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1

Variability of urea concentration in camel milk in Kazakhstan  

E-print Network

Note Variability of urea concentration in camel milk in Kazakhstan Bernard FAYE 1*, Gaukhar-protein nitrogen in milk. The variability of its concentration was never reported in camel milk. The present communication aimed to give some reference values on urea content in camel milk and to explore some

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2

Effects on milk urea concentration, urine output, and drinking water intake from incremental doses of potassium bicarbonate fed to mid-lactation dairy cows.  

PubMed

Large variation exists in the potassium content of dairy cow feeds and also within a feed type due to soil type and fertilization. Increased ration K concentration causes a subsequent increase in urinary volume and could be expected to also lower milk urea concentration. Six multiparous mid-lactation Swedish Red dairy cows, all fitted with rumen cannulas, were subjected to 3 different levels of K intake in a Latin square experiment with three 2-wk periods to evaluate the effects on concentrations of milk urea and rumen ammonia, urinary output, and drinking water intake. The treatments were achieved by K supplementation on top of a low-K basal ration fed at individual allowances fixed throughout the experiment. The basal ration, consumed at 20.2 kg of dry matter (DM)/d, provided 165 g of crude protein/kg of DM and consisted of grass silage, concentrates, and urea in the proportions 39.3:60.0:0.7 on a DM basis. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation was 0, 616, and 1,142 g/d, respectively, to give total ration K concentrations that were low (LO; 12 g/kg of DM), medium (MED; 23 g/kg of DM), or high (HI; 32 g/kg of DM). Production and composition of milk was not affected by treatment. A linear effect on milk urea concentration was detected, being 4.48, 4.18, and 3.77 mM for LO, MED, and HI, respectively, and a linear tendency for rumen ammonia concentration with 6.65, 6.51, and 5.84 mg of NH?-N/dL for LO, MED, and HI, respectively. Milk urea concentration peaked about 3h after the rumen ammonia peak from the morning feeding, at a level 1.3mM over the baseline. Urinary urea excretion declined linearly (105, 103, and 98 g of urea-N/d for LO, MED, and HI, respectively). Linear increases occurred in urinary output (0.058 ± 0.001 kg of urine/g of K intake; no intercept; coefficient of determination=0.997) and drinking water intake (65.9 ± 2.02 + 0.069 ± 0.004 kg of water/g of K intake; coefficient of determination=0.95). Urinary K concentration leveled off at 12.4 g/L. Urinary creatinine excretion was not affected by K addition, but allantoin excretion increased linearly by 27% from LO to HI, suggesting increased rumen microbial growth. Rumen pH, acetate proportion of total volatile fatty acids, and digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber increased linearly with increasing potassium intake. We concluded that increased ration K concentration lowers milk urea concentration with a magnitude significant for the interpretation of milk urea values, but other sources of variation, such as sampling time relative to feeding, may be even more important. PMID:24835966

Eriksson, T; Rustas, B-O

2014-07-01

3

Relationship between blood urea, protein, creatinine, triglycerides and macro-mineral concentrations with the quality and quantity of milk in dairy Holstein cows  

PubMed Central

Seventy six high and low producer cows were selected to determine the composition of the blood and milk parameters, and their interrelationships to determine the indices which could be useful to improve the milk yield. The highest mean blood concentrations were found in high producer cows. Mean values for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum protein (SPtn), creatinine, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) were 25.10 mg dL-1, 10.15 g dL-1, 0.81, 62.30, 177.10 and 0.16 mmol L-1, and for macro-minerals including SCa, SMg, serum in-organic phosphorus (SIP), SNa and SK were 3.85, 2.66, 4.63, 108.00 and 4.34 mmol L-1, respectively. The highest concentrations for milk parameters, were observed in the high producers, and were significant only for MCa, MIP and MMg. Mean values for milk urea nitrogen (MUN), milk protein (MPtn) and lactose were 19.90 mg dL-1, 0.39 g dL-1, and 4.12% and for macro-minerals, 13.24, 3.88, 11.03, 73.30 and 16.90 mmol L-1, respectively. There were significant positive correlations between the blood and milk parameters except for creatinine/BHB, TGs/cholesterol and MNa/MK which were not significant. The correlations between the blood parameters were greater than in the milk parameters. Creatinine and SPtn, MUN and MPtn were the main parameters in that the relationships between MPtn with BUN, SPtn and creatinine were more noticeable than others. The regression analysis showed that BUN with the SIP and creatinine, MPtn with the BUN and creatinine and MUN with the SIP and SMg were the appropriate parameters in improvement studies related to the milk yield. In conclusion, BUN, SPtn, MUN and MPtn concentrations are the most effective indices for predicting the preferred milk yield.

Nozad, Shahram; Ramin, Ali-Gholi; Moghadam, Gholamali; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Babapour, Azadeh; Ramin, Sina

2012-01-01

4

Diurnal Variation of Rumen Ammonia, Serum Urea, and Milk Urea in Dairy Cows at High and Low Yields1  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Milk urea content as an indicator of nutritional status may,be a useful tool if major,sources of variation are consid- ered. Blood and milk samples were col- lected frequently during 16 to 19 h from four Holstein cows to study diurnal vari- ation of urea content. Corn silage, alfalfa hay, and concentrates were fed. Rumen ammonia, VFA, and pH were

D. L. Palmquist

1993-01-01

5

Milk urea as nutritional indicator in sheep grazing legume-based pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-year study was carried out to assess the effects of different grass-legume mixtures on: (i) dietary CP and NEL (Net Energy for milk production) concentrations and milk urea level; and (ii) the relationship between milk urea and several dietary variables. Replicate groups of Sardinian sheep in early-mid lactation (January-May) rotationally grazed plots of three grass-legume mixtures consisting of common

G. Molle; V. Giovanetti; A. Cabiddu; M. Cuccureddu; G. Scanu; M. Decandia

6

Flow injection analysis biosensor for urea analysis in adulterated milk using enzyme thermistor.  

PubMed

Urea in adulterated milk is one of the major health concern, it is especially harmful to pregnant women, children, and the sick. A sophisticated and reliable detection system is needed to replace current diagnostic tools for the urea in the milk. In this work, we report a flow injection analysis-enzyme thermistor (FIA-ET) bio-sensing system for monitoring of urea in adulterated milk. This biosensor was made of the covalently immobilized enzyme urease (Jack bean) on controlled pore glass (CPG) and packed into a column inside thermistor, which selectively hydrolysed the urea present in the sample. The specific heat registered from the hydrolysis of urea was found proportional to the concentration of urea present in the milk sample. The biosensor showed a linear range 1-200 mM, with % R.S.D. 0.96 for urea in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.2. Good recoveries were obtained (97.56-108.7%) for urea up to 200 mM in the spiked milk samples with % R.S.D. 0.95. In the adulterated milk, a simple filtration strategy and matrix matching technique was used to analyse urea. The response time of the sensor was evaluated for urea, which was 2 min, and it gives satisfactory output. A good comparison was observed between the urea concentrations measured through FIA-ET and the colorimetric method. These results indicate that utilizing this system could be very effective to detect low and high level of urea in adulterated milk. The immobilized urease column exhibited a good operational stability up to 180 days when used continuously at room temperature. PMID:20732804

Mishra, Geetesh K; Mishra, Rupesh K; Bhand, Sunil

2010-12-15

7

Voltamperometric Discrimination of Urea and Melamine Adulterated Skimmed Milk Powder  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008. The development of a rapid, reliable and economic test is of relevance in order to improve adulterated milk identification. Cyclic voltammetry studies using an Au working electrode were performed on adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples from different independent manufacturers. Voltammetric data and their first derivative were subjected to functional principal component analysis (f-PCA) and correctly classified by the KNN classifier. The adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples showed significant differences. Best results of prediction were obtained with first derivative data. Detection limits in milk samples adulterated with 1% of its total nitrogen derived from melamine or urea were as low as 85.0 mg·L?1 and 121.4 mg·L?1, respectively. We present this method as a fast and robust screening method for milk adulteration analysis and prevention of food intoxication. PMID:23112709

Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Fauerbach, Jonathan A.; Sacco, Natalia J.; Bonetto, M. Celina; Cortón, Eduardo

2012-01-01

8

21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.115 Concentrated...

2014-04-01

9

21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.115 Concentrated...

2013-04-01

10

21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.115 Concentrated...

2010-04-01

11

21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.115 Concentrated...

2012-04-01

12

21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.115 Concentrated...

2011-04-01

13

What is Milk Urea Nitrogen and How is It Interpreted? Dr. Doo-Hong Min, Extension Forage Specialist, MSU UPES  

E-print Network

What is Milk Urea Nitrogen and How is It Interpreted? Dr. Doo-Hong Min, Extension Forage Specialist, MSU UPES Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) is another tool to assess the protein and energy balance status of a group of dairy cows and can be used for minimizing feed costs while maximizing production. Milk urea

14

Potentiometric biosensor for determination of urea in milk using immobilized Arthrobacter creatinolyticus urease.  

PubMed

The extracellular urease from Arthrobacter creatinolyticus was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and immobilized on PAN [poly(acrylonitrile-methylmethacrylate-sodium vinylsulfonate)] membrane. The urease immobilized PAN membrane exhibited an activity of 97.92U/cm(2) under the optimum conditions of 1.0% enzyme concentration, 15% glutaraldehyde, 24h immobilization time and temperature of 4°C. The changes in surface morphology of the membrane after immobilization were studied by SEM and ATR-FTIR analysis. Immobilized membrane was associated with potentiometric electrode for calibration of biosensor and the results showed a linear response for wide range of urea concentration from 1 to 100mM. The immobilized urease had good storage stability for a period of 70days at 4°C and could be effectively reused for 13cycles. Urease immobilized membrane was also employed in analysis of urea spiked milk samples. PMID:25687009

Ramesh, Rajendran; Puhazhendi, Puhazhselvan; Kumar, Jitendra; Gowthaman, Marichetti Kuppuswami; D'Souza, Stanislaus Francis; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu

2015-04-01

15

Daily rhythm of salivary and serum urea concentration in sheep  

PubMed Central

Background In domestic animals many biochemical and physiological processes exhibit daily rhythmicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rhythmic pattern of salivary and serum urea concentrations in sheep. Methods Six 3-year-old female sheep kept in the same environmental conditions were used. Sheep were sampled at 4 hour intervals for 48 consecutive hours starting at 08:00 of the first day and finishing at 04:00 of the second day. Blood samples were collected via intravenous cannulae inserted into the jugular vein; saliva samples were collected through a specific tube, the "Salivette". Salivary and serum urea concentrations were assayed by means of UV spectrophotometer. ANOVA was used to determine significant differences. The single Cosinor procedure was applied to the results showing significant differences over time. Results ANOVA showed a significant effect of time on salivary and serum urea concentrations. Serum and salivary urea peaked during the light phase. In the dark phase serum and salivary urea concentrations decreased, and the diurnal trough occurred at midnight. Cosinor analysis showed diurnal acrophases for salivary and serum urea concentrations. Daily mean levels were significantly higher in the serum than in the saliva. Conclusion In sheep both salivary and serum urea concentrations showed daily fluctuations. Urea is synthesized in the liver and its production is strongly influenced by food intake. Future investigation should clarify whether daily urea rhythms in sheep are endogenous or are simply the result of the temporal administration of food. PMID:17123442

Piccione, Giuseppe; Foà, Augusto; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Caola, Giovanni

2006-01-01

16

Original article UHT processed milk concentrates  

E-print Network

Original article UHT processed milk concentrates Jörg HINRICHS* Chair for food process engineering osmosis concentrates made from milk with differing fat and protein contents were sheared in defined flow and storage stability correlated with the ash content and these increase as the ash contents decrease. Milk

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

17

Fast isoelectric focusing of milk proteins on small ultrathin polyacrylamide gels containing urea.  

PubMed

The preparation of 0.45 mm thin polyacrylamide gels, containing urea, for horizontal micro isoelectric focusing of milk proteins with PhastSystem is described. Isoelectric focusing in the small gels, stained either with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 or with the more sensitive silver stain, affords a fast and sensitive procedure for an analysis of milk and cheese proteins. The procedure can be effectively exploited in detecting adulteration in ovine cheese with bovine milk. PMID:2776737

Moio, L; Di Luccia, A; Addeo, F

1989-07-01

18

Online measurement of urea concentration in spent dialysate during hemodialysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe on-line optical measurements of urea concentration during the regular hemodialysis treatment of several patients. The spectral measurements were performed in the effluent dialysate stream after the dialysis membrane using an FTIR spectrometer equipped with a flow-through cell. Spectra were recorded across the 5000-4000 cm-1 (2.0-2.5 micrometers at 1-minute intervals. Optically determined concentrations matched concentrations obtained from standard chemical assays with a root-mean-square error of 0.29 mM for urea (0.8 mg/dl urea nitrogen), 0.03 mM for creatinine, 0.11 mM for lactate, and 0.22 mM for glucose. The observed concentration ranges were 0-11 mM for urea, 0-0.35 mM for creatinine, 0-0.75 mM for lactate, and 9-12.5 mM for glucose.

Olesberg, Jonathon T.; Armitage, Ben; Arnold, Mark A.; Flanigan, Michael

2002-05-01

19

Concentration levels of urea in swimming pool water and reactivity of chlorine with urea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the reactivity of chlorine with urea which is the main nitrogen contaminant introduced into swimming pool water by bathers. In the first part of this study, analyses showed that the mean concentrations of urea and TOC determined from 50 samples of municipal swimming pool were equal to 18.0 ?M (s.d. 11.7) and 3.5 mg C L?1 (s.d. 1.6), respectively. The mean

Joseph De Laat; Wentao Feng; Diab Adams Freyfer; Florence Dossier-Berne

2011-01-01

20

Milk cortisol concentration in automatic milking systems compared with auto-tandem milking parlors.  

PubMed

Milk cortisol concentration was determined under routine management conditions on 4 farms with an auto-tandem milking parlor and 8 farms with 1 of 2 automatic milking systems (AMS). One of the AMS was a partially forced (AMSp) system, and the other was a free cow traffic (AMSf) system. Milk samples were collected for all the cows on a given farm (20 to 54 cows) for at least 1 d. Behavioral observations were made during the milking process for a subset of 16 to 20 cows per farm. Milk cortisol concentration was evaluated by milking system, time of day, behavior during milking, daily milk yield, and somatic cell count using linear mixed-effects models. Milk cortisol did not differ between systems (AMSp: 1.15 +/- 0.07; AMSf: 1.02 +/- 0.12; auto-tandem parlor: 1.01 +/- 0.16 nmol/L). Cortisol concentrations were lower in evening than in morning milkings (1.01 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.24 +/- 0.13 nmol/L). The daily periodicity of cortisol concentration was characterized by an early morning peak and a late afternoon elevation in AMSp. A bimodal pattern was not evident in AMSf. Finally, milk cortisol decreased by a factor of 0.915 in milking parlors, by 0.998 in AMSp, and increased by a factor of 1.161 in AMSf for each unit of ln(somatic cell count/1,000). We conclude that milking cows in milking parlors or AMS does not result in relevant stress differences as measured by milk cortisol concentrations. The biological relevance of the difference regarding the daily periodicity of milk cortisol concentrations observed between the AMSp and AMSf needs further investigation. PMID:16899678

Gygax, L; Neuffer, I; Kaufmann, C; Hauser, R; Wechsler, B

2006-09-01

21

Enzymatic determination of urea in milk by sequential injection with spectrophotometric and conductometric detection.  

PubMed

In this work, an analytical system based on the coupling of gas diffusion separation and sequential injection analysis for urea determination in milk is presented. A versatile manifold that could simultaneously be used for either spectrophotometric or conductometric detection was constructed. The sample and urease solution are sequentially aspirated into the holding coil and sent to a thermoreactor, where urea is enzymatically hydrolyzed by urease and converted into ammonium. This stream merges an alkaline solution at a confluence point where ammonia is formed. Ammonia diffuses through a hydrophobic membrane and modifies the bromothymol blue indicator color, when spectrophotometric detection is used, or changes the conductance of a boric acid solution acceptor stream, when conductometric detection is used. This methodology was applied to the determination of urea in 18 milk samples and the results were statistically comparable with those furnished by the enzymatic recommended procedure. The detection limits were 2.6 x 10(-4) and 2.8 x 10(-5) mol L(-1) for conductometric and spectrophotometric detection, respectively. Repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD) was better than 3.7% and 2.6% for conductometric and spectrophotometric detection, respectively. PMID:15537291

Lima, M J Reis; Fernandes, Sílvia M V; Rangel, António O S S

2004-11-17

22

Solubility of commercial milk protein concentrates and milk protein isolates.  

PubMed

High-protein milk protein concentrate (MPC) and milk protein isolate (MPI) powders may have lower solubility than low-protein MPC powders, but information is limited on MPC solubility. Our objectives in this study were to (1) characterize the solubility of commercially available powder types with differing protein contents such as MPC40, MPC80, and MPI obtained from various manufacturers (sources), and (2) determine if such differences could be associated with differences in mineral, protein composition, and conformational changes of the powders. To examine possible predictors of solubility as measured by percent suspension stability (%SS), mineral analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and quantitative protein analysis by HPLC was performed. After accounting for overall differences between powder types, %SS was found to be strongly associated with the calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and sodium content of the powders. The FTIR score plots were in agreement with %SS results. A principal component analysis of FTIR spectra clustered the highly soluble MPC40 separately from the rest of samples. Furthermore, 2 highly soluble MPI samples were clustered separately from the rest of the MPC80 and MPI samples. We found that the 900 to 1,200 cm?¹ region exhibited the highest discriminating power, with dominant bands at 1,173 and 968 cm?¹, associated with phosphate vibrations. The 2 highly soluble MPI powders were observed to have lower ?-casein and ?-(S1)-casein contents and slightly higher whey protein contents than the other powders. The differences in the solubility of MPC and MPI were associated with a difference in mineral composition, which may be attributed to differences in processing conditions. Additional studies on the role of minerals composition on MPC80 solubility are warranted. Such a study would provide a greater understanding of factors associated with differences in solubility and can provide insight on methods to improve solubility of high-protein milk protein concentrates. PMID:22118108

Sikand, V; Tong, P S; Roy, S; Rodriguez-Saona, L E; Murray, B A

2011-12-01

23

Potential use of milk urea nitrogen to abate atmospheric nitrogen emissions from wisconsin dairy farms.  

PubMed

Urinary urea N (UUN) is the principal nitrogen (N) source controlling emissions of ammonia (NH) and nitrous oxide (NO) from dairy manure. The objectives of this study were (i) to study the integrative nature of dietary crude protein (CP) management, secretion of milk urea N (MUN), excretion of UUN, and N emissions from dairy production systems; (ii) to evaluate how associative changes in dietary CP, MUN, and UUN affect atmospheric N emissions from dairy farms; and (iii) to discuss some of the challenges and opportunities to an expanded use of MUN to enhance dietary CP use and decrease UUN excretion and N emissions from dairy farms. Milk urea N records of 37,889 cows in 197 herds in Wisconsin revealed that approximately one half of tested cows were likely consuming dietary CP in excess of requirement. Farm simulations were used to quantify the effect of dietary CP on whole-farm N emissions. At a statewide average MUN of 12.5 mg dL, 48 to 87% of UUN was emitted as NH, with the lowest loss from pasture-based farms and the greatest loss from tie-stall farms. Each 1 mg dL decrease of MUN (range, 16-10 mg dL) provided an associated daily decrease in UUN of 16.6 g per cow, which decreased NH and NO emissions from manure by 7 to 12%. Although more site-specific information is required on herd MUN-UUN relationships and more a reliable interpretation of MUN assay results is needed, monitoring of MUN may be used to enhance dietary CP use and to reduce UUN excretion and N emissions from Wisconsin dairy farms. PMID:25603065

Powell, J M; Rotz, C A; Wattiaux, M A

2014-07-01

24

Urea recycling contributes to nitrogen retention in calves fed milk replacer and low-protein solid feed.  

PubMed

Urea recycling, with urea originating from catabolism of amino acids and hepatic detoxification of ammonia, is particularly relevant for ruminant animals, in which microbial protein contributes substantially to the metabolizable protein supply. However, the quantitative contribution of urea recycling to protein anabolism in calves during the transition from preruminants (milk-fed calves) to ruminants [solid feed (SF)-fed calves] is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify urea recycling in milk-fed calves when provided with low-protein SF. Forty-eight calves [164 ± 1.6 kg body weight (BW)] were assigned to 1 of 4 SF levels [0, 9, 18, and 27 g of dry matter (DM) SF · kg BW(-0.75) · d?¹] provided in addition to an identical amount of milk replacer. Urea recycling was quantified after a 24-h intravenous infusion of [¹?N?]urea by analyzing urea isotopomers in 68-h fecal and urinary collections. Real-time qPCR was used to measure gene expression levels of bovine urea transporter B (bUTB) and aquaglyceroporin-3 and aquaglyceroporin-7 in rumen wall tissues. For every incremental gram of DM SF intake (g DM · kg(0.75)), nitrogen intake increased by 0.70 g, and nitrogen retention increased by 0.55 g (P < 0.01). Of this increase in nitrogen retention, 19% could be directly explained by urea recycling. Additionally, part of the observed increase in nitrogen retention could be explained by the extra protein provided by the SF and likely by a greater efficiency of postabsorptive use of nitrogen for gain. Ruminal bUTB abundance increased (P < 0.01) with SF provision. Aquaglyceroporin-3 expression increased (P < 0.01) with SF intake, but aquaglyceroporin-7 expression did not. We conclude that in addition to the increase in digested nitrogen, urea recycling contributes to the observed increase in nitrogen retention with increasing SF intake in milk-fed calves. Furthermore, ruminal bUTB and aquaglyceroporin-3 expression are upregulated with SF intake, which might be associated with urea recycling. PMID:24812069

Berends, Harma; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Røjen, Betina A; van Baal, Jürgen; Gerrits, Walter J J

2014-07-01

25

Endocrine regulation of calcium and phosphorus concentration in camel's milk.  

E-print Network

Endocrine regulation of calcium and phosphorus concentration in camel's milk. F Riad M Ben Goumi JCIAVHassan Il, Rabat, Maroc; 31NRA, Theix, France Some qualitative aspects of the milk of the dromedary suggest that the ability to produce milk of high nutritive value for offspring or for human beings during long periods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

26

S100B milk concentration in mammalian species.  

PubMed

S100B is a neurotrophic protein detectable in biological fluids and in human milk. Since there are several maternal-neonatal conditions requiring the administration of animal milks the aim of the present study was to quantify S100B in milk from different mammalian species and to compare protein's concentration among human and mammalian milks. We assessed S100B concentrations in donkey (n=12), goat (n=15) sheep (n=15), commercially available cow (n=8) and human (n=15) milk samples. S100B measurements were performed using an immunoluminometric assay. S100B concentration in human milk (10.41 +/- 4.2 microg/L) was higher (P LESS THAN0.001) than mammalian milks. Of note, S100B concentration in cow milk (3.13 +/- 0.56 microg/L) was higher (P LESS THAN0.01) than that showed in donkey (1.17 +/- 0.26 microg/L), sheep (0.25 +/- 0.11 microg/L) and goat (0.26 +/- 0.11 microg/L). S100B in donkey milk was higher (P LESS THAN0.01) than sheep and goat samples whilst protein's concentration did not differ between goat and sheep. The present study suggests the opportunity of S100B addition to animal milk intended for infant feeding. PMID:19482669

Galvano, Fabio; Frigiola, Alessandro; Gagliardi, Luigi; Ciotti, Sabina; Bognanno, Matteo; Iacopino, Anna Maria; Nigro, Francesco; Tina, Gabriella Lucia; Cavallaro, Daniela; Mussap, Michele; Piva, Andrea; Grilli, Ester; Michetti, Fabrizio; Gazzolo, Diego

2009-01-01

27

Inactivation of Escherichia coli in milk and concentrated milk using pulsed-light treatment.  

PubMed

Pulsed light (PL) treatment has been viewed as an alternative to thermal treatments for the inactivation of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in recent years. The objectives of this study were to quantify the effectiveness of PL on inactivating Escherichia coli in cow milk and to evaluate the effect of total solids and fat content on inactivation. Samples of reconstituted milk with variable total solids levels (9.8, 25, and 45%) and commercial cow milk with different fat contents (skim milk, 2% fat, and whole milk) were inoculated with nonpathogenic E. coli ATCC 25922 at a concentration of 10(7)cfu/mL. One milliliter of the inoculated sample was placed in a thin layer in a glass chamber and exposed to PL doses of up to 14.9 J/cm(2), both in static mode and turbulent mode. Survivors were quantified using standard plate counting. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Pulsed light treatment of the concentrated milks of 25 and 45% solids content resulted in reductions of less than 1 log, even in turbulent mode, whereas for the milk with 9.8% solids content, reduction levels of 2.5 log cfu were obtained after treatment with 8.4 J/cm(2) in turbulent mode. In the skim milk, a 3.4 log cfu reduction at 14.9 J/cm(2) was obtained and a plateau of the inactivation curve typical of PL treatment was not achieved. Under the same conditions, both 2% and whole milk attained inactivation levels greater than 2.5 log cfu. These data indicate that PL is effective for the inactivation of E. coli in milk, but has limited effectiveness for microbial inactivation in concentrated milk, due to the absorption of light by the milk solids and shielding of the bacteria in the concentrated substrates. Milk fat also diminishes the effectiveness of PL to some extent, due to light-scattering effects. PMID:22901489

Miller, B M; Sauer, A; Moraru, C I

2012-10-01

28

Physical properties of ice cream containing milk protein concentrates.  

PubMed

Two milk protein concentrates (MPC, 56 and 85%) were studied as substitutes for 20 and 50% of the protein content in ice cream mix. The basic mix formula had 12% fat, 11% nonfat milk solids, 15% sweetener, and 0.3% stabilizer/emulsifier blend. Protein levels remained constant, and total solids were compensated for in MPC mixes by the addition of polydextrose. Physical properties investigated included apparent viscosity, fat globule size, melting rate, shape retention, and freezing behavior using differential scanning calorimetry. Milk protein concentrate formulations had higher mix viscosity, larger amount of fat destabilization, narrower ice melting curves, and greater shape retention compared with the control. Milk protein concentrates did not offer significant modifications of ice cream physical properties on a constant protein basis when substituted for up to 50% of the protein supplied by nonfat dry milk. Milk protein concentrates may offer ice cream manufacturers an alternative source of milk solids non-fat, especially in mixes reduced in lactose or fat, where higher milk solids nonfat are needed to compensate other losses of total solids. PMID:15738219

Alvarez, V B; Wolters, C L; Vodovotz, Y; Ji, T

2005-03-01

29

Conjugated linoleic acid concentrations of human milk and infant formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is an anticarcinogen found in ruminant products. CLA may also act as a growth promotor in the neonate. Because of the potential importance of CLA to maternal and infant health, CLA concentration was quantified in human milk and infant formula. Human milk samples (n = 14) were collected by complete breast expression, and four brands of

Michelle K. McGuire; Yongsoon Park; Rebecca A. Behre; Lisa Y. Harrison; Terry D. Shultz; Mark A. McGuire

1997-01-01

30

Post-dialysis urea concentration: comparison between one- compartment model and two-compartment model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of the urea concentration in blood can be numerically projected by using one-compartment model and two-compartment model with no variation in body fluid. This study aims to compare the simulated values of post-dialysis urea concentration for both models with the clinical data obtained from the hospital. The clinical assessment of adequacy of a treatment is based on the value of Kt/V. Further, direct calculation using clinical data and one-compartment model are presented in the form of ratio. It is found that the ratios of postdialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are higher compared to the ratios of post-dialysis urea concentration using one-compartment model. In addition, most values of post-dialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are much closer to the clinical data compared to values simulated using one-compartment model. Kt/V values calculated directly using clinical data are found to be higher than Kt/V values derived from one-compartment model.

Tamrin, N. S. Ahmad; Ibrahim, N.

2014-11-01

31

Estimation of antemortem serum electrolytes and urea concentrations from vitreous humor collected postmortem.  

PubMed Central

Electrolyte and urea levels of vitreous humor collected from bovine eyes at various times postmortem, were compared with serum levels in the same animals. Provided the vitreous humor was filtered immediately after collection, measured levels of total calcium (Ca), potassium ions (K+), sodium ions (Na+) and urea nitrogen were very consistent. For 24 hours postmortem the concentrations of Ca, Na+ and urea nitrogen remained stable, while K+ increased to approximately 55% more than the immediate postmortem level. A small study using anesthetized dogs indicated that urea nitrogen levels of vitreous humor take several hours to equilibrate with elevated blood levels. Analysis of vitreous humor may be a useful adjunct to diagnosis in cases where antemortem clinical chemistry is absent or inadequate. PMID:7093811

Wilkie, I W; Bellamy, J E

1982-01-01

32

Plasma urea, creatinine and uric acid concentrations in response to dehydration in racing pigeons (Columba Livia Domestica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma urea, creatinine and uric acid concentrations were determined in six racing pigeons that had been deprived of water for 3 days. Plasma urea concentration showed a 6.5? to 15.3?fold increase, creatinine a 1.2? to 1.5?fold increase and uric acid a 1.4? to 2?fold increase when compared with values before water deprivation. Although these increases were significant, plasma urea and

J. T. Lumeij

1987-01-01

33

Effect of elevated systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen in crossbred heifers on in vitro fertilization (IVF)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Elevated levels of dietary N and hence systemic concentrations of urea-N have been shown to have a deleterious effect on reproductive processes. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding pubertal crossbred heifers diets with moderate (M-N; 64.8% corn silage, 30.0% alfalfa h...

34

Effect of milk solids concentration on the pH, soluble calcium and soluble phosphate levels  

E-print Network

Note Effect of milk solids concentration on the pH, soluble calcium and soluble phosphate levels of milk during heating Skelte G. ANEMA* Fonterra Research Centre, Private Bag 11029, Palmerston North, New 2009 Abstract ­ When milk is processed to dairy products, the concentration of the milk

Boyer, Edmond

35

Is it possible to screen for milk or whey protein adulteration with melamine, urea and ammonium sulphate, combining Kjeldahl and classical spectrophotometric methods?  

PubMed

The Kjeldahl method and four classic spectrophotometric methods (Biuret, Lowry, Bradford and Markwell) were applied to evaluate the protein content of samples of UHT whole milk deliberately adulterated with melamine, ammonium sulphate or urea, which can be used to defraud milk protein and whey contents. Compared with the Kjeldahl method, the response of the spectrophotometric methods was unaffected by the addition of the nitrogen compounds to milk or whey. The methods of Bradford and Markwell were most robust and did not exhibit interference subject to composition. However, the simultaneous interpretation of results obtained using these methods with those obtained using the Kjeldahl method indicated the addition of nitrogen-rich compounds to milk and/or whey. Therefore, this work suggests a combination of results of Kjeldahl and spectrophotometric methods should be used to screen for milk adulteration by these compounds. PMID:23993532

Finete, Virgínia de Lourdes Mendes; Gouvêa, Marcos Martins; Marques, Flávia Ferreira de Carvalho; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira

2013-12-15

36

Triazolothienopyrimidine Inhibitors of Urea Transporter UT-B Reduce Urine Concentration  

PubMed Central

Urea transport (UT) proteins facilitate the concentration of urine by the kidney, suggesting that inhibition of these proteins could have therapeutic use as a diuretic strategy. We screened 100,000 compounds for UT-B inhibition using an optical assay based on the hypotonic lysis of acetamide-loaded mouse erythrocytes. We identified a class of triazolothienopyrimidine UT-B inhibitors; the most potent compound, UTBinh-14, fully and reversibly inhibited urea transport with IC50 values of 10 nM and 25 nM for human and mouse UT-B, respectively. UTBinh-14 competed with urea binding at an intracellular site on the UT-B protein. UTBinh-14 exhibited low toxicity and high selectivity for UT-B over UT-A isoforms. After intraperitoneal administration of UTBinh-14 in mice to achieve predicted therapeutic concentrations in the kidney, urine osmolality after administration of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin was approximately 700 mosm/kg H2O lower in UTBinh-14–treated mice than vehicle-treated mice. UTBinh-14 also increased urine output and reduced urine osmolality in mice given free access to water. UTBinh-14 did not reduce urine osmolality in UT-B knockout mice. In summary, these data provide proof of concept for the potential utility of UT inhibitors to reduce urinary concentration in high-vasopressin, fluid-retaining conditions. The diuretic mechanism of UT inhibitors may complement the action of conventional diuretics, which target sodium transport. PMID:22491419

Yao, Chenjuan; Anderson, Marc O.; Zhang, Jicheng; Yang, Baoxue; Phuan, Puay-Wah

2012-01-01

37

Effects of dietary urea supplementation on ruminal ammonia concentrations and microbial protein synthesis  

E-print Network

?'? j ? s ~ pjj C, P, . s urea 26 90 + 2 i90 . 64 + . 06 . 43 + ~ 15 579+ 17JJ (CO;TIHDED) '~~y3j-3 4: (Con I)inued) . ': oi; TiP, P , j)/ Dl"1r )HAPP, D)P!)jr Corrected 3acterial Crude Protein Yeilds DAP u v!oJ e/p;m lag 8!jj/1002m DHD r... S-DAP trial = 55 0 20 50 40 ime (hr) 60 70 PTGJF, '" 5: iJatural log of the mean ruminal Cr concentration versus time for Cr-turnover ano. DYi determination (Basal ? :2' C, P, i, '. as urea, ). 6. C '0205 hr (, 4 12 d. ay 6. 0 1&C ?. 0210 hr...

Kang, Joan Huei

1978-01-01

38

Use of dry milk protein concentrate in pizza cheese manufactured by culture or direct acidification.  

PubMed

Milk protein concentrate (MPC) contains high concentrations of casein and calcium and low concentrations of lactose. Enrichment of cheese milk with MPC should, therefore, enhance yields and improve quality. The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare pizza cheese made by culture acidification using standardized whole milk (WM) plus skim milk (SM) versus WM plus MPC; and 2) compare cheese made using WM + MPC by culture acidification to that made by direct acidification. The experimental design is as follows: vat 1 = WM + SM + culture (commercial thermophilic lactic acid bacteria), vat 2 = WM + MPC + culture, and vat 3 = WM + MPC + direct acid (2% citric acid). Each cheese milk was standardized to a protein-to-fat ratio of approximately 1.4. The experiment was repeated three times. Yield and composition of cheeses were determined by standard methods, whereas the proteolysis was assessed by urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and water-soluble N contents. Meltability of the cheeses was determined during 1 mo of storage, in addition to pizza making. The addition of MPC improved the yields from 10.34 +/- 0.57% in vat 1 cheese to 14.50 +/- 0.84% and 16.65 +/- 2.23%, respectively, in vats 2 and 3 and cheeses. The percentage of fat and protein recoveries showed insignificant differences between the treatments, but TS recoveries were in the order, vat 2 > vat 3 > vat 1. Most of the compositional parameters were significantly affected by the different treatments. Vat 2 cheese had the highest calcium and lowest lactose contencentrations. Vat 3 cheese had the best meltability. Vat 1 cheese initially had better meltability than vat 2 cheese; however, the difference became insignificant after 28 d of storage at 4 degrees C. Vat 3 cheese had the softest texture and produced large-sized blisters when baked on pizza. The lowest and highest levels of proteolysis were found in vats 2 and 3 cheeses, respectively. The study demonstrates the use of MPC in pizza cheese manufacture with improved yield both by culture acidification as well as direct acidification. PMID:14740818

Shakeel-Ur-Rehman; Farkye, N Y; Yim, B

2003-12-01

39

Effect of milk solids concentration on the gels formed by the acidification of heated pH-adjusted skim milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstituted skim milk of 10–25% total solids was adjusted to pH values between about 6.2 and 7.1 and heated at 80°C for 30min. Gels were formed from the heated milks by slow acidification to pH 4.2 and the gelation process and final gels were analyzed for their rheological properties. At each milk concentration, the final acid gel firmness (final G?)

S. G. Anema

2008-01-01

40

Effect of extracts of oak ( Quercus petraea) bark, oak leaves, aloe vera ( Curacao aloe), coconut shell and wine on the colloidal stability of milk and concentrated milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addition of aloe vera extract, non-dialyzable red wine residue or aqueous methanol extracts of oak bark, oak leaves or coconut shell increased the heat stability of skim milk (at 140°C) and concentrated milk (at 120°C) and retarded rennet coagulation, but had no effect on the alcohol stability of milk. The calcium ion concentration in milk was reduced by the addition

J. E O'Connell; P. F Fox

1999-01-01

41

The effects of a probiotic on blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations in large felids.  

PubMed

Chronic kidney disease is a common finding in older captive exotic felids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a probiotic to reduce blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in large felids. Fifteen adult, large felids (6 tigers [Panthera tigris], 5 lions [Panthera leo], 3 cougars [Puma concolor], and 1 leopard [Panthera pardus]) were administered a probiotic twice daily after a baseline complete blood cell count and plasma chemistry panel was obtained. Plasma chemistry values were rechecked at 2 mo (n = 14) and 6 mo (n = 9). There was no significant change in blood urea nitrogen over time; however, there was a significant change in creatinine over time (P = 0.04). Creatinine concentration decreased significantly between 2 and 6 mo (P = 0.02), and a decrease was seen between 0 and 6 mo, but this change was not significant (P = 0.05). There was no significant difference noted for creatinine concentration between 0 and 2 mo (P = 0.35). This probiotic may be helpful in large felids with elevated creatinine concentrations because of chronic kidney disease; however, further studies are warranted. PMID:22950314

McCain, Stephanie; Allender, Matthew C; Schumacher, Juergen; Ramsay, Edward

2011-09-01

42

Interrelationships of the Concentrations of Sodium, Potassium, Lactose and Water in Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE constancy of the osmotic properties of milk has led to a number of attempts to relate to each other, on either a theoretical1 or an empirical2,3 basis, the concentrations of milk constituents which make a major contribution to these colligative properties. The prospect that a knowledge of such relationships might help in the understanding of the processes of milk

J. A. F. Rook; Marian Wood

1958-01-01

43

Concentrations of vitamin C in plasma and milk of dairy cattle  

E-print Network

Note Concentrations of vitamin C in plasma and milk of dairy cattle M Hidiroglou, M Ivan, TR Batra and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid). At birth, the blood plasma concentration of ascorbic acid in calves approximately 28 d after calving. dairy cattle / vitamin C / blood plasma /milk Résumé — Concentration en

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

Increasing Selenium Concentration in Milk: Effects of Amount of Selenium from Yeast and Cereal Grain Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to establish re- sponses in milk Se concentrations in grazing dairy cows to different amounts of dietary Se yeast, and to deter- mine the effects of the Se concentration of the basal diet. The hypothesis tested was that the response in milk, blood, and tissue Se concentrations to supplemen- tal Se would not be affected by

J. W. Heard; C. R. Stockdale; G. P. Walker; C. M. Leddin; F. R. Dunshea; G. H. McIntosh; P. M. Shields; A. McKenna; G. P. Young; P. T. Doyle

2007-01-01

45

Characterization of extruded and toasted milk protein concentrates.  

PubMed

Important functional properties of milk protein concentrate with 80% protein (MPC80), modified with low- and high-shear extrusion, or low-temperature toasting were compared. The effect of high- and low-shear profile screws in a corotating twin-screw extruder, and 4 different ramped temperature profiles with die temperatures of 65, 75, 90, and 120 °C were compared. Extrudates were pelletized, dried, and ground to a fine powder. Toasting was done at 75 and 110 °C for 4 h for milk protein modification. Extruded and toasted MPC80 had reduced protein solubility and surface hydrophobicity. Extrusion decreased water-holding capacity (WHC). Toasted MPC80 had increased WHC when treated at 75 °C, but WHC decreased when heated at 110 °C. The treatments had no strong influence on gel strength. Reduced and nonreduced sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed peptide structural changes that occurred due to processing, especially for whey proteins. Results are discussed in terms of potential for application of extruded or toasted MPC80 in high-protein nutrition bar applications. PMID:23601000

Banach, J C; Clark, S; Lamsal, B P

2013-06-01

46

Short communication: Effects of nanofiltration and evaporation on the physiochemical properties of milk protein during processing of milk protein concentrate.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of nanofiltration and evaporation concentration technologies on the physiochemical properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC) during processing. Skim milk, ultrafiltered milk, evaporated milk, nanofiltered milk, evaporated MPC, and nanofiltered MPC samples were collected at different processing stages. Chemical composition, microstructure of casein micelles, free sulfhydryl content, and surface hydrophobicity of the samples were determined. The insolubility index of MPC was also determined. Casein micelles aggregated compactly after evaporation while surface hydrophobicity increased and free sulfhydryl content decreased in evaporated milk compared with skim milk. However, the microstructure of the casein micelles was relatively undisturbed after nanofiltration, with reduced surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl content. No significant difference was found in chemical composition between the 2 MPC preparations: approximately 61.40% protein and 28.49% lactose. In addition, the particulate microstructures of both MPC were similar. However, the insolubility index of evaporated MPC was significantly (0.58mL) higher than that of nanofiltered MPC. Nanofiltration may be an effective way to improve the solubility of MPC products. PMID:25465557

Cao, Jialu; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Shaozong; Liu, Chang; Li, Yan; Li, Haimei; Zhang, Liebing

2015-01-01

47

Rennet-induced gelation of concentrated milk in the presence of sodium caseinate: Differences between milk concentration using ultrafiltration and osmotic stressing.  

PubMed

Concentrating milk is a common unit operation in the dairy industry. With the reduction of water, the particles interact more frequently with each other and the functionality of the casein micelles may depend on the interactions occurring during concentration. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of concentration on the renneting properties of the casein micelles by comparing 2 concentration methods: ultrafiltration and osmotic stressing. Both methods selectively concentrate the protein fraction of milk, while the composition of the soluble phase is unaltered. To evaluate possible differences in the rearrangements of the casein micelles during concentration, renneting properties were evaluated with or without the addition of soluble caseins, added either before or after concentration. The results indicate that casein micelles undergo rearrangements during concentration and that shear during membrane filtration may play a role in affecting the final properties of the milk. PMID:25468692

Krishnankutty Nair, P; Corredig, M

2015-01-01

48

High shear treatment of concentrates and drying conditions influence the solubility of milk protein concentrate powders.  

PubMed

The solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders was influenced by the method used for preparing the concentrate, drying conditions, and the type of dryer used. Increasing total solids of the ultrafiltered concentrates (23% total solids, TS) by diafiltration to 25% TS or evaporation to 31% TS decreased the solubility of MPC powders (80-83% protein, w/w dry basis), with ultrafiltration followed by evaporation to higher total solids having the greater detrimental effect on solubility. High shear treatment (homogenisation at 350/100 bar, microfluidisation at 800 bar or ultrasonication at 24 kHz, 600 watts) of ultrafiltered and diafiltered milk protein concentrates prior to spray drying increased the nitrogen solubility of MPC powders (82% protein, w/w dry basis). Of the treatments applied, microfluidisation was the most effective for increasing nitrogen solubility of MPC powders after manufacture and during storage. Manufacture of MPC powders (91% protein, w/w dry basis) prepared on two different pilot-scale dryers (single stage or two stage) from milk protein concentrates (20% TS) resulted in powders with different nitrogen solubility and an altered response to the effects of microfluidisation. Microfluidisation (400, 800 and 1200 bar) of the concentrate prior to drying resulted in increased long term solubility of MPC powders that were prepared on a single stage dryer but not those produced on a two stage spray dryer. This work demonstrates that microfluidisation can be used as a physical intervention for improving MPC powder solubility. Interactions between the method of preparation and treatment of concentrate prior to drying, the drying conditions and dryer type all influence MPC solubility characteristics. PMID:22998771

Augustin, Mary Ann; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Williams, Roderick; Andrews, Helen

2012-11-01

49

Residual concentrations of the flukicidal compound triclabendazole in dairy cows' milk and cheese.  

PubMed

Triclabendazole (TCBZ) is a flukicidal halogenated benzimidazole compound extensively used in veterinary medicine. Liver fluke control in lactating dairy cattle is difficult because treatment should be implemented only during the dry period to avoid milk residues. However, control in endemic areas is usually implemented as regular treatments three to four times a year, even during the lactating period. Thus, information on TCBZ milk excretion and the risk of the presence of drug residues in fluid milk and milk-derivate products is essential. The experimental aims were to evaluate the comparative disposition kinetics of TCBZ and its sulpho-metabolites in plasma and milk in lactating dairy cattle after the oral administration (12 mg kg(-1)) of TCBZ and to assess the pattern of residues in cheese made with milk from treated dairy cows. Both TCBZ sulphoxide and sulphone metabolites but not TCBZ were detected in milk (up to 36 and 144 h, respectively) and plasma (up to 144 h) after oral administration of TCBZ. Residual concentrations of TCBZ sulpho-metabolites were found in cheese made with milk from treated animals. The total average residual concentration in fresh cheese was 13.0-fold higher than that obtained in milk used for its elaboration. The high concentrations of TCBZ sulpho-metabolites recovered in fresh cheese should be seriously considered before milk from treated cows is used for making dairy products. PMID:21337234

Imperiale, F; Ortiz, P; Cabrera, M; Farias, C; Sallovitz, J M; Iezzi, S; Pérez, J; Alvarez, L; Lanusse, C

2011-04-01

50

Do Human Milk Concentrations of Persistent Organic Chemicals Really Decline During Lactation? Chemical Concentrations During Lactation and Milk/Serum Partitioning  

PubMed Central

Background Conventional wisdom regarding exposures to persistent organic chemicals via breast-feeding assumes that concentrations decline over the course of lactation and that the mother’s body burden reflects her cumulative lifetime exposure. Two important implications stemming from these lines of thought are, first, that assessments of early childhood exposures should incorporate decreasing breast milk concentrations over lactation; and, second, that there is little a breast-feeding mother can do to reduce her infant’s exposures via breast-feeding because of the cumulative nature of these chemicals. Objectives We examined rates of elimination and milk/serum partition coefficients for several groups of persistent organic chemicals. Methods We collected simultaneous milk and blood samples of 10 women at two times postpartum and additional milk samples without matching blood samples. Results Contrary to earlier research, we found that lipid-adjusted concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, and organochlorine pesticides in serum and milk do not consistently decrease during lactation and can increase for some women. Published research has also suggested an approximate 1:1 milk/serum relationship (lipid adjusted) on a population basis for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; however, our results suggest a more complex relationship for persistent, lipophilic chemicals with the milk/serum relationship dependent on chemical class. Conclusions Decreases in concentration of lipophilic chemicals on a lipid-adjusted basis during lactation should no longer be assumed. Thus, the concept of pumping and discarding early milk as means of reducing infant exposure is not supported. The hypothesis that persistent lipophilic chemicals, on a lipid-adjusted basis, have consistent concentrations across matrices is likely too simplistic. PMID:20019916

LaKind, Judy S.; Berlin, Cheston M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman; Wang, Richard Y.; Needham, Larry L.; Paul, Ian M.; Stokes, Jennifer L.; Naiman, Daniel Q.; Patterson, Donald G.

2009-01-01

51

Factors Affecting the Concentration of Sphingomyelin in Bovine Milk1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sphingomyelin is a phospholipid located in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of most cells and is a component of the milk fat globule membrane. Sphingo- myelin and its digestion products participate in several antiproliferative pathways that may suppress oncogen- esis. Although milk and dairy products are important sources of sphingomyelin in the human diet, little is known about

E. L. F. Graves; A. D. Beaulieu; J. K. Drackley

2007-01-01

52

EFFECTS OF INCREMENTAL UREA SUPPLEMENTATION ON RUMINAL AMMONIA CONCENTRATION AND BACTERIAL PROTEIN FORMATION 1 ,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Increments of O, I, 2, 3, 4.5 and 6.5% crude protein equivalent (CPE) were added as urea to a basal diet containing 75% corn and 20% cottonseed hulls (8.3% protein from all natural sources) and fed to two nonlactating Holstein cows. Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (N) levels increased (P<.05) with each increment of urea and ranged from 1.3 (basal) to

J. H. Kang-Meznarich; G. A. Broderick; Texas A

53

Effects of pH, calcium-complexing agents and milk solids concentration on formation of soluble protein aggregates in heated reconstituted skim milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proportion of protein present in the supernatant after centrifugation and the formation of soluble protein aggregates in heated (90°C for 10min) reconstituted skim milk were investigated as a function of (a) pH, (b) milk concentration 9–21%, w\\/w (milk solids non-fat, MSNF) and (c) addition of calcium-complexing agents (orthophosphate or EDTA). Compositional changes in milk, resulting from pH adjustment or salt

Jayani Chandrapala; Mary Ann Augustin; Ian McKinnon; Punsandani Udabage

2010-01-01

54

Southern elephant seals: IgM concentration in milk of cows and serum of their pups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum and milk Immunoglobulin M (IgM) concentrations in 11 mother-pup pairs were measured in southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) throughout lactation during 2 breeding seasons at King George Island. Samples were obtained sequentially throughout the\\u000a suckling period (approximately 23?days). The IgM concentration was measured by single radial immunodiffusion on agarose plates.\\u000a Milk IgM concentrations showed significant differences throughout lactation, with

Maria E. I. Marquez; A. R. Carlini; A. V. Baroni; N. H. Slobodianik; P. A. Ronayne de Ferrer; M. F. Godoy

2000-01-01

55

Diurnal variations in milk macro-mineral concentrations in Holstein dairy cows in Urmia, Iran  

PubMed Central

Milk samples from high and low milk producer Holstein cows, were obtained during the morning and afternoon milking over a one week period. Overall, 1064 samples were tested within 14 times sampling in Urmia, Iran. Milk macro-mineral concentrations in the morning milking and in low producers were greater than in the afternoon and in high producers. The highest and lowest concentrations were observed in Na+ and Mg++, respectively. Mean milk values between low and high producers in the morning, afternoon and daily milking times were different (p < 0.05). The individual comparison of milk parameters between both groups in the different milking times were also different (p < 0.05). The results of correlation among macro-minerals in the morning, afternoon and overall milking showed significant and positive correlations among all macro-minerals except for Na+ and K+, in which there was a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05). The highest and lowest correlations were found between Ca++ and inorganic phosphorus (IP) (r=0.37, p < 0.05) and Na+ and IP (r=0.10, p < 0.05), respectively. It is concluded that the concentration of macro-minerals in different producers varied between milking times. The sodium concentration was the highest while Mg++ was the lowest among macro-minerals. The correlation between Ca++/ IP was the highest, while Na+/K+ revealed a negative correlation. Therefore, by organizing the appropriate macro-minerals in the ration, it would be possible to achieve an optimal purpose from animal husbandry.

Nozad, Shahram; Ramin, Ali-Gholi; Asri Rezaie, Siamak

2012-01-01

56

Urine concentration in the diabetic mouse requires both urea and water transporters  

PubMed Central

The regulation of the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) urea transporters (UT-A1, UT-A3) and aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and their interactions in diabetic animals is unknown. We investigated whether the urine concentrating defect in diabetic animals was a function of AQP2, the UT-As, or both transporters. UT-A1/UT-A3 knockout (UT-A1/A3 KO) mice produce dilute urine. We gave wild-type (WT) and UT-A1/A3 KO mice vasopressin via minipump for 7 days. In WT mice, vasopressin increased urine osmolality from 3,000 to 4,550 mosmol/kgH2O. In contrast, urine osmolality was low (800 mosmol/kgH2O) in the UT-A1/A3 KOs and remained low following vasopressin. Surprisingly, AQP2 protein abundance increased in UT-A1/A3 KO (114%) and WT (92%) mice. To define the role of UT-A1 and UT-A3 in the diabetic responses, WT and UT-A1/A3 KO mice were injected with streptozotocin (STZ). UT-A1/A3 KO mice showed only 40% survival at 7 days post-STZ injection compared with 70% in WT. AQP2 did not increase in the diabetic UT-A1/A3 KO mice compared with a 133% increase in WT diabetic mice. Biotinylation studies in rat IMCDs showed that membrane accumulation of UT-A1 increased by 68% in response to vasopressin in control rats but was unchanged by vasopressin in diabetic rat IMCDs. We conclude that, even with increased AQP2, UT-A1/UT-A3 is essential to optimal urine concentration. Furthermore, UT-A1 may be maximally membrane associated in diabetic rat inner medulla, making additional stimulation by vasopressin ineffective. PMID:23136000

Blount, Mitsi A.; Martin, Christopher F.; Sands, Jeff M.; Klein, Janet D.

2013-01-01

57

Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration.  

PubMed

Phytoestrogens are hormone-like substances in plants that can substantially influence human health (positively or negatively), and when fed to dairy cows are partly transferred to their milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of varying the botanical composition and regrowth interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with ?-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut red clover-grass silage diet (1,494 ?g/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low. Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone concentration than the other diets (226 ?g/kg of milk). Lengthening the regrowth interval increased the intake of secoisolariciresinol and decreased the recovery of lignans. Feeding long-term ley silage resulted in higher milk lignan concentrations but lower milk isoflavone concentrations than feeding short-term ley silage. The apparent recovery of all phytoestrogens except prunetin was highest on the 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet. No effect of ?-tocopherol supplementation was observed on milk concentrations of any of the measured phytoestrogens. Variations were observed in milk concentrations of phytoestrogens, especially of equol, among cows, which could not be explained by variations in diet composition or phytoestrogen intake. The results show that milk phytoestrogen concentration is strongly influenced by silage botanical composition, but questions regarding phytoestrogen metabolism remain to be answered. PMID:22818467

Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, S; Hansen-Møller, J; Martinsson, K; Steinshamn, H; Gustavsson, A-M

2012-08-01

58

Changes in the surface protein of the fat globules during homogenization and heat treatment of concentrated milk.  

PubMed

The changes in milk fat globules and fat globule surface proteins of both low-preheated and high-preheated concentrated milks, which were homogenized at low or high pressure, were examined. The average fat globule size decreased with increasing homogenization pressure. The total surface protein (mg m-2) of concentrated milk increased after homogenization, the extent of the increase being dependent on the temperature and the pressure of homogenization, as well as on the preheat treatment. The concentrates obtained from high-preheated milks had higher surface protein concentration than the concentrates obtained from low-preheated milks after homogenization. Concentrated milks heat treated at 79 degrees C either before or after homogenization had greater amounts of fat globule surface protein than concentrated milks heat treated at 50 or 65 degrees C. This was attributed to the association of whey protein with the native MFGM (milk fat globule membrane) proteins and the adsorbed skim milk proteins. Also, at the same homogenization temperature and pressure, the amount of whey protein on the fat globule surface of the concentrated milk that was heated after homogenization was greater than that of the concentrated milk that was heated before homogenization. The amounts of the major native MFGM proteins did not change during homogenization, indicating that the skim milk proteins did not displace the native MFGM proteins but adsorbed on to the newly formed surface. PMID:18620615

Ye, Aiqian; Anema, Skelte G; Singh, Harjinder

2008-08-01

59

Concentration of omega 3-polyunsaturated fatty acids of seal blubber oil by urea complexation: optimization of reaction conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of omega-3 fatty acid concentrates from seal blubber oil (SBO) was optimized. In this process, the content of total ?3-fatty acids, Y1; eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), Y2; and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), Y3 in the final product was maximized. A three-factor central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to study the effect of urea-to-fatty acid ratio (X1), crystallization time (X2), and

Udaya N Wanasundara; Fereidoon Shahidi

1999-01-01

60

The effect of serum iron concentration on iron secretion into mouse milk  

PubMed Central

The concentration of iron in mouse milk is approximately 3 times that of the serum. Although there is clear evidence for the presence of the transferrin receptor in the rodent mammary gland, the precise mechanisms of iron transfer into milk are not known. Milk iron was linearly related to the serum iron:transferrin ratio in lactating mice whose serum iron ranged from 8 to 66 ?m. Increasing the iron binding capacity of the milk by 340 ?m by targeting the lactoferrin transgene to the mammary gland did not alter the relation between milk iron and the serum iron:transferrin ratio. The steady-state distribution ratio of 125I-transferrin between plasma and milk was about 0.2, indicating that transcytosed transferrin contributed a maximum of 6% of the milk iron. Fluorescently labelled transferrin incubated with the in situ gland localized mainly near the basal surface of the mammary alveolar cells. These experiments provide evidence that the initial and rate-limiting step in the transfer of iron into milk is binding to a basal transferrin receptor. A theoretical model of the relation between milk and serum iron suggests that the affinity of apotransferrin for the basal recycling system may be higher than observed in many other cell types. PMID:10713971

Zhang, Peifang; Sawicki, Valerie; Lewis, Andy; Hanson, Linda; Monks, Jenifer; Neville, Margaret C

2000-01-01

61

Forage to concentrate ratio in Jonica breed goats: influence on lactation curve and milk composition.  

PubMed

The aim of the work is to evaluate the effects of different forage to concentrate rations on milk yield, composition and renneting properties of milk of Jonica breed goats. Twenty-four Jonica goats received diets with forage to concentrate ratio of 35/65, 50/50 or 65/35, providing respectively a low, medium and high energy level. Goats were divided into three homogenous groups and confined in individual pens for 152 days to assess the daily feed intake and milk yield and composition. The main conclusions show that animal body weight did not change significantly with the increasing levels of forage, whereas significant differences (P<0.05) for daily dry matter intake were observed in relation to the evolution of lactation. Milk production was influenced (P<0.05) by dietary treatments and was higher in the diet with the greatest energy level. Forage to concentrate ratios did not significantly affect milk characteristics, milk renneting properties, initial production, rate of increase until reaching the peak and rate of decline after peak production. However, the day of peak production and peak production of goats were linearly reduced when the level of forage increased within the diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that both forage to concentrate ratio and energy level improve goat's production without influencing the milk composition. PMID:19152715

Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Dario, Marco; Laudadio, Vito

2009-02-01

62

Effect of supplemental concentrate type on milk production and metabolic status in early-lactation dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass-based pasture.  

PubMed

Forty-four early-lactation dairy cows of mixed parity were used to examine the effect of 4 supplemental concentrate types (n=11) on milk production and metabolic status. Animals were blocked by parity and calving date, and blocks were balanced for previous milk yield and milk protein yield. Cows received grazed pasture plus 5.17 kg of DM/d of 1 of the following isoenergetic (1.1 units of energy for lactation) concentrates: 1) high crude protein (CP) with rolled barley (HP, 19% CP); b) low CP with rolled barley (LP, 15% CP); c) low CP with barley and a supplemental methionine hydroxy analog (HMBi; LP + HMBi, 15% CP); and d) low CP with ground corn (LP-corn, 15% CP). Milk yield was recorded from d 1 to 100 postpartum, with weekly milk sampling, body weight, and body condition score (BCS) measurements. Blood and rumen sampling were conducted weekly from wk 2 to 6 postpartum. Milk yield was lower for cows in the LP treatment compared with those offered other concentrate types (25.2 vs. 27.5 ± 0.39 kg/d). Animals in the HP group had a higher milk yield than those in the LP + HMBi group (28.2 vs. 26.8 ± 0.39 kg/d). Milk fat yield was lower from animals in the LP-corn group compared with those in the LP + HMBi group (0.94 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03 kg/d). Milk protein yield was lower in the LP group compared with those in the HP group (0.88 vs. 0.97 ± 0.02 kg/d). Animal body weight, BCS, and BCS loss were not affected by concentrate type. However, nonesterified fatty acids were higher from animals in the HP group than for those in the LP + HMBi group (0.41 vs. 0.33 ± 0.03 mmol/L), and ?-hydroxy butyric acid was higher from animals in the HP group than for those in the other treatments (0.71 vs. 0.59 ± 0.03 mmol/L). Glucose was higher from animals in the LP-corn group than for those in the HP and LP groups (3.3 vs. 3.2 ± 0.05 mmol/L). Blood urea-N was higher from animals offered HP compared with those offered the other treatments (5.49.6 vs. 4.21 ± 0.44 mmol/L). However, rumen NH(3)-N and volatile fatty acid concentration in the rumen were not affected by supplemental concentrate type. Reducing supplemental concentrate CP reduced milk yield. However, milk fat production and energy-corrected milk were not different, reducing the likelihood of an improved energy balance or a more favorable blood metabolic profile in early-lactation dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass. Offering HMBi with low-CP concentrates or replacing rolled barley with ground maize improves milk production relative to low-CP concentrates and metabolic status relative to high-CP concentrates. PMID:22818468

Whelan, S J; Pierce, K M; Flynn, B; Mulligan, F J

2012-08-01

63

Detecting multiple adulterants in dry milk using Raman chemical imaging  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A Raman chemical imaging method was developed for detecting the presence of multiple chemical adulterants in dry milk powder. Four chemicals (ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea) were added in equal concentrations, between 0.1% and 5.0%, to nonfat dry milk. An area of 25×25 mm2 for e...

64

Concentrations of Methadone in Breast Milk and Plasma in the Immediate Perinatal Period  

PubMed Central

This study evaluates concentrations of methadone in breast milk and plasma among a sample of methadone-maintained women in the immediate perinatal period. Twelve methadone-maintained, lactating women provided blood and breast milk specimens 1, 2, 3, and 4 days after delivery. Specimens were collected at the time of trough (just before methadone dose) and peak (3 hours after dosing) maternal methadone levels. Paired specimens of foremilk (prefeed) and hindmilk (postfeed) were obtained at each sampling time. Although there was a significant increase in methadone concentration in breast milk over time for the peak postfeed sampling time, t(22) = 2.40, P = .0255, methadone concentrations in breast milk were small, ranging from 21 to 314 ng/mL, and were unrelated to maternal methadone dose. Results obtained from this study contribute to the recommendation of breastfeeding for methadone-maintained women regardless of methadone dose. PMID:17478871

Jansson, Lauren M.; Choo, Robin E.; Harrow, Cheryl; Velez, Martha; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; Lowe, Ross; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2009-01-01

65

ORIGINAL PAPER Post-processing of concentrated fermented milk: influence  

E-print Network

occurring at smaller scales, e.g., the acid-induced aggregation of casein micelles and the temperature culture reduces the natural pH of bovine milk (6.7). Thus, the native casein micelles in the range of 100-induced aggregation of casein submicelles. According to the activation energy, the particle growth in microgel

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

66

EFFECT OF MASTITIS ON MILK PERCHLORATE CONCENTRATIONS IN DAIRY COWS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent surveys have identified the presence of perchlorate, a natural compound and environmental contaminant, in forages and dairy milk. The ingestion of perchlorate is of concern due to its ability to competitively inhibit iodide uptake by the thyroid and to impair synthesis of thyroid hormones. ...

67

The concentration of some trace elements in human milk from Italy.  

PubMed

The concentration of some trace elements has been measured in samples of breast milk collected from several subjects over a period of about 1-3 months starting 15 days post-partum. A decrease of Zn concentration during the lactation period was observed in all subjects. The marked relation existing between dietary intake and milk content of trace elements is confirmed by the finding that Cs concentration in diet, fresh waters and human milk samples from Latium were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those measured in a small town in the south of Italy. In most subjects Cs, Zn, Rb, Fe concentrations during the same day, and in the same feed, are fairly constant. Larger variations are observed for concentrations of Co, Sc, and Sb. PMID:7123208

Clemente, G F; Ingrao, G; Santaroni, G P

1982-08-01

68

Aerobic treatment of a concentrated urea wastewater with simultaneous stripping of ammonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An industrial wastewater containing a total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) of 12.80 g l-1 was treated in a continuously fed activated sludge reactor. The main contaminant was urea (21.52 g l-1), together with minor amounts of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (0.46 g l-1) and free ammonia (0.56 g l-1). The wastewater was diluted 1:1 with water and treated under alkaline conditions

K. Rittstieg; K.-H. Robra; W. Somitsch

2001-01-01

69

Effect of prepartum photoperiod on milk production and prolactin concentration of dairy ewes.  

PubMed

Long photoperiods during established lactation increase milk production in dairy cattle and dairy sheep, but recent research in cattle and dairy goats suggests an additional influence of prepartum day length on milk yield in the subsequent lactation. The proposed mechanism of function is the level and role of circulating prolactin in mammary development. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of prepartum photoperiod on milk production, milk composition, and prolactin concentration of 22 multiparous dairy ewes exposed to short day prepartum photoperiod (SDPP; 8 h of light:16 h of dark) or long day prepartum photoperiod (LDPP; 16 h of light:8 h of dark) for at least 6 wk prepartum. During the first 8 wk of lactation, SDPP ewes tended to produce more milk than LDPP ewes (2.43 vs. 2.29 kg/d, respectively), and the milk of SDPP ewes had a greater fat percentage than that of LDPP ewes (6.04 vs. 5.51%, respectively). Due to daily milk yield and greater fat content, SDPP ewes produced more 6.5% fat-corrected milk (+0.30 +/- 0.08 kg/d) and 6.5% fat- and 5.8% protein-corrected milk (+0.28 +/- 0.08 kg/d) than LDPP ewes. For the lactation period of 180 d, SDPP ewes produced more test day milk than LDPP ewes (1.76 vs. 1.60 +/- 0.05 kg/d, respectively), but there were no differences in milk fat or protein percentages. Ewes in both treatments experienced a prolactin surge at lambing, but SDPP ewes had lower circulating prolactin concentration than LDPP ewes from 4 to 0.5 wk before lambing (14.7 vs. 51.3 +/- 4.2 mg/dL, respectively). These data suggest that decreased prepartum photoperiod may be important for increasing milk production in dairy ewes and may provide a management strategy for dairy sheep producers to increase milk yield. PMID:18096928

Mikolayunas, C M; Thomas, D L; Dahl, G E; Gressley, T F; Berger, Y M

2008-01-01

70

Changes in the physical properties, solubility, and heat stability of milk protein concentrates prepared from partially acidified milk.  

PubMed

A limiting factor in using milk protein concentrates (MPC) as a high-quality protein source for different food applications is their poor reconstitutability. Solubilization of colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) from casein micelles during membrane filtration (e.g., through acidification) may affect the structural organization of these protein particles and consequently the rehydration and functional properties of the resulting MPC powder. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acidification of milk by glucono-?-lactone (GDL) before ultrafiltration (UF) on the composition, physical properties, solubility, and thermal stability (after reconstitution) of MPC powders. The MPC samples were manufactured in duplicate, either by UF (65% protein, MPC65) or by UF followed by diafiltration (80% protein, MPC80), using pasteurized skim milk, at either the native milk pH (?pH 6.6) or at pH 6.0 after addition of GDL, followed by spray drying. Samples of different treatments were reconstituted at 5% (wt/wt) protein to compare their solubility and thermal stability. Powders were tested in duplicate for basic composition, calcium content, reconstitutability, particle size, particle density, and microstructure. Acidification of milk did not have any significant effect on the proximate composition, particle size, particle density, or surface morphology of the MPC powders; however, the total calcium content of MPC80 decreased significantly with acidification (from 1.84 ± 0.03 to 1.59 ± 0.03 g/100 g of powder). Calcium-depleted MPC80 powders were also more soluble than the control powders. Diafiltered dispersions were significantly less heat stable (at 120°C) than UF samples when dissolved at 5% solids. The present work contributes to a better understanding of the differences in MPC commonly observed during processing. PMID:25459904

Eshpari, H; Tong, P S; Corredig, M

2014-10-29

71

A semiautomated enzymatic method for determination of nonesterified fatty acid concentration in milk and plasma.  

PubMed

An enzymatic assay for the determination of nonesterified fatty acid concentrations in milk and plasma is described. The procedure is semiautomated for use with a plate luminometer or plate spectrophotometer and enables routine batch processing of large numbers of small samples (< or =5 microL). Following the activation of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) by acylCoA synthetase, the current assay utilizes UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase to link inorganic pyrophosphate to the production of NADH through the reactions catalyzed by phosphoglucomutase and glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase. With this assay sequence the formation of NADH from NEFA is complete within 50 min at 37 degrees C. Enzymatic spectrophotometric techniques were unsuitable for NEFA determination in human milk due to the opacity of the sample. The use of the NADH-luciferase system has overcome this problem, allowing the enzymatic determination of NEFA in human milk. Sample collection and treatment procedures for milk and plasma have been developed to prevent enzymatic lipolysis and to limit interference from enzymes present in milk. The recovery of palmitic acid added to milk and plasma samples was 94.9+/-2.9 and 100+/-4.5%, respectively. There was no difference (P = 0.13) in plasma NEFA concentrations determined by the current method and a commercially available enzymatic spectrophotometric technique (Wako NEFA-C kit). Plasma NEFA concentrations determined by gas chromatography were 28% higher compared to both the Wako NEFA-C kit and the current method. PMID:9832086

Christmass, M A; Mitoulas, L R; Hartmann, P E; Arthur, P G

1998-10-01

72

Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than\\u000a infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed\\u000a infants.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim of the study  To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A

Jodi Bettler; J. Paul Zimmer; Martha Neuringer; Patricia A. DeRusso

2010-01-01

73

Mineral and trace element concentrations of dairy products from goats’ milk produced in Tenerife (Canary Islands)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of the minerals, Na, K, Ca and Mg, and the trace elements, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se, were determined in 400 samples of goats’ dairy products (100 raw milk, 100 whey, 100 fresh and 100 semi-hard cheeses) produced in the island of Tenerife. All the minerals and trace elements analysed presented significant differences in the concentration between the

María Isabel Herrera García; Pedro Peláez Puerto; María Fresno Baquero; Elena Rodríguez Rodríguez; Jacinto Darías Martín; Carlos Díaz Romero

2006-01-01

74

Concentrations of Environmental Phenols and Parabens in Milk, Urine and Serum of Lactating North Carolina Women.  

PubMed

Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

Hines, Erin P; Mendola, Pauline; vonEhrenstein, Ondine S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Fenton, Suzanne E

2014-11-22

75

Evaluation of Yield and Quality of Cheddar Cheese Manufactured from Milk with Added Whey Protein Concentrate1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cheddar cheese was produced from whole milk with blends of whey protein concentrates added. Two whey pro- tein concentrate powders containing 35 or 55% protein were each reconstituted to a 15% (wt\\/wt) suspension and heat treated at 70°C for 15 min. Addition of the denatured whey protein concentrate suspension to the milk was at 5 or 10% by weight of

K. A. Baldwin; R. J. Baer; J. G. Parsons; S. W. Seas; K. R. Spurgeon; G. S. Torrey

1986-01-01

76

Dietary marine algae (Schizochytrium sp.) increases concentrations of conjugated linoleic, docosahexaenoic and transvaccenic acids in milk of dairy cows.  

PubMed

Modification of milk fat to contain long-chain (n-3) fatty acids and increased concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid has potential for improving health of consumers. Natural modification of milk through nutritional manipulation of diets for dairy cows is preferable to post-harvest modification. The objectives of this study were to increase the concentrations of beneficial fatty acids in milk fat by feeding a diet rich in (n-3) fatty acids from algae to dairy cows. Cows were fed a control diet, a diet containing algae (Schizochytrium sp.) protected against ruminal biohydrogenation, or a diet containing unprotected algae for 6 wk. Feed intake and milk production were recorded daily. Milk samples were obtained weekly for analysis of milk composition and profile of fatty acids. Percentage of fat in milk of cows fed algae was lower (P < 0.01) than in milk from cows fed the control diet; however, energy-corrected milk production did not differ (P > 0.05). Inclusion of algae in diets decreased (P < 0.01) feed intake. Milk fat from cows fed algae contained greater (P < 0.01) concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, (n-3) fatty acids (particularly docosahexaenoic acid), and transvaccenic acid. Concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid were greater (P < 0.01) in milk fat from cows fed protected algae compared to milk fat from cows fed unprotected algae. Milk fat from cows fed algae contained lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of total saturated fatty acids compared to cows fed the control diet. In conclusion, milk fat can be modified through nutritional management of dairy cows to provide more favorable fatty acids for consumers. PMID:10539783

Franklin, S T; Martin, K R; Baer, R J; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R

1999-11-01

77

Effectiveness of extruded rapeseed associated with an alfalfa protein concentrate in enhancing the bovine milk fatty acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linseed and rapeseed, good sources of 18:3 n-3 and cis9-18:1, respectively, have been shown to improve the bovine milk fatty acid (FA) profile. However, rapeseed, unlike linseed, has little effect on the concentration of 18:3 n-3 in milk fat. Alfalfa protein concentrate (APC), besides being a valuable protein source for milk production, contains lipids rich in 18:3 n-3. Therefore, this

Q. C. Dang Van; L. Bejarano; E. Mignolet; D. Coulmier; E. Froidmont; Y. Larondelle; M. Focant

2011-01-01

78

Effect of dietary organic zinc, manganese, copper, and cobalt supplementation on milk production, follicular growth, embryo quality, and tissue mineral concentrations in dairy cows.  

PubMed

This study evaluated potential effects of organic trace mineral supplementation on reproductive measures in lactating dairy cows. Cows were blocked by breed and randomly assigned at dry-off to receive inorganic trace mineral supplementation (control; n = 32) or to have a portion of supplemental inorganic Zn, Cu, Mn, and Co replaced with an equivalent amount of the organic forms of these minerals (treatment; n = 31). Trace minerals were provided through control or treatment premixes fed at 100 g·cow(-1)·d(-1). Premixes were fed to dry cows (range = 40 to 72 d before calving) in 1.8 kg·cow(-1)·d(-1) concentrate pellets through a computer feeder to provide 40, 26, 70, and 100% of supplemented Zn, Mn, Cu, and Co, respectively, and to lactating cows (range = 69 to 116 d after calving) in a total mixed ration to provide 22, 14, 40, and 100% of supplemented Zn, Mn, Cu, and Co, respectively. Treatment increased milk production at wk 14 (P = 0.047) postcalving, milk urea N content (P = 0.039), and BW loss from calving to 1 mo postcalving (P = 0.040), and decreased milk fat percentage (P = 0.045) and BCS (P = 0.048). Treatment tended to increase milk production at wk 13 (P = 0.089) postcalving and endometrial tissue concentrations of Fe (P = 0.070), BW at mo 1 (P = 0.056), and milk protein percentage (P = 0.064). Treatment did not affect (P > 0.1) DMI, health events, first-wave follicular dynamics, first cycle luteal measures, embryo quality, liver trace mineral concentrations, or luteal trace mineral concentrations. Cows with a rectal temperature ?39°C at the time of AI had a smaller percentage of fertilized entities (P < 0.001). However, of the entities that were fertilized, the percentage of viable embryos, embryo quality, accessory sperm number, and embryo cell number were not affected (P > 0.1) by treatment. We conclude that replacing a portion of inorganic supplemental trace minerals with an equivalent amount of these organic trace minerals (Zn, Mn, Cu, and Co) increased milk production in mid-lactation, but did not affect postpartum follicular dynamics, embryo quality, or liver and luteal trace mineral concentrations. PMID:20817861

Hackbart, K S; Ferreira, R M; Dietsche, A A; Socha, M T; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C; Fricke, P M

2010-12-01

79

Effects of strain of Holstein-Friesian and concentrate supplementation on the fatty acid composition of milk fat of dairy cows grazing pasture in early lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a grain-based concentrate supplement on fatty acid (FA) intake and concentration of milk FA in early lactation was investigated in grazing dairy cows that differed in their country of origin and in their estimated breeding value for milk yield. It was hypoth- esized that Holstein-Friesian cows of North American (NA) origin would produce milk lower in milk

W. J. Wales; E. S. Kolver; A. R. Egan; R. Roche

2009-01-01

80

Refractometer assessment of colostral and serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations in dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Estimation of the quantity of colostral IgG or serum IgG absorbed following ingestion of colostrum by calves is essential for monitoring the effectiveness of colostrum feeding practices on dairy farms. Milk total solids concentrations determination is a critical part of quality assessment of nonsaleable whole milk prior to feeding to calves. To date, on-farm methods to assess colostral IgG, serum IgG or milk total solids concentrations have been performed separately with various instruments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a single electronic, hand-held refractometer for assessing colostral and serum IgG concentrations and milk total solids in dairy cattle. Colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations were determined by the refractometer. Corresponding analysis of colostral and serum IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion (RID) while milk total solids were determined by spectrophotometry. Sensitivity and specificity of the refractometer for colostrum and serum samples were calculated as determined by RID. Sensitivity and specificity of the refractometer for milk samples was calculated as determined by spectrophotometry. Results The sensitivity of the refractometer was 1 for colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids determinations. Specificity of the refractometer was 0.66, 0.24 and 0 for colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids determinations, respectively. The refractometer underestimated colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations compared to the concentrations determined by RID or spectrophotometry. Conclusions The refractometer was an acceptable, rapid, convenient on-farm method for determining colostral IgG and milk total solids. The refractometer was not an acceptable method for determination of serum IgG concentrations as it severely underestimated the serum IgG concentrations. PMID:25125217

2014-01-01

81

Rapeseed and sunflower oilcake as supplements for dairy sheep: animal performance and milk fatty acid concentrations.  

PubMed

The influence of different amounts of oilseed cake (rapeseed and sunflower) on animal production parameters and fatty acid (FA) concentrations of the milk was studied in a Latxa dairy sheep experimental flock, both in winter (50% oilcakes; indoor feeding) and in spring (30% oilcakes; part-time grazing). The two different levels of the oilcakes tested did not affect animal production parameters or milk yield. Milk fat content and the fat/protein ratio decreased significantly with 30 and 50% sunflower cake. Yet, fat/protein ratio values were within the range for cheesemaking. Both levels of either type of oilcake tested significantly increased the concentrations of nutritionally interesting FA (CLA isomer C18:2cis-9, trans-11, vaccenic, oleic, and total unsaturated FA), while simultaneously decreasing the concentration of atherogenic FA. The atherogenicity indexes of milks from ewes fed 50 or 30% of either oilcake were significantly lower than those of their corresponding control. The use of cakes in winter increased the concentration of nutritionally interesting FA to the values obtained with part-time grazing. PMID:25287696

Amores, Gustavo; Virto, Mailo; Nájera, Ana Isabel; Mandaluniz, Nerea; Arranz, Josune; Bustamante, María Angeles; Valdivielso, Izaskun; Ruiz de Gordoa, Juan Carlos; García-Rodríguez, Aser; Barron, Luis J R; de Renobales, Mertxe

2014-11-01

82

Composition, yield, and functionality of reduced-fat Oaxaca cheese: effects of using skim milk or a dry milk protein concentrate.  

PubMed

The effect of adding either skim milk or a commercial dry milk protein concentrate (MPC) to whole milk on the composition, yield, and functional properties of Mexican Oaxaca cheese were investigated. Five batches of Oaxaca cheeses were produced. One batch (the control) was produced from whole milk containing 3.5% fat and 9% nonfat solids (SNF). Two batches were produced from milk standardized with skim milk to 2.7 and 1.8% fat, maintaining the SNF content at 9%. In the other 2 batches, an MPC (40% protein content) was used to standardize the milk to a SNF content of 10 and 11%, maintaining the milk fat content at 3.5%. The use of either skim milk or MPC caused a significant decrease in the fat percentage in cheese. The use of skim milk or MPC showed a nonsignificant tendency to lower total solids and fat recoveries in cheese. Actual, dry matter, and moisture-adjusted cheese yields significantly decreased with skim milk addition, but increased with MPC addition. However, normalized yields adjusted to milk fat and protein reference levels did not show significant differences between treatments. Considering skim milk-added and control cheeses, actual yield increased with cheese milk fat content at a rate of 1.34 kg/kg of fat (R=0.88). In addition, cheese milk fat and SNF:fat ratio proved to be strong individual predictors of cheese moisture-adjusted yield (r(2) ? 0.90). Taking into account the results obtained from control and MPC-added cheeses, a 2.0-kg cheese yield increase rate per kg of milk MPC protein was observed (R=0.89), with TS and SNF being the strongest predictors for moisture adjusted yield (r(2) ? 0.77). Reduced-fat Oaxaca cheese functionality differed from that of controls. In unmelted reduced-fat cheeses, hardness and springiness increased. In melted reduced-fat cheeses, meltability and free oil increased, but stretchability decreased. These changes were related to differences in cheese composition, mainly fat in dry matter and calcium in SNF. PMID:21257027

Caro, I; Soto, S; Franco, M J; Meza-Nieto, M; Alfaro-Rodríguez, R H; Mateo, J

2011-02-01

83

Simultaneous detection of multiple adulterants in dry milk using macro-scale Raman chemical imaging  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potential of Raman chemical imaging for simultaneously detecting multiple adulterants in milk powder was investigated. Potential chemical adulterants, including ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea, were mixed together into skim dry milk in the concentration range of 0.1–5.0% for ...

84

Influence of prematurity and birth weight on the concentration of ?-tocopherol in colostrum milk  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin E levels in the breast milk, analyzing the prematurity and the birth weight influence in ?-tocopherol concentration of colostrum milk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, in which the colostrum was collected from 93 nursing mothers in a public maternity of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. The newborns were classified based on gestational age and birth weight. The analysis of ?-tocopherol in the milk was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The ?-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born at term was 1,093.6±532.4µg/dL; for preterm infants, the concentration was 1,321.6±708.5µg/dL (p=0.109). In the preterm group, the ?-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born with low and normal birth weight was 1,316.0±790.7 and 1,327.2±655.0µg/dL, respectively (p=0.971). In the term group, the ?-tocopherol levels were higher in mothers of children with birth weight >4000g, being 1,821.0±575.4µg/dL, compared to 869.5±532.1µg/dL and 1,039.6±477.5µg/dL with low and adequate birth weight, respectively (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity did not influence ?-tocopherol levels in the colostrum milk. Mothers who had macrossomic term neonates presented increased ?-tocopherol levels. These results indicate that birth weight can influence ?-tocopherol leves in the colostrum milk. PMID:24473952

Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Lira, Larissa Queiroz; Dimenstein, Roberto; Ribeiro, Karla Danielly da S.

2013-01-01

85

Serum Protein and Casein Concentration: Effect on pH and Freezing Point of Milk with Added CO21  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this studywas to determine the effect of protein concentration and protein type (i.e., casein (CN) and serum protein (SP)) on pH (0°C) and freezing point (FP) of skim milk upon CO2 injection at 0°C. CN- free skim milks with increasing SP content (0, 3, and 6%) and skim milks with the same SP content (0.6%) but increasing

Y. Ma; D. M. Barbano

2003-01-01

86

Relationship between concentration of citrate and ketone bodies in cow's milk.  

PubMed

The authors' hypothesis is that the members of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) such as citrate decrease in association with increased ketone body formation. To prove this hypothesis the connection between ketone bodies and citrate formation of milk was studied. A fluorimetric method was used to determine citrate and a headspace sampling gas chromatographic (GC) method was developed for determination of ketone bodies. Under real conditions of milk sampling, transport and storage, preserved milk samples of 119 clinically healthy dairy cows obtained in the 48 hours after milking were investigated. A low level of acetoacetate (ACAC) was found in all samples. This fact can be explained by the spontaneous decarboxylation of acetoacetate during sample storage (previously decarboxylised acetoacetate = pdACAC) and, consequently, the majority of the amount of acetoacetate in the samples (AC + pdACAC) appeared in the measured acetone concentrations. Based on the measured acetone concentration of milk samples two groups were formed retrospectively: HA (high-acetone) group (n = 41) with an AC + pdACAC concentration of > 0.4 mmol/l and a LA (low-acetone) group (n = 78) with an AC + pdACAC level of < or = 0.4 mmol/l. In the milk of cows of Group HA a positive correlation (r = +0.623) and linear connection between acetone (AC + pdACAC) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) levels was found [BOHB = 2.491 + 0.586 x (pdAC + ACAC)]. Furthermore, in this group a negative correlation between citrate and BOHB and AC + pdACAC was also established (r = -0.579). Focusing on the results of this group the authors found a significant drop of AC + pdACAC and citrate during the metabolically critical first 1-4 weeks of lactation. For this reason they suggest that simple, easy, automated methods (i.e. flow injection analysis, Fourier transformation infrared analysis) should be introduced for the simultaneous determination of acetone and citrate concentration in milk to make the evaluation of the energy status of high-producing dairy cows easier and more certain. PMID:12237966

Baticz, Orsolya; Tömösközi, S; Vida, L; Gaál, T

2002-01-01

87

Breast milk zinc transfer and early post-natal growth among urban South Indian term infants using measures of breast milk volume and breast milk zinc concentrations.  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) deficiency in infancy and early childhood is of public health concern in developing countries. This study aimed to longitudinally assess Zn intake of urban South Indian term infants in the first 6 months of life using measures of breast milk (BM) volume and BM Zn concentrations and, additionally, to study the effect of BM Zn intake on infant length and weight gain. BM intake by the deuterium dilution technique, BM Zn concentration at months 1, 3 and 6, as well as serum Zn level at months 3 and 6 were assessed in 50 mother-infant pairs. BM intake significantly declined from 627 mL day(-1) at month 1 to 608 mL day(-1) at month 6 (P < 0.01). BM Zn concentration and intake significantly declined from month 1 to month 6 (P < 0.001 for both). Mean infant serum Zn level at months 3 and 6 were 93.0 ± 27.1 and 99.6 ± 30.1 µg dL(-1), respectively. Infant BM Zn intake at months 1 and 3 was not associated with the weight and length gain between 1-3 and 3-6 months, respectively. Zn intake from BM, maternal BM Zn content and serum Zn levels were not significantly different between small-for-gestational age and appropriate-for-gestational age infants. Therefore, among urban south Indian term infants less than 6 months of age, BM Zn intakes were low, owing to low volumes of BM intake, despite BM Zn concentrations being in the normal range. Promotion of breastfeeding and thereby increasing the volumes of milk produced is a first important step towards improving Zn intake among infants. PMID:22734965

Samuel, Tinu Mary; Thomas, Tinku; Thankachan, Prashanth; Bhat, Swarnarekha; Virtanen, Suvi M; Kurpad, Anura V

2014-07-01

88

Modified water solubility of milk protein concentrate powders through the application of static high pressure treatment.  

PubMed

The effects of high pressure (HP) treatment (100-400 MPa at 10-60 °C) on the solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders were tested. The solubility, measured at 20 °C, of fresh MPC powders made with no HP treatment was 66%. It decreased by 10% when stored for 6 weeks at ambient temperature (~20 °C) and continued to decrease to less than 50% of its initial solubility after 12 months of storage. Of the combinations of pressure and heat used, a pressure of 200 MPa at 40 °C applied to the concentrate before spray drying was found to be the most beneficial for improved solubility of MPC powders. This combination of pressure/heat improved the initial cold water solubility to 85%. The solubility was maintained at this level after 6 weeks storage at ambient temperature and 85% of the initial solubility was preserved after 12 months. The improved solubility of MPC powders on manufacture and on storage are attributed to an altered surface composition arising from an increased concentration of non-micellar casein in the milk due to HP treatment prior to drying. The improved solubility of high protein powders (95% protein) made from blends of sodium caseinate and whey protein isolate compared with MPC powders (~85% protein) made from ultrafiltered/diafiltered milk confirmed the detrimental role of micellar casein on solubility. The results suggest that increasing the non-micellar casein content by HP treatment of milk or use of blends of sodium caseinate and whey proteins are strategies that may be used to obtain high protein milk powders with enhanced solubility. PMID:22127220

Udabage, Punsandani; Puvanenthiran, Amirtha; Yoo, Jin Ah; Versteeg, Cornelis; Augustin, Mary Ann

2012-02-01

89

Influence of air intake on the concentration of free fatty acids and vacuum fluctuations during automatic milking.  

PubMed

The main objective of the study was to determine whether the amount of air intake during quarter milking influences the concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) and vacuum fluctuations at the teat end when milking automatically. Air intake in the teat cup was restricted from the normal inlet of 4.5 to 7 L/min to 1.7 and 0 L/min on 2 farms and experiments were carried out as half-udder studies with 40 cows. Blockage of the air inlet reduced FFA from 1.02 to 0.77 mEq/100 g of fat in one herd and from 1.50 to 1.17 mEq/100 g of fat in the other herd. Milk yield per milking was the most significant factor influencing FFA. Air intake accounted for <20% of the variation in FFA concentration. Characteristics of the cow explained the most variation, which could mainly be assigned to the effects of milk yield, fat percentage, fat globule size, and fat globule size distribution. The interval between milkings was not significant when adjusting for milk yields. Blockage of the air inlet caused vacuum fluctuations at the teat end to increase from 15.4 to 21.5 kPa for one model of an automatic milking system (AMS), but from 12.8 to 53.6 kPa for another model. Measurements made with a flow simulator and water revealed that the AMS model and water flow were the most important factors influencing vacuum fluctuations, and that interactions existed between the diameter of the short milk tube and air intake. Free fatty acids in bulk milk from 5,980 herds averaged 0.75 mEq/L of milk for conventional herds and varied from 0.77 to 0.94 mEq/L of milk for the 5 AMS models on the Danish market. Fault detection in 55 herds pointed out that the most frequent faults in conventional herds were air leakages and intake of too much air in the cluster, whereas AMS herds had problems with the cooling and stirring of milk. Correction of the cooling faults caused FFA to decrease by 0.52 mEq/L in the AMS herds. We concluded that air intake during automatic milking is not the most important factor in reducing FFA, whereas milk yield per milking matters the most. More attention should be paid to the cooling and stirring of milk. Reducing the air intake causes vacuum fluctuations during milking to increase significantly. PMID:17106091

Rasmussen, M D; Wiking, L; Bjerring, M; Larsen, H C

2006-12-01

90

Fat source and dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio influences milk fatty-acid composition in lactating cows.  

PubMed

On the basis of the potential benefits to human health there is an increased interest in producing milk containing lower-saturated fatty acid (SFA) and higher unsaturated fatty acid (FA) concentrations, including cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were used in two experiments according to a completely randomized block design, with 21-day periods to examine the effects of incremental replacement of prilled palm fat (PALM) with sunflower oil (SFO) in high-concentrate diets containing 30 g/kg dry matter (DM) of supplemental fat (Experiment 1) or increases in the forage-to-concentrate (F : C) ratio from 39 : 61 to 48 : 52 of diets containing 30 g/kg DM of SFO (Experiment 2) on milk production, digestibility and milk FA composition. Replacing PALM with SFO had no effect on DM intake, but tended to increase organic matter digestibility, yields of milk, protein and lactose, and decreased linearly milk fat content. Substituting SFO for PALM decreased linearly milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and cis-9 16:1, and increased linearly 18:0, cis-9 18:1, trans-18:1 (??4 to 16), 18:2 and CLA concentrations. Increases in the F : C ratio of diets containing SFO had no effect on intake, yields of milk, milk protein or milk lactose, lowered milk protein content in a quadratic manner, and increased linearly NDF digestion and milk fat secretion. Replacing concentrates with forages in diets containing SFO increased milk fat 4:0 to 10:0 concentrations in a linear or quadratic manner, decreased linearly cis-9 16:1, trans-6 to -10 18:1, 18:2n-6, trans-7, cis-9 CLA, trans-9, cis-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA, without altering milk fat 14:0 to 16:0, trans-11 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 CLA or 18:3n-3 concentrations. In conclusion, replacing prilled palm fat on with SFO in high-concentrate diets had no adverse effects on intake or milk production, other than decreasing milk fat content, but lowered milk fat medium-chain SFA and increased trans FA and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Increases in the proportion of forage in diets containing SFO increased milk fat synthesis, elevated short-chain SFA and lowered trans FA concentrations, without altering milk polyunsaturated FA content. Changes in fat yield on high-concentrate diets containing SFO varied between experiments and individual animals, with decreases in milk fat secretion being associated with increases in milk fat trans-10 18:1, trans-10, cis-12 CLA and trans-9, cis-11 CLA concentrations. PMID:24176091

Vazirigohar, M; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Rezayazdi, K; Krizsan, S J; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Shingfield, K J

2014-01-01

91

Effects of Protein Level and Mangosteen Peel Pellets (Mago-pel) in Concentrate Diets on Rumen Fermentation and Milk Production in Lactating Dairy Crossbreds  

PubMed Central

Four, lactating dairy crossbreds (50%×50% Holstein Friesian×Native Zebu cattle) were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement (two protein levels and two levels of mangosteen peel pellets (Mago-pel)) in a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. All cows received concentrate at a proportion of 1 kg concentrate per 2 kg of milk yield, and urea-treated 5% rice straw (UTRS) was given ad libitum. It was found that total dry matter intakes, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and NH3-N concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by treatments. Concentrations of ruminal pH and NH3-N were not affected by dietary treatments although the concentration of BUN varied significantly (p<0.05) between protein levels (p<0.05). The populations of rumen bacteria and fungal zoospores did not differ among treatments (p>0.05); however, the population of protozoa was decreased (p<0.05) when cows received Mago-pel supplementation. The composition of the population of bacteria, identified by real-time PCR technique, including total bacteria, methanogens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus was similar (p>0.05) among dietary treatments (p>0.05); however, copy numbers of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was increased when protein level increased (p<0.05). Microbial protein synthesis, in terms of both quantity and efficiency, was enriched by Mago-pel supplementation. Milk yield was greatest in cows fed UTRS based diets with concentrate containing protein at 16% CP with Mago-pel, but were lowest without Mago-pel (p<0.05). In addition, protein level and supplementation of Mago-pel did not affect (p>0.05) milk composition except solids-not-fat which was higher in cows fed the diet with 19% CP. Therefore, feeding a concentrate containing 16% CP together with 300 g/hd/d Mago-pel supplementation results in changes in rumen fermentation and microbial population and improvements in milk production in lactating dairy crossbreds fed on UTRS. PMID:25049652

Norrapoke, T.; Wanapat, M.; Wanapat, S.

2012-01-01

92

Effects of Protein Level and Mangosteen Peel Pellets (Mago-pel) in Concentrate Diets on Rumen Fermentation and Milk Production in Lactating Dairy Crossbreds.  

PubMed

Four, lactating dairy crossbreds (50%×50% Holstein Friesian×Native Zebu cattle) were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement (two protein levels and two levels of mangosteen peel pellets (Mago-pel)) in a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. All cows received concentrate at a proportion of 1 kg concentrate per 2 kg of milk yield, and urea-treated 5% rice straw (UTRS) was given ad libitum. It was found that total dry matter intakes, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and NH3-N concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by treatments. Concentrations of ruminal pH and NH3-N were not affected by dietary treatments although the concentration of BUN varied significantly (p<0.05) between protein levels (p<0.05). The populations of rumen bacteria and fungal zoospores did not differ among treatments (p>0.05); however, the population of protozoa was decreased (p<0.05) when cows received Mago-pel supplementation. The composition of the population of bacteria, identified by real-time PCR technique, including total bacteria, methanogens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus was similar (p>0.05) among dietary treatments (p>0.05); however, copy numbers of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was increased when protein level increased (p<0.05). Microbial protein synthesis, in terms of both quantity and efficiency, was enriched by Mago-pel supplementation. Milk yield was greatest in cows fed UTRS based diets with concentrate containing protein at 16% CP with Mago-pel, but were lowest without Mago-pel (p<0.05). In addition, protein level and supplementation of Mago-pel did not affect (p>0.05) milk composition except solids-not-fat which was higher in cows fed the diet with 19% CP. Therefore, feeding a concentrate containing 16% CP together with 300 g/hd/d Mago-pel supplementation results in changes in rumen fermentation and microbial population and improvements in milk production in lactating dairy crossbreds fed on UTRS. PMID:25049652

Norrapoke, T; Wanapat, M; Wanapat, S

2012-07-01

93

A comparison of leaf protein concentrate fortified dishes and milk as supplements for children with nutritionally inadequate diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf protein concentrate (LPC) fortified dishes were compared with isoproteinous and isocaloric amounts of milk for the supplementation of the normal diets of the children of a local slum: 40 children were fed LPC-fortified dishes as a supplement and 40 other children were fed milk as a supplement; 20 children who were not given any supplements served as a control

F. H. Shah; A. Salam Sheikh; N. Farrukh; A. Rasool

1980-01-01

94

Comparison of DDT and its metabolites concentrations in cow milk from agricultural and industrial areas.  

PubMed

The risk of pesticidal intoxication in humans is severe, especially because of the strongly negative impact on human health. The consequences of the exposure to these substances may include cancerogenesis or endocrine abnormalities resulting for example in decreased fertility. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the content of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in cow milk from two regions of Poland, varying by level of industrialization. Samples were collected from agricultural (n = 25) and industrial (n = 25) areas, and the concentrations of DDT and its metabolites were evaluated by gas chromatography. Residues of DDT were detected in all the milk samples tested, mostly in the samples from the agricultural area, where a total DDT median concentration reached 0.336 ?g L(-1). In the milk samples from the industrial area, the median concentration was lower, at 0.131 ?g L(-1). 4,4'-DDT was the main metabolite, constituting 83% of total DDT metabolites. Although none of the samples exceeded the level above which they should be considered dangerous, the results showed that the problem of DDT had not diminished and so should be constantly monitored. PMID:25421622

Kuba, Jaros?aw; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Bogumi?a; Tarasewicz, Natalia; Pilarczyk, Renata; Ligocki, Marek

2015-01-01

95

Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.  

PubMed

Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ?-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 concentrations. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 concentrations (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 concentration (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (?9 to 11), trans-18:1 (?6 to 11), trans-18:2, CLA (cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11, trans-8,trans-10 and trans-7,trans-9) and 20- and 22-carbon FA concentrations. Overall, EL resulted in a relatively high cis-9 18:1 concentration and an increase in the 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 ratio, whereas combining EL and FO resulted in substantial increases in trans-FA, marginal enrichment in 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 and lower 16:0 concentration changes associated with a decrease in milk fat content. In conclusion, data provide further evidence of differential mammary lipogenic responses to diet in the goat compared with the cow and sheep. PMID:25491438

Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

2014-12-10

96

Starch levels on performance, milk composition and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of starch levels in diets with the replacement of citrus pulp for corn on milk yield, milk composition, and energy balance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in seven 4?×?4 Latin squares conducted concurrently, and each experimental period consisted of 20 days (16 days for adaptation and 4 days for sampling). The experimental treatments comprised four starch levels: 15, 20, 25, and 30 % in the diet. The dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing starch levels. The milk yield and 3.5 % fat-corrected milk yield showed quadratic response to increasing starch levels. The milk protein content and milk total solids content responded linearly to increasing starch levels. The feed efficiency, milk lactose content, milk urea nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and plasma glucose concentration were not affected by starch levels. The estimated net energy for lactation (NEL) intake increased linearly as the starch level was raised. Although the milk NEL output per kilogram of milk was not affected by starch, the milk NEL output daily responded quadratically to starch levels. In addition, the NEL in body weight gain also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. The efficiency of energy use for milk yield and the NEL efficiency for production also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. Diets for mid-lactating dairy cows producing around 30 kg/day of milk should be formulated to provide around 25 % starch to optimize performance. PMID:25315370

Carmo, Carolina Almeida; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Martinez, Junio Cesar; Correa, Paulo; Pedroso, Alexandre Mendonça; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

2015-01-01

97

Interactions of fat globule surface proteins during concentration of whole milk in a pilot-scale multiple-effect evaporator.  

PubMed

The changes in milk fat globules and fat globule surface proteins during concentration of whole milk using a pilot-scale multiple-effect evaporator were examined. The effects of heat treatment of milk at 95 degrees C for 20 s, prior to evaporation, on fat globule size and the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins were also determined. In both non-preheated and preheated whole milk, the size of milk fat globules decreased while the amount of total surface proteins at the fat globules increased as the milk passed through each effect of the evaporator. In non-preheated samples, the amount of caseins at the surface of fat globules increased markedly during evaporation with a relatively small increase in whey proteins. In preheated samples, both caseins and whey proteins were observed at the surface of fat globules and the amounts of these proteins increased during subsequent steps of evaporation. The major original MFGM proteins, xanthine oxidase, butyrophilin, PAS 6 and PAS 7, did not change during evaporation, however, PAS 6 and PAS 7 decreased during preheating. These results indicate that the proteins from the skim milk were adsorbed onto the fat globule surface when the milk fat globules were disrupted during evaporation. PMID:15605714

Ye, Aiqian; Singh, Harjinder; Taylor, Michael W; Anema, Skelte G

2004-11-01

98

Effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate: IV. Feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk production in milking cows.  

PubMed

Four early-lactation crossbred cows (82.5 % Holstein) were selected to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on rumen fermentation and milk production. Cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source: cassava chip (CC) and CC + rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was variation in the level of cottonseed meal (CM): low (LCM) and high (HCM) in isonitrogenous diets (180 g CP/kg DM). It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, dry matter digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition, or economic return (P > 0.05). However, cows fed with CC had a higher population of amylolytic bacteria than cows fed with CR3:1 (P < 0.05). Cows fed with HCM had a higher total feed intake, milk yield and composition, and milk income when compared with cows fed on LCM although the concentrate and roughage intakes, dry matter digestibility, rumen fermentation, and microbial populations were similar between treatments (P > 0.05). In addition, the carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level interactions were not significant for any parameter. It could be concluded that cassava chip and high level of cottonseed meal could usefully be incorporated into concentrates for dairy cows without impacting on rumen fermentation or milk production. PMID:22843214

Wanapat, Metha; Pilajun, Ruangyote; Rowlinson, Peter

2013-02-01

99

Fluoride Concentration of Some Brands of Fermented Milks Available in the Market  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the fluoride ion concentration in some fermented milks present in the market. Methods: Three brands of 6 fermented milks (Parmalat®-uva, Chamyto®, Paulista®, Batavito®, Yakult®, Vigor Club®) were analyzed. Fluoride concentration was evaluated after facilitated microdiffusion by HDMS. Results: Parmalat® products ranged from 0.022 ?gF/g to 0.031 ?gF/g, Chamyto® from 0.228 ?gF/g to 0.272 ?gF/g, Paulista® from 0.182 ?gF/g to 0.220 ?gF/g, Batavito® from 0.028 ?gF/g to 0.030 ?gF/g, Yakult® from 0.115 ?gF/g to 0.206 ?gF/g and Vigor Club® from 0.808 ?gF/g to 1.171 ?gF/g. Conclusions: The presence of fluoride could be observed in all of the fermented milks analyzed which can contribute with the total fluoride daily intake. PMID:21494379

Lodi, Carolina Simonetti; Manareli, Michele Maurício; Sassaki, Kikue Takebayashi; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Martinhon, Cleide Cristina Rodrigues

2011-01-01

100

The effect of steam-flaked and extruded full-fat soybeans on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in the milk fat of dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is naturally produced in ruminants and exerts many beneficial health effects to humans. Feeding dairy cows with extruded soybeans has been reported to boost the CLA concentration in milk. However, the impact of steam-flaking soybeans on milk CLA content remains unknown. To study the potential of feeding steam-flaked soybeans on enhancing the CLA concentration in milk,

Yanling Li; Qiyu Diao; Qingxiang Meng

2009-01-01

101

Evaporative concentration of skimmed milk: effect on casein micelle hydration, composition, and size.  

PubMed

Understanding the effect of evaporative concentration on casein micelle composition is of high importance for milk processing. Alterations to the hydration, composition and size of casein micelles were investigated in skimmed milk evaporated to concentrations of 12-45% total solids content. The size of casein micelles was determined by dynamic light scattering, and the water content and composition determined by analysis of supernatants and pellets obtained by ultracentrifugation. The mass balance and hydration results showed that during the evaporation process, while micelles were dehydrated, water was removed preferentially from the serum. The amount of soluble casein and calcium in the serum decreased as a function of increasing solids content, indicating a shift of these components to the micelles. The formation of a small proportion of micelle aggregates at high concentrations appeared dependent on the time kept at these concentrations. Upon redilution with water, casein micelles were immediately rehydrated and aggregates were broken up in a matter of minutes. Soluble calcium and pH returned to their original state over a number of hours; however, only a small percentage of original soluble casein returned to the serum over the 5h period investigated. These results showed that casein micelles are significantly affected by evaporative concentration and that the alterations are not completely and rapidly reversible. PMID:25005965

Liu, Dylan Z; Dunstan, David E; Martin, Gregory J O

2012-10-01

102

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations in the breast milk of women in Quebec.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study documented the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) in the breast milk of women from Quebec, Canada, and assessed the impact of various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on these levels. METHODS: From 1988 to 1990, milk samples were obtained from 536 Quebec women and analyzed for seven PCB congeners and p,p'-DDE. Information was obtained on subjects' physical, sociodemographic, and lifestyle characteristics. RESULTS: Mean concentrations were 0.52 mg/kg lipids (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.50, 0.54) and 0.34 mg/kg lipids (95% CI = 0.32, 0.35) for PCBs (Aroclor 1260) and DDE, respectively. Age and history of breast-feeding showed statistically significant correlations with PCB and DDE concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of PCBs and DDE measured in this study are at the lower end of the concentration range recently reported for women living in industrialized countries. The modulating factors identified here should be considered when conducting studies on organochlorine exposure and disease. PMID:8806375

Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P; Laliberté, C; Weber, J P; Gingras, S; Nantel, A J

1996-01-01

103

The Analysis of Milk Components and Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Raw Milk in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine mastitis can be diagnosed by abnormalities in milk components and somatic cell count (SCC), as well as by clinical signs. We examined raw milk in Korea by analyzing SCC, milk urea nitrogen (MUN), and the percentages of milk components (milk fat, pro- tein, and lactose). The associations between SCC or MUN and other milk components were investigated, as well

Y. K. Park; H. C. Koo; S. H. Kim; S. Y. Hwang; W. K. Jung; J. M. Kim; S. Shin; R. T. Kim; Y. H. Park

2007-01-01

104

Milk fatty acids as possible biomarkers to early diagnose elevated concentrations of blood plasma nonesterified fatty acids in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Most cows encounter a state of negative energy balance during the periparturient period, which may lead to metabolic disorders and impaired fertility. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of milk fatty acids as diagnostic tools of detrimental levels of blood plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), defined as NEFA concentrations beyond 0.6 mmol/L, in a data set of 92 early lactating cows fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet and subjected to 0-, 30-, or 60-d dry period before parturition. Milk was collected in wk 2, 3, 4, and 8 (n = 368) and blood was sampled weekly from wk 2 to 8 after parturition. Milk was analyzed for milk fatty acids and blood plasma for NEFA. Data were classified as "at risk of detrimental blood plasma NEFA" (NEFA ? 0.6 mmol/L) and "not at risk of detrimental blood plasma NEFA" (NEFA <0.6 mmol/L). Concentrations of 45 milk fatty acids and milk fat C18:1 cis-9-to-C15:0 ratio were subjected to a discriminant analysis. Milk fat C18:1 cis-9 revealed the most discriminating variable to identify detrimental blood plasma NEFA. A false positive rate of 10% allowed us to diagnose 46% of the detrimental blood plasma NEFA cases based on a milk fat C18:1 cis-9 concentration of at least 230 g/kg of milk fatty acids. Additionally, it was assessed whether the milk fat C18:1 cis-9 concentrations of wk 2 could be used as an early warning for detrimental blood plasma NEFA risk during the first 8 wk in lactation. Cows with at least 240 g/kg of C18:1 cis-9 in milk fat had about 50% chance to encounter blood plasma NEFA values of 0.6 mmol/L or more during the first 8 wk of lactation, with a false positive rate of 11.4%. Profit simulations were based on costs for cows suffering from detrimental blood plasma NEFA, and costs for preventive treatment based on daily dosing of propylene glycol for 3 wk. Given the relatively low incidence rate (8% of all observations), continuous monitoring of milk fatty acids during the first 8 wk of lactation to diagnose detrimental blood plasma NEFA does not seem cost effective. On the contrary, milk fat C18:1 cis-9 of the second lactation week could be an early warning of cows at risk of detrimental blood NEFA. In this case, selective treatment may be cost effective. PMID:25200787

Jorjong, S; van Knegsel, A T M; Verwaeren, J; Lahoz, M Val; Bruckmaier, R M; De Baets, B; Kemp, B; Fievez, V

2014-11-01

105

Breast milk concentrations of amiodarone, desethylamiodarone, and bisoprolol following short-term drug exposure: two case reports.  

PubMed

Two cases of mothers given postpartum short-term administration of amiodarone, with and without bisoprolol, are described along with determinations of amiodarone and (±)-bisoprolol in the breast milk. In one mother given a cumulative total of amiodarone of 8?g over 1 week, concentrations 11 days after the drug had been stopped were initially deemed sufficient to pose a risk to an infant. Over the next 5 days the concentrations steadily dropped with amiodarone and desethylamiodarone concentrations being found to be at a level comprising minimal risk to the infant. Bisoprolol was not found in the expressed breast milk. In the second case the mother was given a single 150?mg dose of amiodarone and breast milk concentrations were measured on postpartum days 4 and 5. Breast milk amiodarone concentrations were very low and of little concern clinically had the mother breast fed her baby. The risk to the baby of ingesting breast milk after amiodarone administration postpartum depends on the duration of amiodarone exposure, with a single dose posing minimal risk. Bisoprolol does not appear to accumulate to any great extent in breast milk. PMID:24482268

Khurana, Rshmi; Bin Jardan, Yousef A; Wilkie, Jodi; Brocks, Dion R

2014-07-01

106

Alpha-Lactalbumin and lactose concentrations in rat milk during lactation.  

PubMed Central

Homogeneous rat alpha-lactalbumin was prepared from whey by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and Ultrogel AcA 44. Two biologically active forms of alpha-lactalbumin were apparent after ion-exchange chromatography, but on gel filtration the combined forms were eluted as a single peak with a molecular weight of approx. 33000. The molecular weight when determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis was 15100. Antiserum to alpha-lactalbumin was prepared from rabbits, and single radial immunodiffusion was used to measure the concentration of alpha-lactalbumin in milk expressed from rats during lactation and for 2 days after the cessation of lactation. A significant positive correlation (r = + 0.89) between the concentrations of alpha-lactalbumin and lactose was obtained for the first 20 days of lactation. This is consistent with the suggestion that alpha-lactalbumin may control the concentration of lactose in milk. However, a significant negative correlation (r = -0.91) between the concentration of alpha-lactalbumin and lactose was obtained for 2 days after the cessation of lactation on day 20. Images Fig. 1. PMID:7305975

Nicholas, K R; Hartmann, P E; McDonald, B L

1981-01-01

107

Use of bovine milk concentrate containing antibody to rotavirus to treat rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants.  

PubMed

The use of a concentrate containing milk immunoglobulins prepared from rotavirus-hyperimmunized cows (neutralization titer, 1:6,000 for a 10% solution) to treat infants hospitalized for acute rotavirus gastroenteritis resulted in a significant (P = .008) reduction in the duration of excretion of virus. Stool samples from treated infants showed the presence of bovine milk immunoglobulins in 47% of cases and of neutralizing activity in 43% (mean neutralization titer, 1:48); stool samples from control infants showed neutralizing activities in only 3% of cases (neutralization titers, less than 1:20). Immunoelectrophoresis of stool extracts revealed fragment A, a bovine analogue of F(ab')2 or Fab, as the major product of in vitro and in vivo digestion of the immunoglobulins. Cessation of excretion of virus correlated with the appearance of neutralizing activities in 19 of 25 infants. Only concentrate-treated infants with high neutralizing activity in stools showed a statistically significant reduction in duration of excretion of virus; this duration in concentrate-treated infants with low neutralizing activity was comparable with controls. PMID:3110303

Hilpert, H; Brüssow, H; Mietens, C; Sidoti, J; Lerner, L; Werchau, H

1987-07-01

108

Plasma Concentrations of Carbohydrates and Sugar Alcohols in Term Newborns after Milk Feeding  

PubMed Central

Nonglucose carbohydrates such as galactose, mannose, and inositol play a clinically important role in fetal and neonatal nutrition, though little is known about their metabolism in the neonate. The aim of this study was to determine whether postprandial changes in plasma carbohydrate and sugar alcohol concentrations are affected by clinical variables such as postnatal age (PNA), milk type, feeding volume, or feeding duration in term newborns. Neonates (n = 26) taking intermittent enteral feedings were enrolled. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (immediately before the start of a feeding) and at 2–3 subsequent time points up to 110 min. Postprandial rise was only observed for plasma glucose concentrations [Glu] and plasma galactose concentrations [Gal] and clinical variables did not predict this change. Despite equimolar delivery in milk, the median of [Glu] rise minus [Gal] rise from baseline to second postprandial plasma sample was 674 ?M (?38, 3333 ?M; p < 0.0001), reflecting efficient hepatic first-pass metabolism of galactose. A significant PNA effect on [Gal] was observed such that for each day PNA there was an 18% decrease in [Gal] (p = 0.03). [Gal] are a function of PNA, suggesting maintenance of a significant ductus venosus shunt in term infants. PMID:18391836

BROWN, LAURA D.; CAVALLI, CLAUDIO; HARWOOD, JERI E. F.; CASADEI, ANNACHIARA; TENG, CECILIA C.; TRAGGIAI, CRISTINA; SERRA, GIOVANNI; BEVILACQUA, GIULIO; BATTAGLIA, FREDERICK C.

2010-01-01

109

Effect of Safflower Oil, Flaxseed Oil, Monensin, and Vitamin E on Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Bovine Milk Fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of conjugated octadecadienoic acids of predominantly ruminant origin. The main isomer in bovine milk fat is the cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Interest in CLA increased after thediscoveryofitshealth-promotingproperties,includ- ing potent anticarcinogenic activity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary strategies aimed at increasing the concentration of CLA in bovine milk fat. Bothexperimentswereorganized asarandomizedcom- plete

J. A. Bell; J. M. Griinari; J. J. Kennelly

2006-01-01

110

The essential mineral concentration of Torba yoghurts and their wheys compared with yoghurt made with cows', ewes' and goats' milks.  

PubMed

Comparative studies on yoghurts made from cows', ewes' and goats' milks with respect to mineral concentrations are limited and warrant further investigation. The objective of this study was to analyse the gross chemical composition as well as the concentration of essential minerals in concentrated (torba) yoghurts made from cows', ewes' and goats' milk compared with those in regular yoghurts and wheys. The elements were determined by simultaneous inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Ewe torba yoghurt was significantly higher in calcium, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, selenium, zinc, cobalt, copper and iron concentrations compared with goat and cow torba yoghurts. It is recommended that torba yoghurts made from different types of milk may be considered an important source of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, selenium and zinc over the regular yoghurts and wheys. Whey samples are also an excellent source of lactose as well as sodium and potassium. PMID:18608571

Güler, Zehra; Sanal, Hasan

2009-03-01

111

The brominated flame retardants, PBDEs and HBCD, in Canadian human milk samples collected from 1992 to 2005; concentrations and trends.  

PubMed

Human milk samples were collected from individuals residing in various regions across Canada mostly in the years 1992 to 2005. These included five large cities in southern Canada as well as samples from Nunavik in northern Quebec. Comparative samples were also collected from residents of Austin, Texas, USA in 2002 and 2004. More than 300 milk samples were analysed for the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), PBDEs and HBCD, by extraction, purification and quantification using either isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-MS. The Canadian total PBDE values in the years 2002-2005 show median levels of about 20?g/kg on a lipid basis; a value significantly higher than in the 1980s and 1990s. Milk samples from Inuit donors in the northern region of Nunavik were slightly lower in PBDE concentrations than those from populated regions in the south of Quebec. Milk samples from Ontario contained slightly lower amounts of PBDEs in two time periods than those from Texas. HBCD levels in most milk samples were usually less than 1ppb milk lipid and dominated by the ?-isomer. This large data set of BFRs in Canadian human milk demonstrates an increase in the last few decades in human exposure to BFRs which now appears to have stabilized. PMID:24879366

Ryan, John Jake; Rawn, Dorothea F K

2014-09-01

112

Nickel supplementation effect on the growth, urease activity and urea and nitrate concentrations in lettuce supplied with different nitrogen sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of nickel (Ni) in the nutrient solution on yield, N metabolism, and nitrate content of leafy vegetables is poorly understood. The aim of this nutrient solution culture experiment was to investigate the effects of Ni supplementation on the nitrogen (N) metabolism and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Baker) with either urea or nitrate as the N source.

Amir Hossein Khoshgoftarmanesh; Fatemeh Hosseini; Majid Afyuni

2011-01-01

113

Effect of bleaching permeate from microfiltered skim milk on 80% serum protein concentrate.  

PubMed

Whey proteins that have been removed before the cheese-making process are referred to as "native" whey proteins or milk serum proteins. Because serum proteins isolated directly from milk are not exposed to the cheese-making process, they are free from functional or sensory effects arising from this process. Whey proteins used in food and beverage applications are largely derived from annatto-colored Cheddar cheese. Some of the annatto is left in the whey and this color is converted to a colorless compound by bleaching. The effect of bleaching serum proteins on flavor and functionality of spray-dried protein provides a platform to investigate the effect of bleaching free from the confounding effects of cheese manufacture. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the sensory and functional properties of 80% milk serum protein concentrate (SPC80) produced from bleached and unbleached microfiltration (MF) permeate made from skim milk with and without added annatto color. Colored and uncolored MF permeates were bleached with benzoyl peroxide (BP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP), ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried. The SPC80 from unbleached colored and uncolored MF permeates were manufactured as controls. All treatments were manufactured in triplicate. All SPC80 were evaluated by sensory testing, instrumental analyses, functionality, color, and proximate analysis. The HP-bleached SPC80 was higher in lipid oxidation compounds than BP-bleached or unbleached SPC80, specifically hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, and 2,3-octadienone. The HP treatments were higher in aroma intensity and cardboard and fatty flavors compared with the unbleached and BP-bleached SPC80. The SPC80 bleached with BP had lower concentrations of norbixin compared with SPC80 bleached with HP. Functionality testing demonstrated that HP treatments had more soluble protein after 10min of heating at 90°C and pH 4.6 and pH 7 compared with the no bleach and BP treatments, regardless of additional color. Foams generated from bleached SPC80 were more stable than those from unbleached SPC80, and those bleached with HP were lower in yield stress than other SPC80. Overall, HP bleaching destroyed less norbixin and caused more lipid oxidation and subsequent off-flavors than did BP bleaching. However, the heat stability of SPC80 was enhanced by HP bleaching compared with control treatments or BP bleaching. PMID:23295111

Campbell, Rachel E; Adams, Michael C; Drake, Maryanne; Barbano, David M

2013-03-01

114

Influence of initial milk yield, sward height and concentrate level on herbage intake and grazing behaviour of dairy cattle  

E-print Network

Influence of initial milk yield, sward height and concentrate level on herbage intake and grazing the interrelationship of the sward height, concentrate input and various dependent variables. Two experiments of 42-summer three groups of IMY 22.2, 26.8 and 31.8 kg/day were used. Three sward heights (SH) of 3 - 5 cm, 5 - 7 cm

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

115

Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.  

PubMed

Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

2014-08-01

116

Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123  

PubMed Central

Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

2014-01-01

117

An investigation of FT-Raman spectroscopy for quantification of additives to milk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this research, four chemicals, urea, ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, and melamine, were mixed into liquid nonfat milk at concentrations starting from 0.1% to a maximum concentration determined for each chemical according to its maximum solubility, and two Raman spectrometers—a commercial Nicolet...

118

Effects of stocking density and concentrate supplementation of grazing dairy cows on milk production, composition and processing characteristics.  

PubMed

The effects on milk composition and processing characteristics of varying grass supply by changing stocking density and of offering a concentrate supplement were investigated. The experiment was conducted over 28 weeks of the lactation (April-October) using 48 spring-calved Friesian-Holstein cows. Three herds each of 16 cows were offered a restricted grass supply, a standard grass supply and a standard grass supply with a supplement of 3 kg concentrate/d. Treatment groups were grazed separately with a residence time of 3 d/paddock. Milk production, composition and processing characteristics such as renneting properties, ethanol stability and plasmin activity were measured weekly. Increasing stocking density above the standard system resulted in significant reductions in milk fat and protein yields, the concentrations of total protein, casein and whey proteins, and a deterioration in most processing characteristics. Imposing concentrate supplementation on the standard system increased total protein, casein and whey protein concentrations but generally did not improve processing characteristics except for ethanol stability. These results suggest that the standard grass supply in a rotational grazing paddock system can support efficient production of quality milk, and concentrate supplementation will not improve processing characteristics when an adequate supply of good quality herbage is available. PMID:10376239

O'Brien, B; Dillon, P; Murphy, J J; Mehra, R K; Guinee, T P; Connolly, J F; Kelly, A; Joyce, P

1999-05-01

119

Effect of forage:concentrate ratio on the quality of ewe's milk, especially on milk fat globules characteristics and fatty acids composition.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the milk quality of Massese ewes receiving diets with different forage:concentrate ratios (FC ratio), specially on milk fat globules characteristics and fatty acids composition. The diet is one of the main environmental factors that influence the lipidic content of milk. A trial was carried out on twenty ewes, which had been subdivided into two homogeneous groups and kept indoors at 25 days post partum. The experiment lasted 60 days, from 40 to 100 days post partum and the animals were fed two diets that differed in terms of the FC ratio: 60:40 and 40:60, as fed. The results obtained in this study showed that a greater proportion of forage, compared with an higher percentage of concentrate, led to an increase in the percentage of fat (+8.66%) and to a decrease in the percentage of milk fat globules with a size between 2 and 5 microm (-17.32%). However, the average diameter was not affected. There was also a decrease in the percentages of some medium chain fatty acids (C12:0, C14:0; -14.89% and -4.03 respectively) and an increase in mono and polyunsaturated ones such as trans11-C18:1 (+31.71%), total CLA (+22%), EPA (+18.18%) and DHA (+66.67%). In conclusion, a greater proportion of forage seem to improve the milk fatty acid profile by the increase of some fatty acid identified has being beneficial for human health. PMID:20196898

Martini, Mina; Liponi, Gian Battista; Salari, Federica

2010-05-01

120

Chemical and physical changes in milk protein concentrate (MPC80) powder during storage.  

PubMed

The solubility and chemical changes due to the Maillard reaction were investigated in milk protein concentrate powder containing 80% protein (MPC80) during storage at temperatures and relative humidities in the ranges of 25-40 °C and 44-84%, respectively. The Maillard reaction was studied by measuring furosine (a product of lactosylated protein after digestion with acid) and free hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) contents by HPLC and L*, a*, b* values with a color-meter. Furosine, free HMF, and browning in MPC80 increased during storage, whereas the solubility decreased. The correlation between the Maillard reaction and solubility loss was explored in modified MPC80 to which glucose was added to enhance the rate of the Maillard reaction. More furosine and brown pigments were observed in the glucose-containing MPC80 than in MPC80 with added lactose. The opposite trend occurred for solubility, suggesting that the Maillard reaction may be a cause of solubility loss in MPC powder. PMID:21539356

Le, Thao T; Bhandari, Bhesh; Deeth, Hilton C

2011-05-25

121

Investigation of the microstructure of milk protein concentrate powders during rehydration: alterations during storage.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to use scanning electron microscopy to investigate the microstructure of rehydrated milk protein concentrate powder (MPC) particles. A sample preparation method for scanning electron microscopy analysis of rehydrated MPC particles is described and used to characterize the time course of dissolution and the effects of prior storage on the dissolution process. The results show that a combination of different types of interactions (e.g., bridges, direct contact) between casein micelles results in a porous, gel-like structure that restrains the dispersion of individual micelles into the surrounding liquid phase without preventing water penetration and solubilization of nonmicellar components. During storage of the powder, increased interactions occur between and within micelles, leading to compaction of micelles and the formation of a monolayer skin of casein micelles packed close together, the combination of which are proposed to be responsible for the slow dissolution of stored MPC powders. PMID:20105518

Mimouni, A; Deeth, H C; Whittaker, A K; Gidley, M J; Bhandari, B R

2010-02-01

122

Effect of supplementation of grazing dairy ewes with a cereal concentrate on animal performance and milk fatty acid profile.  

PubMed

This work was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing grazing ewes on pasture with a cereal concentrate on the milk fatty acid (FA) profile. Ninety Assaf ewes in mid lactation were distributed in 9 lots of 10 animals each and allocated to 3 feeding regimens: 1) pasture--ewes were only allowed to graze pasture (an irrigated sward of Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense, and Dactylis glomerata); 2) PS--grazing ewes were supplemented with oat grain (700 g/animal and day); and 3) TMR--ewes were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration (TMR; 80:20 concentrate/forage ratio). Milk yield and composition were recorded for 5 wk. The highest milk yield was observed in ewes receiving the TMR and the lowest in grazing ewes supplemented with oat grain. Productions of milk fat, protein, and total solids showed the lowest values in treatment PS. The atherogenicity index, which comprises C12:0, C14:0, and C16:0, in PS milk fat was no different from that observed in milk from animals on pasture (1.53 for pasture, 1.54 for PS, and 3.22 for TMR). Oat grain supplementation generated higher amounts of C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1 in milk fat than the pasture-only diet, but significantly decreased the levels of alpha-linolenic acid and most of intermediates of the process of biohydrogenation of this FA. Cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 and trans-11 C18:1, its precursor for endogenous synthesis in the mammary gland, were lower in PS (0.58 and 1.59 g/100 g of total FA) than in TMR (0.72 and 1.92 g/100 g of total FA) and very different from the results observed in grazing ewes receiving no supplement (1.21 and 3.88 g/100 g of total FA). Furthermore, the lowest levels of trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10 cis-12 C18:2 were detected in the milk fat of ewes fed pasture. It is concluded that, when pasture quality and availability do not limit dairy production, supplementation of grazing ewes with oat grain compromised the milk FA profile without any significant positive effect on milk production. PMID:19620680

Gómez-Cortés, P; Frutos, P; Mantecón, A R; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A; Hervás, G

2009-08-01

123

Effects of standardization of whole milk with dry milk protein concentrate on the yield and ripening of reduced-fat cheddar cheese.  

PubMed

Commercial milk protein concentrate (MPC) was used to standardize whole milk for reduced-fat Cheddar cheesemaking. Four replicate cheesemaking trials of three treatments (control, MPC1, and MPC2) were conducted. The control cheese (CC) was made from standardized milk (casein-to-fat ratio, C/F approximately 1.7) obtained by mixing skim milk and whole milk (WM); MPC1 and MPC2 cheeses were made from standardized milk (C/F approximately 1.8) obtained from mixing WM and MPC, except that commercial mesophilic starter was added at the rate of 1% to the CC and MPC1 and 2% to MPC2 vats. The addition of MPC doubled cheese yields and had insignificant effects on fat recoveries (approximately 94% in MPC1 and MPC2 vs. approximately 92% in CC) but increased significantly total solids recoveries (approximately 63% in CC vs. 63% in MPC1 and MPC2). Although minor differences were noted in the gross composition of the cheeses, both MPC1 and MPC2 cheeses had lower lactose contents (0.25 or 0.32%, respectively) than in CC (0.60%) 7 d post manufacture. Cheeses from all three treatments had approximately 10(9) cfu/g initial starter bacteria count. The nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) grew slowly in MPC1 and MPC2 cheeses during ripening compared to CC, and at the end of 6 mo of ripening, numbers of NSLAB in the CC were 1 to 2 log cycles higher than in MPC1 and MPC2 cheeses. Primary proteolysis, as noted by water-soluble N contents, was markedly slower in MPC1 and MPC2 cheeses compared to CC. The concentrations of total free amino acids were in decreasing order CC > MPC2 > MPC1 cheeses, suggesting slower secondary proteolysis in the MPC cheeses than in CC. Sensory analysis showed that MPC cheeses had lower brothy and bitter scores than CC. Increasing the amount of starter bacteria improved maturity in MPC cheese. PMID:12778571

Shakeel-Ur-Rehman; Farkye, N Y; Considine, T; Schaffner, A; Drake, M A

2003-05-01

124

Effect of microfiltration concentration factor on serum protein removal from skim milk using spiral-wound polymeric membranes.  

PubMed

Our objective was to determine the effect of concentration factor (CF) on the removal of serum protein (SP) from skim milk during microfiltration (MF) at 50 °C using a 0.3-?m-pore-size spiral-wound (SW) polymeric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Pasteurized (72°C for 16 s) skim milk was MF (50 °C) at 3 CF (1.50, 2.25, and 3.00×), each on a separate day of processing starting with skim milk. Two phases of MF were used at each CF, with an initial startup-stabilization phase (40 min in full recycle mode) to achieve the desired CF, followed by a steady-state phase (90-min feed-and-bleed with recycle) where data was collected. The experiment was replicated 3 times, and SP removal from skim milk was quantified at each CF. System pressures, flow rates, CF, and fluxes were monitored during the 90-min run. Permeate flux increased (12.8, 15.3, and 19.0 kg/m(2) per hour) with decreasing CF from 3.00 to 1.50×, whereas fouled water flux did not differ among CF, indicating that the effect of membrane fouling on hydraulic resistance of the membrane was similar at all CF. However, the CF used when microfiltering skim milk (50°C) with a 0.3-?m polymeric SW PVDF membrane did affect the percentage of SP removed. As CF increased from 1.50 to 3.00×, the percentage of SP removed from skim milk increased from 10.56 to 35.57%, in a single stage bleed-and-feed MF system. Percentage SP removal from skim milk was lower than the theoretical value. Rejection of SP during MF of skim milk with SW PVDF membranes was caused by fouling of the membrane, not by the membrane itself and differences in the foulant characteristic among CF influenced SP rejection more than it influenced hydraulic resistance. We hypothesize that differences in the conditions near the surface of the membrane and within the pores during the first few minutes of processing, when casein micelles pass through the membrane, influenced the rejection of SP because more pore size narrowing and plugging occurred at low CF than at high CF due to a slower rate of gel layer formation at low CF. It is possible that percentage removal of SP from skim milk at 50 °C could be improved by optimization of the membrane pore size, feed solution composition and concentration, and controlling the rate of formation of the concentration polarization-derived gel layer at the surface of the membrane during the first few minutes of processing. PMID:23891300

Beckman, S L; Barbano, D M

2013-10-01

125

Effect of Intake of Pasture on Concentrations of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Milk of Lactating Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of intake of fresh pasture on concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat. Sixteen Holstein cows were paired and divided into either the control group or the grazing group. The study involved initial, transition, and final peri- ods. During the initial period, all cows consumed a total mixed diet. Cows in the control group were

M. L. Kelly; E. S. Kolver; D. E. Bauman; M. E. Van Amburgh; L. D. Muller

1998-01-01

126

Improving Infant Exposure and Health Risk Estimates: Using Serum Data to Predict Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Concentrations in Breast Milk  

EPA Science Inventory

Women in the United States have breast milk concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) that are among the highest in the world, leading to concerns over the potential health implications to breastfeeding infants during critical stages of growth and development. Deve...

127

Correlations between periparturient serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, bilirubin, and urea and the occurrence of clinical and subclinical postpartum bovine endometritis  

PubMed Central

Background Postpartum endometritis in cattle is a multifactorial disease with high economic impact. Both, clinical endometritis (CE) and subclinical endometritis (SCE) result in decreased reproductive performance. Results from in vitro studies led to the implication that non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), bilirubin, and urea could be used as predictors for endometritis in veterinary practice. In this field study, we set out to establish optimal predictor cut points of these metabolic parameters for the detection of CE and SCE. Serum samples were collected one week prior to parturition (wk -1), in the first week postpartum (wk +1) and between 28 and 35 days postpartum (wk +5) from 209 Holstein-Friesian cows. At wk +5, all cows were examined for signs of CE and SCE. Results Higher concentrations of urea at wk +1 were associated with increased odds of CE (OR = 1.7, P = 0.04) in primiparous (PP) cows. A predictor cut point of 3.9 mmol/L (sensitivity: 61%, specificity: 70%) was determined. In multiparous (MP) cows, the logistic regression model revealed that higher concentrations of NEFA at wk -1 were associated with increased odds of CE and SCE (healthy vs. CE: OR = 9.1, P = 0.05; healthy vs. SCE: OR = 12.1, P = 0.04). A predictor cut point of 0.3 mmol/L (sensitivity: 38%, specificity: 87% and sensitivity: 35%, specificity: 89%, respectively) was determined. Increasing concentrations of urea at wk +5 were associated with decreased odds of CE (healthy vs. CE: OR = 0.6, P = 0.01; SCE vs. CE: OR = 0.5, P = 0.03). A predictor cut point of 3.8 mmol/L (sensitivity: 52%, specificity: 81%) was determined. For BHBA and bilirubin relationships with CE or SCE were not detected. Conclusions The corresponding combinations of sensitivity and specificity of the determined predictor cut points were not satisfactory for practical use. Thus, the analysed parameters, i.e. NEFA, BHBA, bilirubin, and urea, at the chosen time points, i.e. at wk -1, at wk +1, and at wk +5 relative to calving, are unsatisfactory for disease prediction. Further research is required to clarify the questions raised by the current study. PMID:20979598

2010-01-01

128

Characterization of the purified actinidin as a plant coagulant of bovine milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, actinidin was characterized in view of its possible suitability as a coagulant enzyme in the manufacturing process\\u000a of cheese. The results show that actinidin does exhibit milk-clotting activity, which is correlated with the enzyme concentrations.\\u000a The combined use of urea and SDS–PAGE led to the conclusion that the milk clot is clearly separated from the whey proteins

Angela Roberta Lo Piero; Ivana Puglisi; Goffredo Petrone

129

Viral Load in Breast Milk Correlates with Transmission of Human Cytomegalovirus to Preterm Neonates, but Lactoferrin Concentrations Do Not  

PubMed Central

In vitro, lactoferrin (LF) strongly inhibits human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), which led us to hypothesize that in vivo HCMV might also be inhibited in secretions with high LF concentrations. In breast milk, high viral loads observed as high viral DNA titers tended to coincide with higher LF levels. However, the LF levels did not correlate to virus transmission to preterm infants. The viral load in the transmitting group was highest compared to the nontransmitting group. We conclude that viral load in breast milk is an important factor for transmission of the virus. PMID:11427433

van der Strate, B. W. A.; Harmsen, M. C.; Schäfer, P.; Swart, P. J.; The, T. H.; Jahn, G.; Speer, C. P.; Meijer, D. K. F.; Hamprecht, K.

2001-01-01

130

High-Concentrate Diets and Polyunsaturated Oils Alter Trans and Conjugated Isomers in Bovine Rumen, Blood, and Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Holstein cows were fed a high-concentrate diet (65:35 concentrate to forage) supplemented with either 5% sunflower oil (SO), 5% linseed oil (LO), or 2.5% fish oil (FO) to examine effects on biohydrogenation and fatty acid profiles in rumen, blood plasma, and milk. Diets were fed in a 3 × 3 Latin square with 4-wk periods with grass hay as

J. J. Loor; A. Ferlay; A. Ollier; K. Ueda; M. Doreau; Y. Chilliard

2005-01-01

131

Dietary exposure to phenolic and methoxylated organohalogen contaminants in relation to their concentrations in breast milk and serum in Japan.  

PubMed

This study investigated human exposure to neutral, phenolic, and methoxylated organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in a duplicate diet study to evaluate their concentrations in breast milk and serum of Okinawan people from Japan during 2004-2009. Dietary intakes of phenolic OHCs were predominantly 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TriBP), followed by tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE47). After exposure, TriBP and TBBPA were transferred to breast milk, whereas 6-OH-BDE47 was selectively retained in serum. Despite a lower dietary exposure to pentachlorophenol and 4-hydroxy-CB187, both were retained in serum. For the methoxylated OHCs, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TriBA) and 6-methoxy-BDE47 were the predominant dietary contaminants, of which TriBA was present in both breast milk and serum, whereas 6-methoxy-BDE47 was selectively transferred to breast milk. These findings suggest that dietary exposure to phenolic and methoxylated OHCs may result in differential partitioning between breast milk and serum with different pharmacokinetic or exposure routes. PMID:24263137

Fujii, Yukiko; Nishimura, Eri; Kato, Yoshihisa; Harada, Kouji H; Koizumi, Akio; Haraguchi, Koichi

2014-02-01

132

The daily rhythm of milk synthesis is dependent on the timing of feed intake in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Regulation of the daily rhythm of milk synthesis is important to production animals and breastfeeding, but is difficult to observe in nursing animals. The rate of food intake varies over the day and is expected to create a daily rhythm of nutrient absorption. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of food intake entrains a daily pattern of milk synthesis. Seventeen Holstein cows were used in a crossover design. Treatments were ad libitum feeding of a total mixed ration once daily (1× fed) or fed in four equal meals every 6 h (4× fed). Cows were milked every 6 h the last 7 days of each period. There was a treatment by time of day interaction for milk and milk component yield and concentration. Milk fat and protein concentration and yield exhibited a daily rhythm and the amplitude of the rhythm was reduced in 4× fed. In addition, milk fat percent was higher in 4× fed than 1× fed at three of the four milking intervals (0.22-0.45% higher) and 4× fed increased daily milk fat yield. Treatment by time of day interactions were detected for plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen. These variables also fit a cosine function with a 24 h period and the amplitudes of plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen rhythms were decreased by 4× feeding. In conclusion, there is a circadian pattern of milk synthesis in the dairy cow that is responsive to the timing of food intake. PMID:24963033

Rottman, L Whitney; Ying, Yun; Zhou, Kan; Bartell, Paul A; Harvatine, Kevin J

2014-06-01

133

Relationship Between Content of Crude Protein in Rations for Dairy Cows and Milk Yield, Concentration of Urea in Milk and Ammonia Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent decades, efforts have been made in several countries to diminish the negative environmen- tal influence of dairy production. The main focus has beenonnitrogenandphosphorus.Moderndairyproduc- tion in Western Europe is often based on imported feed- stuffs, mostly protein-rich feeds. In Sweden at least, it is wished that the use of imported feedstuffs in animal production will decrease due to the

B. Frank; C. Swensson

2002-01-01

134

A comparison of the concentrations of certain chlorinated hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in bone marrow and fat tissue of children and their concentrations in breast milk  

SciTech Connect

Chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in the bone marrow of 57 children were compared with the concentrations in adipose tissue of 50 children and the concentrations in breast milk in the Federal Republic of Germany from 1984 to 1991. The concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the dichlorodiphenyl-trichlorethane (DDT)-metabolites, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners no. 138 and no. 153 were increased threefold, while the concentrations of several hexachloro-cyclohexane (HCH)-isomers and PCB congener no. 180 were only increased two fold. Because breast feeding is the primary source of CHC and PCB in toddlers and infants we also compared the concentrations in bone marrow of children with the concentrations in breast milk and found approximately fourfold higher concentrations for the most highly chlorinated PCB congener no. 180, but only threefold higher concentrations for PCB 138 and 153 and the DDT-metabolites. The concentrations of {beta}-HCH and HCB were only slightly higher in bone marrow. 15 refs., 2 figs.

Scheele, J.; Teufel, M.; Niessen, K.H. [Univ. of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany)

1995-12-31

135

Dynamics of lingual antimicrobial peptide, lactoferrin concentrations and lactoperoxidase activity in the milk of cows treated for clinical mastitis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine changes in innate immune factors in the milk of mastitic dairy cows treated with antibiotics. Cows in the antibiotics group (n?=?13) were infused into the mammary gland with cefazolin on the sixth day after mastitis was diagnosed (the day of the mastitis diagnosis?=?day -6). The control group (n?=?12) was not treated. Milk samples were collected once every 2 days from days -6 to 12 and somatic cell count (SCC), lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), and lactoferrin (LF) concentrations and lactoperoxidase (LPO) activity were measured. SCC and LF concentrations in the antibiotics group markedly decreased after the antibiotic treatment. When cows in the antibiotics group were divided according to SCC on day 0, LAP concentrations and LPO activity in cows with a lower SCC on day 0 (<5?×?10(6) ?cell/mL) were significantly higher and lower than those in cows with a higher SCC, respectively. These results suggest that LF concentration decreased with decrease in SCC after treatment and that LAP concentration and LPO activity differed depending on the severity of mastitis. This is the first report to reveal the dynamics of innate immune factor in milk of cows treated for clinical mastitis. PMID:25185977

Kawai, Kazuhiro; Korematsu, Kiyoshi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Okita, Miki; Yoshimura, Yukinori; Isobe, Naoki

2015-02-01

136

Urea-N recycling in lactating dairy cows fed diets with 2 different levels of dietary crude protein and starch with or without monensin.  

PubMed

Rumensin (monensin; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) has been shown to reduce ammonia production and microbial populations in vitro; thus, it would be assumed to reduce ruminal ammonia production and subsequent urea production and consequently affect urea recycling. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of 2 levels of dietary crude protein (CP) and 2 levels of starch, with and without Rumensin on urea-N recycling in lactating dairy cattle. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows (107 ± 21 d in milk, 647 kg ± 37 kg of body weight) were fed diets characterized as having high (16.7%) or low (15.3%) CP with or without Rumensin, while dietary starch levels (23 vs. 29%) were varied between 2 feeding periods with at least 7d of adaptation between measurements. Cows assigned to high or low protein and to Rumensin or no Rumensin remained on those treatments to avoid carryover effects. The diets consisted of approximately 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa hay, and 40% concentrate mix specific to the treatment diets, with 0.5 kg of wheat straw added to the high starch diets to enhance effective fiber intake. The diets were formulated using Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (version 6.1), and the low-protein diets were formulated to be deficient for rumen ammonia to create conditions that should enhance the demand for urea recycling. The high-protein diets were formulated to be positive for both rumen ammonia and metabolizable protein. Rumen fluid, urine, feces, and milk samples were collected before and after a 72-h continuous jugular infusion of (15)N(15)N-urea. Total urine and feces were collected during the urea infusions for N balance measurements. Milk yield and dry matter intake were improved in cows fed the higher level of dietary CP and by Rumensin. Ruminal ammonia and milk and plasma urea nitrogen concentrations corresponded to dietary CP concentration. As has been shown in vitro, Rumensin reduced rumen ammonia concentration by approximately 23% but did not affect urea entry rate or gastrointestinal entry rate. Urea entry rate averaged approximately 57% of total N intake for cattle with and without Rumensin, and gastrointestinal rate was similar at 43 and 42% of N intake for cattle fed and not fed Rumensin, respectively. The cattle fed the high-protein diet had a 25% increase in urea entry rate and no effect of starch level was observed for any recycling parameters. Contrary to our hypothesis, Rumensin did not alter urea production and recycling. PMID:24377801

Recktenwald, E B; Ross, D A; Fessenden, S W; Wall, C J; Van Amburgh, M E

2014-03-01

137

Effect of safflower oil, flaxseed oil, monensin, and vitamin E on concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in bovine milk fat.  

PubMed

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of conjugated octadecadienoic acids of predominantly ruminant origin. The main isomer in bovine milk fat is the cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Interest in CLA increased after the discovery of its health-promoting properties, including potent anticarcinogenic activity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary strategies aimed at increasing the concentration of CLA in bovine milk fat. Both experiments were organized as a randomized complete block design with a repeated measures treatment structure. In Experiment 1, 28 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 3 treatments for a period of 2 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, fed as a total mixed ration (TMR). The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 24 ppm of monensin (MON), 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), or 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels in milk fat after 2 wk of feeding were 0.45, 0.52, 3.36, and 5.15% of total fatty acids for control, MON, SAFF, and SAFF/M, respectively. In Experiment 2, 62 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 5 treatment diets for a period of 9 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a DM basis, fed as a TMR. The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/E), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/ME), or 6% of DM flaxseed oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (FLAX/E). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels during the treatment period were 0.68, 4.12, 3.48, 4.55, 4.75, and 2.80% of total fatty acids for control, SAFF, SAFF/E, SAFF/M, SAFF/ME, and FLAX/E, respectively. The combination of safflower oil with monensin was particularly effective at increasing milk fat CLA. The addition of vitamin E to the diet partially prevented the depression in milk fat associated with oilseed feeding, but had no significant effect on the concentration of CLA in milk. PMID:16428641

Bell, J A; Griinari, J M; Kennelly, J J

2006-02-01

138

Kinetics of enthalpy relaxation of milk protein concentrate powder upon ageing and its effect on solubility.  

PubMed

Kinetics of enthalpy relaxation of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powder upon short-term (up to 67 h) storage at 25 °C and aw 0.85, and long-term (up to 48 days) storage at 25 °C and a range of aw values (0-0.85) were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The short-term study showed a rapid recovery of enthalpy for the first 48 h, followed by a slower steady increase with time. The non-exponential ? parameter was calculated using the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts function and found to be 0.39. Long-term storage showed that enthalpy relaxation depends on both storage period and water activity. The enthalpy value was much less for lower moisture content (mc) (aw ? 0.23, mc ? 5.5%) than for higher mc (aw ? 0.45, mc ? 8%) samples for a particular storage period. The results suggest that the presence of more water molecules, in close proximity to the protein surface facilitates kinetic unfreezing and subsequent motion of molecular segments of protein molecules towards thermodynamic equilibrium. Although de-ageing of stored samples did not reverse storage-induced solubility losses, the timescale of enthalpy relaxation was similar to that of solubility loss. It is suggested that enthalpy relaxation within stored samples allows structural rearrangements that are responsible for subsequent solubility decreases. PMID:25005955

Haque, Enamul; Whittaker, Andrew K; Gidley, Michael J; Deeth, Hilton C; Fibrianto, Kiki; Bhandari, Bhesh R

2012-10-01

139

Supplementation of complex milk lipid concentrate (CMLc) improved the memory of aged rats.  

PubMed

Objectives The socio-economic impact from age-related mental decline is escalating. Supplementation of functional foods for sustaining mental health is desirable. We examined the effect of long-term supplementation of complex milk lipid concentrate (CMLc), mixed dairy phospholipids, on memory and associated vascular and neuronal changes in aged rats. Methods Fisher/Norway Brown rats were used. Two groups of aged rats (24 months) were fed with either gelatin-formulated CMLc or blank gelatin as the control, for 4 months. To determine age-related changes, a young group (5 months) was also fed with blank gelatin. Morris water maze tests were carried out after the supplementation and brain tissues were collected for biological analysis. Results The aged control rats learnt to locate the platform slower than the young control rats during acquisition trials (*P < 0.05), and made fewer entries to and more initial heading errors from the platform zone during testing trials (*P < 0.05). The CMLc supplementation improved memory by showing the reduced initial heading errors in a delayed probe trial ((#)P < 0.05). We also found that the aged rats with CMLc supplementation improved vascular density, dopamine output, and neuroplasticity ((#)P < 0.05) in the brain regions involved in memory compared with that of the aged control rats. Discussion The data suggested that the supplementation of CMLc during the early stage of brain aging may prevent memory decline possibly through improving vascular and neuronal function. PMID:24257209

Guan, Jian; MacGibbon, Alastair; Zhang, Rong; Elliffe, Douglas M; Moon, Steve; Liu, Dong-Xu

2015-01-01

140

Effect of Insoluble Calcium Concentration on Rennet Coagulation Properties of Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rennet-induced gels were made from milk acidified to various pH values or milk at pH 6.0 that had added EDTA.Theobjectivewastoexaminetheeffectofremov- ing insoluble Ca (INS Ca) from casein micelles (CM) on rennet gelation properties. For the pH trial, diluted lactic acid was added to reconstituted skim milk to decrease the pH to 6.4, 6.0, 5.8, 5.6, and 5.4. For the EDTA

J. Choi; D. S. Horne; J. A. Lucey

2007-01-01

141

Short communication: plasma concentration of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide may regulate milk energy production in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

In dairy cows, an increase in plasma concentration of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is associated with an increase in metabolizable energy intake, but the role of GIP in energy partitioning of dairy cattle is not certain. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between plasma GIP concentrations and energy partitioning toward milk production. Four mid-lactation, primiparous, rumen-fistulated Holstein-Friesian cows were fed a control diet of 55% forage and 45% concentrate [dry matter (DM) basis] in a 4×4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods. The 4 treatments were (1) control diet fed at 1000 and 1600h, and (2) once-daily (1000h) feeding, (3) twice-daily (1000 and 1600h) feeding, and (4) 4 times/d (1000, 1600, 2200 and 0400h) feeding of the control diet plus 1 dose (1.75kg on a DM basis at 0955h) into the rumen of supplemental vegetable proteins (Amino Green; SCA NuTec Ltd., Thirsk, UK). Measurements of respiratory exchange and energy balance were obtained over 4d during the last week of each period while cows were housed in open-circuit respiration chambers. Blood was collected from the jugular vein every 30min for 12h, using indwelling catheters, starting at 0800h on d 20 of each period. Plasma GIP concentration was measured in samples pooled over each 5 consecutive blood samplings. The relationships between plasma GIP, DM intake, heat production, respiratory quotient (RQ), milk yield, and milk energy output were analyzed using linear correlation procedures, with metabolizable intake as a partial variant. Plasma GIP concentration was not correlated with heat production, or milk yield, but was positively correlated with milk energy yield (correlation coefficient=0.67) and negatively correlated with RQ (correlation coefficient=-0.72). The correlations between GIP with RQ and milk energy output do not imply causality, but support a role for GIP in the regulation of energy metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:24485682

Relling, A E; Crompton, L A; Loerch, S C; Reynolds, C K

2014-04-01

142

BORON CONCENTRATIONS REMAIN STABLE IN MILK FROM MOTHERS OF FULL-TERM EXCLUSIVELY BREAST-FED INFANTS DURING THE FIRST FOUR MONTHS OF LACTATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To expand the finding from this laboratory that human milk boron (B) concentrations remain stable during the first 3 months of lactation, we analyzed archived milk collected (1980-84) from lactating mothers of full-term, exclusively breast-fed, infants living in Houston, TX. Samples were collected o...

143

Copper, zinc and selenium concentrations in milk from middle-class women in Burundi (Africa) throughout the first 10 months of lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper, zinc and selenium were measured in a total of 47 samples of human milk from five middle-class women from Burundi, Africa. Milk samples were taken from day 2 after delivery to 10 months postpartum. Copper and zinc were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, while a hydride generation mode was used for selenium. The average copper concentration declined from

Hilarie Benemariya; Harry Robberecht; Hendrik Deelstra

1995-01-01

144

First parity evaluation of peak milk yield for range cows developed in the same ecophysiological system but receiving different concentrations of harvested feed inputs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reduction of harvested feed inputs during heifer development could optimize range livestock production and improve economic feasibility. The objective for this two year study was to measure milk production (kg/d) and milk constituent concentrations (g/d) for 16 primiparous beef cows each year that w...

145

A Sustainable Alternative to a Breast Milk Monitoring Program: Using NHANES Serum Data to Estimate Breast Milk PBDE Concentrations  

EPA Science Inventory

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are high-production-volume chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in a variety of consumer products. PBDE concentrations in the environment, wildlife, and humans have been increasing for several decades. Concentrations in t...

146

Modified Milk Fat Reduces Plasma Triacylglycerol Concentrations: Health and Disease Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a •?Milk fat has a unique fatty acid profile and is a very complex mixture of triglycerides and is generally considered a cholesterol-raising\\u000a ingredient, as it contains a large proportion of saturated fatty acids and moderate amount of cholesterol.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a •?Various techniques are currently under active development to improve the nutritional value of milk fat, and counteract its\\u000a adverse effect on plasma

Hélène Jacques; Nadine Leblanc; Nathalie Bergeron

147

Expression of urea transporters and their regulation.  

PubMed

UT-A and UT-B families of urea transporters consist of multiple isoforms that are subject to regulation of both acutely and by long-term measures. This chapter provides a brief overview of the expression of the urea transporter forms and their locations in the kidney. Rapid regulation of UT-A1 results from the combination of phosphorylation and membrane accumulation. Phosphorylation of UT-A1 has been linked to vasopressin and hyperosmolality, although through different kinases. Other acute influences on urea transporter activity are ubiquitination and glycosylation, both of which influence the membrane association of the urea transporter, again through different mechanisms. Long-term regulation of urea transport is most closely associated with the environment that the kidney experiences. Low-protein diets may influence the amount of urea transporter available. Conditions of osmotic diuresis, where urea concentrations are low, will prompt an increase in urea transporter abundance. Although adrenal steroids affect urea transporter abundance, conflicting reports make conclusions tenuous. Urea transporters are upregulated when P2Y2 purinergic receptors are decreased, suggesting a role for these receptors in UT regulation. Hypercalcemia and hypokalemia both cause urine concentration deficiencies. Urea transporter abundances are reduced in aging animals and animals with angiotensin-converting enzyme deficiencies. This chapter will provide information about both rapid and long-term regulation of urea transporters and provide an introduction into the literature. PMID:25298340

Klein, Janet D

2014-01-01

148

Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Cows Fed a Total Mixed Ration or Pasture Plus Concentrates Replacing Corn with Fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-one Holstein cows (six ruminally cannulated) were used to evaluate milk fatty acids (FA) composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content on three dietary treatments: 1) total mixed rations (TMR), 2) pasture (Avena sativa L.) plus 6.7 kg DM\\/d of corn- based concentrate (PCorn), and 3) pasture plus PCorn with 0.8 kg DM\\/d of Ca salts of unsaturated FA replac-

G. F. Schroeder; J. E. Delahoy; I. Vidaurreta; F. Bargo; G. A. Gagliostro; L. D. Muller

2003-01-01

149

Increasing the concentrations of beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk produced by dairy cows in high-forage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable interest in altering the fatty acid composition of milk with the overall aim of improving the long-term health of consumers. Important targets include reducing the amounts of medium-chain saturated fatty acids, enhancing cis-9 18:1 to reduce cardiovascular risk, as well as increasing concentrations of trans-11 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 18:2 which have been shown to exert anti-carcinogenic

R. J. Dewhurst; K. J. Shingfield; M. R. F. Lee; N. D. Scollan

2006-01-01

150

Role of endogenous enzymes in proteolysis of sheep milk.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the role of milk endogenous proteolytic enzymes in sheep milk cheesemaking ability during lactation. Plasmin, plasminogen, and plasminogen activator in ewe bulk milk were not significantly affected by stage of lactation, probably because of the good health of the ewe udders throughout lactation as indicated by somatic cell count, which never exceeded 600,000 cells/mL. Elastase content increased significantly during lactation, whereas cathepsin showed the greatest content in mid lactation. Early and mid lactation milk showed impaired renneting parameter compared with late lactation milk, probably because of greater alpha-casein degradation, brought about by cathepsin, and lesser fat and casein (CN) milk contents. Changes in macrophage and neutrophil levels in ewe bulk milk during lactation were also investigated. Macrophages minimally contributed to leukocyte cell count in milk and had the greatest levels at the beginning of lactation. An opposite trend was recorded for polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leucocytes (PMNL) that increased throughout lactation, showing the greatest value in late lactation. Urea-PAGE of sodium caseinate (NaCN) incubated with isolated and concentrated PMNL at 37 degrees C after 48 h at pH 8 showed massive casein degradation that could be ascribed to proteases yielded by PMNL. The increase of PMNL percentage and elastase content in milk, despite the relatively low SCC, suggests that PMNL and elastase underwent a physiological increase associated to the remodeling of mammary gland in late lactation. PMID:19109265

Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; d'Angelo, F; Marino, R; Sevi, A

2009-01-01

151

Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p < 0.05). In addition, propionic acid and milk production increased while acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, methane production, methanogens and protozoal population decreased with RPM and/or PO supplementation. Furthermore, addition of PO and RPO in the diets increased milk fat while supplementation of RPM resulted in greater milk protein and Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers (p < 0.05). The population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus were not affected by any treatments. The findings on the present study showed that supplementation with RPM and RPO to diets of cows improved the rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat. PMID:24814291

Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

2014-05-10

152

Predicting PCB concentrations in cow milk: validation of a fugacity model in high-mountain pasture conditions.  

PubMed

A fugacity model reported in the literature was applied to a high-altitude pasture in the Italian Alps. The model takes into account three compartments (digestive tract, blood and fat tissues) in unsteady-state conditions using food as the contamination source. Disregarding biotransformation inside cow tissues, the predicted concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in milk were in good agreement with the observed data, especially for congeners known for their resistance to biotransformation (e.g., CB-138 and 153). In contrast, the predicted concentrations were clearly overestimated for congeners with high biotransformation susceptibilities. Therefore data measured in milk and faeces were used to calculate the first-order-biotransformation rate constants in dairy cows. The PCB absorption efficiency observed for pasture conditions was lower than that observed in the cowshed. The final version of the model included biotransformation and observed PCB absorption and was able to predict PCB concentrations in cow milk with mean differences between the predicted and measured data below ± 20% for most congeners. PMID:24802270

Tremolada, Paolo; Guazzoni, Niccolò; Parolini, Marco; Rossaro, Bruno; Bignazzi, Marta Maria; Binelli, Andrea

2014-07-15

153

Effect of short term oral zinc supplementation on the concentration of zinc in breast milk of American and Egyptian women  

SciTech Connect

The present study was conducted to observe the effects of short-term maternal oral zinc supplementation on concentration of zinc in milk obtained from American and Egyptian women. Thirty-three American women and 30 Egyptian women were divided into four groups. One group, in each country, was supplemented with 50 mg of zinc as zinc sulfate while the other group did not receive any extra zinc over that obtained from the diet. Milk samples were obtained before supplementation was begun and then again after 10, 15, 20 and 30 days on the supplement and analyzed for zinc by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Concentration of zinc in milk among the four groups was not significantly different at the beginning of the study. Concentration of zinc decreased in all four groups during the study. However, the unsupplemented American women had a significantly (p < .05) greater decrease (-24.45 +/- 9.57% Mean +SE) than those who received the 50 mg zinc supplement (-4.35 +/- 9.57%). Between the unsupplemented and supplemented groups in Egypt, however, there was no significant difference in the change in zinc levels during this 34-day period (-9.47 +/- 5.12% and -8.94 +/- 5.23% respectively.

Karra, M.V.; Kirksey, A.; Bassily, N.

1986-03-01

154

[Concentration in plasma and excretion in milk of lactating cows after oral administration of tribromsalan, oxyclozanide and bromofenofos].  

PubMed

The fasciolicides tribromsalan (TBS), oxyclozanide (OCZ) and bromofenofos (BFF) were orally administered to three lactating cows. The concentrations of TBS, OCZ and the BFF metabolite dephosphate bromofenofos (DBFF) in plasma, and the excretion of these compounds in milk were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. In plasma, the concentrations of TBS, OCZ and DBFF reached maximum at about 1.0 day and the compounds remained detectable until 5.7, 7.4 and 15.1 days after administration, respectively. The detection limits of these compounds in plasma were 10, 2 and 2 ppb, respectively. In milk, the concentrations of TBS, OCZ and DBFF reached maximum at about 24 hours and the compounds remained detectable until 30-47, 30-47 and 78-119 hours after administration, respectively. The detection limits of these compounds in milk were 5.1 and 1 ppb, respectively. The residence times of TBS and BFF were very close to the withdrawal times of the fasciolicides. PMID:17228788

Fujinuma, Kenji; Takeba, Kazue; Kamata, Kunihiro

2006-12-01

155

Relation of Lake Ontario fish consumption, lifetime lactation, and parity to breast milk polychlorobiphenyl and pesticide concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Lactating female members and spouses of male members of the New York State Angler Cohort who agreed to provide breast milk samples were the subjects of this study. Milk samples were analyzed for 77 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (DDE), a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1a,2,2,3,3a,4,5,5,5a,5b,6-dodecachlorooctahydro-1,3,4-methano-1H-cyclobuta[cd]pentalene (Mirex). The percentage of samples with quantifiable levels, above the limit of detection (LOD), varied among the individual congeners from 10 to 100%. Nine PCB congeners and DDE were found in all of the 100 samples analyzed. Fish eaters had a significantly higher level of several major PCB congeners with congeners 153 and 138 being 1.36 and 1.34 times higher, respectively. PCB and DDE concentrations, expressed on a lipid basis, varied inversely with parity. The total number of months of lifetime lactation varied inversely with the total PCB concentration in breast milk.

Kostyniak, P.J.; Stinson, C.; Hreizerstein, H.B.; Vena, J.; Buck, G.; Mendola, P. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)] [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

1999-02-01

156

Antimicrobial Protein and Peptide Concentrations and Activity in Human Breast Milk Consumed by Preterm Infants at Risk of Late-Onset Neonatal Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Objective We investigated the levels and antimicrobial activity of antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs) in breast milk consumed by preterm infants, and whether deficiencies of these factors were associated with late-onset neonatal sepsis (LOS), a bacterial infection that frequently occurs in preterm infants in the neonatal period. Study design Breast milk from mothers of preterm infants (?32 weeks gestation) was collected on days 7 (n = 88) and 21 (n = 77) postpartum. Concentrations of lactoferrin, LL-37, beta-defensins 1 and 2, and alpha-defensin 5 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The antimicrobial activity of breast milk samples against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus agalactiae was compared to the activity of infant formula, alone or supplemented with physiological levels of AMPs. Samples of breast milk fed to infants with and without subsequent LOS were compared for levels of AMPs and inhibition of bacterial growth. Results Levels of most AMPs and antibacterial activity in preterm breast milk were higher at day 7 than at day 21. Lactoferrin was the only AMP that limited pathogen growth >50% when added to formula at a concentration equivalent to that present in breast milk. Levels of AMPs were similar in the breast milk fed to infants with and without LOS, however, infants who developed LOS consumed significantly less breast milk and lower doses of milk AMPs than those who were free from LOS. Conclusions The concentrations of lactoferrin and defensins in preterm breast milk have antimicrobial activity against common neonatal pathogens. PMID:25643281

Trend, Stephanie; Strunk, Tobias; Hibbert, Julie; Kok, Chooi Heen; Zhang, Guicheng; Doherty, Dorota A.; Richmond, Peter; Burgner, David; Simmer, Karen; Davidson, Donald J.; Currie, Andrew J.

2015-01-01

157

Rumen Fermentation and Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Affected by Physical Forms and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different physical forms and urea treatment of rice straw on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and milk production. Four, multiparous Holstein crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation with initial body weight (BW) of 409±20 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were as follows: untreated, long form rice straw (LRS), urea-treated (5%), long form rice straw (5% ULRS), urea-treated (2.5%), long form rice straw (2.5% ULRS) and urea-treated (2.5%), chopped (4 cm) rice straw (2.5% UCRS). Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2 and rice straw was fed ad libitum. The findings revealed significant improvements in total DM intake and digestibility by using long and short forms of urea-treated rice straw (p<0.05). Ruminal pH was not altered among all treatments (p>0.05), whereas ruminal NH3-N, BUN and MUN were found to be increased (p<0.01) by urea-treated rice straw as compared with untreated rice straw. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentrations especially those of acetic acid were decreased (p<0.05) and those of propionic acid were increased (p<0.05), thus acetic acid:propionic acid was subsequently lowered (p<0.05) in cows fed with long or short forms of urea-treated rice straw. The 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS had greater microbial protein synthesis and was greatest when cows were fed with 5% ULRS. The urea-treated rice straw fed groups had increased milk yield (p<0.05), while lower feed cost and greater economic return was in the 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS (p<0.01). From these results, it could be concluded that 2.5% ULRS could replace 5% ULRS used as a roughage source to maintain feed intake, rumen fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, milk production and economical return in mid-lactating dairy cows. PMID:25049912

Gunun, P.; Wanapat, M.; Anantasook, N.

2013-01-01

158

Effectiveness of extruded rapeseed associated with an alfalfa protein concentrate in enhancing the bovine milk fatty acid composition.  

PubMed

Linseed and rapeseed, good sources of 18:3 n-3 and cis9-18:1, respectively, have been shown to improve the bovine milk fatty acid (FA) profile. However, rapeseed, unlike linseed, has little effect on the concentration of 18:3 n-3 in milk fat. Alfalfa protein concentrate (APC), besides being a valuable protein source for milk production, contains lipids rich in 18:3 n-3. Therefore, this experiment aimed at (1) evaluating the transfer efficiency of unsaturated FA (UFA), especially 18:3 n-3, of APC to bovine milk fat, and (2) evaluating whether extruded rapeseed (ER) associated with APC is as effective as extruded linseed (EL) in enhancing the bovine milk fat composition. Six lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design with 2 iso-energy, iso-nitrogen and iso-FA corn silage-based diets (EL and ER-APC) and two 21-d periods. Extruded linseed, as main UFA source, was included in the first diet, whereas ER, as main UFA source, and APC, as supplemental 18:3 n-3, were included in the second diet. Diets were distributed as a restricted total mixed ration. Compared with the EL diet, the ER-APC diet, where ER was associated with APC, increased milk concentration of 18:3 n-3 (1.18 vs. 1.31% of FA) and cis9-18:1 (18.35 vs. 20.01% of FA). The apparent transfer efficiency of 18:3 n-3 from diet to milk was almost twice as much for the ER-APC diet than for the EL diet (7.4 vs. 3.8% of intake). Extruded linseed accounted for 84% of 18:3 n-3 provided in the EL diet, whereas ER and APC accounted for 33 and 38% of 18:3 n-3 provided in the ER-APC diet, respectively. Because both EL and ER underwent extrusion in similar conditions, these results suggest that 18:3 n-3 of EL in the EL diet and ER in the ER-APC diet were subjected to more extensive ruminal biohydrogenation than 18:3 n-3 of APC in the ER-APC diet. This experiment shows that corn silage-based diets supplemented with ER as the main UFA source, associated with APC as supplemental 18:3 n-3, are as effective as corn silage-based diets supplemented with EL as the main UFA source, in increasing bovine milk UFA and 18:3 n-3 contents. Furthermore, at similar levels of dietary incorporation, this experiment shows that the ruminal bypass of 18:3 n-3 is higher for APC compared with EL. PMID:21787936

Dang Van, Q C; Bejarano, L; Mignolet, E; Coulmier, D; Froidmont, E; Larondelle, Y; Focant, M

2011-08-01

159

Salivary cortisol and cortisone levels, and breast milk dioxin concentrations in Vietnamese primiparas  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a great deal of concern regarding the adverse effects of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) present in Agent Orange and other herbicides on Vietnam's population and ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of dioxin exposure on adrenal steroids in saliva, and dioxin levels in breast milk, of primiparas in an Agent

Dang Duc Nhu; Teruhiko Kido; Rie Naganuma; Hiroyuki Suzuki; Naoko Kuroda; Seijiro Honma; Pham The Tai; Shoko Maruzeni; Muneko Nishijo; Hideaki Nakagawa; Nguyen Ngoc Hung; Le Thi Hong Thom; Le Ke Son

2010-01-01

160

A perfusion study of the handling of urea and urea analogues by the gills of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias)  

PubMed Central

The branchial mechanism of urea retention in elasmobranchs was investigated using an in vitro isolated-perfused head preparation, as well as in vivo samples, in the spiny dogfish shark. Both in vivo and in control saline perfusions containing 350 mmol L?1 urea, calculated intracellular urea concentrations in gill epithelial cells were close to extracellular concentrations. Urea efflux to the external water fell only non-significantly, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentration did not change when perfusate urea concentration was reduced from 350 to 175 mmol?L?1 with osmotic compensation by 175 mmol L?1 mannitol. However, when the urea analogues thiourea or acetamide were present in the perfusate at concentrations equimolar (175 mmol L?1) to those of urea (175 mmol L?1), urea efflux rates were increased 4-fold and 6.5-fold respectively, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentrations were depressed by about 55%. Analogue efflux rates were similar to urea efflux rates. Previous studies have argued that either the basolateral or apical membranes provided the limiting permeability barrier, and/or that a back-transporter on the basolateral membranes of gill cells is responsible for urea retention. The present results provide new evidence that the apical membrane is the limiting factor in maintaining gill urea impermeability, and raise the prospect that a urea back-transporter, which can be competitively inhibited by thiourea and acetamide, operates at the apical membrane. PMID:23638369

Liew, Hon Jung; De Boeck, Gudrun; Walsh, Patrick J.

2013-01-01

161

Effects of milk feeding, frequency and concentration on weaning and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calf growth, health and behaviour.  

PubMed

Growth, weight at birth and daily weight gain (DWG) on 12 water buffalo calves, starting from 6 days of age until completion of weaning, was investigated in this study. Different feeding regimens were given to two groups of animals with regard to daily milk replacer: (1) group 1 (G1) received a double concentration in single administration; whereas (2) group 2 (G2) received the same amount of milk replacer split twice daily. Blood samples were collected from each calf on days 6, 30, 60 and 90 to evaluate acute phase proteins (haptoglobin), bactericide activity, lysozime, total protein content and biochemical parameters. No differences were observed between the two groups in terms of dry matter intake, feed efficiency and live body weight at the end of the study. Interestingly, a significantly (P?milk replacer in water buffalo calf during weaning. This new approach facilitates calves management, without interfering with calves growing performances. PMID:23712396

Vecchio, Domenico; Di Palo, Rossella; De Carlo, Esterina; Esposito, Luigi; Presicce, Giorgio Antonio; Martucciello, Alessandra; Chiosi, Emilio; Rossi, Pasquale; Neglia, Gianluca; Campanile, Giuseppe

2013-11-01

162

Elevated concentrate-to-forage ratio in dairy cow rations is associated with a shift in the diameter of milk fat globules and remodeling of their membranes.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of concentrate-to-forage ratio in dairy cow rations on milk-fat composition, with a specific focus on the structure of milk fat globules (MFG). Twenty-four Holstein cows, 153 d in milk, were assigned to 2 dietary treatments in a crossover design study. Treatments were (1) high-concentrate (65%), low-forage (35%; HCLF) diet and (2) low-concentrate (35%), high-forage (65%; LCHF) diet. The mean diameter of the MFG; plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids (FA); and the composition and concentrations of milk FA and polar lipids were determined. Concentrations of insulin were 56% higher, and those of nonesterified FA 46% lower, in the HCLF than in the LCHF diet. The milk yield was 8.5 kg/d higher and yields of fat, protein, and lactose were 180, 350, and 403 g/d higher, respectively, in the HCLF versus LCHF diet. Milk FA composition differed between treatments, with 1.5 and 1.0 percentage units higher saturated and polyunsaturated FA concentrations, respectively, in the HCLF versus LCHF diet. Mean MFG diameter tended to be smaller (0.2 ?m) in the HCLF diet than in the LCHF diet, associated with increased daily phospholipids yield (34%), lower phosphatidylserine and higher phosphatidylcholine concentrations. In conclusion, the decreased milk and fat yields in the LCHF diet were associated with remodeling of the MFG membrane and with the secretion of larger MFG. Membrane remodeling of the mammary epithelium membranes seems to play a role in regulating MFG size. PMID:25087025

Argov-Argaman, Nurit; Mesilati-Stahy, Ronit; Magen, Yogev; Moallem, Uzi

2014-10-01

163

Effect of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on postpartum metabolism and milk production in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin (BTPC) supplementation on plasma metabolites and milk production in postpartum dairy cows. A total of fifty-two Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive either: (1) 10 ml of saline (NaCl 0.9%, control group); (2) 1000 mg of butaphosphan and 0.5 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC1 group); and (3) 2000 mg of butaphosphan and 1.0 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC2 group). All cows received injections every 5 days from calving to 20 days in milk (DIM). Blood samples were collected every 15 days from calving until 75 DIM to determine serum concentration of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, urea, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), aminotransferase aspartate (AST) and ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT). The body condition score (BCS) and milk production were evaluated from calving until 90 DIM. Increasing doses of BTPC caused a linear reduction in plasma concentrations of NEFA and cholesterol. Supplementation of BTPC also reduced concentrations of BHB but it did not differ between the two treatment doses. Milk yield and milk protein had a linear increase with increasing doses of BTPC. A quadratic effect was detected for milk fat and total milk solids according to treatment dose, and BTPC1 had the lowest mean values. Concentrations of glucose, urea, P, Mg, AST, GGT, milk lactose and BCS were not affected by treatment. These results indicate that injections of BTPC during the early postpartum period can reduce NEFA and BHB concentrations and increase milk production in Holstein cows. PMID:23360824

Pereira, R A; Silveira, P A S; Montagner, P; Schneider, A; Schmitt, E; Rabassa, V R; Pfeifer, L F M; Del Pino, F A B; Pulga, M E; Corrêa, M N

2013-07-01

164

The effect of long term under- and over-feeding of sheep on milk and plasma fatty acid profiles and on insulin and leptin concentrations.  

PubMed

Since sheep's milk is mainly used for cheese making and milk chemical composition and fatty acids (FA) profile affect cheese yield and quality, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of different feeding levels on milk chemical composition and FA profile, as well as on plasma FA profile, and on insulin and leptin concentrations. Twenty-four sheep were assigned to three homogeneous sub-groups. Throughout the experimental period each group was fed the same diet but in quantities which met 70% (under-feeding), 100% (control) and 130% (over-feeding) of their respective energy and crude protein requirements. The results showed that the underfed sheep had higher milk fat content compared with overfed. In blood plasma the concentrations of C18:0 and C18:1 in the underfed sheep were significantly higher compared with control and overfed sheep. The concentrations of leptin and insulin were significantly higher in overfed compared with underfed sheep. Underfeeding reduced the concentrations of short chain FA (SCFA) and medium chain FA (MCFA) and increased that of C18:0 and mono unsaturated FA (MUFA) in sheep milk fat compared with controls and overfed. The concentrations of C18:0, long chain FA (LCFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) in milk were significantly higher and those of SCFA, MCFA and saturated FA (SFA) significantly lower in the underfed compared with the overfed sheep. In conclusion, long term under- and over-feeding affected the sheep milk chemical composition and FA profile which consequently has an impact on milk products yield (cheese and yogurt) and quality (human health). PMID:22341044

Tsiplakou, Eleni; Chadio, Stella; Zervas, George

2012-05-01

165

Application of hand-held and portable infrared spectrometers in bovine milk analysis.  

PubMed

A simple and fast method for the detection and quantification of milk adulteration was developed using portable and hand-held infrared (IR) spectrometers. Milk samples were purchased from local supermarkets (Columbus, OH, USA) and spiked with tap water, whey, hydrogen peroxide, synthetic urine, urea, and synthetic milk in different concentrations. Spectral data were collected using mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification models exhibited tight and well-separated clusters allowing the discrimination of control from adulterated milk samples. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to estimate adulteration levels, and results showed high coefficients of determination (R(2)) and low standard errors of prediction (SEP). Classification and quantification models indicated that the tested MIR systems were superior to NIR systems in monitoring milk adulteration. This method can be potentially used as an alternative to traditional methods due to their simplicity, sensitivity, low energy cost, and portability. PMID:23339381

Santos, Poliana M; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

2013-02-13

166

Effect of extruded linseed supplementation on blood metabolic profile and milk performance of Saanen goats.  

PubMed

This study assessed the effects of dietary supplementation with extruded linseed on milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid (FA) profile and renal and hepatic metabolism of grazing goats in mid-lactation. Forty Saanen goats were divided into two isoproductive groups: one group was fed the control diet (CON) composed of hay and pelleted concentrate and the other group was supplemented with additional 180 g/day of extruded linseed (LIN; dry matter basis), which supplied 70 g/day of fat per head for 9 weeks. Animals grazed on pasture for ?3 h/day after the first of the 2 daily milkings. Milk samples were collected weekly and analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and somatic cell count. Blood samples were collected every 2 weeks and analyzed for total bilirubin, creatinine, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein and urea nitrogen. Milk yield was higher in the LIN than in the CON group (2369 v. 2052 g/day). LIN group had higher milk fat (37.7 v. 33.4 g/kg) and protein (30.7 v. 29.1 g/kg) concentration and lower MUN (35.0 v. 43.3 mg/dl) than CON group. Goats fed LIN had greater proportions of 18:1 trans11, 18:2 cis9trans11 and total polyunsatured fatty acids n-3 in milk fat, because of higher 18:3n-3 and 20:5n-3 FA, and lower proportions of short- and medium-chain FAs than goats fed CON. All kidney and liver function biomarkers in serum did not differ between dietary groups, except for AST and ALT, which tended to differ. Extruded linseed supplementation to grazing mid-lactating goats for 2 months can enhance the milk performance and nutritional profile of milk lipids, without altering the general hepatic and renal metabolism. PMID:23676703

Nudda, A; Battacone, G; Atzori, A S; Dimauro, C; Rassu, S P G; Nicolussi, P; Bonelli, P; Pulina, G

2013-09-01

167

Production from dairy cows of semi-industrial quantities of milk-protein concentrate (MPC) containing efficacious anti-Candida albicans IgA antibodies.  

PubMed

Bovine milk antibodies directed against human pathogenic organisms have potential as prophylactic or therapeutic treatments of disorders affecting mucosal surfaces. The cow, however, does not naturally secrete high levels of IgA in milk, the predominant immunoglobulin of the mucosal immune system. We have patented an immunisation protocol that results in increased production of IgA in ruminant milk and in this study established that our protocol can be used on a scale sufficient to produce semi-industrial quantities of milk for processing. Cows were immunised with a common pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans and responded with high levels of antigen-specific IgA antibodies in their milk. The spray-dried milk-protein concentrate (85% protein) powder was shown to reduce adherence of Cand. albicans cells in in vitro adherence assays, demonstrating an ability to retain efficacy through the processing. These results suggest that this milk product may be of therapeutic value if the reduction in Cand. albicans adhesion observed in vitro translates to reduced colonisation in vivo. PMID:17466122

Hodgkinson, Alison J; Cannon, Richard D; Holmes, Ann R; Fischer, Frank J; Willix-Payne, Dawn J

2007-08-01

168

Influence of temperature and fat content on ideal sucrose concentration, sweetening power, and sweetness equivalence of different sweeteners in chocolate milk beverage.  

PubMed

The introduction of new products catering to specific dietary needs and the corresponding changes in the consumer profile reflect a growing demand for diet and “light” products. However, little information is available regarding the sensory effects of different sweeteners in products consumed at different temperatures and with varying fat contents. In this regard, this study aimed to determine the influence of temperature and fat content on the ideal sucrose concentration and the sweetness equivalence and sweetening power of different sweeteners: Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL), aspartame, neosucralose, sucralose, and stevia (95% rebaudioside A), with sucrose as reference, in a chocolate milk beverage using a just-about-right (JAR) scale and magnitude estimation. Increasing temperature of consumption had an inverse effect on the ideal sucrose concentration in whole milk beverages, whereas no difference was noted in beverages made skim milk. In addition, a decrease in sweetening power was observed for all of the sweeteners analyzed considering the same conditions. The findings suggest that different optimal conditions exist for consumption of chocolate milk beverage related to sweetness perception, which depends on the fat level of milk used in the formulation. This information can be used by researchers and dairy processors when developing chocolate milk beverage formulations. PMID:25606602

Paixão, J A; Rodrigues, J B; Esmerino, E A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

2014-12-01

169

High-quality forage can replace concentrate when cows enter the deposition phase without negative consequences for milk production.  

PubMed

Mobilization and deposition in cows are different strategies of metabolism; hence, the aim was to study the possibility of reducing the crude protein (CP) supply during deposition to limit the use of protein supplements and minimize the environmental impact. A total of 61 Jersey and 107 Holstein cows were assigned to 4 mixed rations in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 concentrate to forage ratios (CFR) and 2 CP levels: high CFR (40:60) and recommended CP [16% of dry matter (DM); HCFR-RP], high CFR (40:60) and low CP (14% of DM; HCFR-LP), low CFR (30:70) and recommended CP (16% of DM; LCFR-RP), and low CFR (30:70) and low CP (14% of DM; LCFR-LP), where RP met the Danish recommendations. Cows were fed concentrate in an automatic milking unit. After calving, cows were fed HCFR-RP until entering deposition, defined as 11 kg (Jersey) or 15 kg (Holstein) of weight gain from the lowest weight after calving. Subsequently, cows either remained on HCFR-RP or changed to one of the other mixed rations. Comparing strategies during wk 9 to 30 of lactation showed higher dry matter intake (DMI) of mixed ration on HCFR compared with LCFR and on RP compared with LP. The DMI of the concentrate was higher on LCFR than on HCFR and higher on LP than on RP, resulting in overall higher DMI on HCFR and RP than on LCFR and LP. Crude protein intakes were higher on RP than on LP and starch intakes were higher on HCFR than on LCFR. Intakes of neutral detergent fiber tended to be higher on LCFR than on HCFR. Intakes of net energy for lactation were affected by CFR and CP level, with a higher intake on HCFR and RP than on LCFR and LP. No interactions were found between CFR and CP level for any feed intake variables. Yields of milk and energy-corrected milk were higher on RP than on LP, with no difference in yield persistency after the ration change. Milk composition did not differ among strategies but the protein to fat ratio was higher on HCFR than on LCFR and tended to be lower on RP than on LP. Differences in fatty acid composition were small, and de novo synthesis was high (>60%). Energy efficiency was higher on LCFR than on HCFR and no interaction with breed or parity was found. The N efficiency was higher on LP than RP, but with an interaction with breed due to lower N efficiency in Jersey than Holstein cows on HCFR-RP but higher N efficiency in Jersey than Holstein on LCFR-LP. In dairy production, concentrate in the mixed ration can be substituted with high-quality forage during deposition without negative effects on milk yield and composition when a sufficient CP level is ensured. PMID:24767891

Hymøller, L; Alstrup, L; Larsen, M K; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

2014-07-01

170

Extraction of urea and ammonium ion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water purification system keeps urea and ammonium ion concentration below toxic limits in recirculated water of closed loop aquatic habitat. Urea is first converted to ammonium ions and carbon dioxide by enzygmatic action. Ammonium ions are removed by ion exchange. Bioburden is controlled by filtration through 0.45 micron millipore filters.

Anselmi, R. T.; Husted, R. R.; Schulz, J. R.

1977-01-01

171

Prospective evaluation of a model for the prediction of milk:plasma drug concentrations from physicochemical characteristics.  

PubMed Central

1. Milk:plasma (M/P) drug concentration ratios predicted by a model utilizing pKa, plasma protein binding and octanol:water partition coefficients have been compared with actual M/P values for 10 basic drugs. 2. There was a close relationship between predicted and observed M/P ratios with a coefficient of determination r2 of 0.97. However, there was a proportional error. 3. The data were transformed by taking logs of predicted and observed (M/P + 1) values. Regression analysis resulted in an r2 of 0.95, an intercept on the Y-axis not significantly different from zero and a slope not significantly different from one. 4. The 95% confidence interval around a single prediction revealed an error between 150% for the lowest and 23% for the highest M/P ratios. The error is therefore lowest for the drugs likely to have the greatest transfer into milk. 5. There was no significant bias in the predictions. 6. The model was refined by multiple linear regression analysis utilising the observed M/P ratios for the 10 basic drugs in addition to those of the original drugs. The revised equation resulted in an improvement in the explained variance. 7. Protein binding was the most important single predictor. 8. The results confirm that M/P ratios for basic drugs can be predicted accurately from their physicochemical characteristics. PMID:1524962

Begg, E J; Atkinson, H C; Duffull, S B

1992-01-01

172

Optimal Concentrations of Lysine, Methionine, and Threonine in Milk Replacers for Calves Less than Five Weeks of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AArequirements of herd-replacementcalves less than 5 wk old and fed milk replacers are not clearly defined and have been estimated in a limited number of studies using milk-fed calves ranging from 5 to 20 wkofage.Theobjectiveofthese4studieswastoinvesti- gate the effect of supplementing milk replacers con- taining 24 to 28% crude protein (CP; from milk sources) and 17% fat with Lys, Met,

T. M. Hill; H. G. Bateman II; J. M. Aldrich; R. L. Schlotterbeck; K. G. Tanan

2008-01-01

173

The effect of concentrate feeding amount and feeding strategy on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows offered a high or low amount of concentrate using 1 of 2 feeding strategies. One hundred and eight autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows were blocked based on milk production data from wk 3 and 4 of lactation, and were divided into low-, medium-, and high-milk yield subgroups. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=27) in a 2×2 factorial design. Treatment factors were concentrate feeding amount, high concentrate=7.0 (Hi) or low concentrate=4.0kg of DM/cow per day (Lo), and concentrate feeding strategy, flat rate (FR) or group-fed to yield (GFY). In the GFY treatments, cows were allocated concentrate based on their milk yield in the third and fourth weeks of lactation. The lowest-yielding cows (n=9) received 5.3 and 2.3kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, the highest-yielding cows (n=9) received 8.7 and 5.7kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, and the average yield cows received the same amount of concentrate as the corresponding FR group (i.e., 7.0 and 4.0kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments, respectively). The proportion of forage in the diet was 63% of total dry matter intake (TDMI) for the Hi treatment and 75% of TDMI for the Lo treatment. No significant interaction was noted between concentrate feeding amount and concentrate feeding strategy for dry matter intake or milk yield. Cows on the Hi treatment had a higher TDMI (18.7±0.36kg/cow per day) compared with cows on the Lo treatment (15.8±0.36kg/cow per day). The milk yield of cows offered the Hi treatment was 1.3kg/cow per day higher than the milk yield of cows on the Lo treatment (23.8±0.31kg/cow per day). Milk solids yield was 0.10kg/cow per day higher on the Hi treatment than on the Lo treatment (1.83±0.03kg of DM/cow per day). Cows on the Hi treatment had an estimated net energy demand of 18.0±0.38 UFL (unité fourragère lait)/cow per day and a net energy intake of 17.6±0.33 UFL/cow per day during the experimental period. Cows on the Lo treatment had an energy demand of 16.8±0.38 UFL/cow per day and an energy intake of 14.9±0.33 UFL/cow per day. No significant difference in TDMI, milk yield, milk solids yield, or energy balance was observed between the FR and GFY treatments. By increasing the total amount of concentrate offered, cows had higher TDMI and energy intake, which resulted in increased milk production and reduced negative energy balance and body condition score loss. PMID:25465538

Lawrence, D C; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E

2015-01-01

174

Stability of fatty acid composition after thermal, high pressure, and microwave processing of cow milk as affected by polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration.  

PubMed

Interest has been increasing to enhance the contents of healthy polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in milk. However, trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can be altered after thermal processing and high pressures disrupt the milk fat globule membrane, exposing the lipid core and helping its oxidation. The objective of the present research was to study whether processing can alter the fatty acid composition of milk and if these changes are affected by PUFA concentration as previous studies suggest. Two cow milk batches (500 L each), one naturally enriched in PUFA, were processed to obtain pasteurized; high temperature, short time; UHT; high pressure; and microwave pasteurized samples. The detailed fatty acid composition was analyzed with special attention to trans fatty acids and CLA isomers. Results showed that after high temperature, short time processing, total CLA content increased in both milk batches, whereas sterilization resulted in a sigmatropic rearrangement of C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 to C18:2 trans-9,trans-11. The extent of these effects was greater in milks naturally enriched in PUFA. PMID:25459902

Rodríguez-Alcalá, L M; Alonso, L; Fontecha, J

2014-10-18

175

Effect of feeding linseed oil in diets differing in forage to concentrate ratio: 1. Production performance and milk fat content of biohydrogenation intermediates of ?-linolenic acid.  

PubMed

To evaluate the interaction between the levels of dietary concentrate and linseed oil (LO) on milk fatty acid (FA) profile, 24 Holstein cows were used in a randomised complete block design based on days in milk, with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Within each block, cows were fed one of four experimental diets containing 30% concentrate (LC) or 70% concentrate (HC), without LO (NLO) or with LO supplemented at 3% of dietary dry matter. Milk FA profiles were analysed with a special emphasis on the intermediates of the predominant trans-11, and a putative trans-13 pathways of ruminal biohydrogenation of cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3. Feeding LO increased the concentrations of cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3 and trans-11, cis-15 18:2 in milk fat, and these increases were of a higher magnitude when LO was added in HC as compared with LC diet (interaction of LO by concentrate). A treatment interaction was also observed for the level of trans-11 18:1 which was higher when feeding LO, but for which the increase was more pronounced with the LC as compared with HC diet. The concentrations of cis-15 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11, cis-15 18:3 were higher in cows fed LO, but feeding HC diets decreased milk fat content of cis-15 18:1 and a tendency for a decrease in cis-9, trans-11, cis-15 18:3 was apparent. Feeding LO increased milk fat content of trans-13 18:1 and cis-9, trans-13 18:2, while the concentrations of these two isomers were not affected by the level of dietary concentrates. The isomer cis-9, trans-13, cis-15 18:3 has not been detected in any of the milk samples. In conclusion, interactions were observed between LO and dietary concentrates on the proportions of some intermediates of the trans-11 biohydrogenation pathway. The presence of trans-13 18:1 and cis-9, trans-13 18:2 supports the existence of a trans-13 pathway, but an 18:3 intermediate with a trans-13 double bond has not been identified. PMID:24433586

Saliba, Leacady; Gervais, Rachel; Lebeuf, Yolaine; Chouinard, P Yvan

2014-02-01

176

Effect of prepartum photoperiod and melatonin feeding on milk production and prolactin concentration in dairy heifers and cows.  

PubMed

Holstein multiparous cows (n = 29) and primiparous heifers (n = 32) calving over a 1-yr period were subjected to photoperiod-melatonin treatments according to a 2 × 3 factorial design. Starting 8 wk before expected calving, all animals were subjected to 1 of the following treatments: 8h of light and 16 h of dark (8L:16D), 16 h of light and 8h of dark (16L:8D), or 16L:8D plus melatonin feeding (16L:8D-melatonin). Each day at 1355 h, the animals in the melatonin treatment received orally a gelatin capsule containing 25mg of melatonin. The treatments ended at calving, when the animals were moved to the lactation barn; all animals were then subjected to about 16 h of light per day. At the beginning and end of the treatment period before calving, blood samples were taken from 6 heifers and 6 cows through a jugular cannula for 24h at 30-min intervals to monitor serum melatonin and prolactin concentrations. Milk production in the heifers was not affected by the photoperiod treatments. Early-lactation milk production was higher in the cows exposed to the short-day photoperiod than in those exposed to a long-day photoperiod (16L:8D and 16L:8D-melatonin), with averages of 36.7 ± 0.9, 33.1 ± 0.8, and 34.1 ± 0.9 kg/d for 8L:16D, 16L:8D, and 16L:8D-melatonin, respectively. Photoperiod had no effect on late-lactation milk production in the cows. During lactation, the dry matter intake of heifers was not affected by the treatments, but dry matter intake of the cows exposed to a short-day photoperiod was greater than that of the cows exposed to a long-day photoperiod. Feed efficiency of heifers was improved by short-day photoperiod. During the treatment period, prolactin concentration was lower in the animals exposed to a short-day photoperiod than in those exposed to a long-day photoperiod, was lower with the 16L:8D-melatonin treatment than with the 16L:8D treatment, and tended to be lower with the 8L:16D treatment than with the 16L:8D-melatonin treatment, with averages of 3.5 ± 0.8, 9.9 ± 0.8, and 6.0 ± 0.8 ng/mL for 8L:16D, 16L:8D, and 16L:8D-melatonin, respectively. In early lactation, prolactin concentration was lower in the heifers exposed to the 16L:8D photoperiod during the dry period than in those exposed to the 8L:16D photoperiod or fed melatonin. In conclusion, a short-day photoperiod during the dry period transiently increases milk production of cows and the feed efficiency of heifers in the following lactation. However, melatonin cannot be used to mimic a short-day photoperiod during the dry period. PMID:24704221

Lacasse, P; Vinet, C M; Petitclerc, D

2014-06-01

177

Concentrations of DDT, PVBs, HCB, and HCH isomers in the liver and adipose tissue of newborn mice receiving an extract of human milk  

SciTech Connect

Persistent organic chlorine compounds, such as DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) circulate in the food chain of the ecosystem. Most data on the toxicity and accumulation of organic chlorine compounds have been obtained from animal experiments after chronic or acute poisoning with marketed preparations or standards of the used components of these preparations. In food products of animal origin and in human milk these compounds and their metabolites are present after multiple metabolic steps in varying proportions and concentrations. Their variable amounts are passed to newborns with mother's milk. The purpose of the present study was to investigate in an experimental model of newborn mice the degree of accumulation of these compounds in the liver and adipose tissue after long-standing feeding them with an extract of human milk with added organic chlorine compounds in doses received by human newborns with milk. In the assessment of the relationship between the degree of accumulation of various compounds in the tissues of newborn mice and the daily dose concentrations were used similar to those found in human milk.

Sitarska, E.; Gorski, T.; Ludwick, J.K.

1987-11-01

178

Urea in rainwater and atmospheric aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of urea (CO(NH 2) 2) in rainwater samples from predominantly marine-influenced locations in Bermuda, and Ireland, and in rains and aqueous aerosol extracts from a rural site at UEA, Norwich indicates that urea is not generally a major contributor to atmospheric water-soluble organic nitrogen. At UEA, where anthropogenic and natural sources of urea are expected to be most intense, urea accounts for <10% of rainwater dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and <1% of the water-soluble fraction of aerosol organic nitrogen. The analysis of size-segregated aerosol samples indicates that the size distribution of urea is quite different from those of ammonium and nitrate. In the less anthropogenically impacted Atlantic sites, rainwater urea was below the detection limits of the colorimetric method used in this study, consistent with expected dilution processes or reaction of urea during transport. However, in a small set of rain samples collected in Tahiti, urea concentrations ranged from 1 to 8 ?mol l -1, accounting for >40% of the DON measured in those samples. This may be a consequence of strong local sources, or it could possibly result from the partial breakdown of other DON compounds to urea during sample transport and storage. However, the similarity in urea concentrations observed in Pacific samples in this present study and in a previous one ( Timperley et al., 1985, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science42, 1171-1177) suggests that this may reflect a difference in rain chemistry between Atlantic and Pacific rains, perhaps resulting from differences in levels of agricultural urea usage between Asia and the rest of the world.

Cornell, S. E.; Jickells, T. D.; Thornton, C. A.

179

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: UREA MANUFACTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the potential environmental effects of air emissions from the production of urea. Urea production in the U.S. was 3.45 million metric tons in 1975. Major products were urea solution (38%), granulated solid material (53%), and prilled s...

180

BORON CONCENTRATIONS IN MILK FROM MOTHERS OF EXCLUSIVELY BREAST-FED HEALTHY FULL-TERM INFANTS ARE STABLE DURING THE FIRST FOUR MONTHS OF LACTATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because boron is a bioactive element that satisfies several of the criteria for essentiality in humans, the aim of the present work was to determine the profile of boron metabolism in human milk during the first 4 mo of lactation. The concentration of boron and other minerals was determined in arch...

181

Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations of Guatemalan women are correlated with maternal but not infant vitamin B–12 status at 12 months postpartum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In our previous studies one third of lactating Guatemalan women, infants and children had deficient or marginal serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Relationships among maternal and infant status and breast milk vitamin B-12, however, have not been investigated in such populations. Our purpose was to ...

182

THE EFFECT OF HIGH-DOSE VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENTATION ON SERUM VITAMIN D LEVELS AND MILK CALCIUM CONCENTRATION IN LACTATING WOMEN AND THEIR INFANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: Improve vitamin D status in lactating women and their recipient infants, and measure breast milk calcium concentration ([Ca]) as a function of vitamin D regimen. Design/Methods: Fully breastfeeding mothers were randomized at one month postpartum to 2,000 (n = 12) or 4,000 (n = 13) IU/d...

183

Supplementation of 1% l-Glutamine to Milk Replacer Does Not Overcome the Growth Depression in Calves Caused by Soy Protein Concentrate1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutamine, an important fuel and biosynthetic pre- cursor in intestinal epithelial cells, helps maintain in- testinal integrity and function when supplemented to the diet of many species. The hypothesis tested here was that glutamine supplementation would overcome the decreased average daily gain (ADG) and altered intestinal morphology caused by milk replacer con- taining soy protein concentrate (SPC). Holstein calves (9

J. K. Drackley; R. M. Blome; K. S. Bartlett; K. L. Bailey

2006-01-01

184

Urea transport through composite polyallylamine membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polyallylamine composite reverse osmosis membranes were prepared by plasma polymerization and deposition onto small-pored cellulose acetate/cellulose nitrate films. The polyallylamine coated the porous substrate with a thin uniform polymer film which exhibited water permeability and urea rejection, of interest because of the potential application of reverse osmosis to urine purification in closed environmental systems. The flux of C-14 labeled urea was studied under the influence of osmotic gradients provided by sodium chloride solutions. The urea flux was found to be enhanced by an osmotic pressure gradient in the same direction and diminished, but not prevented, by an opposing osmotic pressure gradient. Consideration is given to the mechanism of the urea transport, as well as to the influence of concentration polarization on the experimental results. The minimization of coupled flow in pores of a critical size range is apparently necessary to improve urea rejection.

Ballou, E. V.; Kubo, L. Y.; Spitze, L. A.; Wydeven, T.; Clark, J. A.

1977-01-01

185

Application of Urea Based Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction of Nitric Oxide in the Combustion Effluent Containing Low Concentration of NOx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) of Nitric Oxide has been studied experimentally using commercial grade of urea in a pilot-scale diesel fired tunnel furnace. The furnace simulated small-scale combustion systems such as low capacity boiler, hot water heater, oil heater etc., where the operating temperature is in the range of about 900 to 1300 K. The experiment was conducted with low

Khandoker Abul Hossain; Mohammad Nazri Mohd. Jaafar

186

Milk composition, milk fatty acid profile, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows fed whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil.  

PubMed

Four ruminally lactating Holstein cows averaging 602+/-25 kg of body weight and 64+/-6 d in milk at the beginning of the experiment were randomly assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of feeding whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil on dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk production and composition, and milk fatty acid profile. The treatments were a control with no flaxseed products (CON) or a diet (on a dry matter basis) of 4.2% whole flaxseed (FLA), 1.9% calcium salts of flaxseed oil (SAL), or 2.3% whole flaxseed and 0.8% calcium salts of flaxseed oil (MIX). The 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were fed for ad libitum intake. Experimental periods consisted of 21 d of diet adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling. Dry matter intake, digestibility, milk production, and milk concentrations of protein, lactose, urea N, and total solids did not differ among treatments. Ruminal pH was reduced for cows fed the CON diet compared with those fed the SAL diet. Propionate proportion was higher in ruminal fluid of cows fed CON than in that of those fed SAL, and cows fed the SAL and CON diets had ruminal propionate concentrations similar to those of cows fed the FLA and MIX diets. Butyrate concentration was numerically higher for cows fed the SAL diet compared with those fed the FLA diet. Milk fat concentration was lower for cows fed SAL than for those fed CON, and there was no difference between cows fed CON and those fed FLA and MIX. Milk yields of protein, fat, lactose, and total solids were similar among treatments. Concentrations of cis-9 18:1 and of intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids such as trans-9 18:1 were higher in milk fat of cows fed SAL and MIX than for those fed the CON diet. Concentration of rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11 18:2) in milk fat was increased by 63% when feeding SAL compared with FLA. Concentration of alpha-linolenic acid was higher in milk fat of cows fed SAL and MIX than in milk of cows fed CON (75 and 61%, respectively), whereas there was no difference between FLA and CON. Flaxseed products (FLA, SAL, and MIX diets) decreased the n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in milk fat. Results confirm that flax products supplying 0.7 to 1.4% supplemental fat in the diet can slightly improve the nutritive value of milk fat for better human health. PMID:20630232

Côrtes, C; da Silva-Kazama, D C; Kazama, R; Gagnon, N; Benchaar, C; Santos, G T D; Zeoula, L M; Petit, H V

2010-07-01

187

Urea retranslocation from senescing Arabidopsis leaves is promoted by DUR3-mediated urea retrieval from leaf apoplast.  

PubMed

In plants, urea derives either from root uptake or protein degradation. Although large quantities of urea are released during senescence, urea is mainly seen as a short-lived nitrogen (N) catabolite serving urease-mediated hydrolysis to ammonium. Here, we investigated the roles of DUR3 and of urea in N remobilization. During natural leaf senescence urea concentrations and DUR3 transcript levels showed a parallel increase with senescence markers like ORE1 in a plant age- and leaf age-dependent manner. Deletion of DUR3 decreased urea accumulation in leaves, whereas the fraction of urea lost to the leaf apoplast was enhanced. Under natural and N deficiency-induced senescence DUR3 promoter activity was highest in the vasculature, but was also found in surrounding bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. An analysis of petiole exudates from wild-type leaves revealed that N from urea accounted for >13% of amino acid N. Urea export from senescent leaves further increased in ureG-2 deletion mutants lacking urease activity. In the dur3 ureG double insertion line the absence of DUR3 reduced urea export from leaf petioles. These results indicate that urea can serve as an early metabolic marker for leaf senescence, and that DUR3-mediated urea retrieval contributes to the retranslocation of N from urea during leaf senescence. PMID:25440717

Bohner, Anne; Kojima, Soichi; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Melzer, Michael; von Wirén, Nicolaus

2015-02-01

188

A comparison of lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in formula and human milk samples from Northern Ireland mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Two carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin are found in the retinal pigment epithelium of the eye where they are believed to protect it against oxidative and light damage. The amounts of these carotenoids consumed by premature infants are not known.Objectives: The objective of the investigation was to measure these carotenoids in human and formulae milks.Design: In all, 28 human milk

V C Jewell; C B D Mayes; T R J Tubman; C A Northrop-Clewes; D I Thurnham

2004-01-01

189

was partially replaced by dry peas or urea, the latter not exceeding 1.5 % of the concentrate in any case;  

E-print Network

always the rule. Amino acid requirements of preruminant lambs P. PATUREAU-MIRAND M. THERIEZ Recherches de Clermont-Ferrand, I.N.H.A.,., Theix 63110 Beaumont (France). The amino acid requirements of preruminant lambs were tentatively determined by different methods: - ewe milk amino acids are assumed

Boyer, Edmond

190

Determination of free Bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in breast milk of U.S. women using a sensitive LC/MS/MS method.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic, endocrine-disrupting compound. Free BPA has been detected in human samples indicating that humans are internally exposed to estrogenically active BPA. The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive method to detect free BPA in human breast milk. BPA was isolated from the milk of 21 nursing mothers in the U.S. by solid-phase extraction. It was then derivatized to improve sensitivity and subsequently analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Free BPA was detected in 62% of the milk samples (? 0.22-10.8 ng mL(-1), median 0.68 ng mL(-1), mean 3.13 ng mL(-1)). No statistical difference in BPA concentrations was observed between women with a low or high Body Mass Index (BMI) (<30 (n=11) and>30 (n=10), respectively). However, there was a significant association between BPA concentration and race. Caucasian women had significantly higher levels of free BPA in their breast milk than non-Caucasian women (mean=4.44 (n=14) and 0.52 (n=7), respectively; p<0.05). The difference between races could be attributed to variations in exposure, lifestyle or metabolism and suggests that certain populations should take extra precautions to limit BPA exposure, particularly during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:24507723

Zimmers, Stephanie M; Browne, Eva P; O'Keefe, Patrick W; Anderton, Douglas L; Kramer, Lawrence; Reckhow, David A; Arcaro, Kathleen F

2014-06-01

191

Milk yield, gross composition and fatty acid profile of dual-purpose Aosta Red Pied cows fed separate concentrate-forage versus total mixed ration.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of two feeding methods on milk yield, composition and fatty acid (FA) profile obtained from dual-purpose cattle. Twenty-four Aosta Red Pied cows beyond peak of lactation were assigned to two groups and fed hay and concentrates in the proportions 0.69 and 0.31 on a dry matter basis for 10 weeks. Concentrates were offered separately from forages 6 times a day (separate ration, SR) or as a total mixed ration (TMR). The feeding method did not significantly influence dry matter intake (16.8 vs. 16.9 kg/head/day for SR- and TMR-fed cows, respectively), milk yield (17.4 vs. 17.5 kg/head/day), milk fat, protein and lactose contents (36.4 vs. 35.2, 33.5 vs. 32.8, and 47.3 vs. 47.4 g/kg) and yields (607.9 vs. 613.4, 567.4 vs. 572.7 and 805.5 vs. 829.7 g/head/day). The overall milk FA profile was very similar between groups. Milk concentrations of FA used as indirect markers of rumen function (C18:2 t10c12, odd- and branched-chain FA) and the extent of ruminal biohydrogenation were comparable (P > 0.05) between SR- and TMR-fed cows, suggesting that ruminal pH did not vary considerably as a consequence of the feeding strategy applied. PMID:23841857

Renna, Manuela; Cornale, Paolo; Lussiana, Carola; Battaglini, Luca Maria; Turille, Germano; Mimosi, Antonio

2014-01-01

192

Effects of urea formaldehyde condensation polymer treatment of flaxseed on ruminal digestion and lactation in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Flaxseed is a potent source of the n-3 fatty acid ?-linolenic acid (ALA), yet most ALA is lost during ruminal biohydrogenation when ground flaxseed is fed to ruminants. Heat processing and urea formaldehyde condensation polymer (UFCP) treatment of flaxseed were investigated as possible means of protecting ALA from ruminal degradation. Ground flaxseed (GF), heated ground flaxseed (HGF), or UFCP-treated ground flaxseed (UFCPGF) were incubated for 0, 4, 8, and 12h in 4 ruminally cannulated multiparous lactating Holstein cows. Compared with GF, HGF and UFCPGF decreased ruminal disappearance of dry matter, crude protein, and ALA. Pepsin-digestible protein remaining after 12h of ruminal incubation was greater for UFCPGF and HGF than for GF. Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows (207 ± 37 d in milk, 668 ± 66 kg of body weight, and 1.33 ± 0.56 lactations) were then used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a basal feeding period to assess effects of flaxseed treatment on ALA enrichment of plasma and milk as well as lactational performance. No evidence existed that supplementation of HGF and UFCPGF affected dry matter intake, milk fat content, milk protein content, or energy-corrected milk yield, but UFCPGF marginally decreased milk yield compared with HGF. Plasma concentration of ALA was not affected by treatment. Concentrations of n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in milk fat were increased by UFCPGF relative to HGF, but ALA yield was not affected. Taken together, in situ results suggest that heat-treated flaxseed, with or without UFCP treatment, slowed ruminal disappearance of ALA. Feeding UFCP-treated flaxseed failed to alter ALA content of plasma or milk ALA yield relative to heating alone. PMID:23548281

Hawkins, A; Yuan, K; Armendariz, C K; Highland, G; Bello, N M; Winowiski, T; Drouillard, J S; Titgemeyer, E C; Bradford, B J

2013-06-01

193

Protein conformational modifications and kinetics of water-protein interactions in milk protein concentrate powder upon aging: effect on solubility.  

PubMed

Protein conformational modifications and water-protein interactions are two major factors believed to induce instability of protein and eventually affect the solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powder. To test these hypotheses, MPC was stored at different water activities (a(w) 0.0-0.85) and temperatures (25 and 45 degrees C) for up to 12 weeks. Samples were examined periodically to determine solubility, change in protein conformation by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA), and water status (interaction of water with the protein molecule/surface) by measuring the transverse relaxation time (T(2)) with proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). The solubility of MPC decreased significantly with aging, and this process was enhanced by increasing water activity (a(w)) and storage temperature. Minor changes in protein secondary structure were observed with FTIR, which indicated some degree of unfolding of protein molecules. PCA of the FTIR data was able to discriminate samples according to moisture content and storage period. Partial least-squares (PLS) analysis showed some correlation between FTIR spectral feature and solubility. The NMR T(2) results indicated the presence of three distinct populations of water molecules, and the proton signal intensity and T(2) values of proton fractions varied with storage conditions (humidity, temperature) and aging. Results suggest that protein/protein interactions may be initiated by unfolding of protein molecules that eventually affects solubility. PMID:20536137

Haque, Enamul; Bhandari, Bhesh R; Gidley, Michael J; Deeth, Hilton C; Møller, Sandie M; Whittaker, Andrew K

2010-07-14

194

Urea for hyponatremia?  

PubMed

Once the standard of care for cerebral edema, urea can also be used to treat hyponatremia. The 2014 European Clinical Practice Guidelines recommend urea for the treatment of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, while discouraging use of vasopressin antagonists. Although there is evidence that urea can diminish hypertonic injury to brain cells caused by rapid correction of hyponatremia, clinical trials are needed that include patients at high risk to develop complications from overcorrection. PMID:25635717

Sterns, Richard H; Silver, Stephen M; Hix, John K

2015-02-01

195

Performance of tropical dairy cows fed whole crop rice silage with varying levels of concentrate.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of concentrate/milk yield ratios on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation efficiency, and milk production in dairy cows fed with a basal diet of whole crop rice silage (WCRS). Sixteen crossbred cows (75 % Holstein-Friesian (HF) and 25 % Thai cows) in mid-lactation were assigned to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments corresponding to four concentrate/milk yield ratios (0, 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 (kg/kg)) were used. All cows were offered WCRS (with 1.5 % urea and 3 % molasses) ad libitum. Silage and concentrate were fed individually twice a day. Results revealed that dry matter intake (12.8-14.5 kg/day), nutrient digestibility (62.5-68.7 %), and rumen fermentation efficiency were not significantly affected by concentrate supplementation. Milk yield (10.2-11.5 kg/day) and milk composition were similar between cows fed with sole WCRS and those supplemented with concentrate mixture, although milk fat tended to increase in cows fed with sole WCRS. In conclusion, sole WCRS fed to dairy cows without concentrate supplementation resulted in similar feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, and milk production as compared to those supplemented with concentrate in lactating dairy cows. These results suggest that in tropical areas where rice crop is surplus, WCRS could sustain reasonable levels of milk production among dairy cows with little or no concentrate supplementation provided that urea and molasses are included in the silage. PMID:24048824

Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang; Khejornsart, Pichad; Pilajun, Ruangyote; Wanapat, Sadudee

2014-01-01

196

Yield and sensory properties of cheese made with milk from Holstein or Montbeliarde cows milked twice or once daily.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the milk properties and the yield and sensory properties of Cantal cheese made with milk from Holstein or Montbéliarde cows milked once or twice daily. Sixty-four grazing cows [32 Holstein (H) and 32 Montbéliarde (M) cows] in the declining phase of lactation (157 d in milk) were allocated to 1 of 2 equivalent groups milked once daily (ODM) or twice daily (TDM) for 7 wk. The full-fat raw milk collected during 24 h from the 4 groups of cows (M-TDM, M-ODM, H-TDM, and H-ODM) was pooled and processed into Cantal cheese 4 times during the last 4 wk of the experimental period. In all, 16 cheeses were made (2 milking frequencies x 2 breeds x 4 replicates) and analyzed after a ripening period of 15 and 28 wk. The results showed that for both breeds, the pooled milk content of fat, whey protein, casein, total protein, and phosphorus as well as rennet clotting time and curd firming time were significantly higher with ODM cows, whereas the casein-to-total protein ratio was lower, and lactose, urea, calcium, and free fatty acids contents of milk remained unchanged. The acidification and draining kinetics of the cheese as well as cheese yields and the chemical and rheological properties of the ripened cheese were not significantly modified by milking frequency. For both breeds, the cheeses derived from ODM cows had a slightly yellower coloration but the other sensory attributes, except for pepper odor, were not significantly affected by milking frequency, thereby demonstrating that ODM does not have an adverse effect on the sensory properties of Cantal cheese. Compared with that of Holstein cows, milk from Montbéliarde cows resulted in a higher cheese yield (+1.250 kg/100 kg of milk) and ripened cheeses with lower pH, dry matter, calcium, sodium chloride, and water-soluble nitrogen concentrations. These cheeses had also a less firm and more elastic texture, a more acidic taste, and a yogurt/whey aroma. PMID:19762788

Martin, B; Pomiès, D; Pradel, P; Verdier-Metz, I; Rémond, B

2009-10-01

197

Milk production, peripartal liver triglyceride concentration and plasma metabolites of dairy cows fed diets supplemented with calcium soaps or hydrogenated triglycerides of palm oil.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to test the effect of rumen-inert fat supplements of different chemical forms or containing different unsaturated/saturated (U/S) fatty acid contents on milk production, milk composition and liver and blood metabolic variables of high-yielding dairy cows in the peripartal period. Thirty Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were divided into three equal groups and fed a corn silage-based diet, without fat supplementation (control) or supplemented with 11.75 MJ NEl per day of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (CAS; U/S=61/39) or with 11.75 MJ NEl per day of hydrogenated palm oil triglyceride (HTG; U/S=6/94). Each diet was fed from 25+/-2 d prior to the expected calving to 100+/-5 d post partum. Compared with the control, both CAS and HTG supplementation resulted in an increase of the average milk yield. Milk fat content and fat-corrected milk yield were higher in the HTG group but lower in the CAS group than in the control group. In all groups liver triglyceride concentrations (TGL) increased from 15 d prepartum to 5 d post partum, and then decreased thereafter. At 5 d TGL was lower in the HTG group than control or CAS cows. No significant differences were detected in TGL among dietary treatments at 15 d prepartum and 25 d post partum. Higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase activity were measured in the HTG group than in the control or CAS groups at 5 d or 25 d post partum. Our results show that HTG may provide a better energy supply for high-yielding dairy cows in negative energy balance than CAS around calving. PMID:20030903

Karcagi, Roland G; Gaál, Tibor; Ribiczey, Piroska; Huszenicza, Gyula; Husvéth, Ferenc

2010-05-01

198

Induction of and recovery from milk fat depression occurs progressively in dairy cows switched between diets that differ in fiber and oil concentration.  

PubMed

Milk fat depression (MFD) caused by intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation commonly occurs in dairy cattle. The time course of recovery from MFD is important to mechanistic investigation and management of the condition. Nine cows were used in a repeated design, allowing analysis of recovery from diet-induced MFD. A high-fiber, low-oil diet was fed during the control and recovery periods, and a low-fiber, high-oil (LFHO) diet was fed during the induction period. Milk yield was not affected by treatment. Milk fat percentage and yield decreased progressively during induction and were lower by d 3 and 5, respectively. Milk fat concentration and yield increased progressively when cows were fed the recovery diet and were not different from control on d 19 and 15, respectively. Yield of de novo synthesized fatty acids (FA) decreased progressively during the induction period and was lower than that of controls by d 5. A biphasic response was seen for milk fat trans isomers, where trans-11 C18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were elevated initially and trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA increased progressively during the induction period. A similar biphasic response was seen during recovery from MFD, with trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 rapidly decreasing initially and trans-11 C18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA increasing slightly above control levels during the second phase. Recovery from diet-induced MFD occurs gradually with a short lag when dietary fiber and oil concentrations are corrected. This time course provides a framework to identify factors causing MFD and set expectations during recovery from MFD. PMID:23958016

Rico, Daniel E; Harvatine, Kevin J

2013-10-01

199

Effects of alfalfa hay particle size in high-concentrate diets supplemented with unsaturated fat: chewing behavior, total-tract digestibility, and milk production of dairy cows.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of increasing the physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) intake of lactating dairy cows fed high-concentrate diets supplemented with unsaturated fat on intake, eating behavior, diet sorting, chewing activity, total-tract digestibility, and milk production and composition. Diets contained 24% alfalfa hay (AH), 16% corn silage, 58% concentrate, and 2% yellow grease [dry matter (DM) basis], and dietary peNDF content was increased by varying the particle size (PS) of the AH. Nine multiparous cows averaging 87.8 ± 14.8d in milk and weighing 653 ± 53 kg were randomly assigned to a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square. During each 21-d period, cows were offered 1 of 3 total mixed rations that varied in PS of AH: fine, medium, and long, with a geometric mean particle length of 3.00, 3.57 and 3.87 mm, respectively. Increasing PS quadratically affected DM intake (DMI; 24.7, 25.4, and 23.7 kg/d, for fine, medium, and long, respectively), but cumulative DMI at 2, 4, and 6h after feeding was similar across treatments, averaging 23.4, 35.6 and 46.4% of total DMI for the 3 time points, respectively. Increased peNDF intake did not affect feed sorting, but increased daily eating time, and eating and total chewing time per kilogram of DMI. Daily rumination time exhibited a quadratic response, with highest rumination time for the medium diet. Dietary PS had no effects on digestibility in the total tract, but we observed, for fine, medium, and long diets, quadratic responses in milk production (41.5, 43.3, and 40.4 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk production, and milk protein yield. Milk fat content decreased linearly with increasing PS, but milk fat content and fat:protein ratio were low for all treatments, likely due to adding unsaturated fat to a diet containing a high level of nonfiber carbohydrates (42.2% of DM). The composition, degree of saturation, and total conjugated linoleic acid content of fatty acids in milk fat were not affected by the change in peNDF content of the diet. The study indicates that a moderate increase in the PS of AH in diets containing unsaturated fat elevates peNDF intake and increases chewing activity, DMI, milk yield and milk fat production. However, the effects of dietary PS were quadratic, with maximum DMI and milk production observed with diets supplying 24% dietary peNDF (measured as the proportion of the ration retained on sieves >1.18 mm multiplied by dietary neutral detergent fiber content; DM basis). PMID:24054282

Kahyani, A; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

2013-11-01

200

Comparative study of enzymes related to proline metabolism in tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under drought and irrigated conditions, and various urea concentrations.  

PubMed

There are several mechanisms used by plants for survival in adverse environments such as drought, high temperature and salinity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the drought tolerance of tepary bean as a function of biochemical processes linked to isozyme synthesis and changes in enzymatic activity related to proline metabolism. Mature seeds of common beans var. flor de mayo, Phoseolus vulgaris and tepary beans Phaseolus acutifolius were grown under two water conditions (irrigation and drought), and four levels of urea. Vertical electrophoresis and spectrophotometric techniques were used to evaluate protein patterns, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), proline oxidase (PO) and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5C reductase) enzyme activities. These enzymes were studied because they are directly related to protein synthesis. Electrophoretic patterns showed more proteins in tepary beans than in common beans with limited irrigation. GDH showed only one isozyme, with a molecular weight between 240) to 270 kDa. A decrease in PO activity was observed in common beans under drought stress with a value of 237 micromol/min, in comparison to irrigation conditions of 580 micromol/min. GDH and P5C reductase enzymes have had higher activity in common beans than in tepary beans under water stress. There was a significant difference only in glutamate dehydrogenase enzyme with respect to urea level. The results suggest that drought tolerance of tepary beans is due to biochemical processes related to proline metabolic enzymes. PMID:9839811

Camacho Barrón, M; González de Mejía, E

1998-01-01

201

Milk pH as a Function of CO2 Concentration, Temperature, and Pressure in a Heat Exchanger1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw skim milk, with or without added CO2, was heated, held, and cooled in a small pilot-scale tubular heat exchanger(372 ml\\/min). The experimentwas rep- licated twice, and, for each replication, milk was first carbonated at 0 to 1°C to contain 0 (control), 600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 ppm added CO2 using a continuous carbonation unit. After storage at 0 to

Y. Ma; D. M. Barbano

2003-01-01

202

Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in blood and breast milk collected from 60 mothers in Sapporo City, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (non-ortho PCBs), and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (mono-ortho PCBs) in paired samples of blood and breast milk collected from 60 mothers in Sapporo City, Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. The present study is one of the few studies in which PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs have been measured in

Takashi Todaka; Hironori Hirakawa; Jumboku Kajiwara; Tsuguhide Hori; Kazuhiro Tobiishi; Daisuke Onozuka; Shizue Kato; Seiko Sasaki; Sonomi Nakajima; Yasuaki Saijo; Fumihiro Sata; Reiko Kishi; Takao Iida; Masutaka Furue

2008-01-01

203

Effects of essential oils on milk production, milk composition, and rumen microbiota in Chios dairy ewes.  

PubMed

The effect of the addition of an essential oil (EO) preparation (containing a mixture of natural and nature-identical EO) on the performance of dairy ewes of the Chios breed was investigated. Eighty lactating ewes were allocated into 4 equal groups in a randomized block design, each with 4 replicates of 5 ewes housed in the same pen. The 4 groups were fed the same total mixed ration allowance, the roughage being a mixture of corn silage, lucerne hay, and wheat straw, and the concentrate based on cereals and oil cakes. Control ewes were fed their daily allowance of total mixed ration without any EO. The other 3 groups were supplemented with EO at levels of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of the concentrated feed, respectively. Individual milk yield was recorded daily and feed refusals were recorded on a pen basis weekly during the first 5 mo of lactation. Milk samples were analyzed for chemical composition, somatic cell count, and urea content. Rumen samples were analyzed for pH, NH(3)-N content, and protozoa, cellulolytic, hyper-ammonia-producing, and total viable bacteria counts. Results showed that inclusion of EO increased milk production per ewe, the effect being dose dependent [1.565, 1.681, 1.876, and 2.119 L/d (standard error of the difference ± 0.176) for the control, 50, 100, and 150 mg of EO/kg of concentrate diets, respectively], and thus improved feed utilization. Although the inclusion of EO did not affect milk composition, it lowered urea concentration and somatic cell count in milk samples at the highest supplementation level compared with the control. Total counts of viable and cellulolytic bacteria and protozoa were not influenced by EO supplementation; however, counts of hyper-ammonia-producing bacteria were decreased at the 2 highest supplementation levels compared with the control group. Rumen pH was not affected by EO supplementation, but rumen NH(3)-N was reduced at the highest EO supplementation level, and acetate rumen concentrations tended to decrease and propionate to increase in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, EO supplementation may improve feed utilization and performance of the high-yielding dairy Chios ewes; however, the underlying mechanisms leading to this improvement merit further investigation. PMID:22032380

Giannenas, I; Skoufos, J; Giannakopoulos, C; Wiemann, M; Gortzi, O; Lalas, S; Kyriazakis, I

2011-11-01

204

Effects of high ambient temperature on urea-nitrogen recycling in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

Effects of exposure to hot environment on urea metabolism were studied in lactating Holstein cows. Four cows were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration and housed in a temperature-controlled chamber at constant moderate (18°C) or high (28°C) ambient temperatures in a cross-over design. Urea nitrogen (N) kinetics was measured by determining urea isotopomer in urine after single injection of [(15) N(2) ]urea into the jugular vein. Both dry matter intake and milk yield were decreased under high ambient temperature. Intakes of total N and digestible N were decreased under high ambient temperature but urinary urea-N excretion was increased. The ratio of urea-N production to digestible N was increased, whereas the proportion of gut urea-N entry to urea-N production tended to be decreased under high ambient temperature. Neither return to the ornithine cycle, anabolic use nor fecal excretion of urea-N recycled to the gut was affected by ambient temperature. Under high ambient temperature, renal clearance of plasma urea was not affected but the gut clearance was decreased. Increase of urea-N production and reduction of gut urea-N entry, in relative terms, were associated with increased urinary urea-N excretion of lactating dairy cows in higher thermal environments. PMID:21794010

Obitsu, Taketo; Kamiya, Mitsuru; Kamiya, Yuko; Tanaka, Masahito; Sugino, Toshihisa; Taniguchi, Kohzo

2011-08-01

205

Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets.  

PubMed

We investigated the interactions of corn meal or molasses [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) supplements] with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) supplements] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay diets. Eight multiparous and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 135±49d in milk and 386±61kg of body weight in the beginning of the study were randomly assigned to 4 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period lasted 19d with 14d for diet adaptation and 5d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed diets composed of mixed-mostly grass hay plus 1 of the following 4 concentrate blends: (1) corn meal plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; (2) corn meal plus flaxseed meal; (3) liquid molasses plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; or (4) liquid molasses plus flaxseed meal. Data were analyzed for main effects of NSC and RDP supplements, and the NSC × RDP supplement interactions. Significant NSC × RDP supplement interactions were observed for milk urea N, milk N efficiency, and the sums of milk saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. No effect of NSC supplements was observed for nutrient intake and milk yield. However, 4% fat-corrected milk (-0.70kg/d) and energy-corrected milk (-0.60kg/d) were significantly reduced in cows fed liquid molasses due to a trend to decreased concentration of milk fat (-0.17%). Diets with liquid molasses resulted in increased (+35%) concentration and yield of milk enterolactone, indicating that this mammalian lignan can be modulated by supplements with different NSC profiles. Overall, NSC and RDP supplements profoundly changed the milk fatty acid profile, likely because of differences in fatty acids intake, ?(9)-desaturase indices, and ruminal biohydrogenation pathways. Feeding liquid molasses significantly reduced plasma urea N (-1.2mg/dL), urinary N excretion (-20g/d), and N digestibility (-3.2 percentage units). Flaxseed meal significantly reduced yields of milk (-1.3kg/d), milk fat (-90g/d), and milk lactose (-60g/d), but significantly increased the concentration and yield of milk enterolactone. Further research is needed to elucidate the negative responses of flaxseed meal on yields of milk and milk components. PMID:25465544

Brito, A F; Petit, H V; Pereira, A B D; Soder, K J; Ross, S

2015-01-01

206

Intraduodenal milk protein concentrate augments the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of DPP-IV inhibition.  

PubMed

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone released from intestinal L-cells in response to food entering into the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1-based pharmaceuticals improve blood glucose regulation and may hold promise for obesity treatment, as GLP-1 drugs reduce food intake and body weight in humans and animals. In an effort to improve GLP-1 pharmacotherapies, we focused our attention on macronutrients that, when present in the gastrointestinal tract, may enhance GLP-1 secretion and improve glycemic regulation and food intake suppression when combined with systemic administration of sitagliptin, a pharmacological inhibitor of DPP-IV (enzyme responsible for GLP-1 degradation). In particular, previous data suggest that specific macronutrient constituents found in dairy foods may act as potent secretagogues for GLP-1 and therefore may potentially serve as an adjunct dietary therapy in combination with sitagliptin. To directly test this hypothesis, rats received intraperitoneal injections of sitagliptin (6 mg/kg) or saline vehicle followed by intraduodenal infusions of either milk protein concentrate (MPC; 80/20% casein/whey; 4 kcal), soy protein (nondairy control infusate; 4 kcal), or 0.9% NaCl. Food intake was assessed 30 min postinfusion. In separate studies, regulation of blood glucose was examined via a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (2 g/kg) following identical sitagliptin treatment and intraduodenal nutrient infusions. Collectively, results show that intraduodenal MPC, but not soy protein, significantly enhances both the food intake suppression and improved control of blood glucose produced by sitagliptin. These data support the hypothesis that dietary intake of dairy protein may be beneficial as an adjunct behavioral therapy to enhance the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of GLP-1-based pharmacotherapies. PMID:24352410

Olivos, Diana R; McGrath, Lauren E; Turner, Christopher A; Montaubin, Orianne; Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G; Hayes, Matthew R

2014-02-01

207

Intraduodenal milk protein concentrate augments the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of DPP-IV inhibition  

PubMed Central

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone released from intestinal L-cells in response to food entering into the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1-based pharmaceuticals improve blood glucose regulation and may hold promise for obesity treatment, as GLP-1 drugs reduce food intake and body weight in humans and animals. In an effort to improve GLP-1 pharmacotherapies, we focused our attention on macronutrients that, when present in the gastrointestinal tract, may enhance GLP-1 secretion and improve glycemic regulation and food intake suppression when combined with systemic administration of sitagliptin, a pharmacological inhibitor of DPP-IV (enzyme responsible for GLP-1 degradation). In particular, previous data suggest that specific macronutrient constituents found in dairy foods may act as potent secretagogues for GLP-1 and therefore may potentially serve as an adjunct dietary therapy in combination with sitagliptin. To directly test this hypothesis, rats received intraperitoneal injections of sitagliptin (6 mg/kg) or saline vehicle followed by intraduodenal infusions of either milk protein concentrate (MPC; 80/20% casein/whey; 4 kcal), soy protein (nondairy control infusate; 4 kcal), or 0.9% NaCl. Food intake was assessed 30 min postinfusion. In separate studies, regulation of blood glucose was examined via a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (2 g/kg) following identical sitagliptin treatment and intraduodenal nutrient infusions. Collectively, results show that intraduodenal MPC, but not soy protein, significantly enhances both the food intake suppression and improved control of blood glucose produced by sitagliptin. These data support the hypothesis that dietary intake of dairy protein may be beneficial as an adjunct behavioral therapy to enhance the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of GLP-1-based pharmacotherapies. PMID:24352410

Olivos, Diana R.; McGrath, Lauren E.; Turner, Christopher A.; Montaubin, Orianne; Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G.

2013-01-01

208

Coulometric titration of urea with electrogenerated hypobromite.  

PubMed

A definitive method is described for the indirect assay of several tens of milligrams of urea by coulometric titration. Urea was decomposed in concentrated sulfuric acid using a Kjeldahl flask. Subsequently, the formed ammonium ion was titrated with electrogenerated hypobromite ion in a sodium bromide-sodium tetraborate medium of pH 8.6, with amperometric end-point detection. Parameters affecting the pretreatment procedure were evaluated. The optimized conditions included the heating of 2 g of urea at around 300°C for 2 h with 10 cm(3) of sulfuric acid. Under the proposed conditions, the assay value with expanded uncertainty (k = 2), 99.870 ± 0.026%, agreed well with the certified value of NIST SRM 912a urea, 99.9 ± 0.1%. PMID:23842420

Kato, Jun; Koseki, Takuma; Aoki, Yukie; Yamada, Ayako; Tanaka, Tatsuhiko

2013-01-01

209

The effect of dietary crude protein and phosphorus on grass-fed dairy cow production, nutrient status, and milk heat stability.  

PubMed

Dietary crude protein (CP) and phosphorus (P) have the potential to alter dairy cow production, nutrient status, and milk heat stability, specifically in early lactation. This study examined the effect of supplementary concentrates with different CP and P concentrations on blood N and P status and on milk yield, composition, and heat stability. The concentrates [4kg of dry matter (DM) concentrate per cow daily] were fed to grazing dairy cows (13kg DM grass) during early lactation. Forty-eight spring-calving dairy cows were allocated to 4 treatments: high CP, high P (HPrHP; 302g/kg DM CP, 6.8g/kg DM P), medium CP, high P (MPrHP; 202g/kg DM CP, 4.7g/kg DM P), low CP, high P (LPrHP; 101g/kg DM CP, 5.1g/kg DM P), and low CP, low P (LPrLP; 101g/kg DM CP, 0.058g/kg DM P), for 8wk. Levels of N excretion were significantly higher in animals fed the HPrHP and MPrHP concentrates; P excretion was significantly lower in animals fed the LPrLP concentrate. Reducing the level of P in the diet (LPrLP concentrate) resulted in a significantly lower blood P concentration, whereas milk yield and composition (fat and protein) were not affected by either CP or P in the diet. The effect of the interaction between treatment and time on milk urea N was significant, reflecting the positive correlation between dietary CP and milk nonprotein N. Increasing supplementary CP and P (HPrHP) in the diet resulted in significantly lower milk heat stability at pH 6.8. The findings show that increasing dietary CP caused a decrease in milk heat stability, which reduced the suitability of milk for processing. The study also found that increasing dietary CP increased milk urea N and milk nonprotein N. Increasing dietary P increased fecal P excretion. These are important considerations for milk processors and producers for control of milk processing and environmental parameters. PMID:25465549

Reid, M; O'Donovan, M; Elliott, C T; Bailey, J S; Watson, C J; Lalor, S T J; Corrigan, B; Fenelon, M A; Lewis, E

2015-01-01

210

Influence of organic versus inorganic dietary selenium supplementation on the concentration of selenium in colostrum, milk and blood of beef cows  

PubMed Central

Background Selenium (Se) is important for the postnatal development of the calf. In the first weeks of life, milk is the only source of Se for the calf and insufficient level of Se in the milk may lead to Se deficiency. Maternal Se supplementation is used to prevent this. We investigated the effect of dietary Se-enriched yeast (SY) or sodium selenite (SS) supplements on selected blood parameters and on Se concentrations in the blood, colostrum, and milk of Se-deficient Charolais cows. Methods Cows in late pregnancy received a mineral premix with Se (SS or SY, 50 mg Se per kg premix) or without Se (control – C). Supplementation was initiated 6 weeks before expected calving. Blood and colostrum samples were taken from the cows that had just calved (Colostral period). Additional samples were taken around 2 weeks (milk) and 5 weeks (milk and blood) after calving corresponding to Se supplementation for 6 and 12 weeks, respectively (Lactation period) for Se, biochemical and haematological analyses. Results Colostral period. Se concentrations in whole blood and colostrum on day 1 post partum and in colostrum on day 3 post partum were 93.0, 72.9, and 47.5 ?g/L in the SY group; 68.0, 56.0 and 18.8 ?g/L in the SS group; and 35.1, 27.3 and 10.5 ?g/L in the C group, respectively. Differences among all the groups were significant (P < 0.01) at each sampling, just as the colostrum Se content decreases were from day 1 to day 3 in each group. The relatively smallest decrease in colostrum Se concentration was found in the SY group (P < 0.01). Lactation period. The mean Se concentrations in milk in weeks 6 and 12 of supplementation were 20.4 and 19.6 ?g/L in the SY group, 8.3 and 11.9 ?g/L in the SS group, and 6.9 and 6.6 ?g/L in the C group, respectively. The values only differed significantly in the SS group (P < 0.05). The Se concentrations in the blood were similar to those of cows examined on the day of calving. The levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were 364.70, 283.82 and 187.46 ?kat/L in the SY, SS, and C groups, respectively. This was the only significantly variable biochemical and haematological parameter. Conclusion Se-enriched yeast was much more effective than sodium selenite in increasing the concentration of Se in the blood, colostrum and milk, as well as the GSH-Px activity. PMID:18980689

Slavik, Petr; Illek, Josef; Brix, Michal; Hlavicova, Jaroslava; Rajmon, Radko; Jilek, Frantisek

2008-01-01

211

Detection of cow milk adulteration in yak milk by ELISA.  

PubMed

In the current study, a simple, sensitive, and specific ELISA assay using a high-affinity anti-bovine ?-casein monoclonal antibody was developed for the rapid detection of cow milk in adulterated yak milk. The developed ELISA was highly specific and could be applied to detect bovine ?-casein (10-8,000 ?g/mL) and cow milk (1:1,300 to 1:2 dilution) in yak milk. Cross-reactivity was <1% when tested against yak milk. The linear range of adulterant concentration was 1 to 80% (vol/vol) and the minimum detection limit was 1% (vol/vol) cow milk in yak milk. Different treatments, including heating, acidification, and rennet addition, did not interfere with the assay. Moreover, the results were highly reproducible (coefficient of variation <10%) and we detected no significant differences between known and estimated values. Therefore, this assay is appropriate for the routine analysis of yak milk adulterated with cow milk. PMID:25151876

Ren, Q R; Zhang, H; Guo, H Y; Jiang, L; Tian, M; Ren, F Z

2014-10-01

212

The electrophoresis of transferrins in urea/polyacrylamide gels.  

PubMed Central

The denaturation of transferrin by urea has been studied by (a) electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels incorporating a urea gradient, (b) measurements of the loss of iron-binding capacity and (c) u.v. difference spectrometry. In human serum transferrin and hen ovotransferrin the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of the iron-free protein were found to denature at different urea concentrations. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:7213345

Evans, R W; Williams, J

1980-01-01

213

Molecular Basis of the Apparent Near Ideality of Urea Solutions.  

SciTech Connect

The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Activity coefficients of urea solutions are calculated to explore the mechanism of its solution properties, which form the basis for its well-known use as a strong protein denaturant. We perform free energy simulations of urea solutions in different urea concentrations using two urea models (OPLS and KBFF models) to calculate and decompose the activity coefficients. For the case of urea, we clarify the concept of the ideal solution in different concentration scales and standard states and its effect on our subsequent analysis. The analytical form of activity coefficients depends on the concentration units and standard states. For both models studied, urea displays a weak concentration dependence for excess chemical potential. However, for the OPLS force-field model, this results from contributions that are independent of concentration to the van der Waals and electrostatic components whereas for the KBFF model those components are nontrivial but oppose each other. The strong ideality of urea solutions in some concentration scales (incidentally implying a lack of water perturbation) is discussed in terms of recent data and ideas on the mechanism of urea denaturation of proteins.

Kokubo, Hironori; Rosgen, Jorg; Bolen, D Wayne; Pettitt, Bernard M.

2007-11-01

214

Milk Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

Milk Allergy Allergy to cow’s milk is the most common food allergy in infants and young children. Symptoms of a milk allergy reaction can range ... times. To prevent a reaction, strict avoidance of cow’s milk and cow’s milk products is essential. Always ...

215

Concentrations of phthalate metabolites in breast milk in Korea: Estimating exposure to phthalates and potential risks among breast-fed infants.  

PubMed

Phthalates have been associated with endocrine disruption and developmental effects in many experimental and epidemiological studies. Developing infants are among the most susceptible populations to endocrine disruption. However, limited information is available on phthalate exposure and its associated risks among breast-fed newborn infants. In the present study, breast milk samples were collected from 62 lactating mothers at 1month post-partum from four cities of Korea in 2012 and were evaluated for six phthalate metabolites (mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP)). MEP was detected in all breast milk samples, with a median concentration of 0.37?g/L, and MiBP, MnBP and MEHP were detected in 79-89% of samples, with median concentrations of 1.10, 1.70, and 2.08?g/L, respectively. However, MEHHP and MEOHP, the oxidized forms of di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP), were detected in only one sample. For exposure assessment, the levels of phthalate diesters were estimated based on the parent:metabolite ratios in the breast milk that are reported elsewhere. For risk assessment, the endocrine-related toxicity of the monoester was assumed to be the same as that of its diester form. Median daily intake estimates of phthalates, including both monoester and diester forms, through breast milk consumption ranged between 0.91 and 6.52?g/kg body weight (bw) for DEHP and between 0.38 and 1.43?g/kg bw for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). Based on the estimated daily intake, up to 8% of infants exceeded the reference dose of anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) for DEHP, and 6% of infants exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for DnBP. Breast milk MiBP and MnBP concentrations showed significant positive associations with maternal consumption of whipped cream or purified water. Considering vulnerability of young infants, efforts to mitigate phthalate exposure among lactating women are warranted. PMID:25437948

Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Jangwoo; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Cho, Geumjoon; Kim, Gun-Ha; Eun, So-Hee; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Suh, Eunsook; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Young Don; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Seunghyo; Eom, Soyong; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

2015-03-01

216

Physicochemical factors controlling the foamability and foam stability of milk proteins: Sodium caseinate and whey protein concentrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored the foaming behavior of the two main types of milk proteins: flexible caseins and globular whey proteins. Direct foam comparison was complemented with measurements in model experiments such as thin foam films, dynamic surface tension, and protein adsorption. Foaming was studied as a function of pH (from below to above isoelectric point, pI) and range of ionic strengths.

Krastanka G. Marinova; Elka S. Basheva; Boriana Nenova; Mila Temelska; Amir Y. Mirarefi; Bruce Campbell; Ivan B. Ivanov

2009-01-01

217

Effect of Parity, Stage of Lactation, and Intramammary Infection on Concentration of Somatic Cells and Cytoplasmic Particles in Goat Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aseptic foremilk samples (about 15 ml) were collected biweekly for four samplings and then monthly throughout lactation from 35 does in three herds on Dairy Herd Improvement test. Bac- teriology, direct microscopic somatic cell counts, and cytospin differential cell counts were performed on all samples. Milk yield was obtained from monthly Dairy Herd Improvement records. Thirty- nine percent of udder

A. M. Dulin; M. J. Paape; W. D. Schultze; B. T. Weinland

1983-01-01

218

A Sustainable Alternative to a U.S. Breast Milk Monitoring Program: Using NHANES Serum Data to Estimate Breast Milk PBDE Concentrations  

EPA Science Inventory

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are high-production-volume chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in a variety of consumer products. PBDE concentrations in the environment, wildlife, and humans have been increasing for several decades. Concentrations in t...

219

Long-Term Effects of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA) on Milk Quality and Hepatic Gene Expression in Lactating Goats Fed a High-Concentrate Diet  

PubMed Central

Purpose The mechanism underlying the decline in milk quality during periods of feeding high-concentrate diets to dairy ruminants is not well documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolic changes in the liver that contribute to the input of substrate precursors to the mammary gland after feeding a high-concentrate diet to lactating goats for a long period. Experimental Design Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen cannulas were randomly assigned to two groups. For 9 weeks, the treatment group was fed a high-concentrate diet (60% concentrate of dry matter, HC) and the control group was fed a low-concentrate diet (40% concentrate of dry matter, LC). Ruminal fluid, plasma, and liver tissues were sampled, microarray techniques and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate metabolic parameters and gene expression in liver. Results Feeding a 60%-concentrate diet for 9 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in rumen pH. Changes in fat and protein content also occurred, which negatively affected milk quality. Plasma levels of leptin (p?=?0.058), non-esterified fatty acid (p?=?0.071), and glucose (p?=?0.014) increased markedly in HC group. Plasma cortisol concentration was significantly elevated in the treatment group (p<0.05). Expression of the glucocorticoid receptor protein gene was significantly down-regulated (p<0.05) in the liver. The expression of genes for interleukin 1?, serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, and haptoglobin mRNA was significantly increased (p<0.05) in the HC group. GeneRelNet analysis showed that gene expression involved in inflammatory responses and the metabolism of lipids, protein, and carbohydrate were significantly altered by feeding a high-concentrate diet for 9 weeks. Conclusions Activation of the acute phase response and the inflammatory response may contribute to nutrient partitioning and re-distribution of energy in the liver, and ultimately lead to a decline in milk quality. PMID:24376594

Dong, Haibo; Wang, Shaoqing; Jia, Yuanyuan; Ni, Yingdong; Zhang, Yuanshu; Zhuang, Su; Shen, Xiangzhen; Zhao, Ruqian

2013-01-01

220

Replacing corn silage with different forage millet silage cultivars: effects on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of corn silage (CS) with 2 cultivars of forage millet silages [i.e., regular millet (RM) and sweet millet (SM)] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a high-forage total mixed ration (68:32 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included CS (control), RM, and SM diets. Experimental silages constituted 37% of each diet DM. Three ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Relative to CS, RM and SM silages contained 36% more crude protein, 66% more neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 88% more acid detergent fiber. Cows fed CS consumed more dry matter (DM; 24.4 vs. 22.7 kg/d) and starch (5.7 vs. 3.7 kg/d), but less NDF (7.9 vs. 8.7 kg/d) than cows fed RM or SM. However, DM, starch and NDF intakes were not different between forage millet silage types. Feeding RM relative to CS reduced milk yield (32.7 vs. 35.2 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (35.8 vs. 38.0 kg/d) and SCM (32.7 vs. 35.3 kg/d). However, cows fed SM had similar milk, energy-corrected milk, and solids-corrected milk yields than cows fed CS or RM. Milk efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Milk protein concentration was greatest for cows fed CS, intermediate for cows fed SM, and lowest for cows fed RM. Milk concentration of solids-not-fat was lesser, whereas milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed RM than for those fed CS. However, millet silage type had no effect on milk solids-not-fat and milk urea nitrogen levels. Concentrations of milk fat, lactose and total solids were not affected by silage type. Ruminal pH and ruminal NH3-N were greater for cows fed RM and SM than for cows fed CS. Total-tract digestibility of DM (average=67.9%), NDF (average=53.9%), crude protein (average=63.3%), and gross energy (average=67.9%) were not influenced by dietary treatments. It was concluded that cows fed CS performed better than those fed RM or SM likely due to the higher starch and lower NDF intakes. However, no major differences were noted between the 2 forage millet silage cultivars. PMID:25108857

Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

2014-10-01

221

Milk Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... on to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, ... milk). Continue How Can Doctors Tell It's a Milk Allergy? If your doctor suspects you might have ...

222

Milk Pricing  

E-print Network

This publication discusses the federal orders that govern the marketing of milk. The production location and form of the milk product affect the way it is priced. The different classes of milk and their prices are explained in detail....

Anderson, David P.; Haigh, Michael; Stockton, Matthew; Schwart Jr., Robert B.

2001-09-10

223

Lead content of milk and infant formula  

SciTech Connect

Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

Walker, B.

1980-03-01

224

Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch concentrations and fish oil (FO) supplementation on lactation performance, in vivo total-tract nutrient digestibility, N balance, and methane (CH4) emissions in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 2 concentrations of dietary starch [low vs. high: 23.7 and 27.7% on a dry matter (DM) basis; neutral detergent fiber/starch ratios: 1.47 and 1.12], the presence or absence of FO supplement (0.80% on a DM basis), and their interaction were evaluated. Four Italian Friesian cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets in 4 consecutive 26-d periods: (1) low starch (LS), (2) low starch plus FO (LSO), (3) high starch (HS), and (4) high starch plus FO (HSO). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage, alfalfa and meadow hays). The starch concentration was balanced using different proportions of corn meal and soybean hulls. The cows were housed in metabolic stalls inside open-circuit respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emission and the collection of separate urine and feces. No differences among treatments were observed for DM intake. We observed a trend for FO to increase milk yield: 29.2 and 27.5kg/d, on average, for diets with and without FO, respectively. Milk fat was affected by the interaction between dietary starch and FO: milk fat decreased only in the HSO diet. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO on the LS diet. Fish oil supplementation decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids. High-starch diets negatively influenced all digestibility parameters measured except starch, whereas FO improved neutral detergent fiber digestibility (41.9 vs. 46.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively, and ether extract digestibility (53.7 vs. 67.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively). We observed a trend for lower CH4 emission (g/d) and intensity (g/kg of milk) with the high-starch diets compared with the low-starch diets: 396 versus 415g/d on average, respectively, and 14.1 versus 14.9g/kg of milk, respectively. Methane intensity per kilogram of ECM was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO for the LS diet: 14.5 versus 13.3g of CH4/kg of ECM for LS and LSO diets, respectively. PMID:25465540

Pirondini, M; Colombini, S; Mele, M; Malagutti, L; Rapetti, L; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M

2015-01-01

225

Urea recycling from the renal pelvis in sheep: A study with ( sup 14 C)urea  

SciTech Connect

To test the hypothesis that urea can be recycled from the renal pelvis, (14C)urea diluted in native urine (1 microCi/ml) was perfused (0.5 ml/min) into one of the pelvises of sheep fed either normal (NP) or low (LP)-protein diets. Blood samples were obtained from the ipsilateral renal vein and from the carotid artery throughout the perfusions. 14C activity determinations in urine and plasma demonstrated a flux of (14C)urea from the pelvis to renal vein blood (40,000 in NP and 130,000 disintegrations/min in LP sheep, P less than 0.01). The corresponding flux of native urea was only 1.5 times higher in NP than in LP sheep (6.8 +/- 1.1 vs. 4.7 +/- 2.9 mumol/min, not significant) despite their 8 times higher urinary concentration of urea. The fraction of filtered urea that was reabsorbed in the pelvis was larger in LP sheep (7.5 +/- 3.7 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.7% in NP sheep, P less than 0.05). A fraction of urea is thus actually recycled from the renal pelvis in sheep, and this pelvic retention is enhanced in LP animals. The importance of this phenomenon in the nitrogen economy is discussed.

Cirio, A.; Boivin, R. (Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Lyon, Marcy l'Etoile (France))

1990-05-01

226

Effect of Cassava Hay and Rice Bran Oil Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Lactating Dairy Cows  

PubMed Central

Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production and composition in dairy cows, while fatty acid composition of milk was influenced by RBO supplementation, and resulted in significantly lower (p<0.05) concentrations of both short-chain and medium-chain FA, and increased (p<0.05) the proportion of long-chain FA in milk fat, as well as significantly increased cis-9, trans-11 CLA and total CLA. In conclusion, RBO or CH exhibited specific effects on DM, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition in lactating dairy cows, which were not interactions between CH and RBO in the diets. Feeding lactating dairy cows with RBO could improve fatty acid in milk fat by increasing cis-9, trans-11 CLA. PMID:25049491

Lunsin, R.; Wanapat, M.; Rowlinson, P.

2012-01-01

227

Milk production, plasma metabolite profiles and mammary arterial-venous differences of milk precursors in early lactation cows milked at different frequencies by an automatic milking system.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to clarify the effect of different milking frequencies under an automatic milking system (AMS) on milk yield, plasma metabolite profiles and mammary arterial-venous (A-V) differences of milk precursors by mammary tissues in early lactation cows. Twelve Holstein cows were divided into two and four times milking frequency treatments by AMS after calving to 50 days postpartum. Cows were given a partial mixed ration ad libitum and a concentrate diet at every milking. Dry matter intake increased similarly in both treatments with advancing postpartum days. Milk yield was greater (P?milking, but milk composition was not affected by milking frequency. Body weight change was also not affected by milking frequency. Arterial concentrations of glucose and glutamate were lower (P?milking frequency. However, arterial concentration of nonesterified fatty acids did not differ between treatments. Although mammary A-V differences of plasma concentration for most milk precursors did not differ between treatments, estimated plasma flow was higher (P?milking frequency. These results indicate that higher milking frequency may increase mammary uptake of milk precursors, whereas may not affect the extent of fat mobilization of early lactating cows from day 20 postpartum onward. PMID:25474097

Astuti, Andriyani; Obitsu, Taketo; Sugino, Toshihisa; Taniguchi, Kohzo; Okita, Miki; Kurokawa, Yuzo

2014-12-01

228

Crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of the kidney urea transporter  

SciTech Connect

Urea is highly concentrated in the mammalian kidney to produce the osmotic gradient necessary for water re-absorption. Free diffusion of urea across cell membranes is slow owing to its high polarity, and specialized urea transporters have evolved to achieve rapid and selective urea permeation. Here we present the 2.3 {angstrom} structure of a functional urea transporter from the bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The transporter is a homotrimer, and each subunit contains a continuous membrane-spanning pore formed by the two homologous halves of the protein. The pore contains a constricted selectivity filter that can accommodate several dehydrated urea molecules in single file. Backbone and side-chain oxygen atoms provide continuous coordination of urea as it progresses through the filter, and well-placed {alpha}-helix dipoles provide further compensation for dehydration energy. These results establish that the urea transporter operates by a channel-like mechanism and reveal the physical and chemical basis of urea selectivity.

Levin, Elena J.; Quick, Matthias; Zhou, Ming; (Columbia)

2010-03-19

229

Penicillin concentrations in serum, milk, and urine following intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of increasing doses of procaine penicillin G in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed Central

Eight healthy, non-pregnant, crossbred Holstein dairy cows (557-682 kg) within their first 3 months of lactation (13-21.5 kg of milk/day) were used. Cows were kept in tie stalls for the whole experiment. The 8 cows were randomly assigned to 2 (IM and SC) 4 x 4 balanced Latin square design experiments. Doses of procaine penicillin G (PPG) (300000 IU/mL) in each square were 7000, 14000, 21000 and 28000 IU/kg and were injected IM or SC once daily for 5 consecutive days. Volumes of PPG per site of injection never exceeded 20 mL. Blood was collected to determine the Cmax, Tmax, and AUC; urine and milk were also taken to measure the persistence of PPG in these fluids. Results show that serum Cmax and Tmax were only slightly affected by increasing the doses or the route of administration, whereas the AUC was linearly increased in relation to the dose injected in both modes of injection. In the urine, Cmax varied from 160 to 388 IU/mL and Tmax from 72-120 h during 5 consecutive days of PPG injection. A dose effect in Cmax was observed only for the IM route of administration and no variation (P > 0.05) was found between the IM and SC routes. Milk Cmax concentrations were only increased by the dose regimen in the IM group. At doses of 21000 and 28000 IU/kg, the IM group had a higher (P > 0.05) Cmax when compared with the SC groups. Milk PPG residues were not detectable over 96 h following the last IM injection, independently of the dose injected. However milk PPG residues were detected for up to 132 h following the last SC injection. These results show that when PPG is injected IM once daily in volumes not exceeding 20 mL/site at doses as high as 28000 IU/kg, the withdrawal period should be at least 96 h. Therefore, in the present model, there was no advantage to inject PPG by SC route to improve PPG kinetic parameters as the AUC, Cmax, or Tmax. PMID:11480523

Dubreuil, P; Daigneault, J; Couture, Y; Guay, P; Landry, D

2001-01-01

230

Chemiresistor urea sensor  

DOEpatents

A sensor to detect and quantify urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures, and in blood and other body fluids. The sensor is based upon a chemiresistor, which consists of an interdigitated array of metal fingers between which a resistance measured. The interdigitated array is fabricated on a suitable substrate. The surface of the array of fingers is covered with a coating containing the enzyme urease which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form the ammonium ion, the bicarbonate ion, and hydroxide-chemical products which provide the basis for the measured signal. In a typical application, the sensor could be used at bedside, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. Also, the chemiresistor used to detect urea, can be utilized with a reference chemiresistor which does not contain urease, and connected in a differential measurement arrangement, such that the reference chemiresistor would cancel out any fluctuations due to background effects.

Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

231

Molecular evolution of urea amidolyase and urea carboxylase in fungi  

PubMed Central

Background Urea amidolyase breaks down urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide in a two-step process, while another enzyme, urease, does this in a one step-process. Urea amidolyase has been found only in some fungal species among eukaryotes. It contains two major domains: the amidase and urea carboxylase domains. A shorter form of urea amidolyase is known as urea carboxylase and has no amidase domain. Eukaryotic urea carboxylase has been found only in several fungal species and green algae. In order to elucidate the evolutionary origin of urea amidolyase and urea carboxylase, we studied the distribution of urea amidolyase, urea carboxylase, as well as other proteins including urease, across kingdoms. Results Among the 64 fungal species we examined, only those in two Ascomycota classes (Sordariomycetes and Saccharomycetes) had the urea amidolyase sequences. Urea carboxylase was found in many but not all of the species in the phylum Basidiomycota and in the subphylum Pezizomycotina (phylum Ascomycota). It was completely absent from the class Saccharomycetes (phylum Ascomycota; subphylum Saccharomycotina). Four Sordariomycetes species we examined had both the urea carboxylase and the urea amidolyase sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these two enzymes appeared to have gone through independent evolution since their bacterial origin. The amidase domain and the urea carboxylase domain sequences from fungal urea amidolyases clustered strongly together with the amidase and urea carboxylase sequences, respectively, from a small number of beta- and gammaproteobacteria. On the other hand, fungal urea carboxylase proteins clustered together with another copy of urea carboxylases distributed broadly among bacteria. The urease proteins were found in all the fungal species examined except for those of the subphylum Saccharomycotina. Conclusions We conclude that the urea amidolyase genes currently found only in fungi are the results of a horizontal gene transfer event from beta-, gamma-, or related species of proteobacteria. The event took place before the divergence of the subphyla Pezizomycotina and Saccharomycotina but after the divergence of the subphylum Taphrinomycotina. Urea carboxylase genes currently found in fungi and other limited organisms were also likely derived from another ancestral gene in bacteria. Our study presented another important example showing plastic and opportunistic genome evolution in bacteria and fungi and their evolutionary interplay. PMID:21447149

2011-01-01

232

EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF UREA, MOLYBDENUM, BENZYLADENINE, SUCROSE AND SALICYLIC ACID ON YIELD, NITROGEN METABOLISM OF RADISH PLANTS AND QUALITY OF EDIBLE ROOTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006–2007 small radish was cultivated in a pot experiment. Foliar applications were applied twice with solutions of the following compounds: 1) control (water); 2) urea; 3) urea+molybdenum (Mo), 4) urea+Mo+benzyladenine (BA); 5) urea+Mo+BA+sucrose; 6) urea+Mo+BA+sucrose+salicylic acid (SA), 7) BA; 8) SA; and 9) sucrose. The above solutions contained following concentrations of compounds: urea 20 g dm, sucrose 10 g

Sylwester Smole?; W?odzimierz Sady

2012-01-01

233

Evidence for urea cycle activity in Sporosarcina ureae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sporosarcina ureae BS 860, a motile, sporeforming coccus, possesses the enzymes required for a functioning urea (ornithine) cycle. This is only the second known example of urea cycle activity in a prokaryote. Specific activities are reported for ornithine carbamoyltransferase, argininosuccinase, arginase, and urease. Although argininosuccinate synthetase activity could not be detected directly in crude cell extracts, indirect evidence from radiocarbon

Stephen E. Gruninger; Manuel Goldman

1988-01-01

234

Small and large deformation rheology and microstructure of ?-carrageenan gels containing commercial milk protein products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rheological behaviour of commercial milk protein\\/?-carrageenan mixtures in aqueous solutions was studied at neutral pH. Four milk protein ingredients; skim milk powder, milk protein concentrate, sodium caseinate, and whey protein isolate were considered. As seen by confocal laser microscopy, mixtures of ?-carrageenan with skim milk powder, milk protein concentrate, and sodium caseinate showed phase separation, but no phase separation

Y. Hemar; C. E. Hall; P. A. Munro; H. Singh

2002-01-01

235

Effect of replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with high-oil traditional canola, high-oleic acid canola, or high-erucic acid rapeseed meals on rumen fermentation, digestibility, milk production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of replacing conventional, solvent-extracted canola meal (control; CTRL) with high oil content; conventional, mechanically extracted canola meal (CMEC); high-oleic, low polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) canola meal (HOLL); and high-erucic acid, low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (RPS) on rumen function, digestibility, milk production, and milk FA composition in lactating dairy cows. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 8 lactating dairy cows. Four of the cows were ruminally cannulated. All oilseed meals were included at approximately 12 to 13% of dietary dry matter (DM). Crude protein and fat concentrations (% of DM) of the meals were 43 and 3.1%, 32.8 and 16.1%, 45.2 and 13.7%, and 34.3 and 17.9% for CTRL, CMEC, HOLL, and RPS, respectively. All diets were formulated to supply net energy of lactation in excess of requirements. The CMEC and RPS diets were predicted to be about 1% deficient in metabolizable protein. Relative to the CTRL, inclusion of high-oil seed meals in the diet lowered ruminal acetate concentration and the molar acetate:propionate ratio and decreased DM intake. Milk yield generally followed DM intake and was lower for CMEC and RPS than the CTRL. Treatments had no effect on milk composition, other than an increase in milk urea nitrogen concentration for HOLL. Fat-corrected milk (3.5%) feed efficiency was increased by HOLL and RPS compared with CTRL. Urinary urea nitrogen losses were increased by HOLL, which, as a consequence, increased the ammonia-emitting potential of manure. The ratio of milk N-to-N intake was greater for CMEC and RPS. Replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with the high-oil meal decreased milk fat 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and total saturated FA content and enhanced cis-9 18:1 and total monounsaturated FA concentrations. Relative to the CTRL, canola increased total trans FA in milk, whereas inclusion of HOLL in the diet increased trans-11 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 CLA content. The RPS increased milk fat cis-13 22:1 content from 0.07 to 2.33 g/100g of FA. In conclusion, HOLL or RPS, which are likely to come from small-scale biodiesel plants where oil is cold pressed without hexane extraction, fed at levels at or above 12 to 13% of dietary DM may decrease feed intake and milk production, but can be used to alter milk FA composition in lactating dairy cows. PMID:21787941

Hristov, A N; Domitrovich, C; Wachter, A; Cassidy, T; Lee, C; Shingfield, K J; Kairenius, P; Davis, J; Brown, J

2011-08-01

236

Chemistry of milk proteins in food processing.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the current knowledge of mild protein chemistry to explain the reactions and their control for the major processes utilized by the modern milk processing industry. The compositon and chemical properties of casein micelles and whey proteins are summarized. The effect of processing upon denaturation, aggregration, and destabilization of milk proteins is updated. The role of milk proteins in the gelation of sterile milk concentrates, destabilization of frozen milk, rennet-clotting of milk, and stabilization of the fat emulsion in milk is also described. PMID:237947

Morr, C V

1975-07-01

237

Microdetermination of urea in urine using p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde /PDAB/  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adaptation of the p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde method for determining urea concentration in urine is an improved micromechanical method. Accuracy and precision are satisfactory. This method avoids extra steps of deproteinizing or removing normal urinary chromogens.

Geiger, P. J.

1969-01-01

238

Quantification of milk fat globule membrane proteins using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Although some of the physiological roles of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins are still unclear, there is increasing evidence that the consumption of bovine MFGM proteins has significant nutritional health benefits for humans; therefore, it may be important to be able to estimate the MFGM proteins in complex ingredients. In this study, the absolute quantification (AQUA) technique, which is typically used for the quantification of proteins in proteomic studies, was applied for the quantification of bovine MFGM proteins in butter milk protein concentrate. Six MFGM proteins (fatty acid binding protein, butyrophilin, PAS 6/7, adipophilin, xanthine oxidase, and mucin 1) were simultaneously quantified using high-resolution selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Samples were rehydrated in 6.7 M urea buffer prior to dilution to 2.2 M before tryspin digestion. Direct rehydration in 2.2 M urea buffer or 2.2 M urea/20% acetonitilrile buffer reduced peptide yield digestion. Isotopically labeled peptides were used as internal standards. The coefficient of variation ranged from 5 to 15%, with a recovery of 84-105%. The limit of detection was in the range of 20-40 pg. PMID:19537729

Fong, Bertram Y; Norris, Carmen S

2009-07-22

239

Ammonium and urea removal by Spirulina platensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different concentrations either of ammonium chloride or urea were used in batch and fed-batch cultivations of Spirulina platensis to evaluate the possibility of substituting nitrate by cheaper reduced nitrogen sources in wastewaters biotreatment. The\\u000a maximum nitrogen concentration able to sustain the batch growth of this microalga without inhibition was 1.7 mM in both cases.\\u000a Ammonium chloride was limiting for the growth

A. Converti; S. Scapazzoni; A. Lodi; J. C. M. Carvalho

2006-01-01

240

The effect of N-fertilisation rate or inclusion of red clover to timothy leys on fatty acid composition in milk of dairy cows fed a commercial silage: concentrate ratio.  

PubMed

The aim of this experiment was to, under typical Swedish production conditions, evaluate the effects of grass silages subjected to different N-fertilisation regimes fed to dairy cows on the fatty acid (FA) composition of their milk, and to compare the grass silages in this respect to red clover-dominated silage. Grass silages made from first year Phleum pratense L. leys subjected to three N-fertilisation regimes (30, 90 and 120 kg N/ha, designated G-30, G-90 and G-120, respectively) and a mixed red clover-grass silage (Trifolium pratense L. and P. pratense L.; 60/40 on dry matter (DM) basis, designated RC-G) were produced. The experiment was conducted as a change-over design, including 24 primiparous and multiparous dairy cows of the Swedish Red breed, each of which was allocated to three of the four diets. The cows were offered 11 kg DM of silage and 7 kg concentrates. The silages had similar DM and energy concentrations. The CP concentration increased with increase in N-fertilisation level. There was a linear increase in DM intake of the different silages with increased N fertilisation. There were also differences in concentrations of both individual and total FAs amongst silages. The daily milk production (kg/day) did not significantly differ between treatments, but G-30 silage resulted in higher concentrations of 18:2n-6 in the milk compared with the other two grass silages. The highest concentrations of 18:3n-3 and cis-9, trans-11 18:2 were found in milk from cows offered the RC-G silage. The G-30 diet resulted in higher concentration of 18:2n-6 and the same concentration of 18:3n-3 in the milk as the other grass silages, despite lower intake levels of these FAs. The apparent recoveries of 18:3n-3 from feed to milk were 5.74%, 4.27%, 4.10% and 5.31% for G-30, G-90, G-120 and RC-G, respectively. A higher recovery when red clover is included in the diet confirms previous reports. The higher apparent recovery of 18:3n-3 on the G-30 treatment may be related to the lower silage DM intake, which led to a higher relative proportion of ingested FAs originating from concentrates compared with the G-90 and G-120 diets. With the rates and types of concentrates used in this study, the achieved differences in FA composition among the silages were not enough to influence the concentrations of unsaturated FAs in milk. PMID:23031480

Arvidsson, K; Gustavsson, A-M; Fievez, V; Martinsson, K

2012-07-01

241

Theoretical study on the structures and properties of mixtures of urea and choline chloride.  

PubMed

In this work, we investigated in detail the structural characteristics of mixtures of choline chloride and urea with different urea contents by performing molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, and offer possible explanations for the low melting point of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea with a ratio of 1:2. The insertion of urea molecules was found to change the density distribution of cations and anions around the given cations significantly, disrupting the long-range ordered structure of choline chloride. Moreover, with increasing urea concentration, the hydrogen bond interactions between choline cations and Cl(-) anions decreased, while those among urea molecules obviously increased. From the hydrogen bond lifetimes, it was found that a ratio of 1:2 between choline chloride and urea is necessary for a reasonable strength of hydrogen bond interaction to maintain the low melting point of the mixture of choline chloride with urea. In addition, it was also deduced from the interaction energies that a urea content of 67.7 % may make the interactions of cation-anion, cation-urea and anion-urea modest, and thus results in the lower melting point of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea. The present results may offer assistance to some extent for understanding the physicochemical properties of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea, and give valuable information for the further development and application of deep eutectic solvents. PMID:23435478

Sun, Hui; Li, Yan; Wu, Xue; Li, Guohui

2013-06-01

242

Milk Thistle  

MedlinePLUS

... 2005:467-482. Milk thistle. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on October 7, 2009. Milk thistle ( Silybum marianum ), silymarin. Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on ...

243

Chemiresistor urea sensor  

DOEpatents

A sensor is disclosed to detect and quantify urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures, and in blood and other body fluids. The sensor is based upon a chemiresistor, which consists of an interdigitated array of metal fingers between which a resistance measured. The interdigitated array is fabricated on a suitable substrate. The surface of the array of fingers is covered with a coating containing the enzyme urease which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form the ammonium ion, the bicarbonate ion, and hydroxide-chemical products which provide the basis for the measured signal. In a typical application, the sensor could be used at bedside, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. Also, the chemiresistor used to detect urea, can be utilized with a reference chemiresistor which does not contain urease, and connected in a differential measurement arrangement, such that the reference chemiresistor would cancel out any fluctuations due to background effects. 16 figs.

Glass, R.S.

1997-12-16

244

Quality of milk and of Canestrato Pugliese cheese from ewes exposed to different ventilation regimens.  

PubMed

Effects of ventilation regimen on the quality of ewes' milk and on proteolysis in Canestrato Pugliese cheese during ripening were studied. Cheeses were manufactured from the bulk milk of Comisana ewes subjected to three different ventilation regimens, which were designated low (LOV, 23 m3/h per ewe), moderate (MOV, 47 m3/h per ewe) and programmed ventilation regimen (PROV, 73 m3/h per ewe; fan set to maintain 70% relative humidity). Bulk milk was analysed for chemical and microbial composition, renneting parameters and plasmin-plasminogen activities. At 1, 15, 30 and 45 d of ripening, the cheeses were analysed for gross chemical composition, nitrogen fractions, and plasmin and plasminogen activities. The pH 4.6-insoluble nitrogen fractions were analysed by urea-PAGE. Free amino acid content was determined at the end of ripening. Lower concentrations of bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and of mesophilic bacteria were found in the MOV group than in the LOV and the PROV groups. A lower plasminogen (PG) to plasmin (PL) ratio (PG/PL) was observed in the MOV and PROV than in the LOV cheeses. Irrespective of treatment, PL activity in cheeses was higher at 15d of ripening, while a sudden decrease of PL and PG activities was observed at 30 d, which was associated with a marked increase in non-protein nitrogen. The peptide profile characterized in the urea-PAGE showed a greater intensity of alpha- and beta-CN hydrolysis in the MOV than in the PROV and LOV cheeses. The results provide evidence that a proper ventilation regimen is critical for optimizing the hygienic quality of milk and the proteolysis of Canestrato Pugliese cheese during ripening. PMID:15605710

Albenzio, Marzia; Marino, Rosaria; Caroprese, Mariangela; Santillo, Antonella; Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Sevi, Agostino

2004-11-01

245

Effect of replacing grass silage with red clover silage on nutrient digestion, nitrogen metabolism, and milk fat composition in lactating cows fed diets containing a 60:40 forage-to-concentrate ratio.  

PubMed

Diets based on red clover silage (RCS) typically increase the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ruminant meat and milk and lower the efficiency of N utilization compared with grass silages (GS). Four multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (108 d postpartum) fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods to evaluate the effect of incremental replacement of GS with RCS on milk production, nutrient digestion, whole-body N metabolism, and milk fatty acid composition. Treatments comprised total mixed rations offered ad libitum, containing 600 g of forage/kg of diet dry matter (DM), with RCS replacing GS in ratios of 0:100, 33:67, 67:33, and 100:0 on a DM basis. Intake of DM and milk yield tended to be higher when RCS and GS were offered as a mixture than when fed alone. Forage species had no influence on the concentration or secretion of total milk fat, whereas replacing GS with RCS tended to decrease milk protein concentration and yield. Substitution of GS with RCS decreased linearly whole-tract apparent organic matter, fiber, and N digestion. Forage species had no effect on total nonammonia N at the omasum, whereas the flow of most AA at the omasum was higher for diets based on a mixture of forages. Replacing GS with RCS progressively lowered protein degradation in the rumen, increased linearly ruminal escape of dietary protein, and decreased linearly microbial protein synthesis. Incremental inclusion of RCS in the diet tended to lower whole-body N balance, increased linearly the proportion of dietary N excreted in feces and urine, and decreased linearly the utilization of dietary N for milk protein synthesis. Furthermore, replacing GS with RCS decreased linearly milk fat 4:0 to 8:0, 14:0, and 16:0 concentrations and increased linearly 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 concentrations, in the absence of changes in cis-9 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 18:2, or total trans fatty acid concentration. Inclusion of RCS in the diet progressively increased the apparent transfer of 18-carbon PUFA from the diet into milk, but had no effect on the amount of 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 at the omasum recovered in milk. In conclusion, forage species modified ruminal N metabolism, the flow of AA at the omasum, and whole-body N partitioning. A lower efficiency of N utilization for milk protein synthesis with RCS relative to GS was associated with decreased availability of AA for absorption, with some evidence of an imbalance in the supply of AA relative to requirements. Higher enrichment of PUFA in milk for diets based on RCS was related to an increased supply for absorption, with no indication that forage species substantially altered PUFA bioavailability. PMID:24679932

Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Vanhatalo, A; Toivonen, V; Heikkilä, T; Lee, M R F; Shingfield, K J

2014-06-01

246

Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves.  

PubMed

The current study evaluated the effects of protein provision to calves fed a combination of solid feed (SF) and milk replacer (MR) at equal total N intake on urea recycling and N retention. Nitrogen balance traits and [(15)N2]urea kinetics were measured in 30 calves (23 wk of age, 180±3.7kg of body weight), after being exposed to the following experimental treatments for 11 wk: a low level of SF with a low N content (SF providing 12% of total N intake), a high level of SF with a low N content (SF providing 22% of total N intake), or a high level of SF with a high N content (SF providing 36% of total N intake). The SF mixture consisted of 50% concentrates, 25% corn silage, and 25% straw on a dry matter basis. Total N intake was equalized to 1.8g of N·kg of BW(-0.75)·d(-1) by adjusting N intake via MR. All calves were housed individually on metabolic cages to allow for quantification of a N balance of calves for 5 d, and for the assessment of urea recycling from [(15)N2]urea kinetics. Increasing low-N SF intake at equal total N intake resulted in a shift from urinary to fecal N excretion but did not affect protein retention (0.71g of N·kg of BW(-0.75)·d(-1)). Increasing low-N SF intake increased urea recycling but urea reused for anabolism remained unaffected. Total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased (-9%) with increasing low-N SF intake, indicating reduced rumen fermentation. Increasing the N content of SF at equal total N intake resulted in decreased urea production, excretion, and return to ornithine cycle, and increased protein retention by 17%. This increase was likely related to an effect of energy availability on protein retention due to an increase in total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestion (>10%) and due to an increased energy supply via the MR. In conclusion, increasing low-N SF intake at the expense of N intake from MR, did not affect protein retention efficiency in calves. Increasing the N content of SF at equal total N intake decreased urea production, increased protein retention, and coincided with improved fiber degradation. Therefore, results suggest that low N availability in the rumen limits microbial growth and rumen fermentation in calves fed low-N SF (93g of CP/kg of DM), and this effect cannot be compensated for by recycling of urea originating from MR. PMID:25497820

Berends, H; van den Borne, J J G C; Røjen, B A; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

2015-02-01

247

Antimicrobial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extracts against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus in a microbiological medium and milk of various fat concentrations.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces are widely used in the preparation of beverages. The calyces contain compounds that exhibit antimicrobial activity, yet little research has been conducted on their possible use in food systems as antimicrobials. Aqueous extracts prepared from the brand "Mi Costenita" were sterilized by membrane filtration (0.22-?m pore size) or autoclaving (121 °C, 30 min) and tested for antimicrobial activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains ATCC 43894 and Cider and Staphylococcus aureus strains SA113 and ATCC 27708 in a microbiological medium and ultrahigh-temperature-processed milk with various fat percentages. Extracts heated by autoclaving exhibited greater activity than did filtered extracts in a microbiological medium. Against E. coli, results of 20 mg/ml filtered extract were not different from those of the control, whereas autoclaved extracts reduced viable cells ca. 3 to 4 log CFU/ml. At 60 mg/ml, both extracts inactivated cells after 24 h. There were reduced populations of both strains of S. aureus (ca. 2.7 and 3 log CFU/ml, respectively) after 24 h of incubation in 40 mg/ml filtered extracts. When grown in autoclaved extracts at 40 mg/ml, both strains of S. aureus were inactivated after 9 h. Autoclaved extracts had decreased anthocyanin content (2.63 mg/liter) compared with filtered extracts (14.27 mg/liter), whereas the phenolic content (48.7 and 53.8 mg/g) remained similar for both treatments. Autoclaved extracts were then tested for activity in milk at various fat concentrations (skim [<0.5%], 1%, 2%, and whole [>3.25%]) against a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of E. coli O157:H7 and a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of S. aureus. Extracts at 40 mg/ml inactivated S. aureus after 168 h in skim and whole milk, and E. coli was inactivated after 96 h in 60 mg/ml extract in all fat levels. These findings show the potential use of Hibiscus extracts to prevent the growth of pathogens in foods and beverages. PMID:24490920

Higginbotham, Kristen L; Burris, Kellie P; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Davidson, P Michael; Stewart, C Neal

2014-02-01

248

Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Urea Transporters  

PubMed Central

Urea transporter (UT) proteins, which include isoforms of UT-A in kidney tubule epithelia and UT-B in vasa recta endothelia and erythrocytes, facilitate urinary concentrating function. Inhibitors of urea transporter function have potential clinical applications as sodium-sparing diuretics, or ‘urearetics,’ in edema from different etiologies, such as congestive heart failure and cirrhosis, as well as in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). High-throughput screening of drug-like small molecules has identified UT-A and UT-B inhibitors with nanomolar potency. Inhibitors have been identified with different UT-A versus UT-B selectivity profiles and putative binding sites on UT proteins. Studies in rodent models support the utility of UT inhibitors in reducing urinary concentration, though testing in clinically relevant animal models of edema has not yet been done. PMID:25298345

Verkman, Alan S.; Esteva-Font, Cristina; Cil, Onur; Anderson, Marc O.; Li, Fei; Li, Min; Lei, Tianluo; Ren, Huiwen; Yang, Baoxue

2015-01-01

249

Improving the nutritive value of wheat straw with urea and yeast culture for dry season feeding of dairy cows.  

PubMed

The study evaluated the effects of feeding urea treated/supplemented wheat straw-based diets with addition of yeast culture (YC) as a dry season feed for dairy cows. Wheat straw diets with 3.6% urea and 5.8% molasses were formulated to upgrade nonprotein nitrogen levels and fibre degradation in the rumen. Yeast culture was included at 0 and 10 g/cow/day in mixer with commercial dairy meal to improve on fibre degradation and milk yield. Two experiments were conducted. Firstly, an in sacco dry matter degradability (DMD) trial with three steers in a completely randomized design (CRD) with a 3?×?2 factorial arrangement to determine the effects on intake and rumen degradation parameters. Secondly, feeding trial with 18 lactating cows in a 3?×?2 factorial arrangement at two levels of yeast culture (0 and 10 g/cow/day) and three types of urea interventions: No intervention (WS); addition of urea to straw at the time of feeding (USWS); and 7 days incubation of straw with urea (UTWS). Yeast cultures addition had no effect on rumen pH and NH3-N, but urea intervention showed an effect on rumen pH with USWS being lowest (p?urea interventions and yeast culture addition had no effect (p?>?0.05) on dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition but they increased (p?

Kashongwe, Olivier Basole; Migwi, Preminius; Bebe, Bockline Omedo; Ooro, Patrick Auwor; Onyango, Tobias Atali; Osoo, John Odhiambo

2014-08-01

250

Contribution of macrophages to proteolysis and plasmin activity in ewe bulk milk.  

PubMed

A total of 225 bulk sheep milk samples were collected from 5 intensively managed flocks during early, mid, and late lactation to assess the contribution of macrophages to the regulation of the plasmin-plasminogen system. Samples were analyzed for composition, somatic cell counts, milk renneting characteristics, and for plasmin (PL), plasminogen (PG), and plasminogen activators (PA) activities. Isolation of macrophages from milk was performed using a magnetic positive separation and mouse antiovine macrophage antibody; separated cells were lysed by several freeze-thaw cycles, and activity of urokinase PA (u-PA) was determined. Plasmin activity decreased during lactation (42.06 +/- 0.66, early; 31.29 +/- 0.66, mid; 28.19 +/- 0.66 U/mL, late). The reduction in PL activity recorded in the mid and late lactation milk matched the increase in PG:PL ratio. The activity of PA increased throughout lactation; the highest value being recorded in the late lactation milk (260.20 +/- 8.66 U/mL). Counts of isolated and concentrated macrophages were higher in early and mid lactation milk (3.89 +/- 0.08 and 3.98 +/- 0.08 log10 cells/mL, respectively) than in late lactation milk (3.42 +/- 0.08 log10 cells/mL). Stage of lactation did not influence the activity of u-PA detected in isolated macrophages. The activity of u-PA associated with isolated milk macrophages only minimally contributed to total PA activity detected in milk. Proteolytic enzymes, associated with isolated macrophages, act on alpha-casein hydrolysis, as shown by urea-PAGE electrophoresis analysis. Somatic cell counts did not exceed 600,000 cells/mL, and this threshold can be considered a good index of health status of the flock and of the ability of milk to being processed. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that macrophages in ewe bulk milk from healthy flocks only slightly contribute to the activation of the PL-PG system. PMID:17517716

Caroprese, M; Marzano, A; Schena, L; Marino, R; Santillo, A; Albenzio, M

2007-06-01

251

Nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation affect yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in primiparous ewes.  

PubMed

The objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in first parity ewes. Rambouillet ewe lambs (n = 84, age = 240 ± 17 d, BW = 52.1 ± 6.2 kg) were allocated to 6 treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial array. Factors included Se [adequate Se (ASe, 11.5 µg/kg of BW) or high Se (HSe, 77.0 µg/kg of BW)] initiated at breeding, and nutritional plane [60 (RES), 100 (CON), or 140% (HIH) of requirements] initiated at d 40 of gestation. Ewes were fed individually from d 40, and lambs were removed at parturition. Colostrum was milked from all ewes at 3 h postpartum, and one-half of the ewes (n = 42) were transitioned to a common diet meeting lactation requirements and mechanically milked for 20 d. Colostrum yield was greater (P = 0.02) for HSe ewes than ASe, whereas CON had greater (P < 0.05) colostrum yield than RES and HIH. Colostrum Se (%) was greater (P < 0.01) for HSe than ASe. Colostrum from ewes fed HSe had less (P = 0.03) butterfat (%), but greater (P ? 0.05) total butterfat, solids-not-fat, lactose, protein, milk urea N, and Se than ASe. Colostrum from HIH ewes had greater (P ? 0.02) solids-not-fat (%) than RES, whereas RES had greater (P ? 0.04) butterfat (%) than CON and HIH. Colostrum from ewes fed the CON diet had greater (P = 0.01) total butterfat than HIH. Total solids-not-fat, lactose, and protein were greater (P < 0.05) in colostrum from CON than RES and HIH. Ewes fed HSe had greater (P < 0.01) milk yield (g/d and mL/d) than ASe, and CON and HIH had greater (P < 0.01) yield than RES. Milk protein (%) was greater (P ? 0.01) in RES compared with CON or HIH. Ewes fed HSe had greater (P < 0.01) milk Se (µg/g and mg/d) than ASe on each sampling day. Milk from CON and HIH ewes had greater (P < 0.01) total solids-not-fat, lactose, protein, and milk urea N than RES. Total Se was greater (P = 0.02) in milk from ewes fed the CON diet compared with RES. Somatic cell count and total somatic cells were greater (P ? 0.05) in milk from CON than RES. A cubic effect of day (P ? 0.01) was observed for milk yield (g and mL). Butterfat, solids-not-fat, lactose, milk urea N, and Se concentration responded quadratically (P ? 0.01) to day. Protein (%), total butterfat, and total Se, and somatic cells (cells/mL and cells/d) decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with day. Results indicate that gestational nutrition affects colostrum and milk yield and nutrient content, even when lactational nutrient requirements are met. PMID:21521822

Meyer, A M; Reed, J J; Neville, T L; Thorson, J F; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Taylor, J B; Reynolds, L P; Redmer, D A; Luther, J S; Hammer, C J; Vonnahme, K A; Caton, J S

2011-05-01

252

Transfer of melamine from feed to milk and from milk to cheese and whey in lactating dairy cows fed single oral doses.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate the excretion pattern, after a single oral dose, of melamine from feed into milk, and the subsequent transfer to cheese and whey. The transfer of cyanuric acid was also investigated. Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows were randomly allocated to 4 treatments and received single doses of melamine as follows: 0.05, 0.50, 5.00, and 50.00 g/cow for groups D1, D2, D3, and D4, respectively. Individual milk samples were collected for melamine and cyanuric acid analyses on d 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7. Milk collected individually from the second milking after melamine ingestion was used to make cheese on a laboratory scale. Melamine and cyanuric acid were extracted using a solid-phase extraction cartridge, and analyses were carried out by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Maximal melamine concentrations occurred between 6 and 18 h after treatment and increased with log dose (linear and quadratic), ranging from 0.019 to 35.105 mg/kg. More than 60% of the melamine that was transferred to the milk was observed within 30 h after melamine ingestion. Melamine was not detected (limit of detection was 0.002 mg/kg) in milk 5 d after treatment in group D1, and 7 d after treatment in groups D2, D3, and D4. Blood urea nitrogen was not influenced by melamine ingestion. During cheese making, melamine was transferred mainly to the whey fraction. Cyanuric acid was not detected in any of the samples (milk, cheese, or whey). The excretion pattern of melamine in milk and whey may represent a health concern when cows ingest more than 0.50 g of melamine/d. However, only at intake levels of 5 and 50 g/d did cheese exceed the limits as set forth by the European Union. The results confirmed that melamine contamination of milk and milk products may be related not only to direct contamination, but also to adulteration of animal feeds. PMID:20965350

Battaglia, M; Cruywagen, C W; Bertuzzi, T; Gallo, A; Moschini, M; Piva, G; Masoero, F

2010-11-01

253

Influence of Pasteurization and Cool-Aging on the Behavior of Pure Salt Solutions Prepared in Accordance with the Composition and Concentrations in Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A pure salt solution was prepared to sinmlate the composition of salts in milk serum, in order to study the mineral balance in milk. The salts were distributed into soluble and colloidal phases and a sediment was separated from the solution by centri- fugation. Storage resulted in formations that resembled \\

I. S. Verma; H. H. Sommer

1958-01-01

254

Trehalose protects urea-induced unfolding of ?-chymotrypsin.  

PubMed

Trehalose, a naturally occurring osmolyte, appears to be one of the most effective protectants for enzymes under various stress conditions while urea, a classical denaturant, destabilizes the activity, function, and alters the native structure of proteins. Herein, we have characterized the counteracting effects of trehalose on the deleterious effect of urea on ?-chymotrypsin (CT) through the calorimetric data (transition temperature (T(m)), enthalpy change (?H), heat capacity change (?C(p)) and Gibbs free energy of unfolding (?G(u)) by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and circular dichroism (CD) techniques, respectively, at a 1:2 ratio of trehalose and urea, as well as various urea concentration (up to 6 M) in the presence of 1 M trehalose. Our parallel experimental results explicitly elucidate that trehalose strongly offset the deleterious actions of urea on CT at 1:2 molar ratio of trehalose and urea, however, trehalose (1 M) some how failed to counteract the perturbation effects of urea (3-6 M) on CT. PMID:20691724

Kumar, Awanish; Attri, Pankaj; Venkatesu, Pannuru

2010-11-01

255

The effect of increasing the nutrient and amino acid concentration of milk diets on dairy heifer individual feed intake, growth, development, and lactation performance.  

PubMed

Increasing early (<3 mo) nutrient feeding levels and growth rate of dairy calves has been found to increase their milk production potential. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of offering milk diets with or without added carbohydrates and amino acids on calf growth, weaning age, and subsequent growth and milk yield of dairy heifers in their first lactation. Friesian calves born at Massey University (n=57) were selected at random, weighed, and allocated to receive 1 of 3 diets. All calves were fed colostrum from 1 to 3d of age, followed by 4 L of whole milk (WM) per head per day and probiotics between 3 and 18d of age. At 18d of age, calves were weighed to ensure mean body weight (BW); then, at 19 d of age, calves changed diets to 1 of 3 treatments, which reached full treatment rate at 21 d of age. The diets were 4 L/head per day of WM (M); 4 L/head per day of WM plus 200 g of plant carbohydrates (MP); and 4 L/head per day of WM plus 200 g of plant carbohydrates with amino acids (MPA). Calves were weaned upon reaching a BW of 90 kg. During this period, BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured. The heifers were commingled and grazed on ryegrass and white clover pastures until calving at 23 mo of age, when BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured again. Milk yield and composition were measured throughout first lactation. At weaning, calves fed MPA had greater mean BW gain, a lower number of days to target BW, and a greater mean hip width gain compared with calves in the M group, although mean gain in hip height did not differ among treatments. Total calf starter intake during the milk period was lower for MPA-fed calves compared with those offered M, mainly due to a shorter milk feeding period required to attain the 90-kg weaning weight, whereas mean daily starter intake and straw intake did not differ. No difference was observed in the calving rate or calving age of heifers in any of the dietary feeding groups. First lactation fat-corrected milk yield, milk fat percentage, and total milk fat and protein yields were greater for animals reared on MP and MPA compared with M. Body weight, hip height and width at parturition, milk protein percentage, somatic cell count, or days in milk did not differ among treatments. Increasing nutrient intake, during the milk feeding period, improved the BW gain of calves and milk production of dairy heifers during first lactation. PMID:23958020

Margerison, J K; Robarts, A D J; Reynolds, G W

2013-10-01

256

MANAGING UREA-CONTAINING FERTILIZERS  

E-print Network

-- 83 Urea 16 122 UAN solution (28%) 12 125 Ammonium nitrate 2 132 Oberle & Bundy, 1988. Data from one, Lancaster, WI N source Ammonia loss (%) Yield (tons/acre) None -- 0.74 Urea 19 1.09 Ammonium nitrate 1 1 1993 1994 1995 ----------- bu/acre --------- Ammonium nitrate 118 a 177 a 163 a UAN spray 94 bc 140 b

Balser, Teri C.

257

Phylogenetic Status of Sporosarcina ureae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The taxonomic position of Sporosarcina ureae has been historically controversial: in the seventh edition of Bergey's Manual (21, it is as- signed to the genus Sarcina in the family Mi- crococcaceae, whereas in the most recent edi- tion it is placed in the family Bacillaceae (3). The controversy originates from the fact that the vegetative cells of S. ureae resemble

KENNETH J. PECHMAN; BOBBY J. LEWIS; CARL R. WOESE

258

An investigation of FT-Raman spectroscopy for quantification of additives to milk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, four chemicals, urea, ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, and melamine, were mixed into liquid nonfat milk at concentrations starting from 0.1% to a maximum concentration determined for each chemical according to its maximum solubility, and two Raman spectrometers-a commercial Nicolet Raman system and an in-house Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) system-were used to acquire Raman shift spectra for these mixture samples. These chemicals are potential adulterants that could be used to artificially elevate protein measurements of milk products evaluated by the Kjeldahl method. Baseline subtraction was employed to eliminate milk intensity, and the normalized Raman intensity was calculated from the specific Raman shift from the spectrum of solid chemical. Linear relationships were found to exist between the normalized Raman intensity and chemical concentrations. The linear regression coefficients (R2) ranged from 0.9111 to 0.998. Although slightly higher R2 values were calculated for regressions using spectral intensities measured by the Nicolet system compared to those using measurements from the RCI system, the results from the two systems were similar and comparable. A very low concentration of melamine (400 ppm) in milk was also found to be detectable by both systems. Raman sensitivity of Nicolet Raman system was estimated from normalized Raman intensity and slope of regression line in this study. Chemicals (0.2%) were dissolved in milk and detected the normalized Raman intensity. Melamine was found to have the highest Raman sensitivity, with the highest values for normalized Raman intensity (0.09) and regression line slope (57.04).

Cheng, Yuche; Qin, Jianwei; Lim, Jongguk; Chan, Diane E.; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin

2012-05-01

259

Effect of milk protein concentrate on lipid oxidation and formation of fishy volatiles in herring mince (Clupea harengus) during frozen storage.  

PubMed

The effect of milk protein concentrate (MPC) at 0, 2, 4, and 6% on lipid oxidation and volatile formation in frozen stored herring mince (-18 degrees C) was evaluated by analyzing samples at 0, 2, and 4 months for fatty acid composition, volatiles, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Sensory evaluation was also conducted to assess the intensity of fishy odor, and the volatiles were analyzed using static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SHGC-MS). The addition of 4 and 6% MPC to herring mince resulted in a 33% and 50% reduction of TBARS, respectively, at month 4 and lessened the intensity of fishy odor throughout storage. However, MPC did not protect fatty acids from enzymatic degradation unless it was added immediately after mincing. Volatile analysis using SHGC-MS showed that 4% MPC was able to reduce headspace volatiles associated with fishy odor. MPC is most effective for reducing 4-heptenal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-hexenal, and 1-penten-3-ol, which are known to be potent odorants associated with lipid oxidation. PMID:18052036

Joaquin, H J F; Tolasa, S; Oliveira, A C M; Lee, C M; Lee, K H

2008-01-01

260

Effect of NaCl addition during diafiltration on the solubility, hydrophobicity, and disulfide bonds of 80% milk protein concentrate powder.  

PubMed

We investigated the surface hydrophobicity index based on different fluorescence probes [1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS) and 6-propionyl-2-(N,N-dimethylamino)-naphthalene (PRODAN)], free sulfhydryl and disulfide bond contents, and particle size of 80% milk protein concentrate (MPC80) powders prepared by adding various amounts of NaCl (0, 50, 100, and 150 mM) during the diafiltration process. The solubility of MPC80 powder was not strictly related to surface hydrophobicity. The MPC80 powder obtained by addition of 150 mM NaCl during diafiltration had the highest solubility but also the highest ANS-based surface hydrophobicity, the lowest PRODAN-based surface hydrophobicity, and the least aggregate formation. Intermolecular disulfide bonds caused by sulfhydryl-disulfide interchange reactions and hydrophobic interactions may be responsible for the lower solubility of the control MPC80 powder. The enhanced solubility of MPC80 powder with addition of NaCl during diafiltration may result from the modified surface hydrophobicity, the reduced intermolecular disulfide bonds, and the associated decrease in mean particle size. Addition of NaCl during the diafiltration process can modify the strength of hydrophobic interactions and sulfhydryl-disulfide interchange reactions and thereby affect protein aggregation and the solubility of MPC powders. PMID:22720907

Mao, X Y; Tong, P S; Gualco, S; Vink, S

2012-07-01

261

Characterization of Timed Changes in Hepatic Copper Concentrations, Methionine Metabolism, Gene Expression, and Global DNA Methylation in the Jackson Toxic Milk Mouse Model of Wilson Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Wilson disease (WD) is characterized by hepatic copper accumulation with progressive liver damage to cirrhosis. This study aimed to characterize the toxic milk mouse from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME, USA) (tx-j) mouse model of WD according to changes over time in hepatic copper concentrations, methionine metabolism, global DNA methylation, and gene expression from gestational day 17 (fetal) to adulthood (28 weeks). Methods Included liver histology and relevant biochemical analyses including hepatic copper quantification, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) liver levels, qPCR for transcript levels of genes relevant to methionine metabolism and liver damage, and DNA dot blot for global DNA methylation. Results Hepatic copper was lower in tx-j fetuses but higher in weanling (three weeks) and adult tx-j mice compared to controls. S-adenosylhomocysteinase transcript levels were significantly lower at all time points, except at three weeks, correlating negatively with copper levels and with consequent changes in the SAM:SAH methylation ratio and global DNA methylation. Conclusion Compared to controls, methionine metabolism including S-adenosylhomocysteinase gene expression is persistently different in the tx-j mice with consequent alterations in global DNA methylation in more advanced stages of liver disease. The inhibitory effect of copper accumulation on S-adenosylhomocysteinase expression is associated with progressively abnormal methionine metabolism and decreased methylation capacity and DNA global methylation. PMID:24810691

Le, Anh; Shibata, Noreene M.; French, Samuel W.; Kim, Kyoungmi; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Islam, Mohammad S.; LaSalle, Janine M.; Halsted, Charles H.; Keen, Carl L.; Medici, Valentina

2014-01-01

262

Hydrogen production via urea electrolysis using a gel electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technology was demonstrated for the production of hydrogen and other valuable products (nitrogen and clean water) through the electrochemical oxidation of urea in alkaline media. In addition, this process remediates toxic nitrates and prevents gaseous ammonia emissions. Improvements to urea electrolysis were made through replacement of aqueous KOH electrolyte with a poly(acrylic acid) gel electrolyte. A small volume of poly(acrylic acid) gel electrolyte was used to accomplish the electrochemical oxidation of urea improving on the previous requirement for large amounts of aqueous potassium hydroxide. The effect of gel composition was investigated by varying polymer content and KOH concentrations within the polymer matrix in order to determine which is the most advantageous for the electrochemical oxidation of urea and production of hydrogen.

King, Rebecca L.; Botte, Gerardine G.

2011-03-01

263

Designer milk.  

PubMed

Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques. PMID:17900499

Sabikhi, Latha

2007-01-01

264

Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.  

PubMed

The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by feeding level. In conclusion, reduction in energy spared via fat yield reduction after CLA supplementation was not partitioned toward milk lactose or protein in goats at a low feeding level, possibly because of a simultaneous shortage of energy and amino acids. In goats on the high feeding level, energy spared tended to be partitioned toward milk protein yield, and at the same time to the prevention of excessive lipid mobilization. PMID:25151882

Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

2014-11-01

265

Effects of dietary protein level on ewe milk yield and nitrogen utilization, and on air quality under different ventilation rates.  

PubMed

The experiment, which lasted 53 d, was conducted during the winter (February and March) of 2004 and used 48 Comisana ewes in mid lactation. A 2 x 2 factorial design was used, with ewes receiving two levels of dietary crude protein (CP) (moderate, 16% CP v. low, 13% CP) in the dry matter (DM) and being exposed to two ventilation rates (moderate, 47 m3/h v. low, 23.5 m3/h per ewe) for each dietary treatment. Air concentrations of NH3 and of microorganisms were measured twice weekly. Milk yield was recorded daily. Individual milk samples were analysed weekly for composition and fortnightly for bacteriological characteristics. After the last milk sampling (day 49 of the study period), four animals from each group were placed in a metabolism box and their individual faeces and urine were collected for three consecutive days. Amounts of urine and faeces excreted, and urinary and faecal N outputs were measured. The 16% CP diet resulted in a lower milk casein content and a higher milk urea concentration than the 13% CP diet, as well as in a reduced gross efficiency of utilization of dietary N, a greater amount of N excreted and a higher total coliform concentration in milk. The moderate ventilation rate resulted in higher yields of milk, irrespective of CP content. Significant interactions of CP level x ventilation rate were found for the amounts of urine, of total water and of faecal N, and for mesophilic concentration in milk, the highest values being displayed by the ewes fed the 16% CP diet and exposed to the low ventilation rate. The moderate dietary CP level and low ventilation rate had a deleterious effect on air concentrations of microorganisms and ammonia. Results suggested that a reduction of dietary CP level from 16 to 13% of DM had no detrimental effect on ewe milk yield in mid lactation and could even improve some of its nutritional and hygienic characteristics. Our findings also indicate that the choice of a proper ventilation rate is critical for high efficiency of production in the lactating ewe, especially in intensively managed flocks receiving diets high in CP. PMID:16476175

Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia; Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Caroprese, Mariangela; Marino, Rosaria; Santillo, Antonella

2006-05-01

266

Development of a Raman chemical imaging detection method for authenticating skim milk powder  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research demonstrated that Raman chemical imaging coupled with a simple image classification algorithm can be used to detect multiple chemical adulterants in skim milk powder. Ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea were mixed into the milk powder as chemical adulterants in the conc...

267

Urea biosensor for hemodialysis monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research discloses an electrochemical sensor capable of detecting and quantifying urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures. The sensor is based upon measurement of the pH change produced in an aqueous environment by the products of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The sensor may be fabricated using methods amenable to mass fabrication, resulting in low-cost sensors and thus providing

1999-01-01

268

Urea biosensor for hemodialysis monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting and quantifying urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures. The sensor is based upon measurement of the pH change produced in an aqueous environment by the products of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The sensor may be fabricated using methods amenable to mass fabrication, resulting in low-cost sensors and thus providing the potential for

Robert S

1999-01-01

269

Monitoring of Urea and Potassium by Reverse Iontophoresis In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Reverse iontophoresis is an alternative to blood sampling for the monitoring of endogenous molecules. Here, the potential\\u000a of the technique to measure urea and potassium levels non-invasively, and to track their concentrations during hemodialysis,\\u000a has been examined.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  \\u000a In vitro experiments were performed to test (a) a series of subdermal urea and potassium concentrations typical of the pathophysiologic

Valentine Wascotte; M. Begoña Delgado-Charro; Eric Rozet; Pierre Wallemacq; Philippe Hubert; Richard H. Guy; Véronique Préat

2007-01-01

270

Influence of Condensed Tannins from Ficus bengalensis Leaves on Feed Utilization, Milk Production and Antioxidant Status of Crossbred Cows  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to examine the effects of condensed tannins (CT) from Ficus bengalensis leaves on the feed utilization, milk production and health status of crossbred cows. Eighteen crossbred dairy cows at their second and mid lactation (avg. BW 351.6±10.6 kg) were randomly divided into two groups of nine each in a completely randomized block design and fed two iso-nitrogenous supplements formulated to contain 0% and 1.5% CT through dried and ground leaves of Ficus bengalensis. The diets were designated as CON and FBLM, respectively and fed to cows with a basal diet of rice straw to meet requirements for maintenance and milk production. The daily milk yield was significantly (p<0.05) increased due to supplementation of FBLM diet. The 4% fat corrected milk yield was also significantly (p<0.01) higher due to increased (p<0.05) milk fat in cows under diet FBLM as compared to CON. The inclusion of CT at 1.5% in the supplement did not interfere with the feed intake or digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF by lactating cows. Digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) values of the composite diets were comparable between the groups. The blood biochemical parameters remained unaltered except significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum urea concentration in cows fed FBLM diet. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in cows supplemented with condensed tannins. The total thiol group (T-SH) was found to be higher with reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cows of FBLM group. The cost of feeding per kg milk production was also reduced due to supplementation of Ficus bengalensis leaves. Therefore, a perceptible positive impact was evident on milk production and antioxidant status in crossbred cows during mid-lactation given supplement containing 1.5% CT through Ficus bengalensis leaves. PMID:25049960

Dey, Avijit; De, Partha Sarathi

2014-01-01

271

Immunodetection of added glycomacropeptide in milk formulas and milk powders.  

PubMed

The present study aimed the detection of fraudulent manipulation of milk powder with a low cost component--whey powder, by applying the immunochromatographic assay to identify glycomacropeptide. Five commercial milk powder samples of various brands from the national market were analyzed: lactose enriched milk powder type 26, two whole milk powders, vitamin enriched milk powder and full cream milk powder. Our results showed additional whey (1-2%) in 60% of the selected samples after casein removal by precipitation with 20% trichloracetic acid. Another investigated sample--the enriched UHT milk for children aged 4-12 years--proved addition of whey. Other two commercial toddler formula milk powder samples of different brands were used for comparison for the presence of glycomacropeptide. The first sample which was regularly labeled as containing whey protein concentrate was found positive for glycomacropeptide in accordance with the label information, while the second one not containing whey proteins as specified by the product label, was found negative for glycomacropeptide, these two samples being in accordance with the actual legislation. PMID:21717808

Oancea, Simona; Stoia, Mihaela

2011-01-01

272

Milk Plastic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners transform everyday milk into small plastic figurines and jewelry. Use this activity to introduce learners to monomers and polymers. Note: this activity requires adult supervision.

Workshop, Mission S.

2013-01-01

273

Disappearing Milk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A magician pours milk into a glass, but when he turns the glass upside down, nothing comes out. How does he do it? Discover the science behind the magic in this video adapted from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

274

Room temperature removal of NO by activated carbon fibres loaded with urea and La2O3.  

PubMed

In this paper, catalytic samples of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% (w/w) urea/activated carbon fibre (AFC), 10% urea--5% La2O3/ACF, 10% urea--10% La2O3/ACF, 10% urea--15% La2O3/ACF, 20% urea--5% La2O3/ACF, 20% urea--10% La2O3/ACF, and 20% urea-15% La2O3/ACF were prepared and used for removal of NO under the condition of: NO, 500 ppm; O2, 21%; N2, balance, gas space velocity = 10000 m3 x h(-1) m(-3), total gas flow = 266.7 mL min(-1), temperature = 30 degreesC, relative humidity = 0%. The physical and chemical properties of the prepared catalysts were characterized by surface area measurements (BET) and scanning electron microscopy studies. Furthermore, the catalytic stability of 10% urea--5% La2O3/ACF under different concentrations of NO and O2 were also studied. The results showed that, among the prepared urea/ACF samples, 20% urea/ACF yielded the highest NO conversion at room temperature. Meanwhile, among the prepared urea--La2O3/ACF catalysts, 10% urea--5% La2O3/ACF yielded the highest NO conversion. Both 20% urea/ACF and 10% urea--5% La2O3/ACF could yield over 95% NO conversion at ambient temperature. However, 10% urea--5% La2O3/ACF had a more stable activity than that of 20% urea/ACF. The catalytic and characterization experimental results, including BET, thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared analysis, showed that the NO selective catalytic reduction mechanism of urea-La2O3/ACF was different from that of ACF and urea/ACF. The NO was purified by ACF mainly by adsorption, whereas there was mainly a reduction reaction when NO was purified by urea/ACF or urea-La2O3/ACF. ACF-C was not only the catalyst but also the reducing agent for urea/ACF, whereas, for urea-La2O3/ACF, the catalytic centre was La2O3, and ACF was mainly the carrier. These differences resulted in the higher and more stable NO removal by 10% urea--5% La2O3/ACF. PMID:22720430

Lu, Pei; Zeng, Zheng; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Guo, Jing; Jiang, Xiao; Zhai, Yunbo; Fan, Xiaopeng

2012-01-01

275

Separation and determination of denatured alpha(s1)-, alpha(s2)-, beta- and kappa-caseins by hydrophobic interaction chromatography in cows', ewes' and goats' milk, milk mixtures and cheeses.  

PubMed

Caseins alpha(s1)-, alpha(s2)-, beta- and kappa- from raw cows', ewes' and goats' milk were separated and determined by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) by using a Propyl column (Eichrom) in the presence of 8.0 M urea in the mobile phase. The method is based on fast and easy solubilization of real raw samples by 4.0 M guanidine thiocyanate followed by the HIC analysis, without any preliminary precipitation or separation of the casein fraction. Elution conditions have been optimized by analyzing commercial single bovine standard caseins and their mixture. In the optimized chromatographic conditions the four casein fractions were separated in less than 45 min. A linear relationship between the concentration of casein and peak area (UV absorbance detector at 280 nm) has been obtained over the concentration range of 0.5 to 40 microM. The detection limit for alpha-, beta- and kappa-caseins ranged between 0.35 and 0.70 microM. The precision of the method was evaluated, the coefficient of variation for alpha-, beta- and kappa-casein determination ranging between 3.0 and 6.0%. The method has been validated by the analysis of reference skim milk powder (BCR-063R) certificated for total nitrogen content. The method was applied to commercial casein mixture and to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of casein fractions in unprocessed, raw cows', goats' and ewes' milk (10 samples analyzed for each species), in one sample of unprocessed buffalos' milk and in commercial cheeses (mozzarella, robiola, ricotta and stracchino). Binary mixtures of milk (cow/goat and cow/ewe) were also analyzed and the ratio between casein peak areas (alpha(s1)/kappa, alpha(s2)/beta, beta/kappa and alpha(s2)/alpha(s1)) of the HIC chromatograms was proposed and discussed in order to evaluate a possible application of this method to detect milk adulteration. PMID:12779219

Bramanti, Emilia; Sortino, Chandra; Onor, Massimo; Beni, Francesca; Raspi, Giorgio

2003-04-25

276

Viscosity, microstructure and phase behavior of aqueous mixtures of commercial milk protein products and xanthan gum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of commercial milk protein\\/xanthan mixtures was studied at neutral pH. Four milk protein ingredients; skim milk powder, milk protein concentrate, sodium caseinate and whey protein isolate were considered. For the xanthan concentrations used, up to 1wt%, the viscosity of the mixtures was dominated by the viscosity of xanthan. Mixtures of xanthan with skim milk powder or milk protein

Y. Hemar; M. Tamehana; P. A. Munro; H. Singh

2001-01-01

277

Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at the omasal canal, did not differ among treatments. Results from this experiment have confirmed that dietary La is not a practical agent for suppressing RP population in dairy cows, mainly because of its negative effects on fiber digestion and ruminal fermentation. Intake of CO appeared to reduce ruminal and improve protein efficiency, but did not improve milk production, milk composition, or increase microbial outflow from the rumen. Based on the results of this study, a 40% reduction of RP population is not sufficient to improve N utilization in dairy cows. PMID:24931520

Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

2014-08-01

278

Cow's milk and children  

MedlinePLUS

Milk and children ... children over 1 year old to drink cow's milk. However, there's no scientific evidence that this is true. While most experts recommend not giving cow's milk to infants , it is safe to give milk ...

279

Milk Allergy in Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... a Milk Allergy Unsafe Formulas Switching Formulas About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. ... older kids and adults. Continue Symptoms of a Milk Allergy Symptoms of cow's milk protein allergy will ...

280

Effect of milking interval on milk secretion and mammary tight junction permeability in dairy ewes.  

PubMed

Twenty-four lactating ewes (Manchega, n = 12; Lacaune, n = 12) in mid lactation were used to assess the short-term effects of different machine milking intervals (4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h) on milk yield, milk composition, and tight junction (TJ) permeability of mammary epithelia. Milk samples were analyzed for chemical composition, somatic cell count (SCC), and plasmin activity. Plasma lactose, and milk Na and K concentrations were used as indicators of TJ permeability. Milk accumulated linearly for up to 24 h, showing a different rate according to the milk yield of the breed (Manchega, 38 mL/h; Lacaune, 87 mL/h). Milking interval affected milk fat content, which decreased markedly from 4 to 24 h in both breeds, but no differences were observed in milk protein content. The milk contents of casein, true protein, lactose, and total solids also varied according to milking interval. Values of SCC did not vary by breed (175 x 10(3) cells/mL, on average), showing the lowest log(10) values for the 4-and 24-h milking intervals in both breeds. Plasmin activity in milk increased with milking interval until 20 h of udder filling in both breeds, and was poorly but positively correlated with SCC content (r = 0.39). Plasma lactose increased dramatically after 20 h of milk accumulation, indicating enhanced permeability of mammary TJ. As a result, an increase in Na concentration and in the Na:K ratio, and a decrease in K concentration, were observed in the milk of Manchega ewes. On the contrary, no differences in Na and K concentrations in milk were detected in Lacaune ewes. In conclusion, our results proved that Manchega and Lacaune dairy sheep could maintain high rates of milk secretion during extended milking intervals in the short term, with no effects on udder health and few negative effects on milk yield. Increased TJ permeability, caused by the effect of udder filling, induced changes in milk composition that were more marked in Manchega than in Lacaune ewes. PMID:18565920

Castillo, V; Such, X; Caja, G; Casals, R; Albanell, E; Salama, A A K

2008-07-01

281

Solubility Measurement and Modelling of Urea in Supercritical CO2 and CO2 + Ethanol Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility of urea in supercritical CO2 and CO2 + ethanol was measured over the pressure and temperature ranges 100 - 300 bar and 313 - 373 K respectively, and ethanol concentrations 0 - 25 % by mass (urea free basis). The solubility in CO2 was measured by a once-through packed bed gravimetric method at a laboratory and pilot scale.

O. J. Catchpole; S. J. Tallon; P. J. Dyer; J.-S. Lan; B. Jensen; O. K. Rasmussen

282

Ammonium assimilation in Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus pasteurii, and Sporosarcina ureae.  

PubMed

No active uptake of ammonium was detected in Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus pasteurii, and Sporosarcina ureae, which indicates that these bacteria depend on the passive diffusion of ammonia across the cell membrane. In P. vulgaris the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GS-GOGAT) pathway and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were present, and these enzymes exhibited high affinities for ammonium. In B. pasteurii and S. ureae, however, no GS activity was detected, and GOGAT activity was only present in S. ureae. GDH enzymes were present in these two organisms, but showed only low affinity for ammonium, with apparent Km-values of 55.2 mM in B. pasteurii and 36.7 mM in S. ureae, respectively. These observations explain why P. vulgaris is able to grow at neutral pH and low ammonium concentration (2 mM), while B. pasteurii and S. ureae require high ammonium concentration (40 mM) and alkaline pH for growth. PMID:2570557

Mörsdorf, G; Kaltwasser, H

1989-01-01

283

Effect of storage at 4 degrees C on the physicochemical and renneting properties of milk: a comparison of caprine, ovine and bovine milks.  

PubMed

The effects of cold storage at 4 degrees C for 12, 24 and 48 h on the physicochemical characteristics and renneting properties of ewes', goats' and cows' milks were compared. The most important changes were observed in cows' milk. Soluble calcium concentrations were not affected in ewes' milk but were increased by 10% in cows' milk and 7% in goats' milk. More casein was dissociated on cooling cows' (+300%) than goats' (+100%) milk, and there was no change in soluble casein in ewes' milk. The coagulation characteristics of cows' milk were more impaired by cold storage than goats' or ewes' milks. Coagulation times increased by approximately 30% and whey draining capacity decreased by 40% after cows' milk was cooled, but there were no changes with ewes' milk and only a slight decrease in coagulation time with goats' milk. We propose an interpretation of these results based on the physicochemical properties of each type of milk. PMID:10840673

Raynal, K; Remeuf, F

2000-05-01

284

Mediterranean milk and milk products.  

PubMed

Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy Mediterranean diet which, besides cow's milk, also consists of sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk--alone or as a mixture---as raw material. The fat and protein composition of the milk of the various animal species differs only slightly, but in every case it has a high priority in human nutrition. The milk proteins are characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. Beyond that macromolecules,which have various biological functions, are available or may be formed by proteolysis in milk. Taking this into consideration, the technology of different well-known Italian and German cheese types is presented and the differences as well as correspondences regarding nutrition are discussed. Especially Ricotta and Mascarpone are discussed in detail. Ricotta represents a special feature as this cheese is traditionally made of whey and cream. Thus the highly valuable whey proteins which contain a higher amount of the amino acids lysine, methionine and cysteic acid in comparison to casein and, additionally, to soy protein, are made usable for human nutrition. Finally, it is pointed out on the basis of individual examples that technologies to enrich whey proteins in cheese are already available and in use. Thus, the flavor of low fat cheese is improved and the nutritional value is increased. PMID:15052494

Hinrichs, Jörg

2004-03-01

285

Prediction of enteric methane output from milk fatty acid concentrations and rumen fermentation parameters in dairy cows fed sunflower, flax, or canola seeds.  

PubMed

Milk fatty acid (FA) composition has been suggested as a means of predicting enteric methane (CH?) output in lactating dairy cattle because of the common biochemical pathways among CH?, acetate, and butyrate in the rumen. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a Latin square design with four 28-d periods. All diets contained steam-rolled barley, a pelleted supplement, barley silage [45% of dietary dry matter (DM)] and 3.3% added fat (DM basis) from 1 of 4 sources: calcium salts of long-chain FA (palm oil; control) or crushed oilseeds from sunflower, flax, or canola. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the effect of diets on milk FA profile; (2) model CH? production from milk FA composition, intake, and rumen fermentation variables; and (3) test the applicability of CH(4) prediction equations reported in previous studies. Methane (g/d) was measured in chambers (2 animals/chamber) on 3 consecutive days (d 21-23). The test variables included total DM intake (DMI, kg/d; d 21-23), forage DMI (kg/d; d 21-23), milk yield (kg/d; d 21-23), milk components (d 18-21), milk FA composition (% total FA methyl esters; d 18-21), rumen volatile FA (mol/100 mol; d 19-21), and protozoal counts (d 19-21), and were averaged by chamber and period to determine relationships between CH? and the test variables. Milk trans(t)10-, t11-18:1, and cis(c)9t11-18:2 were greater for sunflower seeds compared with the other diets. Forage DMI (correlation coefficient, r=0.52; n=32), DMI (r=0.52; n=32), and rumen acetate + butyrate:propionate (r=0.72; n=16) were positively related to CH? (g/d), whereas rumen propionate (r=0.63; n=16), milk c9-17:1 (r=0.64; n=32), and c11-18:1 (r=0.64; n=32) were negatively related to CH?. The best regression equation (coefficient of determination=0.90; n=16) was CH? (g/d)=-910.8 (±156.7) × milk c9-17:1 + 331.2 (±88.8) × milk 16:0 iso + 0.0001 (±0.00) × total entodiniomorphs + 242.5 (±39.7). Removing rumen parameters from the model also resulted in a reasonably good estimate (coefficient of determination=0.83; n=32) of CH?. Stepwise regression analysis within diets resulted in greater coefficient of determination and lower standard error values. Predictions of CH?, using equations from previous studies for the data set from this study, resulted in a mean overestimation ranging from 19 to 61% across studies. Thus, milk FA alone may not be suitable for developing universal CH? prediction equations. PMID:22118093

Mohammed, R; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A

2011-12-01

286

Excretion of drugs in human breast milk  

SciTech Connect

The present report briefly discusses some of the morphological, physiological, and compositional aspects of animal and human breast milk and how these characteristics might be important for the accumulation of drugs and foreign compounds. In addition, a study is described confirming the presence of caffeine, codeine, morphine, phenacetin, acetaminophen, and salicylic acid in the breast milk of a lactating mother following oral administration of a combination analgesic containing aspirin, phenacetin, caffeine, and codeine. Although the study is limited to one subject, it has provided critically needed data on the rates of appearance in, and elimination of these drugs from, breast milk. A similar amount of information is presented on phenacetin, also a component of the analgesic mixture, which has not been previously reported to enter human milk. The distribution of these drugs between the slightly more acidic breast milk and the relatively neutral plasma is consistent with their weakly basic, acidic, or relatively neutral properties. In general, the study shows that codeine and morphine milk concentrations are higher than, salicylic acid milk levels are much lower than, and phenacetin, caffeine, and acetaminophen milk concentrations are relatively similar to their respective plasma levels. It is projected, from estimated steady-state milk concentrations of the drugs and their metabolites studied, that very low percentages of the therapeutic dosages (less than 0.7%) would be excreted in mother's milk, too low an amount to be clinically significant to the infant.

Welch, R.M.; Findlay, J.W.

1981-01-01

287

The Effect of Nonstructural Carbohydrate and Addition of Full Fat Extruded Soybeans on the Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Milk Fat of Dairy Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a naturally occurring anticarcinogen found in dairy products, is a byproduct of incomplete ruminal biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids. Our objective was to determine the effect of nonstructural carbohydrate sources, addition of full fat extruded soybeans as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, and possible interactions on the milk fat content of CLA. Cows (n =

R. Solomon; L. E. Chase; D. Ben-Ghedalia; D. E. Bauman

2000-01-01

288

Morning versus afternoon cutting time of Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) affects feed intake, milk yield and composition in Girgentana goats.  

PubMed

Twenty lactating Girgentana goats were used to evaluate the effect of morning v. afternoon cutting time of Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition. Goats were randomly divided into two groups of ten animals, receiving 10 kg of fresh Berseem clover cut at 9.00 (AM group) or 16.00 (PM group), respectively; 500 g of concentrate was given individually to goats before offering forage. Feed intake increased (P<0·01) in the PM group (30·5 v. 25·3 g dry matter/kg body weight), associated with the different nutrient content of diets: lower crude protein but higher dry matter, neutral detergent fibre, water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and total fatty acids in the PM-harvested forage. Milk production, protein and casein content were higher (P<0·05) in the PM group (1415 g/d, 3·25% and 2·42% v. 1277 g/d, 3·15% and 2·33%, respectively), whereas no differences between groups were detected for milk fat, lactose or urea content. Body weight slowly decreased from the start to the end of the experiment, without differences between groups. This study showed an important milk yield responses in Girgentana goats offered afternoon-cut compared with morning-cut Berseem clover, due to a marked increase in WSC in the afternoon-cut forage. PMID:21939575

Pagano, Renato Italo; Valenti, Bernardo; De Angelis, Anna; Avondo, Marcella; Pennisi, Pietro

2011-11-01

289

Concentration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the NCTM Android app of their familiar on line Illuminations game, "Concentration" ( cataloged separately ) which challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.

2011-08-11

290

Original article Rennet coagulation of skim milk and curd drainage  

E-print Network

Original article Rennet coagulation of skim milk and curd drainage: Effect of pH, casein of the pH of skim milk (6.4 to 6.0), the casein concentration (27 to 36 g.kg­1), a reduction in the ionic been published on the effect of factors such as concentration of milk, pH and heat treatment of milk

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

291

Effect of dietary cation-anion difference and dietary crude protein on milk yield, acid-base chemistry, and rumen fermentation.  

PubMed

Eight primiparous lactating Holstein cows (47 +/- 10 d in milk) fitted with ruminal cannulae were used to determine the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and dietary crude protein (CP) concentration on milk yield and composition, acid-base chemistry, and measures of N metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial in a randomized complete block design to provide 15 or 17% CP and DCAD of 25 or 50 mEq (Na + K - Cl)/100 g of feed dry matter [15 or 39 mEq (Na + K) - (Cl + S)/100 g of feed dry matter]. High DCAD improved dry matter intake, milk yield, and concentrations of milk fat and protein. An interaction of DCAD and CP was observed for uric acid excretion, an indicator of microbial protein yield. Uric acid excretion was higher for high DCAD than for low DCAD in low CP diets and was similar for low and high DCAD with high CP. Serum bicarbonate concentration, urinary bicarbonate excretion, blood pH, and serum Na were elevated for high DCAD compared with low DCAD. Fractional excretion of Na, K, Cl, and Ca increased for high DCAD. Blood urea N and urinary urea N were greater for high than for low CP diets. No differences due to DCAD were observed for these parameters. Results of this study suggest that, in early lactation cows, blood acid-base chemistry is altered by differences in DCAD that range between the high and low ends of the desired DCAD range. Modifications of acid-base chemistry and the corresponding changes in protein metabolism may allow for more efficient feeding of protein and better nutritional management of the lactating dairy cow. PMID:17881691

Wildman, C D; West, J W; Bernard, J K

2007-10-01

292

What Is a Urea Cycle Disorder?  

MedlinePLUS

... urea cycle. These enzymes are responsible for removing ammonia from the blood stream. The urea cycle involves ... disorders, the nitrogen accumulates in the form of ammonia, a highly toxic substance, resulting in hyperammonemia (elevated ...

293

FITC-tagged macromolecule-based alginate microspheres for urea sensoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urea is an important biomarker for identification of kidney diseases. Early urea detection using a specific and sensitive technique can significantly reduce the mortality of patients. The research aims at developing fluorescence-based FITCmediated pH and urea measurement. A system containing FITC-dextran in alginate microspheres was developed using air-driven atomization. pH/Urea biosensor was characterized using optical microscopy, SEM, and CLSM. Urea biosensing studies were performed by exposing different standard solutions of pH and urea standard solutions using fluorescence spectroscopy (?ex=488 nm and ?em=520 nm). FITC-dextran was entrapped using an encapsulation unit and alginate microspheres were formed. The microspheres were found to be uniform and spherical in nature with sizes (50±10?). FITC-dextran was found to be uniformly distributed in the alginate microspheres as per the CLSM scans. Urea biosensing studies indicate that a linear correlation was observed with increasing urea concentrations. The said microspheres can be used to detect changes in pH from 4-8 units owing to its linear response in this range. FITC dextran loaded alginate microspheres showed an improved range of detection upto 7 mM in comparison to 1.5 mM when in solution phase in a study with urea concentrations from 0-50 mM. The pH and urea detection was accurate to an extent of interday variation of 5%. FITC-dextran loaded alginate microspheres show a great potential for usage as a pH and urea biosensor for early detection of kidney diseases.

Joshi, Abhijeet; Chaudhari, Rashmi; Srivastava, Rohit

2014-04-01

294

[Source analysis of urea-N in Lake Taihu during summer].  

PubMed

To study the effect of urea nitrogen on the ecosystem of Lake Taihu, we conducted urea and various nitrogen analysis for the water samples collected from the lake and surrounding rivers during summer. The ecological index analysis of 82 sites in rivers and lake yielded the following results: (1) The urea nitrogen contents in Taihu ranged from 0.011 to 0.161 mg x L(-1), which was high in the northwest and low in the southeast, related to the main pollution sources distribution of its drainage basin. (2) The dissolved nitrogen was dominated by inorganic nitrogen and the ratio between ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen was 5: 1. The average percentage of urea nitrogen in total nitrogen, dissolved nitrogen, dissolved organic nitrogen and bioavailable nitrogen was respectively 2.28%, 5.91%, 15.86%, and 6.22%, which showed a significant ecological function in Taihu. (3) Urea nitrogen concentration in river was more than twice that in lake, and the lake river concentration was slightly higher than the river into the lake. (3) In Taihu, there was a transformation relationship between urea nitrogen and the nitrogen in other forms. It showed that urea nitrogen had a significant positive correlation with permanganate index and the other forms of nitrogen, and a significant negative correlation with dissolved oxygen. In addition, urea nitrogen was weakly and positively correlated with chlorophyll a, while closely related to the spatial distribution of benthos and zooplankton species. All the results above showed that urea nitrogen was the bridge of organic and inorganic nitrogen transformation, and was the sign of nitrogen cycle of Lake Taihu, which was controlled by the circulating rate. High nitrogen content (especially the organic nitrogen) and low dissolved oxygen content were the key contributors to the increased urea nitrogen content. In Taihu, the urea nitrogen content was affected by both exogenous input and endogenous release. PMID:25244836

Han, Xiao-Xi; Zhu, Guang-Wei; Xu, Hai; Wilhelm, Steven W; Qin, Bo-Qiang; Li, Zhao-Fu

2014-07-01

295

Molecular Structure of Urea nitrate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Urea nitrate is a plastic explosive used for the charge on a nuclear weapon or as a component of a non-nuclear high explosive. It can also be used as a catalyst in Diels-Alder reactions of aromatic amines. It is favored by amateur terrorists because it is fairly easily derived from urea fertilizers or made by combining nitric and uric acids. Nitric acid can be found as waste from several industrial processes, while urea can be found as biological waste from most animals (in the form of urine). Thus, it provides similar explosive power, but lower cost, as TNT. Additionally, it is quite stable, with low friction and shock sensitivity, making it somewhat stable to work with, but also causing it to require an additional more unstable chemical detonator, called a booster, for use as a high explosive. However, in use as an industrial explosive, urea nitrate is used as a sensitizer to a less reactive fuel. It was the main component of the explosive used in the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center.

2002-09-23

296

Urea Biosynthesis Using Liver Slices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a practical scheme to enable introductory biology students to investigate the mechanism by which urea is synthesized in the liver. The tissue-slice technique is discussed, and methods for the quantitative analysis of metabolites are presented. (Author/SL)

Teal, A. R.

1976-01-01

297

Relative efficiency of prilled urea and urea-supergranules in Java citronella ( Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-year field study was carried out to compare the efficiency of prilled urea and urea-supergranules in the cultivation of a perennial aromatic grass, citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) in a sandy loam soil. Application of 300kg Nha-1 year-1 increased the herb and essential oil yields. Urea-supergranules significantly increased the yields over prilled urea.

EVS Prakasa Rao; Munnu Singh; Narayana; G Chandrasekhara

1984-01-01

298

40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721.9892 ...Chemical Substances § 721.9892 Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified generically as an alkylated urea (PMN P-93-1649) is subject to...

2010-07-01

299

40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721.9892 ...Chemical Substances § 721.9892 Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified generically as an alkylated urea (PMN P-93-1649) is subject to...

2011-07-01

300

pH-Dependent urea-induced unfolding of stem bromelain: unusual stability against urea at neutral pH.  

PubMed

Equilibrium unfolding of stem bromelain (SB) with urea as a denaturant has been monitored as a function of pH using circular dichroism and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. Urea-induced denaturation studies at pH 4.5 showed that SB unfolds through a two-state mechanism and yields DeltaG (free energy difference between the fully folded and unfolded forms) of approximately 5.0 kcal/mol and C(m) (midpoint of the unfolding transition) of approximately 6.5 M at 25 degrees C. Very high concentration of urea (9.5 M) provides unusual stability to the protein with no more structural loss and transition to a completely unfolded state. PMID:19961414

Ahmad, B; Rathar, G M; Varshney, A; Khan, R H

2009-12-01

301

Urea and Ammonia Metabolism and the Control of Renal Nitrogen Excretion.  

PubMed

Renal nitrogen metabolism primarily involves urea and ammonia metabolism, and is essential to normal health. Urea is the largest circulating pool of nitrogen, excluding nitrogen in circulating proteins, and its production changes in parallel to the degradation of dietary and endogenous proteins. In addition to serving as a way to excrete nitrogen, urea transport, mediated through specific urea transport proteins, mediates a central role in the urine concentrating mechanism. Renal ammonia excretion, although often considered only in the context of acid-base homeostasis, accounts for approximately 10% of total renal nitrogen excretion under basal conditions, but can increase substantially in a variety of clinical conditions. Because renal ammonia metabolism requires intrarenal ammoniagenesis from glutamine, changes in factors regulating renal ammonia metabolism can have important effects on glutamine in addition to nitrogen balance. This review covers aspects of protein metabolism and the control of the two major molecules involved in renal nitrogen excretion: urea and ammonia. Both urea and ammonia transport can be altered by glucocorticoids and hypokalemia, two conditions that also affect protein metabolism. Clinical conditions associated with altered urine concentrating ability or water homeostasis can result in changes in urea excretion and urea transporters. Clinical conditions associated with altered ammonia excretion can have important effects on nitrogen balance. PMID:25078422

Weiner, I David; Mitch, William E; Sands, Jeff M

2014-07-30

302

Urea Monitor Based on Chemiluminescence and Electrolysis as a Marker for Dialysis Efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a practical urea monitor based on a chemiluminescent (CL) reaction of urea and hypobromous acid produced by electrolysis of sodium bromide (NaBr) for measuring urea concentration in spent dialysate at set intervals. A reagent containing 4×10-2 M hypobromous acid is produced by electrolysis of an electrolyte containing 5.9 M NaBr and 0.2 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Chemiluminescence is emitted by injection of spent hemodialysis fluid (0.11 ml) into the reagent, and the CL-intensity is measured by a photomultiplier tube using the photon counting technique. The CL-intensity is proportional to the 0.9th power of the urea concentration between 7×10-4 and 2×10-2 M. The urea monitor can determine the urea concentration in spent dialysate samples collected from the waste line of a dialyzer, and the time for the intermittent measurements including the cleaning cycle of the reaction chamber is 3 min. The urea concentrations measured by the monitor are in close agreement with those measured by the conventional enzyme colorimetric method using urease for the spent dialysate collected during a hemodialysis treatment, and the correlation coefficient is 0.93.

Ozaki, Masahiro; Okabayashi, Tohru; Ishimaru, Teppei; Hayashi, Kunihito; Hori, Jun'ya; Yamamoto, Isao; Nakagawa, Masuo

303

Effects of pistachio by-products on digestibility, milk production, milk fatty acid profile and blood metabolites in Saanen dairy goats.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pistachio by-products (PBP) on nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in Saanen dairy goats. Nine multiparous lactating Saanen goats (on day 90 post-partum, 45 ± 2/kg BW) were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three treatment diets: 1) control diet (alfalfa hay based), 2) 32% PBP and 3) 32% PBP + polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000; 1 g/kg dry matter). Each period lasted 21 days, including 14 day for treatment adaptation and 7 day for data collection. Pistachio by-products significantly decreased (p < 0.01) crude protein (CP) digestibility compared with the control diet (64.4% vs. 58.7%), but PEG addition did not differ for CP digestibility of goats fed 32% PBP + PEG and those fed the two other diets. The digestibility of NDF tended (p = 0.06) to decrease for goats fed PBP compared with those fed the control diet. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with the control diet, PBP supplementation appreciably changed the proportions of almost all the milk FA measured; the main effects were decreases (p < 0.01) in FA from 8:0 to 16:0 and increases (p < 0.01) proportions of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 and trans-11 18:1, monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA and long-chain FA. The saturated FA, short-chain FA and medium-chain FA proportions were lower (p < 0.01) in goats fed the two PBP supplemented diet than in those fed the control diet and PEG addition led to intermediate proportions of saturated FA, unsaturated and monounsaturated FA. Inclusion of PBP in the diet decreased (p < 0.01) plasma concentrations of glucose and urea nitrogen compared with the control diet. It was concluded that PBP can be used as forage in the diet of dairy goats without interfering with milk yield. Inclusion of 32% PBP in the diet of dairy goats had beneficial effects on milk FA profile but PEG addition to PBP did not contribute to enhance further milk FA profile. PMID:25074701

Sedighi-Vesagh, R; Naserian, A A; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V

2014-07-30

304

Effects of two different housing systems on behavior, physiology and milk yield of Comisana ewes.  

PubMed

Two groups of 20 early-lactating Comisana ewes were used in this study, and were allocated to either an indoor or outdoor daytime environment. The indoor environment was a 3mx12m straw bedded pen inside a pre-fabricated building. The outdoor environment was a 200m(2) paddock during daytime (09.00-19.00h) with ewes being moved to the shed, as described for the indoor treatment, at night. Behavior of ewes was recorded at 14 days interval from 09.00 to 19.00h. A phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test was performed at weeks 6, 11, 15 and 18 of the experiment to induce a non-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity in ewes. Jugular blood samples were taken at the beginning and at weeks 5, 10, 14 and 18 to determine endocrine and metabolic responses of animals to housing system and to changes in climatic conditions and stage of lactation. Ewe milk yield was recorded daily and individual milk samples were analyzed for milk composition, coagulating properties and somatic cell count (SCC) at 14 days interval. No differences were found between groups for endocrine and immune responses. Outdoor ewes had increased locomotor activities (P<0.01) and decreased idling (P<0.05) compared to indoor animals. The outdoor group had higher levels of blood creatinine (P<0.01) and inorganic phosphorus (P<0.05) as well as lower urea (P<0.01) and glucose (P<0.001) concentrations compared to the indoor group. Milk yield and composition were not changed by the housing system, though significant timextreatment interactions were found for milk constituents, with indoor-housed ewes having higher (P<0.05) milk protein, fat and lactose concentrations during the middle of the trial. Outdoor ewes had lower SCC (P<0.003) and pH (P<0.001) in their milk than indoor ewes, whereas renneting parameters were not different across treatments. Results suggest that ewe welfare and productivity were not substantially affected by the housing system. The provision of feeding rations that meet the greater energy demand for maintenance is required to sustain productivity in outdoor reared sheep. PMID:11445423

Casamassima, D; Sevi, A; Palazzo, M; Ramacciato, R; Colella, G E.; Bellitti, A

2001-08-01

305

Evaluation of milk compositional variables on coagulation properties using partial least squares.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of numerous milk compositional factors on milk coagulation properties using Partial Least Squares (PLS). Milk from herds of Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cattle was collected across the year and blended (n=55), to maximise variation in composition and coagulation. The milk was analysed for casein, protein, fat, titratable acidity, lactose, Ca2+, urea content, micelles size, fat globule size, somatic cell count and pH. Milk coagulation properties were defined as coagulation time, curd firmness and curd firmness rate measured by a controlled strain rheometer. The models derived from PLS had higher predictive power than previous models demonstrating the value of measuring more milk components. In addition to the well-established relationships with casein and protein levels, CMS and fat globule size were found to have as strong impact on all of the three models. The study also found a positive impact of fat on milk coagulation properties and a strong relationship between lactose and curd firmness, and urea and curd firmness rate, all of which warrant further investigation due to current lack of knowledge of the underlying mechanism. These findings demonstrate the importance of using a wider range of milk compositional variables for the prediction of the milk coagulation properties, and hence as indicators of milk suitability for cheese making. PMID:25287607

Bland, Julie H; Grandison, Alistair S; Fagan, Colette C

2014-10-01

306

Extraction and detection of sulfamethazine in spray-dried milk.  

PubMed

Processes that reduce moisture content of fluid milk may result in a high concentration of animal drug residues that are undetectable in the fluid milk on the basis of the same weights. The objectives were to determine the amount of sulfamethazine in spray-dried milk powder manufactured from fluid milk contaminated with sulfamethazine and to determine the effectiveness of supercritical fluid extraction as a means to extract sulfamethazine from dry milk powder. Fluid whole (3.25% fat) and skim milks with sulfamethazine added at concentrations of 5, 10, and 100 ppb were spray-dried. Based on total solids, observed concentrations were 493 and 523 ppb in skim and whole dry milk powders, respectively, compared with fluid milk containing 100 ppb of sulfamethazine as determined by HPLC. The increase in sulfamethazine concentration from fluid to dry milk was also measured quantitatively by a microbial receptor assay and an ELISA. Poor recoveries and variability in data were possibly due to binding of sulfamethazine to undetermined milk components. Dry milk powder with measured concentrations of sulfamethazine was treated with supercritical CO2. Sulfamethazine was not detectable in the extracted dry milk powder by microbial receptor assay or ELISA. PMID:8182165

Malik, S; Duncan, S E; Bishop, J R; Taylor, L T

1994-02-01

307

Direct estimation of sialic acid in milk and milk products by fluorimetry and its application in detection of sweet whey adulteration in milk.  

PubMed

Sialic acid, being a biologically active compound, is recognised as an important component of milk and milk products. Almost all the sialic acid estimation protocols in milk require prior hydrolysis step to release the bound sialic acid followed by its estimation. The objective of this work was to estimate sialic acid in milk and milk products by fluorimetric assay which does not require a prior hydrolysis step thus decreasing the estimation time. The recovery of added sialic acid in milk was 91·6 to 95·8%. Sialic acid in milk was found to be dependent on cattle breed and was in the range of 1·68-3·93 g/kg (dry matter basis). The assay was further extended to detect adulteration of milk with sweet whey which is based on the detection of glycomacropeptide (GMP) bound sialic acid in adulterated milk. GMP is the C-terminal part of ?-casein which is released into the whey during cheese making. For detection of adulteration, selective precipitation of GMP was done using trichloroacetic acid (TCA). TCA concentration in milk was first raised to 5% to precipitate milk proteins, especially ?-casein, followed by raising the TCA concentration to 14% to precipitate out GMP. In the precipitates GMP bound sialic acid was estimated using fluorimetric method and the fluorescence intensity was found to be directly proportional to the level of sweet whey in adulterated milk samples. The method was found to detect the presence of 5% sweet whey in milk. PMID:23089266

Neelima; Rao, Priyanka Singh; Sharma, Rajan; Rajput, Yudhishthir S

2012-11-01

308

Genetic regulation of bovine milk fatty acid composition: Improving the healthfulness of milk through selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study was designed to identity polymorphisms in the genes involved in milk lipid biosynthesis to provide animal breeders with tools that allow selection of animals producing milk with healthier fatty acid composition. High concentrations of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in human diets are known to increase plasma cholesterol concentrations and, as a result, increase the risk of developing

Rafael Nafikov

2010-01-01

309

First results on the incorporation and excretion of 15N from orally administered urea in lactating pony mares.  

PubMed

Two lactating pony mares were given oral offers of 20 g 15N urea [95 atom-% 15N-excess (15N')] on 6 subsequent days. About 80% of the consumed 15N' were excreted via urine and faeces, but only about 2% via milk. The 15N' secreted via milk-lysine only amounted to 0.04% of the 15N' intake. The recovery was about 90% in each case. Tissues with active metabolism had an unexpectedly high labelling (greater than 0.3 atom-% 15N'). The low extent of the conversion of oral urea N into milk-lysine speaks against an essential participation of the enteral synthesis in meeting the amino acid requirement of lactating mares. It was already concluded from this results that the determination of the amino acid requirement will be necessary for this group of performance. PMID:1888274

Schubert, R; Zander, R; Gruhn, K; Hennig, A

1991-05-01

310

Got Milk? Cows Do!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Essential Question: Where does milk come from, and how is it produced and distributed? Second grade students will learn where milk comes from, how milk is made, and where the milk is sold. Enrichment Resources: Where does milk come from? Click the link ...

Patterson, Miss

2010-03-25

311

Effects of urea on the microstructure and phase behavior of aqueous solutions of polyoxyethylene surfactants  

PubMed Central

Membrane proteins are made soluble in aqueous buffers by the addition of various surfactants (detergents) to form so-called protein-detergent complexes (PDCs). Properties of membrane proteins are commonly assessed by unfolding the protein in the presence of surfactant in a buffer solution by adding urea. The stability of the protein under these conditions is then monitored by biophysical methods such as fluorescence or circular dichroism spectroscopy. Often overlooked in these experiments is the effect of urea on the phase behavior and micellar microstructure of the different surfactants used to form the PDCs. Here the effect of urea on five polyoxyethylene surfactants – n-octylytetraoxyethylene (C8E4), n-octylpentaoxyethylene (C8E5), n-decylhexaoxyethylene (C10E6), n-dodecylhexaoxyethylene (C12E6) and n-dodecyloctaoxylethylene (C12E8) – is explored. The presence of urea increases the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of all surfactants studied, indicating that the concentration of both the surfactant and urea should be considered in membrane protein folding studies. The cloud point temperature of all surfactants studied also increases with increasing urea concentration. Small-angle neutron scattering shows a urea-induced transition from an elongated to a globular shape for micelles of C8E4 and C12E6. In contrast, C8E5 and C12E8 form more globular micelles at room temperature and the micelles remain globular as the urea concentration is increased. The effects of increasing urea concentration on micelle structure are analogous to those of decreasing the temperature. The large changes in micelle structure observed here could also affect membrane protein unfolding studies by changing the structure of the PDC. PMID:21359094

Bianco, Carolina L.; Schneider, Craig S.; Santonicola, Mariagabriella; Lenhoff, Abraham M.; Kaler, Eric W.

2010-01-01

312

Nitrogen supplementation of corn silages. 2. Assessing rumen function using fatty acid profiles of bovine milk.  

PubMed

The effects of N supplementation strategies on milk fatty acid profiles of dairy cows and their use as a noninvasive technique to diagnose rumen function, and to guide protein feeding decisions on-farm were evaluated in three experiments. Each experiment was designed according to three 3 x 3 Latin squares with 9 Holstein cows receiving total mixed rations based on corn silage. Experiment 1 was designed to study effects of diets with different ratios of effective rumen-degradable protein (ERDP; g) to fermentable metabolizable energy (FME; j) providing, respectively, a large deficiency, a slight deficiency, and a slight excess in relation to the target level of 11 g of ERDP/MJ FME for lactating cows. Experiment 2 evaluated effects of different proportions of quickly and slowly rumen-degradable protein achieved by replacing soybean meal with urea in the concentrates (0, 0.5, and 1% urea for U0, U5, and U10, respectively). Experiment 3 investigated effects of synchronizing the availability of FME and ERDP in rumen by offering the protein-rich concentrate once or twice per day before the meal (corn silage, ryegrass hay, and energy-rich concentrate), or included in the total mixed ration. Milk fatty acid profiles were significantly affected by dietary N and carbohydrate supply. Principal component factor analysis provided a reasonable description of the data, clearly discriminating between fatty acids that are synthesized by different metabolic pathways. Several sources/pathways were distinguished: de novo synthesis in the mammary gland (short- and medium-chain fatty acids), delta9-desaturase activity (monoenoic fatty acids), direct absorption from the blood stream (long-chain fatty acids), and de novo synthesis by the rumen microbial populations (odd-chain fatty acids). Discriminant canonical analysis showed that milk odd-chain fatty acids had a higher ability to discriminate between diets than even-chain fatty acids. The anteiso C15:0 increased in line with increasing sugar supply, and C17:0 appears to be a marker of protein deficiency. Additionally, iso C17:0 and anteiso C17:0 were associated with the NDF and CP contents of diets. The results suggests that milk odd-chain fatty acids have the potential to be used as a noninvasive technique to assess rumen function in terms of microbial populations, substrates and interactions. PMID:14740840

Cabrita, A R J; Fonseca, A J M; Dewhurst, R J; Gomes, E

2003-12-01

313

Effects of the addition of direct-fed microbials and glycerol to the diet of lactating dairy cows on milk yield and apparent efficiency of yield.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a direct-fed microbial (M) and dietary glycerol (G) on milk yield, efficiency of yield, and nutrient digestibility during hot weather. Sixty Holstein cows averaging 120 d in milk (DIM) and 36.2 kg/d of milk were used in a 12-wk 2×2 factorial design trial from June through September 2008. Cows were fed a common diet during the 2-wk standardization period and were blocked by milk yield, DIM, parity, and dry matter intake. Diets were based on corn and ryegrass silages and balanced to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Treatments included a negative control (M- or G-), 4 × 10(9) cfu/head of a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii NP24 (M+), control plus 400 g/h per day of 99% pure food-grade glycerol (G+), and 4×10(9) cfu/h per day of a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii NP24 plus 400 g/h per day of 99% pure food-grade glycerol (MG++). No interactions were observed between direct-fed microbials and dietary glycerol in the study except on apparent nutrient digestibility. No differences were observed in dry matter intake, which averaged 22.7, 23.1, 23.4, and 22.9 for M-, G-, M+, and G+, respectively. Milk yield was increased for M+ compared with M- at 34.1 and 31.7 kg/d, but G+ had no effect on yield. No treatment effect was noted for milk fat percentage or milk protein percentage among diets. Milk protein yield was higher for M+ compared with M- at 0.93 versus 0.87 kg/d. Energy-corrected milk was improved for the M+ versus M- groups at 33.5 and 31.6 kg/d, respectively. No differences in respiratory rate, skin temperature, body temperature, or concentrations of serum glucose or urea N were observed among treatments. Improvement in apparent digestibility was observed with M+ and G+ compared with M-/G- in this experiment. The addition of a direct-fed microbial alone improved milk and protein yield, energy-corrected milk, and apparent digestibility of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber, and the inclusion of glycerol (G+) had a positive effect on apparent dry matter and acid detergent fiber digestibility compared with M-/G-. The addition of a direct-fed microbial and dietary glycerol may improve yield and digestibility for cows subject to heat stress. PMID:21854934

Boyd, J; West, J W; Bernard, J K

2011-09-01

314

Isotope-labelled urea to test colon drug delivery devices in vivo: principles, calculations and interpretations.  

PubMed

This paper describes various methodological aspects that were encountered during the development of a system to monitor the in vivo behaviour of a newly developed colon delivery device that enables oral drug treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. [(13)C]urea was chosen as the marker substance. Release of [(13)C]urea in the ileocolonic region is proven by the exhalation of (13)CO2 in breath due to bacterial fermentation of [(13)C]urea. The (13)CO2 exhalation kinetics allows the calculation of a lag time as marker for delay of release, a pulse time as marker for the speed of drug release and the fraction of the dose that is fermented. To determine the total bioavailability, also the fraction of the dose absorbed from the intestine must be quantified. Initially, this was done by calculating the time-dependent [(13)C]urea appearance in the body urea pool via measurement of (13)C abundance and concentration of plasma urea. Thereafter, a new methodology was successfully developed to obtain the bioavailability data by measurement of the urinary excretion rate of [(13)C]urea. These techniques required two experimental days, one to test the coated device, another to test the uncoated device to obtain reference values for the situation that 100 % of [(13)C]urea is absorbed. This is hampered by large day-to-day variations in urea metabolism. Finally, a completely non-invasive, one-day test was worked out based on a dual isotope approach applying a simultaneous administration of [(13)C]urea in a coated device and [(15)N2]urea in an uncoated device. All aspects of isotope-related analytical methodologies and required calculation and correction systems are described. PMID:24313370

Maurer, Marina J M; Schellekens, Reinout C A; Wutzke, Klaus D; Stellaard, Frans

2013-01-01

315

Excretion of bisphenol A into rat milk.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, is widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. This study analyzed the BPA concentration in rat milk, in order to assess the risk of BPA transfer to the offspring via milk. The rats ingested BPA by oral administration or by drinking the water in a polycarbonate bottle, and the milk samples were collected using an automated experimental milker. The BPA concentration in the samples of milk, drinking water, and food was analyzed by LC/MS. In the case of milk samples obtained from rats injected with BPA at 2, 4, 8, and 24 h prior to milking, the BPA concentrations were 0.462 +/- 0.182 ppm, 0.138 +/- 0.0185 ppm, 0.080 +/- 0.0197 ppm, and 0.0232 +/- 0.0051 ppm, respectively. Also, in the cases of the water sample left in polycarbonate bottle and the milk sample obtained from rats provided it as drinking water, the concentrations of BPA were 0.000332 +/- 0.00015 ppm and 0.0184 +/- 0.0050 ppm, respectively. The results indicate that the BPA administered to the dams was transferred to their milk, and that BPA concentration in milk was higher at the early period after the single bolus dose. Additionally, these results reveal that sequential elution of BPA from polycarbonate containers in a much diluted form would undergo bioaccumulation in dams and likely be transferred to pups via milk in a much concentrated form. PMID:20163291

Okabayashi, Ken; Watanabe, Toshi

2010-03-01

316

EVALUATION OF DIOXIN IN U.S. COW'S MILK  

EPA Science Inventory

Milk fat is likely to be among the highest dietary sources of exposure to persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) contaminants, thus it is important to understand PBT levels in milk. Schaum had previously reported on concentrations of 21 PBTs in the United States milk suppl...

317

Role of protein kinase C-? in hypertonicity-stimulated urea permeability in mouse inner medullary collecting ducts.  

PubMed

The kidney's ability to concentrate urine is vitally important to our quality of life. In the hypertonic environment of the kidney, urea transporters must be regulated to optimize function. We previously showed that hypertonicity increases urea permeability and that the protein kinase C (PKC) blockers chelerythrine and rottlerin decreased hypertonicity-stimulated urea permeability in rat inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs). Because PKC? knockout (PKC?(-/-)) mice have a urine-concentrating defect, we tested the effect of hypertonicity on urea permeability in isolated perfused mouse IMCDs. Increasing the osmolality of perfusate and bath from 290 to 690 mosmol/kgH(2)O did not change urea permeability in PKC?(-/-) mice but significantly increased urea permeability in wild-type mice. To determine whether the response to protein kinase A was also missing in IMCDs of PKC?(-/-) mice, tubules were treated with vasopressin and subsequently with the PKC stimulator phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu). Vasopressin stimulated urea permeability in PKC?(-/-) mice. Like vasopressin, forskolin stimulated urea permeability in PKC?(-/-) mice. We previously showed that, in rats, vasopressin and PDBu have additive stimulatory effects on urea permeability. In contrast, in PKC?(-/-) mice, PDBu did not further increase vasopressin-stimulated urea permeability. Western blot analysis showed that expression of the UT-A1 urea transporter in IMCDs was increased in response to vasopressin in wild-type mice as well as PKC?(-/-) mice. Hypertonicity increased UT-A1 phosphorylation in wild-type mice but not in PKC?(-/-) mice. We conclude that PKC? mediates hypertonicity-stimulated urea transport but is not necessary for vasopressin stimulation of urea permeability in mouse IMCDs. PMID:23097465

Wang, Yanhua; Klein, Janet D; Froehlich, Otto; Sands, Jeff M

2013-01-15

318

Surveillance for anaemia: risk factors in patterns of milk intake.  

PubMed Central

The association between patterns of milk intake and anaemia was studied during a surveillance programme for iron deficiency anaemia. Children aged 8-24 months were examined when they attended a routine immunisation clinic. Haemoglobin was measured on finger prick blood samples using a portable haemoglobinometer, and a dietary questionnaire was completed, with special emphasis on the type and volume of milk intake and the age at which whole cows' milk was introduced. Anaemia (defined as a haemoglobin concentration of less than 110 g/l) was diagnosed in 33 children (22%) and was more common among children who were not white. Continued feeding with breast milk and the early introduction of whole cows' milk were associated with a significantly higher prevalence of anaemia. No child taking formula milk was anaemic. Asian children drank significantly more milk a day than other groups, but there was no correlation between daily milk intake and haemoglobin concentration. PMID:2078206

Mills, A F

1990-01-01

319

Milk Thistle (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... Trials Cancer Statistics Research & Funding News About NCI Milk Thistle (PDQ®) Patient Version Health Professional Version Last Modified: 12/24/2013 Milk Thistle (PDQ®) Overview Questions and Answers About Milk ...

320

Temporary alterations to postpartum milking frequency affect whole-lactation milk production and the energy status of pasture-grazed dairy cows.  

PubMed

This study investigated the immediate and long-term effects of temporary alterations to postpartum milking frequency (MF) on milk production, body condition score (BCS), and indicators of energy status in pasture-grazed cows supplemented with concentrates. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (n=150) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups at calving: milked twice daily (2×) throughout lactation (control), or milked either once daily (1×) or 3 times daily (3×) for 3 or 6wk immediately postpartum, and then 2× for the remainder of lactation. During wk 1 to 3 postpartum, cows milked 1× produced 15% less milk and 17% less energy-corrected milk (ECM) than cows milked 2×. This immediate production loss increased to 20% less milk and 22% less ECM during wk 4 to 6 postpartum for cows that remained on 1× milking; these animals also produced less than 1× cows switched to 2× milking after 3wk. During wk 8 to 32, when all cows were milked 2×, those previously milked 1× had sustained reductions in milk (-6%) and ECM (-8%) yields, which were not affected by the duration of reduced postpartum MF. In contrast, cows milked 3× postpartum had 7% greater milk yields during wk 1 to 6 compared with 2× controls, irrespective of the duration of increased MF. Milk yields also remained numerically greater (+5%) during wk 8 to 32 in cows previously milked 3×. Nevertheless, yields of ECM were not increased by 3× milking, because of lower milk fat and protein contents that persisted for the rest of lactation. In addition, indicators of cow energy status reflected an increasing state of negative energy balance with increasing MF. Cows milked 1× postpartum had greater plasma glucose and lower plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations during the reduced MF, and plasma glucose remained lower for 2wk after cows had switched to 2× milking. Moreover, BCS was improved relative to 2× controls from wk 5 to 6. In contrast, cows milked 3× had lower plasma glucose concentrations, greater plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations, and greater BCS loss during wk 1 to 3; however, greater body fat mobilization was not sustained, indicating that additional energy supplements may be required to achieve better milk production responses. In conclusion, temporary 1× milking had lactation-long negative effects on milk and milk component yields but improved cow energy status and BCS, whereas temporary 3× milking immediately increased milk yield but did not improve milk fat and protein yields in pasture-grazed cows. PMID:25200777

Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K; Rius, A G; Morgan, S R; Roach, C G; Grala, T M; Roche, J R

2014-11-01

321

Prostanoid content of human milk: relationships to milk fatty acid content.  

PubMed

Analysis of human milk was conducted to determine if transitions in milk lipid composition and thus the changes in fatty acid synthesis that occur during lactogenesis are related to levels of specific prostanoids present in milk lactated. Serial samples representative of a complete expression and reflecting varying concentrations of milk fatty acids were collected over the first 37 days of lactation. Milk from mothers delivering infants at term and mothers delivering premature infants of 28-33 weeks gestational age was compared to examine potential relationships between prostanoid concentration and gestational age effects on milk lipid content. Milk levels of prostaglandin E, prostaglandin F and the metabolite of prostacyclin--6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha were determined by radioimmunoassays. Transitions in fatty acid content for all milk lipid classes were determined by quantitative analysis of fatty acids by glass capillary gas liquid chromatography. During lactation the levels of prostaglandin E correlated with milk content of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha. For term mothers, milk content of prostaglandin E, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, total fatty acids and medium chain fatty acids increased from early lactation when compared with subsequent days sampled. Levels of these milk constituents observed for early milk of preterm mothers were significantly different when compared with term mothers and in addition did not follow the same longitudinal pattern during subsequent days of lactation. Physiologically significant levels of prostaglandins in milk may reflect the balance between hormonal and subcellular controls over lactogenesis. It is also conceivable that the presence of these prostanoids in milk may influence gastrointestinal physiology and nutrient absorption in the neonate. PMID:6606570

Chappell, J E; Clandinin, M T; Barbe, G J; Armstrong, D T

1983-10-01

322

Functionalized multilayered graphene platform for urea sensor.  

PubMed

Multilayered graphene (MLG) is an interesting material for electrochemical sensing and biosensing because of its very large 2D electrical conductivity and large surface area. We propose a less toxic, reproducible, and easy method for producing functionalized multilayer graphene from multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in mass scale using only concentrated H(2)SO(4)/HNO(3). Electron microscopy results show the MLG formation, whereas FTIR and XPS data suggest its carboxylic and hydroxyl-functionalized nature. We utilize this functionalized MLG for the fabrication of a novel amperometric urea biosensor. This biosensor shows linearity of 10-100 mg dL(-1), sensitivity of 5.43 ?A mg(-1) dL cm(-2), lower detection limit of 3.9 mg dL(-1), and response time of 10 s. Our results suggest that MLG is a promising material for electrochemical biosensing applications. PMID:22117758

Srivastava, Rajesh K; Srivastava, Saurabh; Narayanan, Tharangattu N; Mahlotra, Bansi D; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Srivastava, Anchal

2012-01-24

323

The effect of chronic cortisol elevation on urea metabolism and excretion in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of cortisol in controlling urea metabolism and excretion in the ammoniotelic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout fitted with dorsal aortic and internal urinary catheters received either no implant (control), or were implanted with coconut oil (sham), cortisol in coconut oil, RU486, a glucocorticoid receptor blocker, in coconut oil, or cortisol+RU486 in coconut oil, and monitored over 72 h. Rainbow trout treated with cortisol (+/- RU486) had similarly elevated plasma cortisol concentrations that were six fold greater than in control and sham fish. Elevated circulating cortisol concentrations caused a three-fold rise in plasma and urine urea concentrations, which was blocked by RU486. Similarly, a positive correlation between plasma cortisol and plasma urea concentrations was observed in fish treated with cortisol alone but not in fish treated with cortisol+RU486. Cortisol treatment caused an elevation in branchial (two fold higher) and urinary (three fold higher) excretion rates of urea compared to sham-implanted fish, which was prevented by treatment with RU486. However, as branchial and renal clearance were unaffected, there appears to be no stimulation or inhibition of urea excretion mechanisms in the gill or kidney separate from effects due to changes in plasma urea concentrations. Thus, cortisol and glucocorticoid receptors appear to be involved in the regulation of endogenous urea production but not in the control of urea excretory mechanisms in the ammoniotelic trout. PMID:14586635

McDonald, M D; Wood, C M

2004-01-01

324

Mechanistic insights into osmolyte action in protein stabilization under harsh conditions: N-methylacetamide in glycine betaine-urea mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glycine betaine (GB), a small naturally occurring osmolyte, stabilizes proteins and counteracts harsh denaturing conditions such as extremes of temperature, cellular dehydration, and presence of high concentration of urea. In spite of several studies on understanding mechanism of protein stabilization and counteraction of these harsh conditions by osmolytes, studies centred on GB, one of the most important osmolyte, are scarce, hence, there is need for more investigations. To explore mechanism of protein stabilization and counteraction of denaturing property of urea by GB, molecular dynamics studies of N-methylacetamide (NMA), a model peptide representing denatured state of a protein, in the presence of GB, urea, and GB-urea mixture were carried out. The results show that GB and urea work such that the strength of GB as a protecting osmolyte is increased and the denaturing ability of urea is decreased in the GB-urea mixture. It can be inferred that GB counteracts urea by decreasing its hydrophobic interactions with proteins. The mutual interactions between GB and urea also play an important role in protein stabilization. This study provides insights on osmolyte induced counteraction of denaturing property of urea.

Kumar, Narendra; Kishore, Nand

2014-10-01

325

Development of a ratiometric fluorescent urea biosensor based on the urease immobilized onto the oxazine 170 perchlorate-ethyl cellulose membrane.  

PubMed

In this work, the oxazine 170 perchlorate (O17)-ethyl cellulose (EC) membrane was successfully applied in the fabrication of a urea-sensing membrane. The urea-sensing membrane was a double layer consisting of the O17-EC membrane and a layer of the enzyme urease entrapped into EC matrix. The sensing principle of urea was based on the hydrolysis reaction of urea under the catalysis of the urease to produce ammonia in water and also on the binding of ammonia with the dye O17 to create the shift in the emission wavelength from ?em=630nm to ?em=565nm. The data collected from the ratio of the fluorescence intensities at ?em=630nm and ?em=565nm was proportional to urea concentration. The urea-sensing membrane with the ratiometric method was used to measure the concentrations of urea in the range of 0.01-0.1M with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.027mM and 0.1-1.0M with LOD of 0.224mM. It showed fast response time, high reversibility and long-term stability in this concentration range. The recovery percentage of urea concentrations of the urea-sensing membrane for two kinds of biological urine solutions (BU1, BU2) was around 85-118%. The measured results were in good agreement with standard urea concentrations in the range of 0.06M to 1.0M. PMID:25618676

Dinh Duong, Hong; Il Rhee, Jong

2015-03-01

326

The transfer of aflatoxin M1 in milk of ewes fed diet naturally contaminated by aflatoxins and effect of inclusion of dried yeast culture in the diet.  

PubMed

An experiment was carried out to investigate 1) the transfer of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) into the milk of dairy ewes fed diets naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1); 2) the effect of the addition of dried yeast culture in the diet on this transfer; and 3) the alteration of enzymatic activities in the liver of ewes fed diets contaminated with AFB1. Twenty-four Sarda dairy ewes were divided in 4 groups and fed a concentrate mix containing 4 amounts of wheat meal naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. The diet of the control group had no wheat meal, whereas that of treated groups had low, medium, or high amounts of contaminated wheat, which corresponded to 1.13, 2.30, and 5.03 microg of AFB1/kg of feed, respectively. The experiment lasted 14 d. On d 8 to 14 from the beginning of the trial, 12 g/d of a commercial dried yeast product (DYP) of Kluyveromyces lactis was added to the diet of each ewe. The AFM1 concentration in individual milk samples and the blood serum metabolites were measured periodically. The presence of AFM1 was first detected in milk on d 1 of administration, and then its concentration increased and approached a steady-state condition on d 3 simultaneously in all treated groups. The AFM1 in milk at the steady-state condition, which was linearly related to the AFB1 intake, was 39.72, 50.38, and 79.29 ng/L in the low-aflatoxin, medium-aflatoxin, and high-aflatoxin groups, respectively. The AFM1 concentration in milk of the high-aflatoxin group was approximately 1.5-fold greater than the European Commission maximum tolerance level (50 ng/kg). The addition of DYP to the diet did not affect the AFM1 concentration in milk. After the withdrawal of the contaminated concentrate mix, the AFM1 mean concentrations decreased quickly and were no longer detected after 3 d in all treated groups. Daily milk yield and composition did not differ because of aflatoxin treatment. Blood serum parameters (creatinine, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, protein, urea, calcium, and phosphorus) were not influenced by AFB1 intake. Therefore, the effect of DYP on certain blood parameters (gamma glutamyl transferase, urea, creatinine, and calcium) could not be attributed to amelioration of the aflatoxin-contaminated diet. In conclusion, diet contamination by AFB1 near the European Union tolerance level (0.005 mg/kg) in complete feed for dairy animals (e.g., high-aflatoxin group) can result in an AFM1 milk concentration higher than the European Commission maximum tolerance level. Transfer of aflatoxin from feed to milk was not affected by dietary addition of a commercial DYP. PMID:19762818

Battacone, G; Nudda, A; Palomba, M; Mazzette, A; Pulina, G

2009-10-01

327

Combining a Laboratory Practical Class with a Computer Simulation: Studies on the Synthesis of Urea in Isolated Hepatocytes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a computer simulation is used with a laboratory experiment on the synthesis of urea in isolated hepatocytes. The simulation calculates the amount of urea formed and the amount of ammonium remaining as the concentrations of ornithine, citrulline, argininosuccinate, arginine, and aspartate are altered. (JN)

Bender, David A.

1986-01-01

328

Simple and reliable urea assay based on a signal accumulation type of ion-sensitive field-effect transistor.  

PubMed

A simple urea assay was developed using a signal accumulation type of ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (SA-ISFET). Decreases in proton concentration resulting from urease-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea are detected by SA-ISFET as a change in potential. The method exhibits high sensitivity, linearity, and reproducibility when potential signals are accumulated 10-fold. PMID:25193874

Tomari, Naohiro; Kawasaki, Asako; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Nishiya, Yoshiaki

2015-02-01

329

Vitamin D metabolites in human milk  

SciTech Connect

The concentrations of unconjugated 25-OHD, 24, 25(OH)2D, and 1,25(OH)2D were measured in human milk by competitive protein-binding radioassays following successive preparative Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and HPLC. The mean (+/- SE) concentration of 25-OHD was 0.37 +/- 0.03 ng/ml, of 24,25(OH)2D was 24.8 +/- 1.9 pg/ml, and of 1,25(OH)2D was 2.2 +/-0.1 pg/ml. The concentration of 25-OHD3 in milk as determined by HPLC and UV detection at 254 nm was 0.27 +/- 0.08 ng/ml. The milk concentrations of vitamin D metabolites did not correlate with the maternal serum 25-OHD levels. The total amounts of unconjugated vitamin D metabolites correspond to the known low bioassayable vitamin D antirachitic activity in human milk.

Weisman, Y.; Bawnik, J.C.; Eisenberg, Z.; Spirer, Z.

1982-05-01

330

Characterization of urease from Sporosarcina ureae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline stable (pH 7.75–12.5) urease from Sporosarcina ureae was purified over 400-fold by ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The cytoplasmic enzyme was remarkably\\u000a active with a specific activity of greater than 9300 ?mol urea degraded min-1 mg protein-1 at pH 7.5, where it has optimal activity. Although S. ureae is closely related to Bacillus pasteurii, known to posses a

Deborah D. McCoy; Aysegul Cetin; Robert P. Hausinger

1992-01-01

331

Effect of milk composition upon the partition coefficents of diacetyl, acetaldehyde, and ethanol in acidified milk products  

E-print Network

; SFT = SNF by fat by temperature interaction; SPT = SNF by pH by temperature interaction; FPT = fat by pH by temperature interaction; SFC = SNF by fat by concentration interaction; SPC = SNF by pH by concentration interaction; FPC = fat by p... SNF and milk fat concentrations in the milk matrix at either concentration of compounds or incubation temperature. The highest partition coefficients were observed in a milk matrix which contained 12% SNF or 20% milk fat. Interaction effects of SNF...

Lee, Kai-Ping

1991-01-01

332

Transfer of doxazosin into breast milk.  

PubMed

To the best of our knowledge, there have been no published studies of doxazosin transfer into human milk. In rats, milk concentrations twentyfold higher than in plasma have been reported. Based on these animal data, some references advise to avoid breastfeeding during doxazosin therapy. However, the physicochemical properties of doxazosin suggest low transfer into human milk. A 37-year-old breastfeeding woman who was administered doxazosin 4 mg daily for 2 doses was studied. Doxazosin concentrations in milk and plasma were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The milk/plasma area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-18 hours) ratio was 0.1. This finding is consistent with what could be predicted based on the physicochemical properties of doxazosin. The average and maximum milk concentrations were 2.9 and 4.2 µg/L. These values correspond to estimated relative infant doses of 0.06% and 0.09%, respectively, assuming standard infant milk intake. These values are well below the generally accepted cutoff of 10% for predicting safety during breastfeeding. A low relative infant dose of < 0.1% suggests that maternal doxazosin therapy may be compatible with breastfeeding after careful individual risk-benefit analysis. PMID:23439864

Jensen, Berit Packert; Dalrymple, Judith Maree; Begg, Evan James

2013-05-01

333

Simultaneous measurement of diazolidinyl urea, urea, and allantoin in cosmetic samples by hydrophilic interaction chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new HPLC method for simultaneous measurement of diazolidinyl urea (DU), urea, and allantoin by hydrophilic interaction chromatography using a column packed with triazol-bonded silica particles is described. The calibration curves of DU, urea, and allantoin were linear over the ranges 2.5–125.0, 30–1250, and 0.25–18.75mg\\/L, respectively. The recoveries of DU, urea, and allantoin from homemade cosmetic samples ranged from 92.84%

Takahiro Doi; Keiji Kajimura; Satoshi Takatori; Naoki Fukui; Shuzo Taguchi; Shozo Iwagami

2009-01-01

334

Original article Effect of concentrate type and distribution method  

E-print Network

fermentation. dairy cow / fat content / concentrate / milk yield Résumé - Effet de la nature et des modalitésOriginal article Effect of concentrate type and distribution method on milk fat content and milk- ditions as treatment RW. Milk yield was higher (+ 2 kg/day) for PHM treatment than for the GW and RW

Boyer, Edmond

335

Article original Effet de la concentration en phospholipides  

E-print Network

Article original Effet de la concentration en phospholipides de babeurre dans le lait de fromagerie phospholipid concentrations in cheese milk on production and composition of low fat Cheddar cheese. Skim milk, sweet buttermilk, UF milk retentate and UF buttermilk retentate were used to produce four cheese milks

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

336

Occupationally derived chemicals in breast milk  

SciTech Connect

Exogenously derived chemicals have been widely reported in breast milk. Chemicals typically found in occupational exposures, including trace metals, solvents, and halogenated hydrocarbons, are reviewed, in terms of milk partition factors, potential infant exposures, and possible infant health effects. In addition to ingestion of a chemical from breast milk, an infant incurs a neonatal body burden of a chemical due to transplacental migration from maternal blood. For trace metals, neonatal blood levels are similar to maternal blood levels. Partition of metals to milk is less efficient, but nevertheless can contribute significantly to an infant's body burden. For lipid-soluble pesticide residues and halogenated biphenyls, neonatal body burden is much less than that of the mother, but transfer to milk is efficient, due to the high proportion of milk fat. It is suggested that potential organic mercury toxicity can be estimated from concentration in maternal blood or milk. For other chemicals, available data are not sufficient to evaluate short- or long-term health effects. However, for many halogenated hydrocarbons, concentrations in normal human milk would permit infant exposure above guidelines for allowable daily intake set by the World Health organization.

Wolff, M.S.

1983-01-01

337

Premilking teat preparation for Australian pasture-based cows milked by an automated milking system.  

PubMed

Economic viability of automatic milking systems (AMS) within an Australian pasture-based farming system will be largely determined by the throughput (cows milked/h), which is the result of processes occurring while the cow is in the AMS milking crate. Premilking udder preparation is automated and optional on all AMS. Yet, very few conventional farms in Australia conduct premilking teat preparation regimens, with the majority (78%) strategically washing only visibly dirty teats before milking cup attachment. The objective was to determine the impact of udder preparation in an AMS on the total time spent by cows in the AMS milking unit (crate time). An experiment was conducted with 80 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows in a crossover design over two 5-wk periods to determine the effect of premilking teat preparation (no wash vs. wash) on milk yield, milk harvest rates, and total crate time per milking session in an AMS. Within this study there was no significant effect of treatment on quarter milk conductivity (no wash = 4,858 vs. wash = 4,829 +/- SE = 17 microS/cm), milk blood concentration (no wash = 115.7 vs. wash = 112.3 +/- 7.3 ppm) or test-day somatic cell counts (no wash = 2.044 vs. wash = 2.039 +/- 0.025 log(10) SCC). There was similar total daily milk yield for the 2 treatments (no wash = 20.5 vs. wash = 20.1 +/- 0.2 kg of milk), but a greater mean quarter milk flow rate resulting from the wash treatment (no wash = 0.950 vs. wash = 0.981 +/- 0.013 kg of milk/min). The faster milking was not sufficient to counter the time associated with washing, resulting in longer crate time (no wash = 6.02 vs. wash = 7.12 +/- 0.08 min/milking session) and therefore, lower harvest rate (no wash = 2.08 vs. wash = 1.74 +/- 0.02 kg of milk/min crate time). Not washing teats would allow more efficient AMS utilization by potentially allowing more cows to be milked per machine, which would likely have a positive effect on the economic viability of this technology. The results indicate that a longer term study, investigating the effect of washing teats on udder health and milk quality, is warranted. PMID:18565919

Davis, K L; Fulkerson, W J; Garcia, S C; Dickeson, D; Barchia, I M

2008-07-01

338

MECHANISMS OF UREA TOLERANCE IN UREA-ADAPTED POPULATIONS OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

When behavioral avoidance cannot prevent an animal from being exposed to novel environmental toxins, physiological mechanisms must cope with the toxin and its effects. We are investigating the basis of urea tolerance in populations of Drosophila melanogaster that have been selected to survive and develop in food containing 300 mmol l-1 urea. Previous research has demonstrated that the urea-selected larvae

REGINE ETIENNE; KECHENER FORTUNAT; VALERIE PIERCE

339

Maximizing the value of milk through separation technologies.  

PubMed

Milk is the source of a wide range of proteins that deliver nutrition to the most promising new food products today. Isolated milk proteins are natural, trusted food ingredients with excellent functionality. Separation technologies provide the basis for adding value to milk through the production of proteins that provide the food industry with ingredients to meet specific needs, not possible with milk itself or with other ingredients. The major milk proteins, casein and whey protein, can be isolated by manipulating their compositional and physical properties and then by using various separation technologies to recover the proteins. Additionally, they can be processed in various ways to create a wide range of ingredients with diverse functional characteristics. These ingredients include milk protein concentrate, milk protein isolate, casein, caseinate, whey protein concentrate, whey protein isolate, hydrolysates, and various milk fractions. Within each of these ingredient categories, there is further differentiation according to the functional and nutritional requirements of the finished food. Adding value to milk by expanding from consumer products to ingredients often requires different technologies, marketing structure and distribution channels. The worldwide market for both consumer products and ingredients from milk continues to grow. Technology often precedes market demand. Methods for the commercial production of individual milk components now exist, and in the future as clinical evidence develops, the opportunity for adding value to dairy products as functional foods with health benefits may be achieved. The research and development of today will be the basis of those value-added milk products for tomorrow. PMID:10531613

Huffman, L M; Harper, W J

1999-10-01

340

Measurement and modelling of urea solubility in supercritical CO 2 and CO 2 + ethanol mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility of urea in supercritical CO2 and CO2+ethanol was measured over the pressure and temperature ranges 100–300bar and 313–373K, respectively, and ethanol concentrations of 0–25mass% (urea free basis). The solubility in CO2 was measured by a once-through packed bed gravimetric method at a laboratory and pilot scale. The solubility in CO2+ethanol was measured using two different methods: antisolvent precipitation

O. J. Catchpole; S. J. Tallon; P. J. Dyer; J.-S. Lan; B. Jensen; O. K. Rasmussen; J. B. Grey

2005-01-01

341

Association between the bovine milk metabolome and rennet-induced coagulation properties of milk.  

PubMed

The milk metabolomes of 407 individual Swedish Red dairy cows were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as part of the Danish-Swedish Milk Genomics Initiative. By relating these metabolite profiles to total milk protein concentration and rheological measurements of rennet-induced milk coagulation together using multivariate data analysis techniques, we were able to identify several different associations of the milk metabolome to technological properties of milk. Several novel correlations of milk metabolites to protein content and rennet-induced coagulation properties were demonstrated. Metabolites associated with the prediction of total protein content included choline, N-acetyl hexosamines, creatinine, glycerophosphocholine, glutamate, glucose 1-phosphate, galactose 1-phosphate, and orotate. In addition, levels of lactate, acetate, glutamate, creatinine, choline, carnitine, galactose 1-phosphate, and glycerophosphocholine were significantly different when comparing noncoagulating and well-coagulating milks. These findings suggest that the mentioned metabolites are associated with milk protein content and rennet-induced coagulation properties and may act as quality markers for cheese milk. PMID:25087032

Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Gustavsson, Frida; Poulsen, Nina A; Glantz, Maria; Paulsson, Marie; Larsen, Lotte B; Bertram, Hanne C

2014-10-01

342

Rapid detection of economic adulterants in fresh milk by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method to aid in the detection of the economically driven adulteration of fresh milk with a range of small, nitrogen containing compounds, including melamine, ammeline, ammelide, cyanuric acid, allantoin, thiourea, urea, biuret, triuret, semicarbazide, aminotriazine, 3- and 4-aminotriazole, cyanamide, dicyandiamide, guanidine, choline, hydroxyproline, nitrate, and a range of amino acids, has been developed. (15)N2-Urea is used as an internal standard. The adulteration of milk with exogenous urea has previously been difficult to detect because of the variation in the naturally occurring levels of urea in milk. However, by monitoring the contaminants biuret and triuret, which comprise up to 1% of synthetic urea, the adulteration of milk with urea-based fertilizer can be detected. We estimate that to be economically viable, adulteration of the order of 90-4000ppm of the above adulterants would need to be added to fresh milk. For most of the compounds, an arbitrary detection threshold of 2ppm is therefore more than sufficient. For biuret, a lower detection threshold, better than 0.5ppm, is desirable and the sensitivity for biuret and triuret can be improved by the post-column addition of lithium to create lithium adducts under electrospray ionisation. Sample handling involves a two-step solvent precipitation method that is deployed in a 96-well plate format, and the hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography uses a rapid gradient (1.2min). Three separate injections, to detect the positively charged compounds, the negatively charged compounds and amino acids and finally the lithium adducts, are used. This rapid and qualitative survey method may be deployed as a second tier screening method to quickly reduce sample numbers indicated as irregular by an FTIR based screening system, and to direct analysis to appropriate quantification methods. PMID:23540766

Abernethy, Grant; Higgs, Kerianne

2013-05-01

343

A disposable biosensor for urea determination in blood based on an ammonium-sensitive transducer.  

PubMed

A potentiometric urea-sensitive biosensor using a NH4(+)-sensitive disposable electrode in double matrix membrane (DMM) technology as transducer is described. The ion-sensitive polymer matrix membrane was formed in the presence of an additional electrochemical inert filter paper matrix to improve the reproducibility in sensor production. The electrodes were prepared from one-side silver-coated filter paper, which is encapsulated for insulation by a heat-sealing film. A defined volume of the NH4(+)-sensitive polymer matrix membrane cocktail was deposited on this filter paper. To obtain the urea-biosensor a layer of urease was cast onto the ion-sensitive membrane. Poly (carbamoylsulfonate) hydrogel, produced from a hydrophilic polyurethane prepolymer blocked with bisulfite, served as immobilisation material. The disposable urea sensitive electrode was combined with a disposable Ag/AgCl reference electrode to obtain the disposable urea biosensor. The sensor responded rapidly and in a stable manner to changes in urea concentrations between 7.2 x 10(-5) and 2.1 x 10(-2)mol/l. The detection limit was 2 x 10(-5) mol/l urea and the slope in the linear range 52 mV/decade. By taking into consideration the influence of the interfering K(+)- and Na(+)-ions the sensor can be used for the determination of urea in human blood and serum samples (diluted or undiluted). A good correlation was found with the data obtained by the spectrophotometric routine method. PMID:10028647

Eggenstein, C; Borchardt, M; Diekmann, C; Gründig, B; Dumschat, C; Cammann, K; Knoll, M; Spener, F

1999-01-01

344

Low protein diet alters urea transport and cell structure in rat initial inner medullary collecting duct.  

PubMed Central

Low protein diets reverse the urea concentration gradient in the renal inner medulla. To investigate the mechanism(s) for this change, we studied urea transport and cell ultrastructure in initial and terminal inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) from rats fed 18% protein or an isocaloric, 8% protein diet for 4 wk. Serum urea, aldosterone, and albumin were significantly lower in rats fed 8% protein, but total protein and potassium were unchanged. Vasopressin stimulated passive urea permeability (Purea) threefold (P < 0.05) in initial IMCDs from rats fed 8% protein, but not from rats fed 18% protein. Luminal phloretin reversibly inhibited vasopressin-stimulated Purea. However, in terminal IMCDs from rats fed either diet, vasopressin stimulated Purea. Net transepithelial urea flux (measured with identical perfusate and bath solutions) was found only in initial IMCDs from rats fed 8% protein. Reducing the temperature reversibly inhibited it, but phloretin did not. Electron microscopy of initial IMCD principal cells from rats fed 8% protein showed expanded Golgi bodies and prominent autophagic vacuoles, and morphometric analysis demonstrated a marked increase in the surface density and boundary length of the basolateral plasma membrane. These ultrastructural changes were not observed in the terminal IMCD. Thus, 8% dietary protein causes two new urea transport processes to appear in initial but not terminal IMCDs. This is the first demonstration that "active" urea transport can be induced in a mammalian collecting duct segment. Images PMID:8227360

Isozaki, T; Verlander, J W; Sands, J M

1993-01-01

345

The effect of product formulation and homogenization on the physical properties of the milk-fat globule and acid milk gels  

E-print Network

The elect of homogenization pressure and product formulation on the composition physical and chemical properties of acid milk gels was evaluated. Nonfat dry milk, whey protein concentrate (WPC), cream, Span 60 and Tween 20, were combined to prepare...

Materon, Liliana

2000-01-01

346

Excretion of indomethacin in breast milk.  

PubMed Central

1. The excretion of indomethacin into breast milk and subsequent exposure of infants was studied in 16 women and seven of their infants. The median milk:plasma ratio in seven patients where there were measurable drug concentrations in both milk and plasma was 0.37. 2. Total infant dose, assuming a daily milk intake of 150 ml kg-1 and 100% absorption, ranged from 0.07% to 0.98% (median = 0.18%) of the weight adjusted maternal dose. 3. Plasma samples were obtained in seven infants. In six of these, indomethacin concentrations were below the sensitivity of the assay (less than 20 micrograms l-1), while one infant had a plasma indomethacin concentration of 47 micrograms l-1. 4. No adverse effects due to indomethacin were reported in the infants. PMID:1768569

Lebedevs, T H; Wojnar-Horton, R E; Yapp, P; Roberts, M J; Dusci, L J; Hackett, L P; Ilett, K F

1991-01-01

347

40 CFR 721.9925 - Aminoethylethylene urea methacrylamide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Aminoethylethylene urea methacrylamide. 721.9925 Section...Substances § 721.9925 Aminoethylethylene urea methacrylamide. (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as an aminoethylethylene urea methacrylamide (PMN...

2010-07-01

348

40 CFR 721.9925 - Aminoethylethylene urea methacrylamide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Aminoethylethylene urea methacrylamide. 721.9925 Section...Substances § 721.9925 Aminoethylethylene urea methacrylamide. (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as an aminoethylethylene urea methacrylamide (PMN...

2011-07-01

349

Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of Sporosarcina ureae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The guanine + cytosine (GC) content of the DNAs of 11 cultures of Sporosarcina ureae and one culture of Bacillus pasteurii was determined using the methods of Marmur and Doty (1962), Frédéricqet al. (1961), and paper chromatography. The GC content in DNA of Sporosarcina ureae ranges from 39.3 to 44%. Bacillus pasteurii contained 40.4% GC in DNA. Our results support

J. Bohá?ek; M. Kocur; T. Martinec

1968-01-01

350

Understanding Strategy of Nitrate and Urea Assimilation in a Chinese Strain of Aureococcus anophagefferens through RNA-Seq Analysis  

PubMed Central

Aureococcus anophagefferens is a harmful alga that dominates plankton communities during brown tides in North America, Africa, and Asia. Here, RNA-seq technology was used to profile the transcriptome of a Chinese strain of A. anophagefferens that was grown on urea, nitrate, and a mixture of urea and nitrate, and that was under N-replete, limited and recovery conditions to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie nitrate and urea utilization. The number of differentially expressed genes between urea-grown and mixture N-grown cells were much less than those between urea-grown and nitrate-grown cells. Compared with nitrate-grown cells, mixture N-grown cells contained much lower levels of transcripts encoding proteins that are involved in nitrate transport and assimilation. Together with profiles of nutrient changes in media, these results suggest that A. anophagefferens primarily feeds on urea instead of nitrate when urea and nitrate co-exist. Furthermore, we noted that transcripts upregulated by nitrate and N-limitation included those encoding proteins involved in amino acid and nucleotide transport, degradation of amides and cyanates, and nitrate assimilation pathway. The data suggest that A. anophagefferens possesses an ability to utilize a variety of dissolved organic nitrogen. Moreover, transcripts for synthesis of proteins, glutamate-derived amino acids, spermines and sterols were upregulated by urea. Transcripts encoding key enzymes that are involved in the ornithine-urea and TCA cycles were differentially regulated by urea and nitrogen concentration, which suggests that the OUC may be linked to the TCA cycle and involved in reallocation of intracellular carbon and nitrogen. These genes regulated by urea may be crucial for the rapid proliferation of A. anophagefferens when urea is provided as the N source. PMID:25338000

Dong, Hong-Po; Huang, Kai-Xuan; Wang, Hua-Long; Lu, Song-Hui; Cen, Jing-Yi; Dong, Yue-Lei

2014-01-01

351

Effect of additional cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc on reproduction and milk yield of lactating dairy cows receiving bovine somatotropin.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine whether organically complexed Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn would improve the reproductive performance and milk and milk component production in lactating dairy cows that began receiving bovine somatotropin in the ninth week of lactation. Holstein (n = 50) and Jersey (n = 10) cows were blocked by breed, lactation number, and incidence of retained fetal membranes. Two diets assigned within blocks and fed from parturition until 154 d of lactation were control or control supplemented daily with 26 mg of Co as Co glucoheptonate, 125 mg of Cu as Cu-Lys, 199 mg of Mn as Mn-Met, and 359 mg of Zn as Zn-Met. Cows were fitted with electronic pressure-sensing devices in the second week of lactation for detection of estrus. Ovarian structures were determined via transrectal ultrasonography at 7-d intervals from parturition until observation of the first corpus luteum. Blood samples were taken at 7-d intervals and analyzed for plasma concentrations of progesterone, insulin, and urea nitrogen. Onset of luteal activity was identified by progesterone concentrations > or = 1 ng/ml. Retained fetal membranes increased days to first estrus (detected via electronic estrous detection), first luteal activity, and first corpus luteum in control cows but not in supplemented cows. Days to first observed estrus were greater for control cows than for supplemented cows. Days to first service, days open, days from first service to conception, services per conception, milk yield, milk components, and somatic cell counts were similar for control and supplemented cows. Supplementation with complexed trace minerals effectively reduced days to first estrus. PMID:10342241

Campbell, M H; Miller, J K; Schrick, F N

1999-05-01

352

[Protein utilization by premature infants with a birth weight less than 1,500 g during nutrition with MANASAN or breast milk protein].  

PubMed

Protein utilization in very low birth weight infants fed the formula MANASAN or human milk protein. The influence of protein utilization was studied in 19 very low birth weight infants appropriate for gestational age between the 5th and 6th week of postnatal life. 8 of the infants were fed with the formula MANASAN (protein: cow's milk casein) and 11 were fed with similar quantities of human milk (HM) protein (HM fortified with 6g freeze-dried HM/100 ml). On two following days the protein intake and the nitrogen excretion in urine and stools were measured and the nitrogen balance was calculated. In the urine the excretions of alpha-amino-nitrogen, urea, ammonium and sulfuric acid were also estimated. On one of both study days the concentrations of alpha-amino-nitrogen and urea were measured in the preprandially obtained serum. The weight gain was calculated as mean of two weeks ending with the last day of study. Despite the similar protein intakes and the sufficient energy intakes in both study groups the serum concentration of alpha-amino-nitrogen and the renal excretions of alpha-amino-nitrogen, ammonium and sulfuric acid were significantly higher in the groups fed MANASAN than in the groups fed HM protein. The excretion of ammonium in the urine was significantly correlated to the excretion of sulfuric acid. The weight gain and the nitrogen balance were significantly lower in the infants fed MANASAN in comparison to the infants fed HM protein.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2056658

Boehm, G; Vogel, J; Müller, D M; Noack, U

1991-01-01

353

A disposable microbial based biosensor for quality control in milk.  

PubMed

The food industry needs suitable analytical methods for quality control, that is, methods that are rapid, reliable, specific and cost-effective as current wet chemistries and analytical practices are time consuming and may require highly skilled labor and expensive equipment. The need arises from heightened consumer concern about food composition and safety. The present study was carried out keeping in view the recently emerging concern of the presence of urea in milk, called "synthetic milk". The biocomponent part of the urea biosensor is an immobilized urease yielding bacterial cell biomass isolated from soil and is coupled to the ammonium ion selective electrode of a potentiometric transducer. The membrane potential of all types of potentiometric cell based probes is related to the activity of electrochemically detected product, and thus to the activity of the substrate by a form of the Nernst equation. Samples of milk were collected and analyzed for the presence of urea by the developed biosensor with a response time as low as 2 min. The results were in good correlation with the pure enzyme system. PMID:12835039

Verma, Neelam; Singh, Minni

2003-09-01

354

Molecular-dynamics simulations of urea nucleation from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Despite its ubiquitous character and relevance in many branches of science and engineering, nucleation from solution remains elusive. In this framework, molecular simulations represent a powerful tool to provide insight into nucleation at the molecular scale. In this work, we combine theory and molecular simulations to describe urea nucleation from aqueous solution. Taking advantage of well-tempered metadynamics, we compute the free-energy change associated to the phase transition. We find that such a free-energy profile is characterized by significant finite-size effects that can, however, be accounted for. The description of the nucleation process emerging from our analysis differs from classical nucleation theory. Nucleation of crystal-like clusters is in fact preceded by large concentration fluctuations, indicating a predominant two-step process, whereby embryonic crystal nuclei emerge from dense, disordered urea clusters. Furthermore, in the early stages of nucleation, two different polymorphs are seen to compete. PMID:25492932

Salvalaglio, Matteo; Perego, Claudio; Giberti, Federico; Mazzotti, Marco; Parrinello, Michele

2015-01-01

355

Original article Milk yield adjustments for milking length  

E-print Network

evaluation round of the year 1995. Predicted milk yields for levels of milking length were obtainedOriginal article Milk yield adjustments for milking length and age-parity-lambing month interaction - Milk yield adjustments for milking length and age-parity-lambing month interac- tion were estimated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

356

Nickel-cobalt bimetallic anode catalysts for direct urea fuel cell  

PubMed Central

Nickel is an ideal non-noble metal anode catalyst for direct urea fuel cell (DUFC) due to its high activity. However, there exists a large overpotential toward urea electrooxidation. Herein, NiCo/C bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared with various Co contents (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40?wt%) to improve the activity. The best Co ratio was 10% in the aspect of cell performance, with a maximum power density of 1.57?mW cm?2 when 0.33?M urea was used as fuel, O2 as oxidant at 60°C. The effects of temperature and urea concentration on DUFC performance were investigated. Besides, direct urine fuel cell reaches a maximum power density of 0.19?mW cm?2 with an open circuit voltage of 0.38?V at 60°C. PMID:25168632

Xu, Wei; Zhang, Huimin; Li, Gang; Wu, Zucheng

2014-01-01

357

Effect of urea on phase transition of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) investigated by differential scanning calorimetry.  

PubMed

The effect of urea on the phase transition of PNIPAM was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For a certain urea concentration, the enthalpy change of phase transition of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) aqueous solution increases with the number of DSC cycles, presumably due to the displacement of water molecules bound to the amide groups of PNIPAM by urea molecules at the temperature higher than the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAM and causes the decrease in the absolute value of the exothermic heat related to the dehydration of hydrophilic groups and interactions of hydrophilic residues to around 0. Moreover, the enthalpy change decreases with the urea concentration during the heating process of the first DSC cycle, indicating the replacement of water molecules around the apolar isopropyl groups by urea molecules at the temperature lower than LCST, and the endothermic heat caused by the dehydration of apolar groups decreases. Furthermore, the urea molecules which replace the water molecules at high temperature can be replaced again by water molecules at the temperature lower than LCST, but this process needs several days to complete. PMID:25029067

Gao, Yating; Yang, Jinxian; Ding, Yanwei; Ye, Xiaodong

2014-08-01

358

Induction of bovine polioencephalomalacia with a feeding system based on molasses and urea.  

PubMed Central

Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), a disease first described in the United States and related to intensive beef production, appeared in Cuba coincident with the use of a new, molasses-urea-based diet to fatten bulls. Because the only experimental means so far of reproducing PEM has been with amprolium, a structural analog of thiamin, the present study attempted to induce the disease using the molasses-urea-based diet. Six Holstein bulls (200-300 kg) were studied during consumption of three successive diets: 1) commercial molasses-urea-restricted forage diet of Cuban feedlots, 2) a period in which forage was gradually withdrawn and 3) a forage-free diet composed only of molasses, urea and fish meal. PEM was reproduced in this way. At ten-day intervals, blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and urea were measured, as well as when clinical signs of PEM appeared. The signs, clinical course and lesions of the experimentally induced disease were comparable to those of field cases. The biochemical results suggested a block in pyruvate oxidation as in PEM elsewhere in the world. No evidence existed of urea intoxication. In addition, brain and liver concentration of total thiamin from field cases and normal animals were found to be similar. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1000370

Mella, C M; Perez-Oliva, O; Loew, F M

1976-01-01

359

Urea loading enhances freezing survival and postfreeze recovery in a terrestrially hibernating frog.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that urea, an osmolyte accumulated early in hibernation, functions as a cryoprotectant in the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica. Relative to saline-treated, normouremic (10 micromol ml(-1)) frogs, individuals rendered hyperuremic (70 micromol ml(-1)) by administration of an aqueous urea solution exhibited significantly higher survival (100% versus 64%) following freezing at -4 degrees C, a potentially lethal temperature. Hyperuremic frogs also had lower plasma levels of intracellular proteins (lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, hemoglobin), which presumably escaped from damaged cells, and more quickly recovered neurobehavioral functions following thawing. Experimental freezing-thawing did not alter tissue urea concentrations, but did elevate glucose levels in the blood and organs of all frogs. When measured 24 h after thawing commenced, glucose concentrations were markedly higher in urea-loaded frogs as compared to saline-treated ones, possibly because elevated urea retarded glucose clearance. Like other low-molecular-mass cryoprotectants, urea colligatively reduces both the amount of ice forming within the body and the osmotic dehydration of cells. In addition, by virtue of certain non-colligative properties, it may bestow additional protection from freeze-thaw damage not afforded by glucose. PMID:18775934

Costanzo, Jon P; Lee, Richard E

2008-09-01

360

Effect of corn and beet pulp based concentrates on sheep milk and cheese fatty acid composition when fed Mediterranean fresh forages with particular reference to conjugated linoleic acid cis-9, trans-11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-four Sarda dairy sheep fed fresh forage based diets were allocated to eight groups in early lactation (i.e., 44 days in milk, winter period, growing stage of the forages) and at mid-lactation (i.e., 98 days in milk, spring period, reproductive stage of the forages) to evaluate effects of corn grain or beet pulp based supplementation on milk and cheese fatty

A. Cabiddu; M. Addis; G. Pinna; M. Decandia; M. Sitzia; G. Piredda; A. Pirisi; G. Molle

2006-01-01

361

Effects of dietary protein supply on caseins, whey proteins, proteolysis and renneting properties in milk from cows grazing clover or N fertilized grass.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to examine whether variation in the amino acid supply to cows could be a reason for the reduced casein content and poorer renneting properties of milk that often occur in late summer, or whether these effects are related to proteolysis in the raw milk. In a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, we investigated the effects of sward (clover v. rye-grass) and supplementary feed with a high or low level of rumen-soluble N or of rumen undegradable protein on milk protein composition during the grazing season. A total of 32 Danish Holstein cows were included in the experiment. Milk protein and casein contents and the ratios casein N:total N and casein:true protein were at a minimum in late summer, whereas the contents of urea, non-protein N and whey protein were higher during this period. These seasonal effects were unrelated to either the type of supplementary feed or the type of sward; neither were they clearly related to proteolysis, although casein: true protein was related to the proteose peptone content. The results indicated that whey proteins other than alpha-lactalbumin or beta-lactoglobulin accounted for the higher proportion or concentration of whey protein in late summer. Based on a principal component analysis including variables such as citric acid, lactose and non-protein N, we suggest that the cows' energy supply during this period may be a critical factor in determining the milk protein composition, although our results were not conclusive. There was an interaction between the supplement of rumen undegradable protein and type of sward. When clover was grazed, a high supplement increased the concentrations of protein and casein in milk and the kappa-casein: total casein ratio. When rye-grass was grazed, the opposite response was found, and overall milk protein yield was not affected. The very low N content of clover in early summer reduced milk protein and casein protein during this period. PMID:10376241

Hermansen, J E; Ostersen, S; Justesen, N C; Aaes, O

1999-05-01

362

Analysis of Whole Milk vs. Low-Fat Milk Consumption Among WIC Children Before Programmatic Changes  

E-print Network

. Recent updates in food packages provided by WIC include the addition of fruits, vegetables and whole wheat products as well as the removal of whole milk for women and children two years and older. This thesis concentrates on preschool children...

Bayar, Emine

2011-08-08

363

Profiles of Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Production of Some Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Transgenic Animals12  

PubMed Central

During the decade of the 1990s and the first years of the current century, our group embarked on a project to study and synthesize human milk oligosaccharides. This report describes 2 unexpected collateral observations from that endeavor. The first observation was the detection and confirmation of 2 rare neutral human milk oligosaccharides profiles that were uncovered while assessing oligosaccharide content in hundreds of samples of human milk. One of these lacked fucosylated structures altogether, and the other lacked the oligosaccharide 3-fucosyllactose [Gal?1–4(Fuc?1–3)Glc]. We used glycoconjugate probes to determine whether the unusual profiles were mirrored by fucosylation of milk glycoproteins. The results show that the lack of fucosylated oligosaccharides in these samples corresponds to the absence of equivalent fucosylated motifs in milk glycoproteins. The second finding was a shortened and distinct lactation process in transgenic rabbits expressing the human fucosyltransferase 1. During the first day of lactation, these animals expressed milk that contained both lactose and 2?-fucosylactose, but on the second day, the production of milk was severely diminished, and by the fourth day, no lactose was detected in their milk. Meanwhile, the concentration of fucosylated glycoproteins increased from the onset of lactation through its premature termination. These 2 findings may shed light on the glycobiology of milk and perhaps on mammary gland differentiation. PMID:22585925

Prieto, Pedro Antonio

2012-01-01

364

Dietary molasses increases ruminal pH and enhances ruminal biohydrogenation during milk fat depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding high-concentrate diets has the potential to cause milk fat depression, but several studies have suggested that dietary sugar can increase milk fat yield. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of dietary molasses to prevent milk fat depression in the presence of a 65% concentrate diet. In trial 1, molasses replaced corn grain at 0, 2.5, or 5%

C. A. Martel; E. C. Titgemeyer; L. K. Mamedova; B. J. Bradford

2011-01-01

365

Comparative transport efficiencies of urea analogues through urea transporter UT-B.  

PubMed

Expression of urea transporter UT-B confers high urea permeability to mammalian erythrocytes. Erythrocyte membranes also permeate various urea analogues, suggesting common transport pathways for urea and structurally similar solutes. In this study, we examined UT-B-facilitated passage of urea analogues and other neutral small solutes by comparing transport properties of wildtype to UT-B-deficient mouse erythrocytes. Stopped-flow light-scattering measurements indicated high UT-B permeability to urea and chemical analogues formamide, acetamide, methylurea, methylformamide, ammonium carbamate, and acrylamide, each with P(s)>5.0 x 10(-6) cm/s at 10 degrees C. UT-B genetic knockout and phloretin treatment of wildtype erythrocytes similarly reduced urea analogue permeabilities. Strong temperature dependencies of formamide, acetamide, acrylamide and butyramide transport across UT-B-null membranes (E(a)>10 kcal/mol) suggested efficient diffusion of these amides across lipid bilayers. Urea analogues dimethylurea, acryalmide, methylurea, thiourea and methylformamide inhibited UT-B-mediated urea transport by >60% in the absence of transmembrane analogue gradients, supporting a pore-blocking mechanism of UT-B inhibition. Differential transport efficiencies of urea and its analogues through UT-B provide insight into chemical interactions between neutral solutes and the UT-B pore. PMID:17506977

Zhao, Dan; Sonawane, N D; Levin, Marc H; Yang, Baoxue

2007-07-01

366

Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for CLA-rich milk production included linseed supplement and contained less maize meal than conventional rations and a greater proportion of unsaturated fatty acids and salts. The relative proportions of the phospholipids studied were similar in all 3 types of milk, descending in the order PE>(PC, SM)>PS>PI, with PC being slightly more abundant than SM in organic milk and vice versa in CLA-rich milk. PMID:25465571

Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

2015-01-01

367

The permeability of red blood cells to chloride, urea and water.  

PubMed

This study extends permeability (P) data on chloride, urea and water in red blood cells (RBC), and concludes that the urea transporter (UT-B) does not transport water. P of chick, duck, Amphiuma means, dog and human RBC to (36)Cl(-), (14)C-urea and (3)H2O was determined under self-exchange conditions. At 25°C and pH 7.2-7.5, PCl is 0.94 × 10(-4)-2.15 × 10(-4) cm s(-1) for all RBC species at [Cl]=127-150 mmol l(-1). In chick and duck RBC, P(urea) is 0.84 × 10(-6) and 1.65 × 10(-6) cm s(-1), respectively, at [urea]=1-500 mmol l(-1). In Amphiuma, dog and human RBC, P(urea) is concentration dependent (1-1000 mmol l(-1), Michaelis-Menten-like kinetics; K1/2;=127, 173 and 345 mmol l(-1)), and values at [urea]=1 mmol l(-1) are 29.5 × 10(-6), 467 × 10(-6) and 260 × 10(-6) cm s(-1), respectively. Diffusional water permeability, Pd, was 0.84 × 10(-3) (chick), 5.95 × 10(-3) (duck), 0.39 × 10(-3) (Amphiuma), 3.13 × 10(-3) (dog) and 2.35 × 10(-3) cm s(-1) (human). DIDS, DNDS and phloretin inhibit PCl by >99% in all RBC species. PCMBS, PCMB and phloretin inhibit P(urea) by >99% in Amphiuma, dog and human RBC, but not in chick and duck RBC. PCMBS and PCMB inhibit Pd in duck, dog and human RBC, but not in chick and Amphiuma RBC. Temperature dependence, as measured by apparent activation energy, EA, of PCl is 117.8 (duck), 74.9 (Amphiuma) and 89.6 kJ mol(-1) (dog). The EA of P(urea) is 69.6 (duck) and 53.3 kJ mol(-1) (Amphiuma), and that of Pd is 34.9 (duck) and 32.1 kJ mol(-1) (Amphiuma). The present and previous RBC studies indicate that anion (AE1), urea (UT-B) and water (AQP1) transporters only transport chloride (all species), water (duck, dog, human) and urea (Amphiuma, dog, human), respectively. Water does not share UT-B with urea, and the solute transport is not coupled under physiological conditions. PMID:23470663

Brahm, Jesper

2013-06-15

368

Enzymatic Characterization of a Prokaryotic Urea Carboxylase  

PubMed Central

We identified the first prokaryotic urea carboxylase (UCA) from a member of the alpha subclass of the class Proteobacteria, Oleomonas sagaranensis. This enzyme (O. sagaranensis Uca) was composed of 1,171 amino acids, and its N-terminal region resembled the biotin carboxylase domains of various biotin-dependent carboxylases. The C-terminal region of the enzyme harbored the Met-Lys-Met motif found in biotin carboxyl carrier proteins. The primary structure of the enzyme was 45% identical to that of the urea carboxylase domain of urea amidolyase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. O. sagaranensis Uca did not harbor the allophanate hydrolase domain found in the yeast enzyme, but a separate gene with structural similarity was found to be adjacent to the uca gene. Purified recombinant O. sagaranensis Uca displayed ATP-dependent carboxylase activity towards urea (Vmax = 21.2 ?mol mg?1 min?1) but not towards acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and propionyl-CoA, indicating that the gene encoded a bona fide UCA and not an acetyl-CoA or propionyl-CoA carboxylase. The enzyme also exhibited high levels of activity towards acetamide and formamide. Kinetic parameters of the enzyme reaction were determined with ATP, urea, acetamide, and formamide. O. sagaranensis could grow on urea, acetamide, and formamide as sole nitrogen sources; moreover, ATP-dependent urea-degrading activity was found in cells grown with urea but not in cells grown with ammonia. The results suggest that the UCA of this organism may be involved in the assimilation of these compounds as nitrogen sources. Furthermore, orthologues of the O. sagaranensis uca gene were found to be widely distributed among Bacteria. This implies that there are two systems of urea degradation in Bacteria, a pathway catalyzed by the previously described ureases and the UCA-allophanate hydrolase pathway identified in this study. PMID:15090492

Kanamori, Takeshi; Kanou, Norihisa; Atomi, Haruyuki; Imanaka, Tadayuki

2004-01-01

369

Breast milk jaundice  

MedlinePLUS

... the eyes to turn a yellow color. Breast milk jaundice is long-term jaundice in an otherwise ... fed infant, the condition may be called "breast milk jaundice." It is probably caused by factors in ...

370

Genetic variability of milk fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The milk fatty acid (FA) profile is far from the optimal fat composition in regards to human health. The natural sources of\\u000a variation, such as feeding or genetics, could be used to increase the concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids. The impact\\u000a of feeding is well described. However, genetic effects on the milk FA composition begin to be extensively studied. This

V. M.-R. Arnould; H. Soyeurt

2009-01-01

371

Methane emission, nutrient degradation and nitrogen turnover in dairy cows and their slurry at different milk production scenarios with and without concentrate supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane emissions from dairy cows, including storage of their slurry, contribute significantly to the global greenhouse gas budget. Supplementation of diets with concentrate often diminishes enteric methane emissions from cows, but it may simultaneously enhance slurry methanogenesis because this is associated with extra amounts of undigested fibre which may be a substrate for slurry microbes. In the present study, the

I. K. Hindrichsen; H.-R. Wettstein; A. Machmüller; M. Kreuzer

2006-01-01

372

Interactions of S-peptide analogue in aqueous urea and trimethylamine-N-oxide solutions: A molecular dynamics simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of the osmolyte, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), to protect proteins from deleterious effect of urea, another commonly available osmolyte, is well-established. However, the molecular mechanism of this counteraction is not understood yet. To provide a molecular level understanding of how TMAO protects proteins in highly concentrated urea solution, we report here molecular dynamics simulation results of a 15-residue model peptide in two different conformations: helix and extended. For both conformations, simulations are carried out in pure water as well as in binary and ternary aqueous solutions of urea and TMAO. Analysis of solvation characteristics reveals direct interactions of urea and TMAO with peptide residues. However, the number of TMAO molecules that enter in the first solvation shell of the peptide is significantly lower than that of urea, and, unlike water and urea, TMAO shows its inability to form hydrogen bond with backbone oxygen and negatively charged sidechains. Preferential accumulation of urea near the peptide surface and preferential exclusion of TMAO from the peptide surface are observed. Inclusion of osmolytes in the peptide solvation shell leads to dehydration of the peptide in binary and ternary solutions of urea and TMAO. Solvation of peptide residues are investigated more closely by calculating the number of hydrogen bonds between the peptide and solution species. It is found that number of hydrogen bonds formed by the peptide with solution species increases in binary urea solution (relative to pure water) and this relative enhancement in hydrogen bond number reduces upon addition of TMAO. Our simulation results also suggest that, in the ternary solution, the peptide solvation layer is better mixed in terms of water and urea as compared to binary urea solution. Implications of the results for counteraction mechanism of TMAO are discussed.

Sarma, Rahul; Paul, Sandip

2013-07-01

373

Influence of Urea, Hydroxyurea, and Thiourea on Meloidogyne javanica and Infected Excised Tomato Roots in Culture.  

PubMed

Urea (U), hydroxyurea (HU), and thiourea (TU), in various concentrations, were added to chemically defined plant tissue culture medium on which Meloidogyne javanica was reared on excised tomato roots. Concentrations as low as 3 ppm HU or 12 ppm TU inhibited nematode maturation by 70-90% 4 weeks after inoculation, and the coenocytes in the parasitized tissue were poorly developed. Gall weight was also inhibited by 50% in cultures treated with 3 and 6 ppm HU. However, exposing juveniles of M. javanica and Tylenchulus semipenetrans or juveniles and adults of Pratylenchus thornei to increasing concentrations of HU or TU, up to 100 ppm, was not lethal. These two urea derivatives still inhibited nematode maturation when the infected region of the root was not in direct contact with the chemicals. Therefore, we suggest that these urea derivatives inhibit nematode development by affecting the plant metabolism essential to coenocyte formation, an occurrence similar to the hypersensitive reaction in a naturally resistant plant. PMID:19295888

Glazer, I; Orion, D

1984-04-01

374

Unfolding mechanism of lysozyme in various urea solutions: Insights from fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence spectroscopic technique is very popular in exploring the folding/unfolding process of proteins. In this paper, unfolding process of hen egg-white lysozyme was investigated in various denaturing solutions. Firstly, polymer solution theory was employed to comprehend the dependence of fluorescence quenching effect on protein concentration, and dynamic contact concentration was suggested as a critical value for related fluorescence experiment. Secondly, it was found that urea alone could not completely unfold lysozyme but did when together with DTT or HCl. Lysozyme was destabilized in concentrated urea solution, but still could maintain its spatial structure. Phase diagram of fluorescence intensities revealed that HCl could enhance the denaturing capacity of urea, resulting in the emergence of intermediate state in the thermodynamic unfolding process of lysozyme.

Chen, Bang; Zhang, Hongjia; Xi, Wenying; Zhao, Liqing; Liang, Li; Chen, Yantao

2014-11-01

375

Effect of dietary starch level and high rumen-undegradable protein on endocrine-metabolic status, milk yield, and milk composition in dairy cows during early and late lactation.  

PubMed

Diet composition defines the amount and type of nutrients absorbed by dairy cows. Endocrine-metabolic interactions can influence these parameters, and so nutrient availability for the mammary gland can significantly vary and affect milk yield and its composition. Six dairy cows in early and then late lactation received, for 28 d in a changeover design, 2 diets designed to provide, within the same stage of lactation, similar amounts of rumen fermentable material but either high starch plus sugar (HS) content or low starch plus sugar content (LS). All diets had similar dietary crude protein and calculated supply of essential amino acids. Dry matter intake within each stage of lactation was similar between groups. Milk yield was similar between groups in early lactation, whereas a higher milk yield was observed in late lactation when feeding HS. At the metabolic level, the main difference observed between the diets in both stages of lactation was lower blood glucose in cows fed LS. The lower glucose availability during consumption of LS caused substantial modifications in the circulating and postprandial pattern of metabolic hormones. Feeding LS versus HS resulted in an increase in the ratio of bovine somatotropin to insulin. This increased mobilization of lipid reserves resulted in higher blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate, which contributed to the higher milk fat content in both stages of lactation in the LS group. This greater recourse to body fat stores was confirmed by the greater loss of body weight during early lactation and the slower recovery of body weight in late lactation in cows fed LS. The lower insulin to glucagon ratio observed in cows fed LS in early and late lactation likely caused an increase in hepatic uptake and catabolism of amino acids, as confirmed by the higher blood urea concentrations. Despite the higher catabolism of amino acids in LS in early lactation, similar milk protein output was observed for both diets, suggesting similar availability of amino acids for peripheral tissue and mammary gland. The latter could be the result of sparing of amino acids at the gut level due to starch that escaped from the rumen, and to the balanced amino acid profile of digestible protein. This last aspect appears worthy of further research, with the aim to enhance the efficiency of protein metabolism of dairy cows, reducing environmental nitrogen pollution without affecting milk yield potential. PMID:25459908

Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Loor, J J; Seal, C J; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

2014-12-01

376

Effect of extruded soya seed on reversion of fat and protein percentage and fatty acid composition of goat milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Extruded soya seed was offered at 0, 10 or 20% dry matter (DM) in the diets of mid-lactating goats to assess their effect on the reversion of milk fat and protein contents that occurs in high concentrate diets, and to manipulate milk fatty acid composition. Feeding extruded soya seed increased raw milk yield and milk fat content compared

P. Morand-Fehr; J. Tessier; A. Rouzeau

377

Milk demystified by chemistry.  

PubMed

This article traces the decline of milk from a heavenly elixir to a tradeable food. Early cultures regarded milk not as a simple nutrient, but a living fluid. Heroes and gods were believed to have been nurtured by animals after being abandoned. Character traits were assumed to be transmitted by milk; infantile diseases were attributed to "bad milk", whereas "good milk" was used as a remedy. With chemical methods developed at the end of the 18th century, it became known that human milk was higher in sugar and lower in protein than cow's milk. During the 19th century, "scientific" feeding emerged that meant modifying cow's milk to imitate the proportion of nutrients in human milk. In Boston from 1893, Rotch initiated the "percentage" method, requiring a physician's prescription. In Paris from 1894, Budin sterilized bottled infant milk. In Berlin in 1898, Rubner measured oxygen and energy uptake by calorimetry, prompting feeding by calories, and Czerny introduced regulated feeding by the clock. These activities ignored the emotional dimension of infant nutrition and the anti-infective properties of human milk. They may have also enhanced the decline in breastfeeding, which reached an all-time low in 1971. Milk's demystification made artificial nutrition safer, but paved the way for commercially produced infant formula. PMID:24558227

Obladen, Michael

2014-09-01

378

Special Milk Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

US Department of Agriculture, 2009

2009-01-01

379

International milk genomics consortium  

E-print Network

Viewpoint International milk genomics consortium J. Bruce Germana, *, Floyd L. Schanbacherb , Bo Lo The first international symposium on Milk Genomics & Human Health brought scientists from around the world and across the milk research spectrum to the task of annotating the subsets of mammalian genomes responsible

Rocke, David M.

380

Antibacterial kaolinite/urea/chlorhexidine nanocomposites: Experiment and molecular modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clay minerals are commonly used materials in pharmaceutical production both as inorganic carriers or active agents. The purpose of this study is the preparation and characterization of clay/antibacterial drug hybrids which can be further included in drug delivery systems for treatment oral infections. Novel nanocomposites with antibacterial properties were successfully prepared by ion exchange reaction from two types of kaolinite/urea intercalates and chlorhexidine diacetate. Intercalation compounds of kaolinite were prepared by reaction with solid urea in the absence of solvents (dry method) as well as with urea aqueous solution (wet method). The antibacterial activity of two prepared samples against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated by finding the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Antibacterial studies of both samples showed the lowest MIC values (0.01%, w/v) after 1 day against E. faecalis, E. coli and S. aureus. A slightly worse antibacterial activity was observed against P. aeruginosa (MIC 0.12%, w/v) after 1 day. Since samples showed very good antibacterial activity, especially after 1 day of action, this means that these samples can be used as long-acting antibacterial materials. Prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The experimental data are supported by results of molecular modelling.

Holešová, Sylva; Valášková, Marta; Hlavá?, Dominik; Madejová, Jana; Samlíková, Magda; Tokarský, Jonáš; Pazdziora, Erich

2014-06-01

381

Developing Hypothetical Inhibition Mechanism of Novel Urea Transporter B Inhibitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urea transporter B (UT-B) is a membrane channel protein that specifically transports urea. UT-B null mouse exhibited urea selective urine concentrating ability deficiency, which suggests the potential clinical applications of the UT-B inhibitors as novel diuretics. Primary high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) of 50000 small-molecular drug-like compounds identified 2319 hit compounds. These 2319 compounds were screened by high-throughput screening using an erythrocyte osmotic lysis assay. Based on the pharmacological data, putative UT-B binding sites were identified by structure-based drug design and validated by ligand-based and QSAR model. Additionally, UT-B structural and functional characteristics under inhibitors treated and untreated conditions were simulated by molecular dynamics (MD). As the result, we identified four classes of compounds with UT-B inhibitory activity and predicted a human UT-B model, based on which computative binding sites were identified and validated. A novel potential mechanism of UT-B inhibitory activity was discovered by comparing UT-B from different species. Results suggest residue PHE198 in rat and mouse UT-B might block the inhibitor migration pathway. Inhibitory mechanisms of UT-B inhibitors and the functions of key residues in UT-B were proposed. The binding site analysis provides a structural basis for lead identification and optimization of UT-B inhibitors.

Li, Min; Tou, Weng Ieong; Zhou, Hong; Li, Fei; Ren, Huiwen; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian; Yang, Baoxue

2014-07-01

382

Mechanisms of molecular transport through the urea channel of Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori survival in acidic environments relies on cytoplasmic hydrolysis of gastric urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, which buffer the pathogen’s periplasm. Urea uptake is greatly enhanced and regulated by HpUreI, a proton-gated inner membrane channel protein essential for gastric survival of H. pylori. The crystal structure of HpUreI describes a static snapshot of the channel with two constriction sites near the center of the bilayer that are too narrow to allow passage of urea or even water. Here we describe the urea transport mechanism at atomic resolution, revealed by unrestrained microsecond equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the hexameric channel assembly. Two consecutive constrictions open to allow conduction of urea, which is guided through the channel by interplay between conserved residues that determine proton rejection and solute selectivity. Remarkably, HpUreI conducts water at rates equivalent to aquaporins, which might be essential for efficient transport of urea at small concentration gradients. PMID:24305683

McNulty, Reginald; Ulmschneider, Jakob P.; Luecke, Hartmut; Ulmschneider, Martin B.

2013-01-01

383

Mechanisms of molecular transport through the urea channel of Helicobacter pylori  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helicobacter pylori survival in acidic environments relies on cytoplasmic hydrolysis of gastric urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, which buffer the pathogen’s periplasm. Urea uptake is greatly enhanced and regulated by HpUreI, a proton-gated inner membrane channel protein essential for gastric survival of H. pylori. The crystal structure of HpUreI describes a static snapshot of the channel with two constriction sites near the center of the bilayer that are too narrow to allow passage of urea or even water. Here we describe the urea transport mechanism at atomic resolution, revealed by unrestrained microsecond equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the hexameric channel assembly. Two consecutive constrictions open to allow conduction of urea, which is guided through the channel by interplay between conserved residues that determine proton rejection and solute selectivity. Remarkably, HpUreI conducts water at rates equivalent to aquaporins, which might be essential for efficient transport of urea at small concentration gradients.

McNulty, Reginald; Ulmschneider, Jakob P.; Luecke, Hartmut; Ulmschneider, Martin B.

2013-12-01

384

Transcriptional Responses of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli to Increased Environmental Osmolality Caused by Salt or Urea  

PubMed Central

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the most common causative agent of urinary tract infections in humans. The majority of urinary infections develop via ascending route through the urethra, where bacterial cells come in contact with human urine prior to reaching the bladder or kidneys. Since urine contains significant amounts of inorganic ions and urea, it imposes osmotic and denaturing stresses on bacterial cells. In this study, we determined the transcriptional adaptive responses of UPEC strain CFT073 to the presence of 0.3 M NaCl or 0.6 M urea in the growth medium. The cell responses to these two osmolytes were drastically different. Although most of the genes of the osmotically inducible regulon were overexpressed in medium with salt, urea failed to stimulate osmotic stress response. At the same time, UPEC colonization genes encoding type 1 and F1C fimbriae and capsule biosynthesis were transcriptionally induced in the presence of urea but did not respond to increased salt concentration. We speculate that urea can potentially be sensed by uropathogenic bacteria to initiate infection program. In addition, several molecular chaperone genes were overexpressed in the presence of urea, whereas adding NaCl to the medium led to an upregulation of a number of anaerobic metabolism pathways. PMID:23090957

Withman, Benjamin; Gunasekera, Thusitha S.; Beesetty, Pavani; Agans, Richard

2013-01-01

385

Epac Regulates UT-A1 to Increase Urea Transport in Inner Medullary Collecting Ducts  

PubMed Central

Urea plays a critical role in the concentration of urine, thereby regulating water balance. Vasopressin, acting through cAMP, stimulates urea transport across rat terminal inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) by increasing the phosphorylation and accumulation at the apical plasma membrane of UT-A1. In addition to acting through protein kinase A (PKA), cAMP also activates Epac (exchange protein activated by cAMP). In this study, we tested whether the regulation of urea transport and UT-A1 transporter activity involve Epac in rat IMCD. Functional analysis showed that an Epac activator significantly increased urea permeability in isolated, perfused rat terminal IMCD. Similarly, stimulating Epac by adding forskolin and an inhibitor of PKA significantly increased urea permeability. Incubation of rat IMCD suspensions with the Epac activator significantly increased UT-A1 phosphorylation and its accumulation in the plasma membrane. Furthermore, forskolin-stimulated cAMP significantly increased ERK 1/2 phosphorylation, which was not prevented by inhibiting PKA, indicating that Epac mediated this phosphorylation of ERK 1/2. Inhibition of MEK 1/2 phosphorylation decreased the forskolin-stimulated UT-A1 phosphorylation. Taken together, activation of Epac increases urea transport, accumulation of UT-A1 at the plasma membrane, and UT-A1 phosphorylation, the latter of which is mediated by the MEK–ERK pathway. PMID:19661162

Wang, Yanhua; Klein, Janet D.; Blount, Mitsi A.; Martin, Christopher F.; Kent, Kimilia J.; Pech, Vladimir; Wall, Susan M.

2009-01-01

386

Milk production and composition, milk fatty acid profile, and blood composition of dairy cows fed whole or ground flaxseed in the first half of lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 27 multiparous Holstein cows averaging 634kg body weight (BW) were allotted at calving to six groups of four cows and one group of three cows blocked for similar calving dates to determine effects of feeding whole or ground flaxseed on dry matter (DM) intake, milk production, milk composition, milk fatty acid profile and concentration of some blood

H. V. Petit; C. Côrtes

2010-01-01

387

Urea-temperature phase diagrams capture the thermodynamics of denatured state expansion that accompany protein unfolding  

PubMed Central

We have analyzed the thermodynamic properties of the von Willebrand factor (VWF) A3 domain using urea-induced unfolding at variable temperature and thermal unfolding at variable urea concentrations to generate a phase diagram that quantitatively describes the equilibrium between native and denatured states. From this analysis, we were able to determine consistent thermodynamic parameters with various spectroscopic and calorimetric methods that define the urea–temperature parameter plane from cold denaturation to heat denaturation. Urea and thermal denaturation are experimentally reversible and independent of the thermal scan rate indicating that all transitions are at equilibrium and the van't Hoff and calorimetric enthalpies obtained from analysis of individual thermal transitions are equivalent demonstrating two-state character. Global analysis of the urea–temperature phase diagram results in a significantly higher enthalpy of unfolding than obtained from analysis of individual thermal transitions and significant cross correlations describing the urea dependence of and that define a complex temperature dependence of the m-value. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy illustrates a large increase in secondary structure content of the urea-denatured state as temperature increases and a loss of secondary structure in the thermally denatured state upon addition of urea. These structural changes in the denatured ensemble make up ?40% of the total ellipticity change indicating a highly compact thermally denatured state. The difference between the thermodynamic parameters obtained from phase diagram analysis and those obtained from analysis of individual thermal transitions illustrates that phase diagrams capture both contributions to unfolding and denatured state expansion and by comparison are able to decipher these contributions. PMID:23813497

Tischer, Alexander; Auton, Matthew

2013-01-01

388

Diffusion Flame Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles using Urea Assisted Precursor Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroxyapatite (HA) or (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 has been widely used in orthopedics and dental applications for human bone implant and teeth filler due to their biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties. Fine to nanoparticles of HA with appropriate stoichiometry and purity are preferred because they enhance densification and bioactive properties. Here, we reported the synthesis of hydroxyapatite particles in a diffusion flame reactor. LPG mainly consisting of butane and propane was used as fuel and compressed air was used as oxidizer and carrier gas. The effects of urea adding into precursor on morphology and crystallinity of the generated particles were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to observe particles morphology and crystallinity, respectively. Purity of the generated particles was analyzed quantitatively from XRD pattern using Rietveld method. Spherical shape of particles morphology was obtained for particles synthesized without urea added into precursor. Increasing fuel flow rate and urea concentration led to further disintegration of the generated particles. Nano sized particles were generated using fuel flow rate of 1 L/min and 30 w% concentration of urea added into precursor. However, increasing urea concentration led to the increase of tricalcium phosphate as a further reaction of hydroxyapatite for flame generated by using LPG as fuel of 1 L/min.

Widiyastuti; Setiawan, Adhi; Setyawan, Heru; Kusdianto; Nurtono, Tantular; Nia, Suci Madha; Winardi, Sugeng

2011-12-01

389

[Chemical pollution and breast milk: Taking positions].  

PubMed

Chemical pollution affects all ecosystems of our planet. Human milk has been used as a biomarker of environmental pollution as, due to bioaccumulation processes in fat tissue, many chemical compounds reach measurable concentrations that can be readily tested in breast milk. Quite frequently information about the presence of contaminants in breast milk appears in the media, leading to misunderstanding among parents and health professionals, and in some cases breastfeeding the child is stopped. In this article, the Breastfeeding Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics stresses the importance of promoting breastfeeding as the healthiest option, because its benefits clearly outweigh any health risks associated with chemical contaminants in breast milk. Breast milk contains protective factors that counteract the potential effects related to prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants. This article summarises the key recommendations to reduce the level of chemical contaminants in breast milk. It also highlights the importance of government involvement in the development of programs to eliminate or reduce chemical contamination of food and the environment. In this way, the negative effects on child health resulting from exposure to these toxic compounds through the placenta and breast milk may be prevented. PMID:23791806

Díaz-Gómez, N M; Ares, S; Hernández-Aguilar, M T; Ortega-García, J A; Paricio-Talayero, J M; Landa-Rivera, L