corn, minerals, and vitamins, and it was formulated to be 8.7% CP. Two higher levels of CP (formulated to be 13.4 and 18.1%) were achieved by replacing corn with solvent-extracted soybean meal (SSBM). Pasture was fertilized with 50 kg of N/ha after each grazing cycle and averaged 18.5% CP (dry matter basis). No differences were observed in milk yield or milk fat, protein, and casein content or casein yield. In addition, pasture intake was not different among treatments. Milk urea N increased linearly as the concentrate CP content increased. Cows fed the 8.7% CP concentrate had higher ENU. In another experiment, 4 ruminally cannulated Holstein dry cows were used in a metabolism trial designed in a 4×4 Latin square. Cows were fed the same treatments described as well as a fourth treatment with 13.4% CP in the concentrate, in which urea replaced SSBM as the main N source. Ruminal volatile fatty acid concentration and microbial synthesis were not affected by levels or sources of N in the concentrate. Ruminal NH(3)N content increased as the concentrate CP content increased. Inclusion of SSBM in the concentrate did not increase production and decreased the ENU of midlactation dairy cows grazing on tropical forage. Supplementation of an 8.7% CP concentrate, resulting in a diet with CP levels between 15.3 and 15.7% of dry matter, was sufficient to meet the protein requirements of such milk production, with the highest ENU (18.4%). PMID:23127909

  6. Effect of replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with high-oil traditional canola, high-oleic acid canola, or high-erucic acid rapeseed meals on rumen fermentation, digestibility, milk production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Domitrovich, C; Wachter, A; Cassidy, T; Lee, C; Shingfield, K J; Kairenius, P; Davis, J; Brown, J

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of replacing conventional, solvent-extracted canola meal (control; CTRL) with high oil content; conventional, mechanically extracted canola meal (CMEC); high-oleic, low polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) canola meal (HOLL); and high-erucic acid, low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (RPS) on rumen function, digestibility, milk production, and milk FA composition in lactating dairy cows. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 8 lactating dairy cows. Four of the cows were ruminally cannulated. All oilseed meals were included at approximately 12 to 13% of dietary dry matter (DM). Crude protein and fat concentrations (% of DM) of the meals were 43 and 3.1%, 32.8 and 16.1%, 45.2 and 13.7%, and 34.3 and 17.9% for CTRL, CMEC, HOLL, and RPS, respectively. All diets were formulated to supply net energy of lactation in excess of requirements. The CMEC and RPS diets were predicted to be about 1% deficient in metabolizable protein. Relative to the CTRL, inclusion of high-oil seed meals in the diet lowered ruminal acetate concentration and the molar acetate:propionate ratio and decreased DM intake. Milk yield generally followed DM intake and was lower for CMEC and RPS than the CTRL. Treatments had no effect on milk composition, other than an increase in milk urea nitrogen concentration for HOLL. Fat-corrected milk (3.5%) feed efficiency was increased by HOLL and RPS compared with CTRL. Urinary urea nitrogen losses were increased by HOLL, which, as a consequence, increased the ammonia-emitting potential of manure. The ratio of milk N-to-N intake was greater for CMEC and RPS. Replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with the high-oil meal decreased milk fat 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and total saturated FA content and enhanced cis-9 18:1 and total monounsaturated FA concentrations. Relative to the CTRL, canola increased total trans FA in milk, whereas inclusion of HOLL in the diet increased trans-11 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 CLA content. The RPS increased milk fat cis-13 22:1 content from 0.07 to 2.33 g/100g of FA. In conclusion, HOLL or RPS, which are likely to come from small-scale biodiesel plants where oil is cold pressed without hexane extraction, fed at levels at or above 12 to 13% of dietary DM may decrease feed intake and milk production, but can be used to alter milk FA composition in lactating dairy cows. PMID:21787941

  7. UREA: APPARENT CARRIER-MEDIATED TRANSPORT BY FACILITATED DIFFUSION IN DOGFISH ERYTHROCYTES.

    PubMed

    MURDAUGH, H V; ROBIN, E D; HEARN, C D

    1964-04-01

    The exposure of erythrocytes from the elasmobranch, Squalus acanthias, to solutions isosmotic with plasma (IM) but containing urea or hydroxyurea as the sole solute does not produce hemolysis. Exposure of these cells to IM methylurea, thiourea and acetamide does produce hemolysis. Low concentrations of urea, which are associated with hemolysis, protect dogfish red cells against hemolysis by methylurea and thiourea. Dogfish red cells exposed to mediums containing high concentrations of urea, or no urea, reach 95 percent of their equilibrium concentration in less than 5 minutes. PMID:14107461

  8. The effect of N-fertilisation rate or inclusion of red clover to timothy leys on fatty acid composition in milk of dairy cows fed a commercial silage: concentrate ratio.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, K; Gustavsson, A-M; Fievez, V; Martinsson, K

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to, under typical Swedish production conditions, evaluate the effects of grass silages subjected to different N-fertilisation regimes fed to dairy cows on the fatty acid (FA) composition of their milk, and to compare the grass silages in this respect to red clover-dominated silage. Grass silages made from first year Phleum pratense L. leys subjected to three N-fertilisation regimes (30, 90 and 120 kg N/ha, designated G-30, G-90 and G-120, respectively) and a mixed red clover-grass silage (Trifolium pratense L. and P. pratense L.; 60/40 on dry matter (DM) basis, designated RC-G) were produced. The experiment was conducted as a change-over design, including 24 primiparous and multiparous dairy cows of the Swedish Red breed, each of which was allocated to three of the four diets. The cows were offered 11 kg DM of silage and 7 kg concentrates. The silages had similar DM and energy concentrations. The CP concentration increased with increase in N-fertilisation level. There was a linear increase in DM intake of the different silages with increased N fertilisation. There were also differences in concentrations of both individual and total FAs amongst silages. The daily milk production (kg/day) did not significantly differ between treatments, but G-30 silage resulted in higher concentrations of 18:2n-6 in the milk compared with the other two grass silages. The highest concentrations of 18:3n-3 and cis-9, trans-11 18:2 were found in milk from cows offered the RC-G silage. The G-30 diet resulted in higher concentration of 18:2n-6 and the same concentration of 18:3n-3 in the milk as the other grass silages, despite lower intake levels of these FAs. The apparent recoveries of 18:3n-3 from feed to milk were 5.74%, 4.27%, 4.10% and 5.31% for G-30, G-90, G-120 and RC-G, respectively. A higher recovery when red clover is included in the diet confirms previous reports. The higher apparent recovery of 18:3n-3 on the G-30 treatment may be related to the lower silage DM intake, which led to a higher relative proportion of ingested FAs originating from concentrates compared with the G-90 and G-120 diets. With the rates and types of concentrates used in this study, the achieved differences in FA composition among the silages were not enough to influence the concentrations of unsaturated FAs in milk. PMID:23031480

  9. Improving the nutritive value of wheat straw with urea and yeast culture for dry season feeding of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kashongwe, Olivier Basole; Migwi, Preminius; Bebe, Bockline Omedo; Ooro, Patrick Auwor; Onyango, Tobias Atali; Osoo, John Odhiambo

    2014-08-01

    The study evaluated the effects of feeding urea treated/supplemented wheat straw-based diets with addition of yeast culture (YC) as a dry season feed for dairy cows. Wheat straw diets with 3.6% urea and 5.8% molasses were formulated to upgrade nonprotein nitrogen levels and fibre degradation in the rumen. Yeast culture was included at 0 and 10 g/cow/day in mixer with commercial dairy meal to improve on fibre degradation and milk yield. Two experiments were conducted. Firstly, an in sacco dry matter degradability (DMD) trial with three steers in a completely randomized design (CRD) with a 3??2 factorial arrangement to determine the effects on intake and rumen degradation parameters. Secondly, feeding trial with 18 lactating cows in a 3??2 factorial arrangement at two levels of yeast culture (0 and 10 g/cow/day) and three types of urea interventions: No intervention (WS); addition of urea to straw at the time of feeding (USWS); and 7 days incubation of straw with urea (UTWS). Yeast cultures addition had no effect on rumen pH and NH3-N, but urea intervention showed an effect on rumen pH with USWS being lowest (p?urea interventions and yeast culture addition had no effect (p?>?0.05) on dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition but they increased (p?

  10. Molecular Mechanisms of Urea Transport in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Janet D.; Blount, Mitsi A.; Sands, Jeff M.

    2012-01-01

    In the late 1980s, urea permeability measurements produced values that could not be explained by paracellular transport or lipid phase diffusion. The existence of urea transport proteins were thus proposed and less than a decade later, the first urea transporter was cloned. The SLC14A family of urea transporters has two major subgroups, designated SLC14A1 (or UT-B) and Slc14A2 (or UT-A). UT-B and UT-A gene products are glycoproteins located in various extra-renal tissues however, a majority of the resulting isoforms are found in the kidney. The UT-B (Slc14A1) urea transporter was originally isolated from erythrocytes and two isoforms have been reported. In kidney, UT-B is located primarily in the descending vasa recta. The UT-A (Slc14A2) urea transporter yields 6 distinct isoforms, of which 3 are found chiefly in the kidney medulla. UT-A1 and UT-A3 are found in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), while UT-A2 is located in the thin descending limb. These transporters are crucial to the kidney’s ability to concentrate urine. The regulation of urea transporter activity in the IMCD involves acute modification through phosphorylation and subsequent movement to the plasma membrane. UT-A1 and UT-A3 accumulate in the plasma membrane in response to stimulation by vasopressin or hypertonicity. Long term regulation of the urea transporters in the IMCD involves altering protein abundance in response to changes in hydration status, low protein diets, or adrenal steroids. Urea transporters have been studied using animal models of disease including diabetes mellitus, lithium intoxication, hypertension, and nephrotoxic drug responses. Exciting new genetically engineered mouse models are being developed to study these transporters. PMID:23007461

  11. Effects of dietary forage sources on rumen microbial protein synthesis and milk performance in early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Fu, Y; Wang, B; Wang, C; Ye, J A; Wu, Y M; Liu, J-X

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary forage sources on milk performance, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and N utilization in early lactation dairy cows. Twelve primiparous Chinese Holstein dairy cows (45 ± 6.0 DIM) were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric, with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 45:55 [dry matter (DM) basis] and contained similar concentrate mixtures. Different forage sources were then added (on a DM basis): 21% corn silage, 19% corn stover, and 5% alfalfa hay (CS); 19% corn silage, 21% Chinese wild rye hay and 5% alfalfa hay (CWR); or 19% corn silage, 9% Chinese wild rye hay, and 17% alfalfa hay (AH). Each period lasted for 21 d, with the first 14 d for an adaptation period. Dry matter intake was not affected by the source of dietary forage. Milk yield was higher for cows fed AH than those fed CS, with an intermediate value for CWR. Milk protein content was higher in the cows fed AH compared with CWR (3.02 vs. 2.92%), with CS (2.95%) at an intermediate position. The contents of milk fat and lactose were not different among the treatments. However, milk efficiency (milk yield/DM intake) was higher for cows fed AH than those fed CS, with those fed CWR intermediate. Cows fed AH had higher microbial protein yield and metabolizable protein than those fed CS or CWR. The concentrations of urea N in the urine, blood, and milk were decreased for cows fed AH, indicating an increased N conversion. The results indicated that corn stover could replace Chinese wild rye grass in the diets for lactating cows and that a high proportion of alfalfa hay in the diet is beneficial for milk protein production by increasing microbial protein yield. This can be attributed to the improving the supply of rumen-available energy. PMID:23295118

  12. Effect of dry- versus wet-autoclaving of spray-dried egg albumen compared with casein as protein sources on apparent nitrogen and energy balance, plasma urea nitrogen and glucose concentrations, and growth performance of neonatal swine.

    PubMed

    Watkins, K L; Veum, T L

    2010-08-01

    Forty crossbred neonatal pigs with an average initial age of 4 d and BW of 2.16 kg were used in a 28-d experiment to evaluate the nutritional effects of autoclaving a commercial sugar-free, spray-dried egg albumen (EA) compared with casein. Basal diet protein sources were lactic acid casein and EA. Two more dietary treatments were made by replacing the EA with dry-autoclaved EA (DAEA) or wet-autoclaved EA (WAEA, EA and water mixed in a 1.0:1.2 ratio before autoclaving). The DAEA and WAEA were autoclaved at 121 degrees C and 1.75 kg/cm(2) pressure for 30 min, and WAEA was oven-dried after autoclaving. Analyzed trypsin inhibitor units/mg of EA, DAEA, and WAEA were 535.0, 9.0, and 6.5, respectively. Pigs were fed the diets in gruel form to appetite in individual metabolism cages every 2 h during the experiment. Blood samples were taken on d 7, 14, and 21, and total urine and fecal grab-samples were collected from d 14 to 21 of the experiment. Response criteria were N and energy balance, plasma urea N (PUN) and glucose concentrations, and growth performance. The WAEA was a higher quality protein source for neonatal pigs than DAEA. Pigs fed the diet containing WAEA absorbed and retained more (P < 0.05) grams of N/d, had higher (P < 0.05) percentages of N and energy that were absorbed and retained/intake, had lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of PUN overall, and had higher (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F than pigs fed the diet containing DAEA. Most response criteria of pigs fed the diets containing DAEA or EA were not different, although pigs fed the diet containing DAEA had lower (P < 0.05) overall PUN concentrations, and pigs fed the diet containing EA had higher (P < 0.05) percentages of energy absorbed and retained/intake, and higher ADG and G:F than pigs fed the diet containing DAEA. Growth performance was not different for pigs fed the diets containing WAEA or casein. However, pigs fed the diet containing casein excreted less (P < 0.05) fecal N, retained more (P < 0/05) grams of N/d, had higher percentages of N absorbed and retained/intake, and had lower (P < 0.05) PUN concentrations overall than pigs fed the diet containing WAEA. In conclusion, WAEA was a higher quality protein source for neonatal pigs than DAEA or EA, whereas lactic casein was a higher quality protein source for neonatal pigs than EA, DAEA, or WAEA. PMID:20418450

  13. Hydrogen production via urea electrolysis using a gel electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Rebecca L.; Botte, Gerardine G.

    2011-03-01

    A technology was demonstrated for the production of hydrogen and other valuable products (nitrogen and clean water) through the electrochemical oxidation of urea in alkaline media. In addition, this process remediates toxic nitrates and prevents gaseous ammonia emissions. Improvements to urea electrolysis were made through replacement of aqueous KOH electrolyte with a poly(acrylic acid) gel electrolyte. A small volume of poly(acrylic acid) gel electrolyte was used to accomplish the electrochemical oxidation of urea improving on the previous requirement for large amounts of aqueous potassium hydroxide. The effect of gel composition was investigated by varying polymer content and KOH concentrations within the polymer matrix in order to determine which is the most advantageous for the electrochemical oxidation of urea and production of hydrogen.

  14. Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves.

    PubMed

    Berends, H; van den Borne, J J G C; Røjen, B A; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

    2015-02-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of protein provision to calves fed a combination of solid feed (SF) and milk replacer (MR) at equal total N intake on urea recycling and N retention. Nitrogen balance traits and [(15)N2]urea kinetics were measured in 30 calves (23 wk of age, 180±3.7kg of body weight), after being exposed to the following experimental treatments for 11 wk: a low level of SF with a low N content (SF providing 12% of total N intake), a high level of SF with a low N content (SF providing 22% of total N intake), or a high level of SF with a high N content (SF providing 36% of total N intake). The SF mixture consisted of 50% concentrates, 25% corn silage, and 25% straw on a dry matter basis. Total N intake was equalized to 1.8g of N·kg of BW(-0.75)·d(-1) by adjusting N intake via MR. All calves were housed individually on metabolic cages to allow for quantification of a N balance of calves for 5 d, and for the assessment of urea recycling from [(15)N2]urea kinetics. Increasing low-N SF intake at equal total N intake resulted in a shift from urinary to fecal N excretion but did not affect protein retention (0.71g of N·kg of BW(-0.75)·d(-1)). Increasing low-N SF intake increased urea recycling but urea reused for anabolism remained unaffected. Total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased (-9%) with increasing low-N SF intake, indicating reduced rumen fermentation. Increasing the N content of SF at equal total N intake resulted in decreased urea production, excretion, and return to ornithine cycle, and increased protein retention by 17%. This increase was likely related to an effect of energy availability on protein retention due to an increase in total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestion (>10%) and due to an increased energy supply via the MR. In conclusion, increasing low-N SF intake at the expense of N intake from MR, did not affect protein retention efficiency in calves. Increasing the N content of SF at equal total N intake decreased urea production, increased protein retention, and coincided with improved fiber degradation. Therefore, results suggest that low N availability in the rumen limits microbial growth and rumen fermentation in calves fed low-N SF (93g of CP/kg of DM), and this effect cannot be compensated for by recycling of urea originating from MR. PMID:25497820

  15. Compound Heterozygous Mutations in SLC30A2/ZnT2 Results in Low Milk Zinc Concentrations: A Novel Mechanism for Zinc Deficiency in a Breast-Fed Infant

    PubMed Central

    Itsumura, Naoya; Inamo, Yasuji; Okazaki, Fumiko; Teranishi, Fumie; Narita, Hiroshi; Kambe, Taiho; Kodama, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Zinc concentrations in breast milk are considerably higher than those of the maternal serum, to meet the infant's requirements for normal growth and development. Thus, effective mechanisms ensuring secretion of large amounts of zinc into the milk operate in mammary epithelial cells during lactation. ZnT2 was recently found to play an essential role in the secretion of zinc into milk. Heterozygous mutations of human ZnT2 (hZnT2), including H54R and G87R, in mothers result in low (>75% reduction) secretion of zinc into the breast milk, and infants fed on the milk develop transient neonatal zinc deficiency. We identified two novel missense mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene in a Japanese mother with low milk zinc concentrations (>90% reduction) whose infant developed severe zinc deficiency; a T to C transition (c.454T>C) at exon 4, which substitutes a tryptophan residue with an arginine residue (W152R), and a C to T transition (c.887C>T) at exon 7, which substitutes a serine residue with a leucine residue (S296L). Biochemical characterization using zinc-sensitive DT40 cells indicated that the W152R mutation abolished the abilities to transport zinc and to form a dimer complex, indicating a loss-of-function mutation. The S296L mutation retained both abilities but was extremely destabilized. The two mutations were found on different alleles, indicating that the genotype of the mother with low milk zinc was compound heterozygous. These results show novel compound heterozygous mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene causing zinc deficiency in a breast-fed infant. PMID:23741301

  16. Comparative study of selected blood biochemical components in milk or milk-replacer fed calves during the second week of life.

    PubMed

    Lepczyński, Adam; Herosimczyk, Agnieszka; Dratwa-Chałupnik, Alicja; Ozgo, Małgorzata; Michałek, Katarzyna; Malinowski, Eugeniusz; Skrzypczak, Wiesław Franciszek

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out on 13 male Polish Black and White dairy calves of 75% share of the Holstein-Friesian (HF) breed during the second week of life. The animals were divided into two groups. One group (n=7) was fed mother's milk and the second (n=6) milk replacer. The dynamics of changes in concentration of selected blood biochemical components connected with nitrogen metabolism (plasma total protein, albumin, urea, endogenous creatinine) and with mineral metabolism (sodium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and plasma osmotic pressure) were analyzed in both groups. The results show that the type of ingested food influences the concentration of indicators reflecting nitrogen metabolism. Changes of these parameters in calves fed milk replacer are possibly connected with advantageous catabolic changes. Stable concentrations of main extracellular fluid electrolytes and blood plasma osmotic pressure were found in both groups of calves. Constant blood plasma calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper concentrations observed during this study might also indicate the relative maturity of mechanisms maintaining water and electrolyte balance. Nevertheless, it seemsjustifiable to monitor the copper concentrations in plasma of young calves. PMID:22195473

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extracts against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus in a microbiological medium and milk of various fat concentrations.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, Kristen L; Burris, Kellie P; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Davidson, P Michael; Stewart, C Neal

    2014-02-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces are widely used in the preparation of beverages. The calyces contain compounds that exhibit antimicrobial activity, yet little research has been conducted on their possible use in food systems as antimicrobials. Aqueous extracts prepared from the brand "Mi Costenita" were sterilized by membrane filtration (0.22-μm pore size) or autoclaving (121 °C, 30 min) and tested for antimicrobial activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains ATCC 43894 and Cider and Staphylococcus aureus strains SA113 and ATCC 27708 in a microbiological medium and ultrahigh-temperature-processed milk with various fat percentages. Extracts heated by autoclaving exhibited greater activity than did filtered extracts in a microbiological medium. Against E. coli, results of 20 mg/ml filtered extract were not different from those of the control, whereas autoclaved extracts reduced viable cells ca. 3 to 4 log CFU/ml. At 60 mg/ml, both extracts inactivated cells after 24 h. There were reduced populations of both strains of S. aureus (ca. 2.7 and 3 log CFU/ml, respectively) after 24 h of incubation in 40 mg/ml filtered extracts. When grown in autoclaved extracts at 40 mg/ml, both strains of S. aureus were inactivated after 9 h. Autoclaved extracts had decreased anthocyanin content (2.63 mg/liter) compared with filtered extracts (14.27 mg/liter), whereas the phenolic content (48.7 and 53.8 mg/g) remained similar for both treatments. Autoclaved extracts were then tested for activity in milk at various fat concentrations (skim [<0.5%], 1%, 2%, and whole [>3.25%]) against a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of E. coli O157:H7 and a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of S. aureus. Extracts at 40 mg/ml inactivated S. aureus after 168 h in skim and whole milk, and E. coli was inactivated after 96 h in 60 mg/ml extract in all fat levels. These findings show the potential use of Hibiscus extracts to prevent the growth of pathogens in foods and beverages. PMID:24490920

  18. Effect of replacing grass silage with red clover silage on nutrient digestion, nitrogen metabolism, and milk fat composition in lactating cows fed diets containing a 60:40 forage-to-concentrate ratio.

    PubMed

    Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Vanhatalo, A; Toivonen, V; Heikkilä, T; Lee, M R F; Shingfield, K J

    2014-01-01

    Diets based on red clover silage (RCS) typically increase the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ruminant meat and milk and lower the efficiency of N utilization compared with grass silages (GS). Four multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (108 d postpartum) fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods to evaluate the effect of incremental replacement of GS with RCS on milk production, nutrient digestion, whole-body N metabolism, and milk fatty acid composition. Treatments comprised total mixed rations offered ad libitum, containing 600 g of forage/kg of diet dry matter (DM), with RCS replacing GS in ratios of 0:100, 33:67, 67:33, and 100:0 on a DM basis. Intake of DM and milk yield tended to be higher when RCS and GS were offered as a mixture than when fed alone. Forage species had no influence on the concentration or secretion of total milk fat, whereas replacing GS with RCS tended to decrease milk protein concentration and yield. Substitution of GS with RCS decreased linearly whole-tract apparent organic matter, fiber, and N digestion. Forage species had no effect on total nonammonia N at the omasum, whereas the flow of most AA at the omasum was higher for diets based on a mixture of forages. Replacing GS with RCS progressively lowered protein degradation in the rumen, increased linearly ruminal escape of dietary protein, and decreased linearly microbial protein synthesis. Incremental inclusion of RCS in the diet tended to lower whole-body N balance, increased linearly the proportion of dietary N excreted in feces and urine, and decreased linearly the utilization of dietary N for milk protein synthesis. Furthermore, replacing GS with RCS decreased linearly milk fat 4:0 to 8:0, 14:0, and 16:0 concentrations and increased linearly 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 concentrations, in the absence of changes in cis-9 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 18:2, or total trans fatty acid concentration. Inclusion of RCS in the diet progressively increased the apparent transfer of 18-carbon PUFA from the diet into milk, but had no effect on the amount of 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 at the omasum recovered in milk. In conclusion, forage species modified ruminal N metabolism, the flow of AA at the omasum, and whole-body N partitioning. A lower efficiency of N utilization for milk protein synthesis with RCS relative to GS was associated with decreased availability of AA for absorption, with some evidence of an imbalance in the supply of AA relative to requirements. Higher enrichment of PUFA in milk for diets based on RCS was related to an increased supply for absorption, with no indication that forage species substantially altered PUFA bioavailability. PMID:24679932

  19. The determination of the concentrations of Isoforms of Vitamin E in tissues, milk and blood via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) after short-term feeding in dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of change in the concentrations of the four isoforms of vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol) in bovine tissues (liver, mammary and muscle), blood and milk after short-term feeding of a vegetable-derived oil (Tmix) particularl...

  20. ASSOCIATIONS AMONG CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF IGF-1 AND GH DURING THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD WITH RESUMPTION OF ESTRUS, CALF WEIGHTS, AND MILK PRODUCTION IN MATURE CROSSBRED COWS FED VARYING LEVELS OF ENERGY INTAKE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and GH fluctuate in response to nutritional status. Objectives of this study were to evaluate usefulness of circulating profiles of IGF-1 and GH during the postpartum period as predictors of capacity to resume estrus and level of production (milk and calf growth)...

  1. 21 CFR 131.111 - Acidified milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... optional ingredients. (1) Concentrated skim milk, nonfat dry milk, buttermilk, whey, lactose, lactalbumins, lactoglobulins, or whey modified by partial or complete removal of lactose and/or minerals, to increase...

  2. 21 CFR 131.112 - Cultured milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients. (1) Concentrated skim milk, nonfat dry milk, buttermilk, whey, lactose, lact-al-bum-ins, lactoglobulins, or whey modified by partial or complete removal of lactose and/or minerals, to increase...

  3. Active urea transport and an unusual basolateral membrane composition in the gills of a marine elasmobranch.

    PubMed

    Fines, G A; Ballantyne, J S; Wright, P A

    2001-01-01

    In elasmobranch fishes, urea occurs at high concentrations (350-600 mM) in the body fluids and tissues, where it plays an important role in osmoregulation. Retention of urea by the gill against this huge blood-to-water diffusion gradient requires specialized adaptations to the epithelial cell membranes. Experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms and structural features that facilitate urea retention by the gill of the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias. Analysis of urea uptake by gill basolateral membrane vesicles revealed the presence of a phloretin-sensitive (half inhibition 0.09 mM), sodium-coupled, secondary active urea transporter (Michaelis constant = 10.1 mM, maximal velocity = 0.34 micromol. h(-1). mg protein(-1)). We propose that this system actively transports urea out of the gill epithelial cells back into the blood against the urea concentration gradient. Lipid analyses of the basolateral membrane revealed high levels of cholesterol contributing to the highest reported cholesterol-to-phospholipid molar ratio (3.68). This unique combination of active urea transport and modification of the phospholipid bilayer membrane is responsible for decreasing the gill permeability to urea and facilitating urea retention by the gill of Squalus acanthias. PMID:11124129

  4. Blood urea content for evaluating dietary protein quality.

    PubMed

    Bassily, N S; Michael, K G; Said, A K

    1982-01-01

    The protein quality of broad beans was evaluated by using three different methods: the net protein ratio (NPR), the net protein utilization (NPU) and the relative protein value (RPV). Casein was used as a reference protein. The relationship between the values obtained on rats by each method and serum urea concentrations were examined. Serum urea concentration increased by increasing the dietary protein content. It showed a positive correlation of 0.70 and 0.60 for broad beans and casein respectively. NPR values increased by decreasing the level of dietary protein. There was no relationship between the NPR and the serum urea contents in animals fed the casein and broad bean diets. The NPU values indicated that protein utilization was greatest at low dietary protein levels and decreases by increasing the protein content of diet. Serum urea concentration showed an inverse proportion with the NPU values. This was demonstrated by correlations of -0.67 and -0.75 for broad beans and casein respectively. The highest RPV for broad beans was obtained by using the change in body water and the lowest by using the change in body nitrogen as a response parameter. An inverse relationship exists between serum urea concentration and the RPV for broad beans. PMID:7155186

  5. Effects of short-term supplementation of clinoptilolite in colostrum and milk on the concentration of some serum minerals in neonatal dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Mohri, M; Seifi, H A; Maleki, M

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the use of both natural and synthetic zeolites in animal nutrition has increased mainly to improve their performance, health, and to protect against mycotoxin intoxication. Thirty calves were used in the present study for the determination of some physiologic effects of clinoptilolite supplementation. The animals were divided equally into three groups (control, test 1, and test 2). The three groups of calves were homogeneous for parity of dams, sex, and month of birth. For group test 1, clinoptilolite in the concentration of 2% of each colostrum meal was added for 48 h, and for group test 2, clinoptilolite in the concentration of 2% was added to each colostrum and milk meal for 14 days. Blood samples were taken from all calves 12 h after birth and at the end of the first, second, third, forth, fifth, and sixth weeks of life. Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), and potassium (K) were determined in the serum. For statistical analysis of data, a repeated measures approach using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with mixed linear models was used. Clinoptilolite supplementation had significant effect on the concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and iron. The concentrations of Fe significantly higher in test group 2 than other trial groups (p < 0.05). Calcium concentrations were significantly higher in serum of clinoptilolite-treated than control calves (p < 0.05). The concentrations of phosphorus were significantly lower in test groups than control group (p < 0.05). Sodium concentrations were significantly higher in clinoptilolite-supplemented groups than control calves (p < 0.05). Potassium and magnesium concentrations were not affected by clinoptilolite supplementation. Clinoptilolite supplementation could promote iron levels in serum and better hemopoiesis and prevent pathologic or physiologic drop of red blood cell (RBC) parameters in supplemented calves during a first few weeks of life. According to higher need and utilization of Ca in growing animals, clinoptilolite supplementation could increase available Ca. Based on the results of the present study and the importance of dietary phosphorus in many physiologic processes, the level of phosphorus in diet of neonatal dairy calves must be considered and adapted when clinoptilolite was supplemented. With an adequate supply of good quality drinking water, cattle can tolerate large quantities of dietary sodium chloride. Thus, it seems that significant increase in serum Na concentration during short-term supplementation of clinoptilolite in neonatal calves could be well tolerated without any adverse effects. PMID:18317705

  6. Cytokines in human milk.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the past 30 years to investigate the protective functions of human milk strongly support the notion that breastfeeding prevents infantile infections, particularly those affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. However, more recent clinical and experimental observations also suggest that human milk not only provides passive protection, but also can directly modulate the immunological development of the recipient infant. The study of this remarkable defense system in human milk has been difficult because of its biochemical complexity, the small concentration of certain bioactive components, the compartmentalization of some of these agents, the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes of milk during lactation, and the lack of specific reagents to quantify these agents. However, a host of bioactive substances, including hormones, growth factors, and immunological factors such as cytokines, have been identified in human milk. Cytokines are pluripotent polypeptides that act in autocrine/paracrine fashions by binding to specific cellular receptors. They operate in networks and orchestrate the development and functions of immune system. Several different cytokines and chemokines have been discovered in human milk in the past years, and the list is growing very rapidly. This article will review the current knowledge about the increasingly complex network of chemoattractants, activators, and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in human milk and their potential role in compensating for the developmental delay of the neonate immune system. PMID:20105664

  7. Extruded soybean meal increased feed intake and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giallongo, F; Oh, J; Frederick, T; Isenberg, B; Kniffen, D M; Fabin, R A; Hristov, A N

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of 2 extruded soybean meals (ESBM) processed at 2 extruder temperatures, 149°C (LTM) and 171°C (HTM), on performance, nutrient digestibility, milk fatty acid and plasma amino acid profiles, and rumen fermentation in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were included in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods. The control diet contained 13% solvent-extracted soybean meal (SSBM; 53.5% crude protein with 74.1% ruminal degradability and 1.8% fat), which was replaced with equivalent amount (dry matter basis) of LTM (46.8%, 59.8%, and 10.0%) or HTM (46.9%, 41.1%, and 10.9%, respectively) ESBM in the 2 experimental diets (LTM and HTM, respectively). The diets met or exceeded the nutrient requirements of the cows for net energy of lactation and metabolizable protein. The 2 ESBM diets increased dry matter intake and milk yield compared with SSBM. Feed efficiency and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Milk protein yield tended to be increased by ESBM compared with SSBM. Milk urea N and urinary urea N excretions were increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Concentration of fatty acids with chain length of up to C17 and total saturated fatty acids in milk fat were generally decreased and that of C18 and total mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids was increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Blood plasma concentrations of His, Leu, and Val were increased by HTM compared with LTM and SSBM. Plasma concentration of Met was decreased, whereas that of carnosine was increased by the ESBM diets. Treatments had no effect on rumen fermentation, but the proportion of Fibrobacter spp. in whole ruminal contents was increased by HTM compared with SSBM and LTM. Overall, data from this crossover experiment suggest that substituting SSBM with ESBM in the diet has a positive effect on feed intake and milk yield in dairy cows. PMID:26188569

  8. Milk from forage as affected by carbohydrate source and degradability with alfalfa silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, E; Chouinard, P Y; Allard, G; Lapierre, H; Pellerin, D

    2006-01-01

    Milk from forage (MF) is an estimation of the milk produced solely from forage intake. It is calculated by subtracting milk production theoretically allowed by concentrates from total milk production, assuming that maintenance requirements are covered by the forage portion of the diet. Eight multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to evaluate the impact on MF of different sources of carbohydrate with forage that was high in RDP. Diets were alfalfa-based total mixed rations that were formulated to provide similar concentrations of NEL and CP while differing in rumen degradability of concentrate carbohydrates. Treatments were 1) cracked corn (control), 2) ground corn (GC), 3) GC plus wheat starch (GC+S), and 4) GC plus dried whey permeate (GC+W). The GC and the GC+S treatments increased MF as calculated on a protein basis (14.8 vs. 10.5 kg) and increased average MF production (8.6 vs. 5.5 kg) compared with the control. Protein of forage was used more efficiently with GC and with GC+S, as shown by the lower differences between allowable MF, which estimates the potential for milk production from forage, and MF on a protein basis for these 2 treatments when compared with the control. Compared with the control, DMI increased with GC and GC+S; GC+W yielded the highest DMI. Milk production with GC+W (35.8 kg/d) was lower than with GC and GC+S (37.5 kg/d) but was higher than the control (34.0 kg/d). Milk fat concentration was higher with GC+W and lower with GC+S; GC and the control had intermediate values. Milk urea was higher with the control diet compared with the other 3 treatments. Results emphasize the advantage of using concentrates of higher degradability in the rumen to improve MF and milk production when feeding silage with high rumen-degradable protein. PMID:16357292

  9. NiO nanoparticle-based urea biosensor.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Manisha; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2013-03-15

    NiO nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) have been exploited successfully for the fabrication of a urea biosensor. A thin film of NiO nanoparticles deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate serves as an efficient matrix for the immobilisation of urease (Ur), the specific enzyme for urea detection. The prepared bioelectrode (Ur/NiO-NP/ITO/glass) is utilised for urea sensing using cyclic voltammetry and UV-visible spectroscopy. NiO nanoparticles act as electro-catalytic species that are based on the shuttling of electrons between Ni(2+) and Ni(3+) in the octahedral site and result in an enhanced electrochemical current response. The prepared bioelectrode (Ur/NiO-NPs/ITO/glass) exhibits a high sensitivity of 21.3 μA/(mM (*) cm(2)) and a good linearity in a wide range (0.83-16.65 Mm) of urea concentrations with fast response time of 5s. The low value of the Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)=0.34 mM) indicates the high affinity of Ur towards the analyte (urea). The high catalytic activity, along with the redox behaviour of NiO-NPs, makes it an efficient matrix for the realisation of a urea biosensor. PMID:22947517

  10. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. PMID:24029787

  11. Studies on antiretroviral drug concentrations in breast milk: validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of 7 anti-human immunodeficiency virus medications.

    PubMed

    Rezk, Naser L; White, Nicole; Bridges, Arlene S; Abdel-Megeed, Mohamed F; Mohamed, Tarek M; Moselhy, Said S; Kashuba, Angela D M

    2008-10-01

    Studying the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs in breast milk has important implications for the health of both the mother and the infant, particularly in resource-poor countries. Breast milk is a highly complex biological matrix, yet it is necessary to develop and validate methods in this matrix, which simultaneously measure multiple analytes, as women may be taking any number of drug combinations to combat human immunodeficiency virus infection. Here, we report a novel extraction method coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry for the accurate, precise, and specific measurement of 7 antiretroviral drugs currently prescribed to infected mothers. Using 200 microL of human breast milk, simultaneous quantification of lamivudine (3TC), stavudine (d4T), zidovudine (ZDV), nevirapine (NVP), nelfinavir (NFV), ritonavir, and lopinavir was validated over the range of 10-10,000 ng/mL. Intraday accuracy and precision for all analytes were 99.3% and 5.0 %, respectively. Interday accuracy and precision were 99.4 % and 7.8%, respectively. Cross-assay validation with UV detection was performed using clinical breast milk samples, and the results of the 2 assays were in good agreement (P = 0.0001, r = 0.97). Breast milk to plasma concentration ratios for the different antiretroviral drugs were determined as follows: 3TC = 2.96, d4T = 1.73, ZDV = 1.17, NVP = 0.82, and NFV = 0.21. PMID:18758393

  12. 7 CFR 1131.60 - Handler's value of milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... paragraph (f) of this section. Receipts of nonfluid milk products that are distributed as labeled... concentrated fluid milk products from pool plants, plants regulated under other Federal orders, and unregulated... of skim milk and butterfat in receipts of concentrated fluid milk products assigned to Class...

  13. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... milk protein. Sources of such nonfat solids/protein include but are not limited to: Casein, whey protein concentrate, milk protein concentrate, dry whey, caseinates, lactose, and any similar dairy... contains less than 2.25 percent true milk protein; whey; plain or sweetened evaporated milk/skim...

  14. Urea treated maize straw for small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    García-Martínez, Anastacio; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito; Castelán-Ortega, Octavio Alonso; Espinoza-Ortega, Angélica; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel

    2009-10-01

    Maize straw is the main roughage for dairy herds in campesino farms in central Mexico. The objective was to evaluate feeding milking cows on maize straw treated with 40 g/kg DM of urea (A) or untreated straw (B), and 3.0 kg/d of 18% CP concentrate. Twenty-four Holsteins in late lactation from 8 farmers were sorted in two groups: sequence A-B-A or B-A-B; periods were 28 days. Mean daily milk yield for the last two weeks per period, and live-weight and body-condition score every 14 days were used for analysis. Maize straw was ad libitum. Chemical analysis and in vitro digestibility were analysed by Student's t test, animal variables by a switch-back design. 'A' had 44.3 g/kg DM more CP and 106.5 g/kg DM higher in vitro digestibility than 'B' (710 g/kg DM +/- 0.75 'A' vs. 603.5 g/kg DM +/- 1.44 'B'). Despite higher digestibility and intake, there were no differences (P > 0.05) for milk yield, live-weight or body-condition score, although there were in straw intake (P < 0.05). Cows on 'A' ate 1.7 kg/cow/day more straw DM than on 'B'. Lack of response did not offset higher feeding costs although margins were high. Lack of response is attributed to short length of periods and late lactation of cows. PMID:19330533

  15. Comparison of the nutrient composition of commercial dog milk replacers with that of dog milk

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Cailin R.; Freeman, Lisa M.; Martin, Camilia R.; Power, Michael L.; Fascetti, Andrea J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the nutrient composition of commercially available dog milk replacers with that of dog milk. Design Prospective, cross-sectional study. Sample 5 dog milk samples and 15 samples of commercial dog milk replacers. Procedures Dog milk and milk replacers were analyzed for concentrations of total protein, essential amino acids, sugars, total fat, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus. Energy density was calculated. Results from milk replacers were compared with the range of the concentration of each nutrient in milk samples from mature dogs as well as the National Research Council (NRC) recommendations for puppy growth. Results Milk replacers varied widely in caloric density and concentration of nutrients such as calcium, protein, and fat. Calcium concentration was lower in 14 of 15 milk replacers than in the dog milk samples. Docosahexaenoic acid was undetectable in 12 of 15 milk replacers but present in all dog milk samples. All milk replacers had numerous essential nutrients outside of the range of the dog milk samples, and many had concentrations of amino acids, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus less than the NRC minimal requirement or recommended allowance. Compared with NRC recommendations, some dog milk samples had concentrations of total protein, linoleic acid, calcium, or phosphorus less than the recommended allowance. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results suggested that there was substantial variation in nutrient composition of 15 dog milk replacers and that some products were closer approximations of dog milk than others. Nearly all products would benefit from more appropriate calcium, amino acids, and essential fatty acids concentrations and better feeding directions. PMID:24871064

  16. Trace elements and their distribution in protein fractions of camel milk in comparison to other commonly consumed milks.

    PubMed

    Al-Awadi, F M; Srikumar, T S

    2001-08-01

    Studies on camels' milk, whether with respect to concentration or bioavailability of trace elements from this milk, are limited and warrant further investigation. The object of this study was to analyse the concentration and distribution of zinc, copper, selenium, manganese and iron in camel milk compared to those in human milk, cows' milk and infant formula under similar experimental conditions. Camels' milk and cows' milk were collected from local farms, human milk samples were obtained from healthy donors in Kuwait and infant formula was purchased locally. Milk fractionation was performed by ultra-centrifugation and gelcolumn chromatography. The concentration of trace elements was analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry and that of protein was determined spectrophotometrically. The concentration of manganese and iron in camels' milk was remarkably higher (7-20-fold and 4-10-fold, respectively) than in human milk, cows' milk and infant formula. The zinc content of camels' milk was higher than that of human milk but slightly lower than in cows' milk and infant formula. The concentration of copper in camels' milk was similar to that of cows' milk but lower than in human milk and infant formula. The selenium content of camels' milk was comparable to those of other types of milk, Approximately 50-80% of zinc, copper and manganese in camels' milk were associated with the casein fraction, similar to that of cows' milk, The majority of selenium and iron in camels' milk was in association with the low molecular weight fraction, It is recommended that camels' milk be considered as a potential source of manganese, selenium and iron, perhaps not only for infants, but also for other groups suspected of mild deficiency of these elements. Further investigations are required to confirm this proposal. PMID:11694048

  17. Effects of oral supplementation with β-carotene on concentrations of β-carotene, vitamin A and α-tocopherol in plasma, colostrum and milk of mares and plasma of their foals and on fertility in mares.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, J; Aurich, J E; Wulf, M; Hurtienne, A; Schweigert, F J; Aurich, C

    2012-06-01

    In this study, effects of oral β-carotene supplementation to mares (β-carotene group: 1000 mg/day, n = 15; control group: n = 15) from 2 weeks before foaling until 6 weeks thereafter on concentrations of β-carotene, vitamin A and α-tocopherol in plasma, colostrum and milk and plasma of their foals were determined. In addition, effects on fertility were studied. Beta-carotene concentrations increased in plasma and colostrum of β-carotene-supplemented mares compared to control mares (p < 0.05). In mares of both groups, β-carotene concentrations were higher in colostrum than in milk (p < 0.05). In foals, β-carotene concentrations increased with colostrum uptake and were higher in foals born to supplemented mares (p < 0.05; control group: 0.0003 ± 0.0002 μg/ml on day 0, 0.008 ± 0.0023 μg/ml on day 1; β-carotene group: 0.0005 ± 0.0003 μg/ml on day 0, 0.048 ± 0.018 μg/ml on day 1). Concentrations of vitamin A and α-tocopherol were higher in colostrum than in milk (p < 0.05) but did not differ between groups. Concentration of α-tocopherol in plasma of mares decreased over time and in foals, increased markedly within 4 days after birth. All but one mare (control group) showed oestrus within 2 weeks post-partum. Occurrence of oestrus did not differ between groups. More mares of the control group (7/7 vs. 5/12 in the β-carotene group) became pregnant after being bred in first post-partum oestrus (p < 0.05). In conclusion, β-carotene supplementation to mares increased β-carotene concentrations in plasma, colostrum and milk of mares and plasma of their foals but had no positive effects on fertility. PMID:21545547

  18. Bovine milk immunoglobulins for passive immunity to infantile rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Brüssow, H; Hilpert, H; Walther, I; Sidoti, J; Mietens, C; Bachmann, P

    1987-01-01

    Pregnant cows were successfully hyperimmunized with all four human rotavirus serotypes, resulting in a 100-fold increase in neutralizing milk antibody titers over those of controls. Milk antibodies were isolated batchwise from 1,000 kg of pooled milk for the first 10 lactation days, yielding 10 kg of freeze-dried milk immunoglobulin concentrate consisting of 50% bovine milk immunoglobulins. Milk immunoglobulin concentrate showed neutralizing activities against all four human rotavirus serotypes that were 100 times higher than those in pooled human milk samples and 10 times higher than those in a commercial pooled immunoglobulin preparation from pooled human blood serum. In vitro neutralization tests showed that milk immunoglobulin concentrate had powerful antiviral activity, even against very high doses of infectious rotaviruses. Because the technology of the milk immunoglobulin concentrate ensures that it is innocuous and can be used for oral application, it is proposed that milk immunoglobulin concentrate be used to induce passive immunity to infantile rotavirus gastroenteritis. PMID:3036910

  19. Milk production, nutrient utilization, and endocrine responses to increased postruminal lysine and methionine supply in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Misciatteilli, L; Kristensen, V F; Vestergaard, M; Welsbjerg, M R; Sejrsen, K; Hvelplund, T

    2003-01-01

    The effect of increased postruminal supply of lysine and methionine was investigated in a production trial involving 64 dairy cows in early lactation. Within each of two basal rations, based on either corn silage or grass silage, rations were either naturally deficient in lysine or fortified with 24 g of lysine in a rumen-protected form and naturally deficient in methionine or fortified with 12 g of methionine in a rumen-protected form. The data were analyzed separately for the four lysine and the four methionine treatment groups. Milk production, body weight gain, and plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I, bovine somatotropin, insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, and urea were monitored over a 12-wk period. Supplementation with protected methionine led to increases in milk fat and protein contents of 2.4 and 1.8 g/kg of milk, respectively. Supplementation with protected lysine or methionine numerically increased protein yield comparable to values reported in the literature, but the treatment effects were not statistically significant. Efficiency of utilization of absorbed amino acids for milk protein synthesis and efficiency of utilization of metabolizable energy for milk production were not significantly altered in response to increased postruminal lysine and methionine flow, but a numerically increased efficiency of utilization of total amino acids was observed. No significant effect of lysine or methionine supplementation was observed on endocrine parameters nor on plasma metabolite concentrations. However, across treatment groups, high milk yield was correlated with low plasma insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations (r = -0.44) and partially with low plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentration and insulin levels (r = -0.26), while body weight gain was negatively correlated (r = -0.33) with elevated plasma bovine somatotropin concentrations. PMID:12613871

  20. Effects of decreasing metabolizable protein and rumen-undegradable protein on milk production and composition and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Bahrami-Yekdangi, H; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Jahanian, R; Kamalian, E

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of decreasing dietary protein and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on production performance, nitrogen retention, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein lactating cows (2 lactations; 50 ± 7 d in milk; 47 kg/d of milk production) were used in a Latin square design with 4 treatments and 3 replicates (cows). Treatments 1 to 4 consisted of diets containing 18, 17.2, 16.4, and 15.6% crude protein (CP), respectively, with the 18% CP diet considered the control group. Rumen-degradable protein levels were constant across the treatments (approximately 10.9% on a dry matter basis), whereas RUP was gradually decreased. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal Lys:Met ratio of about 3:1. Dietary CP had no significant effects on milk production or milk composition. In fact, 16.4% dietary CP compared with 18% dietary CP led to higher milk production; however, this effect was not significant. Feed intake was higher for 16.4% CP than for 18% CP (25.7 vs. 24.3 kg/d). Control cows had greater CP and RUP intakes, which resulted in higher concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen; cows receiving 16.4 and 15.6% CP, respectively, exhibited lower concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (15.2 and 15.1 vs. 17.3 mg/dL). The control diet had a significant effect on predicted urinary N. Higher CP digestibility was recorded for 18% CP compared with the other diets. Decreasing CP and RUP to 15.6 and 4.6% of dietary dry matter, respectively, had no negative effects on milk production or composition when the amounts of Lys and Met and the Lys:Met ratio were balanced. Furthermore, decreasing CP and RUP to 16.4 and 5.4%, respectively, increased dry matter intake. PMID:24679928

  1. [Rate of controlled-release urea pervasion through membrane determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xiu-jin; Wang, Zhen-xin; Dai, Xiao-min; Zhou, Yi; Ma, Xiao-jun

    2006-06-01

    Application of controlled-release nitrogenous fertilizers can improve the efficiency of fertilizers and reduce the environmental pollution. Controlled-release urea (coated urea) is one of the controlled-release nitrogenous fertilizers developed quickly in the recent years. The rate of controlled-release urea pervasion through membrane is the most important index of the capacity of controlled release. There is a maximum absorption at lambda=426 nm with complex in acidic solution, using p-dimethylaminozenzaldehyde as color reagent, and the absorbance exhibits a linear reponses to the urea concentration over the range of 7.5-210 microg x mL(-1). The method for determining the rate of controlled-release urea pervasion through membrane was realized through determining the content of urea in the liquor, the recovery efficiency of the method is 96.1%-103.9%. PMID:16961255

  2. Dynamic analysis of the Lactococcus lactis transcriptome in cheeses made from milk concentrated by ultrafiltration reveals multiple strategies of adaptation to stresses.

    PubMed

    Cretenet, Marina; Laroute, Valérie; Ulvé, Vincent; Jeanson, Sophie; Nouaille, Sébastien; Even, Sergine; Piot, Michel; Girbal, Laurence; Le Loir, Yves; Loubière, Pascal; Lortal, Sylvie; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is used extensively for the production of various cheeses. At every stage of cheese fabrication, L. lactis has to face several stress-generating conditions that result from its own modification of the environment as well as externally imposed conditions. We present here the first in situ global gene expression profile of L. lactis in cheeses made from milk concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF-cheeses), a key economical cheese model. The transcriptomic response of L. lactis was analyzed directly in a cheese matrix, starting from as early as 2 h and continuing for 7 days. The growth of L. lactis stopped after 24 h, but metabolic activity was maintained for 7 days. Conservation of its viability relied on an efficient proteolytic activity measured by an increasing, quantified number of free amino acids in the absence of cell lysis. Extensive downregulation of genes under CodY repression was found at day 7. L. lactis developed multiple strategies of adaptation to stressful modifications of the cheese matrix. In particular, expression of genes involved in acidic- and oxidative-stress responses was induced. L. lactis underwent unexpected carbon limitation characterized by an upregulation of genes involved in carbon starvation, principally due to the release of the CcpA control. We report for the first time that in spite of only moderately stressful conditions, lactococci phage is repressed under UF-cheese conditions. PMID:21075879

  3. Dynamic Analysis of the Lactococcus lactis Transcriptome in Cheeses Made from Milk Concentrated by Ultrafiltration Reveals Multiple Strategies of Adaptation to Stresses ▿

    PubMed Central

    Cretenet, Marina; Laroute, Valérie; Ulvé, Vincent; Jeanson, Sophie; Nouaille, Sébastien; Even, Sergine; Piot, Michel; Girbal, Laurence; Le Loir, Yves; Loubière, Pascal; Lortal, Sylvie; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is used extensively for the production of various cheeses. At every stage of cheese fabrication, L. lactis has to face several stress-generating conditions that result from its own modification of the environment as well as externally imposed conditions. We present here the first in situ global gene expression profile of L. lactis in cheeses made from milk concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF-cheeses), a key economical cheese model. The transcriptomic response of L. lactis was analyzed directly in a cheese matrix, starting from as early as 2 h and continuing for 7 days. The growth of L. lactis stopped after 24 h, but metabolic activity was maintained for 7 days. Conservation of its viability relied on an efficient proteolytic activity measured by an increasing, quantified number of free amino acids in the absence of cell lysis. Extensive downregulation of genes under CodY repression was found at day 7. L. lactis developed multiple strategies of adaptation to stressful modifications of the cheese matrix. In particular, expression of genes involved in acidic- and oxidative-stress responses was induced. L. lactis underwent unexpected carbon limitation characterized by an upregulation of genes involved in carbon starvation, principally due to the release of the CcpA control. We report for the first time that in spite of only moderately stressful conditions, lactococci phage is repressed under UF-cheese conditions. PMID:21075879

  4. Ammonium assimilation in Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus pasteurii, and Sporosarcina ureae.

    PubMed

    Mrsdorf, G; Kaltwasser, H

    1989-01-01

    No active uptake of ammonium was detected in Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus pasteurii, and Sporosarcina ureae, which indicates that these bacteria depend on the passive diffusion of ammonia across the cell membrane. In P. vulgaris the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GS-GOGAT) pathway and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were present, and these enzymes exhibited high affinities for ammonium. In B. pasteurii and S. ureae, however, no GS activity was detected, and GOGAT activity was only present in S. ureae. GDH enzymes were present in these two organisms, but showed only low affinity for ammonium, with apparent Km-values of 55.2 mM in B. pasteurii and 36.7 mM in S. ureae, respectively. These observations explain why P. vulgaris is able to grow at neutral pH and low ammonium concentration (2 mM), while B. pasteurii and S. ureae require high ammonium concentration (40 mM) and alkaline pH for growth. PMID:2570557

  5. Removal of milk fat globules from whey protein concentrate 34% to prepare clear and heat-stable protein dispersions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-10-01

    Whey protein concentrates (WPC) are low-cost protein ingredients, but their application in transparent ready-to-drink beverages is limited due to turbidity caused by fat globules and heat instability. In this work, fat globules were removed from WPC 34% (WPC-34) to prepare heat-stable ingredients via the Maillard reaction. The removal of fat globules by acid precipitation and centrifugation was observed to be the most complete at pH 4.0, and the loss of protein was caused by micrometer-sized fat globules and protein aggregates. Spray-dried powder prepared from the transparent supernatant was glycated at 130°C for 20 and 30min or 60°C for 24 and 48h. The 2 groups of samples had comparable heat stability and degree of glycation, evaluated by free amino content and analytical ultracentrifugation, but high-temperature, short-time treatment reduced the color formation during glycation. Therefore, WPC-34 can be processed for application in transparent beverages. PMID:25108870

  6. A current perspective on the compensatory effects of urea and methylamine on protein stability and function.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Safikur; Warepam, Marina; Singh, Laishram R; Dar, Tanveer Ali

    2015-11-01

    Urea is a strong denaturant and inhibits many enzymes but is accumulated intracellularly at very high concentrations (up to 3-4 M) in mammalian kidney and in many marine fishes. It is known that the harmful effects of urea on the macromolecular structure and function is offset by the accumulation of an osmolytic agent called methylamine. Intracellular concentration of urea to methylamines falls in the ratio of 2:1 to 3:2 (molar ratio). At this ratio, the thermodynamic effects of urea and methylamines on protein stability and function are believed to be algebraically additive. The mechanism of urea-methylamine counteraction has been widely investigated on various approaches including, thermodynamic, structural and functional aspects. Recent advances have also revealed atomic level insights of counteraction and various molecular dynamic simulation studies have yielded significant molecular level informations on the interaction between urea and methylamines with proteins. It is worthwhile that urea-methylamine system not only plays pivotal role for the survival and functioning of the renal medullary cells but also is a key osmoregulatory component of the marine elasmobranchs, holocephalans and coelacanths. Therefore, it is important to combine all discoveries and discuss the developments in context to physiology of the mammalian kidney and adaptation of the marine organisms. In this article we have for the first time reviewed all major developments on urea-counteraction systems to date. We have also discussed about other additional urea-counteraction systems discovered so far including urea-NaCl, urea-myoinsoitol and urea-molecular chaperone systems. Insights for the possible future research have also been highlighted. PMID:26095775

  7. An investigation of FT-Raman spectroscopy for quantification of additives to milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuche; Qin, Jianwei; Lim, Jongguk; Chan, Diane E.; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin

    2012-05-01

    In this research, four chemicals, urea, ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, and melamine, were mixed into liquid nonfat milk at concentrations starting from 0.1% to a maximum concentration determined for each chemical according to its maximum solubility, and two Raman spectrometers-a commercial Nicolet Raman system and an in-house Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) system-were used to acquire Raman shift spectra for these mixture samples. These chemicals are potential adulterants that could be used to artificially elevate protein measurements of milk products evaluated by the Kjeldahl method. Baseline subtraction was employed to eliminate milk intensity, and the normalized Raman intensity was calculated from the specific Raman shift from the spectrum of solid chemical. Linear relationships were found to exist between the normalized Raman intensity and chemical concentrations. The linear regression coefficients (R2) ranged from 0.9111 to 0.998. Although slightly higher R2 values were calculated for regressions using spectral intensities measured by the Nicolet system compared to those using measurements from the RCI system, the results from the two systems were similar and comparable. A very low concentration of melamine (400 ppm) in milk was also found to be detectable by both systems. Raman sensitivity of Nicolet Raman system was estimated from normalized Raman intensity and slope of regression line in this study. Chemicals (0.2%) were dissolved in milk and detected the normalized Raman intensity. Melamine was found to have the highest Raman sensitivity, with the highest values for normalized Raman intensity (0.09) and regression line slope (57.04).

  8. Variation in milk cortisol during lactation in Murciano-Granadina goats.

    PubMed

    Díaz, J R; Alejandro, M; Romero, G; Moya, F; Peris, C

    2013-02-01

    Fifty-seven goats were included in an experiment designed to study the effect of lactation stage, parity number, and mammary gland health status on milk cortisol concentration as a method to assess the welfare of Murciano-Granadina goats. The relationships of milk cortisol concentration with different production parameters (milk yield, milk composition, and mechanical milking ability: milk fractioning during milking and milking time) were also studied. The experiment lasted 8 mo and monthly samplings were carried out to determine total milk yield (MY), fractioning during milking (machine milk, MM; machine stripping milk, MSM), and milking time (MT), and a sample was taken from the total milk yield to determine milk cortisol concentration, somatic cell count, and milk composition (fat, protein, and lactose). To determine the infection status of the gland, an aseptic sample was taken for bacteriological analysis before each monthly sampling. Third-parity goats presented higher concentrations of milk cortisol than those of 1, 2, or ≥ 4 parities. Intramammary infection had no effect on milk cortisol concentration, and somatic cell count did not correlate with cortisol concentration. Cortisol presented a significant correlation with MY and MM, but showed no significant correlation with MSM, MT, or milk composition parameters. Variations in milk cortisol concentration in goats may be associated with different physiological factors in the animal (e.g., milk production level, lactation stage, and parity number) and therefore need not always indicate stress for the animal. PMID:23245963

  9. EFFECTS OF DIETARY CRUDE PROTEIN ON SERUM AND URINE UREA NITROGEN IN FEEDLOT STEERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effects of dietary CP concentration and source on serum urea N (SUN) and urine urea N (UUN). A metabolism trial with three collection periods (approximately d 35, 95, and 155 on feed) was conducted using twenty seven crossbred steers (average BW = 353.2 ± 8.4 kg). Treatments were ...

  10. Label-free and pH-sensitive colorimetric materials for the sensing of urea.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Long, Yue; Gao, Jin-Ming; Song, Kai; Yang, Guoqiang

    2016-02-18

    This communication demonstrates a facile method for naked-eye detection of urea based on the structure color change of pH-sensitive photonic crystals. The insertion of urease provides excellent selectivity over other molecules. The detection of urea in different concentration ranges could be realized by changing the molar ratio between the functional monomer and cross-linker. PMID:26847584

  11. The mechanism of passage of endogenous urea through the rumen wall and the role of ureolytic epithelial bacteria in the urea flux.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K J; Wallace, R J

    1979-11-01

    1. The rumen urea concentration in gnotobiotic lambs lacking ureolytic bacteria was equal to that of blood. 2. Bacterial urease (EC 3.5.1.5) activity in sheep fed by intraruminal and intra-abomasal infusion was inversely related to rumen ammonia concentration. 3. A model is proposed for the facilitation and control of urea flux by wall-found ureolytic bacteria. PMID:508714

  12. Urea Biosynthesis Using Liver Slices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, A. R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a practical scheme to enable introductory biology students to investigate the mechanism by which urea is synthesized in the liver. The tissue-slice technique is discussed, and methods for the quantitative analysis of metabolites are presented. (Author/SL)

  13. What Is a Urea Cycle Disorder?

    MedlinePlus

    ... urine and removed from the body. In urea cycle disorders, the nitrogen accumulates in the form of ammonia, a highly toxic substance, resulting in hyperammonemia (elevated blood ... and severity of urea cycle disorders is highly variable. This depends on the ...

  14. [Distribution Characteristics of Urea and Constitution of Dissolved Nitrogen in the Bohai Sea and the Huanghai Sea in Spring].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-lin; Shi, Xiao-yong; Zhang, Chuang-song

    2015-11-01

    Based on the investigation of the Huanghai Sea and the Bohai Sea in Spring( April to May) of 2014, the concentrations of urea and inorganic nitrogen were determined respectively by diacetyl monoxime-Semicarbazide Hydrochloride method and Spectrophotometric method. The distribution of urea and the component of dissolved nitrogen were analyzed. The influencing factors of urea were also discussed. The results showed that the concentration of urea in the Bohai sea and the Huanghai sea ranged from 0.21-2.17 μmol x L(-1), and the average concentration was (0.84 ± 0.20) μmol x L(-1). Urea was an important component of the dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and accounted for 7.90% of DON. In the investigated area, the average concentration of urea in the north Huanghai sea was the highest, and that in the south Huanghai sea was the lowest. The concentration of urea in the Huanghai sea gradually reduced from inshore to offshore. The areas with high concentrations of urea were near the coastal cities like Qingdao and Dalian where have high population density. The concentration of urea in Bohai sea gradually increased form inshore to offshore, this result indicated that the river input was not the primary source and this might be caused by adsorption of colloid flocculation. PMID:26910983

  15. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques. PMID:17900499

  16. Milk lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk fat conveys a number of desirable qualities to food, and various lipid components contribute to human nutrition and health. Over 96% of milk lipids consist of triacylglycerols, which contain a variety of fatty acids. Di- and monoacylglycerols, free fatty acids, sterols, and phospho-, glyco-,...

  17. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF N-CHLORAMINES AND DIAZOLIDINYL UREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A combination of MICs of an N-chloramine, a simple chlorinated amino acid, and diazolidinyl urea gave synergistic activity against bacteria, but not fungi. The two compounds at a higher concentration, 0.1 and 0.3%, respectively, gave synergistic inhibition of fungi; kill times we...

  18. Detection of cow milk adulteration in yak milk by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Ren, Q R; Zhang, H; Guo, H Y; Jiang, L; Tian, M; Ren, F Z

    2014-10-01

    In the current study, a simple, sensitive, and specific ELISA assay using a high-affinity anti-bovine β-casein monoclonal antibody was developed for the rapid detection of cow milk in adulterated yak milk. The developed ELISA was highly specific and could be applied to detect bovine β-casein (10-8,000 μg/mL) and cow milk (1:1,300 to 1:2 dilution) in yak milk. Cross-reactivity was <1% when tested against yak milk. The linear range of adulterant concentration was 1 to 80% (vol/vol) and the minimum detection limit was 1% (vol/vol) cow milk in yak milk. Different treatments, including heating, acidification, and rennet addition, did not interfere with the assay. Moreover, the results were highly reproducible (coefficient of variation <10%) and we detected no significant differences between known and estimated values. Therefore, this assay is appropriate for the routine analysis of yak milk adulterated with cow milk. PMID:25151876

  19. Deactivation of free and stabilized acid phosphatase by urea.

    PubMed

    Gianfreda, L; Marrucci, G; Greco, G

    1986-11-01

    Tests on acid phosphatase (E.G. 3.1.3.2) deactivation by urea have been performed at two pH values. Two conditions have been used: native enzyme operating batch-wise in dilute solution and stabilized enzyme in continuous flow ultrafiltration membrane reactor. Stabilization is achieved by confining the enzyme within a concentrated solution of a linear chain polymer that forms a polarization layer over the membrane. The results provide significant information on the kinetics and thermodynamics of the complex phenomena taking place during deactivation. Deactivation by urea is also compared with thermal deactivation. PMID:18555278

  20. Urea-induced binding between diclofenac sodium and bovine serum albumin: a spectroscopic insight.

    PubMed

    Dohare, Neeraj; Khan, Abbul Bashar; Athar, Fareeda; Thakur, Sonu Chand; Patel, Rajan

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the interaction of diclofenac sodium (Dic.Na) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the absence and presence of urea using different spectroscopic techniques. A fluorescence quenching study revealed that the Stern-Volmer quenching constant decreases in the presence of urea, decreasing further at higher urea concentrations. The binding constant and number of binding sites were also evaluated for the BSA-Dic.Na interaction system in the absence and presence of urea using a modified Stern-Volmer equation. The binding constant is greater at high urea concentrations, as shown by the fluorescence results. In addition, for the BSA-Dic.Na interaction system, a static quenching mechanism was observed, which was further confirmed using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. UV-vis spectroscopy provided information about the formation of a complex between BSA and Dic.Na. Circular dichroism was carried out to explain the conformational changes in BSA induced by Dic.Na in the absence and presence of urea. The presence of urea reduced the α-helical content of BSA as the Dic.Na concentration varied. The distance r between the donor (BSA) and acceptor (Dic.Na) was also obtained in the absence and presence of urea, using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26564279

  1. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but do increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Antaya, N T; Soder, K J; Kraft, J; Whitehouse, N L; Guindon, N E; Erickson, P S; Conroy, A B; Brito, A F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean±standard deviation) 40±21 d in milk and 464±35 kg of body weight and 4 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 75±37 d in milk and 384±17kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21 d with 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed a total mixed ration (64:36 forage-to-concentrate ratio) supplemented (as fed) with 0, 57, 113, or 170 g/d of ANOD. Milk yield as well as concentrations and yields of milk components (fat, protein, lactose, milk urea N) were not affected by increasing dietary amounts of ANOD. Concentration (from 178 to 1,370 µg/L) and yield (from 2.8 to 20.6 mg/d) of milk I increased linearly in cows fed incremental amounts of ANOD as a result of the high concentration of I (820 mg/kg of dry matter) in ANOD. Overall, only minor changes were observed in the proportion of milk fatty acids with ANOD supplementation. Quadratic trends were observed for dry matter intake and total-tract digestibilities of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber, whereas negative linear trends were observed for serum concentration of cortisol and crude protein digestibility with ANOD supplementation. Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not affected by ANOD supplementation and averaged 1.1 and 48.4 ng/mL, respectively. However, feeding increasing amounts of ANOD linearly reduced the plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (from 164 to 132 mEq/L). Quadratic effects were found for the total-tract digestibility of ADF and urinary output of purine derivatives, suggesting that ANOD supplementation may stimulate growth of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in a dose-dependent fashion. In general, feeding incremental amounts of ANOD to early lactation dairy cows dramatically increased milk I concentration and output with no effect on animal performance. PMID:25547299

  2. Development of a Raman chemical imaging detection method for authenticating skim milk powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research demonstrated that Raman chemical imaging coupled with a simple image classification algorithm can be used to detect multiple chemical adulterants in skim milk powder. Ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea were mixed into the milk powder as chemical adulterants in the conc...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721... Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkylated urea (PMN P-93-1649) is subject to reporting under...

  4. Urease immobilized fluorescent gold nanoparticles for urea sensing.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Upendra Kumar; Nirala, Narsingh R; Upadhyay, Chandan; Saxena, P S; Srivastava, Anchal

    2015-05-01

    We report a surfactant-free synthesis of monodispersed gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with average size of 15 nm. An approach for visual and fluorescent sensing of urea in aqueous solution based on shift in surface plasmon band (SPB) maxima as well as quench in fluorescence intensity. To enable the urea detection, we functionalized the thiol-capped gold nanoparticles with urease, the enzyme specific to urea using carbodiimide chemistry. The visible color changed of the gold colloidal solution from red to blue (or purple); this was evident from quenching in absorbance and fluorescence intensity, is the principle applied here for the sensing of urea. The solution turns blue when the urea concentration exceeds 8 mg/dL which reveals visual lower detection limit. The lower detection limits governed by the fluorescence quenching were found 5 mg/dL (R(2) = 0.99) which is highly sensitive and selective compared to shift in SPB maxima. The approach depicted here seems to be important in clinical diagnosis. PMID:25809996

  5. Glycine is a nutritionally essential amino acid for maximal growth of milk-fed young pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiwei; Dai, Zhaolai; Wu, Zhenlong; Lin, Gang; Jia, Sichao; Hu, Shengdi; Dahanayaka, Sudath; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-08-01

    Analysis of amino acids in milk protein reveals a relatively low content of glycine. This study was conducted with young pigs to test the hypothesis that milk-fed neonates require dietary glycine supplementation for maximal growth. Fourteen-day-old piglets were allotted randomly into one of four treatments (15 piglets/treatment), representing supplementation with 0, 0.5, 1 or 2% glycine (dry matter basis) to a liquid milk replacer. Food was provided to piglets every 8 h (3 times/day) for 2 weeks. Milk intake (32.0-32.5 g dry matter/kg body weight per day) did not differ between control and glycine-supplemented piglets. Compared with control piglets, dietary supplementation with 0.5, 1 and 2% glycine increased (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of glycine and serine, daily weight gain, and body weight without affecting body composition, while reducing plasma concentrations of ammonia, urea, and glutamine, in a dose-dependent manner. Dietary supplementation with 0.5, 1 and 2% glycine enhanced (P < 0.05) small-intestinal villus height, glycine transport (measured using Ussing chambers), mRNA levels for GLYT1, and anti-oxidative capacity (indicated by increased concentrations of reduced glutathione and a decreased ratio of oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione). These novel results indicate, for the first time, that glycine is a nutritionally essential amino acid for maximal protein accretion in milk-fed piglets. The findings not only enhance understanding of protein nutrition, but also have important implications for designing improved formulas to feed human infants, particularly low birth weight and preterm infants. PMID:24858859

  6. Got Milk? Breastfeeding and Milk Analysis of a Mother on Chronic Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Balzer, Michael S.; Gross, Mechthild M.; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Haller, Hermann; Schmitt, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Women on dialysis rarely become pregnant. However, the overall rate of successful pregnancies is increasing in this patient population and breastfeeding becomes an option for mothers on dialysis. In this study we performed a systematic breast milk composition analysis of a mother on chronic hemodialysis (HD). Methods Specimens of breast milk and blood were collected in regular intervals before and after HD from a 39-year old woman starting on day 10 postpartum. Samples were analyzed for electrolytes, retention solutes, nutrients and other laboratory measurements. Breast milk samples from low-risk mothers matched for postpartum age were used as controls. Results Significantly higher levels of creatinine and urea were found in pre-HD breast milk when compared to post-HD. A similar post-dialytic decrease was only found for uric acid but not for any other investigated parameter. Conversely, sodium and chloride were significantly increased in post-HD samples. Compared to controls creatinine and urea were significantly higher in pre-HD samples while the difference remained only significant for post-HD creatinine. Phosphate was significantly lower in pre- and post-HD breast milk when compared to controls, whereas calcium showed no significant differences. In terms of nutrient components glucose levels showed a strong trend for a decrease, whereas protein, triglycerides and cholesterol did not differ. Similarly, no significant differences were found in iron, potassium and magnesium content. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on a breastfeeding mother on chronic dialysis. Although we found differences in creatinine, urea, sodium, chloride and phosphate, our general analysis showed high similarity of our patient’s breast milk to samples from low-risk control mothers. Significant variations in breast milk composition between pre- and post-HD samples suggest that breastfeeding might be preferably performed after dialysis treatment. In summary, our findings indicate that breastfeeding can be considered a viable option for newborns of mothers on dialysis. PMID:26571490

  7. Effects of adding urea on fermentation quality of pruned persimmon branch silage and its digestibility, preference, nitrogen balance and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Zang, Yanqing; Lv, Renlong; Takahashi, Toshiyoshi; Yoshida, Norio; Yang, Huanmin

    2014-03-01

    Four cattle were used in a 4??4 Latin square design experiment to study digestibility, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen retention and preference of ensiling pruned persimmon branch (PPB) chips treated with urea. After 60 days of ensiling, urea-treated PPB showed higher (P?urea PPB. Both urea-treated PPB and rice straw diets showed higher (P?urea PPB diet. Neither mold nor yeast was detected in any urea-treated PPB. Urinary and fecal excretion as well as nitrogen retention in cattle fed urea-treated PPB were higher (P?urea PPB and rice straw. With the exception that ruminal ammonia-N levels in cattle fed urea-treated PPB were higher (P?urea PPB and rice straw, ruminal pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, and the acetic?:?propionic acid ratio of rumen content were unaffected by diets. The rank order of preference was rice straw?>?low-urea?>?no-urea?>?high-urea. The results suggested that urea treatment of PPB inhibited growth of mold and yeast during silage storage, enhanced its digestibility and had nutritive value almost equivalent to that of rice straw. PMID:24131432

  8. FITC-tagged macromolecule-based alginate microspheres for urea sensoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Abhijeet; Chaudhari, Rashmi; Srivastava, Rohit

    2014-04-01

    Urea is an important biomarker for identification of kidney diseases. Early urea detection using a specific and sensitive technique can significantly reduce the mortality of patients. The research aims at developing fluorescence-based FITCmediated pH and urea measurement. A system containing FITC-dextran in alginate microspheres was developed using air-driven atomization. pH/Urea biosensor was characterized using optical microscopy, SEM, and CLSM. Urea biosensing studies were performed by exposing different standard solutions of pH and urea standard solutions using fluorescence spectroscopy (λex=488 nm and λem=520 nm). FITC-dextran was entrapped using an encapsulation unit and alginate microspheres were formed. The microspheres were found to be uniform and spherical in nature with sizes (50±10μ). FITC-dextran was found to be uniformly distributed in the alginate microspheres as per the CLSM scans. Urea biosensing studies indicate that a linear correlation was observed with increasing urea concentrations. The said microspheres can be used to detect changes in pH from 4-8 units owing to its linear response in this range. FITC dextran loaded alginate microspheres showed an improved range of detection upto 7 mM in comparison to 1.5 mM when in solution phase in a study with urea concentrations from 0-50 mM. The pH and urea detection was accurate to an extent of interday variation of 5%. FITC-dextran loaded alginate microspheres show a great potential for usage as a pH and urea biosensor for early detection of kidney diseases.

  9. Effects of dietary supplementation of methionine and lysine on milk production and nitrogen utilization in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Liu, H Y; Wang, Y M; Yang, Z Q; Liu, J X; Wu, Y M; Yan, T; Ye, H W

    2010-08-01

    The effect of the content of lysine and methionine in metabolizable protein (MP) on lactation performance and N utilization in Chinese Holstein cows was determined. A control diet (C) was formulated to be adequate in energy but slightly limiting in MP. The concentration of Met and Lys in MP was 1.87 and 5.93%, respectively. The treatments were as follows (% of Met or Lys in MP): L=diet C supplemented with L-lysine-HCl at 0.49% on a dry matter (DM) basis (Met, 1.87; Lys, 7.00); M=diet C supplemented with 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMB) at 0.15% (Met, 2.35; Lys, 5.93); ML=diet C supplemented with 0.49% L-lysine HCl and 0.15% HMB (Met, 2.39; Lys, 7.10). The diets were fed to 60 Chinese Holsteins in mid-lactation (average days in milk=120, and milk yield=32.0 kg/d) for 8 wk. Milk yield was increased by supplementation of either Lys (1.5 kg/d) or Met (2.0 kg/d), and supplementation of both Lys and Met further increased milk yield (3.8 kg/d). There was no significant difference in dry matter intake across treatment groups. Cows on treatments M (3.95%) and ML (3.90%) had higher milk fat content than those on C (3.60%) and L (3.67%), but there were no significant differences in milk protein and lactose contents or somatic cell count among treatments. Supplementation of Met or Lys significantly increased Met or Lys concentration in arterial plasma. Treatment ML had a higher conversion of intake N to milk N and lower urea N concentrations in serum, urine, and milk than did treatment C. Supplementing HMB and L-lysine-HCl to provide approximately 2.3% Met and 7.0% Lys of the MP in diets slightly limiting in MP increased milk production, milk protein yield, and N utilization efficiency. PMID:20655436

  10. Distribution of Animal Drugs between Skim Milk and Milk Fat Fractions in Spiked Whole Milk: Understanding the Potential Impact on Commercial Milk Products.

    PubMed

    Hakk, Heldur; Shappell, Nancy W; Lupton, Sara J; Shelver, Weilin L; Fanaselle, Wendy; Oryang, David; Yeung, Chi Yuen; Hoelzer, Karin; Ma, Yinqing; Gaalswyk, Dennis; Pouillot, Régis; Van Doren, Jane M

    2016-01-13

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA), and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate the drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. More than 90% of the radioactivity was distributed into the skim milk fraction for ERY, KETO, OTET, PENG, and SDMX, approximately 80% for THIA, and 13% for IVR. The distribution of drug between milk fat and skim milk fractions was significantly correlated to the drug's lipophilicity (partition coefficient, log P, or distribution coefficient, log D, which includes ionization). Data were fit with linear mixed effects models; the best fit was obtained within this data set with log D versus observed drug distribution ratios. These candidate empirical models serve for assisting to predict the distribution and concentration of these drugs in a variety of milk and milk products. PMID:26652058

  11. Effect of urea on growth and microcystins production of Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuanhao; Yan, Yangwei; Wang, Pinfei; Ni, Lanqi; Gao, Jiayi; Dai, Ruihua

    2015-04-01

    The effects of urea on the growth and toxin content of Microcystis aeruginosa isolated from Dianchi Lake in China were investigated. Experiments were carried out in lab using (15)N isotopic technique to characterize urea-N biosynthesis to microcystins. High urea concentration (3.6 mmol-N L(-1)) would restrict the growth of M.aeruginosa and the production of microcystin-LR, while low urea concentration (0.4-1.4 mmol-N L(-1)) would promote the growth of M.aeruginosa and the production of microcystin-LR. The (15)N labeling experiment further demonstrated that there existed selectivity when M.aeruginosa assimilated urea to form its structure. The majority of M.aeruginosa assimilated 1 urea molecule at first which was biosynthesized into the Ala or Leu residue. On day 18, The m/z=1004 parent ion assimilated 9 (15)N except that the Mdha residue did not assimilate any urea-(15)N. The results give deeper insight to the biosynthesis of urea into microcystins. PMID:25638406

  12. Urea is not a universal cryoprotectant among hibernating anurans: evidence from the freeze-tolerant boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata).

    PubMed

    Higgins, Steven A; Swanson, David L

    2013-02-01

    Freeze-tolerant organisms accumulate a diversity of low molecular weight compounds to combat negative effects of ice formation. Previous studies of anuran freeze tolerance have implicated urea as a cryoprotectant in the wood frog (Lithobates sylvatica). However, a cryoprotective role for urea has been identified only for wood frogs, though urea accumulation is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for coping with osmotic stress in amphibians. To identify whether multiple solutes are involved in freezing tolerance in the boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata), we examined seasonal and freezing-induced variation in several potential cryoprotectants. We further tested for a cryoprotective role for urea by comparing survival and recovery from freezing in control and urea-loaded chorus frogs. Tissue levels of glucose, urea, and glycerol did not vary significantly among seasons for heart, liver, or leg muscle. Furthermore, no changes in urea or glycerol levels were detected with exposure to freezing temperatures in these tissues. Urea-loading increased tissue urea concentrations, but failed to enhance freezing survival or facilitate recovery from freezing in chorus frogs in this study, suggesting little role for urea as a natural cryoprotectant in this species. These data suggest that urea may not universally serve as a primary cryoprotectant among freeze-tolerant, terrestrially hibernating anurans. PMID:23142424

  13. Urea biosensor for hemodialysis monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.

    1999-01-12

    This research discloses an electrochemical sensor capable of detecting and quantifying urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures. The sensor is based upon measurement of the pH change produced in an aqueous environment by the products of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The sensor may be fabricated using methods amenable to mass fabrication, resulting in low-cost sensors and thus providing the potential for disposable use. In a typical application, the sensor could be used in treatment centers, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. The sensor can also be utilized to allow at-home testing to determine if dialysis was necessary. Such a home monitor is similar, in principle, to devices used for blood glucose testing by diabetics, and would require a blood droplet sample by using a finger prick. 9 figs.

  14. Urea biosensor for hemodialysis monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting and quantifying urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures. The sensor is based upon measurement of the pH change produced in an aqueous environment by the products of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The sensor may be fabricated using methods amenable to mass fabrication, resulting in low-cost sensors and thus providing the potential for disposable use. In a typical application, the sensor could be used in treatment centers, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. The sensor can also be utilized to allow at-home testing to determine if dialysis was necessary. Such a home monitor is similar, in principle, to devices used for blood glucose testing by diabetics, and would require a blood droplet sample by using a finger prick.

  15. Renal excretion of urea and electrolytes in sheep and red deer

    PubMed Central

    Maloiy, G. M. O.; Scott, D.

    1969-01-01

    1. The effects of varying the intake of water and nitrogen on the renal excretion of urea and electrolytes has been studied in sheep and in red deer. 2. The concentration of urea in the urine of both sheep and deer decreased as the volume of urine increased and about eight times as much urea was excreted each day when a high-nitrogen diet was fed compared to when a low-nitrogen diet was fed. 3. Both the concentrations of sodium and potassium in the urine decreased as the urine volume increased but the total amounts excreted were independent of urine volume. 4. The osmotic concentration of the urine decreased as urine volume increased. 5. In both deer and sheep the concentration of urea in the plasma was considerably higher when a high-nitrogen diet was fed compared to when a low-nitrogen diet was fed but the rate of clearance of inulin from the plasma did not appear to be related to the diet. 6. Appreciably more urea was filtered at the glomerulus when a high-nitrogen diet was fed compared to when a low-nitrogen diet was fed but the percentage of filtered urea reabsorbed was not related to diet. 7. The results indicate no qualitative differences between deer and sheep in the renal excretion of urea and electrolytes. PMID:5347722

  16. Urea Monitor Based on Chemiluminescence and Electrolysis as a Marker for Dialysis Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Masahiro; Okabayashi, Tohru; Ishimaru, Teppei; Hayashi, Kunihito; Hori, Jun'ya; Yamamoto, Isao; Nakagawa, Masuo

    We have developed a practical urea monitor based on a chemiluminescent (CL) reaction of urea and hypobromous acid produced by electrolysis of sodium bromide (NaBr) for measuring urea concentration in spent dialysate at set intervals. A reagent containing 4×10-2 M hypobromous acid is produced by electrolysis of an electrolyte containing 5.9 M NaBr and 0.2 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Chemiluminescence is emitted by injection of spent hemodialysis fluid (0.11 ml) into the reagent, and the CL-intensity is measured by a photomultiplier tube using the photon counting technique. The CL-intensity is proportional to the 0.9th power of the urea concentration between 7×10-4 and 2×10-2 M. The urea monitor can determine the urea concentration in spent dialysate samples collected from the waste line of a dialyzer, and the time for the intermittent measurements including the cleaning cycle of the reaction chamber is 3 min. The urea concentrations measured by the monitor are in close agreement with those measured by the conventional enzyme colorimetric method using urease for the spent dialysate collected during a hemodialysis treatment, and the correlation coefficient is 0.93.

  17. Milk Bottom-Up Proteomics: Method Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Delphine; Ezernieks, Vilnis; Elkins, Aaron; Nguyen, Nga; Moate, Peter J.; Cocks, Benjamin G.; Rochfort, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Milk is a complex fluid whose proteome displays a diverse set of proteins of high abundance such as caseins and medium to low abundance whey proteins such as ß-lactoglobulin, lactoferrin, immunoglobulins, glycoproteins, peptide hormones, and enzymes. A sample preparation method that enables high reproducibility and throughput is key in reliably identifying proteins present or proteins responding to conditions such as a diet, health or genetics. Using skim milk samples from Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cows, we compared three extraction procedures which have not previously been applied to samples of cows' milk. Method A (urea) involved a simple dilution of the milk in a urea-based buffer, method B (TCA/acetone) involved a trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone precipitation, and method C (methanol/chloroform) involved a tri-phasic partition method in chloroform/methanol solution. Protein assays, SDS-PAGE profiling, and trypsin digestion followed by nanoHPLC-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) analyses were performed to assess their efficiency. Replicates were used at each analytical step (extraction, digestion, injection) to assess reproducibility. Mass spectrometry (MS) data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002529. Overall 186 unique accessions, major and minor proteins, were identified with a combination of methods. Method C (methanol/chloroform) yielded the best resolved SDS-patterns and highest protein recovery rates, method A (urea) yielded the greatest number of accessions, and, of the three procedures, method B (TCA/acetone) was the least compatible of all with a wide range of downstream analytical procedures. Our results also highlighted breed differences between the proteins in milk of Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cows. PMID:26793233

  18. Effects of urea on the microstructure and phase behavior of aqueous solutions of polyoxyethylene surfactants.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Carolina L; Schneider, Craig S; Santonicola, Mariagabriella; Lenhoff, Abraham M; Kaler, Eric W

    2010-09-29

    Membrane proteins are made soluble in aqueous buffers by the addition of various surfactants (detergents) to form so-called protein-detergent complexes (PDCs). Properties of membrane proteins are commonly assessed by unfolding the protein in the presence of surfactant in a buffer solution by adding urea. The stability of the protein under these conditions is then monitored by biophysical methods such as fluorescence or circular dichroism spectroscopy. Often overlooked in these experiments is the effect of urea on the phase behavior and micellar microstructure of the different surfactants used to form the PDCs. Here the effect of urea on five polyoxyethylene surfactants - n-octylytetraoxyethylene (C(8)E(4)), n-octylpentaoxyethylene (C(8)E(5)), n-decylhexaoxyethylene (C(10)E(6)), n-dodecylhexaoxyethylene (C(12)E(6)) and n-dodecyloctaoxylethylene (C(12)E(8)) - is explored. The presence of urea increases the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of all surfactants studied, indicating that the concentration of both the surfactant and urea should be considered in membrane protein folding studies. The cloud point temperature of all surfactants studied also increases with increasing urea concentration. Small-angle neutron scattering shows a urea-induced transition from an elongated to a globular shape for micelles of C(8)E(4) and C(12)E(6). In contrast, C(8)E(5) and C(12)E(8) form more globular micelles at room temperature and the micelles remain globular as the urea concentration is increased. The effects of increasing urea concentration on micelle structure are analogous to those of decreasing the temperature. The large changes in micelle structure observed here could also affect membrane protein unfolding studies by changing the structure of the PDC. PMID:21359094

  19. Effects of urea on the microstructure and phase behavior of aqueous solutions of polyoxyethylene surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Carolina L.; Schneider, Craig S.; Santonicola, Mariagabriella; Lenhoff, Abraham M.; Kaler, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane proteins are made soluble in aqueous buffers by the addition of various surfactants (detergents) to form so-called protein-detergent complexes (PDCs). Properties of membrane proteins are commonly assessed by unfolding the protein in the presence of surfactant in a buffer solution by adding urea. The stability of the protein under these conditions is then monitored by biophysical methods such as fluorescence or circular dichroism spectroscopy. Often overlooked in these experiments is the effect of urea on the phase behavior and micellar microstructure of the different surfactants used to form the PDCs. Here the effect of urea on five polyoxyethylene surfactants – n-octylytetraoxyethylene (C8E4), n-octylpentaoxyethylene (C8E5), n-decylhexaoxyethylene (C10E6), n-dodecylhexaoxyethylene (C12E6) and n-dodecyloctaoxylethylene (C12E8) – is explored. The presence of urea increases the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of all surfactants studied, indicating that the concentration of both the surfactant and urea should be considered in membrane protein folding studies. The cloud point temperature of all surfactants studied also increases with increasing urea concentration. Small-angle neutron scattering shows a urea-induced transition from an elongated to a globular shape for micelles of C8E4 and C12E6. In contrast, C8E5 and C12E8 form more globular micelles at room temperature and the micelles remain globular as the urea concentration is increased. The effects of increasing urea concentration on micelle structure are analogous to those of decreasing the temperature. The large changes in micelle structure observed here could also affect membrane protein unfolding studies by changing the structure of the PDC. PMID:21359094

  20. Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at the omasal canal, did not differ among treatments. Results from this experiment have confirmed that dietary La is not a practical agent for suppressing RP population in dairy cows, mainly because of its negative effects on fiber digestion and ruminal fermentation. Intake of CO appeared to reduce ruminal and improve protein efficiency, but did not improve milk production, milk composition, or increase microbial outflow from the rumen. Based on the results of this study, a 40% reduction of RP population is not sufficient to improve N utilization in dairy cows. PMID:24931520

  1. Short communication: Effect of storage temperature on the solubility of milk protein concentrate 80 (MPC80) treated with NaCl or KCl.

    PubMed

    Sikand, V; Tong, P S; Walker, J; Wang, T; Rodriguez-Saona, L E

    2016-03-01

    A previous study in our laboratory showed that addition of 150 mM NaCl or KCl into diafiltration water improved the solubility of freshly made milk protein concentrate 80 (MPC80). In the present study, the objectives were (1) to evaluate the solubility of NaCl- or KCl-treated MPC80 samples kept at varying temperatures and then stored for extensive periods at room temperature (21C 1C); and (2) to determine if MPC80 samples stored at different temperatures and protein conformation can be grouped or categorized together. Freshly manufactured MPC80 samples were untreated (control), processed with NaCl, or processed with KCl. One set of sample bags was stored at 4C; second and third sets of bags were kept at 25C and 55C for 1 mo (31d) and then transferred to room temperature (21C 1C) storage conditions for 1 yr (365d). Samples were tested for nitrogen solubility index (NSI) and for protein changes by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Analysis of variance results for NSI showed 2 significantly different groupings of MPC80 samples. The more soluble group contained samples treated with NaCl or KCl and stored at either 4C or 25C. These samples had mean NSI >97.5%. The less soluble groups contained all control samples, regardless of storage temperature, and NaCl- or KCl-treated samples stored at 55C. These samples had mean NSI from 39.5 to 58%. Within each of these groups (more soluble and less soluble), no significant differences in solubility were detected. Pattern recognition analysis by soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) was used to assess protein changes during storage by monitoring the amide I and amide II (1,700(-1) to 1,300cm(-1)) regions. Dominant bands were observed at 1,385cm(-1) for control, 1,551cm(-1) for KCl-treated samples, and 1,694cm(-1) for NaCl-treated samples. Moreover, SIMCA clustered the MPC80 samples stored at 4C separately from samples stored at 25C and 55C. This study demonstrates that (1) the addition of NaCl or KCl during MPC80 manufacture reduces the deleterious changes in solubility upon prolonged storage at 4C or 25C, and (2) the solubility of samples stored at 55C is poor irrespective of salt treatment. PMID:26805980

  2. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Gonzalez Perez, Maria Eliette; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; van de Vossenberg, Jack; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B.; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-01-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m3 of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment. PMID:26528995

  3. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Perez, Maria Eliette Gonzalez; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; de Vossenberg, Jack van; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-11-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods-lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment-were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m³ of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment. PMID:26528995

  4. Two different mechanisms for urea action at the LAC and TNA operons in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Blazy, B; Ullmann, A

    1990-02-01

    Urea, at concentrations which do not interfere with bacterial growth, specifically inhibits the expression of catabolite sensitive operons. To search for the target and the mechanism of urea action we measured lactose (lac) and tryptophanase (tna) specific mRNA synthesis in vivo and in vitro. We show that urea acts by two different mechanisms at these two catabolite sensitive operons, resembling the manner in which catabolite repression regulates lac and tna. At the lac promoter, urea abolishes transcription initiation or blocks an early step in mRNA elongation without interfering with the binding of RNA polymerase and catabolite gene activator protein (CAP). At the tna promoter, urea does not abolish transcription initiation but could interfere with tnaC translation. PMID:2160052

  5. First results on the incorporation and excretion of 15N from orally administered urea in lactating pony mares.

    PubMed

    Schubert, R; Zander, R; Gruhn, K; Hennig, A

    1991-05-01

    Two lactating pony mares were given oral offers of 20 g 15N urea [95 atom-% 15N-excess (15N')] on 6 subsequent days. About 80% of the consumed 15N' were excreted via urine and faeces, but only about 2% via milk. The 15N' secreted via milk-lysine only amounted to 0.04% of the 15N' intake. The recovery was about 90% in each case. Tissues with active metabolism had an unexpectedly high labelling (greater than 0.3 atom-% 15N'). The low extent of the conversion of oral urea N into milk-lysine speaks against an essential participation of the enteral synthesis in meeting the amino acid requirement of lactating mares. It was already concluded from this results that the determination of the amino acid requirement will be necessary for this group of performance. PMID:1888274

  6. Persistence and Surface Transport of Urea-Nitrogen: A Rainfall Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Kibet, Leonard C; Bryant, Ray B; Buda, Anthony R; Kleinman, Peter J A; Saporito, Louis S; Allen, Arthur L; Hashem, Fawzy M; May, Eric B

    2016-05-01

    Studies of harmful algal blooms and associated urea concentrations in the Chesapeake Bay and in coastal areas around the globe strongly suggest that elevated urea concentrations are associated with harmful algal blooms. The observed increased frequency and toxicity of these blooms in recent decades has been correlated with increased agricultural use of N inputs and increased use of urea as a preferred form of commercial N. This rainfall simulation study sought to assess the potential for different N fertilizers and manures to contribute to urea in runoff from a Coastal Plain soil on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Under worst-case conditions, ~1% of urea-N applied as commercial fertilizer and surface-applied poultry litter was lost in runoff in a simulated rainfall event, roughly equivalent to a 1-yr return period rain storm in the study area, 12 h after application. Cumulative urea-N losses, including four subsequent weekly rainfall events, approached 1.7% from urea-N fertilizer containing a urease inhibitor. Urea-N loss from incorporated poultry litter was negligible, and losses from dairy manure were intermediate. These losses are likely confined to hydrological contributing areas that extend several meters from a drainage ditch or stream for storms with frequent recurrence intervals. Cumulative dissolved N losses in runoff (urea-N + ammonium-N + nitrate-N) as a proportion of total applied plant-available N were <5%, suggesting that most of the applied N was lost by other pathways or was immobilized in soil. Results also highlight the potential for simple management options, such as shallow incorporation or timing, to greatly reduce urea runoff losses. PMID:27136175

  7. Effects of supplementing condensed tannin extract on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dschaak, C M; Williams, C M; Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Min, B R

    2011-05-01

    A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of quebracho condensed tannin extract (CTE) on ruminal fermentation and lactational performance of dairy cows. The cows were fed a high forage (HF) or a low forage (LF) diet with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 59:41 or 41:59 on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows (62 ± 8.8 d in milk) were used. The design of the experiment was a double 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, and each period lasted 21 d (14 d of treatment adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling). Four dietary treatments were tested: HF without CTE, HF with CTE (HF+CTE), LF without CTE, and LF with CTE (LF+CTE). Commercial quebracho CTE was added to the HF+CTE and the LF+CTE at a rate of 3% of dietary DM. Intake of DM averaged 26.7 kg/d across treatments, and supplementing CTE decreased intakes of DM and nutrients regardless of forage level. Digestibilities of DM and nutrients were not affected by CTE supplementation. Milk yield averaged 35.3 kg/d across treatments, and yields of milk and milk component were not influenced by CTE supplementation. Negative effects of CTE supplementation on feed intake resulted in increased feed efficiency (milk yield/DM intake). Although concentration of milk urea N (MUN) decreased by supplementing CTE in the diets, efficiency of N use for milk N was not affected by CTE supplementation. Feeding the LF diet decreased ruminal pH (mean of 6.47 and 6.33 in HF and LF, respectively). However, supplementation of CTE in the diets did not influence ruminal pH. Supplementing CTE decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration regardless of level of forage. With CTE supplementation, molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate increased in the HF diet, but not in the LF diet, resulting in interactions between forage level and CTE supplementation. Concentration of ammonia-N tended to decrease with supplementation of CTE. The most remarkable finding in this study was that cows fed CTE-supplemented diets had decreased ruminal ammonia-N and MUN concentrations, indicating that less ruminal N was lost as ammonia because of decreased degradation of crude protein by rumen microorganisms in response to CTE supplementation. Therefore, supplementation of CTE in lactation dairy diets may change the route of N excretion, having less excretion into urine but more into feces, as it had no effect on N utilization efficiency for milk production. PMID:21524543

  8. Ammonia volatilization and availability of Cu, Zn induced by applications of urea with and without coating in soils.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhaohui; Zeng, Qingru; Tie, Boqing; Liao, Bohan; Pi, Hejie; Feng, Xiaoyou; Sun, Yulin

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia volatilization and the distribution of Cu and Zn were investigated in two types of soil treated with coated and uncoated urea. The rate of ammonia volatilization in two weeks after fertilizing with coated urea was 8% in soil 1 (soil derived from river alluvial deposits in Dongting Lake Plain) and 5.15% in soil 2 (red soil derived from quaternary red clay), about half the rates observed when fertilizing with common urea, implying that the hydrolysis speed of the coated urea was lower than for common urea, and that the coated urea can increase nitrogen use efficacy. As for the availability of Cu and Zn, their concentrations decreased in the first week after fertilization, and then increased, which was contrary to the effect of treatment on soil pH. For example, when the pH was 7.99, there was 0.79 mg/kg exchangeable Cu and 0.85 mg/kg exchangeable Zn in the soil derived from river alluvial deposits in Dongting Lake Plain. However, the concentrations of exchangeable Cu and Zn were generally lower for the common urea treatments than those with the coated urea because the peak pH for the common urea treatment was greater. The concentrations of these elements correlated well with pH in the range 4-8 in second order polynomial fits. PMID:22783630

  9. Vetiver grass is capable of removing TNT from soil in the presence of urea.

    PubMed

    Das, Padmini; Datta, Rupali; Makris, Konstantinos C; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2010-05-01

    The high affinity of vetiver grass for 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the catalytic effectiveness of urea in enhancing plant uptake of TNT in hydroponic media we earlier demonstrated were further illustrated in this soil-pot-experiment. Complete removal of TNT in urea-treated soil was accomplished by vetiver at the low initial soil-TNT concentration (40 mg kg(-1)), masking the effect of urea. Doubling the initial TNT concentration (80 mg kg(-1)) significantly (p<0.002) increased TNT removal by vetiver, in the presence of urea. Without vetiver grass, no significant (p=0.475) change in the soil-TNT concentrations was observed over a period of 48 days, suggesting that natural attenuation of soil TNT could not explain the documented TNT disappearance from soil. PMID:20047780

  10. SANS and DLS Studies of Protein Unfolding in Presence of Urea and Surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Aswal, V. K.; Chodankar, S. N.; Wagh, A. G.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Vavrin, R.

    2008-03-17

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) have been used to study conformational changes in protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) during its unfolding in presence of protein denaturating agents urea and surfactant. On addition of urea, the BSA protein unfolds for urea concentrations greater than 4 M and acquires a random coil configuration with its radius of gyration increasing with urea concentration. The addition of surfactant unfolds the protein by the formation of micelle-like aggregates of surfactants along the unfolded polypeptide chains of the protein. The fractal dimension of such a protein-surfactant complex decreases and the overall size of the complex increases on increasing the surfactant concentration. The conformation of the unfolded protein in the complex has been determined directly using contrast variation SANS measurements by contrast matching the surfactant to the medium. Results of DLS measurements are found to be in good agreement with those obtained using SANS.

  11. Feed and animal factors influencing milk fat composition.

    PubMed

    Palmquist, D L; Beaulieu, A D; Barbano, D M

    1993-06-01

    Genetic selection for increased milk fat percentage leads to increased proportions of short-chain fatty acids in milk fat and decreased proportions of long-chain fatty acids. Milk fat composition is strongly influenced by stage of lactation; proportion of short chains (de novo synthesis) is low initially and increases until at least 8 to 10 wk into lactation. Milk fat composition is changed more by the amount and composition of dietary fat than any other dietary component. Seasonal and regional differences in milk fat composition are measurable, most likely because of local differences in feed supplies. Milk fat composition can be modified readily by changing the feeding regimen. The most significant changes in milk fat quality relate to rheological (melting) properties, which influence numerous aspects of character and quality of manufactured dairy products. Dietary fat fed to change milk fat composition may also influence contents of protein, urea, citrate, and soluble calcium in milk and influence oxidative stability and flavor. It is important for both dairy nutritionists and dairy food chemists to understand the consequences of feeding programs on milk quality. PMID:8326036

  12. 21 CFR 184.1923 - Urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urea. 184.1923 Section 184.1923 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1923 Urea. (a) Urea (CO(NH2)2, CAS Reg. No....

  13. 21 CFR 184.1923 - Urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Urea. 184.1923 Section 184.1923 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1923 Urea. (a) Urea (CO(NH2)2, CAS Reg. No. 57-13-6) is the diamide...

  14. Effects of soybean meal or canola meal on milk production and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Gidlund, H; Hetta, M; Krizsan, S J; Lemosquet, S; Huhtanen, P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soybean meal (SBM) and heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) on milk production and methane emissions in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets. Twenty-eight Swedish Red cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with 4 periods of 21 d and with treatments in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (however, the control diet without supplementary protein was not fed in replicate). The diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed ration containing 600 g/kg of grass silage and 400 g/kg of concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis. The concentrate without supplementary protein consisted of crimped barley and premix (312 and 88 g/kg of DM), providing 130 g of dietary crude protein (CP)/kg of DM. The other 6 concentrates were formulated to provide 170, 210, or 250 g of CP/kg of DM by replacing crimped barley with incremental amounts of SBM (50, 100, or 150 g/kg of diet DM) or TCM (70, 140, or 210 g/kg of diet DM). Feed intake was not influenced by dietary CP concentration, but tended to be greater in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Milk and milk protein yield increased linearly with dietary CP concentration, with greater responses in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Apparent N efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration and was lower for cows fed SBM diets than cows fed TCM diets. Milk urea concentration increased linearly with increased dietary CP concentration, with greater effects in cows fed SBM diets than in cows fed TCM diets. Plasma concentrations of total A