Sample records for milk urea concentration

  1. Variability of urea concentration in camel milk in Kazakhstan

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Note Variability of urea concentration in camel milk in Kazakhstan Bernard FAYE 1*, Gaukhar-protein nitrogen in milk. The variability of its concentration was never reported in camel milk. The present communication aimed to give some reference values on urea content in camel milk and to explore some

  2. Cow level sampling factors affecting analysis and interpretation of milk urea concentrations in 2 dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Eicher, R; Bouchard, E; Tremblay, A

    1999-07-01

    The goals of this study were to determine the influence of the variations among udder quarters, the somatic cell count, the time of sampling during the day, sample conservation, and centrifugation on milk urea (UREA) concentrations, and to propose a sample collection procedure for herds that are not on a Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) program. Forty cows from 2 herds with different feeding practices were randomly selected. The quarter sampled and the somatic cell count did not significantly influence UREA concentrations. Milk urea concentrations were highest in the morning. The diurnal pattern was not influenced by intrinsic factors like parity, days postpartum, or daily milk yield. The UREA concentrations were significantly higher after refrigeration for one week (mean UREA change = +0.41 +/- 0.24 mmol/L, P = 0.0001) and freezing for one month (mean UREA change = +1.52 +/- 1.25 mmol/L, P = 0.0001). Urea concentrations were slightly higher in lactoserum than in whole milk (mean UREA difference = +0.17 +/- 0.24 mmol/L, P = 0.0001). Although this study included only 2 herds and does not allow extrapolation, differences were found in the diurnal pattern of UREA in these 2 herds, which possibly reflect differences in feeding strategy. With consideration of these results, a 6-point sampling procedure for herds that are not on a DHI program is proposed. PMID:10416068

  3. Effect of Dietary Energy and Protein Concentration on the Concentration of Milk Urea Nitrogen in Dairy Ewes1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cannas; A. Pes; R. Mancuso; B. Vodret; A. Nudda

    1998-01-01

    To study the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) and energy on milk urea N concentrations in dairy sheep, eight pelleted total mixed rations were pre- pared to obtain two levels of energy density (1.65 and 1.55 Mcal of net energy for lactation per kilogram of dry matter for high energy and low energy rations, respectively) and four concentrations of

  4. Evaluation of Dietary Nitrogen Utilization in Dairy Cows Based on Urea Concentrations in Blood, Urine and Milk, and on Urinary Concentration of Purine Derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horacio Leandro Gonda; Jan Erik Lindberg

    1994-01-01

    The effects of level and degradability of dietary protein on urea in blood, urine and milk, and on the urinary purine derivatives and creatinine in dairy cows, were studied. Diurnal variation in urinary concentration of urea, allantoin and creatinine was also studied. A total of 24 multiparous lactating dairy cows were selected from a production experiment and divided into two

  5. What is Milk Urea Nitrogen and How is It Interpreted? Dr. Doo-Hong Min, Extension Forage Specialist, MSU UPES

    E-print Network

    in milk urea nitrogen. Excess concentrations of urea in the blood can affect milk production, reproductive causes of low milk production and fertility. Urea is an indicator of the balance of the rumen system so

  6. APPLICATION OF MILK UREA NITROGEN VALUES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Statistical analyses using both linear and multi-component regression and mixed effects models have been applied to a number of databases relating milk urea nitrogen (MUN) to factors important for N utilization in lactating dairy cows. Concentrations of MUN are highly correlated to BUN, which is a s...

  7. [Use of the Lachema Bio-La-Test for the determination of urea in milk].

    PubMed

    Zelený, J; Síchová, J

    1987-07-01

    The content of urea in milk was studied as a parameter of dairy cow nutrition. It is possible to use for the analysis whole milk where the values are lower by 5.96% than in defatted milk (this fact must be borne in mind when the results are interpreted). Protein can be removed from whole milk within 24 hours after sampling provided that it was placed in a refrigerator within four hours from milking to be stored there at 4 degrees C. In such a case the decrease in urea level is not greater than 4%. No significant differences were found between urea concentration in milk collected by stripping and that in bulk milk. It is not recommended to take samples at the end of milking because such milk contains less urea. Urea concentration in the bulk milk samples corresponds to the average urea concentration in the milk samples taken from dairy cows in the stable. PMID:3116744

  8. Effects on milk urea concentration, urine output, and drinking water intake from incremental doses of potassium bicarbonate fed to mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, T; Rustas, B-O

    2014-07-01

    Large variation exists in the potassium content of dairy cow feeds and also within a feed type due to soil type and fertilization. Increased ration K concentration causes a subsequent increase in urinary volume and could be expected to also lower milk urea concentration. Six multiparous mid-lactation Swedish Red dairy cows, all fitted with rumen cannulas, were subjected to 3 different levels of K intake in a Latin square experiment with three 2-wk periods to evaluate the effects on concentrations of milk urea and rumen ammonia, urinary output, and drinking water intake. The treatments were achieved by K supplementation on top of a low-K basal ration fed at individual allowances fixed throughout the experiment. The basal ration, consumed at 20.2 kg of dry matter (DM)/d, provided 165 g of crude protein/kg of DM and consisted of grass silage, concentrates, and urea in the proportions 39.3:60.0:0.7 on a DM basis. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation was 0, 616, and 1,142 g/d, respectively, to give total ration K concentrations that were low (LO; 12 g/kg of DM), medium (MED; 23 g/kg of DM), or high (HI; 32 g/kg of DM). Production and composition of milk was not affected by treatment. A linear effect on milk urea concentration was detected, being 4.48, 4.18, and 3.77 mM for LO, MED, and HI, respectively, and a linear tendency for rumen ammonia concentration with 6.65, 6.51, and 5.84 mg of NH?-N/dL for LO, MED, and HI, respectively. Milk urea concentration peaked about 3h after the rumen ammonia peak from the morning feeding, at a level 1.3mM over the baseline. Urinary urea excretion declined linearly (105, 103, and 98 g of urea-N/d for LO, MED, and HI, respectively). Linear increases occurred in urinary output (0.058 ± 0.001 kg of urine/g of K intake; no intercept; coefficient of determination=0.997) and drinking water intake (65.9 ± 2.02 + 0.069 ± 0.004 kg of water/g of K intake; coefficient of determination=0.95). Urinary K concentration leveled off at 12.4 g/L. Urinary creatinine excretion was not affected by K addition, but allantoin excretion increased linearly by 27% from LO to HI, suggesting increased rumen microbial growth. Rumen pH, acetate proportion of total volatile fatty acids, and digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber increased linearly with increasing potassium intake. We concluded that increased ration K concentration lowers milk urea concentration with a magnitude significant for the interpretation of milk urea values, but other sources of variation, such as sampling time relative to feeding, may be even more important. PMID:24835966

  9. Relationship between blood urea, protein, creatinine, triglycerides and macro-mineral concentrations with the quality and quantity of milk in dairy Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Nozad, Shahram; Ramin, Ali-Gholi; Moghadam, Gholamali; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Babapour, Azadeh; Ramin, Sina

    2012-01-01

    Seventy six high and low producer cows were selected to determine the composition of the blood and milk parameters, and their interrelationships to determine the indices which could be useful to improve the milk yield. The highest mean blood concentrations were found in high producer cows. Mean values for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum protein (SPtn), creatinine, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) were 25.10 mg dL-1, 10.15 g dL-1, 0.81, 62.30, 177.10 and 0.16 mmol L-1, and for macro-minerals including SCa, SMg, serum in-organic phosphorus (SIP), SNa and SK were 3.85, 2.66, 4.63, 108.00 and 4.34 mmol L-1, respectively. The highest concentrations for milk parameters, were observed in the high producers, and were significant only for MCa, MIP and MMg. Mean values for milk urea nitrogen (MUN), milk protein (MPtn) and lactose were 19.90 mg dL-1, 0.39 g dL-1, and 4.12% and for macro-minerals, 13.24, 3.88, 11.03, 73.30 and 16.90 mmol L-1, respectively. There were significant positive correlations between the blood and milk parameters except for creatinine/BHB, TGs/cholesterol and MNa/MK which were not significant. The correlations between the blood parameters were greater than in the milk parameters. Creatinine and SPtn, MUN and MPtn were the main parameters in that the relationships between MPtn with BUN, SPtn and creatinine were more noticeable than others. The regression analysis showed that BUN with the SIP and creatinine, MPtn with the BUN and creatinine and MUN with the SIP and SMg were the appropriate parameters in improvement studies related to the milk yield. In conclusion, BUN, SPtn, MUN and MPtn concentrations are the most effective indices for predicting the preferred milk yield. PMID:25653747

  10. Milk Urea Testing as a Tool to Monitor Reproductive Performance in Ontario Dairy Herds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Godden; D. F. Kelton; K. D. Lissemore; J. S. Walton; K. E. Leslie; J. H. Lumsden

    2001-01-01

    Dairy herd improvement test-day data, including milk urea concentrations measured using infrared test method, were collected from 60 commercial Ontario Holstein dairy herds for a 13-mo period between Decem- ber 1, 1995, and December 31, 1996. The objective of the study was to describe, at the cow and the group level, the relationship between DHI milk urea concen- trations and

  11. Plasma and Milk Urea Nitrogen in Relation to Pregnancy Rate in Lactating Dairy Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Butler; J. J. Calaman; S. W. Beam

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to relate concentrations of plasma (PUN) and milk (MUN) urea nitrogen to pregnancy rate in dairy cows and compare various methods of analysis and prepara- tion of milk for measuring MUN. In two experiments, blood or milk samples were collected on the day of AI from Holstein cows (n = 160 and n =

  12. Manometric biosensor for on-line measurement of milk urea.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Daniel M; Delwiche, Michael J

    2002-06-01

    Performance of a prototype sensor for on-line measurement of urea in milk during milking was evaluated. The sensor was based on a manometric assay of the carbon dioxide generated by the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. Temperature compensation of the sensor was described briefly, and was shown to be effective. The calibration of the sensor was described and resulted in a standard calibration error of about 0.15 mM of urea. The standard error of the sensor in milk was shown to be about 0.25 mM (given a physiological range of about 2-7 mM in cow milk). The sensor was simple, inexpensive, suffered from no interferences in raw milk, and completed a measurement cycle in about 5 min (less than the time to milk a typical cow). A custom made sampling device, whereby milk was passively collected from the milk line under vacuum, was shown to collect an ample volume within 10 s to run a test with the sensor. No measurable bubbles or foam were introduced from the sampling mechanism so that the milk sampled was not diminished in density compared to samples taken by other methods. PMID:11959478

  13. A compact miniaturized continuous flow system for the determination of urea content in milk.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Willian Toito; Pessoa-Neto, Osmundo Dantas; Dos Santos, Vagner Bezerra; de Araujo Nogueira, Ana Rita; Faria, Ronaldo Censi; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando; Puyol, Mar; Alonso, Julián

    2010-10-01

    A multicommutation-based flow system with photometric detection was developed, employing an analytical microsystem constructed with low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology, a solid-phase reactor containing particles of Canavalia ensiformis DC (urease source) immobilized with glutaraldehyde, and a mini-photometer coupled directly to the microsystem which monolithically integrates a continuous flow cell. The determination of urea in milk was based on the hydrolysis of urea in the solid-phase reactor and the ammonium ions produced were monitored using the Berthelot reaction. The analytical curve was linear in the urea concentration range from 1.0 x 10(-4) to 5.0 x 10(-3) mol L(-1) with a limit of detection of 8.0 x 10(-6) mol L(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for a 2.0 x 10(-3) mol L(-1) urea solution was lower than 0.4% (n = 10) and the sample throughput was 13 h(-1). To check the reproducibility of the flow system, calibration curves were obtained with freshly prepared solutions on different days and the RSD obtained was 4.7% (n = 6). Accuracy was assessed by comparing the results of the proposed method with those from the official procedure and the data are in close agreement, at a 95% confidence level. PMID:20694810

  14. Evaluation of milk urea nitrogen as a management tool to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compile and evaluate relationships between feed nitrogen (N) intake, milk urea N (MUN), urinary urea N (UUN) and ammonia (NH3) emissions from dairy farms to aid policy development. Regression relationships between MUN (within the range of 10 to 25 mg/dL), UUN, and re...

  15. Relationships between dietary factors and milk urea nitrogen level in goats grazing herbaceous pasture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana Bonanno; Massimo Todaro; Antonino Di Grigoli; Maria Luisa Scatassa; Gabriele Tornambé; Maria Luigia Alicata

    2010-01-01

    This investigation aimed to individuate the dietary factors affecting the milk urea nitrogen (MUN) con- centration in goats grazing herbaceous pasture and, particularly, to verify the relationship linking the diet crude protein (CP) content to MUN. A total of 205 individual observations regarding dietary and milk variables of 37 Girgentana goats involved in two experiments were used. Goats, averaging 154±14

  16. Online measurement of urea concentration in spent dialysate during hemodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesberg, Jonathon T.; Armitage, Ben; Arnold, Mark A.; Flanigan, Michael

    2002-05-01

    We describe on-line optical measurements of urea concentration during the regular hemodialysis treatment of several patients. The spectral measurements were performed in the effluent dialysate stream after the dialysis membrane using an FTIR spectrometer equipped with a flow-through cell. Spectra were recorded across the 5000-4000 cm-1 (2.0-2.5 micrometers at 1-minute intervals. Optically determined concentrations matched concentrations obtained from standard chemical assays with a root-mean-square error of 0.29 mM for urea (0.8 mg/dl urea nitrogen), 0.03 mM for creatinine, 0.11 mM for lactate, and 0.22 mM for glucose. The observed concentration ranges were 0-11 mM for urea, 0-0.35 mM for creatinine, 0-0.75 mM for lactate, and 9-12.5 mM for glucose.

  17. Original article UHT processed milk concentrates

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article UHT processed milk concentrates Jörg HINRICHS* Chair for food process engineering osmosis concentrates made from milk with differing fat and protein contents were sheared in defined flow and storage stability correlated with the ash content and these increase as the ash contents decrease. Milk

  18. Nutrient utilization and milk yield response of early lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes fed on urea–molasses treated wheat straw fermented with cattle manure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Aasif Shahzad; M. Nisa; M. Sarwar

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the influence of urea–molasses treated wheat straw (WS) fermented with cattle manure (CM) with 4% urea and 4% molasses incubated for 40days on its chemical composition and varying substitution levels of fermented wheat straw (FWS) with concentrate on nutrients intake and their digestibilities, milk yield and its composition in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Twenty early lactating

  19. Milk cortisol concentration in automatic milking systems compared with auto-tandem milking parlors.

    PubMed

    Gygax, L; Neuffer, I; Kaufmann, C; Hauser, R; Wechsler, B

    2006-09-01

    Milk cortisol concentration was determined under routine management conditions on 4 farms with an auto-tandem milking parlor and 8 farms with 1 of 2 automatic milking systems (AMS). One of the AMS was a partially forced (AMSp) system, and the other was a free cow traffic (AMSf) system. Milk samples were collected for all the cows on a given farm (20 to 54 cows) for at least 1 d. Behavioral observations were made during the milking process for a subset of 16 to 20 cows per farm. Milk cortisol concentration was evaluated by milking system, time of day, behavior during milking, daily milk yield, and somatic cell count using linear mixed-effects models. Milk cortisol did not differ between systems (AMSp: 1.15 +/- 0.07; AMSf: 1.02 +/- 0.12; auto-tandem parlor: 1.01 +/- 0.16 nmol/L). Cortisol concentrations were lower in evening than in morning milkings (1.01 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.24 +/- 0.13 nmol/L). The daily periodicity of cortisol concentration was characterized by an early morning peak and a late afternoon elevation in AMSp. A bimodal pattern was not evident in AMSf. Finally, milk cortisol decreased by a factor of 0.915 in milking parlors, by 0.998 in AMSp, and increased by a factor of 1.161 in AMSf for each unit of ln(somatic cell count/1,000). We conclude that milking cows in milking parlors or AMS does not result in relevant stress differences as measured by milk cortisol concentrations. The biological relevance of the difference regarding the daily periodicity of milk cortisol concentrations observed between the AMSp and AMSf needs further investigation. PMID:16899678

  20. Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus.

    PubMed

    Bassett, John E

    2004-02-01

    Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment without feeding in nonfed (NF) animals. Food consumption by PP animals and handling of NF animals had no effect on blood water content as measured by hematocrit and plasma oncotic pressure. Food consumption increased both plasma osmolality (P(osm)) and plasma urea (P(urea)) by as much as 15%. Food consumption also increased urine osmolality (U(osm)) and urine urea (U(urea)) by 50-100%. Feeding increased U(osm) regardless of changes in P(osm), and elevation of U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). In NF bats, P(osm) and P(urea) were unchanged, while U(osm) and U(urea) increased by as much as 25%. Again, increased U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). The PP urine concentration cycle of pallid bats resulted from increased urea excretion in response to apparent rapid urea synthesis. Bats rapidly metabolized protein and excreted urea following feeding when body water was most plentiful. PMID:15123201

  1. Solubility of commercial milk protein concentrates and milk protein isolates.

    PubMed

    Sikand, V; Tong, P S; Roy, S; Rodriguez-Saona, L E; Murray, B A

    2011-12-01

    High-protein milk protein concentrate (MPC) and milk protein isolate (MPI) powders may have lower solubility than low-protein MPC powders, but information is limited on MPC solubility. Our objectives in this study were to (1) characterize the solubility of commercially available powder types with differing protein contents such as MPC40, MPC80, and MPI obtained from various manufacturers (sources), and (2) determine if such differences could be associated with differences in mineral, protein composition, and conformational changes of the powders. To examine possible predictors of solubility as measured by percent suspension stability (%SS), mineral analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and quantitative protein analysis by HPLC was performed. After accounting for overall differences between powder types, %SS was found to be strongly associated with the calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and sodium content of the powders. The FTIR score plots were in agreement with %SS results. A principal component analysis of FTIR spectra clustered the highly soluble MPC40 separately from the rest of samples. Furthermore, 2 highly soluble MPI samples were clustered separately from the rest of the MPC80 and MPI samples. We found that the 900 to 1,200 cm?¹ region exhibited the highest discriminating power, with dominant bands at 1,173 and 968 cm?¹, associated with phosphate vibrations. The 2 highly soluble MPI powders were observed to have lower ?-casein and ?-(S1)-casein contents and slightly higher whey protein contents than the other powders. The differences in the solubility of MPC and MPI were associated with a difference in mineral composition, which may be attributed to differences in processing conditions. Additional studies on the role of minerals composition on MPC80 solubility are warranted. Such a study would provide a greater understanding of factors associated with differences in solubility and can provide insight on methods to improve solubility of high-protein milk protein concentrates. PMID:22118108

  2. Potential use of milk urea nitrogen to abate atmospheric nitrogen emissions from wisconsin dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Powell, J M; Rotz, C A; Wattiaux, M A

    2014-07-01

    Urinary urea N (UUN) is the principal nitrogen (N) source controlling emissions of ammonia (NH) and nitrous oxide (NO) from dairy manure. The objectives of this study were (i) to study the integrative nature of dietary crude protein (CP) management, secretion of milk urea N (MUN), excretion of UUN, and N emissions from dairy production systems; (ii) to evaluate how associative changes in dietary CP, MUN, and UUN affect atmospheric N emissions from dairy farms; and (iii) to discuss some of the challenges and opportunities to an expanded use of MUN to enhance dietary CP use and decrease UUN excretion and N emissions from dairy farms. Milk urea N records of 37,889 cows in 197 herds in Wisconsin revealed that approximately one half of tested cows were likely consuming dietary CP in excess of requirement. Farm simulations were used to quantify the effect of dietary CP on whole-farm N emissions. At a statewide average MUN of 12.5 mg dL, 48 to 87% of UUN was emitted as NH, with the lowest loss from pasture-based farms and the greatest loss from tie-stall farms. Each 1 mg dL decrease of MUN (range, 16-10 mg dL) provided an associated daily decrease in UUN of 16.6 g per cow, which decreased NH and NO emissions from manure by 7 to 12%. Although more site-specific information is required on herd MUN-UUN relationships and more a reliable interpretation of MUN assay results is needed, monitoring of MUN may be used to enhance dietary CP use and to reduce UUN excretion and N emissions from Wisconsin dairy farms. PMID:25603065

  3. Statistical Evaluation of Factors and Interactions Affecting Dairy Herd Improvement Milk Urea Nitrogen in Commercial Midwest Dairy Herds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Wattiaux; E. V. Nordheim; P. Crump

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 400,729 Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) records collected on 77,178 cows in 692 Midwest herds over 29 mo (January 1999 to May 2001) were used to analyze milk urea nitrogen (MUN) as collected the day of the test in 6 breeds. Records of Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss were subjected to stepwise backward elimination analysis with a model

  4. Concentration of ?-Linoleic Acid of Perilla Oil by Gradient Cooling Urea Inclusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hai-bo GU; Xue-yi MA; Jing-bo WU; Qi ZHANG; Wen-bing YUAN; Yi-ping CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In this study, production of ?-linoleic acid concentrated from crude perilla oil by gradient cooling urea inclusion was optimized. The fatty acid composition was determined after ethyl esterification by gas chromatography (GC). In this process, orthogonal experiment was carried out. Under optimum conditions, the maximum amount of ?-linoleic acid (91.5%) was obtained at a urea to fatty acid ratio of

  5. Endocrine regulation of calcium and phosphorus concentration in camel's milk.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Endocrine regulation of calcium and phosphorus concentration in camel's milk. F Riad M Ben Goumi JCIAVHassan Il, Rabat, Maroc; 31NRA, Theix, France Some qualitative aspects of the milk of the dromedary suggest that the ability to produce milk of high nutritive value for offspring or for human beings during long periods

  6. Lactoferrin Concentration in Milk of Bovine Clinical Mastitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kawai; S. Hagiwara; A. Anri; H. Nagahata

    1999-01-01

    The lactoferrin (LF) concentration in the milk from dairy cows with clinical mastitis was determined to evaluate the relationship between the LF concentration (LFC) in milk and the non-specific defensive capability of the udder. The mean LFC in 368 milk samples from 319 cows with clinical mastitis was significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of normal cows. The mean LFC in

  7. Iodine concentration in Norwegian milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Lisbeth; Opsahl, Jill A; Meltzer, Helle M; Julshamn, Kåre

    2003-09-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the iodine concentration in Norwegian-produced milk and a selection of dairy products. The iodine concentration of eighty-five samples of milk and dairy products was analysed by inductively coupled plasma-MS. Low-fat milk and organic milk were sampled from nineteen and seven different locations in Norway, respectively, during the summer and winter season of 2000. Other milk and dairy products were chiefly collected during the summer season. Low-fat milk from the summer season had significantly lower median iodine concentration (88 microg/l, range 63-122 microg/l) compared with low-fat milk from the winter season (232 microg/l, range 103-272 microg/l). The median iodine concentration of organic summer milk (60 microg/l) was significantly lower than the iodine concentration of organic winter milk (127 microg/l). There were no significant differences in the low-fat-milk samples with regard to geographical sampling location. Whey cheese (Tine Gudbrandsdalsost) iodine concentration was significantly higher (803 microg/kg) than the median iodine concentration in casein cheeses such as Jarlsberg and Norvegia of 201 and 414 microg/kg, respectively. With a recommended iodine intake of 150 microg/d for adults, a daily intake of 0.4 litres milk meets the requirement with 25 % during the summer and more than 60 % during the winter season. Thus, milk and dairy products are important determinants of iodine intake in Norway. PMID:13129475

  8. Candidate gene association analysis for milk yield, composition, urea nitrogen and somatic cell scores in Brown Swiss cows.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Ribeca, C; Chessa, S; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Maretto, F; Casellas, J; Bittante, G

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 96 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 54 candidate genes, and test the associations of the polymorphic SNPs with milk yield, composition, milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content and somatic cell score (SCS) in individual milk samples from Italian Brown Swiss cows. Milk and blood samples were collected from 1271 cows sampled once from 85 herds. Milk production, quality traits (i.e. protein, casein, fat and lactose percentages), MUN and SCS were measured for each milk sample. Genotyping was performed using a custom Illumina VeraCode GoldenGate approach. A Bayesian linear animal model that considered the effects of herd, days in milk, parity, SNP genotype and additive polygenic effect was used for the association analysis. Our results showed that 14 of the 51 polymorphic SNPs had relevant additive effects on at least one of the aforementioned traits. Polymorphisms in the glucocorticoid receptor DNA-binding factor 1 (GRLF1), prolactin receptor (PRLR) and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) were associated with milk yield; an SNP in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD-1) was related to fat content; SNPs in the caspase recruitment domain 15 protein (CARD15) and lipin 1 (LPIN1) affected the protein and casein contents; SNPs in growth hormone 1 (GH1), lactotransferrin (LTF) and SCD-1 were relevant for casein number; variants in beta casein (CSN2), GH1, GRLF1 and LTF affected lactose content; SNPs in beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), serpin peptidase inhibitor (PI) and SCD-1 were associated with MUN; and SNPs in acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACACA) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A (STAT5A) were relevant in explaining the variation of SCS. Although further research is needed to validate these SNPs in other populations and breeds, the association between these markers and milk yield, composition, MUN and SCS could be exploited in gene-assisted selection programs for genetic improvement purposes. PMID:24804775

  9. Effect of dietary crude protein concentration on milk production and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Colmenero, J J Olmos; Broderick, G A

    2006-05-01

    Forty lactating Holstein cows, including 10 with ruminal cannulas, were blocked by days in milk into 8 groups and then randomly assigned to 1 of 8 incomplete 5 x 5 Latin squares to assess the effects of 5 levels of dietary crude protein (CP) on milk production and N use. Diets contained 25% alfalfa silage, 25% corn silage, and 50% concentrate, on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rolled high-moisture shelled corn was replaced with solvent-extracted soybean meal to increase CP from 13.5 to 15.0, 16.5, 17.9, and 19.4% of DM. Each of the 4 experimental periods lasted 28 d, with 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection. Spot sampling of ruminal digesta, blood, urine, and feces was conducted on d 21 of each period. Intake of DM was not affected by diet but milk fat content as well as ruminal acetate, NH3, and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, urinary allantoin, and blood and milk urea all increased linearly with increasing CP. Milk and protein yield showed trends for quadratic responses to dietary CP and were, respectively, 38.3 and 1.18 kg/d at 16.5% CP. As a proportion of N intake, urinary N excretion increased from 23.8 to 36.2%, whereas N secreted in milk decreased from 36.5 to 25.4%, as dietary protein increased from 13.5 to 19.4%. Under the conditions of this study, yield of milk and protein were not increased by feeding more than 16.5% CP. The linear increase in urinary N excretion resulted from a sharp decline in N efficiency as dietary CP content increased. PMID:16606741

  10. Detection of Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa by measurement of gastric aspirate ammonium and urea concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W D Neithercut; A Milne; R S Chittajallu; A M el Nujumi; K E McColl

    1991-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori possesses unusually high urease activity that lowers the urea concentration and raises the ammonium concentration of the gastric juice in infected people. The value of measuring urea and ammonium concentrations in gastric juice obtained during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy as a means of diagnosing the presence and eradication of the infection was assessed. Twenty four subjects with the infection

  11. Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E Bassett

    2004-01-01

    Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment

  12. Impact of iodine supplementation of dairy cows on milk production and iodine concentrations in milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ND Grace; GC Waghorn

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of iodine supplementation on milk production and iodine concentrations in milk for pasture-fed, seasonally calving dairy cows.METHODS: The study was run over two consecutive seasons on the same dairy farm. In Trial One, 294 Friesian dairy cows were either untreated or injected intramuscularly three times with iodised oil (2,370 mg iodine\\/dose) at the start of

  13. Transplacental passage and breast milk concentrations of hydralazine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Liedholm; E. Wfihlin-Boll; A. Hanson; I. Ingemarsson; A. Melander

    1982-01-01

    The concentrations of “real” and “apparent” (= “real” hydralazine + acid-labile hydrazones) hydralazine in maternal and umbilical plasma obtained at delivery of 6 women treated with hydralazine and atenolol for pregnancy hypertension were measured by gas chromatography. In one of the patients, the concentrations of the same substances were subsequently measured in breast milk. “Apparent” hydralazine reached higher levels in

  14. Bisphenol A concentrations in maternal breast milk and infant urine

    PubMed Central

    Mendonca, K.; Hauser, R.; Calafat, A.M.; Arbuckle, T.E.; Duty, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The present report describes the distribution of breast milk and urinary free and total bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations, from 27 post-partum women and their 31 infants, and explores the influence of age, sex, and nutritional source on infant BPA urinary concentration. Methods Both free (unconjugated) and total (free plus conjugated) BPA concentrations from women’s breast milk samples and infants’ urine samples were measured by online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests of group comparisons were conducted. Results Total BPA was detected in 93% of urine samples in this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who were without known environmental exposure to BPA (interquartile range [IQR]=1.2 – 4.4 ?g/L). Similarly, 75% of the mothers’ breast milk samples had detectable concentrations of total BPA (IQR=0.4 – 1.4 ?g/L). The magnitude and frequency of detection of free BPA in the children’s urine and the mothers’ breast milk were much lower than the total concentrations. Conclusions Total BPA was detected in 93% of this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who are without known environmental exposure to BPA. Neither free nor total BPA urinary concentrations differed significantly by infant’s sex or by nutritional source (breast milk and/or formula) while age group was of borderline significance. There were no significant correlations between free or total BPA concentrations in mothers’ breast milk and their infants’ urine. PMID:23212895

  15. Concentration dependence of the subunit association of oligomers and viruses and the modification of the latter by urea binding.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, G; Da Poian, A T; Silva, J L

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical model is presented that accounts for the facilitation of the pressure dissociation of R17 phage, and for the partial restoration of the concentration dependence of the dissociation, by the presence of subdenaturing concentrations of urea. As an indifferent osmolyte urea should promote the stability of the protein aggregates under pressure, and the decrease in pressure stability with urea concentration demonstrates that such indirect solvent effects are not significant for this case, and that the progressive destabilization is the result of direct protein-urea interactions. By acting as a "homogenizer" of the properties of the phage particles, urea addition converts the pressure-induced deterministic dissociation of the phage into a limited stochastic equilibrium. The model establishes the origin of the uniform progression from the stochastic equilibrium of dimers, to the temperature-dependent and partially concentration-dependent association of tetramers, to the fully deterministic equilibrium observed in many multimers and in the virus capsids. PMID:8770195

  16. Effect of milk type and processing on iodine concentration of organic and conventional winter milk at retail: implications for nutrition.

    PubMed

    Payling, Laura M; Juniper, Darren T; Drake, Chris; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D Ian

    2015-07-01

    Milk is the largest source of iodine in UK diets and an earlier study showed that organic summer milk had significantly lower iodine concentration than conventional milk. There are no comparable studies with winter milk or the effect of milk fat class or heat processing method. Two retail studies with winter milk are reported. Study 1 showed no effect of fat class but organic milk was 32.2% lower in iodine than conventional milk (404 vs. 595 ?g/L; P<0.001). Study 2 found no difference between conventional and Channel Island milk but organic milk contained 35.5% less iodine than conventional milk (474 vs. 306 ?g/L; P<0.001). UHT and branded organic milk also had lower iodine concentrations than conventional milk (331 ?g/L; P<0.001 and 268 ?g/L: P<0.0001 respectively). The results indicate that replacement of conventional milk by organic or UHT milk will increase the risk of sub-optimal iodine status especially for pregnant/lactating women. PMID:25704719

  17. Does the adequacy parameter Kt/V(urea) reflect uremic toxin concentrations in hemodialysis patients?

    PubMed

    Eloot, Sunny; Van Biesen, Wim; Glorieux, Griet; Neirynck, Nathalie; Dhondt, Annemieke; Vanholder, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Hemodialysis aims at removing uremic toxins thus decreasing their concentrations. The present study investigated whether Kt/V(urea), used as marker of dialysis adequacy, is correlated with these concentrations. Predialysis blood samples were taken before a midweek session in 71 chronic HD patients. Samples were analyzed by colorimetry, HPLC, or ELISA for a broad range of uremic solutes. Solute concentrations were divided into four groups according to quartiles of Kt/V(urea), and also of different other parameters with potential impact, such as age, body weight (BW), Protein equivalent of Nitrogen Appearance (PNA), Residual Renal Function (RRF), and dialysis vintage. Dichotomic concentration comparisons were performed for gender and Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Analysis of Variance in quartiles of Kt/V(urea) did not show significant differences for any of the solute concentrations. For PNA, however, concentrations showed significant differences for urea (P<0.001), uric acid (UA), p-cresylsulfate (PCS), and free PCS (all P<0.01), and for creatinine (Crea) and hippuric acid (HA) (both P<0.05). For RRF, concentrations varied for ??-microglobulin (P<0.001), HA, free HA, free indoxyl sulfate, and free indole acetic acid (all P<0.01), and for p-cresylglucuronide (PCG), 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid (CMPF), free PCS, and free PCG (all P<0.05). Gender and body weight only showed differences for Crea and UA, while age, vintage, and diabetes mellitus only showed differences for one solute concentration (UA, UA, and free PCS, respectively). Multifactor analyses indicated a predominant association of concentration with protein intake and residual renal function. In conclusion, predialysis concentrations of uremic toxins seem to be dependent on protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance and residual renal function, and not on dialysis adequacy as assessed by Kt/V(urea). Efforts to control intestinal load of uremic toxin precursors by dietary or other interventions, and preserving RRF seem important approaches to decrease uremic solute concentration and by extension their toxicity. PMID:24236005

  18. Statistical evaluation of factors and interactions affecting dairy herd improvement milk urea nitrogen in commercial midwest dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Wattiaux, M A; Nordheim, E V; Crump, P

    2005-08-01

    In this study, 400,729 Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) records collected on 77,178 cows in 692 Midwest herds over 29 mo (January 1999 to May 2001) were used to analyze milk urea nitrogen (MUN) as collected the day of the test in 6 breeds. Records of Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss were subjected to stepwise backward elimination analysis with a model including parity (primiparous vs. multiparous cows), sample type (morning vs. evening), milking frequency (2x vs. 3x [Holstein only]), season (winter, spring, summer, and fall), yield of fat-corrected milk (FCM) classified into 1 of 3 FCM categories (FCMc) and all possible higher-order interactions. Results indicated that FCMc contributed to test-day MUN variation in multiparous, but not primiparous, Holsteins. Sample type and season were significant in both parity groups; milking frequency was not significant, but milking frequency x season and milking frequency x FCMc were significant in both parity groups. The nature of these interactions differed for each parity group. For Jersey and Brown Swiss data analyzed by sample type separately, parity was not significant but tended to interact with FCMc, whereas season, FCMc, and season x FCMc were generally significant. Mean test-day MUN was 12.7, 14.6, and 14.4 mg/dL, with 24, 45, and 42% of records above 14.5 mg/dL in Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss in single-breed herds, respectively. In Holsteins, MUN peaked at 7 to 10 d in milk (DIM), declined until 28 to 35 DIM, and rose again thereafter. In primiparous Holsteins, MUN did not change with FCM

  19. Validation of a Daily Automatic Routine for Dairy Robotic Milking and Concentrates Supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Devir; J. P. T. M. Noordhuizen; P. J. M. Huijsmans

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility and short term consequences of a robotic milking and concentrates supplementation routine in an automatic milking system dairy were tested. The system comprised a selection unit and a milking unit equipped with a milking robot. In a two-phase 34 day experiment with 16 Friesian-Holsteins, cows reported voluntarily to the selection unit throughout the day. Concentrates could be allocated

  20. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Concentrates of Carp Oil: Chemical Hydrolysis and Urea Complexation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valéria T. Crexi; Micheli L. Monte; Maurício L. Monte; Luiz A. A. Pinto

    The aims of this study were to compare three treatments in the chemical hydrolysis reaction of bleached oil from carp (Cyprinus carpio) heads and to obtain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrates by urea complexation. The three treatments were carried out\\u000a with different oil:ethanol molar ratios. In the treatment with a 1:39 molar ratio, a higher yield of free fatty acids was

  1. Abatement of ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from dairy farms using milk urea N (MUN)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urinary urea N (UUN) excreted by dairy cows is the principal nitrogen (N) source that controls emissions of ammonia (which can be hazardous to human and ecosystem health) and nitrous oxide (the most potent agricultural greenhouse gas) from dairy manure. The objectives of this study were (1) to inves...

  2. Short communication: Evaluation of milk urea nitrogen as a management tool to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Powell, J M; Wattiaux, M A; Broderick, G A

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compile and evaluate relationships between feed nitrogen (N) intake, milk urea N (MUN), urinary urea N (UUN), and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions from dairy farms to aid policy development. Regression relationships between MUN, UUN, and NH(3) emissions were compiled from studies conducted in Wisconsin, California, and the Netherlands. Relative reductions in NH(3) emissions were calculated as percentage decreases in NH(3) emissions associated with a baseline MUN level of 14 mg/dL (prevailing industry average). For 3 studies with cows in stanchion barns, relative NH(3) emission reductions of 10.3 to 28.2% were obtained when MUN declined from 14 to 10mg/dL. Similarly, analyses of 2 freestall studies provided relative NH(3) emission reductions of 10.5 to 33.7% when MUN levels declined from 14 to 10mg/dL. The relative reductions in NH(3) emissions from both stanchion and freestall barns can be associated directly with reductions in UUN excretion, which can be determined using MUN. The results of this study may help create new awareness, and perhaps eventual industry-based incentives, for management practices that enhance feed N use efficiency and reduce MUN, UUN, and NH(3) emissions from dairy farms. PMID:21854942

  3. Somatic cell count and milk yield in relation to haemoglobin concentration in Finnish dairy goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Atroshi; S. Sankari; U. B. Lindström

    1986-01-01

    Using 400 Finnish goats, the relationship between haemoglobin concentration and somatic cell counts and milk yield was studied. On the basis of haemoglobin concentration the goats were divided into two groups (> or ?1). Goats with high haemoglobin concentrations had a markedly higher milk yield and the milk had a lower somatic cell count. In contrast, goats with low haemoglobin

  4. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on intragastric urea and ammonium concentrations in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Neithercut, W D; Rowe, P A; el Nujumi, A M; Dahill, S; McColl, K E

    1993-01-01

    AIM--To assess the value of measuring the gastric juice urea:ammonium ratio in detecting Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with chronic renal failure. METHODS--Twenty three (12 men) patients with established chronic renal failure and dyspepsia were studied. Gastric juice (2 ml) was aspirated during endoscopy to measure urea and ammonium. The upper gastrointestinal tract was routinely inspected and two antral biopsy specimens obtained. The 14C-urea breath test was conducted within 14 days of endoscopic examination to determine H pylori antibody response. RESULTS--The median (range) serum urea concentration in 11 patients with renal failure and H pylori infection was similar to that in 12 without H pylori infection. The median gastric juice urea concentration in subjects with infection was lower than that in the subjects without infection (p < 0.01). The median gastric juice ammonium concentration in subjects with the infection was higher compared with subjects without infection (p < 0.01). There was an overlap of the urea and ammonium concentrations in gastric juice from both H pylori positive and negative subjects. The urea:ammonium ratio was 0.16 (0.01-1.11) for subjects with H pylori compared with 1.63 (1.0-18.9) in subjects without infection (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION--The urea:ammonium ratio differentiated both groups, with the exception of one false negative result. The urea:ammonium ratio proved almost as effective in identifying the presence of H pylori infection in subjects with chronic renal failure as it had in subjects with normal renal function. PMID:8331178

  5. [Setting a maximum allowable concentration for urea in reclaimed potable water and evaluating the nature of its biological action].

    PubMed

    Mironets, N V; Savina, R V; Kucherov, I S; Solntseva, V V; Martyshchenko, N V

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify maxim allowable concentrations of urea in reclaimed potable water. The urea concentration equal to 80 mg/l is the threshold dose influencing the taste and flavor of water. Urea is a low toxicity substance (LD50 = 14,300 mg/kg), the effect of which is not cumulative. However, when used in high doses it affects bioenergetic and cholinergic processes and causes changes in ECG, higher nervous activity and visceral structure. It has been shown that when applied to warm-blooded animals the acting dose of urea is 14.3 and 1.43 mg/kg (1/1000 and 1/10000 LD50), the threshold dose is 0.72 mg/kg (1/20000 LD50), and the ineffective dose is 0.36 mg/kg (1/40000 LD50) which amounts to the concentration of 10 mg/l. In terms of toxic effects the dose equal to 10 mg/l is taken to be the maximally allowable concentration of urea. It is recommended to use the Laham biotest for measuring urea in water. PMID:2896273

  6. Major advances in concentrated and dry milk products, cheese, and milk fat-based spreads.

    PubMed

    Henning, D R; Baer, R J; Hassan, A N; Dave, R

    2006-04-01

    Advances in dairy foods and dairy foods processing since 1981 have influenced consumers and processors of dairy products. Consumer benefits include dairy products with enhanced nutrition and product functionality for specific applications. Processors convert raw milk to finished product with improved efficiencies and have developed processing technologies to improve traditional products and to introduce new products for expanding the dairy foods market. Membrane processing evolved from a laboratory technique to a major industrial process for milk and whey processing. Ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis have been used extensively in fractionation of milk and whey components. Advances in cheese manufacturing methods have included mechanization of the making process. Membrane processing has allowed uniform composition of the cheese milk and starter cultures have become more predictable. Cheese vats have become larger and enclosed as well as computer controlled. Researchers have learned to control many of the functional properties of cheese by understanding the role of fat and calcium distribution, as bound or unbound, in the cheese matrix. Processed cheese (cheese, foods, spreads, and products) maintain their importance in the industry as many product types can be produced to meet market needs and provide stable products for an extended shelf life. Cheese delivers concentrated nutrients of milk and bio-active peptides to consumers. The technologies for the production of concentrated and dried milk and whey products have not changed greatly in the last 25 yr. The size and efficiencies of the equipment have increased. Use of reverse osmosis in place of vacuum condensing has been proposed. Modifying the fatty acid composition of milkfat to alter the nutritional and functional properties of dairy spread has been a focus of research in the last 2 decades. Conjugated linoleic acid, which can be increased in milkfat by alteration of the cow's diet, has been reported to have anticancer, anti-atherogenic, antidiabetic, and antiobesity effects for human health. Separating milk fat into fractions has been accomplished to provide specific fractions to improve butter spreadability, modulate chocolate meltability, and provide texture for low-fat cheeses. PMID:16537951

  7. The relationship between various animal and management factors and milk urea, and its association with reproductive performance of dairy cows grazing pasture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M Trevaskis; W. J Fulkerson

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the use of milk urea to diagnose nutrient imbalances in diets of dairy cattle grazing pasture and infertility problems associated with excess dietary nitrogen (N). A first experiment investigated the influence of the ratio of N\\/water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) (g\\/g) and N\\/metabolisable energy (ME) (g\\/MJ) (% of estimated intake) in the diet, and animal

  8. Breast milk lead concentrations of mothers living near tin smelters.

    PubMed

    Marques, Rejane C; Moreira, Maria de Fátima R; Bernardi, José Vicente E; Dórea, José G

    2013-11-01

    We compared Pb concentration in human milk from 37 mothers living in a neighborhood of tin-ore smelters to that from 45 mothers living in a fishing community. The median breast-milk-Pb (BM-Pb) concentration was significantly (p = 0.0000001) higher (11.3 ?g L(-1); ?0.96-29.4 ?g L(-1)) in mothers living in the vicinity of smelters than that of rural mothers (1.9 ?g L(-1); ?0.96-20.0 ?g L(-1)). These mothers also showed a statistically significant correlation between length of residence and BM-Pb concentration (Spearman r = 0.6864; p < 0.0001). The estimated median exposure (for infants <6 months) was 3.0 ?g kg(-1) b.w. for rural infants compared to 7.5 ?g kg(-1) b.w. for infants in the vicinity of metal smelters. Overall, most BM-Pb concentrations (79 %) in the metal smelter area were above the critical limit of 5.0 ?g L(-1) set by the WHO. PMID:24068462

  9. Parathyroid hormone-related protein and calcium concentrations in milk and blood of ewes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Kocabagli; J.-L. Riond; K. Küng; M. Wanner

    1995-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were measured 2 to 3 months postpartum in milk and plasma or serum of 22 ewes by the use of commercial radioimmunoassay kits for PTHrP concentration, colorimetry for serum total Ca concentration (Catot), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry for milk total Ca concentration. Scatter plots did not reveal dependency between milk Ca and

  10. C3\\/C4 Concentration Ratio Reverses Between Colostrum and Mature Milk in Human Lactation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginie Trégoat; Paul Montagne; Marie-Louise Cuillière; Marie-Christine Béné; Gilbert Faure

    1999-01-01

    The levels of complement fractions C3 and C4 were assayed in human milk in a classic nephelometric assay adapted to this secretion. Concentrations of these molecules were measured in 667 milk samples obtained sequentially from 76 volunteer lactating mothers during the first 12 weeks of lactation. Immunonephelometry was performed using skimmed milk samples diluted 10 times and yielded reproducible (coefficients

  11. Characterization of rennet coagulation of milk concentrated by vacuum condensing and ultrafiltration

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NOTE Characterization of rennet coagulation of milk concentrated by vacuum condensing+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract A comparison of rennet coagulation of milk supplemented with vacuum- condensed in coagulum characteristics, viscosity during coagulation was monitored. Samples of milk were inoculated

  12. Colostrum, Whole Milk, and Whole Milk plus Whey Protein Concentrate for Holstein Calves[1] and [2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. D. Muller; M. J. Owens; G. L. Beardsley; D. J. Schingoethe

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-six Holstein calves were fed 3.6 kg of one of three liquid diets once daily from birth until weaning at 4 wk. Diets were: (1) colostrum (collected for five milkings postpartum and frozen), (2) whole milk, and (3) whole milk plus sufficient whey proteinconcentrate to bring diets 1 and 3 to similar whey pro- tein. Compared to whole milk, colostrum

  13. Concentrations of vitamin C in plasma and milk of dairy cattle

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Note Concentrations of vitamin C in plasma and milk of dairy cattle M Hidiroglou, M Ivan, TR Batra and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid). At birth, the blood plasma concentration of ascorbic acid in calves approximately 28 d after calving. dairy cattle / vitamin C / blood plasma /milk Résumé — Concentration en

  14. Characterization of extruded and toasted milk protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Banach, J C; Clark, S; Lamsal, B P

    2013-06-01

    Important functional properties of milk protein concentrate with 80% protein (MPC80), modified with low- and high-shear extrusion, or low-temperature toasting were compared. The effect of high- and low-shear profile screws in a corotating twin-screw extruder, and 4 different ramped temperature profiles with die temperatures of 65, 75, 90, and 120 °C were compared. Extrudates were pelletized, dried, and ground to a fine powder. Toasting was done at 75 and 110 °C for 4 h for milk protein modification. Extruded and toasted MPC80 had reduced protein solubility and surface hydrophobicity. Extrusion decreased water-holding capacity (WHC). Toasted MPC80 had increased WHC when treated at 75 °C, but WHC decreased when heated at 110 °C. The treatments had no strong influence on gel strength. Reduced and nonreduced sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed peptide structural changes that occurred due to processing, especially for whey proteins. Results are discussed in terms of potential for application of extruded or toasted MPC80 in high-protein nutrition bar applications. PMID:23601000

  15. Salvage of blood urea nitrogen in sheep is highly dependent on plasma urea concentration and the efficiency of capture within the diegestive tract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to establish the relationships between transfer of blood urea-N to the digestive tract (GIT) and utilisation of recycled urea-N within the GIT, and to determine which of these two mechanisms of the urea recycling process places greater limits on N salvage by growing sheep. Four gro...

  16. Non-enzymatic detection of urea using unmodified gold nanoparticles based aptasensor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Ramulu Lambadi, Paramesh; Kumar Navani, Naveen

    2015-10-15

    Biosensing nitrogenous compounds like urea is required to control the incidents of Economically Motivated Adulteration (EMA). In this study, we report the FluMag Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (FluMag-SELEX) method to isolate a urea specific DNA aptamer with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 232nM. The interaction of DNA aptamer with urea has been confirmed by affinity assay, CD analysis, melting curve analysis and truncation studies. Unlike other urea sensing methods reported so far, using this urea aptamer, we demonstrate a simple, 'non-enzymatic' easy-to-use, dual readout aptasensor that exploits unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to transduce the signals of aptamer binding to urea in terms of intrinsic fluorescence differences and color changes simultaneously. This method is free from complicated sample processing and labeling steps. The urea aptasensor displays high selectivity for urea and is free from interference from common milk adulterants. The developed aptasensor reliably detects urea adulteration in milk. The response signals linearly correlate with the increasing concentrations of urea in milk ranging from 20mM to 150mM with detection limit of 20mM. We also show that this aptasensor can also be used as a simple fluorescence based "turn-on" sensor. The results obtained in this study are comparable to the commercial urease based detection methods. PMID:26002019

  17. IODINE CONCENTRATION IN MILK OF SHEEP AND GOATS FROM FARMS IN SOUTH BOHEMIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. TRÁVNÍâEK; J. KURSA

    Trávníãek, J., J. Kursa: Iodine Concentration in Milk Sheep and Goats from Farms in South Bohemia. Acta Vet. Brno 2001, 70: 35-42. Iodine concentration was determined in milk samples collected from 60 sheep on 10 farms and from 94 goats of 64 farmers. The animals were grazed in the summer and fed hay of local harvests in the winter. Pregnant

  18. Effects of dietary urea supplementation on ruminal ammonia concentrations and microbial protein synthesis 

    E-print Network

    Kang, Joan Huei

    1978-01-01

    ?IIIEIITAL D . ETS COIIPOS1TIOITS (AIP, -DI?Y BASIS) xp. Ifuri. Diet (%) Feed Intake (kg/day) . k Ba al 7 5 8. 5 III IV V VI Basal + Ii% C. P. E. of' urea 8. 5 Basal + 2% C. P. E. of' urea 9 ' 6 Basal + 5% C. P. E. of urea 10. 8 Basal + 4. 5% C. P.... E. of ure- 12, 4 Basal + 6. 5% C. P. E, of urea 1$. 5 9 5 8. 8 9. 8 9. 0 9. 0 Basal diet containec 77. 25% corn grain~ 20% cotton seed hulls, 1% Pock phosphate, . 40% kcl, . 50% I!ace, ~ 10% I~~g0, . 50% Trace ~inerals arid . 25% poloxalene...

  19. Response surface methodology (RSM) in evaluation of the vitamin C concentrations in microwave treated milk.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Saren, Gaowa; Huo, Wenli

    2015-07-01

    During the microwave treatment process of the milk, response surface methodology (RSM) based on three-level three-factorial Box-Behnken design was used. The response vitamin C concentration was studied. The predicted value of model (11.84 ?g/mL) was in excellent accordance with experimental value (11.83 ?g/mL). Milk layer thickness was the most significant factor that affects the measured responses, and the effects of microwave time and microwave power were dependent on milk layer thickness levels. The variables microwave time,milk layer thickness and microwave power have the opposite effect on vitamin C concentration in milk treated by microwave. Synergistic interactions between milk layer thickness and microwave power was highly significant (p?

  20. Influence of provision of concentrate at milking on voluntary cow traffic in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Scott, V E; Thomson, P C; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2014-03-01

    The success of an automatic milking system is generally reliant upon the voluntary movement of cows around the farm system and the correct management of incentives to achieve a targeted level of cow traffic. The present study investigated the effect of providing a small feed reward as an incentive at milking on the premilking voluntary waiting time of cows milked on a prototype robotic rotary in an Australian pasture-based dairy. The 2 treatments were "feed on" (concentrate offered at milking) and "feed off" (no concentrate offered at milking), with data from a single herd of 168 lactating dairy cows collected over 16d. A survival analysis with time-varying covariates was used to model the voluntary waiting times of cows in the premilking yard. The median time cows spent waiting before milking was 129 min and after 4h just over 70% of the cows had exited the yard (volunteered for milking). When feed was provided, cows were faster to exit the premilking yard (shorter time spent waiting) and waited just over half the time (0.53×) they did during the "feed off" treatment. Heifers exited the premilking yard more rapidly than cows in later lactations, with older cows spending at least 1.40 times longer in the yard before milking. Average daily milk yield along with stage of lactation and fetching cows from the paddock also influenced cow traffic in the premilking yard. As the number of cows in the premilking yard increased, voluntary waiting time also increased. At a queue length of 20 or more cows, the negative effect on waiting time of an additional cow entering the yard was less than that when fewer than 20 cows were present. Results demonstrated that feeding a small reward on the robotic rotary platform can reduce the time cows spend in the premilking yard, leading to a potential reduction in the risk of congestion at the dairy, particularly during times of high demand. Minimizing congestion will likely benefit multiple aspects of the voluntary milking operation, including a potential improvement in robot utilization, a reduction in unnecessary time spent off pasture by cows in the milking herd, promoting cow welfare through reducing the risk of lameness, and enhancing productivity. Targeting strategies to minimize queue length to less than the threshold length, which in this study was 20 cows, could result in reduced time spent in the premilking yard. PMID:24440259

  1. Diurnal variations in milk macro-mineral concentrations in Holstein dairy cows in Urmia, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nozad, Shahram; Ramin, Ali-Gholi; Asri Rezaie, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    Milk samples from high and low milk producer Holstein cows, were obtained during the morning and afternoon milking over a one week period. Overall, 1064 samples were tested within 14 times sampling in Urmia, Iran. Milk macro-mineral concentrations in the morning milking and in low producers were greater than in the afternoon and in high producers. The highest and lowest concentrations were observed in Na+ and Mg++, respectively. Mean milk values between low and high producers in the morning, afternoon and daily milking times were different (p < 0.05). The individual comparison of milk parameters between both groups in the different milking times were also different (p < 0.05). The results of correlation among macro-minerals in the morning, afternoon and overall milking showed significant and positive correlations among all macro-minerals except for Na+ and K+, in which there was a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05). The highest and lowest correlations were found between Ca++ and inorganic phosphorus (IP) (r=0.37, p < 0.05) and Na+ and IP (r=0.10, p < 0.05), respectively. It is concluded that the concentration of macro-minerals in different producers varied between milking times. The sodium concentration was the highest while Mg++ was the lowest among macro-minerals. The correlation between Ca++/ IP was the highest, while Na+/K+ revealed a negative correlation. Therefore, by organizing the appropriate macro-minerals in the ration, it would be possible to achieve an optimal purpose from animal husbandry. PMID:25653772

  2. Diurnal variations in milk macro-mineral concentrations in Holstein dairy cows in Urmia, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nozad, Shahram; Ramin, Ali-Gholi; Asri Rezaie, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    Milk samples from high and low milk producer Holstein cows, were obtained during the morning and afternoon milking over a one week period. Overall, 1064 samples were tested within 14 times sampling in Urmia, Iran. Milk macro-mineral concentrations in the morning milking and in low producers were greater than in the afternoon and in high producers. The highest and lowest concentrations were observed in Na(+) and Mg(++), respectively. Mean milk values between low and high producers in the morning, afternoon and daily milking times were different (p < 0.05). The individual comparison of milk parameters between both groups in the different milking times were also different (p < 0.05). The results of correlation among macro-minerals in the morning, afternoon and overall milking showed significant and positive correlations among all macro-minerals except for Na(+) and K(+), in which there was a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05). The highest and lowest correlations were found between Ca(++) and inorganic phosphorus (IP) (r=0.37, p < 0.05) and Na(+) and IP (r=0.10, p < 0.05), respectively. It is concluded that the concentration of macro-minerals in different producers varied between milking times. The sodium concentration was the highest while Mg(++) was the lowest among macro-minerals. The correlation between Ca(++)/ IP was the highest, while Na(+)/K(+) revealed a negative correlation. Therefore, by organizing the appropriate macro-minerals in the ration, it would be possible to achieve an optimal purpose from animal husbandry. PMID:25653772

  3. Effects of feed intake and dietary urea concentration on ruminal dilution rate and efficiency of bacteria growth in steers

    SciTech Connect

    Firkins, J.L.; Lewis, S.M. Montgomery, L.; Berger, L.L.; Merchen, N.R.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.

    1987-11-01

    Four multiple-fistulated steers (340 kg) were fed a diet containing 50% ground grass hay, 20% dry distillers grains, and 30% concentrate at two intakes (7.2 or 4.8 kg DM/d). Urea (.4 or 1.2% of the diet) was infused continuously into the steers' rumens. The experimental design was a 4 x 4 Latin square with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Infusing urea at .4 or 1.2% of the diet resulted in ruminal NH/sub 3/ N concentration of 4.97 and 9.10 mg/dl, respectively. Feeding steers at high rather than low intake decreased ruminal and total tract digestibilities of organic matter, NDF, and ADF but did not increase ruminal escape of N. However, apparent N escape from the rumen calculated using purines, but not /sup 15/N, as a bacterial marker was higher when 1.2 vs. .4% urea was infused. Feeding at high rather than at low intake increased the total pool of viable bacteria per gram organic matter fermented in the rumen. Although ruminal fluid outflows and particulate dilution rates were greater when steers were fed at high than low intakes, efficiencies of bacterial protein synthesis were unaffected by intake. The possibility of increased N recycling within the rumen with feeding at the higher intake is discussed.

  4. Milk production responses to a change in dietary starch concentration vary by production level in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of dietary starch concentration on yield of milk and milk components were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n=32; 115±22 d in milk) with a wide range in milk yield (28 to 62kg/d) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to a treatment sequence. Treatments were diets containing 30% dry ground corn (CG) or 30% soyhulls (SH) on a DM basis. Diets containing corn silage and alfalfa silage were formulated to contain 16% crude protein, 24% forage neutral detergent fiber, and either 27 or 44% neutral detergent fiber and 30 or 12% starch for CG and SH, respectively. Cows were fed a diet intermediate to the treatments during a preliminary 14-d period. Treatment periods were 28 d with measurements taken throughout the period for energy calculations and the final 5 d used for data and sample collection for production variables. Compared with SH, CG increased dry matter intake, and yields of milk, milk protein, milk fat, and energy-corrected milk, as well as milk protein concentration. Treatment did not affect milk fat concentration. Yield of de novo synthesized and preformed milk fatty acids increased with CG. Treatment interacted with level of preliminary milk production for several response variables (yields of milk, milk protein, milk fat, energy-corrected milk, and 3.5% fat-corrected milk). Compared with SH, the CG treatment increased energy-corrected milk in higher-producing cows with a lesser response to CG as milk yield decreased. The CG treatment increased milk:feed compared with the SH treatment, but not body weight or body condition score. In conclusion, higher-producing cows benefited from the high-starch diet, and lower-producing cows were able to maintain production when most of the starch was replaced with nonforage fiber. PMID:25981075

  5. Detecting multiple adulterants in dry milk using Raman chemical imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Raman chemical imaging method was developed for detecting the presence of multiple chemical adulterants in dry milk powder. Four chemicals (ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea) were added in equal concentrations, between 0.1% and 5.0%, to nonfat dry milk. An area of 25×25 mm2 for e...

  6. Effect of supplemental concentrate type on milk production and metabolic status in early-lactation dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass-based pasture.

    PubMed

    Whelan, S J; Pierce, K M; Flynn, B; Mulligan, F J

    2012-08-01

    Forty-four early-lactation dairy cows of mixed parity were used to examine the effect of 4 supplemental concentrate types (n=11) on milk production and metabolic status. Animals were blocked by parity and calving date, and blocks were balanced for previous milk yield and milk protein yield. Cows received grazed pasture plus 5.17 kg of DM/d of 1 of the following isoenergetic (1.1 units of energy for lactation) concentrates: 1) high crude protein (CP) with rolled barley (HP, 19% CP); b) low CP with rolled barley (LP, 15% CP); c) low CP with barley and a supplemental methionine hydroxy analog (HMBi; LP + HMBi, 15% CP); and d) low CP with ground corn (LP-corn, 15% CP). Milk yield was recorded from d 1 to 100 postpartum, with weekly milk sampling, body weight, and body condition score (BCS) measurements. Blood and rumen sampling were conducted weekly from wk 2 to 6 postpartum. Milk yield was lower for cows in the LP treatment compared with those offered other concentrate types (25.2 vs. 27.5 ± 0.39 kg/d). Animals in the HP group had a higher milk yield than those in the LP + HMBi group (28.2 vs. 26.8 ± 0.39 kg/d). Milk fat yield was lower from animals in the LP-corn group compared with those in the LP + HMBi group (0.94 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03 kg/d). Milk protein yield was lower in the LP group compared with those in the HP group (0.88 vs. 0.97 ± 0.02 kg/d). Animal body weight, BCS, and BCS loss were not affected by concentrate type. However, nonesterified fatty acids were higher from animals in the HP group than for those in the LP + HMBi group (0.41 vs. 0.33 ± 0.03 mmol/L), and ?-hydroxy butyric acid was higher from animals in the HP group than for those in the other treatments (0.71 vs. 0.59 ± 0.03 mmol/L). Glucose was higher from animals in the LP-corn group than for those in the HP and LP groups (3.3 vs. 3.2 ± 0.05 mmol/L). Blood urea-N was higher from animals offered HP compared with those offered the other treatments (5.49.6 vs. 4.21 ± 0.44 mmol/L). However, rumen NH(3)-N and volatile fatty acid concentration in the rumen were not affected by supplemental concentrate type. Reducing supplemental concentrate CP reduced milk yield. However, milk fat production and energy-corrected milk were not different, reducing the likelihood of an improved energy balance or a more favorable blood metabolic profile in early-lactation dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass. Offering HMBi with low-CP concentrates or replacing rolled barley with ground maize improves milk production relative to low-CP concentrates and metabolic status relative to high-CP concentrates. PMID:22818468

  7. Milk Synthetic Response of the Bovine Mammary Gland to an Increase in the Local Concentration of Amino Acids and Acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Purdie; D. R. Trout; D. P. Poppi; J. P. Cant

    2008-01-01

    Rates of secretion of components into milk are a func- tion of precursor concentrations and parameters that describe expression of the milk synthetic enzymes and their sensitivity to precursor concentrations. To estab- lish the enzymatic sensitivities of milk fat yield and mammary acetate utilization to circulating acetate con- centration, lactating cows were infused for 10 h with 0 or 40

  8. The effect of roughage to concentrate ratio in the diet on nitrogen and purine metabolism in dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horacio Leandro Gonda; Margareta Emanuelson; Michael Murphy

    1996-01-01

    Four lactating dairy cows were used in two experiments to study the effects of the roughage to concentrate ratio in the diet on nitrogen balance, plasma urea, urinary urea, milk urea and urinary purine derivatives. The use of the allantoin to creatinine ratio in spot samples of urine as an index of the urinary allantoin excretion was also evaluated. Four

  9. Effects of dietary urea supplementation on ruminal ammonia concentrations and microbial protein synthesis

    E-print Network

    Kang, Joan Huei

    1978-01-01

    + +58 12 66 + 2, 16 14e91 + 5. 15 0 ~ ', ~ a urea Daaal + 4, 5/g 15 ~ 79 + 5 I 9) 50 + ~ 26 5 35 + F 18 14. 47 + ~ 75 22. 65 + 7 ' 79 ~ "8 + ~ 17 2 ' 85 + 57 16. 99 + 5, 10 0/ . sasa. ' + 6 ~ 5, g C. a. l:. as urea. $0. 90 + $. 88 , 42 + . 09 2... T " ' um a ammonc a co" c nb at' on incr'ce, cd as . func -;: . P 1 c acni ation. 1' - th . . six expo ci- an, ~0, ~'mC '?I;. ?; "~00, :~l 'n tnc I!Ax ti . Ls, :-x'' 1. G, 2 8 10. g. , 13. 8, ZQ. O, and 26 ~ 9mg IIII~-N 100 ml in the S-DAP trials. 35...

  10. EFFECT OF MASTITIS ON MILK PERCHLORATE CONCENTRATIONS IN DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent surveys have identified the presence of perchlorate, a natural compound and environmental contaminant, in forages and dairy milk. The ingestion of perchlorate is of concern due to its ability to competitively inhibit iodide uptake by the thyroid and to impair synthesis of thyroid hormones. ...

  11. Cortisol Concentrations in the Milk of Rhesus Monkey Mothers are Associated with Confident Temperament in Sons, but not Daughters

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Erin; Hinde, Katie; Mendoza, Sally P.; Capitanio, John P.

    2011-01-01

    One pathway by which infant mammals gain information about their environment is through ingestion of milk. We assessed the relationship between stress-induced cortisol concentrations in milk, maternal and offspring plasma, and offspring temperament in rhesus monkeys. Milk was collected from mothers after a brief separation from their infants at 3–4 months postpartum, and blood was drawn at this time for both mothers and infants. Offspring temperament was measured at the end of a 25-hour assessment. Cortisol concentrations in milk were in a range comparable to those found in saliva, and were positively correlated with maternal plasma levels. Mothers of males had higher cortisol concentrations in milk than did mothers of females, and cortisol concentrations in maternal milk were related to a Confident temperament factor in sons, but not daughters. This study provides the first evidence that naturally occurring variation in endogenous glucocorticoid concentrations in milk are associated with infant temperament. PMID:20730788

  12. Effects of ergocalciferol supplementation on the concentration of vitamin D and its metabolites in human milk.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, A; Okano, T; Tsugawa, N; Tasaka, Y; Kobayashi, T; Kodama, S; Matsuo, T

    1989-11-01

    The effect of maternal ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) supplementation on the concentrations of vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D), 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [24,25-(OH)2D], and 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D] in their milk was studied. Vitamin D2, D3, 25-OH-D2 and 25-OH-D3 were simultaneously determined by high performance liquid chromatography, and the determination of 24,25-(OH)2D and 1,25-(OH)2D was performed by competitive protein binding assay and radioreceptor assay, respectively, after separation of the D2 and D3 compounds. After healthy lactating mothers had received a daily oral dose of vitamin D2 (1,200 IU/d) for 4 wk, the concentrations of vitamin D2, D3 and the metabolites were determined in their plasma and milk. Although the plasma levels of 25-OH-D2 were significantly increased, the increase in milk was relatively small. On the other hand, the increase of vitamin D2 levels in milk was greater than that of 25-OH-D2 in milk after supplementation. The levels of 1,25-(OH)2D in milk was lower after 5 wk of lactation than after 1 wk of lactation, regardless of maternal vitamin D2 supplementation. When total antirachitic activities in milk were calculated, only a very slight increase was observed as a result of supplementation. PMID:2600668

  13. Maternal Diet and Selenium Concentration in Human Milk From an Italian Population

    PubMed Central

    Valent, Francesca; Horvat, Milena; Mazej, Darja; Stibilj, Vekoslava; Barbone, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Background Low selenium (Se) status is associated with several diseases. International organizations have proposed intakes of Se for general populations, including infants. Studies of the association of Se concentration in breast milk and maternal diet have yielded inconsistent results. We evaluated the relation between the intake of food items during pregnancy and Se concentration in human milk after delivery and compared infant intake of Se from breast milk with the recommended intakes. Methods This cross-sectional study was part of the baseline assessment of a prospective cohort of Italian mother–child pairs enrolled in 1999–2001. Se concentration was measured in the milk of 100 women included in the cohort and correlated with the intake of food items during pregnancy and lactation as reported in a food frequency questionnaire. Results Among foods consumed in pregnancy, only eggs had a positive, but weak, correlation with Se concentration in milk (r = 0.20, P = 0.04). Fish intake during lactation was also weakly correlated with Se in milk (r = 0.21, P = 0.04). Se content of breast milk in our population was lower than that noted in other international studies; however, very few children who were exclusively breastfed were estimated not to have met the recommended Se intake. Conclusions Future research should aim to verify whether infants in this part of Italy still meet the recommended nutrient intake of Se and to assess the influence of the concurrent diet of lactating mothers on the Se content of their milk. PMID:21628842

  14. Changes in the physical properties, solubility, and heat stability of milk protein concentrates prepared from partially acidified milk.

    PubMed

    Eshpari, H; Tong, P S; Corredig, M

    2014-12-01

    A limiting factor in using milk protein concentrates (MPC) as a high-quality protein source for different food applications is their poor reconstitutability. Solubilization of colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) from casein micelles during membrane filtration (e.g., through acidification) may affect the structural organization of these protein particles and consequently the rehydration and functional properties of the resulting MPC powder. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acidification of milk by glucono-?-lactone (GDL) before ultrafiltration (UF) on the composition, physical properties, solubility, and thermal stability (after reconstitution) of MPC powders. The MPC samples were manufactured in duplicate, either by UF (65% protein, MPC65) or by UF followed by diafiltration (80% protein, MPC80), using pasteurized skim milk, at either the native milk pH (~pH 6.6) or at pH 6.0 after addition of GDL, followed by spray drying. Samples of different treatments were reconstituted at 5% (wt/wt) protein to compare their solubility and thermal stability. Powders were tested in duplicate for basic composition, calcium content, reconstitutability, particle size, particle density, and microstructure. Acidification of milk did not have any significant effect on the proximate composition, particle size, particle density, or surface morphology of the MPC powders; however, the total calcium content of MPC80 decreased significantly with acidification (from 1.84 ± 0.03 to 1.59 ± 0.03 g/100 g of powder). Calcium-depleted MPC80 powders were also more soluble than the control powders. Diafiltered dispersions were significantly less heat stable (at 120°C) than UF samples when dissolved at 5% solids. The present work contributes to a better understanding of the differences in MPC commonly observed during processing. PMID:25459904

  15. Effect of milk solids concentration on the pH, soluble calcium and soluble phosphate levels

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Note Effect of milk solids concentration on the pH, soluble calcium and soluble phosphate levels and equilibrium states of calcium and inorganic phosphate, are considered to be important in the stabilityH and the concentrations of soluble calcium (Casol) and soluble inorganic phosphate (Psol). At any given temperature

  16. Mineral and trace element concentrations of dairy products from goats’ milk produced in Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Isabel Herrera García; Pedro Peláez Puerto; María Fresno Baquero; Elena Rodríguez Rodríguez; Jacinto Darías Martín; Carlos Díaz Romero

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of the minerals, Na, K, Ca and Mg, and the trace elements, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se, were determined in 400 samples of goats’ dairy products (100 raw milk, 100 whey, 100 fresh and 100 semi-hard cheeses) produced in the island of Tenerife. All the minerals and trace elements analysed presented significant differences in the concentration between the

  17. INSTRUMENTAL TEXTURE, SYNERESIS AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF YOGHURTS PREPARED FROM ULTRAFILTRATED GOAT MILK: EFFECT OF DEGREE OF CONCENTRATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek Domaga?a

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of concentration degree (1.5-fold, 2-fold and 2.5-fold [v\\/v]) of ultrafiltrated goat milk on instrumental texture, syneresis and microstructure of set-yoghurt. The milk for control yoghurt was non-concentrated. The concentration of goat milk by ultrafiltration caused an increase in the hardness, the adhesiveness, the extrusion force of yoghurt and a reduction

  18. Instrumental Texture, Syneresis, and Microstructure of Yoghurts Prepared from Ultrafiltrated Goat Milk: Effect of Degree of Concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek Domaga?a

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of concentration degree (1.5-fold, 2-fold, and 2.5-fold [v\\/v]) of ultrafiltrated goat milk on instrumental texture, syneresis, and microstructure of set-yoghurt. The milk for control yoghurt was non-concentrated. The concentration of goat milk by ultrafiltration caused an increase in the hardness, the adhesiveness, the extrusion force of yoghurt, and a reduction

  19. Concentrations of environmental phenols and parabens in milk, urine and serum of lactating North Carolina women.

    PubMed

    Hines, Erin P; Mendola, Pauline; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2015-07-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

  20. Goat milk with and without increased concentrations of lysozyme improves repair of intestinal cell damage induced by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes diarrhea, malnutrition and poor growth in children. Human breast milk decreases disease-causing bacteria by supplying nutrients and antimicrobial factors such as lysozyme. Goat milk with and without human lysozyme (HLZ) may improve the repair of intestinal barrier function damage induced by EAEC. This work investigates the effect of the milks on intestinal barrier function repair, bacterial adherence in Caco-2 and HEp-2 cells, intestinal cell proliferation, migration, viability and apoptosis in IEC-6 cells in the absence or presence of EAEC. Methods Rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6, ATCC, Rockville, MD) were used for proliferation, migration and viability assays and human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2, ATCC, Rockville, MD) and human larynx carcinoma (HEp-2, ATCC, Rockville, MD) cells were used for bacterial adhesion assays. Goats expressing HLZ in their milk were generated and express HLZ in milk at concentration of 270 ?g/ml . Cells were incubated with pasteurized milk from either transgenic goats expressing HLZ or non-transgenic control goats in the presence and absence of EAEC strain 042 (O44:H18). Results Cellular proliferation was significantly greater in the presence of both HLZ transgenic and control goat milk compared to cells with no milk. Cellular migration was significantly decreased in the presence of EAEC alone but was restored in the presence of milk. Milk from HLZ transgenic goats had significantly more migration compared to control milk. Both milks significantly reduced EAEC adhesion to Caco-2 cells and transgenic milk resulted in less colonization than control milk using a HEp-2 assay. Both milks had significantly increased cellular viability as well as less apoptosis in both the absence and presence of EAEC. Conclusions These data demonstrated that goat milk is able to repair intestinal barrier function damage induced by EAEC and that goat milk with a higher concentration of lysozyme offers additional protection. PMID:22883300

  1. Rumen fermentation in lactating cows selected for milk fat content fed two forage to concentrate ratios with hay or silage.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M; Akerlind, M; Holtenius, K

    2000-04-01

    Sixteen multiparous cows, including eight rumen fistulated cows, were used in a 4x4 Latin square experiment designed to study dietary effects on rumen and blood parameters and milk production in cows differing in genetic capacity for milk fat content. Diets contained forage to concentrate ratios of 50:50 or 30:70 with either grass hay or silage as the forage. Ruminal fermentation was characterized by a high molar percentage of butyrate, 14 to 17%. Forage to concentrate ratio affected most rumen parameters, with the exception of the molar percentage of propionate (18 to 19%). The silage had a higher fiber degradation rate compared with hay. Compared to hay diets, silage diets had higher ruminal outflow rates, lower acetate:propionate ratios, and greater milk production with no differences in milk composition. Cows selected for low milk fat had higher molar percentages of propionate in the rumen. The low milk fat cows had higher milk production than cows selected for high milk fat but did not differ in milk fat yield. Cows fed the 30:70 diets had higher plasma insulin concentrations in response to a glucose challenge. The low milk fat cows had lower basal concentrations of insulin and lower insulin responses to a glucose challenge. Small changes in nutrient metabolism and supply were sufficient to influence milk production. PMID:10791792

  2. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, organochlorine compounds and nitro musks in mother's milk from Germany (Bavaria).

    PubMed

    Raab, Ulla; Preiss, Ursula; Albrecht, Michael; Shahin, Nabil; Parlar, Harun; Fromme, Hermann

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a new spectrum of substances that will be selected for future breast milk monitoring in Bavaria, Germany. Up to now, the analysis of breast milk in Bavaria was limited to selected organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Information on background levels of toxicologically interesting substances, such as dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB) or on flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are very limited or not available for Bavaria. We present here levels on OCP, some nitro musks, indicator PCB, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and dl-PCB concentrations in breast milk collected at 12 weeks post-partum of 43 primiparous mothers living in Bavaria. The average concentrations of PCDD, PCDF and dl-PCB were 4.98, 4.93 and 9.92 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively. The mean contribution of PCDD, PCDF, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCB to the total WHO-TEQ is consistently about 25% each. Furthermore the concentration on PBDE in breast milk at two sampling points, 12 weeks and 16 weeks after delivery, were determined. Overall, 19 PBDE congeners were analysed, however the level of 12 PBDE congeners were below the limit of detection. BDE-153 and BDE-47 were the predominant congeners accounting for about 66% of the total PBDE. The means of the total concentrations of PBDE (five congeners) at the first and second sampling point were 1.90 and 2.03 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. Based on our results the overall concentrations of the analysed substances in milk samples from Bavaria are consistent with the levels of breast milk samples of other European countries reflecting the low background body burden of these compounds. PMID:18328530

  3. The effect of zinc (Zn) supplementation during lactation on maternal Zn status and milk Zn concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, N.F.; Reidinger, C.; Westcott, J.L.; Hartley, S.; Hambidge, K.M. (Univ. Colorado, Denver (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The objective of this study was to longitudinally evaluate the effect of a dietary Zn supplement on maternal Zn states and milk Zn concentrations under a randomized, controlled, double-blinded study design. Sixty women, 30 {plus minus} 3.8 yrs, received either 15 mg Zn/day or placebo through {ge} 7 mos. of lactation. Dietary intake data, biochemical indices of Zn status and milk Zn concentrations were obtained at monthly intervals. Three day test-weighing was done at 2 wks and 3, 5, and 7 mos. Overall mean daily dietary intake for the non-Zn-supplemented group (n = 28) was 12.9 {plus minus} 2.2 mg, and for the Zn-supplemented group (n = 32), 25.7 {plus minus} 2.9 mg, including an average of 14 mg/d from a supplement. Plasma Zn concentrations did not differ between groups across lactation. Milk Zn concentrations were similar to those published previously and did not differ in monthly means or rate of decline according to group. Maternal Zn outputs to the infants at 2 wks and 3, 5 and 7 mos. were 2.17 {plus minus} 0.7, 0.92 {plus minus} 0.4, 0.72 {plus minus} 0.3, and 0.48 {plus minus} 0.26, respectively. The data suggest that average maternal Zn intake of {ge}10 mg/day during lactation is sufficient to maintain adequate maternal Zn status and milk Zn concentrations.

  4. The influence of oral steroidal contraceptives on magnesium concentration in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Urzica, Denise; Gales, Cristina; Zamfir, Carmen; Nechifor, Mihai

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the total magnesium concentration in the breast milk of mothers that were using oral, steroidal contraceptives during lactation. The study involved two groups of breast-feeding mothers that were receiving oral contraception, and a control group of 15 breast-feeding mothers that did not receive oral contraception. The first group received a daily combination pill (levonorgestrel 0.15 mg + ethinylestradiol 0.03 mg); the second group received a daily mini-pill (progestin-only pill, containing norethindrone 0.35 mg). The total magnesium concentrations of plasma and breast milk were determined before the start of contraception and after 30 days of contraception. The results showed that after 30 days of contraception, the contraceptive drugs had not significantly modified the total breast milk magnesium concentration (1.16 ± 0.11 mmol/L before treatment versus 1.01 ± 0.12 mmol/L, in first group; 0.97 ± 0.16 mmol/L before contraception versus 1.08 ± 0.11 mmol/L, in the second group). There were no significant changes in the total magnesium concentration in the breast milk of the control group after the 30 days. In addition, the oral, steroidal contraceptives (pill and mini-pill) did not affect the total magnesium concentration in the plasma of lactating mothers. PMID:24491602

  5. Ketone bodies in milk and blood of dairy cows: relationship between concentrations and utilization for detection of subclinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Bayourthe, C; Moncoulon, R

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the concentrations of the different ketone bodies in milk and blood and to evaluate these concentrations for the detection of subclinical ketosis. A total of 60 multiparous cows were used. Concentrations of acetone, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate were analyzed quantitatively in blood and milk, and the Ketolac strip test was used for semiquantitative determination of beta-hydroxybutyrate in milk. Cows were defined subclinically ketotic when their concentration of blood beta-hydroxybutyrate was over 1200 micromol/L. High correlation coefficients were observed between blood acetone and blood acetoacetate, and between blood and milk acetone. On the contrary, concentrations of milk and blood beta-hydroxybutyrate were poorly correlated with the other concentrations of ketone bodies. The Ketolac strip test overestimated the concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate in milk. For the detection of subclinical ketosis, the best sensitivity-specificity combination was obtained with the determination of acetoacetate in blood or milk, with threshold concentrations of 125 and 50 micromol/L, respectively. Determination of beta-hydroxybutyrate in the milk via an enzymatic analysis or via the Ketolac strip test provided valuable results, with threshold concentrations of 70 and 100 micromol/L, respectively. The simplicity of use of the Ketolac strip test makes it a valuable way to investigate subclinical ketosis. PMID:11286410

  6. Development of a Raman chemical image detection algorithm for authenticating dry milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research developed a Raman chemical imaging method for detecting multiple adulterants in skim milk powder. Ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea were mixed into the milk powder as chemical adulterants in the concentration range of 0.1–5.0%. A Raman imaging system using a 785-nm la...

  7. Comparison of accuracy of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in blood and milk for early pregnancy diagnosis in cows.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Z; Petrajtis-Go?obów, M; Melo de Sousa, N; Beckers, J F; Pawli?ski, B; Wehrend, A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two methods of early pregnancy diagnosis by determining pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in blood and PAG concentration in milk. Blood and milk samples were obtained on days 0 (AI day), 14, 21, 28, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91 and 105 of gestation from 60 lactating Holstein Frisian cows from one herd, carrying live fetuses. To determine PAG concentration a specific RIA system (RIA-706) was used. PAG concentration in blood and milk increased after 28 days of pregnancy, with blood concentrations being significantly higher than in milk. However, the accuracy of both tests at this time point was similar (sensitivity: 92 % in blood, 93 % in milk; specificity 53 % and 60 % respectively). None of the tests were able to detect open cows properly at this stage. On day 35 of gestation sensitivity (100 % for blood, 97 % for milk) and specificity (100 % for blood, 100 % for milk) were high enough to be used for reliable pregnancy diagnosis. The accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) for PAG concentrations in blood and milk for the rest of the study was 100 %. Our investigation shows that PAG determination in milk is a stress-free and non-invasive method for early pregnancy diagnosis in cattle. PMID:25497564

  8. Simultaneous determination of free calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium ion concentrations in simulated milk ultrafiltrate and reconstituted skim milk using the Donnan Membrane Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gao; E. J. M. Temminghoff; H. P. van Leeuwen; H. J. F. van Valenberg; M. D. Eisner

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on determination of free Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ concentrations in a series of CaCl2 solutions, simulated milk ultrafiltrate and reconstituted skim milk using a recently developed Donnan Membrane Technique (DMT). A calcium ion selective electrode was used to compare the DMT results. The study showed that the free Ca2+ concentrations measured by the DMT agreed well

  9. The concentration of aflatoxin M1 in the mothers’ milk in Khorrambid City, Fars, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Hossein; Dehghan, Parvin; Pakshir, Keyvan; Pour, Mostafa Chadegani; Akbari, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Aflatoxins are secondary toxic metabolites produced by certain group of Aspergillus species in suitable conditions. These toxins are highly toxic, immunosuppressive, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic metabolites. The purpose of this study was to detection aflatoxin M1 concentration in mother's milk from rural area of Khorrambid town of Fars Province. Materials and Methods: In this study, 87 milk samples of mothers were collected by cluster sampling methods in the period between June and July 2011 and the amount of aflatoxin M1 was measured by a competitive ELISA method. Results: From 87 mother's milk, 24 (27.6%) samples were contaminated with aflatoxin M1 with mean concentration of 0.56 ± 1.23 pg/ml (range 0.13-4.91 pg/ml). Conclusion: The amount of aflatoxin M1 in mothers’ milk was lower than 50 ng/l (Europe Union and Iranian standard). Detection of Aflatoxin M1 in mothers’ milk is due to consuming contaminated food. This contamination not only threatens the health of the mothers but also has irreversible effects on the growth and health of their babies. PMID:25221755

  10. Refractometer assessment of colostral and serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimation of the quantity of colostral IgG or serum IgG absorbed following ingestion of colostrum by calves is essential for monitoring the effectiveness of colostrum feeding practices on dairy farms. Milk total solids concentrations determination is a critical part of quality assessment of nonsaleable whole milk prior to feeding to calves. To date, on-farm methods to assess colostral IgG, serum IgG or milk total solids concentrations have been performed separately with various instruments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a single electronic, hand-held refractometer for assessing colostral and serum IgG concentrations and milk total solids in dairy cattle. Colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations were determined by the refractometer. Corresponding analysis of colostral and serum IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion (RID) while milk total solids were determined by spectrophotometry. Sensitivity and specificity of the refractometer for colostrum and serum samples were calculated as determined by RID. Sensitivity and specificity of the refractometer for milk samples was calculated as determined by spectrophotometry. Results The sensitivity of the refractometer was 1 for colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids determinations. Specificity of the refractometer was 0.66, 0.24 and 0 for colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids determinations, respectively. The refractometer underestimated colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations compared to the concentrations determined by RID or spectrophotometry. Conclusions The refractometer was an acceptable, rapid, convenient on-farm method for determining colostral IgG and milk total solids. The refractometer was not an acceptable method for determination of serum IgG concentrations as it severely underestimated the serum IgG concentrations. PMID:25125217

  11. Modified milk powder supplemented with immunostimulating whey protein concentrate (IMUCARE) enhances immune function in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay J. Rutherfurd-Markwick; Daniel Johnson; Martin L. Cross; Harsharnjit S. Gill

    2005-01-01

    Some whey protein concentrates (WPCs) can act as immunostimulatory and anticancer dietary components when delivered as a major protein source to animals and human beings. In this study, we have investigated the effects of a known immunostimulatory WPC (IMUCARE) when delivered to mice in a modified milk powder (MMP), nutritionally balanced for young children (aged 1-3 years). Groups of BALB\\/c

  12. Determination of milk and blood concentrations of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein in cows with

    E-print Network

    Bequette, Brian J.

    with naturally acquired subclinical and clinical mastitis r. Zeng,* B. J. Bequette,* B. t. vinyard, and D. D lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) were evaluated in cows with naturally occurring mastitis. Blood and milk mastitis, and the LBP concentrations of the samples were measured by an ELISA. Concentra- tions of LBP were

  13. The effect of implanting an antigen release device on lactoferrin concentration in serum and milk.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J B; Wang, J Q; Bu, D P; Liu, G L; Iaschi, S P A; Zhang, C G; Wei, H Y; Zhou, L Y; Wang, J Z; Tay, K G

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of implanting an Antigen Release Devices (ARD) into dairy cows during the lactation cycle to induce an immune response. Subsequently, the concentrations of lactoferrin in serum and milk were measured. Forty healthy adult Chinese Holstein cows were divided into two equal groups: a test group and a control group. Animals in the test group received ARD implants, whereas the control group animals were not treated. An even spread across the two groups was maintained with animal selection based on parity, the lactation days and milk yields. The concentrations of lactoferrin in the serum and milk of all forty animals were measured using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The results show that the implantation of an ARD did not significantly increase the concentration of lactoferrin in the serum and milk throughout the whole experiment period except on two occasions. The levels of lactoferrin in the milk and serum significantly increased on day 7 and on day 11 after implantation (p<0.05). There was a strong correlation between milk lactoferrin and serum lactoferrin (r=0.564, P<0.01). Three separate ARDs were used releasing its antigen load on day 0, 14 and 28 to induce a primary, secondary and tertiary response respectively. As the significant increases in the lactoferrin levels were only observed after the first ARD release, the effects of lactoferrin appears to be associated with the early phase of the immune response, consistent with its role in the host's innate defense system. PMID:18772557

  14. UREA-NITROGEN RECYCLING AND NITROGEN BALANCE IN LAMBS FED A HIGH-CONCENTRATE DIET AND INFUSED WITH DIFFERING PROPORTIONS OF CASEIN IN THE RUMEN AND ABOMASUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-five wether lambs (34 +/- 0.9 kg) fitted with ruminal and abomasal infusion catheters were used in a completely randomized design to determine the effects of differing proportions of ruminal and abomasal casein infusion on urea-N recycling and N balance in lambs fed a high-concentrate diet (1...

  15. Influence of prematurity and birth weight on the concentration of ?-tocopherol in colostrum milk

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Lira, Larissa Queiroz; Dimenstein, Roberto; Ribeiro, Karla Danielly da S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin E levels in the breast milk, analyzing the prematurity and the birth weight influence in ?-tocopherol concentration of colostrum milk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, in which the colostrum was collected from 93 nursing mothers in a public maternity of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. The newborns were classified based on gestational age and birth weight. The analysis of ?-tocopherol in the milk was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The ?-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born at term was 1,093.6±532.4µg/dL; for preterm infants, the concentration was 1,321.6±708.5µg/dL (p=0.109). In the preterm group, the ?-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born with low and normal birth weight was 1,316.0±790.7 and 1,327.2±655.0µg/dL, respectively (p=0.971). In the term group, the ?-tocopherol levels were higher in mothers of children with birth weight >4000g, being 1,821.0±575.4µg/dL, compared to 869.5±532.1µg/dL and 1,039.6±477.5µg/dL with low and adequate birth weight, respectively (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity did not influence ?-tocopherol levels in the colostrum milk. Mothers who had macrossomic term neonates presented increased ?-tocopherol levels. These results indicate that birth weight can influence ?-tocopherol leves in the colostrum milk. PMID:24473952

  16. Effects of dietary crude protein and supplemental urea concentrations on nitrogen and phosphorus utilization by feedlot cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three dietary crude protein (CP) levels (11.5, 13.0, and 14.5% of DM) and 3 supplemental urea levels (100, 50, and 0% of supplemental N) were used in a completely randomized block design experiment conducted at 2 locations to determine N and P balance and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) of feedlot cattle....

  17. Estimation of the protein content of US imports of milk protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K W

    2003-12-01

    Recent declines in milk prices in the United States have sparked renewed concern that imports of milk protein concentrates (MPC) are increasingly entering the United States with very low tariff rates and is having an adverse impact on the US dairy industry. Milk protein concentrates are used in the United States in many different products, including the starter culture of cheese, or in nonstandard cheeses such as baker's cheese, ricotta, Feta and Hispanic cheese, processed cheese foods, and nutritional products. One of the difficult aspects of trying to assess the impact of MPC imports on the US dairy industry is to quantify the protein content of these imports. The protein content of MPC imports typically ranges from 40 to 88%. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology that can be used to estimate the protein content of MPC on a country by country basis. Such an estimate would not only provide information regarding the quantity of protein entering the United States, but would also provide a profile of low- and high-value MPC importers. This is critical for market analysis, since it is the lower valued MPC imports that more directly displaces US-produced skim milk powder. PMID:14740857

  18. Modified water solubility of milk protein concentrate powders through the application of static high pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Udabage, Punsandani; Puvanenthiran, Amirtha; Yoo, Jin Ah; Versteeg, Cornelis; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2012-02-01

    The effects of high pressure (HP) treatment (100-400 MPa at 10-60 °C) on the solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders were tested. The solubility, measured at 20 °C, of fresh MPC powders made with no HP treatment was 66%. It decreased by 10% when stored for 6 weeks at ambient temperature (~20 °C) and continued to decrease to less than 50% of its initial solubility after 12 months of storage. Of the combinations of pressure and heat used, a pressure of 200 MPa at 40 °C applied to the concentrate before spray drying was found to be the most beneficial for improved solubility of MPC powders. This combination of pressure/heat improved the initial cold water solubility to 85%. The solubility was maintained at this level after 6 weeks storage at ambient temperature and 85% of the initial solubility was preserved after 12 months. The improved solubility of MPC powders on manufacture and on storage are attributed to an altered surface composition arising from an increased concentration of non-micellar casein in the milk due to HP treatment prior to drying. The improved solubility of high protein powders (95% protein) made from blends of sodium caseinate and whey protein isolate compared with MPC powders (~85% protein) made from ultrafiltered/diafiltered milk confirmed the detrimental role of micellar casein on solubility. The results suggest that increasing the non-micellar casein content by HP treatment of milk or use of blends of sodium caseinate and whey proteins are strategies that may be used to obtain high protein milk powders with enhanced solubility. PMID:22127220

  19. Fat source and dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio influences milk fatty-acid composition in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Vazirigohar, M; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Rezayazdi, K; Krizsan, S J; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Shingfield, K J

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the potential benefits to human health there is an increased interest in producing milk containing lower-saturated fatty acid (SFA) and higher unsaturated fatty acid (FA) concentrations, including cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were used in two experiments according to a completely randomized block design, with 21-day periods to examine the effects of incremental replacement of prilled palm fat (PALM) with sunflower oil (SFO) in high-concentrate diets containing 30 g/kg dry matter (DM) of supplemental fat (Experiment 1) or increases in the forage-to-concentrate (F : C) ratio from 39 : 61 to 48 : 52 of diets containing 30 g/kg DM of SFO (Experiment 2) on milk production, digestibility and milk FA composition. Replacing PALM with SFO had no effect on DM intake, but tended to increase organic matter digestibility, yields of milk, protein and lactose, and decreased linearly milk fat content. Substituting SFO for PALM decreased linearly milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and cis-9 16:1, and increased linearly 18:0, cis-9 18:1, trans-18:1 (??4 to 16), 18:2 and CLA concentrations. Increases in the F : C ratio of diets containing SFO had no effect on intake, yields of milk, milk protein or milk lactose, lowered milk protein content in a quadratic manner, and increased linearly NDF digestion and milk fat secretion. Replacing concentrates with forages in diets containing SFO increased milk fat 4:0 to 10:0 concentrations in a linear or quadratic manner, decreased linearly cis-9 16:1, trans-6 to -10 18:1, 18:2n-6, trans-7, cis-9 CLA, trans-9, cis-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA, without altering milk fat 14:0 to 16:0, trans-11 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 CLA or 18:3n-3 concentrations. In conclusion, replacing prilled palm fat on with SFO in high-concentrate diets had no adverse effects on intake or milk production, other than decreasing milk fat content, but lowered milk fat medium-chain SFA and increased trans FA and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Increases in the proportion of forage in diets containing SFO increased milk fat synthesis, elevated short-chain SFA and lowered trans FA concentrations, without altering milk polyunsaturated FA content. Changes in fat yield on high-concentrate diets containing SFO varied between experiments and individual animals, with decreases in milk fat secretion being associated with increases in milk fat trans-10 18:1, trans-10, cis-12 CLA and trans-9, cis-11 CLA concentrations. PMID:24176091

  20. Effects of partial replacement of concentrate with feed blocks on nutrient utilization, microbial N flow, and milk yield and composition in goats.

    PubMed

    Molina-Alcaide, E; Morales-García, E Y; Martín-García, A I; Ben Salem, H; Nefzaoui, A; Sanz-Sampelayo, M R

    2010-05-01

    Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of partial replacement of concentrate with 2 types of feed blocks (FB) on rumen protozoa numbers, nutrient utilization, microbial N flow to the duodenum, and milk yield and composition in goats. The concentrate included oat, corn grain, barley, soybean meal, salt, and vitamin-mineral mixture. The FB (types I and II) were composed of crude 2-stage olive cake (120 or 100g/kg), fava beans (0 or 400g/kg), barley (320 or 200g/kg), beet molasses (220 or 100g/kg), sunflower meal (180 or 0g/kg), quicklime (70 or 90g/kg), salt (60g/kg), urea (0 or 20g/kg), and vitamin-mineral mixture (30g/kg). In experiment 1, 6 adult, dry, nonpregnant, rumen-fistulated Granadina goats (46.9+/-2.15kg of BW) were used and 3 trials were carried out. In each trial, 2 goats were randomly assigned to receive 600g of alfalfa hay and 400g of concentrate (diet AC), 600g of alfalfa hay, 200g of concentrate, and FB I (diet ACBI), or 600g of alfalfa hay, 200g of concentrate, and FB II (diet ACBII) with 6 replications per diet. The FB were supplied ad libitum. The ratio of purine bases to N was higher in solid- and liquid-associated bacteria for FB goats than for AC goats. In experiment 2, 18 Granadina goats (39.6+/-1.89kg of BW) in the middle of the third lactation were used, and 3 trials were carried out by following a 3 x 3 Latin square experimental design. In every trial, 6 animals randomly received 1.0kg of alfalfa hay supplemented with 1.0kg of concentrate (diet AC) or 0.5kg of concentrate and FB I and II (diets ACBI and ACBII) with 18 replications per diet. The FB were supplied ad libitum. The intakes of organic matter and fat were higher with the AC diet than with the FB diets. The intake of acid detergent fiber was higher for FB-containing diets than for the AC diet. The neutral detergent fiber digestibility of FB diets was higher than that of the AC diet. Energy intake was higher for diets AC and ACBII than for ACBI. Microbial N flow was affected by diet. Milk yield was higher in goats fed the AC diet than in those receiving the FB diets. Conjugated linoleic acid content was higher in milk from FB than in milk from AC goats. Our study suggests that FB type II based on local ingredients could be used advantageously to reduce half of the amount of concentrate without detrimental effects on nutrient utilization, N value of the diet, and milk composition. The decrease of milk yield with ACBII compared with that obtained with the AC diet could be compensated by better quality of milk, decreased cost of feeding, and environmental advantage derived of including by-products in FB. PMID:20412923

  1. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and ?-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6?g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and ?-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p?=?0.001), 2.7-fold (p?=?0.001) and 1.7-fold (p?=?0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation. PMID:24635025

  2. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on intragastric urea and ammonium concentrations in patients with chronic renal failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W D Neithercut; P A Rowe; A M el Nujumi; S Dahill; K E McColl

    1993-01-01

    AIM--To assess the value of measuring the gastric juice urea:ammonium ratio in detecting Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with chronic renal failure. METHODS--Twenty three (12 men) patients with established chronic renal failure and dyspepsia were studied. Gastric juice (2 ml) was aspirated during endoscopy to measure urea and ammonium. The upper gastrointestinal tract was routinely inspected and two antral biopsy

  3. Effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate: IV. Feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk production in milking cows.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Pilajun, Ruangyote; Rowlinson, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Four early-lactation crossbred cows (82.5 % Holstein) were selected to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on rumen fermentation and milk production. Cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source: cassava chip (CC) and CC + rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was variation in the level of cottonseed meal (CM): low (LCM) and high (HCM) in isonitrogenous diets (180 g CP/kg DM). It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, dry matter digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition, or economic return (P > 0.05). However, cows fed with CC had a higher population of amylolytic bacteria than cows fed with CR3:1 (P < 0.05). Cows fed with HCM had a higher total feed intake, milk yield and composition, and milk income when compared with cows fed on LCM although the concentrate and roughage intakes, dry matter digestibility, rumen fermentation, and microbial populations were similar between treatments (P > 0.05). In addition, the carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level interactions were not significant for any parameter. It could be concluded that cassava chip and high level of cottonseed meal could usefully be incorporated into concentrates for dairy cows without impacting on rumen fermentation or milk production. PMID:22843214

  4. Evaporative concentration of skimmed milk: effect on casein micelle hydration, composition, and size.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dylan Z; Dunstan, David E; Martin, Gregory J O

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the effect of evaporative concentration on casein micelle composition is of high importance for milk processing. Alterations to the hydration, composition and size of casein micelles were investigated in skimmed milk evaporated to concentrations of 12-45% total solids content. The size of casein micelles was determined by dynamic light scattering, and the water content and composition determined by analysis of supernatants and pellets obtained by ultracentrifugation. The mass balance and hydration results showed that during the evaporation process, while micelles were dehydrated, water was removed preferentially from the serum. The amount of soluble casein and calcium in the serum decreased as a function of increasing solids content, indicating a shift of these components to the micelles. The formation of a small proportion of micelle aggregates at high concentrations appeared dependent on the time kept at these concentrations. Upon redilution with water, casein micelles were immediately rehydrated and aggregates were broken up in a matter of minutes. Soluble calcium and pH returned to their original state over a number of hours; however, only a small percentage of original soluble casein returned to the serum over the 5h period investigated. These results showed that casein micelles are significantly affected by evaporative concentration and that the alterations are not completely and rapidly reversible. PMID:25005965

  5. Influence of weather conditions on milk production and rectal temperature of Holsteins fed two levels of concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabuga, J. D.; Sarpong, K.

    1991-12-01

    Twelve lactating Holstein cows in 2nd lactation were allocated randomly, six each, to two feeding treatments: high concentrate (1 kg dairy concentrate to 2 kg milk produced) and low concentrate (1 kg dairy concentrate to 4 kg milk produced) from 7 to 106 days postcalving. Forage and water were provided adalibitum. Milk and butter fat yields and rectal temperatures were examined in relation to 9 weather variables (minimum, maximum and mean temperatures, relative humidity, temperature-humidity index (THI), radiation, wind velocity and mean temperature of the previous day). Averages for milk yield, fat yield and rectal temperature were respectively 20.4 kg, 0.7 kg and 38.9°C for the high concentrate treatment and 18.4 kg, 0.6 kg and 38.6°C for the low concentrate treatment. Weather conditions accounted for 5.6%, 0.8% and 10.8% of the day to day variation in milk yield, fat yield and rectal remperature, respectively, for the high concentrate group and 29.4%, 9.7% and 0.6%, respectively, for the low concentrate group. Only measures of ambient temperature, especially mean temperature, were closely associated with these traits.

  6. Levels and Concentration Ratios of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Serum and Breast Milk in Japanese Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kayoko; Harada, Kouji; Takenaka, Katsunobu; Uehara, Shigeki; Kono, Makoto; Shimizu, Takashi; Takasuga, Takumi; Senthilkumar, Kurunthachalam; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Koizumi, Akio

    2006-01-01

    Blood and/or breast milk have been used to assess human exposure to various environmental contaminants. Few studies have been available to compare the concentrations in one matrix with those in another. The goals of this study were to determine the current levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Japanese women, with analysis of the effects of lifestyle and dietary habits on these levels, and to develop a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) with which to predict the ratio of serum concentration to breast milk concentration. We measured PBDEs and PCBs in 89 paired samples of serum and breast milk collected in four regions of Japan in 2005. The geometric means of the total concentrations of PBDE (13 congeners) in milk and serum were 1.56 and 2.89 ng/g lipid, respectively, whereas those of total PCBs (15 congeners) were 63.9 and 37.5 ng/g lipid, respectively. The major determinant of total PBDE concentration in serum and milk was the geographic area within Japan, whereas nursing duration was the major determinant of PCB concentration. BDE-209 was the most predominant PBDE congener in serum but not in milk. The excretion of BDE 209 in milk was lower than that of BDE 47 and BDE 153. QSAR analysis revealed that two parameters, calculated octanol/water partition and number of hydrogen-bond acceptors, were significant descriptors. During the first weeks of lactation, the predicted partitioning of PBDE and PCB congeners from serum to milk agreed with the observed values. However, the prediction became weaker after 10 weeks of nursing. PMID:16882522

  7. Denaturing Urea Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (Urea PAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Summer, Heike; Grämer, René; Dröge, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Urea PAGE or denaturing urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis employs 6-8 M urea, which denatures secondary DNA or RNA structures and is used for their separation in a polyacrylamide gel matrix based on the molecular weight. Fragments between 2 to 500 bases, with length differences as small as a single nucleotide, can be separated using this method1. The migration of the sample is dependent on the chosen acrylamide concentration. A higher percentage of polyacrylamide resolves lower molecular weight fragments. The combination of urea and temperatures of 45-55 °C during the gel run allows for the separation of unstructured DNA or RNA molecules. In general this method is required to analyze or purify single stranded DNA or RNA fragments, such as synthesized or labeled oligonucleotides or products from enzymatic cleavage reactions. In this video article we show how to prepare and run the denaturing urea polyacrylamide gels. Technical tips are included, in addition to the original protocol 1,2. PMID:19865070

  8. Effect of total solids content and temperature on the rheological behaviour of reconstituted whole milk concentrates.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Binh; Trinh, Khanh Tuoc; Haisman, Derek

    2007-02-01

    This work investigated the combined effect of solids content, heating and storage temperatures on the rheological behaviour of reconstituted whole milk concentrates. The powder was reconstituted at 35 degrees C in a custom built recombination rig to various total solids content (TS) from 10-48% TS. The concentrates were then heated to 45-85 degrees C and stored at the heating temperature. The rheological behaviour shifter from Newtonian behaviour (below 30% TS) to power law (below 40% TS), with the yield stress observed from 40% TS upwards and time-dependent behaviour was noticed above 44% TS. Higher heating temperatures tend to promote non-Newtonian behaviour at lower solids content. The viscosity-solid content curve showed an exponential relationship, while the viscosity-temperature curve exhibited a minimum at 65-75 degrees C above 46% TS. During age thickening, the yield stress and the consistency coefficient increased, while the flow behaviour index decreased with storage time. This indicated that the milk concentrates deviated away from Newtonian behaviour during age thickening. PMID:17214912

  9. Application of urea complexes in the purification of fatty acids, esters, and alcohols. III. Concentrates of natural linoleic and linolenic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Swern; Winfred E. Parker

    1953-01-01

    Summary  Concentrates of natural linoleic acid (linoleic acid content, 85–95%) have been prepared in 50–72% yields from corn oil fatty\\u000a acids by preferential precipitation of the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids at room temperature as their urea complexes.\\u000a \\u000a By a similar procedure, concentrates of natural linolenic acid (linolenic acid content, 87–89%) have been prepared in 55–61%\\u000a yields from perilla oil fatty

  10. Mineral and trace element concentrations in human breast milk, placenta, maternal blood, and the blood of the newborn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Schramel; G. Lill; S. Hasse; B. J. Klose

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of the essential trace elements Cu, Fe, and Zn, and of the mineral elements Ca, K, Mg, and P during the\\u000a perinatal period in human placenta and in the blood of the mother and the newborn (cord blood) were determined. Breast milk\\u000a (colostrum and transitory milk) was also included to permit correlations between the different compartments. No correlations

  11. Effect of Safflower Oil, Flaxseed Oil, Monensin, and Vitamin E on Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Bovine Milk Fat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Bell; J. M. Griinari; J. J. Kennelly

    2006-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of conjugated octadecadienoic acids of predominantly ruminant origin. The main isomer in bovine milk fat is the cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Interest in CLA increased after thediscoveryofitshealth-promotingproperties,includ- ing potent anticarcinogenic activity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary strategies aimed at increasing the concentration of CLA in bovine milk fat. Bothexperimentswereorganized asarandomizedcom- plete

  12. Relationships among vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and vitamin D-binding protein concentrations in the plasma and milk of human subjects.

    PubMed

    Hollis, B W; Pittard, W B; Reinhardt, T A

    1986-01-01

    We measured plasma and milk concentrations of vitamin D2, vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25OHD2), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3), and vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) in a group of lactating women. All vitamin D compounds were quantitated using competitive protein binding assay, while DBP concentrations were determined by rocket electrophoresis. Vitamin D3 was the most abundant vitamin D compound in human milk, followed by vitamin D2, 25OHD3, and, finally, 25OHD2. The average vitamin D activity in milk was between 33-68 IU/liter, depending on the criterion of biological activity used. DBP concentrations in milk were approximately 3% of those in plasma. Significant relationships were found between plasma and milk levels for all vitamin D compounds. The milk to blood concentration ratio was greatest for vitamin D2, followed by vitamin D3, 25OHD2, and 25OHD3. (Thus, the parent compounds gained access into milk in a much more efficient fashion than their 25-hydroxy metabolites. It is postulated that this differential translocation is controlled by the DBP in the circulation.) There was no significant correlation between plasma and milk DBP concentrations, nor were milk DBP concentrations related to the vitamin D content of milk. This investigation supports the concept that the nutritional status of lactating mothers affects the vitamin D sterol potential of her milk which, in turn, would likely have an effect on the vitamin D status of her nursing infant. PMID:2999182

  13. Quantitation of Caseins and Whey Proteins of Processed Milks and Whey Protein Concentrates, Application of Gel Electrophoresis, and Comparison with Harland-Ashworth Procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay J. Basch; Frederic W. Douglas Jr.; Lisa G. Procino; V. H. Holsinger; Harold M. Farrell Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Alternate methods for quantitation of caseins and whey proteins in milk pro- ducts were investigated. The Harland- Ashworth and Leighton procedures, which are used for routine determinations of soluble whey proteins in milk, could not be adapted satisfactorily to quantitation of whey protein in blends of nonfat dry milk solids and whey protein concentrates because of problems of precipitation techniques.

  14. Comparison of functional properties of 34% and 80% whey protein and milk serum protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Luck, P J; Vardhanabhuti, B; Yong, Y H; Laundon, T; Barbano, D M; Foegeding, E A

    2013-09-01

    This study compared the functional properties of serum protein concentrate (SPC) with whey protein concentrate (WPC) made from the same milk and with commercial WPC. The experimental SPC and WPC were produced at 34% or 80% protein from the same lot of milk. Protein contents of WPC and SPC were comparable; however, fat content was much lower in SPC compared with WPC and commercial WPC. The effect of drying methods (freeze vs. spray drying) was studied for 34% WPC and SPC. Few differences due to drying method were found in turbidity and gelation; however, drying method made a large difference in foam formation for WPC but not SPC. Between pH 3 and 7, SPC was found to have lower turbidity than WPC; however, protein solubility was similar between SPC and WPC. Foaming and gelation properties of SPC were better than those of WPC. Differences in functional properties may be explained by differences in composition and extent of denaturation or aggregation. PMID:23871371

  15. Comparison of composition, sensory, and volatile components of thirty-four percent whey protein and milk serum protein concentrates1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Evans; J. Zulewska; M. Newbold; M. A. Drake; D. M. Barbano

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify and compare the composition, flavor, and volatile compo- nents of serum protein concentrate (SPC) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) containing about 34% protein made from the same milk to each other and to commercial 34% WPC from 6 different factories. The SPC and WPC were manufactured in triplicate with each pair of

  16. Effects of high-dose prepartum injections of Se and vitamin E on milk and serum concentrations in ewes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Cuesta; L. R. McDowell; W. E. Kunkle; N. S. Wilkinson; F. G. Martin

    1995-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of relatively high-dose Se and vitamin E injections to pregnant ewes on serum Se and ?-tocopherol concentrations of the dam and their offspring, the Se concentrations of colostrum and milk, and the relative lasting effects of these nutrients in the body. Ewes were randomly assigned to seven experimental groups that included treatment

  17. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

  18. Effect of bleaching permeate from microfiltered skim milk on 80% serum protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rachel E; Adams, Michael C; Drake, Maryanne; Barbano, David M

    2013-03-01

    Whey proteins that have been removed before the cheese-making process are referred to as "native" whey proteins or milk serum proteins. Because serum proteins isolated directly from milk are not exposed to the cheese-making process, they are free from functional or sensory effects arising from this process. Whey proteins used in food and beverage applications are largely derived from annatto-colored Cheddar cheese. Some of the annatto is left in the whey and this color is converted to a colorless compound by bleaching. The effect of bleaching serum proteins on flavor and functionality of spray-dried protein provides a platform to investigate the effect of bleaching free from the confounding effects of cheese manufacture. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the sensory and functional properties of 80% milk serum protein concentrate (SPC80) produced from bleached and unbleached microfiltration (MF) permeate made from skim milk with and without added annatto color. Colored and uncolored MF permeates were bleached with benzoyl peroxide (BP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP), ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried. The SPC80 from unbleached colored and uncolored MF permeates were manufactured as controls. All treatments were manufactured in triplicate. All SPC80 were evaluated by sensory testing, instrumental analyses, functionality, color, and proximate analysis. The HP-bleached SPC80 was higher in lipid oxidation compounds than BP-bleached or unbleached SPC80, specifically hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, and 2,3-octadienone. The HP treatments were higher in aroma intensity and cardboard and fatty flavors compared with the unbleached and BP-bleached SPC80. The SPC80 bleached with BP had lower concentrations of norbixin compared with SPC80 bleached with HP. Functionality testing demonstrated that HP treatments had more soluble protein after 10min of heating at 90°C and pH 4.6 and pH 7 compared with the no bleach and BP treatments, regardless of additional color. Foams generated from bleached SPC80 were more stable than those from unbleached SPC80, and those bleached with HP were lower in yield stress than other SPC80. Overall, HP bleaching destroyed less norbixin and caused more lipid oxidation and subsequent off-flavors than did BP bleaching. However, the heat stability of SPC80 was enhanced by HP bleaching compared with control treatments or BP bleaching. PMID:23295111

  19. Studies on the increase in serum concentrations of urea cycle amino acids among subjects exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, H.; Shiroishi, K. (Toyama Institute of Health (Japan)); Kagamimori, S.; Naruse, Y. (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan)); Watanabe, M. (Toyama Female Univ. (Japan))

    1988-05-01

    Itai-itai disease (I disease) is a combination of renal tubular damage and osteomalacia accompanied by osteoporosis among subjects exposed to cadmium (Cd). When the renal tubular damage progresses, the excretion of amino acids, especially, threonine, hydroxyproline, proline, citrulline, ornithine, arginine, etc. increase in urine. It was reported that the increase in urinary excretion of citrulline, arginine and ornithine may be associated with an inhibition of urea synthesis in the urea cycle. The authors have found that serum citrulline, arginine and ornithine also increased in I disease patients. In order to investigate the mechanism of the increase in these serum amino acids, comparative studies were performed using both healthy subjects and patients with renal disease as control groups.

  20. Studies on the increase in serum concentrations of urea cycle amino acids among subjects exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, H.; Shiroishi, K.; Kagamimori, S.; Naruse, Y.; Watanabe, M.

    1988-04-01

    Itai-itai disease (I disease) is a combination of renal tubular damage and osteomalacia accompanied by osteoporosis among subjects exposed to cadmium (Cd). When the renal tubular damage progresses, the excretion of amino acids, especially, threonine, hydroxyproline, proline, citrulline, ornithine, arginine increased in urine. It has been reported that the increase in urinary excretion of citrulline, arginine and ornithine may be associated with an inhibition of urea synthesis in the urea cycle. The authors have found that serum citrulline, arginine and ornithine also increased in I disease patients. In order to investigate the mechanism of the increase in these serum amino acids, comparative studies were performed using both healthy subjects and patients with renal disease as control groups.

  1. Effect of protein level and urea in concentrate mixture on feed intake and rumen fermentation in swamp buffaloes fed rice straw-based diet.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sungchhang; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Norrapoke, Thitima

    2015-04-01

    Four rumen-fistulated Thai native swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement in a 4?×?4 Latin square design to assess the effect of protein (CP) level and urea (U) source in concentrate diet on feed utilization and rumen ecology. The treatments were as follows: concentrate containing CP at 120 g/kg (soybean meal, SBM) (T1), 160 g/kg (SBM) (T2), 120 g/kg (U) (T3), and 160 g/kg (U) (T4), respectively. All buffaloes were fed concentrate at 10 g/kg of body weight, and rice straw was offered ad libitum. Feed intake and digestibilities of CP, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber increased (P?concentrate did not affect on ruminal pH and temperature (P?>?0.05), while concentration of ruminal ammonia (N), blood urea (U), volatile fatty acids profile, microorganism populations, and variable bacterial growth increased in buffaloes consumed concentrate containing CP at 160 g/kg (T2 and T4; P?concentrate containing higher CP level especially with U source while purine derivatives increased which resulted in a higher N balance as compared to lower CP level and SBM source treatments (P?concentrate improved feed intake, nutrient digestibility, purine derivatives, and rumen ecology, and U had shown better result than SBM. Concentrate mixtures containing 16 g/kg CP with U 40 g/kg could improved nutrients utilization with no adverse effects for swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw. PMID:25686554

  2. Elevated concentrations and synthetic pathways of trimethylamine oxide and urea in some teleost fishes of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Raymond; A. L. DeVries

    1998-01-01

    Levels of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) and urea in various tissues of several teleost fishes of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica were determined. TMAO levels in muscle tended to be high, with levels in several species exceeding 140 mM kg-1 wet weight. The high levels appear to be necessary to osmotically balance high levels of sodium and chloride in the blood of these

  3. Feeding a High Concentrate Diet Down-Regulates Expression of ACACA, LPL and SCD and Modifies Milk Composition in Lactating Goats

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hui; Chang, Guangjun; Xu, Tianle; Zhao, Huajian; Zhang, Kai; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2015-01-01

    High concentrate diets are fed to early and mid-lactation stages dairy ruminants to meet the energy demands for high milk production in modern milk industry. The present study evaluated the effects of a high concentrate diet on milk fat and milk composition, especially, cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk and gene expression of lactating goats. Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen fistula were randomly assigned into a high concentrate diet (HCD) group and low concentrate diet (LCD) group. High concentrate diet feeding significantly increased lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in plasma and decreased milk fat content, vaccenic acid (VA) and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk of the lactating goats. The mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein B 1c (SREBP1c), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthetase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase ? (ACACA, ACC?) involving in lipid metabolism were analyzed, and ACACA and LPL all decreased in their expression level in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. DNA methylation rate of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was elevated and decreased, and SCD mRNA and protein expression was reduced significantly in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. In conclusion, feeding a high concentrate diet to lactating goats decreases milk fat and reduced expression of SCD in the mammary gland, which finally induced cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk. PMID:26086219

  4. Feeding a High Concentrate Diet Down-Regulates Expression of ACACA, LPL and SCD and Modifies Milk Composition in Lactating Goats.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hui; Chang, Guangjun; Xu, Tianle; Zhao, Huajian; Zhang, Kai; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2015-01-01

    High concentrate diets are fed to early and mid-lactation stages dairy ruminants to meet the energy demands for high milk production in modern milk industry. The present study evaluated the effects of a high concentrate diet on milk fat and milk composition, especially, cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk and gene expression of lactating goats. Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen fistula were randomly assigned into a high concentrate diet (HCD) group and low concentrate diet (LCD) group. High concentrate diet feeding significantly increased lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in plasma and decreased milk fat content, vaccenic acid (VA) and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk of the lactating goats. The mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein B 1c (SREBP1c), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthetase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase ? (ACACA, ACC?) involving in lipid metabolism were analyzed, and ACACA and LPL all decreased in their expression level in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. DNA methylation rate of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was elevated and decreased, and SCD mRNA and protein expression was reduced significantly in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. In conclusion, feeding a high concentrate diet to lactating goats decreases milk fat and reduced expression of SCD in the mammary gland, which finally induced cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk. PMID:26086219

  5. Association of DGAT1 genotype, fatty acid composition, and concentration of copper in milk with spontaneous oxidized flavor.

    PubMed

    Juhlin, J; Fikse, W F; Pickova, J; Lundén, A

    2012-08-01

    In 136 cows with altogether 969 milk samples, we investigated the effect of the acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism on milk fatty acid (FA) composition and how, in combination with copper concentration in milk, this influences the occurrence of spontaneous oxidized flavor. All milk samples were analyzed for concentrations of copper and individual FA and subjected to sensory analysis by trained judges. We found an effect of DGAT1 genotype on FA composition where mainly the long-chain FA were affected. The 232A allele was associated with larger proportions of the C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and lower proportions of C16:0 FA. Milk concentrations of unsaturated FA and copper showed strong and unfavorable associations with spontaneous oxidized flavor (SOF) development. The interaction between FA and copper indicates that SOF will not develop as easily in milk with high copper content unless the substrate is available (i.e., in addition to the previously shown effect of copper in milk, unsaturated FA are required for the process of oxidation to progress). We observed a marked effect of the DGAT1 genotype on SOF development where the A allele was associated with a higher risk of SOF. Moreover, our results suggest that the effects of the FA C18:3 n-3 and of the polyunsaturated index on SOF development are beyond the effect of the DGAT1 genotype. Breed had an effect on FA composition but not on SOF development. Our results imply that copper, FA composition, and DGAT1 genotype are risk factors for SOF and considerations to these factors might be necessary in future breeding decisions. PMID:22818476

  6. Effect of microfiltration concentration factor on serum protein removal from skim milk using spiral-wound polymeric membranes.

    PubMed

    Beckman, S L; Barbano, D M

    2013-10-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of concentration factor (CF) on the removal of serum protein (SP) from skim milk during microfiltration (MF) at 50 °C using a 0.3-?m-pore-size spiral-wound (SW) polymeric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Pasteurized (72°C for 16 s) skim milk was MF (50 °C) at 3 CF (1.50, 2.25, and 3.00×), each on a separate day of processing starting with skim milk. Two phases of MF were used at each CF, with an initial startup-stabilization phase (40 min in full recycle mode) to achieve the desired CF, followed by a steady-state phase (90-min feed-and-bleed with recycle) where data was collected. The experiment was replicated 3 times, and SP removal from skim milk was quantified at each CF. System pressures, flow rates, CF, and fluxes were monitored during the 90-min run. Permeate flux increased (12.8, 15.3, and 19.0 kg/m(2) per hour) with decreasing CF from 3.00 to 1.50×, whereas fouled water flux did not differ among CF, indicating that the effect of membrane fouling on hydraulic resistance of the membrane was similar at all CF. However, the CF used when microfiltering skim milk (50°C) with a 0.3-?m polymeric SW PVDF membrane did affect the percentage of SP removed. As CF increased from 1.50 to 3.00×, the percentage of SP removed from skim milk increased from 10.56 to 35.57%, in a single stage bleed-and-feed MF system. Percentage SP removal from skim milk was lower than the theoretical value. Rejection of SP during MF of skim milk with SW PVDF membranes was caused by fouling of the membrane, not by the membrane itself and differences in the foulant characteristic among CF influenced SP rejection more than it influenced hydraulic resistance. We hypothesize that differences in the conditions near the surface of the membrane and within the pores during the first few minutes of processing, when casein micelles pass through the membrane, influenced the rejection of SP because more pore size narrowing and plugging occurred at low CF than at high CF due to a slower rate of gel layer formation at low CF. It is possible that percentage removal of SP from skim milk at 50 °C could be improved by optimization of the membrane pore size, feed solution composition and concentration, and controlling the rate of formation of the concentration polarization-derived gel layer at the surface of the membrane during the first few minutes of processing. PMID:23891300

  7. Improving Infant Exposure and Health Risk Estimates: Using Serum Data to Predict Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Concentrations in Breast Milk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Women in the United States have breast milk concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) that are among the highest in the world, leading to concerns over the potential health implications to breastfeeding infants during critical stages of growth and development. Deve...

  8. Effect of Intake of Pasture on Concentrations of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Milk of Lactating Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Kelly; E. S. Kolver; D. E. Bauman; M. E. Van Amburgh; L. D. Muller

    1998-01-01

    We examined the effect of intake of fresh pasture on concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat. Sixteen Holstein cows were paired and divided into either the control group or the grazing group. The study involved initial, transition, and final peri- ods. During the initial period, all cows consumed a total mixed diet. Cows in the control group were

  9. The Relationships of Concentration and Time to the Temperature of Coagulation of Evaporated Skim and Whole Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George E. Holm; E. F. Deysher; F. R. Evans

    1923-01-01

    It is a well-recognized fact that the temperature of coagulation of an evaporated milk is dependent upon many factors. Among the factors that have been considered as influencing the tem- perature of coagulation are time of heating, acidity, H-ion con- centration, homogenization, concentration of solids, time and temperature of forewarming, and shaking. Other factors some- times mentioned are composition of

  10. Relationship Between Content of Crude Protein in Rations for Dairy Cows and Milk Yield, Concentration of Urea in Milk and Ammonia Emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Frank; C. Swensson

    2002-01-01

    During recent decades, efforts have been made in several countries to diminish the negative environmen- tal influence of dairy production. The main focus has beenonnitrogenandphosphorus.Moderndairyproduc- tion in Western Europe is often based on imported feed- stuffs, mostly protein-rich feeds. In Sweden at least, it is wished that the use of imported feedstuffs in animal production will decrease due to the

  11. Effect of varying the concentrations of carbohydrate and milk protein in rehydration solutions ingested after exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    James, Lewis J; Evans, Gethin H; Madin, Joshua; Scott, Darren; Stepney, Michael; Harris, Russell; Stone, Robert; Clayton, David J

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the milk protein content of a rehydration solution and fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration. On three occasions, eight healthy males were dehydrated to an identical degree of body mass loss (BML, approximately 1·8%) by intermittent cycling in the heat, rehydrating with 150% of their BML over 1 h with either a 60 g/l carbohydrate solution (C), a 40 g/l carbohydrate, 20 g/l milk protein solution (CP20) or a 20 g/l carbohydrate, 40 g/l milk protein solution (CP40). Urine samples were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise, post-rehydration and for a further 4 h. Subjects produced less urine after ingesting the CP20 or CP40 drink compared with the C drink (P<0·01), and at the end of the study, more of the CP20 (59 (SD 12)%) and CP40 (64 (SD 6)%) drinks had been retained compared with the C drink (46 (SD 9)%) (P<0·01). At the end of the study, whole-body net fluid balance was more negative for trial C (- 470 (SD 154) ml) compared with both trials CP20 (- 181 (SD 280) ml) and CP40 (2107 (SD 126) ml) (P<0·01). At 2 and 3 h after drink ingestion, urine osmolality was greater for trials CP20 and CP40 compared with trial C (P<0·05). The present study further demonstrates that after exercise-induced dehydration, a carbohydrate--milk protein solution is better retained than a carbohydrate solution. The results also suggest that high concentrations of milk protein are not more beneficial in terms of fluid retention than low concentrations of milk protein following exercise-induced dehydration. PMID:23721750

  12. A comparison of the concentrations of certain chlorinated hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in bone marrow and fat tissue of children and their concentrations in breast milk

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, J.; Teufel, M.; Niessen, K.H. [Univ. of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in the bone marrow of 57 children were compared with the concentrations in adipose tissue of 50 children and the concentrations in breast milk in the Federal Republic of Germany from 1984 to 1991. The concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the dichlorodiphenyl-trichlorethane (DDT)-metabolites, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners no. 138 and no. 153 were increased threefold, while the concentrations of several hexachloro-cyclohexane (HCH)-isomers and PCB congener no. 180 were only increased two fold. Because breast feeding is the primary source of CHC and PCB in toddlers and infants we also compared the concentrations in bone marrow of children with the concentrations in breast milk and found approximately fourfold higher concentrations for the most highly chlorinated PCB congener no. 180, but only threefold higher concentrations for PCB 138 and 153 and the DDT-metabolites. The concentrations of {beta}-HCH and HCB were only slightly higher in bone marrow. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Folic acid fortified milk increases blood folate and lowers homocysteine concentration in women of childbearing age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J Green; C Murray Skeaff; Jennifer EP; Bernard J Venn

    2005-01-01

    Daily consumption of 400 µg folic acid prior to conception and during early pregnancy is recommended for the prevention of neural tube defects (NTD). Strategies to increase folic acid consumption include supplements and fortified foods. Milk is consumed by women and can be fortified with folic acid but little is known about the effect of fortified milk on blood folate

  14. Effects of milk supplementation with skim milk powder, whey protein concentrate and sodium caseinate on acidification kinetics, rheological properties and structure of nonfat stirred yogurt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Damin; M. R. Alcântara; A. P. Nunes; M. N. Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Milk supplementation with milk proteins in four different levels was used to investigate the effect on acidification and textural properties of yogurt. Commercial skim milk powder was diluted in distilled water, and the supplements were added to give different enriched-milk bases; these were heat treated at 90°C for 5min. These mixtures were incubated with the bacterial cultures for fermentation in

  15. Effect of safflower oil, flaxseed oil, monensin, and vitamin E on concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in bovine milk fat.

    PubMed

    Bell, J A; Griinari, J M; Kennelly, J J

    2006-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of conjugated octadecadienoic acids of predominantly ruminant origin. The main isomer in bovine milk fat is the cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Interest in CLA increased after the discovery of its health-promoting properties, including potent anticarcinogenic activity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary strategies aimed at increasing the concentration of CLA in bovine milk fat. Both experiments were organized as a randomized complete block design with a repeated measures treatment structure. In Experiment 1, 28 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 3 treatments for a period of 2 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, fed as a total mixed ration (TMR). The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 24 ppm of monensin (MON), 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), or 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels in milk fat after 2 wk of feeding were 0.45, 0.52, 3.36, and 5.15% of total fatty acids for control, MON, SAFF, and SAFF/M, respectively. In Experiment 2, 62 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 5 treatment diets for a period of 9 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a DM basis, fed as a TMR. The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/E), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/ME), or 6% of DM flaxseed oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (FLAX/E). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels during the treatment period were 0.68, 4.12, 3.48, 4.55, 4.75, and 2.80% of total fatty acids for control, SAFF, SAFF/E, SAFF/M, SAFF/ME, and FLAX/E, respectively. The combination of safflower oil with monensin was particularly effective at increasing milk fat CLA. The addition of vitamin E to the diet partially prevented the depression in milk fat associated with oilseed feeding, but had no significant effect on the concentration of CLA in milk. PMID:16428641

  16. Digestibility and blood parameters in the preruminant calf fed a clotting or a nonclotting milk replacer.

    PubMed

    Petit, H V; Ivan, M; Brisson, G J

    1988-04-01

    Eight male Holstein calves 7 to 10 d of age were fed a milk replacer containing a skim milk powder subjected to low-temperature drying either with or without addition of an oxalate-NaOH buffer known to prevent curd formation. The calves were used in a completely randomized design to study the effect of milk clotting on digestibility and blood parameters. Plasma glucose and plasma insulin were similar (P greater than .05) for the clotting and the nonclotting milk replacers. For both treatments, concentrations of glucose and insulin reached a peak 2 h postfeeding (P less than .01). Plasma triglycerides were higher (P less than .01) postfeeding for the nonclotting than for the clotting milk replacer. Plasma essential amino acids and plasma urea were higher, whereas plasma calcium was lower, for the nonclotting milk (P less than .01). Digestibility of dry matter, protein and fat was similar (P greater than .05) between clotting and nonclotting milk. The dry matter content of feces was not affected by clotting (P greater than .05). The data are interpreted to indicate that clotting of the milk replacer modifies blood concentrations of triglycerides, essential amino acids and urea without changing the digestibility of the diet. PMID:3288602

  17. BORON CONCENTRATIONS REMAIN STABLE IN MILK FROM MOTHERS OF FULL-TERM EXCLUSIVELY BREAST-FED INFANTS DURING THE FIRST FOUR MONTHS OF LACTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To expand the finding from this laboratory that human milk boron (B) concentrations remain stable during the first 3 months of lactation, we analyzed archived milk collected (1980-84) from lactating mothers of full-term, exclusively breast-fed, infants living in Houston, TX. Samples were collected o...

  18. First parity evaluation of peak milk yield for range cows developed in the same ecophysiological system but receiving different concentrations of harvested feed inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Can range livestock producers reduce harvested feed inputs, during heifer development, and maintain production goals? To address this, we conducted a two year study measuring milk production (kg/d) and milk constituent concentrations (g/d) for 16 primiparous beef cows each year that were born from d...

  19. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p < 0.05). In addition, propionic acid and milk production increased while acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, methane production, methanogens and protozoal population decreased with RPM and/or PO supplementation. Furthermore, addition of PO and RPO in the diets increased milk fat while supplementation of RPM resulted in greater milk protein and Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers (p < 0.05). The population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus were not affected by any treatments. The findings on the present study showed that supplementation with RPM and RPO to diets of cows improved the rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat. PMID:24814291

  20. A Sustainable Alternative to a Breast Milk Monitoring Program: Using NHANES Serum Data to Estimate Breast Milk PBDE Concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are high-production-volume chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in a variety of consumer products. PBDE concentrations in the environment, wildlife, and humans have been increasing for several decades. Concentrations in t...

  1. Comparison of grass and legume silages for milk production. 1. Production responses with different levels of concentrate.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, R J; Fisher, W J; Tweed, J K S; Wilkins, R J

    2003-08-01

    Silages prepared from pure stands of ryegrass, alfalfa, white clover, and red clover over two successive year were offered to lactating dairy cows in two feeding experiments. Proportional mixtures of all cuts prepared in a yr were used to ensure that the forage treatments were representative of the crop. Additional treatments involved mixtures of grass silage with either white clover silage or red clover silage (50/50, on a DM basis). Silages were prepared in round bales, using a biological inoculant additive, and wilting for up to 48 h. Although the legumes were less suited to silage-making than grass, because of their higher buffering capacity and lower water-soluble carbohydrate content, all silages were well-fermented. A standard concentrate was offered at a flat-rate (8 kg/d in yr 1, and 4 or 8 kg/d in yr 2). All of the legume silages led to higher DM intake and milk yields than for the grass silage, with little effect on milk composition. Intake and production responses to legumes were similar at the two levels of concentrate feeding and with forage mixtures they were intermediate to those for the separate forages. An additional benefit of the clover silages, particularly red clover silage, was the increase in levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly alpha-linolenic acid, in milk. Legume silages also led to a lower palmitic acid percentage in milk. The efficiency of conversion of feed N into milk N declined with increasing levels of legume silage. White clover silage led to a higher N-use efficiency when the effect of N intake level is taken into account. PMID:12939084

  2. Temporal trends in dioxin, furan and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in bovine milk from farms adjacent to industrial and chemical installations over a 15 year period.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, James V; O'Farrell, Kevin J; O'Mahony, Pat; Buckley, James F

    2011-11-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in pooled bovine milk samples collected between 1991 and 2005 in County Cork, Ireland. The pooled samples were of bulk-tank milk collected from farms adjacent to industrial, chemical and pharmaceutical installations (target milk) or from rural farms distant from industrial activity (control milk). Comparing data between the first and last 3-year periods of the study revealed a 62% decrease in the mean total dioxin concentration in target milk from 1.58 to 0.60pg toxic equivalents (TEQ)/g fat. On the same basis the dioxin-like PCB concentration in target milk decreased by 80% over the study period (from 0.95pg to 0.19pg TEQ/g fat). The mean 'marker' PCB concentration in target milk from 1991 to 1993 inclusive was 3359pg/g fat. This value decreased by 75% to a mean of 849pg/g fat for the years 2003-2005 inclusive. The results of this study are consistent with low background dietary/environmental PCB contamination in both target and control herds. The total dioxin concentrations in all samples were well below the maximum tolerable limits permitted for marketable milk. The decrease in the total dioxin concentration in target and control milk samples over the study period was chiefly due to decreases in the concentration of dioxin-like PCBs, consistent with significant reductions in the concentration of PCBs in the dairy cow diet over the 15 year study period. PMID:21470881

  3. Effects of Clover-Grass Silages and Concentrate Supplementation on the Content of Phytoestrogens in Dairy Cow Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Steinshamn; S. Purup; E. Thuen; J. Hansen-Møller

    2008-01-01

    A2 × 2 factorial continuous experiment was con- ductedwith28NorwegianReddairycowsinearlylacta- tion to compare milk content of phytoestrogens when feeding ad libitum white clover (WCS) or red clover (RCS) grass silages prepared from the second and third cutwithoutandwith10kg\\/dsupplementationofastan- dard concentrate. The cows were offered either RCS or WCS for 88 d (period 1) and thereafter a mixed red clover-whiteclover-grasssilagefor48d(period2).Total dry matter intake

  4. Increasing the concentrations of beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk produced by dairy cows in high-forage systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Dewhurst; K. J. Shingfield; M. R. F. Lee; N. D. Scollan

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable interest in altering the fatty acid composition of milk with the overall aim of improving the long-term health of consumers. Important targets include reducing the amounts of medium-chain saturated fatty acids, enhancing cis-9 18:1 to reduce cardiovascular risk, as well as increasing concentrations of trans-11 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 18:2 which have been shown to exert anti-carcinogenic

  5. Monitoring of Changes in Selenium Concentration in Goat Milk During Short-Term Supplementation of Various Forms of Selenium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alena Pechova; Lubica Misurova; Leos Pavlata; Rudolf Dvorak

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the experiment was to monitor the changes in the selenium concentration in goat milk during short-term oral supplementation\\u000a of three different forms of selenium. The experiment involved 24 lactating goats of white shorthaired breed. Group C was the\\u000a control; group S received selenium in the form of selenium-enriched yeast, group L in the form of lactate, and

  6. Method for Determining the Contribution of Methyl Ketones to Flavors of Sterile Concentrated Milks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Allen; O. W. Parks

    1969-01-01

    A method for determining the concen- trations of the C 5 through C15 odd-car- boa-numbered methyl ketones in fluid milks, based on the free C13 methyl ketone content and the methyl ketone potential re- maining in the fat phase of the product, is presented. Application of the procedure to samples of commercial evaporated milk led to the conclusion that the

  7. Predicting PCB concentrations in cow milk: validation of a fugacity model in high-mountain pasture conditions.

    PubMed

    Tremolada, Paolo; Guazzoni, Niccolò; Parolini, Marco; Rossaro, Bruno; Bignazzi, Marta Maria; Binelli, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    A fugacity model reported in the literature was applied to a high-altitude pasture in the Italian Alps. The model takes into account three compartments (digestive tract, blood and fat tissues) in unsteady-state conditions using food as the contamination source. Disregarding biotransformation inside cow tissues, the predicted concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in milk were in good agreement with the observed data, especially for congeners known for their resistance to biotransformation (e.g., CB-138 and 153). In contrast, the predicted concentrations were clearly overestimated for congeners with high biotransformation susceptibilities. Therefore data measured in milk and faeces were used to calculate the first-order-biotransformation rate constants in dairy cows. The PCB absorption efficiency observed for pasture conditions was lower than that observed in the cowshed. The final version of the model included biotransformation and observed PCB absorption and was able to predict PCB concentrations in cow milk with mean differences between the predicted and measured data below ± 20% for most congeners. PMID:24802270

  8. Current concentrations, temporal trends and determinants of persistent organic pollutants in breast milk of New Zealand women.

    PubMed

    Mannetje, Andrea't; Coakley, Jonathan; Bridgen, Phil; Brooks, Collin; Harrad, Stuart; Smith, Allan H; Pearce, Neil; Douwes, Jeroen

    2013-08-01

    Breast milk samples of 39 first time mothers aged 20-30 were collected in 2007-2010 from rural and urban areas of New Zealand, following the fourth World Health Organization coordinated survey protocol. Samples were individually analysed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The lipid adjusted concentrations of PCDD/Fs (mean toxic equivalent (TEQ): 3.54 pg/g) and PCBs (mean TEQ 1.29 pg/g) were low in comparison to those reported for other countries, and concentrations of dieldrin (10 ng/g) and p,p'-DDE (379 ng/g) and PBDEs were in the mid-range. Breast milk concentrations of PCDD/F-TEQ, PCB-TEQ, dieldrin and p,p'-DDE were significantly higher in rural compared to urban areas (+23%, 33%, 59%, and 44% respectively), while concentrations of several PBDEs and lindane were higher in urban areas. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and OCPs, but not PBDEs, increased with age, and higher body mass index was associated with lower concentrations of PCBs. Despite New Zealand's low body burdens of many chlorinated POPs in comparison to other countries, breast milk concentrations continued to decrease over time, with a decrease by half over the last 10 years for PCDD/F-TEQ (-40%), PCB-TEQ (-54%) and OCPs -34 to -90%), indicating that regulatory measures continue to have beneficial effects. Continued monitoring is needed particularly for the brominated POPs for which little New Zealand specific data is available. PMID:23685364

  9. Hepatic urea biosynthesis in the euryhaline elasmobranch Carcharhinus leucas.

    PubMed

    Anderson, W Gary; Good, Jonathan P; Pillans, Richard D; Hazon, Neil; Franklin, Craig E

    2005-10-01

    Plasma urea levels and hepatic urea production in the euryhaline bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, acclimated to freshwater and seawater environments were measured. It was found that plasma urea concentration increased with salinity and that this increase was, in part, the result of a significant increase in hepatic production of urea. This study provides direct evidence that hepatic production of urea plays an important role in the osmoregulatory strategy of C. leucas. PMID:16161010

  10. Concentration of Fluoride in Cow’s and Buffalo’s Milk in Relation to Varying Levels of Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water of Mathura City in India– A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Meena, Komal; Moon, Ninad Joshirao; Kumar, Puneet; Kaur, Ravneet

    2015-01-01

    Aim To estimate fluoride concentration in drinking water, cow’s milk and buffalo’s milk and to correlate the concentration of fluoride in cow’s milk and buffalo’s milk with varying levels of fluoride concentration in drinking water. Materials and Methods Ten households having both cows and buffalo's were selected by convenience in each of the 3 zones (below optimum fluoride <0.7 ppm (parts per million), optimum fluoride 0.7-1.2 ppm and above optimum fluoride areas > 1.2 ppm). From these selected households, 200 ml of fresh milk of both cows and buffaloes was collected along with 200 ml of drinking water for estimation of fluoride concentration by using a fluoride ion selective electrode method. The data was analysed using SPSS, version 11.5 for windows. Results The mean fluoride concentration of drinking water, cow’s milk and buffalo’s milk in three different fluoride zones was 0.89±0.39, 0.09±0.07, 0.09±0.08 respectively. Pearson’s correlation found a statistically significant correlation between fluoride concentrations in cow’s and buffalo’s milk with varying levels of fluoride concentration in drinking water in zone B and zone C. However, this correlation was not statistically significant in zone A. Conclusion With an increase in fluoride concentration in drinking water there was an increase in concentration of fluoride in cow’s and buffalo’s milk. We conclude that this association is seen in conjunction to not only a single factor but rather due to culmination of several other aspects. So, there is a need to elucidate the other factors that might be contributing to this increase and dental fluorosis. PMID:26155499

  11. UREA INFRASTRUCTURE FOR UREA SCR NOX REDUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, Bruce G.

    2000-08-20

    Urea SCR is currently the only proven NOX aftertreatment for diesel engines - high NOX reduction possible - some SCR catalyst systems are robust against fuel sulfur - durability has been demonstrated - many systems in the field - long history in other markets - Major limitations to acceptance - distribution of urea solution to end user - ensuring that urea solution is added to vehicle.

  12. Effect of synchronization of follicle-wave emergence with estradiol and progesterone and superstimulation with follicle-stimulating hormone on milk estrogen concentrations in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Lucilene B.; Dupras, Raynald; Mills, Louis; Chorfi, Younès; Price, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the effects of hormonal synchronization of follicle waves and superovulation on the estrogen content of a cow’s milk. The objective of this study was to determine the effect in dairy cows of synchronization with estradiol-17? (E2) and progesterone (P4) on milk E2 concentrations and to compare these levels with those achieved during superstimulation for 4 d with porcine follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The milk E2 concentrations were raised significantly above pretreatment levels (P < 0.05) for 2 d after synchronization, the mean peak being 40.2 ± 18.5 (standard error) pg/mL and the pretreatment mean 1.5 ± 0.5 pg/mL. The mean peak E2 concentration during ovarian stimulation was 4.4 ± 0.7 pg/mL. The mean E2 concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.05) after synchronization than during superstimulation for the 1st milking after synchronization but not subsequent milkings. The milk estrone concentrations were above pretreatment levels for 1 d after synchronization and were not different from those observed during superstimulation. PMID:23814359

  13. Effect of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on postpartum metabolism and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R A; Silveira, P A S; Montagner, P; Schneider, A; Schmitt, E; Rabassa, V R; Pfeifer, L F M; Del Pino, F A B; Pulga, M E; Corrêa, M N

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin (BTPC) supplementation on plasma metabolites and milk production in postpartum dairy cows. A total of fifty-two Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive either: (1) 10 ml of saline (NaCl 0.9%, control group); (2) 1000 mg of butaphosphan and 0.5 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC1 group); and (3) 2000 mg of butaphosphan and 1.0 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC2 group). All cows received injections every 5 days from calving to 20 days in milk (DIM). Blood samples were collected every 15 days from calving until 75 DIM to determine serum concentration of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, urea, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), aminotransferase aspartate (AST) and ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT). The body condition score (BCS) and milk production were evaluated from calving until 90 DIM. Increasing doses of BTPC caused a linear reduction in plasma concentrations of NEFA and cholesterol. Supplementation of BTPC also reduced concentrations of BHB but it did not differ between the two treatment doses. Milk yield and milk protein had a linear increase with increasing doses of BTPC. A quadratic effect was detected for milk fat and total milk solids according to treatment dose, and BTPC1 had the lowest mean values. Concentrations of glucose, urea, P, Mg, AST, GGT, milk lactose and BCS were not affected by treatment. These results indicate that injections of BTPC during the early postpartum period can reduce NEFA and BHB concentrations and increase milk production in Holstein cows. PMID:23360824

  14. Residual concentrations of the flukicidal compound triclabendazole in dairy cows’ milk and cheese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Imperiale; P. Ortiz; M. Cabrera; C. Farias; J. M. Sallovitz; S. Iezzi; J. Pérez; L. Alvarez; C. Lanusse

    2011-01-01

    Triclabendazole (TCBZ) is a flukicidal halogenated benzimidazole compound extensively used in veterinary medicine. Liver fluke control in lactating dairy cattle is difficult because treatment should be implemented only during the dry period to avoid milk residues. However, control in endemic areas is usually implemented as regular treatments three to four times a year, even during the lactating period. Thus, information

  15. A pilot study of synbiotic supplementation on breast milk mineral concentrations and growth of exclusively breast fed infants.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Reza; Taghipour, Sharare; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Nikniaz, Leila; Hezaveh, Seyed Jamal Ghaemmaghami

    2015-04-01

    Despite the crucial role of breast milk mineral contents for health and growth of the infants, they decrease with the duration of lactation. So, this pilot study aimed to determine the effects of synbiotic supplementation on breast milk mineral composition and infants' growth. In this pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 57 lactating mothers were randomly divided into two groups to receive a daily supplement of synbiotic (n=30) or a placebo (n=27) for 30 days. Breast milk zinc, copper, Iron, magnesium and, calcium concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Weight for age Z-score (WAZ) and height for age Z-score (HAZ) were assessed for infants. Dietary intake was collected from lactating women using the 24-h recall method. Data analyses were carried out using nutritionist IV, Epi Info and SPSS soft wares. Synbiotic supplementation led to an insignificant increase of the mean breast milk levels of zinc (from 2.44±0.65 to 2.55±0.55mgL(-1)), copper (from 0.35±0.24 to 0.40±0.26mgL(-1)), iron (from 0.28±0.42 to 0.31±0.38mgL(-1)), magnesium (from 17.14±1.35 to 17.17±1.09mgL(-1)), and calcium (from 189±25.3 to 189.9±21.7mgL(-1)); whilst in the placebo group, these variables decreased significantly (P=0.001). The observed changes between two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Although WAZ and HAZ of infants increased slightly in the supplemented group (from 1.19±0.79 to 1.20±0.69 and 0.36±0.86 to 0.37±0.85 respectively), these two parameters decreased in the placebo group which was significant only for WAZ (P=0.01). Moreover, no significant association was found between mineral intake and breast milk mineral contents. It seems, synbiotic supplementation may have positive effects on breast milk mineral contents. PMID:25744506

  16. An oxalate-sodium hydroxide buffer to study the role of milk replacer coagulation in preruminant calves.

    PubMed

    Petit, H V; Ivan, M; Brisson, G J

    1987-12-01

    An oxalate-NaOH buffer, which prevents coagulation in the abomasum of young calves, was added to a nonclotting milk replacer based on high heat skim milk powder, to investigate effects of this buffer on digestibility and metabolism of dietary components. Twelve Holstein male calves were allotted at random in two groups of six animals each and fed the experimental milk replacers from 3 to 17 d of age. Digestibility of dry matter, protein, and fat was similar for both control and buffered milk replacers. Concentrations of plasma glucose, triglycerides, alpha-amino nitrogen, and urea were the same in animals receiving buffer treated milk replacer and control diets. The data suggests that this oxalate-NaOH buffer would be suitable to prevent milk clotting in studies dealing with the importance of coagulation in digestion and metabolism in preruminant calves. PMID:3448107

  17. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1).

    PubMed

    Resende, T L; Kraft, J; Soder, K J; Pereira, A B D; Woitschach, D E; Reis, R B; Brito, A F

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFX) on milk yield and concentrations and yields of milk components, milk fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112±68d in milk and 441±21kg of body weight and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 98±43d in milk and 401±43kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21d with 14d for diet adaptation and 7d for data and sample collection. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration (63:37 forage-to-concentrate ratio) with corn meal and soybean meal replaced by incremental levels (i.e., 0, 5, 10, or 15% diet dry matter) of GFX. The ruminal molar proportions of acetate and butyrate decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, whereas the ruminal molar proportion of propionate increased linearly resulting in decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of nutrients either decreased (dry matter) or tended to decrease (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber) linearly in cows fed GFX. Milk yield decreased linearly in cows fed increasing amounts of GFX, which is explained by the linear reduction in dry matter intake. Except for the concentrations of milk protein and urea N, which decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, no other changes in the concentration of milk components were observed. However, yields of milk protein and fat decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. The linear decrease in the yields of milk fat and protein are explained by reduced milk yield, whereas that in milk urea N is explained by decreased crude protein intake. No treatment effects were observed for plasma urea N and nonesterified fatty acids, serum cortisol, and body weight change. Milk odd- and branched-chain FA and saturated FA decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. Milk trans-11 18:1, ?-linolenic acid, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, and the sum of n-3 FA all increased linearly and quadratically, whereas the milk ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased linearly in cows fed GFX. Overall, compared with the control diet (0% GFX), the diet with 15% GFX supplementation resulted in the lowest milk yield but highest milk proportions and yields (data not shown) of cis-9,trans-11 18:2 and n-3 FA. PMID:25958281

  18. Application of hand-held and portable infrared spectrometers in bovine milk analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Poliana M; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2013-02-13

    A simple and fast method for the detection and quantification of milk adulteration was developed using portable and hand-held infrared (IR) spectrometers. Milk samples were purchased from local supermarkets (Columbus, OH, USA) and spiked with tap water, whey, hydrogen peroxide, synthetic urine, urea, and synthetic milk in different concentrations. Spectral data were collected using mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification models exhibited tight and well-separated clusters allowing the discrimination of control from adulterated milk samples. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to estimate adulteration levels, and results showed high coefficients of determination (R(2)) and low standard errors of prediction (SEP). Classification and quantification models indicated that the tested MIR systems were superior to NIR systems in monitoring milk adulteration. This method can be potentially used as an alternative to traditional methods due to their simplicity, sensitivity, low energy cost, and portability. PMID:23339381

  19. The Leucocyte Content of Milk as Correlated with Bacterial Count and Hydrogen Ion Concentration for the Detection of Mastitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Cherrington; H. C. Hansen; W. V. Halversen

    1933-01-01

    examination of cow's milk always reveals the presence of leucocytes or white blood cells. Some investigators have regarded the presence of ex- cessive numbers of these cells in milk as indicative of udder inflammation. All leucocytes in milk, however, cannot be regarded as pus cells because they are always found in milk. Leucocytes normally occur in the blood of animals

  20. Pelleting in Associated with Sodium Monensin Increases the Conjugated Linoleic Acids Concentration in the Milk of Dairy Cows Fed Canola Seeds.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Francilaine Eloise; Romero, Jakeline Vieira; Damasceno, Julio Cesar; Grande, Paula Adriana; Zeoula, Lúcia Maria; Dos Santos, Geraldo Tadeu

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of the pelleting and the addition of sodium monensin on production, the chemical and lipid composition of milk and butter physical characteristics, 4 Holstein dairy cows (135 days of lactation) with an average milk production of 14.7 kg/d, were supplemented with a concentrate containing ground canola seeds. The cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments: i) ground maize, soybean meal, mineral and vitamin supplements, and ground canola seeds (CG); ii) CG concentrate with 31.5 mg of monensin added per kg of dry matter (DM); iii) CG pelleted concentrate; iv) CG concentrate with monensin addition pelleted. There was no difference in milk production and composition. The addition of monensin increased milk concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the PUFA/saturated fatty acids (SFA) ratio, and omega 6. The pelleting increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids, the PUFA/SFA ratio, and the omega 6/omega 3 ratio, but decreased the concentration of SFA. The association between pelleting and the addition of monensin increased the concentration of conjugated linoleic acids by 46.9%. The physical characteristics of butter were not affected by the evaluated diets. We concluded that the concentrate with 31.5 mg of monensin added per kg DM basis combined with the pelleting improves the lipid composition of milk from Holstein cows that are on pasture and supplemented with ground canola seeds, without changing the production, milk composition, and spreadability of butter. PMID:26104517

  1. Long-acting insulins alter milk composition and metabolism of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Winkelman, L A; Overton, T R

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of 2 different types of long-acting insulin on milk production, milk composition, and metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Multiparous cows (n=30) averaging 88 d in milk were assigned to one of 3 treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of control (C), Humulin-N (H; Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN), and insulin glargine (L). The H and L treatments were administered twice daily at 12-h intervals via subcutaneous injection for 10d. Cows were milked twice daily, and milk composition was determined every other day. Mammary biopsies were conducted on d 11, and mammary proteins extracted from the biopsies were analyzed by Western blot for components of insulin and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake or milk yield. Treatment with both forms of long-acting insulin increased milk protein content and tended to increase milk protein yield over the 10-d treatment period. Analysis of milk N fractions from samples collected on d 10 of treatment suggested that cows administered L tended to have higher yields of milk protein fractions than cows administered H. Milk fat content and yield tended to be increased for cows administered long-acting insulins. Lactose content and yields were decreased by treatment with long-acting insulins. Administration of long-acting insulins, particularly L, tended to shift milk fatty acid composition toward increased short- and medium-chain fatty acids and decreased long-chain fatty acids. Plasma concentrations of glucose and urea N were lower for cows administered long-acting insulins; interactions of treatment and sampling time were indicative of more pronounced effects of L than H on these metabolites. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and insulin were increased in cows administered long-acting insulins. Decreased concentrations of urea N in both plasma and milk suggested more efficient use of N in cows administered long-acting insulins. Western blot analysis of mammary tissue collected by biopsy indicated that the ratios of phosphorylated protein kinase b (Akt) to total Akt and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) to total rpS6 were not affected by long-acting insulins. Modestly elevating insulin activity in lactating dairy cows using long-acting insulins altered milk composition and metabolism. Future research should explore mechanisms by which either insulin concentrations or insulin signaling pathways in the mammary gland can be altered to enhance milk fat and protein production. PMID:24119807

  2. PCDD, PCDF, PCB and PBDE concentrations in breast milk of mothers residing in selected areas of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Chovancová, Jana; ?onka, Kamil; Ko?an, Anton; Sejáková, Zuzana Stachová

    2011-05-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in 33 breast milk samples collected in 2006-2007 from primipara mothers close to four industrial areas of Slovak Republic were determined. The total PCDDs/PCDFs and dl-PCBs expressed as TEQ based on WHO TEFs 1998 in breast milk samples varied from 5.0 to 51.8 pg g(-1) fat (median: 13.1 pg g(-1) fat; mean: 18.0 pg g(-1) fat). The measurements of seven PBDE congeners (IUPAC No. 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and 183) were performed for the first time in human milk from Slovakia. PBDE levels ranged between 0.22 and 1.62 ng g(-1) fat, with median and mean value of 0.43 ng g(-1) fat and 0.57 ng g(-1) fat respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between studied areas in total PBDE concentrations. Furthermore, this study presents first results concerning the daily intake (DI) of PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like compounds for the most vulnerable breast-fed infant population in Slovakia. The total PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB DI for an infant during the first 2 months of life was estimated in a range from 14.4 to 230 pg TEQ kg(-1)b.w., with a median value of 58.9 pg TEQ kg(-1)b.w.. The DI values substantially exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) 1-4 pg TEQ kg(-1)b.w. recommended by WHO. The dietary infant intake concerning PBDEs was estimated to be between 0.69 and 7.1 ng kg(-1)b.w.d(-1), with median value of 1.7 ng kg(-1)b.w.d(-1). PMID:21474162

  3. The influence of grass silage-to-maize silage ratio and concentrate composition on methane emissions, performance and milk composition of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hart, K J; Huntington, J A; Wilkinson, R G; Bartram, C G; Sinclair, L A

    2015-06-01

    It is well-established that altering the proportion of starch and fibre in ruminant diets can alter ruminal and post-ruminal digestion, although quantitative evidence that this reduces enteric methane (CH4) production in dairy cattle is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of varying grass-to-maize silage ratio (70 : 30 and 30 : 70 DM basis), offered ad libitum, with either a concentrate that was high in starch or fibre, on CH4 production, intake, performance and milk composition of dairy cows. A total of 20 cows were allocated to one of the four experimental diets in a two-by-two factorial design run as a Latin square with each period lasting 28 days. Measurements were conducted during the final 7 days of each period. Cows offered the high maize silage ration had a higher dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk energy output and lower CH4 emissions when expressed per kg DMI and per unit of ingested gross energy, but there was no difference in total CH4 production. Several of the milk long-chain fatty acids (FA) were affected by forage treatment with the most notable being an increase in 18:0, 18:1 c9, 18:2 c9 c12 and total mono unsaturated FA, observed in cows offered the higher inclusion of maize silage, and an increase in 18:3 c9 c12 c15 when offered the higher grass silage ration. Varying the composition of the concentrate had no effect on DMI or milk production; however, when the high-starch concentrate was fed, milk protein concentration and milk FAs, 10:0, 14:1, 15:0, 16:1, increased and 18:0 decreased. Interactions were observed for milk fat concentration, being lower in cows offered high-grass silage and high-fibre concentrates compared with the high-starch concentrate, and FA 17:0, which was the highest in milk from cows fed the high-grass silage diet supplemented with the high-starch concentrate. In conclusion, increasing the proportion of maize silage in the diets of dairy cows increased intake and performance, and reduced CH4 production, but only when expressed on a DM or energy intake basis, whereas starch-to-fibre ratio in the concentrate had little effect on performance or CH4 production. PMID:25708202

  4. White or red clover-grass silage in organic dairy milk production: Grassland productivity and milk production responses with different levels of concentrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Håvard Steinshamn; Erling Thuen

    2008-01-01

    Red (RC) or white (WC) clover were grown in mixture with grasses, ensiled and offered to dairy cows in early lactation over two successive years (48 cows per year) to compare grassland yield, feed intake, milk production and milk quality. The crops were ensiled in round bales and proportional mixtures of the second and third cut prepared each year were

  5. Calcium Secretion into Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret C. Neville

    2005-01-01

    Ionized calcium ([Ca2+]) is present in milk at concentrations around 3 mM, a concentration that drives the formation of complexes with citrate, phosphate, and casein, thereby generating compounds that carry the major portion of calcium in milk. In humans and cows, where it has been studied, changes in milk calcium appear to be regulated by the amount of citrate and

  6. Concentrations of corticosteroids, leukocytes, and immunoglobulins in blood and milk after administration of ACTH to lactating dairy cattle: effects on phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Paape, M J; Gwazdauskas, F C; Guidry, A J; Weinland, B T

    1981-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine relationships among plasma and milk corticosteroids, milk immunoglobulins, and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) isolated from milk of cows given injections of 0 (saline solution only), 100, and 200 IU of ACTH. Also determined were the effects of ACTH on mobilization of PMN into milk from the mammary gland irritated by infusion of 100 ml of saline solution containing 0.1% oyster glycogen. Cows (n = 10) were injected 6 times within a 48-hour period with 0, 100, or 200 IU of ACTH. Immediately before cows were given the 5th injection, 2 mammary quarters were infused with the saline-glycogen solution. Five hours after the 6th injection, milk from infused quarters was collected, and PMN were isolated, washed, and resuspended in autologous skimmed milk collected 5 hours after the 4th injection and before the udder was infused. Isolated PMN were incubated with S aureus and percentage of phagocytosis was determined. Concentrations of total corticosteroids in plasma and milk increased after cows were given injections of 100 and 200 IU of ACTH. The concentrations of IgA, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and bovine serum albumin in milk after 4 injections of 0, 100, and 200 IU of ACTH were similar to preinjection (base line) concentrations. Injections of 100 and 200 IU of ACTH significantly increased the concentrations of total circulating leukocytes. Concentrations of leukocytes in milk tended to increased with increasing doses of ACTH, but the differences were not significant. Injection of 100 and 200 IU of ACTH reduced phagocytosis of S aureus by PMN. After 60 minutes of incubation, phagocytosis averaged 57% and 54%, respectively, for the ACTH treatments and 70% for controls (saline only). Results indicate that injections of ACTH that result in physiologic and pharmacologic plasma concentrations of corticosteroids inhibit phagocytosis. Impairment of phagocytosis appeared to be a direct effect of corticosteroid concentration o PMN and was not due to reduced concentrations of immunolobulins. These data indicate that reduced phagocytosis by PMN could be important in increased susceptibility to disease during stress in lactating dairy cows. PMID:6280519

  7. Synergetic Effects of Nanoporous Support and Urea on Enzyme Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Chenghong; Shin, Yongsoon; Liu, Jun; Ackerman, Eric J.

    2007-02-01

    Here we report that synergetic effects of functionalized nanoporous support and urea on enzyme activity enhancement. Even in 8.0 M urea, the specific activity of GI entrapped in FMS was still higher than the highest specific activity of GI free in solution, indicating the strong tolerance of GI in FMS to the high concentration of urea.

  8. Development of a Raman chemical image detection algorithm for authenticating dry milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S.

    2013-05-01

    This research developed a Raman chemical imaging method for detecting multiple adulterants in skim milk powder. Ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea were mixed into the milk powder as chemical adulterants in the concentration range of 0.1-5.0%. A Raman imaging system using a 785-nm laser acquired hyperspectral images in the wavenumber range of 102-2538 cm-1 for a 25×25 mm2 area of each mixture. A polynomial curve-fitting method was used to correct fluorescence background in the Raman images. An image classification method was developed based on single-band fluorescence-free images at unique Raman peaks of the adulterants. Raman chemical images were created to visualize identification and distribution of the multiple adulterant particles in the milk powder. Linear relationship was found between adulterant pixel number and adulterant concentration, demonstrating the potential of the Raman chemical imaging for quantitative analysis of the adulterants in the milk powder.

  9. High-quality forage can replace concentrate when cows enter the deposition phase without negative consequences for milk production.

    PubMed

    Hymøller, L; Alstrup, L; Larsen, M K; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2014-07-01

    Mobilization and deposition in cows are different strategies of metabolism; hence, the aim was to study the possibility of reducing the crude protein (CP) supply during deposition to limit the use of protein supplements and minimize the environmental impact. A total of 61 Jersey and 107 Holstein cows were assigned to 4 mixed rations in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 concentrate to forage ratios (CFR) and 2 CP levels: high CFR (40:60) and recommended CP [16% of dry matter (DM); HCFR-RP], high CFR (40:60) and low CP (14% of DM; HCFR-LP), low CFR (30:70) and recommended CP (16% of DM; LCFR-RP), and low CFR (30:70) and low CP (14% of DM; LCFR-LP), where RP met the Danish recommendations. Cows were fed concentrate in an automatic milking unit. After calving, cows were fed HCFR-RP until entering deposition, defined as 11 kg (Jersey) or 15 kg (Holstein) of weight gain from the lowest weight after calving. Subsequently, cows either remained on HCFR-RP or changed to one of the other mixed rations. Comparing strategies during wk 9 to 30 of lactation showed higher dry matter intake (DMI) of mixed ration on HCFR compared with LCFR and on RP compared with LP. The DMI of the concentrate was higher on LCFR than on HCFR and higher on LP than on RP, resulting in overall higher DMI on HCFR and RP than on LCFR and LP. Crude protein intakes were higher on RP than on LP and starch intakes were higher on HCFR than on LCFR. Intakes of neutral detergent fiber tended to be higher on LCFR than on HCFR. Intakes of net energy for lactation were affected by CFR and CP level, with a higher intake on HCFR and RP than on LCFR and LP. No interactions were found between CFR and CP level for any feed intake variables. Yields of milk and energy-corrected milk were higher on RP than on LP, with no difference in yield persistency after the ration change. Milk composition did not differ among strategies but the protein to fat ratio was higher on HCFR than on LCFR and tended to be lower on RP than on LP. Differences in fatty acid composition were small, and de novo synthesis was high (>60%). Energy efficiency was higher on LCFR than on HCFR and no interaction with breed or parity was found. The N efficiency was higher on LP than RP, but with an interaction with breed due to lower N efficiency in Jersey than Holstein cows on HCFR-RP but higher N efficiency in Jersey than Holstein on LCFR-LP. In dairy production, concentrate in the mixed ration can be substituted with high-quality forage during deposition without negative effects on milk yield and composition when a sufficient CP level is ensured. PMID:24767891

  10. Effect of including canola meal and supplemental iodine in diets of dairy cows on short-term changes in iodine concentrations in milk.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Wyatt, D J; Kleinschmit, D H; Socha, M T

    2015-07-01

    The dietary requirement for iodine is based on thyroxine production, but data are becoming available showing potential improvements in hoof health when substantially greater amounts of I are fed. Feeding high amounts of I, however, can result in the milk having excessive concentrations of I. Canola meal contains goitrogenic compounds that reduce the transfer of I into milk. We hypothesized that including canola meal in diets would allow high supplementation rates of I without producing milk with unacceptable concentrations of I. Thirty midlactation Holstein cows were fed a diet with all supplemental protein from soybean meal (0% of diet dry matter as canola meal) or with all supplemental protein from canola meal (13.9% canola meal). A third treatment has a mix of soybean meal and canola meal (3.9% canola meal). Within canola-meal treatment, cows were fed 0.5 or 2.0mg of supplemental I per kilogram of diet dry matter from ethylenediamine dihydroiodide. Cows were maintained on the canola treatment for the duration of the experiment but were changed from one I treatment to the other after 13d of receiving the treatment. Milk I concentration before the treatments started (cows fed 0.5mg/kg of I) averaged 272?g/L and increased within 22h after cows were first fed diets with 2mg/kg of I. As inclusion rate of canola meal increased, the concentration of I in milk decreased linearly. After 12d of supplementation, milk from cows fed 0.5mg/kg of I had 358, 289, and 169?g of I/L for the 0, 3.9%, and 13.9% canola-meal treatments. For cows fed 2.0mg/kg of I, milk I concentrations were 733, 524, and 408?g/L, respectively. Concentrations of I in serum increased with increased I supplementation, but the effect of canola meal was opposite of what was observed for milk I. Cows fed the highest canola-meal diets had the highest serum I whether cows were fed 0.5 or 2.0mg/kg of I. Feeding dairy cows diets with 13.9% canola meal maintained milk I concentrations below 500?g/L when diets were supplemented with 2mg/kg of I. PMID:25958290

  11. Mineral concentrations in diets, water, and milk and their value in estimating on-farm excretion of manure minerals in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A R; St-Pierre, N R; Silva del Rio, N; Weiss, W P

    2013-05-01

    Thirty-nine commercial dairies in Merced County, California were enrolled in the present study to (1) compare lactating cow mineral intakes (via drinking water and total mixed ration) to the National Research Council (NRC) requirements, (2) evaluate the association between dietary concentrations of minerals with and without drinking water and adjusted for mineral concentrations in milk, and (3) compare 4 different methods to estimate excretion of minerals using either assays or estimations of milk mineral outputs and total daily mineral intake per cow with or without minerals coming from drinking water. Dairies were selected to represent a range of herd milk yields and a range of water mineral contents. Samples of total mixed ration, drinking water, and bulk tank milk were taken on 2 different days, 3 to 7d apart in each farm. Across-farm medians and percentile distributions were used to analyze results. The herd median milk yield interquartile ranged (10th to 90th percentile) from less than 25 to more than 39 kg/d and the concentration of total solids in water interquartile ranged from less than 200 to more than 1,490 mg/L. Including drinking water minerals in the diets increased dietary concentrations by <4% for all minerals except for Na and Cl, which increased by 9.3 and 6.5%, respectively. Concentrations of P and K in milk were essentially the same as the NRC value to estimate lactation requirements. However, NRC milk values of Ca, Cl, and Zn were 10 to 20% greater than dairy farm values; and Na, Cu, Fe, and Mn were no less than 36% below NRC values. Estimated excretion of minerals via manure varied substantially across farms. Farms in the 10th percentile did have 2 to 3 times less estimated mineral excretions than those in the 90th percentile (depending on the mineral). Although including water minerals increased excretion of most minerals, the actual median effect of Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, and Mn was less than 5%, and about 8% for Na and Cl. Replacing assayed concentrations of minerals in milk with NRC constants resulted in reduced estimated excretion of Ca, Na, Cu, Fe, and Zn, but median differences were <5% except for Na which was 7.5%. Results indicate that not including mineral intake via drinking water and not using assayed concentrations of milk minerals lead to errors in estimation manure excretion of minerals (e.g., Ca, Na, Cl, and S). PMID:23477818

  12. Decreased concentration of serum apolipoprotein C-III in cows with fatty liver, ketosis, left displacement of the abomasum, milk fever and retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Nakagawa-Ueta, H; Katoh, N; Oikawa, S

    2001-03-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) C-III is a low molecular mass protein mainly distributed in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction. In cows with postparturient diseases such as ketosis, concentrations of cholesterol, phospholipids and apoA-I and the activity of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, which are mainly distributed in or functionally associated with HDL, are reduced. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the serum concentration of apoC-III was similarly decreased in the postparturient diseases. Compared with healthy controls, the apoC-III concentration was significantly (P<0.01) decreased in cows with fatty liver, ketosis, left displacement of the abomasum, milk fever and retained placenta. Concentrations of apoC-III in the HDL fractions from diseased cows were also lower than in controls. Of the diseased cows, the decreased apoC-III concentration was particularly distinct in cows with milk fever. Increased nonesterified fatty acid and reduced free cholesterol, cholesteryl ester and phospholipid concentrations were observed in cows with milk fever, as in the other diseased cows. The decrease in the apoC-III concentration is suggested to be closely associated with the postparturient disorders, in particular with milk fever. PMID:11307920

  13. Dioxin concentrations in breast milk of Vietnamese nursing mothers: a survey four decades after the herbicide spraying.

    PubMed

    Tai, Pham The; Nishijo, Muneko; Kido, Teruhiko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Maruzeni, Shoko; Naganuma, Rie; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Morikawa, Yuko; Luong, Hoang Van; Anh, Tran Hai; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke; Tawara, Kenji; Nishijo, Hisao

    2011-08-01

    In an operation by United States Armed Forces during 1961 to 1971, large quantities of herbicides were sprayed in South Vietnam. These herbicides contained 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD), the most toxic congener of dioxins. Several decades after the herbicide spraying ceased, dioxin concentrations in the environment and human remained elevated in the sprayed areas. Breast milk samples from 520 nursing mothers residing in areas including the hot spots as well as the sprayed and unsprayed areas were collected to quantify the levels of dioxins. The total toxic equivalents of 2,3,7,8-substitued PCDDs/PCDFs in breast milk of mothers living in the hot spots, and the sprayed and unsprayed areas were 14.10 pg/g lipid, 10.89 pg/g lipid, and 4.09 pg/g lipid for primiparae and 11.48 pg/g lipid, 7.56 pg/g lipid, and 2.84 pg/g lipid for multiparae, respectively, with significant differences in the values among the three areas. In the hot spots, dioxin levels were highly correlated with the residency of mothers after adjustment for their age and parity. PMID:21718047

  14. Longitudinal increases in PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations in human milk in northern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Su-Ju; Kayama, Fujio; Zhao, Jian-Hong; Ge, Jun; Yang, Yu-Xiu; Fukatsu, Hideo; Iida, Takao; Terada, Mina; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2011-10-01

    There is a dearth of information on the temporal changes in polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) contamination, in both environmental and biological specimens, in China. We compared the concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in human milk collected in Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, in northern China in 2002 (n=30) and 2007 (n=20). The level of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs showed an increasing trend. The mean concentrations of PCDD/Fs plus dl-PCBs were 4.47 TEQ pg g(-1) fat and 6.24 TEQ pg g(-1) fat in human milk from Shijiazhuang in 2002 and in 2007, respectively. Based on statistical analysis of questionnaire data collected by in-person interviews with mothers, we found positive correlations between consumption of sea fish and PCDFs. The PCDDs, PCDFs, PCDD/Fs, and PCDD/Fs plus dl-PCBs levels in individuals consuming greater amounts of sea fish were higher than those consuming less sea fish, both with and without adjustments for potential confounding factors. Among 17 congeners of PCDD/Fs, the 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF, and 2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF congener concentrations in 2007 increased 134%, 55%, 53%, 57%, 65% and 130% when compared to 2002 levels, respectively. The 2007 dl-PCB congener levels were greater than those of the 2002 samples, with the exception of PCB81 and PCB77. Specifically, PCB105, PCB114, PCB118, PCB123 and PCB156 had increased greater than twofold from 2002 to 2007. Continuous surveillance of PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels in human milk is needed to accurately evaluate both environmental contamination and the human health risk to neonates in China. PMID:21890171

  15. Urea treated maize straw for small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of Central Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anastacio García-Martínez; Benito Albarrán-Portillo; Octavio Alonso Castelán-Ortega; Angélica Espinoza-Ortega; Carlos Manuel Arriaga-Jordán

    2009-01-01

    Maize straw is the main roughage for dairy herds in campesino farms in central Mexico. The objective was to evaluate feeding milking cows on maize straw treated with 40 g\\/kg DM of urea\\u000a (A) or untreated straw (B), and 3.0 kg\\/d of 18% CP concentrate. Twenty-four Holsteins in late lactation from 8 farmers were\\u000a sorted in two groups: sequence A-B-A or B-A-B;

  16. Adulteration detection in milk using infrared spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bin; Liu, Rong; Yang, Renjie; Xu, Kexin

    2010-02-01

    Adulteration of milk and dairy products has brought serious threats to human health as well as enormous economic losses to the food industry. Considering the diversity of adulterants possibly mixed in milk, such as melamine, urea, tetracycline, sugar/salt and so forth, a rapid, widely available, high-throughput, cost-effective method is needed for detecting each of the components in milk at once. In this paper, a method using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy is established for the discriminative analysis of adulteration in milk. Firstly, the characteristic peaks of the raw milk are found in the 4000-400 cm-1 region by its original spectra. Secondly, the adulterant samples are respectively detected with the same method to establish a spectral database for subsequent comparison. Then, 2D correlation spectra of the samples are obtained which have high time resolution and can provide information about concentration-dependent intensity changes not readily accessible from one-dimensional spectra. And the characteristic peaks in the synchronous 2D correlation spectra of the suspected samples are compared with those of raw milk. The differences among their synchronous spectra imply that the suspected milk sample must contain some kinds of adulterants. Melamine, urea, tetracycline and glucose adulterants in milk are identified respectively. This nondestructive method can be used for a correct discrimination on whether the milk and dairy products are adulterated with deleterious substances and it provides a new simple and cost-effective alternative to test the components of milk.

  17. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in blood and breast milk collected from pregnant women in Sapporo City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Todaka, Takashi; Hirakawa, Hironori; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Onozuka, Daisuke; Sasaki, Seiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Yoshioka, Eiji; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Kishi, Reiko; Iida, Takao; Uchi, Hiroshi; Furue, Masutaka

    2011-12-01

    We measured the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and non-dioxin-like PCBs in paired samples of blood and breast milk collected from 67 secundiparas in Sapporo City, Japan, and combined this data with those of the 30 secundiparas previously measured. The arithmetic mean total toxic equivalents (TEQ-WHO) concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs in blood and breast milk of the 97 secundiparous subjects were 3.0-23 (mean: 13, median: 14) and 2.7-20 (mean: 8.6, median: 8.5) pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively. The sums of the concentrations of 56 non-dioxin-like PCB congeners that were measured in the subjects' blood and breast milk were 16-326 (mean: 107, median: 100) and 12-252 (mean: 73, median: 67) ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. The partitioning ratios of individual congeners of PCDDs, PCDFs, dioxin-like PCBs, and non-dioxin-like PCBs from blood to breast milk in secundiparas were almost the same as those of primiparas that have been recently reported, suggesting that the partitioning ratios of these compounds from maternal blood to breast milk in women is little affected by delivery. Furthermore, the partition of PCB congeners with chlorine at the 2-, 3-, 4'-, and 5-positions or the 2-, 4-, 4'-, and 5-positions of the biphenyl ring from the blood to the breast milk tended to occur at a higher level than that of other congeners. In particular, the levels of tetraCB-74 and hexaCB-146 in the breast milk for both primiparous and secundiparous mothers were slightly higher than those in the blood. PMID:22004731

  18. Milk Yield, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Dairy Cows Fed a High-concentrate Diet Blended with Oil Mixtures Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding linseed oil or/and sunflower oil mixed with fish oil on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet, 24 crossbred primiparous lactating dairy cows in early lactation were assigned to a completely randomized design experiment. All cows were fed a high-concentrate basal diet and 0.38 kg dry matter (DM) molasses per day. Treatments were composed of a basal diet without oil supplement (Control), or diets of (DM basis) 3% linseed and fish oils (1:1, w/w, LSO-FO), or 3% sunflower and fish oils (1:1, w/w, SFO-FO), or 3% mixture (1:1:1, w/w) of linseed, sunflower, and fish oils (MIX-O). The animals fed SFO-FO had a 13.12% decrease in total dry matter intake compared with the control diet (p<0.05). No significant change was detected for milk yield; however, the animals fed the diet supplemented with SFO-FO showed a depressed milk fat yield and concentration by 35.42% and 27.20%, respectively, compared to those fed the control diet (p<0.05). Milk c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion increased by 198.11% in the LSO-FO group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Milk C18:3n-3 (ALA) proportion was enhanced by 227.27% supplementing with LSO-FO relative to the control group (p<0.01). The proportions of milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly increased (p<0.01) in the cows fed LSO-FO (0.38%) and MIX-O (0.23%) compared to the control group (0.01%). Dietary inclusion of LSO-FO mainly increased milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), whereas feeding MIX-O improved preformed FA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). While the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio was found in the LSO-FO, the decreased atherogenecity index (AI) and thrombogenicity index (TI) seemed to be more extent in the MIX-O. Therefore, to maximize milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 PUFA and to minimize milk n-6/n-3 ratio, AI and TI, an ideal supplement would appear to be either LSO-FO or MIX-O. PMID:25925057

  19. Reversible denaturation of cyclosporin synthetase by urea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Dittmann; François Vaillant; Horst Kleinkauf; Alfons Lawen

    1996-01-01

    The reversible denaturation of the multifunctional polypeptide, cyclosporin synthetase, by urea was analyzed. It is possible to discriminate between at least two stages of enzyme denaturation. While at low urea concentration (up to 0.8 M) cyclosporin A formation is inhibited, synthesis of the diketopiperazine cyclo-(d-alanyl-N-methylleucyl), a molecule representing a partial sequence of cyclosporin A is still detectable. At higher concentrations

  20. Urea transport through composite polyallylamine membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E. V.; Kubo, L. Y.; Spitze, L. A.; Wydeven, T.; Clark, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Polyallylamine composite reverse osmosis membranes were prepared by plasma polymerization and deposition onto small-pored cellulose acetate/cellulose nitrate films. The polyallylamine coated the porous substrate with a thin uniform polymer film which exhibited water permeability and urea rejection, of interest because of the potential application of reverse osmosis to urine purification in closed environmental systems. The flux of C-14 labeled urea was studied under the influence of osmotic gradients provided by sodium chloride solutions. The urea flux was found to be enhanced by an osmotic pressure gradient in the same direction and diminished, but not prevented, by an opposing osmotic pressure gradient. Consideration is given to the mechanism of the urea transport, as well as to the influence of concentration polarization on the experimental results. The minimization of coupled flow in pores of a critical size range is apparently necessary to improve urea rejection.

  1. Diet and cooling interactions on physiological responses of grazing dairy cows, milk production and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, M. R.; Valtorta, S. E.; Leva, P. E.; Gaggiotti, M. C.; Conti, G. A.; Gregoret, R. F.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of diet and cooling in the holding pen before milking on rectal temperature, respiration rate and milk production and composition. Fifty-eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a factorial split-plot design, at Rafaela Experimental Station from 12 January to 3 March 2003. The treatments were combinations of two diets: control (CD) and balanced (BD) with two levels of cooling before milking: none (NSF) and a sprinkler and fans (SF). Forage:concentrate ratios for CD and BD were 81:19 and 68:32, respectively. Cows were milked twice daily. Milk production was recorded daily, and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) was analysed twice a week. The physiological data were recorded once a week, before the cattle entered the holding pen and after milking, in the afternoon. Average maximum weekly temperature humidity index was 75.4 and ranged from 61.4 to 83. There were highly significant effects of cooling on physiological responses. Milk production was affected by diet and cooling, with no interaction; the highest and lowest production of milk was 22.42 and 20.07 l/cow per day, for BD+SF and CD+NSF, respectively. Protein was affected by diet, and was higher for BD (3.17 vs. 3.08%). There were interaction effects on milk fat at the 8% level, the highest concentration being 3.65% for BD+NFS. It was concluded that under grazing conditions, cooling by sprinkler and fans before milking improves the comfort of dairy cows, and that the effects on milk production and composition are enhanced when diets are specially formulated for heat-stress periods.

  2. Milk Urea Nitrogen - A Nutritional Evaluation Tool??

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna M. Amaral-Phillips

    When cows consume a diet, the microbes within the rumen degrade the protein to ammonia. The microbes, in turn, use ammonia and fermentable carbohydrates to make amino acids and microbial protein which then are degraded by the cow in her small intestine. Excess ammonia is absorbed across the rumen wall and passes to the liver via the portal vein where

  3. Consumption of a functional fermented milk containing collagen hydrolysate improves the concentration of collagen-specific amino acids in plasma.

    PubMed

    Walrand, Stephane; Chiotelli, Eleni; Noirt, Florence; Mwewa, Sandrine; Lassel, Taous

    2008-09-10

    Clinical studies have shown that collagen hydrolysate (CH) may be able to protect joints from damage, strengthen joints, and reduce pain from conditions like osteoarthritis. CH is a collection of amino acids and bioactive peptides, which allows for easy absorption into the blood stream and distribution in tissues. However, although various matrices have been studied, the absorption of specific amino acids from CH added to a fresh fermented milk product (FMP) was not studied. The primary objective of the present study was to compare the plasma concentrations of four representative amino acids from the CH (glycine, proline, hydroxyproline, and hydroxylysine) contained in a single administration of a FMP with that of a single administration of an equal amount of neat hydrolyzed collagen. These four amino acids were chosen because they have already been used as markers of CH absorption rate and bioavailability. This was a single-center, randomized open, and crossover study with two periods, which was performed in 15 healthy male subjects. The subjects received randomly and in fasted state a single dose of product 1 (10 g of CH in 100 mL of FMP) and product 2 (10 g of CH dissolved in 100 mL of water) separated by at least 5 days. After administration, the subjects were assessed for plasma concentrations of amino acids and for urine concentrations of hydroxyproline. After FMP administration, mean values of the maximal concentration (Cmax) of the four amino acids were greater than after ingredient administration (p < 0.05). This effect was related to an increased Cmax of proline (p < 0.05). In conclusion, because of their physicochemical characteristics, the fermentation process, and the great homogeneity of the preparation, this milk product improves the plasma concentration of amino acids from CH, that is, proline. The present study suggests an interesting role for FMP containing CH to improve the plasmatic availability of collagen-specific amino acids. Hence, this FMP product could be of potential interest in the management of joint diseases. PMID:18707117

  4. Milk Response to Concentrate Supplementation of High Producing Dairy Cows Grazing at Two Pasture Allowances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Bargo; L. D. Muller; J. E. Delahoy; T. W. Cassidy

    2002-01-01

    Twenty multiparous Holstein cows (four ruminally cannulated)infive4 ×4Latinsquareswith21-dperiods were used to study the effect of concentrate supplemen- tation when grazed at two pasture allowances. The four dietary treatments resulted from the combination of two pasture allowance targets (low, 25 vs. high, 40 kg of dry matter\\/cow per day) and two concentrate supple- mentation levels (zero vs. 1 kg of concentrate\\/4

  5. Nevirapine, Sodium Concentration and HIV-1 RNA in Breast Milk and Plasma among HIV-Infected Women Receiving Short-Course Antiretroviral Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Theilgaard, Zahra P.; Chiduo, Mercy G.; Bygbjerg, Ib C.; Gerstoft, Jan; Lüneborg-Nielsen, Margrethe; Lemnge, Martha; Katzenstein, Terese L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Risk factors for breast milk transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child include high plasma and breast milk viral load, low maternal CD4 count and breast pathology such as mastitis. Objective To determine the impact of nevirapine and subclinical mastitis on HIV-1 RNA in maternal plasma and breast milk after intrapartum single-dose nevirapine combined with either 1-week tail of Combivir (zidovudine/lamivudine) or single-dose Truvada (tenofovir/emtricitabine). Methods Maternal plasma and bilateral breast milk samples were collected between April 2008 and April 2011 at 1, 4 and 6 weeks postpartum from HIV-infected Tanzanian women. Moreover, plasma samples were collected at delivery from mother and infant. Results HIV-1 RNA was quantified in 1,212 breast milk samples from 273 women. At delivery, 96% of the women and 99% of the infants had detectable nevirapine in plasma with a median (interquartile range, IQR) of 1.5 ?g/mL (0.75–2.20 ?g/mL) and 1.04 ?g/mL (0.39–1.71 ?g/mL), respectively (P < 0.001). At 1 week postpartum, 93% and 98% of the women had detectable nevirapine in plasma and breast milk, with a median (IQR) of 0.13 ?g/mL (0.13–0.39 ?g/mL) and 0.22 ?g/mL (0.13–0.34 ?g/mL), respectively. Maternal plasma and breast milk HIV-1 RNA correlated at all visits (R = 0.48, R = 0.7, R = 0.59; all P = 0.01). Subclinical mastitis was detected in 67% of the women at some time during 6 weeks, and in 38% of the breast milk samples. Breast milk samples with subclinical mastitis had significantly higher HIV-1 RNA at 1, 4 and 6 weeks (all P < 0.05). Conclusion After short-course antiretroviral prophylaxis, nevirapine was detectable in most infant cord blood samples and the concentration in maternal plasma and breast milk was high through week 1 accompanied by suppressed HIV-1 RNA in plasma and breast milk. PMID:25812161

  6. Urea retranslocation from senescing Arabidopsis leaves is promoted by DUR3-mediated urea retrieval from leaf apoplast

    PubMed Central

    Bohner, Anne; Kojima, Soichi; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Melzer, Michael; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2015-01-01

    In plants, urea derives either from root uptake or protein degradation. Although large quantities of urea are released during senescence, urea is mainly seen as a short-lived nitrogen (N) catabolite serving urease-mediated hydrolysis to ammonium. Here, we investigated the roles of DUR3 and of urea in N remobilization. During natural leaf senescence urea concentrations and DUR3 transcript levels showed a parallel increase with senescence markers like ORE1 in a plant age- and leaf age-dependent manner. Deletion of DUR3 decreased urea accumulation in leaves, whereas the fraction of urea lost to the leaf apoplast was enhanced. Under natural and N deficiency-induced senescence DUR3 promoter activity was highest in the vasculature, but was also found in surrounding bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. An analysis of petiole exudates from wild-type leaves revealed that N from urea accounted for >13% of amino acid N. Urea export from senescent leaves further increased in ureG-2 deletion mutants lacking urease activity. In the dur3 ureG double insertion line the absence of DUR3 reduced urea export from leaf petioles. These results indicate that urea can serve as an early metabolic marker for leaf senescence, and that DUR3-mediated urea retrieval contributes to the retranslocation of N from urea during leaf senescence. PMID:25440717

  7. Effect of prepartum photoperiod and melatonin feeding on milk production and prolactin concentration in dairy heifers and cows.

    PubMed

    Lacasse, P; Vinet, C M; Petitclerc, D

    2014-06-01

    Holstein multiparous cows (n = 29) and primiparous heifers (n = 32) calving over a 1-yr period were subjected to photoperiod-melatonin treatments according to a 2 × 3 factorial design. Starting 8 wk before expected calving, all animals were subjected to 1 of the following treatments: 8h of light and 16 h of dark (8L:16D), 16 h of light and 8h of dark (16L:8D), or 16L:8D plus melatonin feeding (16L:8D-melatonin). Each day at 1355 h, the animals in the melatonin treatment received orally a gelatin capsule containing 25mg of melatonin. The treatments ended at calving, when the animals were moved to the lactation barn; all animals were then subjected to about 16 h of light per day. At the beginning and end of the treatment period before calving, blood samples were taken from 6 heifers and 6 cows through a jugular cannula for 24h at 30-min intervals to monitor serum melatonin and prolactin concentrations. Milk production in the heifers was not affected by the photoperiod treatments. Early-lactation milk production was higher in the cows exposed to the short-day photoperiod than in those exposed to a long-day photoperiod (16L:8D and 16L:8D-melatonin), with averages of 36.7 ± 0.9, 33.1 ± 0.8, and 34.1 ± 0.9 kg/d for 8L:16D, 16L:8D, and 16L:8D-melatonin, respectively. Photoperiod had no effect on late-lactation milk production in the cows. During lactation, the dry matter intake of heifers was not affected by the treatments, but dry matter intake of the cows exposed to a short-day photoperiod was greater than that of the cows exposed to a long-day photoperiod. Feed efficiency of heifers was improved by short-day photoperiod. During the treatment period, prolactin concentration was lower in the animals exposed to a short-day photoperiod than in those exposed to a long-day photoperiod, was lower with the 16L:8D-melatonin treatment than with the 16L:8D treatment, and tended to be lower with the 8L:16D treatment than with the 16L:8D-melatonin treatment, with averages of 3.5 ± 0.8, 9.9 ± 0.8, and 6.0 ± 0.8 ng/mL for 8L:16D, 16L:8D, and 16L:8D-melatonin, respectively. In early lactation, prolactin concentration was lower in the heifers exposed to the 16L:8D photoperiod during the dry period than in those exposed to the 8L:16D photoperiod or fed melatonin. In conclusion, a short-day photoperiod during the dry period transiently increases milk production of cows and the feed efficiency of heifers in the following lactation. However, melatonin cannot be used to mimic a short-day photoperiod during the dry period. PMID:24704221

  8. Concentrations of DDT, PVBs, HCB, and HCH isomers in the liver and adipose tissue of newborn mice receiving an extract of human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Sitarska, E.; Gorski, T.; Ludwick, J.K.

    1987-11-01

    Persistent organic chlorine compounds, such as DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) circulate in the food chain of the ecosystem. Most data on the toxicity and accumulation of organic chlorine compounds have been obtained from animal experiments after chronic or acute poisoning with marketed preparations or standards of the used components of these preparations. In food products of animal origin and in human milk these compounds and their metabolites are present after multiple metabolic steps in varying proportions and concentrations. Their variable amounts are passed to newborns with mother's milk. The purpose of the present study was to investigate in an experimental model of newborn mice the degree of accumulation of these compounds in the liver and adipose tissue after long-standing feeding them with an extract of human milk with added organic chlorine compounds in doses received by human newborns with milk. In the assessment of the relationship between the degree of accumulation of various compounds in the tissues of newborn mice and the daily dose concentrations were used similar to those found in human milk.

  9. Stable activity of a deubiquitylating enzyme (Usp2-cc) in the presence of high concentrations of urea and its application to purify aggregation-prone peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Shahnawaz, Mohammad [Research Center for Proteineous Materials (RCPM), Department of Bio-materials Engineering, Chosun University, Gwanju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Thapa, Arjun [Research Center for Proteineous Materials (RCPM), Department of Bio-materials Engineering, Chosun University, Gwanju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Il-Seon [Research Center for Proteineous Materials (RCPM), Department of Bio-materials Engineering, Chosun University, Gwanju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of) and Cell and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwanju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: parkis@chosun.ac.kr

    2007-08-03

    Chemical synthesis of long or aggregation-prone peptide has been problematic. Its biological production has an advantage in that point, but it often forms inclusion body which creates difficulties in recovery of targets. As a deubiquitylating enzyme (Usp2-cc) was shown in this study to maintain its activity even in the presence of up to 4 M urea, target peptide was purified by a single step of chromatography after overexpression as inclusion body, solubilization in urea and cleavage by the enzyme from the fusion protein consisting of GroES (used for high expression and easy to handle), ubiquitin (as a cleavage site) and target peptide. This system is a convenient tool for production of peptides that are difficult to be chemically synthesized and biologically purified.

  10. An Influence of Fructan Containing Concentrate from Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers on the Development of Probiotic Dairy Starters on Milk and Oat-based Substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Semjonovs; P. Zikmanis; M. Bekers

    2007-01-01

    Supplementation of milk and oat hydrolysate containing medium with Jerusalem artichoke concentrate (JAC) and subsequent fermentation with probiotic dairy starters resulted in substantial stimulation of probiotics Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus as well as yogurt starter culture Lactobacillus bulgaricus development and acidification rate. The strain-specific responses of the general yogurt cultures, as well as probiotics to the addition of JAC,

  11. Effect of PEF, HHP and Thermal Treatment on PME Inactivation and Volatile Compounds Concentration of an Orange Juice-Milk Based Beverage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of thermal, pulsed electric field (PEF) and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity and concentrations of volatile compounds in an orange juice-milk beverage were studied. Thermal treatment (85 C for 1 min), PEF treatment (25 kV/cm at 65 C init...

  12. Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations of Guatemalan women are correlated with maternal but not infant vitamin B–12 status at 12 months postpartum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our previous studies one third of lactating Guatemalan women, infants and children had deficient or marginal serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Relationships among maternal and infant status and breast milk vitamin B-12, however, have not been investigated in such populations. Our purpose was to ...

  13. THE EFFECT OF HIGH-DOSE VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENTATION ON SERUM VITAMIN D LEVELS AND MILK CALCIUM CONCENTRATION IN LACTATING WOMEN AND THEIR INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Improve vitamin D status in lactating women and their recipient infants, and measure breast milk calcium concentration ([Ca]) as a function of vitamin D regimen. Design/Methods: Fully breastfeeding mothers were randomized at one month postpartum to 2,000 (n = 12) or 4,000 (n = 13) IU/d...

  14. Effects of the percentage of concentrate on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk composition in mid-lactation goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Serment; P. Schmidely; S. Giger-Reverdin; P. Chapoutot; D. Sauvant

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of the dietary percentage of concentrate on patterns of intake, the evolution of rumen fermentation characteristics and plasma metabolites after a meal, nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition in a medium-term trial in dairy goats. These effects have been well studied in dairy cattle but seldom in goats. Thirteen

  15. Concentration of DDT compounds in breast milk from African women (Manhiça, Mozambique) at the early stages of domestic indoor spraying with this insecticide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria N. Manaca; Joan O. Grimalt; Jordi Sunyer; Inacio Mandomando; Raquel Gonzalez; Jahit Sacarlal; Carlota Dobaño; Pedro L. Alonso; Clara Menendez

    2011-01-01

    Breast milk concentrations of 4,4?-DDT and its related compounds were studied in samples collected in 2002 and 2006 from two populations of mothers in Manhiça, Mozambique. The 2006 samples were obtained several months after implementation of indoor residual spraying (IRS) with DDT for malaria vector control in dwellings and those from 2002 were taken as reference prior to DDT use.

  16. Increased concentration of water-soluble carbohydrate in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.): milk production from late-lactation dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Miller; J. M. Moorby; D. R. Davies; M. O. Humphreys; N. D. Scollan; J. C. MacRae; M. K. Theodorou

    2001-01-01

    Eight multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in late lactation were used to investigate the potential of using perennial ryegrass with a high concentration of water- soluble carbohydrate (WSC) to increase the efficiency of milk production. After a pretreatment period on a common pasture, the cows were each given ad libitum access to one of two varieties of zero-grazed grass continuously for

  17. Characterization of high-milk-protein powders upon rehydration under various salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hussain, R; Gaiani, C; Aberkane, L; Scher, J

    2011-01-01

    Rehydration of native micellar casein and native whey isolate protein powders was followed in different ionic environments. Solutions of NaCl and CaCl2 in the concentration range of 0 to 12% (wt%) were used as rehydration media. The rehydration profiles obtained were interpreted in terms of wetting, swelling, and dispersion stages by using a turbidity method. Two behaviors were observed depending on the salt concentration. For native micellar casein powder, a significant change was observed between 3 and 6% NaCl and between 0.75 and 1.5% CaCl2. The first behavior (low salt concentration) presents a typical rehydration profile: quick wetting, swelling, and long dispersion stage. The dispersion stage of the second behavior (high salt concentration) was significantly shortened, indicating a strong modification of the protein backbone. The rehydration of whey protein powder was less influenced by salts. At low salt concentrations, a typical profile for whey powders was observed: wetting with lump formation and no swelling followed by a quick dispersion. At high CaCl2 concentrations, no turbidity stabilization was observed, indicating a possible protein unfolding and denaturation. Additionally, the changes in secondary structures of the 2 proteins upon salt increase were followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confirmed the different profiles observed. PMID:21183012

  18. Estimation of genetic and crossbreeding parameters of fatty acid concentrations in milk fat predicted by mid-infrared spectroscopy in New Zealand dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Spelman, Richard J; Melis, Janine; Davis, Stephen R; Berry, Sarah D; Lehnert, Klaus; Holroyd, Stephen E; MacGibbon, Alastair K H; Snell, Russell G

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritability and crossbreeding parameters (breed and heterosis effects) of various fatty acid (FA) concentrations in milk fat of New Zealand dairy cattle. For this purpose, calibration equations to predict concentration of each of the most common FAs were derived with partial least squares (PLS) using mid-infrared (MIR) spectral data from milk samples (n=850) collected in the 2003-04 season from 348 second-parity crossbred cows during peak, mid and late lactation. The milk samples produced both, MIR spectral data and concentration of the most common FAs determined using gas chromatography (GC). The concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) between the concentration of a FA determined by GC and the PLS equation ranged from 0.63 to 0.94, suggesting that some prediction equations can be considered to have substantial predictive ability. The PLS calibration equations were then used to predict the concentration of each of the fatty acids in 26,769 milk samples from 7385 cows that were herd-tested during the 2007-08 season. Data were analysed using a single-trait repeatability animal model. Shorter chain FA (16:0 and below) were significantly higher (P<0.05) in Jersey cows, while longer chain, including unsaturated longer chain FA were higher in Holstein-Friesian cows. The estimates of heritabilities ranged from 0.17 to 0.41 suggesting that selective breeding could be used to ensure milk fat composition stays aligned to consumer, market and manufacturing needs. PMID:25052435

  19. Effects of pH, temperature, CaCl 2 and enzyme concentrations on the rennet-clotting properties of milk: a multifactorial study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Nájera; M. de Renobales; L. J. R. Barron

    2003-01-01

    The effects of pH, coagulation temperature, CaCl2 and enzyme concentrations on the rennet clotting properties of milk were assessed. Rennet coagulation time, coagulum firmness, curd firmness and gel firming rate were the coagulation parameters measured using a gelograph. A multifactorial design, considering two levels of coagulation temperature (28 and 44 °C), pH (6.0 and 6.8) and concentration of CaCl2 (10 and

  20. Milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows grazing at two pasture allowances and supplemented with different levels and sources of concentrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Bargo; J. E. Delahoy; G. F. Schroeder; L. D. Muller

    2006-01-01

    Milk fatty acid (FA) composition of dairy cows from two grazing studies was examined. In the first study, effects of concentrate supplementation and pasture allowance were evaluated using 20 multiparous Holstein cows in five 4×4 Latin squares. The four treatments resulted from the combination of two pasture allowances (i.e., low, 25 versus high, 40kg dry matter\\/cow\\/day) and two concentrate supplementation

  1. Short communication: Annatto in Cheddar cheese-derived whey protein concentrate is primarily associated with milk fat globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhu, D; Damodaran, S

    2012-02-01

    The yellow color of Cheddar cheese whey arises from a residual amount of annatto that partitions into the whey during Cheddar cheese manufacture. Bleaching of the color using hydrogen peroxide or benzoyl peroxide is often a prerequisite to produce an acceptable neutral-colored whey protein concentrate and isolate. However, the use of these strong oxidizing agents often generates off-flavors as a result of lipid oxidation and results in loss of nutritive value due to protein oxidation. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of partitioning of annatto between protein, milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), and aqueous (serum) phases of cheese whey so that a simple method can be developed to remove annatto from cheese whey. The MFGM was separated from Cheddar cheese whey using a recently developed novel method. Quantitative analysis of the distribution of annatto in the fat-free whey protein isolate (WPI), the MFGM fractions, and the serum phase revealed that annatto was not bound to the protein fraction but was mostly distributed between the serum phase and the MFGM fraction. The results showed that a colorless WPI or whey protein concentrate could be produced from Cheddar cheese whey by separation of MFGM from the whey, followed by diafiltration. This approach will negate the need for using bleaching agents. PMID:22281326

  2. Determination of total antioxidant capacity of milk by CUPRAC and ABTS methods with separate characterisation of milk protein fractions.

    PubMed

    Çekiç, Sema Demirci; Demir, Asl?; Ba?kan, Kevser Sözgen; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Re?at

    2015-05-01

    Most milk-applied antioxidant assays in literature are based on the isolation and quantification of individual antioxidative compounds, whereas total antioxidant capacity (TAC) gives a more holistic picture due to cooperative action of antioxidants. Recently, the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method has been modified to measure the antioxidant capacities of thiol-containing proteins, where the classical ammonium acetate buffer - that may otherwise precipitate proteins- was replaced with concentrated urea buffer (able to expose embedded thiol groups of proteins to oxidative attack) adjusted to pH 7.0. Thus, antioxidant capacity of milk was investigated with two competing TAC assays, namely CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid))/persulphate, because only these assays were capable of evaluating protein contribution to the observed TAC value. As milk fat caused turbidity, experiments were carried out with skim milk or defatted milk samples. To determine TAC, modified CUPRAC method was applied to whole milk, separated and redissolved protein fractions, and the remaining liquid phase after necessary operations. Both TAC methods were investigated for their dilution sensitivity and antioxidant power assessment of separate milk fractions such as casein and whey. Proteins like ?-lactoglobulin and casein (but not simple thiols) exhibited enhanced CUPRAC reactivity with surfactant (SDS) addition. Addition of milk protein fractions to whole skim milk produced significant 'negative-biased' deviations (up to -26% relative standard error) from TAC absorbance additivity in the application of the ABTS method, as opposed to that of the CUPRAC method less affected by chemical deviations from Beer's law thereby producing much smaller deviations from additivity (i.e. the property of additivity is valid when the measured TAC of a mixture is equal to the sum of individual antioxidant capacities of its constituents). PMID:25731579

  3. Replacing soybean meal for wet brewer's grains or urea on the performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Hugo; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) for wet brewer's grains (WBG) or urea on the performance of lactating dairy cows. The second investigated whether WBG ensiled with corn kept animal performance in low- and high-producing dairy cows compared with WBG. In experiment I, 40 Holstein cows were used in 4?×?4 Latin square design. The treatments comprised WBG or urea as partial replacement for SBM, as follows: control (diet based on SBM and 1 % of urea), 10 % of WBG, 20 % of WBG, and 2 % of urea. Dry matter intake (DMI) was not affected by treatments. WBG increased milk yield linearly, but it decreased with urea. Milk fat content responded quadratically to WBG levels. Milk protein content decreased, while plasma urea nitrogen increased with high urea addition. In experiment II, 42 Holstein cows were divided into two groups according to production levels. Eighteen cows composed the group of low producing, while the high-producing group comprised 24 cows. The experimental design was a crossover with two periods of 14 days. The experimental treatments consisted of feeding WBG or WBG ensiled with ground corn. Regardless of the production level, no difference in milk yield and milk composition between treatments was observed. PMID:25854784

  4. COMPARISON OF THREE ANALYTICAL METHODS TO ASSESS UREA NITROGEN IN COLOSTRUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) obtained from cows fed mid to late lactation diets has been used as an indicator of diet composition adequacy and can be used to predict urine urea nitrogen. However, recent research has suggested that in early lactation, MUN was positively correlated with feed efficiency (...

  5. The expression of genes involved in hepatic metabolism is altered by temporary changes to milking frequency.

    PubMed

    Grala, T M; Roche, J R; Kay, J K; Rius, A G; White, H M; Donkin, S S; Littlejohn, M D; Snell, R G; Phyn, C V C

    2014-02-01

    Changes to milking frequency (MF) affect the metabolic and energetic status of dairy cows. However, the duration of altered MF necessary to modify hepatic transcription during early lactation is less clear. Additionally, long-term responses to short-term alterations in MF have not been established. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 120) were allocated to 3 or 6 wk of either once-daily (1 ×) or thrice-daily (3 ×) milking, immediately postpartum. Following treatment, cows were switched to twice-daily (2 ×) milking. These 4 treatment groups were compared with cows milked 2 × (n = 30) for the whole lactation. Liver tissue was collected by biopsy at 1, 3, 6, and 9 wk postpartum from 12 cows per treatment, RNA was extracted, and transcript abundance of genes involved in hepatic metabolism was quantified. Milking frequency altered the expression of most of the genes measured; however, we observed no effects caused by the length of time on the alternative milking frequency and no interactions between MF and length. During the MF treatment, mRNA expression of some, but not all, genes involved in gluconeogenesis (G6PC, PCK1), fatty acid ?-oxidation (CPT1A, CPT2), ketogenesis (HMGCS2), lipid transport (APOA1), and lipolysis (PNPLA2) were lower for cows milked 1 × and plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were greater. Cows milked 3 × had reduced mRNA expression for some of the genes involved in fatty acid synthesis (ACACA) and lipid transport (APOB) and had greater plasma NEFA concentrations at wk 1. At 9 wk postpartum, expression data indicated that cows previously milked 3 × had a greater capacity for gluconeogenesis (PCK1), ketogenesis (HMGCS2), and urea cycling (ASL, CPS1) and lower glucose concentrations than cows previously milked 1 ×, because some of the genes involved in these processes were still altered. Milking cows 1 × relative to 2 ×, however, did not result in significant carryover effects on the expression of the genes measured in this study, indicating that metabolic changes are not sustained beyond the period of reduced MF. Changes to MF altered the hepatic response during early lactation; however, this was not dependent on the duration of MF change. Although we observed only minimal carryover effects on hepatic metabolism from short periods of reduced MF postpartum, there may be long-term effects on urea cycling (ASL, CPS1) and ketogenesis (HMGCS2) when 3 × milking occurs immediately postpartum. PMID:24342696

  6. Mastitis Is Associated with Increased Free Fatty Acids, Somatic Cell Count, and Interleukin-8 Concentrations in Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Katherine M.; Williams, Janet E.; Shafii, Bahman; Hunt, Martha K.; Behre, Rebecca; Ting, Robert; McGuire, Michelle K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Research in bovine lactation has demonstrated that milk produced by a mammary gland displaying inflammation-based symptoms of mastitis has increased levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) compared with milk produced by a contralateral asymptomatic gland. However, the effects of mastitis on lipid classes in milk have not been investigated in humans. Methods The study described here compared milk collected from the symptomatic breast of women with mastitis (n=14) with that collected from the contralateral asymptomatic breast to determine if mastitis caused alterations in the quantity of total lipids, FFAs, and phospholipids (PLs), as well as the fatty acid profiles of these lipid classes. To assess their efficacy as biomarkers of mastitis, samples were also analyzed for selected markers of local inflammation: sodium, somatic cell count (SCC), and interleukin-8 (IL-8). Results FFAs were higher in milk from the mastitic breast compared with that from the healthy breast (1.31 vs. 1.07±0.10?g/100?g of lipid, p<0.05). Similarly, SCC and IL-8 were elevated roughly 10-fold in milk from mastitic breasts, compared with milk from healthy breasts, and sodium tended to be higher in milk from mastitic breasts (p<0.10). However, there were no differences in total lipid, PLs, or fatty acid profiles within each lipid class. Conclusions In summary, mastitis is associated with increased lipolysis in the human breast but not alterations in milk fat synthesis, as evidenced by a lack of alteration in total milk lipids. Additionally, these results indicate that SCC and IL-8 may be better indicators of mammary inflammation than sodium content. PMID:22283504

  7. Alpha-tocopherol concentration and stereoisomer composition in plasma and milk from dairy cows fed natural or synthetic vitamin E around calving.

    PubMed

    Meglia, Guillermo E; Jensen, Søren K; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Persson Waller, Karin

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of supplementing dairy cows with 1000 IU/day of all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (SynAc), RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (NatAc), or RRR-alpha-tocopherol (NatAlc), from approximately 3 weeks before estimated calving until 2 weeks after calving, on the concentration of alpha-tocopherol and its stereoisomers (RRR-, RSS-, RRS-, RSR- and the four 2S-forms of alpha-tocopherol) in blood and milk. An unsupplemented group was included as control. Blood samples were collected at 3, 2 and 1 weeks before estimated calving, at calving, and 3, 7 and 14 days after calving, while milk samples were taken twice within 24 h after calving and at 7 and 14 days in milk. Overall, time and treatment had significant effects on plasma alpha-tocopherol with higher concentrations in NatAc than in the other groups. In addition, SynAc had higher concentrations than Control, and NatAlc tended to be higher than Control. The lowest plasma concentrations were observed at calving and 3 days after calving. Independent of treatment, the concentration was higher in colostrum than in milk day 7 and 14 after calving. Analyses of the stereoisomer distribution in plasma and milk showed that, irrespective of dietary treatment, RRR-alpha-tocopherol was the most predominant form, constituting more than 86%, whereas the remaining part of alpha-tocopherol was made up by the three synthetic 2R isomers, while the 2S isomers only contributed less than 1% of the total alpha-tocopherol. In control cows and cows supplemented with natural vitamin E, the proportion of RRR-alpha-tocopherol in plasma and milk constituted more than 98% of the total alpha-tocopherol. In conclusion, the results indicate that daily oral supplementation of dairy cows with RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate gives the highest blood concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in the periparturient period. Analyses of the distribution of the individual stereoisomers of alpha-tocopherol further indicate that the bioavailability of RRR-alpha-tocopherol relative to synthetic stereoisomers in cattle is considerably higher than officially accepted until now. PMID:16774694

  8. 21 CFR 163.140 - Skim milk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in § 163.130, except that: (1) The optional dairy ingredients are limited to skim milk, evaporated skim milk, concentrated skim milk, sweetened condensed...

  9. Simultaneous detection of multiple adulterants in dry milk using macro-scale Raman chemical imaging.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S

    2013-06-01

    The potential of Raman chemical imaging for simultaneously detecting multiple adulterants in milk powder was investigated. Potential chemical adulterants, including ammonium sulphate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea, were mixed together into skim dry milk in the concentration range of 0.1-5.0% for each adulterant. Using a 785-nm laser, a Raman imaging system acquired hyperspectral images in the wavenumber range of 102-2538 cm(-1) for a 25 × 25 mm(2) area of each mixture sample, with a spatial resolution of 0.25 mm. Self-modelling mixture analysis (SMA) was used to extract pure component spectra, by which the four types of the adulterants were identified at all concentration levels based on their spectral information divergence values to the reference spectra. Raman chemical images were created using the contribution images from SMA, and their use to effectively visualise identification and spatial distribution of the multiple adulterant particles in the dry milk was demonstrated. PMID:23411206

  10. Urea Cycle Disease Overview

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be delayed for months or years. Early in life, infants with urea cycle disorders develop toxic levels of ammonia build-up ... for the presence of a UCD. Amino acid analysis can be used to diagnose a specific urea cycle disorder. The amino acid arginine may be reduced ...

  11. Effect of supplementing napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) with sunflower meal or poultry litter-based concentrates on feed intake, live-weight changes and economics of milk production in Friesian cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. K Muia; S Tamminga; P. N Mbugua

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted using a randomized complete block design to determine feed intake, live-weight changes, milk yield and cost of milk production in Friesian cows fed napier grass (NG) at 10 weeks (MNG) or 15 weeks (ONG) of maturity. The MNG or ONG was supplemented with equal amounts of sunflower (SFBC) or poultry litter (PLBC) based concentrates in experiment

  12. Effects of alfalfa hay particle size in high-concentrate diets supplemented with unsaturated fat: chewing behavior, total-tract digestibility, and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kahyani, A; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of increasing the physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) intake of lactating dairy cows fed high-concentrate diets supplemented with unsaturated fat on intake, eating behavior, diet sorting, chewing activity, total-tract digestibility, and milk production and composition. Diets contained 24% alfalfa hay (AH), 16% corn silage, 58% concentrate, and 2% yellow grease [dry matter (DM) basis], and dietary peNDF content was increased by varying the particle size (PS) of the AH. Nine multiparous cows averaging 87.8 ± 14.8d in milk and weighing 653 ± 53 kg were randomly assigned to a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square. During each 21-d period, cows were offered 1 of 3 total mixed rations that varied in PS of AH: fine, medium, and long, with a geometric mean particle length of 3.00, 3.57 and 3.87 mm, respectively. Increasing PS quadratically affected DM intake (DMI; 24.7, 25.4, and 23.7 kg/d, for fine, medium, and long, respectively), but cumulative DMI at 2, 4, and 6h after feeding was similar across treatments, averaging 23.4, 35.6 and 46.4% of total DMI for the 3 time points, respectively. Increased peNDF intake did not affect feed sorting, but increased daily eating time, and eating and total chewing time per kilogram of DMI. Daily rumination time exhibited a quadratic response, with highest rumination time for the medium diet. Dietary PS had no effects on digestibility in the total tract, but we observed, for fine, medium, and long diets, quadratic responses in milk production (41.5, 43.3, and 40.4 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk production, and milk protein yield. Milk fat content decreased linearly with increasing PS, but milk fat content and fat:protein ratio were low for all treatments, likely due to adding unsaturated fat to a diet containing a high level of nonfiber carbohydrates (42.2% of DM). The composition, degree of saturation, and total conjugated linoleic acid content of fatty acids in milk fat were not affected by the change in peNDF content of the diet. The study indicates that a moderate increase in the PS of AH in diets containing unsaturated fat elevates peNDF intake and increases chewing activity, DMI, milk yield and milk fat production. However, the effects of dietary PS were quadratic, with maximum DMI and milk production observed with diets supplying 24% dietary peNDF (measured as the proportion of the ration retained on sieves >1.18 mm multiplied by dietary neutral detergent fiber content; DM basis). PMID:24054282

  13. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Petit, H V; Pereira, A B D; Soder, K J; Ross, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the interactions of corn meal or molasses [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) supplements] with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) supplements] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay diets. Eight multiparous and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 135±49d in milk and 386±61kg of body weight in the beginning of the study were randomly assigned to 4 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period lasted 19d with 14d for diet adaptation and 5d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed diets composed of mixed-mostly grass hay plus 1 of the following 4 concentrate blends: (1) corn meal plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; (2) corn meal plus flaxseed meal; (3) liquid molasses plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; or (4) liquid molasses plus flaxseed meal. Data were analyzed for main effects of NSC and RDP supplements, and the NSC × RDP supplement interactions. Significant NSC × RDP supplement interactions were observed for milk urea N, milk N efficiency, and the sums of milk saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. No effect of NSC supplements was observed for nutrient intake and milk yield. However, 4% fat-corrected milk (-0.70kg/d) and energy-corrected milk (-0.60kg/d) were significantly reduced in cows fed liquid molasses due to a trend to decreased concentration of milk fat (-0.17%). Diets with liquid molasses resulted in increased (+35%) concentration and yield of milk enterolactone, indicating that this mammalian lignan can be modulated by supplements with different NSC profiles. Overall, NSC and RDP supplements profoundly changed the milk fatty acid profile, likely because of differences in fatty acids intake, ?(9)-desaturase indices, and ruminal biohydrogenation pathways. Feeding liquid molasses significantly reduced plasma urea N (-1.2mg/dL), urinary N excretion (-20g/d), and N digestibility (-3.2 percentage units). Flaxseed meal significantly reduced yields of milk (-1.3kg/d), milk fat (-90g/d), and milk lactose (-60g/d), but significantly increased the concentration and yield of milk enterolactone. Further research is needed to elucidate the negative responses of flaxseed meal on yields of milk and milk components. PMID:25465544

  14. Weight Change During Lactation Does Not Alter the Concentrations of Chlorinated Organic Contaminants in Breast Milk of Women with Low Exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl A. Lovelady; Ruth A. Whitehead; Megan A. McCrory; Laurie A. Nommsen-Rivers; Scott Mabury; Kathryn G. Dewey

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to evaluate whether a loss of body fat during lactation between 4 and 20 wk postpartum increases the concentration of environmental contaminants in breast milk. We examined this relationship in two different cohorts of exclusively breastfeeding women: (1) California women with low exposure to contaminants (n=O0 whose weight was stable [mean change, 0.0

  15. Postnatal Caffeine Effects on Copper, Zinc, and Iron Concentrations in Mammary Gland, Milk, and Plasma of Lactating Dams and Their Offspring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdalena J. Rossowska; William Carvajal; Tetsuo Nakamoto

    1997-01-01

    Beginning on the day of delivery and until the 15th or 22nd day of lactation, one group of dams received a 20% protein diet as a basal diet and one group received the basal diet supplemented with caffeine (4 mg\\/l00 g body weight). A correlation between caffeine concentrations in the dams’ plasma and milk was observed. In the caffeine group,

  16. Influence of adsorbed milk protein type and surface concentration on the quiescent and shear stability of butteroil emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. I. Segall; H. D. Goff

    1999-01-01

    Understanding of the relationship between adsorbed milk protein layer characteristics and stability of butteroil emulsions may be applied to create emulsions with specific properties such as ice cream emulsions (quiescently stable, destabilizing under shear) formulated without chemical surfactant. Emulsions created from butteroil (25%) with skim milk powder (SMP) (0.2–0.7%), whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) (1.6–2.1%), whey protein isolate (WPI) (0.2–0.7%) and

  17. Effects of Somatic Cell Counts and Milk Composition on the Coagulating Properties of Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Politis; K. F. Ng-Kwai-Hang

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two Holstein cows were selected to provide monthly milk samples with varying SCC for 1 yr. Coagulating pro- perties of samples measured as rennet clotting time, rate of curd firming, and curd firmness at cutting were deter- mined by a formagraph. Milk samples were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, total solids, casein, individual caseins, urea, SCC, and pH. Least squares

  18. Molecular Basis of the Apparent Near Ideality of Urea Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kokubo, Hironori; Rösgen, Jörg; Bolen, D. Wayne; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2007-01-01

    Activity coefficients of urea solutions are calculated to explore the mechanism of its solution properties, which form the basis for its well-known use as a strong protein denaturant. We perform free energy simulations of urea solutions in different urea concentrations using two urea models (OPLS and KBFF models) to calculate and decompose the activity coefficients. For the case of urea, we clarify the concept of the ideal solution in different concentration scales and standard states and its effect on our subsequent analysis. The analytical form of activity coefficients depends on the concentration units and standard states. For both models studied, urea displays a weak concentration dependence for excess chemical potential. However, for the OPLS force-field model, this results from contributions that are independent of concentration to the van der Waals and electrostatic components whereas for the KBFF model those components are nontrivial but oppose each other. The strong ideality of urea solutions in some concentration scales (incidentally implying a lack of water perturbation) is discussed in terms of recent data and ideas on the mechanism of urea denaturation of proteins. PMID:17693466

  19. Intraduodenal milk protein concentrate augments the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of DPP-IV inhibition.

    PubMed

    Olivos, Diana R; McGrath, Lauren E; Turner, Christopher A; Montaubin, Orianne; Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G; Hayes, Matthew R

    2014-02-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone released from intestinal L-cells in response to food entering into the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1-based pharmaceuticals improve blood glucose regulation and may hold promise for obesity treatment, as GLP-1 drugs reduce food intake and body weight in humans and animals. In an effort to improve GLP-1 pharmacotherapies, we focused our attention on macronutrients that, when present in the gastrointestinal tract, may enhance GLP-1 secretion and improve glycemic regulation and food intake suppression when combined with systemic administration of sitagliptin, a pharmacological inhibitor of DPP-IV (enzyme responsible for GLP-1 degradation). In particular, previous data suggest that specific macronutrient constituents found in dairy foods may act as potent secretagogues for GLP-1 and therefore may potentially serve as an adjunct dietary therapy in combination with sitagliptin. To directly test this hypothesis, rats received intraperitoneal injections of sitagliptin (6 mg/kg) or saline vehicle followed by intraduodenal infusions of either milk protein concentrate (MPC; 80/20% casein/whey; 4 kcal), soy protein (nondairy control infusate; 4 kcal), or 0.9% NaCl. Food intake was assessed 30 min postinfusion. In separate studies, regulation of blood glucose was examined via a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (2 g/kg) following identical sitagliptin treatment and intraduodenal nutrient infusions. Collectively, results show that intraduodenal MPC, but not soy protein, significantly enhances both the food intake suppression and improved control of blood glucose produced by sitagliptin. These data support the hypothesis that dietary intake of dairy protein may be beneficial as an adjunct behavioral therapy to enhance the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of GLP-1-based pharmacotherapies. PMID:24352410

  20. Effects of corn silage particle size, supplemental hay, and forage-to-concentrate ratio on rumen pH, feed preference, and milk fat profile of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kmicikewycz, A D; Harvatine, K J; Heinrichs, A J

    2015-07-01

    Two experiments (Exp.) were conducted to study effects of feeding long or short corn silage total mixed rations (TMR) on rumen pH, feed preference, and dairy cow performance and to determine the rate of recovery from grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Both experiments utilized a crossover design with 12 lactating, multiparous, Holstein cows each (including 4 ruminally cannulated cows) and consisted of two 26-d periods. Each period consisted of 12d of adaptation followed by 14d of data collection. Each period was divided into 4 phases: adaptation, d 1 to 12; baseline, d 13 to 14; challenge, d 15 to 19; and recovery, d 20 to 26. Treatments in Exp. 1 were TMR based on corn silage with long (L) or short (ST) particle size in a 65:35 forage-to-concentrate (F:C) diet. Treatments in Exp. 2 were TMR based on corn silage with short (SH) or long (LH) particle size in a 65:35 F:C diet with 3.3% (DM basis) orchardgrass hay offered as a supplement to the diet. In both experiments, during the challenge phase cows received a 50:50 F:C diet to initiate SARA. Animals were housed individually, milked twice per day, and fed once per day for 10% refusal rate on an as-fed basis. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. Feeding L and LH diets increased acetate-to-propionate ratio in the rumen, which resulted in the maintenance of a ratio >2 from the start of the SARA challenge through recovery. In Exp. 1, feeding long corn silage TMR resulted in lower milk fat concentration on the third day of the challenge, whereas cows fed short corn silage TMR had lower milk fat concentration on the final day of the challenge compared with d 13. Providing supplemental hay to cows fed TMR based on long or short corn silage in Exp. 2 prevented acidosis when cows were challenged with a high-grain diet. Milk fat concentrations substantially decreased during the challenge phase in both diets supplemented with hay, but feeding LH did not lower milk fat concentrations until d 20 compared with d 17 for cows fed SH. Under the conditions of these experiments, cows selected for shorter particles compared with longer particles, despite the rumen challenge. However, when feeding a 50:50 F:C diet, feeding long corn silage TMR or supplementing the diet with grass hay increased rumen pH, acetate-to-propionate ratio in the rumen, and rate of recovery from SARA. PMID:25958273

  1. Enhancement of urea, ammonia and carbon dioxide removal from industrial wastewater using a cascade of hydrolyser–desorber loops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Rahimpour; H. R. Mottaghi; M. M. Barmaki

    2010-01-01

    In this study, removal of urea, ammonia and carbon dioxide from wastewater of conventional urea plant in both high and low concentration (ppm scale) levels using a cascade of hydrolyser–desorber loops has been investigated. In conventional urea plants, wastewater treatment sections including co-current configuration of hydrolyser were designed according to the old environmental standards. Nevertheless, the amounts of urea and

  2. Concentration of DDT compounds in breast milk from African women (Manhiça, Mozambique) at the early stages of domestic indoor spraying with this insecticide.

    PubMed

    Manaca, Maria N; Grimalt, Joan O; Sunyer, Jordi; Mandomando, Inacio; Gonzalez, Raquel; Sacarlal, Jahit; Dobaño, Carlota; Alonso, Pedro L; Menendez, Clara

    2011-10-01

    Breast milk concentrations of 4,4'-DDT and its related compounds were studied in samples collected in 2002 and 2006 from two populations of mothers in Manhiça, Mozambique. The 2006 samples were obtained several months after implementation of indoor residual spraying (IRS) with DDT for malaria vector control in dwellings and those from 2002 were taken as reference prior to DDT use. A significant increase in 4,4'-DDT and its main metabolite, 4,4'-DDE, was observed between the 2002 (median values 2.4 and 0.9 ng/ml, respectively) and the 2006 samples (7.3 and 2.6 ng/ml, respectively, p<0.001 and 0.019, respectively). This observation identifies higher body burden intakes of these compounds in pregnant women already in these initial stages of the IRS program. The increase in both 4,4'-DDT and 4,4'-DDE suggest a rapid transformation of DDT into DDE after incorporation of the insecticide residues. The median baseline concentrations in breast milk in 2002 were low, and the median concentrations in 2006 (280 ng/g lipid) were still lower than in other world populations. However, the observed increases were not uniform and in some individuals high values (5100 ng/g lipid) were determined. Significant differences were found between the concentrations of DDT and related compounds in breast milk according to parity, with higher concentrations in primiparae than multiparae women. These differences overcome the age effect in DDT accumulation between the two groups and evidence that women transfer a significant proportion of their body burden of DDT and its metabolites to their infants. PMID:21764104

  3. Intakes and breast-milk concentrations of essential fatty acids are low among Bangladeshi women with 24-48-month-old children.

    PubMed

    Yakes, Elizabeth A; Arsenault, Joanne E; Munirul Islam, M; Hossain, Mohammad B; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Bruce German, J; Gillies, Laura A; Shafiqur Rahman, Ahmed; Drake, Christiana; Jamil, Kazi M; Lewis, Bess L; Brown, Kenneth H

    2011-06-01

    Maternal fat intake and adipose reserves are major sources of PUFA during lactation. The present study examined the cross-sectional relationship between prolonged breast-feeding and maternal BMI, assessed adequacy of fat intake among lactating and non-lactating mothers of children 24-48 months of age and determined breast-milk fatty acid composition. Multi-stage sampling was used to select a representative sample of mothers from two rural districts in Bangladesh (n 474). Dietary data were collected during two non-consecutive 24 h periods via 12 h in-home daytime observations and recall. The National Cancer Institute method for episodically consumed foods was used to estimate usual intake distributions. Breast milk samples were collected from ninety-eight women, and breast-milk fatty acid methyl esters were quantified using GC. Approximately 42 % of lactating v. 26 % of non-lactating mothers were underweight (BMI < 18·5 kg/m2; P = 0·0003). The maternal diet was low in total fat (approximately 8 % of mean total energy) and food sources of PUFA, including oil and animal source foods, resulting in a low estimated mean total consumption of PUFA (5·1 g/d). Almost all women were estimated to consume less than the recommended intake levels for total fat, total PUFA, ?-linolenic acid (ALA) and DHA. Median breast-milk linoleic acid (8·5 % weight) and ALA (0·2 %) concentrations were among the lowest reported in the literature, in contrast with arachidonic acid (0·5 %) and DHA (0·3 %) concentrations, which were mid-range. Bangladeshi women in general, and especially those who practise prolonged breast-feeding, may benefit from increased consumption of food sources of PUFA. PMID:21324215

  4. Detection of Interstellar Urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Hsin-Lun; Remijan, Anthony J.; Snyder, Lewis E.; Looney, Leslie W.; Friedel, Douglas N.; Lovas, Francis J.; McCall, Benjamin J.; Hollis, Jan M.

    2010-11-01

    Urea, a molecule discovered in human urine by H. M. Rouelle in 1773, has a significant role in prebiotic chemistry. Previous BIMA observations have suggested that interstellar urea [(NH2)2CO] is a compact hot core molecule such as other large molecules (e.g. methyl formate and acetic acid). We have conducted an extensive search for urea toward the high mass hot molecular core Sgr B2(N-LMH) using BIMA, CARMA and the IRAM 30 m. Because the spectral lines of heavy molecules like urea tend to be weak and hot cores display lines from a wide range of molecules, it is necessary to detect a number of urea lines and apply sophisticated statistical tests before having confidence in an identification. The 1 mm resolution of CARMA enables favorable coupling of the source size and synthesized beam size, which was found to be essential for the detection of weak signals. We have detected a total of 65 spectral lines (32 molecular transitions and 33 unidentified transitions), most of which are narrower than the SEST survey (Nummelin et al. 1998) due to the small synthesized beam (2.5" x 2") of CARMA. It significantly resolves out the contamination by extended emission and reveals the eight weak urea lines that were previously blended with nearby transitions. Our analysis indicates that these lines are likely to be urea since the resulting observed line frequencies are coincident with a set of overlapping connecting urea lines, and the observed line intensities are consistent with the expected line strengths of urea. In addition, we have developed a new statistical approach to examine the spatial correlation between the observed lines by applying the Student's t test to the high resolution channel maps obtained from CARMA. The t test shows consistent spatial distributions from all eight candidate lines, suggesting a common molecular origin, urea. Our t test method could have a broad impact on the next generation of arrays, such as ALMA, because the new arrays will require a method to systematically determine the credibility of detections of weaker signals from new and larger interstellar molecules.

  5. Enteric methane production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows fed grass silage- or corn silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    van Gastelen, S; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Klop, G; Alferink, S J J; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing grass silage (GS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric methane (CH4) production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. A completely randomized block design experiment was conducted with 32 multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Four dietary treatments were used, all having a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 80:20 based on dry matter (DM). The roughage consisted of either 100% GS, 67% GS and 33% CS, 33% GS and 67% CS, or 100% CS (all DM basis). Feed intake was restricted (95% of ad libitum DM intake) to avoid confounding effects of DM intake on CH4 production. Nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) and energy balance, and CH4 production were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after adaptation to the diet for 12 d. Increasing CS proportion linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber and crude protein intake and linearly increased starch intake. Milk production and milk fat content (on average 23.4 kg/d and 4.68%, respectively) were not affected by increasing CS inclusion, whereas milk protein content increased quadratically. Rumen variables were unaffected by increasing CS inclusion, except the molar proportion of butyrate, which increased linearly. Methane production (expressed as grams per day, grams per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, and as a percent of gross energy intake) decreased quadratically with increasing CS inclusion, and decreased linearly when expressed as grams of CH4 per kilogram of DM intake. In comparison with 100% GS, CH4 production was 11 and 8% reduced for the 100% CS diet when expressed per unit of DM intake and per unit fat- and protein-corrected milk, respectively. Nitrogen efficiency increased linearly with increased inclusion of CS. The concentration of trans C18:1 FA, C18:1 cis-12, and total CLA increased quadratically, and iso C16:0, C18:1 cis-13, and C18:2n-6 increased linearly, whereas the concentration of C15:0, iso C15:0, C17:0, and C18:3n-3 decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of CS. No differences were found in short- and medium-straight, even-chain FA concentrations, with the exception of C4:0 which increased linearly with increased inclusion of CS. Replacing GS with CS in a common forage-based diet for dairy cattle offers an effective strategy to decrease enteric CH4 production without negatively affecting dairy cow performance, although a critical level of starch in the diet seems to be needed. PMID:25582590

  6. Concentrations of phthalate metabolites in breast milk in Korea: estimating exposure to phthalates and potential risks among breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Jangwoo; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Cho, Geumjoon; Kim, Gun-Ha; Eun, So-Hee; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Suh, Eunsook; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Young Don; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Seunghyo; Eom, Soyong; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-03-01

    Phthalates have been associated with endocrine disruption and developmental effects in many experimental and epidemiological studies. Developing infants are among the most susceptible populations to endocrine disruption. However, limited information is available on phthalate exposure and its associated risks among breast-fed newborn infants. In the present study, breast milk samples were collected from 62 lactating mothers at 1 month post-partum from four cities of Korea in 2012 and were evaluated for six phthalate metabolites (mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP)). MEP was detected in all breast milk samples, with a median concentration of 0.37 ?g/L, and MiBP, MnBP and MEHP were detected in 79-89% of samples, with median concentrations of 1.10, 1.70, and 2.08 ?g/L, respectively. However, MEHHP and MEOHP, the oxidized forms of di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP), were detected in only one sample. For exposure assessment, the levels of phthalate diesters were estimated based on the parent:metabolite ratios in the breast milk that are reported elsewhere. For risk assessment, the endocrine-related toxicity of the monoester was assumed to be the same as that of its diester form. Median daily intake estimates of phthalates, including both monoester and diester forms, through breast milk consumption ranged between 0.91 and 6.52 ?g/kg body weight (bw) for DEHP and between 0.38 and 1.43 ?g/kg bw for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). Based on the estimated daily intake, up to 8% of infants exceeded the reference dose of anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) for DEHP, and 6% of infants exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for DnBP. Breast milk MiBP and MnBP concentrations showed significant positive associations with maternal consumption of whipped cream or purified water. Considering vulnerability of young infants, efforts to mitigate phthalate exposure among lactating women are warranted. PMID:25437948

  7. A Sustainable Alternative to a U.S. Breast Milk Monitoring Program: Using NHANES Serum Data to Estimate Breast Milk PBDE Concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are high-production-volume chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in a variety of consumer products. PBDE concentrations in the environment, wildlife, and humans have been increasing for several decades. Concentrations in t...

  8. Effect of oral mineral and energy supplementation on blood mineral concentrations, energetic and inflammatory profile, and milk yield in dairy cows affected with dystocia.

    PubMed

    Benzaquen, M; Galvão, K N; Coleman, A E; Santos, J E P; Goff, J P; Risco, C A

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of mineral/energy supplementation of dairy cows with dystocia on blood mineral concentrations, energetic and inflammatory profiles, and milk yield. Multiparous Holstein cows with dystocia were randomly assigned into two groups, (1) treated with a mineral/energy supplement (DME, n=?18) and (2) not treated (DNT, n=?22). A group of cows with normal parturition were randomly selected and were left untreated (NNT, n=?25). Cows in DME received an oral drench of 110?g of calcium and 400?g of propionate as calcium propionate plus 110?g potassium chloride and 150?g of magnesium sulfate administered within 6 h of calving and again 3 days post-partum. Compared to cows with a normal parturition, dystocic cows had decreased plasma calcium concentrations, increased plasma haptoglobin, decreased milk yield at 1 day post-partum, and tended to have increased rectal temperatures from 1 to 12 days post-partum. Compared with cows in DNT, those in DME had decreased plasma calcium concentrations and increased plasma magnesium concentrations 2 and 3 days post-partum, and a tendency for an increase in rectal temperature from 1 to 12 days post-partum. Dystocia is detrimental to calcium homeostasis post-partum, but mineral/energy supplementation as undertaken in this study is not recommended for use in cows with dystocia. PMID:25900193

  9. Original article Response of milk yield, plasma cortisol,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Response of milk yield, plasma cortisol, amino acids, urea and glucose to a single yield, plasma cortisol, free amino acids, urea and glucose in lactating cows. The animals were treated cortisol occurred within 10 min of administration of 6 IU ACTH. The maximum increase in plasma cortisol

  10. Replacing corn silage with different forage millet silage cultivars: effects on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of corn silage (CS) with 2 cultivars of forage millet silages [i.e., regular millet (RM) and sweet millet (SM)] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a high-forage total mixed ration (68:32 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included CS (control), RM, and SM diets. Experimental silages constituted 37% of each diet DM. Three ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Relative to CS, RM and SM silages contained 36% more crude protein, 66% more neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 88% more acid detergent fiber. Cows fed CS consumed more dry matter (DM; 24.4 vs. 22.7 kg/d) and starch (5.7 vs. 3.7 kg/d), but less NDF (7.9 vs. 8.7 kg/d) than cows fed RM or SM. However, DM, starch and NDF intakes were not different between forage millet silage types. Feeding RM relative to CS reduced milk yield (32.7 vs. 35.2 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (35.8 vs. 38.0 kg/d) and SCM (32.7 vs. 35.3 kg/d). However, cows fed SM had similar milk, energy-corrected milk, and solids-corrected milk yields than cows fed CS or RM. Milk efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Milk protein concentration was greatest for cows fed CS, intermediate for cows fed SM, and lowest for cows fed RM. Milk concentration of solids-not-fat was lesser, whereas milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed RM than for those fed CS. However, millet silage type had no effect on milk solids-not-fat and milk urea nitrogen levels. Concentrations of milk fat, lactose and total solids were not affected by silage type. Ruminal pH and ruminal NH3-N were greater for cows fed RM and SM than for cows fed CS. Total-tract digestibility of DM (average=67.9%), NDF (average=53.9%), crude protein (average=63.3%), and gross energy (average=67.9%) were not influenced by dietary treatments. It was concluded that cows fed CS performed better than those fed RM or SM likely due to the higher starch and lower NDF intakes. However, no major differences were noted between the 2 forage millet silage cultivars. PMID:25108857

  11. Discriminant analysis of milk adulteration based on near-infrared spectroscopy and pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rong; Lv, Guorong; He, Bin; Xu, Kexin

    2011-03-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, the issue of food safety is becoming a global concern. It is very important to develop a rapid, cost-effective, and widely available method for food adulteration detection. In this paper, near-infrared spectroscopy techniques and pattern recognition were applied to study the qualitative discriminant analysis method. The samples were prepared and adulterated with one of the three adulterants, urea, glucose and melamine with different concentrations. First, the spectral characteristics of milk and adulterant samples were analyzed. Then, pattern recognition methods were used for qualitative discriminant analysis of milk adulteration. Soft independent modeling of class analogy and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) were used to construct discriminant models, respectively. Furthermore, the optimization method of the model was studied. The best spectral pretreatment methods and the optimal band were determined. In the optimal conditions, PLSDA models were constructed respectively for each type of adulterated sample sets (urea, melamine and glucose) and all the three types of adulterated sample sets. Results showed that, the discrimination accuracy of model achieved 93.2% in the classification of different adulterated and unadulterated milk samples. Thus, it can be concluded that near-infrared spectroscopy and PLSDA can be used to identify whether the milk has been adulterated or not and the type of adulterant used.

  12. Effect of dietary cation-anion difference on performance of lactating dairy cows and stability of milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Martins, C M M R; Arcari, M A; Welter, K C; Netto, A S; Oliveira, C A F; Santos, M V

    2015-04-01

    Casein micelle stability is negatively correlated with milk concentrations of ionic calcium, which may change according to the metabolic and nutritional status of dairy cows. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on concentrations of casein subunits, whey proteins, ionic calcium, and milk heat and ethanol stability. Sixteen Holstein cows were distributed in 4 contemporary 4×4 Latin square designs, which consisted of 4 periods of 21d and 4 treatments according to DCAD: 290, 192, 98, and -71mEq/kg of dry matter (DM). The milk concentrations of ionic calcium and ?-casein were reduced as DCAD increased, whereas the milk urea nitrogen and ?-lactoglobulin concentrations were increased. As a result of these alterations, the milk ethanol stability and milk stability during heating at 140°C were increased linearly with increasing DCAD [Y=74.87 (standard error=0.87) + 0.01174 (standard error=0.0025) × DCAD (mEq/kg of DM) and Y=3.95 (standard error=1.02) + 0.01234 (standard error=0.0032) × DCAD (mEq/kg of DM), respectively]. In addition, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and fat, lactose, and total milk solids contents were linearly increased by 13.52, 8.78, 2.5, and 2.6%, respectively, according to DCAD increases from -71 to 290mEq/kg of DM, whereas crude protein and casein content were linearly reduced by 4.83 and 4.49%, respectively. In conclusion, control of metabolic changes in lactating dairy cows to maintain blood acid-base equilibrium plays an important role in keeping milk stable to ethanol and during heat treatments. PMID:25622868

  13. Silent ovulation, based on walking activity and milk progesterone concentrations, in Holstein cows housed in a free-stall barn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. S. B. K. Ranasinghe; T. Nakao; K. Yamada; K. Koike

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the incidence of silent ovulation (based on walking activity and milk progesterone profiles), identify risk factors for silent ovulation, and investigate its impact on reproductive performance in high-yielding dairy cows in free-stall housing. Overall, 277 lactations in 161 Holstein Friesian cows from a commercial dairy herd in northern Japan were studied.

  14. Immediate and residual effects of heat stress and restricted intake on milk protein and casein composition and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cowley, F C; Barber, D G; Houlihan, A V; Poppi, D P

    2015-04-01

    The effects of heat stress on dairy production can be separated into 2 distinct causes: those effects that are mediated by the reduced voluntary feed intake associated with heat stress, and the direct physiological and metabolic effects of heat stress. To distinguish between these, and identify their effect on milk protein and casein concentration, mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows (n=24) were housed in temperature-controlled chambers and either subjected to heat stress [HS; temperature-humidity index (THI) ~78] or kept in a THI<70 environment and pair-fed with heat-stressed cows (TN-R) for 7 d. A control group of cows was kept in a THI<70 environment with ad libitum feeding (TN-AL). A subsequent recovery period (7 d), with THI<70 and ad libitum feeding followed. Intake accounted for only part of the effects of heat stress. Heat stress reduced the milk protein concentration, casein number, and casein concentration and increased the urea concentration in milk beyond the effects of restriction of intake. Under HS, the proportion in total casein of ?S1-casein increased and the proportion of ?S2-casein decreased. Because no effect of HS on milk fat or lactose concentration was found, these effects appeared to be the result of specific downregulation of mammary protein synthesis, and not a general reduction in mammary activity. No residual effects were found of HS or TN-R on milk production or composition after THI<70 and ad libitum intake were restored. Heat-stressed cows had elevated blood concentrations of urea and Ca, compared with TN-R and TN-AL. Cows in TN-R had higher serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations than cows in HS. It was proposed that HS and TN-R cows may mobilize different tissues as endogenous sources of energy. PMID:25648800

  15. Long-Term Supplementation with Beta Serum Concentrate (BSC), a Complex of Milk Lipids, during Post-Natal Brain Development Improves Memory in Rats.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jian; MacGibbon, Alastair; Fong, Bertram; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Karen; Rowan, Angela; McJarrow, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that the supplementation of ganglioside-enriched complex-milk-lipids improves cognitive function and that a phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipid prevents age-related cognitive decline in rats. This current study evaluated the effects of post-natal supplementation of ganglioside- and phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipids beta serum concentrate (BSC) on cognitive function in young rats. The diet of male rats was supplemented with either gels formulated BSC (n = 16) or blank gels (n = 16) from post-natal day 10 to day 70. Memory and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the Morris water maze, dark-light boxes, and elevated plus maze tests. Neuroplasticity and white matter were measured using immunohistochemical staining. The overall performance in seven-day acquisition trials was similar between the groups. Compared with the control group, BSC supplementation reduced the latency to the platform during day one of the acquisition tests. Supplementation improved memory by showing reduced latency and improved path efficiency to the platform quadrant, and smaller initial heading error from the platform zone. Supplemented rats showed an increase in striatal dopamine terminals and hippocampal glutamate receptors. Thus BSC supplementation during post-natal brain development improved learning and memory, independent from anxiety. The moderately enhanced neuroplasticity in dopamine and glutamate may be biological changes underlying the improved cognitive function. PMID:26056919

  16. Long-Term Supplementation with Beta Serum Concentrate (BSC), a Complex of Milk Lipids, during Post-Natal Brain Development Improves Memory in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jian; MacGibbon, Alastair; Fong, Bertram; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Karen; Rowan, Angela; McJarrow, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that the supplementation of ganglioside-enriched complex-milk-lipids improves cognitive function and that a phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipid prevents age-related cognitive decline in rats. This current study evaluated the effects of post-natal supplementation of ganglioside- and phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipids beta serum concentrate (BSC) on cognitive function in young rats. The diet of male rats was supplemented with either gels formulated BSC (n = 16) or blank gels (n = 16) from post-natal day 10 to day 70. Memory and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the Morris water maze, dark–light boxes, and elevated plus maze tests. Neuroplasticity and white matter were measured using immunohistochemical staining. The overall performance in seven-day acquisition trials was similar between the groups. Compared with the control group, BSC supplementation reduced the latency to the platform during day one of the acquisition tests. Supplementation improved memory by showing reduced latency and improved path efficiency to the platform quadrant, and smaller initial heading error from the platform zone. Supplemented rats showed an increase in striatal dopamine terminals and hippocampal glutamate receptors. Thus BSC supplementation during post-natal brain development improved learning and memory, independent from anxiety. The moderately enhanced neuroplasticity in dopamine and glutamate may be biological changes underlying the improved cognitive function. PMID:26056919

  17. Determination of mineral contents in different kinds of milk and estimation of dietary intake in infants.

    PubMed

    Biego, G H; Joyeux, M; Hartemann, P; Debry, G

    1998-10-01

    Concentrations of 11 minerals were determined in six kinds of milk (cow's milk-based formulae, breast-milk, soya milk, bottled milk, dried milk and evaporated milk). The contents of copper, magnesium, molybdenum, aluminium, barium and nickel were higher in soya milk than in any other kinds of milk. Except for nickel in soya milk, the dietary intakes of minerals were below or close to the intake recommended by the FAO/WHO. PMID:10211184

  18. Effect of season on milk temperature, milk growth hormone, prolactin, and somatic cell counts of lactating cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igono, M. O.; Johnson, H. D.; Steevens, B. J.; Hainen, W. A.; Shanklin, M. D.

    1988-09-01

    Monthly fluctuations in milk temperature, somatic cell counts, milk growth hormone and prolactin of lactating cows were measured in milk samples over a 1 year period. The seasonal patterns in milk temperature, somatic cell count and milk prolactin concentration showed a positive trend with increasing environmental temperatures. Milk growth hormone concentration increased with lactation level and declined significantly during summer heat. Milk temperature and the measured hormonal levels may serve as indicators of the impact of the climatic environment on lactating cattle.

  19. Effects of Urea Infusion on the Uterine Luminal Environment of Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Rhoads; R. O. Gilbert; M. C. Lucy; W. R. Butler

    2004-01-01

    Previous research indicates that high plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) concentrations are associated with de- creased fertility in lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to monitor changes in the uterine environment during acute elevation of PUN. Lactating dairy cows (n = 8) were infused with saline or urea (0.01 g of urea\\/h per kg of body weight) through

  20. Chemiresistor urea sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A sensor to detect and quantify urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures, and in blood and other body fluids. The sensor is based upon a chemiresistor, which consists of an interdigitated array of metal fingers between which a resistance measured. The interdigitated array is fabricated on a suitable substrate. The surface of the array of fingers is covered with a coating containing the enzyme urease which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form the ammonium ion, the bicarbonate ion, and hydroxide-chemical products which provide the basis for the measured signal. In a typical application, the sensor could be used at bedside, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. Also, the chemiresistor used to detect urea, can be utilized with a reference chemiresistor which does not contain urease, and connected in a differential measurement arrangement, such that the reference chemiresistor would cancel out any fluctuations due to background effects.

  1. Molecular evolution of urea amidolyase and urea carboxylase in fungi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Urea amidolyase breaks down urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide in a two-step process, while another enzyme, urease, does this in a one step-process. Urea amidolyase has been found only in some fungal species among eukaryotes. It contains two major domains: the amidase and urea carboxylase domains. A shorter form of urea amidolyase is known as urea carboxylase and has no amidase domain. Eukaryotic urea carboxylase has been found only in several fungal species and green algae. In order to elucidate the evolutionary origin of urea amidolyase and urea carboxylase, we studied the distribution of urea amidolyase, urea carboxylase, as well as other proteins including urease, across kingdoms. Results Among the 64 fungal species we examined, only those in two Ascomycota classes (Sordariomycetes and Saccharomycetes) had the urea amidolyase sequences. Urea carboxylase was found in many but not all of the species in the phylum Basidiomycota and in the subphylum Pezizomycotina (phylum Ascomycota). It was completely absent from the class Saccharomycetes (phylum Ascomycota; subphylum Saccharomycotina). Four Sordariomycetes species we examined had both the urea carboxylase and the urea amidolyase sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these two enzymes appeared to have gone through independent evolution since their bacterial origin. The amidase domain and the urea carboxylase domain sequences from fungal urea amidolyases clustered strongly together with the amidase and urea carboxylase sequences, respectively, from a small number of beta- and gammaproteobacteria. On the other hand, fungal urea carboxylase proteins clustered together with another copy of urea carboxylases distributed broadly among bacteria. The urease proteins were found in all the fungal species examined except for those of the subphylum Saccharomycotina. Conclusions We conclude that the urea amidolyase genes currently found only in fungi are the results of a horizontal gene transfer event from beta-, gamma-, or related species of proteobacteria. The event took place before the divergence of the subphyla Pezizomycotina and Saccharomycotina but after the divergence of the subphylum Taphrinomycotina. Urea carboxylase genes currently found in fungi and other limited organisms were also likely derived from another ancestral gene in bacteria. Our study presented another important example showing plastic and opportunistic genome evolution in bacteria and fungi and their evolutionary interplay. PMID:21447149

  2. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production and composition in dairy cows, while fatty acid composition of milk was influenced by RBO supplementation, and resulted in significantly lower (p<0.05) concentrations of both short-chain and medium-chain FA, and increased (p<0.05) the proportion of long-chain FA in milk fat, as well as significantly increased cis-9, trans-11 CLA and total CLA. In conclusion, RBO or CH exhibited specific effects on DM, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition in lactating dairy cows, which were not interactions between CH and RBO in the diets. Feeding lactating dairy cows with RBO could improve fatty acid in milk fat by increasing cis-9, trans-11 CLA. PMID:25049491

  3. Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pirondini, M; Colombini, S; Mele, M; Malagutti, L; Rapetti, L; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch concentrations and fish oil (FO) supplementation on lactation performance, in vivo total-tract nutrient digestibility, N balance, and methane (CH4) emissions in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 2 concentrations of dietary starch [low vs. high: 23.7 and 27.7% on a dry matter (DM) basis; neutral detergent fiber/starch ratios: 1.47 and 1.12], the presence or absence of FO supplement (0.80% on a DM basis), and their interaction were evaluated. Four Italian Friesian cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets in 4 consecutive 26-d periods: (1) low starch (LS), (2) low starch plus FO (LSO), (3) high starch (HS), and (4) high starch plus FO (HSO). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage, alfalfa and meadow hays). The starch concentration was balanced using different proportions of corn meal and soybean hulls. The cows were housed in metabolic stalls inside open-circuit respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emission and the collection of separate urine and feces. No differences among treatments were observed for DM intake. We observed a trend for FO to increase milk yield: 29.2 and 27.5kg/d, on average, for diets with and without FO, respectively. Milk fat was affected by the interaction between dietary starch and FO: milk fat decreased only in the HSO diet. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO on the LS diet. Fish oil supplementation decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids. High-starch diets negatively influenced all digestibility parameters measured except starch, whereas FO improved neutral detergent fiber digestibility (41.9 vs. 46.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively, and ether extract digestibility (53.7 vs. 67.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively). We observed a trend for lower CH4 emission (g/d) and intensity (g/kg of milk) with the high-starch diets compared with the low-starch diets: 396 versus 415g/d on average, respectively, and 14.1 versus 14.9g/kg of milk, respectively. Methane intensity per kilogram of ECM was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO for the LS diet: 14.5 versus 13.3g of CH4/kg of ECM for LS and LSO diets, respectively. PMID:25465540

  4. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in that food. People who are allergic to cow's milk react to one or more of the proteins ... like vanilla soy milk — taste better than regular cow's milk. As with any specialized diet, you'll probably ...

  5. Lead content of milk and infant formula

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.

    1980-03-01

    Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

  6. Neuro-Fuzzy System for Post-Dialysis Urea Rebound Prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Azar; A. H. Kandil; K. M. Wahba; A. M. Elgarhy; W. A. Massoud

    2008-01-01

    Measuring post dialysis urea rebound (PDUR) requires a 30- or 60-minute post-dialysis sampling, which is inconvenient. This paper presents a novel technique for predicting equilibrated urea concentration and post dialysis urea rebound in the form of a Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy inference system. The advantage of this neuro-fuzzy hybrid approach is that it doesn't require 30-60-minute post-dialysis urea sample. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference

  7. [Identification of adulterants in adulterated milks by near infrared spectroscopy combined with non-linear pattern recognition methods].

    PubMed

    Ni, Li-Jun; Zhong, Lin; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Li-Guo; Huang, Shi-Xinz

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, two hundred and eighty seven raw milks collected from pastures in Shanghai and surrounding ar- eas of Shanghai were used as true milk samples and divided into three true milk sets. Five hundred and twenty six adulterated milk samples, which contained dextrin (or starch) mixed with melamine (or urea, or ammonium nitrate), were prepared as six different adulterated milk sets. The concentrations of these adulterants in the adulterated milks were designed to be 0.15%~ 0.45% (starch or dextrin), 700-2,100 mg · kg(-1) (ammonium nitrate), 524-1,572 mg · kg(-1) (urea), and 365.5-1,096.5 mg · kg(-1) (melamine) to guarantee the protein content of adulterated milks detected by Kjeldahl method not lower than 3%. All the near infrared spectra (NIR) of the samples should have a pretreatment of normal variable transformation (SNV) before they were used to build discriminating models. The three true milk sets and six adulterated milk sets were combined in different ways in order to build NIR models for discriminating different kinds of adulterants (i. e. , dextrin, starch, melamine, urea and ammo- nium nitrate) based on simplified K-nearest neighbor classification algorithm (IS-KNN) and an improved and simplified of sup- port vector machine (?-SVM) method. The relationship between mass concentration of the adulterants and the rate of correct discrimination was also investigated. The results show that the average discrimination accuracy of IS-KNN and ?-SVM for identi- fying melamine, urea and ammonium nitrate were in the region of 49.55% to 51.01%, 61.78% to 68.79% and 68.25% to 73.51%, respectively. Therefore within the concentration regions designed in this study, it is difficult to distinguish different kinds of pseudo proteins by NIR spectroscopy. However, the average accuracy of IS-KNN and ?-SVM for identifying starch and dextrin are 92.33% and 93.66%, 77.29% and 85.08%, respectively. Most discrimination results of ?-SVM are better than those of IS-KNN. The correlative analysis between the discrimination accuracy rate and the content levels of the adulterants indi- cated that near infrared spectroscopy combined with non-linear pattern recognition methods can distinguish dextrin and starch in milks with higher concentration levels (> 0.15%), but do not work well on identifying the adulterants with lower concentrations such as melamine (365.5 to 1,096.5 mg kg(-1)), urea (524 to 1,572 mg · kg(-1)), ammonium nitrate (700 to 2,100 mg · kg(-1)). Therefore near Infrared Spectroscopy is not suitable for identifying the adulterants with concentrations are below 0.1%. PMID:25739206

  8. Effect of parity, stage of lactation, and intramammary infection on concentration of somatic cells and cytoplasmic particles in goat milk.

    PubMed

    Dulin, A M; Paape, M J; Schultze, W D; Weinland, B T

    1983-11-01

    Aseptic foremilk samples (about 15 ml) were collected biweekly for four samplings and then monthly throughout lactation from 35 does in three herds on Dairy Herd Improvement test. Bacteriology, direct microscopic somatic cell counts, and cytospin differential cell counts were performed on all samples. Milk yield was obtained from monthly Dairy Herd Improvement records. Thirty-nine percent of udder halves were infected, and coagulase negative staphylococci were the most frequent isolates (201 of 205). Somatic cell counts were influenced by lactation number, stage of lactation, and intramammary infection. Also, infection of one udder half increased somatic cells in the corresponding uninfected mammary half of the same animal. Cytoplasmic particles were not affected by stage of lactation or by intramammary infection but were greater for goats in first lactation. Milk yield was influenced by lactation number, stage of lactation, and intramammary infection. PMID:6655096

  9. Effects of dry period length on milk production, body condition, metabolites, and hepatic glucose metabolism in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weber, C; Losand, B; Tuchscherer, A; Rehbock, F; Blum, E; Yang, W; Bruckmaier, R M; Sanftleben, P; Hammon, H M

    2015-03-01

    Dry period (DP) length affects energy metabolism around calving in dairy cows as well as milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of the study was to investigate milk production, body condition, metabolic adaptation, and hepatic gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in Holstein cows (>10,000 kg milk/305 d) with 28- (n=18), 56- (n=18), and 90-d DP (n=22) length (treatment groups) in a commercial farm. Cows were fed total mixed rations ad libitum adjusted for far-off (not for 28-d DP) and close-up DP and lactation. Milk yield was recorded daily and body condition score (BCS), back fat thickness (BFT), and body weight (BW) were determined at dry off, 1 wk before expected and after calving, and on wk 2, 4, and 8 postpartum (pp). Blood samples were taken on d -56, -28, -7, 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56 relative to calving to measure plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. Liver biopsies (n=11 per treatment) were taken on d -10 and 10 relative to calving to determine glycogen and total liver fat concentration (LFC) and to quantify mRNA levels of pyruvate carboxylase (PC), cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase. Time course of milk yield during first 8 wk in lactation differed among treatment. Milk protein content was higher in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Milk fat to protein ratio was highest and milk urea was lowest in 90-d DP cows. Differences in BW, BFT, and BCS were predominantly seen before calving with greatest BW, BFT, and BCS in 90-d DP cows. Plasma concentrations of NEFA and BHBA were elevated during the transition period in all cows, and the greatest increase pp was seen in 90-d DP cows. Plasma glucose concentration decreased around calving and was greater in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Dry period length also affected plasma concentrations of urea, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase, and glutamate dehydrogenase. Plasma insulin concentration decreased around calving in all cows, but insulin concentration pp was greater in 28-d than in 56-d DP cows. Hepatic glycogen concentration decreased and LFC increased after calving in all cows, and LFC was greater pp in 90-d DP than in 28-d DP cows. Hepatic PC mRNA abundance pp tended to increase most in 90-d DP cows. Changes on glucose metabolism were more balanced in cows with a reduced DP, whereas cows with extended DP and elevated body condition indicated greatest metabolic changes according to lipid and glucose metabolism during the transition period. PMID:25547307

  10. Blood responses of calves fed milk substitutes containing hydrolyzed fish protein and lime-treated corn flour.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Castaneda, M; Brisson, G J

    1989-08-01

    Two experiments involving 3- to 5-d-old dairy calves were carried out. In Experiment 1, lime-treated corn flour (Nixtamal) supplied 50 to 100% of carbohydrates in a milk substitute based on sodium caseinate, lard, and cerelose. In Experiment 2, partially hydrolyzed fish protein concentrate replaced 50% of 67% of proteins in milk substitutes based on skim milk powder, lard, and 35% Nixtamal. Increasing the proportion of carbohydrates supplied by Nixtamal was associated with a linear decrease of postprandial serum glucose and insulin. Postprandial fluctuations in blood glucose were less in calves fed Nixtamal than in controls. Nixtamal probably was trapped within the casein clot in the abomasum, leading to delayed rate of passage of Nixtamal carbohydrates into the intestine. Replacing skim milk protein with hydrolyzed fish protein in diets containing Nixtamal had no effect on blood glucose or insulin but elevated free essential amino acids, which promoted glucagon secretion. More uniform concentrations of blood essential amino acids and glucose were related to lower blood urea at 54 d in calves fed diets based on hydrolyzed fish protein and Nixtamal, than that of control calves. It is suggested that more uniform postprandial blood glucose concentrations might reduce amino acid degradation for energy purposes and stimulate protein synthesis. Young dairy calves may adapt to milk substitutes based on Nixtamal and hydrolyzed fish protein despite changes in the concentration patterns of several blood components. PMID:2677072

  11. Discrimination of adulteration cow milk by improved ?-support vector machines (?-SVM) and near infrared spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Ni; L. G. Zhang; M. Y. Tang; Z. B. Xue; Xin Zhang; Xin Gu; Shixin Huang

    2012-01-01

    Raw cow milk may be adulterated water and pseudo proteins such as melamine either intentionally or accidentally for getting more profit. This study prepared a series of adulteration milk samples by adding different amounts of aqueous solutions of dextrin (or starch) containing pseudo proteins (melamine, urea, or ammonium nitrate) to raw cow milks, which were collected from pastures surrounding Shanghai

  12. The Concentrations of Blood Metabolites and the Relations between Blood Parameters, Fatty Acid Composition of Milk and Estimated ME-Balance in Dairy Cows Given Grass Silage ad libitum with Five Different Carbohydrate Supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Miettinen; P. Huhtanen

    1989-01-01

    The effects of the carbohydrate composition of the concentrate supplements on certain blood metabolites and the relations between blood metabolites, fatty acid composition of milk and estimated ME-balance were studied in 5 dairy cows given grass silage ad libitum in the 5x5 Latin Square design. Substituting barley with unmolassed sugar beet pulp decreased the average plasma concentration of insulin and

  13. Molecular cloning of urea transporters from the kidneys of baleen and toothed whales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoko Birukawa; Hironori Ando; Mutsuo Goto; Naohisa Kanda; Luis A. Pastene; Akihisa Urano

    2008-01-01

    Urea transport in the kidney is important for the production of concentrated urine. This process is mediated by urea transporters (UTs) encoded by two genes, UT-A (Slc14a2) and UT-B (Slc14a1). Our previous study demonstrated that cetaceans produce highly concentrated urine than terrestrial mammals, and that baleen whales showed higher concentrations of urinary urea than sperm whales. Therefore, we hypothesized that

  14. Theoretical study on the structures and properties of mixtures of urea and choline chloride.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Li, Yan; Wu, Xue; Li, Guohui

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we investigated in detail the structural characteristics of mixtures of choline chloride and urea with different urea contents by performing molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, and offer possible explanations for the low melting point of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea with a ratio of 1:2. The insertion of urea molecules was found to change the density distribution of cations and anions around the given cations significantly, disrupting the long-range ordered structure of choline chloride. Moreover, with increasing urea concentration, the hydrogen bond interactions between choline cations and Cl(-) anions decreased, while those among urea molecules obviously increased. From the hydrogen bond lifetimes, it was found that a ratio of 1:2 between choline chloride and urea is necessary for a reasonable strength of hydrogen bond interaction to maintain the low melting point of the mixture of choline chloride with urea. In addition, it was also deduced from the interaction energies that a urea content of 67.7 % may make the interactions of cation-anion, cation-urea and anion-urea modest, and thus results in the lower melting point of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea. The present results may offer assistance to some extent for understanding the physicochemical properties of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea, and give valuable information for the further development and application of deep eutectic solvents. PMID:23435478

  15. Separation and concentration of sulfonylurea herbicides in milk by ionic-liquid-based foam flotation solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyuan; Cao, Bocheng; Yao, Di; Yu, Runzhong; Yu, Changqing; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2015-05-01

    The ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid foam flotation solid-phase extraction of sulfonylurea herbicides in milk was developed and validated. The proteins and lipids were isolated from the sample matrix by adding salt and adjusting the pH value. The target analytes eluted from the solid-phase extraction cartridge were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Some experimental parameters, including the pH value of sample solution, amount of NaCl, ionic liquid type, extraction time, flow rate of carrier gas, flotation time, and solid-phase extraction cartridge type were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the limits of detection for metsulfuron, pyrazosulfuron, chlorimuron-ethyl, and nicosulfuron were 1.3, 0.6, 0.7, and 1.1 ?g/L, respectively. When the present method was applied to the analysis of milk samples the recoveries of the analytes ranged from 84.3 to 105.2% and relative standard deviations were >5.7%. PMID:25727190

  16. Detecting multiple adulterants in dry milk using Raman chemical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S.

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the potential of Raman chemical imaging for simultaneously detecting multiple adulterants in milk powder. Potential chemical adulterants, including ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea, were together mixed into nonfat dry milk in the concentration range of 0.1%-5.0% for each adulterant. A benchtop point-scan Raman imaging system using a 785-nm laser was assembled to acquire hyperspectral images in the wavenumber range of 102-2538 cm-1. Each mixture was imaged in an area of 25×25 mm2 with a spatial resolution of 0.25 mm. Selfmodeling mixture analysis (SMA) was used to extract pure component spectra, by which the four types of the adulterants were identified at all concentration levels based on their spectral information divergence values to the reference spectra. Raman chemical images were created using the contribution images from SMA, and their use to effectively visualize identification and spatial distribution of the multiple adulterant particles in the dry milk was demonstrated.

  17. Chemiresistor urea sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.

    1997-12-16

    A sensor is disclosed to detect and quantify urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures, and in blood and other body fluids. The sensor is based upon a chemiresistor, which consists of an interdigitated array of metal fingers between which a resistance measured. The interdigitated array is fabricated on a suitable substrate. The surface of the array of fingers is covered with a coating containing the enzyme urease which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form the ammonium ion, the bicarbonate ion, and hydroxide-chemical products which provide the basis for the measured signal. In a typical application, the sensor could be used at bedside, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. Also, the chemiresistor used to detect urea, can be utilized with a reference chemiresistor which does not contain urease, and connected in a differential measurement arrangement, such that the reference chemiresistor would cancel out any fluctuations due to background effects. 16 figs.

  18. Effects of dietary forage sources on rumen microbial protein synthesis and milk performance in early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Fu, Y; Wang, B; Wang, C; Ye, J A; Wu, Y M; Liu, J-X

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary forage sources on milk performance, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and N utilization in early lactation dairy cows. Twelve primiparous Chinese Holstein dairy cows (45 ± 6.0 DIM) were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric, with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 45:55 [dry matter (DM) basis] and contained similar concentrate mixtures. Different forage sources were then added (on a DM basis): 21% corn silage, 19% corn stover, and 5% alfalfa hay (CS); 19% corn silage, 21% Chinese wild rye hay and 5% alfalfa hay (CWR); or 19% corn silage, 9% Chinese wild rye hay, and 17% alfalfa hay (AH). Each period lasted for 21 d, with the first 14 d for an adaptation period. Dry matter intake was not affected by the source of dietary forage. Milk yield was higher for cows fed AH than those fed CS, with an intermediate value for CWR. Milk protein content was higher in the cows fed AH compared with CWR (3.02 vs. 2.92%), with CS (2.95%) at an intermediate position. The contents of milk fat and lactose were not different among the treatments. However, milk efficiency (milk yield/DM intake) was higher for cows fed AH than those fed CS, with those fed CWR intermediate. Cows fed AH had higher microbial protein yield and metabolizable protein than those fed CS or CWR. The concentrations of urea N in the urine, blood, and milk were decreased for cows fed AH, indicating an increased N conversion. The results indicated that corn stover could replace Chinese wild rye grass in the diets for lactating cows and that a high proportion of alfalfa hay in the diet is beneficial for milk protein production by increasing microbial protein yield. This can be attributed to the improving the supply of rumen-available energy. PMID:23295118

  19. Computer-Controlled Milk Feeding of Group-Housed Calves: The Effect of Milk Allowance and Weaning Type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Jensen

    2006-01-01

    Calves fed by computer-controlled milk feeders are often weaned gradually by reducing the size of the milk portions. However, reducing the number of milk por- tions instead may lower calves' occupation of the milk feeder and stimulate their concentrate intake, espe- cially when they are offered a high milk allowance. Before weaning, but not during weaning, the calves on low

  20. Detoxication of Ammonia in Sheep Fed Soy Protein or Urea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM CHALUPA; JIMMY CLARK; PAMELA OPLIGER

    Urea-fed sheep were able to detoxify additional ammonia absorbed from the digestive tract by a mechanism involving increased concentrations of liver ornithine. Feeding urea as the sole nitrogen source caused decreases in activities of carbamyl phosphate synthetase, ornithine transcarbamylase and argüíase while no differences were noted in activities of arginine synthetase and argininosuccinase. Decreases in these enzyme systems were concluded

  1. Urea-requiring lactate dehydrogenases of marine elasmobranch fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul H. Yancey; George N. Somero

    1978-01-01

    The kinetic properties — apparentKm of pyruvate, pyruvate inhibition pattern, and maximal velocity — of M4 (skeletal muscle) lactate dehydrogenases of marine elasmobranch fishes resemble those of the homologous lactate dehydrogenases of non-elasmobranchs only when physiological concentrations of urea (approximately 400 mM) are present in the assay medium. Urea increases the apparentKm of pyruvate to values typical of other vertebrates

  2. Compound Heterozygous Mutations in SLC30A2/ZnT2 Results in Low Milk Zinc Concentrations: A Novel Mechanism for Zinc Deficiency in a Breast-Fed Infant

    PubMed Central

    Itsumura, Naoya; Inamo, Yasuji; Okazaki, Fumiko; Teranishi, Fumie; Narita, Hiroshi; Kambe, Taiho; Kodama, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Zinc concentrations in breast milk are considerably higher than those of the maternal serum, to meet the infant's requirements for normal growth and development. Thus, effective mechanisms ensuring secretion of large amounts of zinc into the milk operate in mammary epithelial cells during lactation. ZnT2 was recently found to play an essential role in the secretion of zinc into milk. Heterozygous mutations of human ZnT2 (hZnT2), including H54R and G87R, in mothers result in low (>75% reduction) secretion of zinc into the breast milk, and infants fed on the milk develop transient neonatal zinc deficiency. We identified two novel missense mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene in a Japanese mother with low milk zinc concentrations (>90% reduction) whose infant developed severe zinc deficiency; a T to C transition (c.454T>C) at exon 4, which substitutes a tryptophan residue with an arginine residue (W152R), and a C to T transition (c.887C>T) at exon 7, which substitutes a serine residue with a leucine residue (S296L). Biochemical characterization using zinc-sensitive DT40 cells indicated that the W152R mutation abolished the abilities to transport zinc and to form a dimer complex, indicating a loss-of-function mutation. The S296L mutation retained both abilities but was extremely destabilized. The two mutations were found on different alleles, indicating that the genotype of the mother with low milk zinc was compound heterozygous. These results show novel compound heterozygous mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene causing zinc deficiency in a breast-fed infant. PMID:23741301

  3. Milk from forage as affected by rumen degradable protein and corn grinding when feeding corn- and alfalfa silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, E; Chouinard, P Y; Allard, G; Lapierre, H; Pellerin, D

    2007-02-01

    To increase the production of milk from forage (MF), a previous experiment with alfalfa silage showed the importance of a complementary combination of concentrates and forages offered. When corn silage is fed with alfalfa, increasing the rumen degradable protein (RDP) content in the diet should allow a better utilization of forage energy. To evaluate this hypothesis, 8 multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. Diets were fed as total mixed rations and were formulated to provide similar levels of net energy for lactation and crude protein but differing in RDP. Corn and alfalfa silages were used. Treatments were: 1) cracked corn-based concentrate providing low RDP [level recommended by the NRC (2001); RDP = 11.1% of dry matter (DM)]; 2) cracked corn-based concentrate providing medium RDP (RDP = 12.8% of DM); 3) cracked corn-based concentrate providing high RDP (RDP = 14.5% of DM); and 4) ground corn-based concentrate providing high RDP (RDP = 13.6% of DM). The first 3 treatments, using cracked corn, were compared on the basis of their RDP level. For these treatments, MF, calculated on a protein basis, decreased and the average of MF calculated on an energy basis and MF calculated on a protein basis tended to decrease as RDP increased. There was no difference for MF calculated on an energy basis between treatments. Increasing dietary RDP levels decreased the milk yield (from 32.8 to 30.7 kg/d) and milk protein yield (from 1,094 to 1,005 g/d) but not the milk fat yield. The milk urea N concentration increased as RDP increased. This suggests that there is no advantage of feeding RDP above the NRC recommendations when diets are based on corn and alfalfa silage. At high RDP levels (treatments 3 and 4), ground corn supported higher DM intake and yields of milk and protein than did cracked corn. Milk from forage, calculated on a protein basis, was higher and milk urea N decreased with ground corn. Even with corn silage in the diet, grinding corn grain proved to be beneficial to milk yield and MF production. PMID:17235159

  4. ASSOCIATIONS AMONG CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF IGF-1 AND GH DURING THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD WITH RESUMPTION OF ESTRUS, CALF WEIGHTS, AND MILK PRODUCTION IN MATURE CROSSBRED COWS FED VARYING LEVELS OF ENERGY INTAKE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and GH fluctuate in response to nutritional status. Objectives of this study were to evaluate usefulness of circulating profiles of IGF-1 and GH during the postpartum period as predictors of capacity to resume estrus and level of production (milk and calf growth)...

  5. Determinations of feed-milk-manure relationships on grazing-based dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Powell, J M; Aarons, S R; Gourley, C J P

    2012-10-01

    Feed conversion into milk, nutrient excretion in manure and subsequent environment impacts of manure management are highly influenced by the diets that farmers feed their lactating cows (Bos taurus). On confinement-based dairy farms, determinations of diet composition are relatively straightforward because the types, amounts and nutrients contained in stored feeds are often well known. However, on grazing-based dairy farms, diet composition is more difficult to determine because forage intake during grazing must be estimated. The objectives of this study were to determine relationships between (1) feed N intake (NI), milk production, milk urea N (MUN), feed N use efficiency (FNUE) and excreted manure N (ExN); and (2) between feed P intake (PI), dung P concentrations (g/kg dry matter (DM)) and excreted manure P (ExP) for grazing-based lactating cows having a very wide range of diets and milk production. An additional objective was to evaluate how well these relationships compare with similar relationships based on more direct measurement of feed-milk-manure on confinement-based dairy farms. Four dairy farms located in southeastern Australia were visited during autumn and spring, and data were collected on feed, milk and dung of 18 cows on each farm. Estimated dry matter intake (DMI) from pasture comprised 12% to 75% of total diet DMI, and the crude protein (CP) concentrations in the total diets ranged from 167 to 248 g/kg. During spring, as diet CP increased FNUE declined. Total diet DMI and NI provided the best predictors of ExN, and PI provided the most accurate prediction of ExP. These results indicated accuracy in the study's indirect estimates of pasture DMI. Likely due to high levels and great variability in dietary CP and P concentrations associated with use of diet supplements, MUN did not appear to be a good indicator of dietary CP, and P in dung was not a good indicator of dietary P. PMID:23031567

  6. Counteraction of urea-induced protein denaturation by trimethylamine N-oxide: A chemical chaperone at atomic resolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian J. Bennion; Valerie Daggett

    2004-01-01

    Proteins are very sensitive to their solvent environments. Urea is a common chemical denaturant of proteins, yet some animals contain high concentrations of urea. These animals have evolved an interesting mechanism to counteract the effects of urea by using trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). The molecular basis for the ability of TMAO to act as a chemical chaperone remains unknown. Here, we

  7. Improving the nutritive value of wheat straw with urea and yeast culture for dry season feeding of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kashongwe, Olivier Basole; Migwi, Preminius; Bebe, Bockline Omedo; Ooro, Patrick Auwor; Onyango, Tobias Atali; Osoo, John Odhiambo

    2014-08-01

    The study evaluated the effects of feeding urea treated/supplemented wheat straw-based diets with addition of yeast culture (YC) as a dry season feed for dairy cows. Wheat straw diets with 3.6% urea and 5.8% molasses were formulated to upgrade nonprotein nitrogen levels and fibre degradation in the rumen. Yeast culture was included at 0 and 10 g/cow/day in mixer with commercial dairy meal to improve on fibre degradation and milk yield. Two experiments were conducted. Firstly, an in sacco dry matter degradability (DMD) trial with three steers in a completely randomized design (CRD) with a 3?×?2 factorial arrangement to determine the effects on intake and rumen degradation parameters. Secondly, feeding trial with 18 lactating cows in a 3?×?2 factorial arrangement at two levels of yeast culture (0 and 10 g/cow/day) and three types of urea interventions: No intervention (WS); addition of urea to straw at the time of feeding (USWS); and 7 days incubation of straw with urea (UTWS). Yeast cultures addition had no effect on rumen pH and NH3-N, but urea intervention showed an effect on rumen pH with USWS being lowest (p?urea interventions and yeast culture addition had no effect (p?>?0.05) on dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition but they increased (p?

  8. Comparison of the nutrient composition of commercial dog milk replacers with that of dog milk

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Cailin R.; Freeman, Lisa M.; Martin, Camilia R.; Power, Michael L.; Fascetti, Andrea J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the nutrient composition of commercially available dog milk replacers with that of dog milk. Design Prospective, cross-sectional study. Sample 5 dog milk samples and 15 samples of commercial dog milk replacers. Procedures Dog milk and milk replacers were analyzed for concentrations of total protein, essential amino acids, sugars, total fat, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus. Energy density was calculated. Results from milk replacers were compared with the range of the concentration of each nutrient in milk samples from mature dogs as well as the National Research Council (NRC) recommendations for puppy growth. Results Milk replacers varied widely in caloric density and concentration of nutrients such as calcium, protein, and fat. Calcium concentration was lower in 14 of 15 milk replacers than in the dog milk samples. Docosahexaenoic acid was undetectable in 12 of 15 milk replacers but present in all dog milk samples. All milk replacers had numerous essential nutrients outside of the range of the dog milk samples, and many had concentrations of amino acids, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus less than the NRC minimal requirement or recommended allowance. Compared with NRC recommendations, some dog milk samples had concentrations of total protein, linoleic acid, calcium, or phosphorus less than the recommended allowance. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results suggested that there was substantial variation in nutrient composition of 15 dog milk replacers and that some products were closer approximations of dog milk than others. Nearly all products would benefit from more appropriate calcium, amino acids, and essential fatty acids concentrations and better feeding directions. PMID:24871064

  9. Urea dewaxing of naphthene oils

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, Th. C.; Wright, J. H.

    1985-03-12

    In an improved urea dewaxing process a urea/alcohol slurry chilled to 60/sup 0/ F. to 65/sup 0/ F. is added to a naphthenic distillate chilled to 60/sup 0/ F. to 65/sup 0/ F. to produce a refrigerator oil with improved low temperature properties.

  10. Hydrogen production via urea electrolysis using a gel electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Rebecca L.; Botte, Gerardine G.

    2011-03-01

    A technology was demonstrated for the production of hydrogen and other valuable products (nitrogen and clean water) through the electrochemical oxidation of urea in alkaline media. In addition, this process remediates toxic nitrates and prevents gaseous ammonia emissions. Improvements to urea electrolysis were made through replacement of aqueous KOH electrolyte with a poly(acrylic acid) gel electrolyte. A small volume of poly(acrylic acid) gel electrolyte was used to accomplish the electrochemical oxidation of urea improving on the previous requirement for large amounts of aqueous potassium hydroxide. The effect of gel composition was investigated by varying polymer content and KOH concentrations within the polymer matrix in order to determine which is the most advantageous for the electrochemical oxidation of urea and production of hydrogen.

  11. Bovine milk in human nutrition – a review

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Anna; Høstmark, Arne T; Harstad, Odd M

    2007-01-01

    Milk and milk products are nutritious food items containing numerous essential nutrients, but in the western societies the consumption of milk has decreased partly due to claimed negative health effects. The content of oleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, short- and medium chain fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds may promote positive health effects. Full-fat milk has been shown to increase the mean gastric emptying time compared to half-skimmed milk, thereby increasing the gastrointestinal transit time. Also the low pH in fermented milk may delay the gastric emptying. Hence, it may be suggested that ingesting full-fat milk or fermented milk might be favourable for glycaemic (and appetite?) regulation. For some persons milk proteins, fat and milk sugar may be of health concern. The interaction between carbohydrates (both natural milk sugar and added sugar) and protein in milk exposed to heat may give products, whose effects on health should be further studied, and the increasing use of sweetened milk products should be questioned. The concentration in milk of several nutrients can be manipulated through feeding regimes. There is no evidence that moderate intake of milk fat gives increased risk of diseases. PMID:17894873

  12. Effects of oral supplementation with ?-carotene on concentrations of ?-carotene, vitamin A and ?-tocopherol in plasma, colostrum and milk of mares and plasma of their foals and on fertility in mares.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, J; Aurich, J E; Wulf, M; Hurtienne, A; Schweigert, F J; Aurich, C

    2012-06-01

    In this study, effects of oral ?-carotene supplementation to mares (?-carotene group: 1000 mg/day, n = 15; control group: n = 15) from 2 weeks before foaling until 6 weeks thereafter on concentrations of ?-carotene, vitamin A and ?-tocopherol in plasma, colostrum and milk and plasma of their foals were determined. In addition, effects on fertility were studied. Beta-carotene concentrations increased in plasma and colostrum of ?-carotene-supplemented mares compared to control mares (p < 0.05). In mares of both groups, ?-carotene concentrations were higher in colostrum than in milk (p < 0.05). In foals, ?-carotene concentrations increased with colostrum uptake and were higher in foals born to supplemented mares (p < 0.05; control group: 0.0003 ± 0.0002 ?g/ml on day 0, 0.008 ± 0.0023 ?g/ml on day 1; ?-carotene group: 0.0005 ± 0.0003 ?g/ml on day 0, 0.048 ± 0.018 ?g/ml on day 1). Concentrations of vitamin A and ?-tocopherol were higher in colostrum than in milk (p < 0.05) but did not differ between groups. Concentration of ?-tocopherol in plasma of mares decreased over time and in foals, increased markedly within 4 days after birth. All but one mare (control group) showed oestrus within 2 weeks post-partum. Occurrence of oestrus did not differ between groups. More mares of the control group (7/7 vs. 5/12 in the ?-carotene group) became pregnant after being bred in first post-partum oestrus (p < 0.05). In conclusion, ?-carotene supplementation to mares increased ?-carotene concentrations in plasma, colostrum and milk of mares and plasma of their foals but had no positive effects on fertility. PMID:21545547

  13. Effects of fertilizer-urea on growth, photosynthetic activity and microcystins production of Microcystis aeruginosa isolated from Dianchi Lake.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenmin; Bi, Yonghong; Hu, Zhengyu

    2014-05-01

    Urea is the most frequently applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer in agriculture, while its loss is assumed triggering algal blooms in adjacent water bodies. In this context the present study assessed the growth, photosynthetic activity as well as toxin production of Microcystis aeruginosa at different urea concentrations (0.125, 1.25, 12.5, 250 and 2,500 mg/L) using BG11 (containing 250 mg/L NO3(-)-N) as control. The results showed for all endpoints that M. aeruginosa is capable of using urea as N source: the two highest urea treatments delivered comparable values like the control. Low urea concentrations (0.125 and 1.25 mg/L), which were comparable to environmental urea levels, did not sustainably promote the growth, photosynthesis and toxin production of the test species. While, in certain microenvironments urea might potentially reach the concentrations that may affect M. aeruginosa. PMID:24515350

  14. Causes, kinetics and clinical implications of post-hemodialysis urea rebound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciano A Pedrini; Samir Zereik; Samir Rasmy

    1988-01-01

    Causes, kinetics and clinical implications of post-hemodialysis urea rebound. The rapid increase in end-dialysis urea concentration (Co) immediately after the end of dialysis (HD), which greatly exceeds that expected as an effect of urea generation and defined as “net rebound,” was assessed in 21 chronic HD patients. The curve of serial values of net rebound correlated (r = 0.70) with

  15. Artificial Neural Network for accurate prediction of post-dialysis urea rebound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Azar; Valentina E. Balas; Teodora Olariu

    2010-01-01

    Total dialysis dose (Kt\\/V) is considered to be a major determinant of morbidity and mortality in hemodialyzed patients. The continuous growth of the blood urea concentration over the 30- to 60-min period following dialysis, a phenomenon known as urea rebound, is a critical factor in determining the true dose of hemodialysis. The misestimation of the equilibrated (true) post-dialysis blood urea

  16. Urea cycle enzymes through the development of pacu ( Piaractus mesopotamicus ): the role of ornithine carbamoyl transferase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Sérgio Monzani; Gilberto Moraes

    2008-01-01

    The present work reports the activities of urea cycle enzymes during the ontogenic development of the teleost pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus). Urea cycle enzymes from the kidney and liver of adult fish were compared with those from the fish's embryonic phases. Samples\\u000a were evaluated over all phases of embryonic development, the larval period and alevin. Ammonia and urea concentrations were\\u000a determined

  17. The Effect of Feeding a Milk Diet Versus Concentrate and Hay Diet on the Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Profile of Lambs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    The object of this study was to compare carcass and meat quality characteristics of conventionally reared lambs with others reared solely on milk. Eighteen crossbred lambs weaned at 5 weeks of age were randomized within each sex into 2 groups. The first group was fed reconstituted whole milk and the second, commercial lamb pellets and hay. Both diets were offered

  18. Milk transfer of phenoxymethylpenicillin during puerperal mastitis.

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, I; Samseth, M; Løberg, R; Faegri, A; Prentice, A

    1988-01-01

    1 The milk excretion of phenoxymethylpenicillin (PMP) was studied from both breasts in patients with mastitis (n = 12) and healthy volunteers (controls, n = 4) to investigate the hypothesis that milk transfer of PMP is higher in mastitic than in non-mastitic breasts. 2 Patients were included according to clinical symptoms of mastitis. Milk (and serum from controls) were sampled 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 h after a single oral dose of 1320 mg PMP. Penicillin concentrations in milk and serum were measured by an agar diffusion technique. 3 Maximum milk concentrations (Cmax) of PMP in patients were higher (P less than 0.05) in mastitic than in non-mastitic breasts. The latter concentrations were higher (P less than 0.05) than those in breast milk from healthy controls. In milk from the mastitis patients (both breasts) the Cmax was reached after 2 h with a subsequent rapid decline in concentration. In milk from the healthy controls the PMP concentration reached a plateau after 4 h. The area under the milk concentration vs time curve (AUC0-8h) was not different for mastitic vs non-mastitic breast milk in patients nor for mastitic vs control breast milk. This can be explained by higher rates of appearance and disappearance of PMP in the breast milk of mastitis patients compared with healthy controls. In mastitic breast milk there was a moderate (P less than 0.01) increase in sodium and albumin compared with non-mastitic milk. However, milk potassium, glucose and lactose values were within normal limits.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3130891

  19. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but do increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Antaya, N T; Soder, K J; Kraft, J; Whitehouse, N L; Guindon, N E; Erickson, P S; Conroy, A B; Brito, A F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean±standard deviation) 40±21 d in milk and 464±35 kg of body weight and 4 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 75±37 d in milk and 384±17kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21 d with 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed a total mixed ration (64:36 forage-to-concentrate ratio) supplemented (as fed) with 0, 57, 113, or 170 g/d of ANOD. Milk yield as well as concentrations and yields of milk components (fat, protein, lactose, milk urea N) were not affected by increasing dietary amounts of ANOD. Concentration (from 178 to 1,370 µg/L) and yield (from 2.8 to 20.6 mg/d) of milk I increased linearly in cows fed incremental amounts of ANOD as a result of the high concentration of I (820 mg/kg of dry matter) in ANOD. Overall, only minor changes were observed in the proportion of milk fatty acids with ANOD supplementation. Quadratic trends were observed for dry matter intake and total-tract digestibilities of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber, whereas negative linear trends were observed for serum concentration of cortisol and crude protein digestibility with ANOD supplementation. Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not affected by ANOD supplementation and averaged 1.1 and 48.4 ng/mL, respectively. However, feeding increasing amounts of ANOD linearly reduced the plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (from 164 to 132 mEq/L). Quadratic effects were found for the total-tract digestibility of ADF and urinary output of purine derivatives, suggesting that ANOD supplementation may stimulate growth of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in a dose-dependent fashion. In general, feeding incremental amounts of ANOD to early lactation dairy cows dramatically increased milk I concentration and output with no effect on animal performance. PMID:25547299

  20. Characterization of Timed Changes in Hepatic Copper Concentrations, Methionine Metabolism, Gene Expression, and Global DNA Methylation in the Jackson Toxic Milk Mouse Model of Wilson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Le, Anh; Shibata, Noreene M.; French, Samuel W.; Kim, Kyoungmi; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Islam, Mohammad S.; LaSalle, Janine M.; Halsted, Charles H.; Keen, Carl L.; Medici, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Background Wilson disease (WD) is characterized by hepatic copper accumulation with progressive liver damage to cirrhosis. This study aimed to characterize the toxic milk mouse from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME, USA) (tx-j) mouse model of WD according to changes over time in hepatic copper concentrations, methionine metabolism, global DNA methylation, and gene expression from gestational day 17 (fetal) to adulthood (28 weeks). Methods Included liver histology and relevant biochemical analyses including hepatic copper quantification, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) liver levels, qPCR for transcript levels of genes relevant to methionine metabolism and liver damage, and DNA dot blot for global DNA methylation. Results Hepatic copper was lower in tx-j fetuses but higher in weanling (three weeks) and adult tx-j mice compared to controls. S-adenosylhomocysteinase transcript levels were significantly lower at all time points, except at three weeks, correlating negatively with copper levels and with consequent changes in the SAM:SAH methylation ratio and global DNA methylation. Conclusion Compared to controls, methionine metabolism including S-adenosylhomocysteinase gene expression is persistently different in the tx-j mice with consequent alterations in global DNA methylation in more advanced stages of liver disease. The inhibitory effect of copper accumulation on S-adenosylhomocysteinase expression is associated with progressively abnormal methionine metabolism and decreased methylation capacity and DNA global methylation. PMID:24810691

  1. Dynamic Analysis of the Lactococcus lactis Transcriptome in Cheeses Made from Milk Concentrated by Ultrafiltration Reveals Multiple Strategies of Adaptation to Stresses ?

    PubMed Central

    Cretenet, Marina; Laroute, Valérie; Ulvé, Vincent; Jeanson, Sophie; Nouaille, Sébastien; Even, Sergine; Piot, Michel; Girbal, Laurence; Le Loir, Yves; Loubière, Pascal; Lortal, Sylvie; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is used extensively for the production of various cheeses. At every stage of cheese fabrication, L. lactis has to face several stress-generating conditions that result from its own modification of the environment as well as externally imposed conditions. We present here the first in situ global gene expression profile of L. lactis in cheeses made from milk concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF-cheeses), a key economical cheese model. The transcriptomic response of L. lactis was analyzed directly in a cheese matrix, starting from as early as 2 h and continuing for 7 days. The growth of L. lactis stopped after 24 h, but metabolic activity was maintained for 7 days. Conservation of its viability relied on an efficient proteolytic activity measured by an increasing, quantified number of free amino acids in the absence of cell lysis. Extensive downregulation of genes under CodY repression was found at day 7. L. lactis developed multiple strategies of adaptation to stressful modifications of the cheese matrix. In particular, expression of genes involved in acidic- and oxidative-stress responses was induced. L. lactis underwent unexpected carbon limitation characterized by an upregulation of genes involved in carbon starvation, principally due to the release of the CcpA control. We report for the first time that in spite of only moderately stressful conditions, lactococci phage is repressed under UF-cheese conditions. PMID:21075879

  2. Milk Pricing

    E-print Network

    Anderson, David P.; Haigh, Michael; Stockton, Matthew; Schwart Jr., Robert B.

    2001-09-10

    cooperative movement really came into being to market the main products derived from milk, butter and cheese. About 80 percent of the milk marketed today moves through cooperatives. Cooperatives developed the practice of pool- ing. A cooperative pools the milk... price is based on a USDA survey of cheese and whey prices. The Class IV skim price is based on a USDA survey of nonfat dry milk prices. The Class I butterfat price is based on a USDA survey of butter prices. Surveys of the Class III and IV advanced skim...

  3. Effect of urea-treated or untreated straw with cotton seed on performances of lactating Maradi (Red Sokoto) goats in Niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. A Djibrillou; V. S Pandey; S. A Gouro; A Verhulst

    1998-01-01

    Thirty Maradi (Red Sokoto) does were divided into three equal groups and followed during the first eight weeks of lactation. Each group was offered one of the following Schizachyrium exile based diets: untreated straw (UNTS), urea-treated straw (UTS), untreated straw+400 g of cotton seed (UNTS+CS). Feed intake, milk yield, milk fat, milk protein and live weight were monitored weekly. The

  4. Removal of milk fat globules from whey protein concentrate 34% to prepare clear and heat-stable protein dispersions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-10-01

    Whey protein concentrates (WPC) are low-cost protein ingredients, but their application in transparent ready-to-drink beverages is limited due to turbidity caused by fat globules and heat instability. In this work, fat globules were removed from WPC 34% (WPC-34) to prepare heat-stable ingredients via the Maillard reaction. The removal of fat globules by acid precipitation and centrifugation was observed to be the most complete at pH 4.0, and the loss of protein was caused by micrometer-sized fat globules and protein aggregates. Spray-dried powder prepared from the transparent supernatant was glycated at 130°C for 20 and 30min or 60°C for 24 and 48h. The 2 groups of samples had comparable heat stability and degree of glycation, evaluated by free amino content and analytical ultracentrifugation, but high-temperature, short-time treatment reduced the color formation during glycation. Therefore, WPC-34 can be processed for application in transparent beverages. PMID:25108870

  5. Original article Isotopic estimation of milk intake in sucking lambs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of available nutrients between milk output and other requirements (body reserves and/or wool growth) in the eweOriginal article Isotopic estimation of milk intake in sucking lambs with deuterium oxide space: effects of milk concentration and level of milk intake F Bocquier M Thériez, JP Brun INRA, Laboratoire de

  6. Daily rhythmicity in nutrient content of asinine milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Piccione; F. Fazio; G. Caola; R. Refinetti

    2008-01-01

    Asinine (donkey) milk has been proposed as an alternative to bovine (cow) milk for consumption by human infants who are allergic to bovine milk proteins. To expand the current knowledge of asinine lactation, we investigated daily rhythmicity in the concentration of major constituents of asinine milk. We observed no daily rhythmicity in somatic cell count and pH but observed robust

  7. Reverse iontophoresis of urea in health and chronic kidney disease: a potential diagnostic and monitoring tool?

    PubMed Central

    Ebah, Leonard M; Read, Ian; Sayce, Andrew; Morgan, Jane; Chaloner, Christopher; Brenchley, Paul; Mitra, Sandip

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) need regular monitoring, usually by blood urea and creatinine measurements, needing venepuncture, frequent attendances and a healthcare professional, with significant inconvenience. Noninvasive monitoring will potentially simplify and improve monitoring. We tested the potential of transdermal reverse iontophoresis of urea in patients with CKD and healthy controls. Methods Using a MIC 2® Iontophoresis Controller, reverse iontophoresis was applied on the forearm of five healthy subjects (controls) and 18 patients with CKD for 3–5 h. Urea extracted at the cathode was measured and compared with plasma urea. Results Reverse iontophoresis at 250 ?A was entirely safe for the duration. Cathodal buffer urea linearly correlated with plasma urea after 2 h (r = 0·82, P < 0·0001), to 3·5 h current application (r = 0·89, P = 0·007). The linear equations y = 0·24x + 1 and y = 0·21x + 4·63 predicted plasma urea (y) from cathodal urea after 2 and 3 h, respectively. Cathodal urea concentration in controls was significantly lower than in patients with CKD after a minimum current application of 2 h (P < 0·0001), with the separation between the two groups becoming more apparent with longer application (P = 0·003). A cathodal urea cut-off of 30 ?M gave a sensitivity of 83·3% and positive predictive value of 87% CKD. During haemodialysis, the fall in cathodal urea was able to track that of blood urea. Conclusion Reverse iontophoresis is safe, can potentially discriminate patients with CKD and healthy subjects and is able to track blood urea changes on dialysis. Further development of the technology for routine use can lead to an exciting opportunity for its use in diagnostics and monitoring. PMID:22409780

  8. EFFECTS OF DIETARY CRUDE PROTEIN ON SERUM AND URINE UREA NITROGEN IN FEEDLOT STEERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effects of dietary CP concentration and source on serum urea N (SUN) and urine urea N (UUN). A metabolism trial with three collection periods (approximately d 35, 95, and 155 on feed) was conducted using twenty seven crossbred steers (average BW = 353.2 ± 8.4 kg). Treatments were ...

  9. Supplementation of dairy cows with propylene glycol during the periparturient period: effects on body condition score, milk yield, first estrus post-partum, ?-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and glucose concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Laranja da Fonseca; Paulo Henrique; Mazza Rodrigues; Marcos Veiga dos Santos; André Pinto Lima

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of propylene glycol (PPG) supplementation to periparturient cows on: milk yield, changes in body condition score (BCS), days to first oestrus after calving, and on the b-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), non-esterefied fatty acids (NEFA) and glucose concentrations. Twenty-three Holstein cows were distributed into two treatments: a) 300 mL of PPG (group treatment,

  10. Effects of essential oils on digestion, ruminal fermentation, rumen microbial populations, milk production, and milk composition in dairy cows fed alfalfa silage or corn silage.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Petit, H V; Berthiaume, R; Ouellet, D R; Chiquette, J; Chouinard, P Y

    2007-02-01

    Four Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design (28-d periods) with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to investigate the effects of addition of a specific mixture of essential oil compounds (MEO; 0 vs. 750 mg/d) and silage source [alfalfa silage (AS) vs. corn silage (CS)] on digestion, ruminal fermentation, rumen microbial populations, milk production, and milk composition. Total mixed rations containing either AS or CS as the sole forage source were balanced to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. In general, no interactions between MEO addition and silage source were observed. Except for ruminal pH and milk lactose content, which were increased by MEO supplementation, no changes attributable to the administration of MEO were observed for feed intake, nutrient digestibility, end-products of ruminal fermentation, microbial counts, and milk performance. Dry matter intake and milk production were not affected by replacing AS with CS in the diet. However, cows fed CS-based diets produced milk with lower fat and higher protein and urea N concentrations than cows fed AS-based diets. Replacing AS with CS increased the concentration of NH(3)-N and reduced the acetate-to-propionate ratio in ruminal fluid. Total viable bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, and protozoa were not influenced by MEO supplementation, but the total viable bacteria count was higher with CS- than with AS-based diets. The apparent digestibility of crude protein did not differ between the AS and CS treatments, but digestibilities of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were lower when cows were fed CS-based diets than when they were fed AS-based diets. Duodenal bacterial N flow, estimated using urinary purine derivatives and the amount of N retained, increased in cows fed CS-based diets compared with those fed AS-based diets. Feeding cows AS increased the milk fat contents of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 (conjugated linoleic acid) and 18:3 (n-3 fatty acid) compared with feeding cows CS. Results from this study showed limited effects of MEO supplementation on nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation, and milk performance when cows were fed diets containing either AS or CS as the sole forage source. PMID:17235165

  11. A rapid, two-hour method for the enumeration of total viable bacteria in samples from commercial milk powder and whey protein concentrate powder manufacturing plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Flint; Jean-Louis Drocourt; Kylie Walker; Barbara Stevenson; Michelle Dwyer; Ian Clarke; Desmond McGill

    2006-01-01

    A new protocol specifically designed to enumerate total viable bacteria in milk powder using flow cytometry was validated against aerobic plate counts using 178 samples of whole milk powder. Viable counts, as measured using flow cytometry, correlated well (r2>0.80) with plate counts across the range of powders with counts of 102–108cfug?1. The protocol was then used to enumerate total viable

  12. Nutritional adequacy of goat milk infant formulas for term infants: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shao J; Sullivan, Thomas; Gibson, Robert A; Lönnerdal, Bo; Prosser, Colin G; Lowry, Dianne J; Makrides, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The safety and nutritional adequacy of goat milk infant formulas have been questioned. The primary aim of the present study was to compare the growth and nutritional status of infants fed a goat milk infant formula with those of infants fed a typical whey-based cow milk infant formula. The secondary aim was to examine a range of health- and allergy-related outcomes. A double-blind, randomised controlled trial with 200 formula-fed term infants randomly assigned to receive either goat or cow milk formula from 2 weeks to at least 4 months of age was conducted. A cohort of 101 breast-fed infants was included for comparison. Weight, length and head circumference were measured at 2 weeks and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Nutritional status was assessed from serum albumin, urea, creatinine, Hb, ferritin, and folate and plasma amino acid concentrations at 4 months. Z-scores for weight, length, head circumference and weight for length were not different between the two formula-fed groups. There were differences in the values of some amino acids and blood biomarkers between the formula-fed groups, but the mean values for biomarkers were within the normal reference range. There were no differences in the occurrence of serious adverse events, general health, and incidence of dermatitis or medically diagnosed food allergy. The incidence of parentally reported blood-stained stools was higher in the goat milk formula-fed group, although this was a secondary outcome and its importance is unclear. Goat milk formula provided growth and nutritional outcomes in infants that did not differ from those provided by a standard whey-based cow milk formula. PMID:24502951

  13. Influence of Condensed Tannins from Ficus bengalensis Leaves on Feed Utilization, Milk Production and Antioxidant Status of Crossbred Cows

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Avijit; De, Partha Sarathi

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of condensed tannins (CT) from Ficus bengalensis leaves on the feed utilization, milk production and health status of crossbred cows. Eighteen crossbred dairy cows at their second and mid lactation (avg. BW 351.6±10.6 kg) were randomly divided into two groups of nine each in a completely randomized block design and fed two iso-nitrogenous supplements formulated to contain 0% and 1.5% CT through dried and ground leaves of Ficus bengalensis. The diets were designated as CON and FBLM, respectively and fed to cows with a basal diet of rice straw to meet requirements for maintenance and milk production. The daily milk yield was significantly (p<0.05) increased due to supplementation of FBLM diet. The 4% fat corrected milk yield was also significantly (p<0.01) higher due to increased (p<0.05) milk fat in cows under diet FBLM as compared to CON. The inclusion of CT at 1.5% in the supplement did not interfere with the feed intake or digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF by lactating cows. Digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) values of the composite diets were comparable between the groups. The blood biochemical parameters remained unaltered except significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum urea concentration in cows fed FBLM diet. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in cows supplemented with condensed tannins. The total thiol group (T-SH) was found to be higher with reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cows of FBLM group. The cost of feeding per kg milk production was also reduced due to supplementation of Ficus bengalensis leaves. Therefore, a perceptible positive impact was evident on milk production and antioxidant status in crossbred cows during mid-lactation given supplement containing 1.5% CT through Ficus bengalensis leaves. PMID:25049960

  14. Metabolism in the Artificially Reared Rat Pup: Effect of an Atypical Rat Milk Substitute1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NANCY SONNENBERG; JAMES D. BERGSTROM

    A substitute for rat milk (Messer et al., 1969 (1)) has been evaluated as a nutrient source to artificially feed rat pups from 4 days after birth. The rat milk substitute has a normal fat concentration, suboptimal protein concentration and a high carbohydrate concentration when compared to natural rat milk. Rat pups artificially reared on the milk substitute by intermittent

  15. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF N-CHLORAMINES AND DIAZOLIDINYL UREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A combination of MICs of an N-chloramine, a simple chlorinated amino acid, and diazolidinyl urea gave synergistic activity against bacteria, but not fungi. The two compounds at a higher concentration, 0.1 and 0.3%, respectively, gave synergistic inhibition of fungi; kill times we...

  16. Immunodetection of added glycomacropeptide in milk formulas and milk powders.

    PubMed

    Oancea, Simona; Stoia, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed the detection of fraudulent manipulation of milk powder with a low cost component--whey powder, by applying the immunochromatographic assay to identify glycomacropeptide. Five commercial milk powder samples of various brands from the national market were analyzed: lactose enriched milk powder type 26, two whole milk powders, vitamin enriched milk powder and full cream milk powder. Our results showed additional whey (1-2%) in 60% of the selected samples after casein removal by precipitation with 20% trichloracetic acid. Another investigated sample--the enriched UHT milk for children aged 4-12 years--proved addition of whey. Other two commercial toddler formula milk powder samples of different brands were used for comparison for the presence of glycomacropeptide. The first sample which was regularly labeled as containing whey protein concentrate was found positive for glycomacropeptide in accordance with the label information, while the second one not containing whey proteins as specified by the product label, was found negative for glycomacropeptide, these two samples being in accordance with the actual legislation. PMID:21717808

  17. Milk Thistle

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be extracted from the seeds (fruit) of the milk thistle plant, is believed to be the biologically active part of the herb . The seeds are used to prepare capsules, extracts, powders, and tinctures. Top What the Science Says Previous ...

  18. Milk Plastic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mission Science Workshop

    2013-01-01

    In this activity, learners transform everyday milk into small plastic figurines and jewelry. Use this activity to introduce learners to monomers and polymers. Note: this activity requires adult supervision.

  19. Disappearing Milk

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2007-08-09

    A magician pours milk into a glass, but when he turns the glass upside down, nothing comes out. How does he do it? Discover the science behind the magic in this video adapted from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  20. Viscosity, microstructure and phase behavior of aqueous mixtures of commercial milk protein products and xanthan gum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Hemar; M. Tamehana; P. A. Munro; H. Singh

    2001-01-01

    The behavior of commercial milk protein\\/xanthan mixtures was studied at neutral pH. Four milk protein ingredients; skim milk powder, milk protein concentrate, sodium caseinate and whey protein isolate were considered. For the xanthan concentrations used, up to 1wt%, the viscosity of the mixtures was dominated by the viscosity of xanthan. Mixtures of xanthan with skim milk powder or milk protein

  1. [Source analysis of urea-N in Lake Taihu during summer].

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-Xi; Zhu, Guang-Wei; Xu, Hai; Wilhelm, Steven W; Qin, Bo-Qiang; Li, Zhao-Fu

    2014-07-01

    To study the effect of urea nitrogen on the ecosystem of Lake Taihu, we conducted urea and various nitrogen analysis for the water samples collected from the lake and surrounding rivers during summer. The ecological index analysis of 82 sites in rivers and lake yielded the following results: (1) The urea nitrogen contents in Taihu ranged from 0.011 to 0.161 mg x L(-1), which was high in the northwest and low in the southeast, related to the main pollution sources distribution of its drainage basin. (2) The dissolved nitrogen was dominated by inorganic nitrogen and the ratio between ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen was 5: 1. The average percentage of urea nitrogen in total nitrogen, dissolved nitrogen, dissolved organic nitrogen and bioavailable nitrogen was respectively 2.28%, 5.91%, 15.86%, and 6.22%, which showed a significant ecological function in Taihu. (3) Urea nitrogen concentration in river was more than twice that in lake, and the lake river concentration was slightly higher than the river into the lake. (3) In Taihu, there was a transformation relationship between urea nitrogen and the nitrogen in other forms. It showed that urea nitrogen had a significant positive correlation with permanganate index and the other forms of nitrogen, and a significant negative correlation with dissolved oxygen. In addition, urea nitrogen was weakly and positively correlated with chlorophyll a, while closely related to the spatial distribution of benthos and zooplankton species. All the results above showed that urea nitrogen was the bridge of organic and inorganic nitrogen transformation, and was the sign of nitrogen cycle of Lake Taihu, which was controlled by the circulating rate. High nitrogen content (especially the organic nitrogen) and low dissolved oxygen content were the key contributors to the increased urea nitrogen content. In Taihu, the urea nitrogen content was affected by both exogenous input and endogenous release. PMID:25244836

  2. Urea is not a universal cryoprotectant among hibernating anurans: evidence from the freeze-tolerant boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata).

    PubMed

    Higgins, Steven A; Swanson, David L

    2013-02-01

    Freeze-tolerant organisms accumulate a diversity of low molecular weight compounds to combat negative effects of ice formation. Previous studies of anuran freeze tolerance have implicated urea as a cryoprotectant in the wood frog (Lithobates sylvatica). However, a cryoprotective role for urea has been identified only for wood frogs, though urea accumulation is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for coping with osmotic stress in amphibians. To identify whether multiple solutes are involved in freezing tolerance in the boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata), we examined seasonal and freezing-induced variation in several potential cryoprotectants. We further tested for a cryoprotective role for urea by comparing survival and recovery from freezing in control and urea-loaded chorus frogs. Tissue levels of glucose, urea, and glycerol did not vary significantly among seasons for heart, liver, or leg muscle. Furthermore, no changes in urea or glycerol levels were detected with exposure to freezing temperatures in these tissues. Urea-loading increased tissue urea concentrations, but failed to enhance freezing survival or facilitate recovery from freezing in chorus frogs in this study, suggesting little role for urea as a natural cryoprotectant in this species. These data suggest that urea may not universally serve as a primary cryoprotectant among freeze-tolerant, terrestrially hibernating anurans. PMID:23142424

  3. Effect of urea on growth and microcystins production of Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuanhao; Yan, Yangwei; Wang, Pinfei; Ni, Lanqi; Gao, Jiayi; Dai, Ruihua

    2015-04-01

    The effects of urea on the growth and toxin content of Microcystis aeruginosa isolated from Dianchi Lake in China were investigated. Experiments were carried out in lab using (15)N isotopic technique to characterize urea-N biosynthesis to microcystins. High urea concentration (3.6 mmol-N L(-1)) would restrict the growth of M.aeruginosa and the production of microcystin-LR, while low urea concentration (0.4-1.4 mmol-N L(-1)) would promote the growth of M.aeruginosa and the production of microcystin-LR. The (15)N labeling experiment further demonstrated that there existed selectivity when M.aeruginosa assimilated urea to form its structure. The majority of M.aeruginosa assimilated 1 urea molecule at first which was biosynthesized into the Ala or Leu residue. On day 18, The m/z=1004 parent ion assimilated 9 (15)N except that the Mdha residue did not assimilate any urea-(15)N. The results give deeper insight to the biosynthesis of urea into microcystins. PMID:25638406

  4. Milk production and nitrogen excretion of dairy cows fed different amounts of protein and varying proportions of alfalfa and corn silage.

    PubMed

    Groff, E B; Wu, Z

    2005-10-01

    Four trials were conducted to determine the effect of dietary protein amount on lactation performance and N utilization. Each trial used one of the following alfalfa-to-corn-silage ratios for the forage part of the diet: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75. All trials utilized 16 mid-lactation Holstein cows (days in milk averages ranging from 80 to 140 among trials) in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 3-wk periods, including 2 wk for adaptation and 1 wk for data collection. Diets consisted of 50% forage and 50% concentrate (dry matter basis) and were formulated to contain 15.00, 16.25, 17.50, or 18.75% protein in each trial. The analyzed protein content of the diets was 15.7, 16.9, 18.0, and 19.2% when averaged across trials. Milk yield was similar among dietary protein levels in each trial, ranging from 35.2 to 36.1 kg/d when data were combined across trials. Changes in milk fat and protein due to the protein content of the diet were small and inconsistent. Both milk urea nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentrations increased linearly as the protein content of the diet was increased, ranging from 9.9 to 13.1 and from 9.9 to 13.8 mg/dL, respectively, across trials. As dietary protein was increased from the lowest to the highest concentrations when data were combined and analyzed, mean fecal N concentration increased from 2.8 to 3.0%, and urinary N from 5.8 to 7.3 g/L. At the same time, mean total N excretion increased from 484 to 571 g/d, and conversion of intake N to milk N decreased from 0.27 to 0.22, resulting in an average change of 18%. Of the N excreted, urinary N accounted for an increasing proportion, ranging from 41 to 48%, as dietary protein was increased. Overall, based on N utilization as well as milk production, 17% protein in diets utilizing various proportions of alfalfa and corn silage as the forage source appeared sufficient for cows producing 38 kg/d of milk in this study. PMID:16162536

  5. Regulation of urea uptake in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Jahns

    1992-01-01

    The energy-dependent urea permease was studied in two strains ofPseudomonas aeruginosa, measuring the uptake (transport and metabolism) of14C-urea. In both strains urea uptakein vivo and urease activityin vitro differed significantly with respect to kinetic parameters, temperature and pH dependence and response to metabolic inhibitors. Ammonium strongly interfered both with the expression of the urea uptake system and its activity. The

  6. Milking of cows in late pregnancy: milk production during this period and during the succeeding lactation.

    PubMed

    Rémond, B; Ollier, A; Miranda, G

    1992-08-01

    Fifteen lactating cows were milked throughout pregnancy, and the effects on milk performance were studied during this period and during the succeeding lactation, relative to 11 conventionally managed cows (2 months dry before calving) as controls. During the last 2 months of pregnancy, only nine cows did not dry off spontaneously. Protein and fat concentrations in milk increased rapidly, but the concentration of lactose, corrected for milk yield, did not change. The ratios of individual caseins to total protein decreased with the quantity of milk produced, but only for yields below approximately 6 kg/d. The relative proportion of kappa-casein tended to decrease in the last milkings. During the succeeding lactation (first 15 weeks after calving and first 6 weeks of grazing) continuously milked cows yielded 4 kg milk/d less than the cows of the other group. The protein content of their milk was higher (2-3 g/kg depending on the period) than that of the control group, and the lactose content tended (P less than 0.10) to be lower. Changes in the relative proportions of nitrogenous fractions with time were not different in the two groups. Differences between the two groups in the concentration of protein in milk, and in the concentration of glucose and non-esterified fatty acids in the plasma, suggest a better energy balance for the continuously milked cows during the succeeding lactation. PMID:1401350

  7. Concentration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-09-15

    This NCTM iOS app of the familiar online Illuminations game, "Concentration" (cataloged separately) challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.

  8. Prediction of enteric methane output from milk fatty acid concentrations and rumen fermentation parameters in dairy cows fed sunflower, flax, or canola seeds.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, R; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2011-12-01

    Milk fatty acid (FA) composition has been suggested as a means of predicting enteric methane (CH?) output in lactating dairy cattle because of the common biochemical pathways among CH?, acetate, and butyrate in the rumen. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a Latin square design with four 28-d periods. All diets contained steam-rolled barley, a pelleted supplement, barley silage [45% of dietary dry matter (DM)] and 3.3% added fat (DM basis) from 1 of 4 sources: calcium salts of long-chain FA (palm oil; control) or crushed oilseeds from sunflower, flax, or canola. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the effect of diets on milk FA profile; (2) model CH? production from milk FA composition, intake, and rumen fermentation variables; and (3) test the applicability of CH(4) prediction equations reported in previous studies. Methane (g/d) was measured in chambers (2 animals/chamber) on 3 consecutive days (d 21-23). The test variables included total DM intake (DMI, kg/d; d 21-23), forage DMI (kg/d; d 21-23), milk yield (kg/d; d 21-23), milk components (d 18-21), milk FA composition (% total FA methyl esters; d 18-21), rumen volatile FA (mol/100 mol; d 19-21), and protozoal counts (d 19-21), and were averaged by chamber and period to determine relationships between CH? and the test variables. Milk trans(t)10-, t11-18:1, and cis(c)9t11-18:2 were greater for sunflower seeds compared with the other diets. Forage DMI (correlation coefficient, r=0.52; n=32), DMI (r=0.52; n=32), and rumen acetate + butyrate:propionate (r=0.72; n=16) were positively related to CH? (g/d), whereas rumen propionate (r=0.63; n=16), milk c9-17:1 (r=0.64; n=32), and c11-18:1 (r=0.64; n=32) were negatively related to CH?. The best regression equation (coefficient of determination=0.90; n=16) was CH? (g/d)=-910.8 (±156.7) × milk c9-17:1 + 331.2 (±88.8) × milk 16:0 iso + 0.0001 (±0.00) × total entodiniomorphs + 242.5 (±39.7). Removing rumen parameters from the model also resulted in a reasonably good estimate (coefficient of determination=0.83; n=32) of CH?. Stepwise regression analysis within diets resulted in greater coefficient of determination and lower standard error values. Predictions of CH?, using equations from previous studies for the data set from this study, resulted in a mean overestimation ranging from 19 to 61% across studies. Thus, milk FA alone may not be suitable for developing universal CH? prediction equations. PMID:22118093

  9. Urea Monitor Based on Chemiluminescence and Electrolysis as a Marker for Dialysis Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Masahiro; Okabayashi, Tohru; Ishimaru, Teppei; Hayashi, Kunihito; Hori, Jun'ya; Yamamoto, Isao; Nakagawa, Masuo

    We have developed a practical urea monitor based on a chemiluminescent (CL) reaction of urea and hypobromous acid produced by electrolysis of sodium bromide (NaBr) for measuring urea concentration in spent dialysate at set intervals. A reagent containing 4×10-2 M hypobromous acid is produced by electrolysis of an electrolyte containing 5.9 M NaBr and 0.2 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Chemiluminescence is emitted by injection of spent hemodialysis fluid (0.11 ml) into the reagent, and the CL-intensity is measured by a photomultiplier tube using the photon counting technique. The CL-intensity is proportional to the 0.9th power of the urea concentration between 7×10-4 and 2×10-2 M. The urea monitor can determine the urea concentration in spent dialysate samples collected from the waste line of a dialyzer, and the time for the intermittent measurements including the cleaning cycle of the reaction chamber is 3 min. The urea concentrations measured by the monitor are in close agreement with those measured by the conventional enzyme colorimetric method using urease for the spent dialysate collected during a hemodialysis treatment, and the correlation coefficient is 0.93.

  10. Nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation characteristic in swamp buffaloes fed on chemically treated rice straw and urea.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vinh Thi; Wanapat, Metha; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kongmun, Phongthorn

    2012-03-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine effects of urea-lime-treated rice straw and urea levels in concentrate on rumen fermentation, apparent nutrient digestibility, and cellulolytic bacteria population of 4-year-old, rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes. All animals were randomly assigned according to a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement in a 4?×?4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments: factor A, two sources of roughage (rice straw and 2%urea?+?2%lime-treated rice straw); factor B, two levels of urea in concentrate mixture (0% and 4%). Roughages were given ad libitum together with 0.3% BW of concentrate. It was found that voluntary feed intake, the digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, acetate, and propionate concentration were significantly increased (P?concentration were increased by both factors of treated rice straw and 4% urea in concentrate. The real-time PCR quantification of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus population, and anaerobic fungi were greater (P??0.05) as influenced by treated rice straw and urea level. In conclusion, the combined use of urea-lime-treated rice straw and fed with concentrate (4% urea) could improve rumen ecology, rumen fermentation efficiency, and nutrient digestibility in swamp buffaloes. PMID:21805305

  11. The influence of temperature and solid matter content on the viscosity of whey protein concentrates and skim milk powder before and after tribomechanical treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoran Herceg; Vesna Lelas

    2005-01-01

    In this work the influence of temperature and solid matter content on the viscosity of model systems prepared with tribomechanically treated as well as untreated whey proteins and skim milk powder was investigated.The rheological properties of model systems were determined using a rotational rheometer Rheometric Scientific RM-180, and described by the Ostwald de Waele “power law”. Significantly higher viscosity was

  12. Detection of calcium based neutralizers in milk and milk products by AAS.

    PubMed

    Sowmya, R; Indumathi, K P; Arora, S; Sharma, V; Singh, A K

    2015-02-01

    Current study was carried out with the intent to standardize detection and estimation method for calcium (Ca) based neutralizers in milk and milk based indigenous products (khoa and paneer) using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Neutralized milk, khoa and paneer samples were prepared using milk with developed acidity to which calculated quantity of neutralizer (Ca based) was added. Rosalic acid test results get masked at times due to developed acidity which neutralizes the alkalinity imparted by neutralizer and hence gives false result with time in neutralizer added samples. Atomic absorption spectroscopy proved to be an accurate estimate which could detect the abnormal rise in mineral concentration even with slight addition of neutralizers in comparison with control milk and milk products. Formalin, which is a commonly used preservative in milk samples for chemical analysis, did not have any significant impact on estimation of calcium in the neutralized milk during storage. PMID:25694738

  13. Effects of urea on the microstructure and phase behavior of aqueous solutions of polyoxyethylene surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Carolina L.; Schneider, Craig S.; Santonicola, Mariagabriella; Lenhoff, Abraham M.; Kaler, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane proteins are made soluble in aqueous buffers by the addition of various surfactants (detergents) to form so-called protein-detergent complexes (PDCs). Properties of membrane proteins are commonly assessed by unfolding the protein in the presence of surfactant in a buffer solution by adding urea. The stability of the protein under these conditions is then monitored by biophysical methods such as fluorescence or circular dichroism spectroscopy. Often overlooked in these experiments is the effect of urea on the phase behavior and micellar microstructure of the different surfactants used to form the PDCs. Here the effect of urea on five polyoxyethylene surfactants – n-octylytetraoxyethylene (C8E4), n-octylpentaoxyethylene (C8E5), n-decylhexaoxyethylene (C10E6), n-dodecylhexaoxyethylene (C12E6) and n-dodecyloctaoxylethylene (C12E8) – is explored. The presence of urea increases the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of all surfactants studied, indicating that the concentration of both the surfactant and urea should be considered in membrane protein folding studies. The cloud point temperature of all surfactants studied also increases with increasing urea concentration. Small-angle neutron scattering shows a urea-induced transition from an elongated to a globular shape for micelles of C8E4 and C12E6. In contrast, C8E5 and C12E8 form more globular micelles at room temperature and the micelles remain globular as the urea concentration is increased. The effects of increasing urea concentration on micelle structure are analogous to those of decreasing the temperature. The large changes in micelle structure observed here could also affect membrane protein unfolding studies by changing the structure of the PDC. PMID:21359094

  14. Trimethylamine N-oxide counteracts the denaturing effects of urea or GdnHCl on protein denatured state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pannur Venkatesu; Ming-Jer Lee; Ho-mu Lin

    2007-01-01

    To understand trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) attenuation of the denaturating effects of urea or guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl), we have determined the apparent transfer free energies (?Gtr?) of cyclic dipeptides (CDs) from water to TMAO, urea or GdnHCl, and also the blends of TMAO and denaturants (urea or GdnHCl) at a 1:2 ratio as well as various denaturant concentrations in the presence

  15. On the urea induced hydrophobic collapse of a water soluble polymer.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ropero, Francisco; van der Vegt, Nico F A

    2015-04-01

    Stabilization of macromolecular folded states in solution by protective osmolytes has been traditionally explained on the basis of preferential osmolyte depletion from the macromolecule's first solvation shell. However recent theoretical and experimental studies suggest that protective osmolytes may directly interact with the macromolecule. An example is the stabilization of the collapsed globular state of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAM) by urea in aqueous solution. Based on Molecular Dynamics simulations we have characterized the mechanism through which urea stabilizes the collapsed state of PNiPAM in water. Analysis and comparison of the different components of the excess chemical potentials of folded and unfolded PNiPAM chains in aqueous urea solutions indicates that enthalpic interactions play no role in stabilizing the collapsed state. We instead find that with increasing urea, solvation of the unfolded state is entropically penalized over solvation of the folded state, thereby shifting the folding equilibrium in favour of the folded state. The unfavourable entropy contribution to the excess chemical potential of unfolded PNiPAM chains results from two urea effects: (1) an increasing cost of cavity formation with increasing urea, (2) larger fluctuations in the energy component corresponding to PNiPAM-(co)solvent attractive interactions. These energy fluctuations are particularly relevant at low urea concentrations (<3 M) and result from attractive polymer-urea van der Waals interactions that drive the formation of "urea clouds" but bias the spatial distribution of urea and water molecules with a corresponding reduction of the entropy. We further find indications that urea increases the entropy of the globular state. PMID:25684267

  16. Effect of prilled urea and modified urea materials on yield and quality of geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens L. Her.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Rajeswara Rao; Kailash Singh; A. K. Bhattacharya; A. A. Naqvi

    1990-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted to study the effect of prilled urea, neem cake coated urea, dicyandiamide treated urea and urea supergranules applied to a perennial aromatic herb, geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L. Her'.) grown on a sandy loam soil. Application of nitrogen increased the biomass and essential oil yields. Neem cake coated urea significantly increased the yields over prilled urea.

  17. Clinical and biochemical assessment of a modified evaporated milk for infant feeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N R Belton; F Cockburn; J O Forfar; M M Giles; J Kirkwood; J Smith; D Thistlethwaite; T L Turner; E M Wilkinson

    1977-01-01

    A clinical and biochemical evaluation has been made of a new milk formula, Modified Carnation milk (MCM), based on cows' milk but with the mineral content and concentration of caloric nutrients altered to make it correspond more closely to human milk. MCM produced higher plasma calcium and magnesium concentrations in 6-day-old infants than those produced by unmodified evaporated and dried

  18. Influence of Estrus of Dairy Goats on Somatic Cell Count, Milk Traits, and Sex Steroid Receptors in the Mammary Gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Moroni; G. Pisoni; G. Savoini; E. van Lier; S. Acuña; J. P. Damián; A. Meikle

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of the stage of a spontaneous estrus cycle on milk yield and constituents (somatic cell count (SCC), fat, protein, caseins, lactose, and urea content) and on estrogen re- ceptor-? (ER?) and progesterone receptor (PR) immu- nostaining in the mammary gland. In experiment I, the major components of milk and SCC were monitored

  19. Effects of supplemental energy and protein on forage digestion and urea kinetics in growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bailey, E A; Titgemeyer, E C; Olson, K C; Brake, D W; Jones, M L; Anderson, D E

    2012-10-01

    Effects of supplemental energy sources on nutrient digestion and urea kinetics at 2 levels of degradable intake protein were evaluated in cattle (Bos taurus). Six ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (208 ± 17 kg) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square with treatments arranged as a 3 × 2 factorial. Energy treatments included a control, 600 g glucose dosed ruminally once daily, and 480 g VFA infused ruminally over 8 h daily. Casein (120 or 240 g) was dosed ruminally once daily. Steers had ad libitum access to prairie hay (5.8% CP). Jugular infusion of (15)N(15)N-urea with measurement of enrichment in urine was used to measure urea kinetics. Infusing VFA decreased (P < 0.01) forage intake by 27%. Supplementing glucose decreased (P < 0.01) total tract NDF digestibility and tended to decrease ruminal NDF digestibility; depressions in response to glucose tended to be greater at the lower level of casein. Increasing casein decreased (P < 0.02) ruminal pH. Infusing VFA decreased pH only during infusions, whereas glucose decreased pH 2 h after dosing. Ruminal concentrations of NH(3), acetate, and propionate decreased and butyrate concentration increased when glucose was supplemented. Increasing casein supplementation increased (P < 0.01) ruminal concentrations of NH(3), acetate, and propionate. Supplemental energy decreased (P = 0.03) plasma urea-N concentration, but casein level did not affect it (P = 0.16). Microbial N flow was greater (P < 0.04) for 240 than for 120 g/d casein but was not affected by supplemental energy (P = 0.23). Urea-N entry rate and gut entry of urea-N were not affected (P ? 0.12) by supplemental energy or casein, but the proportion of urea production that was recycled to the gut was less (P = 0.01) when 240 g/d rather than 120 g/d casein was provided. Compared with VFA, glucose tended (P = 0.07) to increase the proportion of urea-N entry rate that was recycled to the gut. Supplementation with glucose led to more (P = 0.01) microbial uptake of recycled urea than did supplementation with VFA. Urea recycling did not differ greatly among treatments despite impacts on ruminal pH and NH(3) and on plasma urea-N that were expected to alter urea transport across ruminal epithelium. Lack of treatment effects on urea production indicate that the complete diets did not provide excessive amounts of N and that increases of intestinally available AA were used efficiently by cattle for protein deposition. PMID:22851247

  20. [Renal regulation of the excretion of urea in fasting camels].

    PubMed

    Leng, L; Bod'a, K; Tasenov, K T; Karinbaev, R S; Makasev, E K; Rachimberdiev, S A; Tlegenov, D K; Jurgalieva, L A

    1984-09-01

    Experiments were performed with young two-humped camels exposed to 36-hour starvation with free access to water. The renal functions were measured by the standard clearance method. In spite of the administration of 20 micrograms DDAVP, a higher urine flow rate was recorded in the camels subjected to control measurements (feed intake) than in the fasting period (1.45 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.96 +/- 0.06 ml . min-1, P less than less than 0.001). On the second day of fasting the camels had a significantly reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR 317.5 +/- 23.2 vs. 170.2 +/- 17.4 ml . min-1, P less than 0.001), urea output (700.5 +/- 62.9 vs. 352.2 +/- 64.7 mumol . min-1, P less than 0.005), and fractional excretion of urea (26.9 +/- 2.8 vs. 17.9 +/- 1.7%, P less than 0.01), whereas their tubular resorption. of urea (Reab urea/GFR) increased (6.28 +/- 0.61 vs. 9.12 +/- 0.82 mumol . ml-1, P less than 0.02). No significant difference was found in the concentration of urea in plasma in the fed camels and in fasting camels (8.55 +/- 0.64 vs. 11.18 +/- 1.09 mmol . l-1, N. S.). The creatinine inulin clearance ratio (C creat/Cin) was 0.92 +/- 0.07 when the animals were fed and 1.17 +/- 0.05 when the animals starved (P less than 0.001); this suggests that the clearance of endogenous creatinine is not suitable for GFR measurement in camels under different conditions of nutrition. The kidneys of camels regulate the excretion of urea during short-time fasting mainly through the reduction of glomerular filtration rate and just partly through an increased tubular resorption. PMID:6438869

  1. Role for urea in nitrification by polar marine Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Waller, Alison S.; Mende, Daniel R.; Bakker, Kevin; Farnelid, Hanna; Yager, Patricia L.; Lovejoy, Connie; Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Potvin, Marianne; Heinrich, Friederike; Estrada, Marta; Riemann, Lasse; Bork, Peer; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Bertilsson, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Despite the high abundance of Archaea in the global ocean, their metabolism and biogeochemical roles remain largely unresolved. We investigated the population dynamics and metabolic activity of Thaumarchaeota in polar environments, where these microorganisms are particularly abundant and exhibit seasonal growth. Thaumarchaeota were more abundant in deep Arctic and Antarctic waters and grew throughout the winter at surface and deeper Arctic halocline waters. However, in situ single-cell activity measurements revealed a low activity of this group in the uptake of both leucine and bicarbonate (<5% Thaumarchaeota cells active), which is inconsistent with known heterotrophic and autotrophic thaumarchaeal lifestyles. These results suggested the existence of alternative sources of carbon and energy. Our analysis of an environmental metagenome from the Arctic winter revealed that Thaumarchaeota had pathways for ammonia oxidation and, unexpectedly, an abundance of genes involved in urea transport and degradation. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that most polar Thaumarchaeota had the potential to oxidize ammonia, and a large fraction of them had urease genes, enabling the use of urea to fuel nitrification. Thaumarchaeota from Arctic deep waters had a higher abundance of urease genes than those near the surface suggesting genetic differences between closely related archaeal populations. In situ measurements of urea uptake and concentration in Arctic waters showed that small-sized prokaryotes incorporated the carbon from urea, and the availability of urea was often higher than that of ammonium. Therefore, the degradation of urea may be a relevant pathway for Thaumarchaeota and other microorganisms exposed to the low-energy conditions of dark polar waters. PMID:23027926

  2. Role for urea in nitrification by polar marine Archaea.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Waller, Alison S; Mende, Daniel R; Bakker, Kevin; Farnelid, Hanna; Yager, Patricia L; Lovejoy, Connie; Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Potvin, Marianne; Heinrich, Friederike; Estrada, Marta; Riemann, Lasse; Bork, Peer; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Bertilsson, Stefan

    2012-10-30

    Despite the high abundance of Archaea in the global ocean, their metabolism and biogeochemical roles remain largely unresolved. We investigated the population dynamics and metabolic activity of Thaumarchaeota in polar environments, where these microorganisms are particularly abundant and exhibit seasonal growth. Thaumarchaeota were more abundant in deep Arctic and Antarctic waters and grew throughout the winter at surface and deeper Arctic halocline waters. However, in situ single-cell activity measurements revealed a low activity of this group in the uptake of both leucine and bicarbonate (<5% Thaumarchaeota cells active), which is inconsistent with known heterotrophic and autotrophic thaumarchaeal lifestyles. These results suggested the existence of alternative sources of carbon and energy. Our analysis of an environmental metagenome from the Arctic winter revealed that Thaumarchaeota had pathways for ammonia oxidation and, unexpectedly, an abundance of genes involved in urea transport and degradation. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that most polar Thaumarchaeota had the potential to oxidize ammonia, and a large fraction of them had urease genes, enabling the use of urea to fuel nitrification. Thaumarchaeota from Arctic deep waters had a higher abundance of urease genes than those near the surface suggesting genetic differences between closely related archaeal populations. In situ measurements of urea uptake and concentration in Arctic waters showed that small-sized prokaryotes incorporated the carbon from urea, and the availability of urea was often higher than that of ammonium. Therefore, the degradation of urea may be a relevant pathway for Thaumarchaeota and other microorganisms exposed to the low-energy conditions of dark polar waters. PMID:23027926

  3. Vetiver grass is capable of removing TNT from soil in the presence of urea.

    PubMed

    Das, Padmini; Datta, Rupali; Makris, Konstantinos C; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2010-05-01

    The high affinity of vetiver grass for 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the catalytic effectiveness of urea in enhancing plant uptake of TNT in hydroponic media we earlier demonstrated were further illustrated in this soil-pot-experiment. Complete removal of TNT in urea-treated soil was accomplished by vetiver at the low initial soil-TNT concentration (40 mg kg(-1)), masking the effect of urea. Doubling the initial TNT concentration (80 mg kg(-1)) significantly (p<0.002) increased TNT removal by vetiver, in the presence of urea. Without vetiver grass, no significant (p=0.475) change in the soil-TNT concentrations was observed over a period of 48 days, suggesting that natural attenuation of soil TNT could not explain the documented TNT disappearance from soil. PMID:20047780

  4. Structure and properties of urea-plasticized starch films with different urea contents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Li; Cheng, Fei; Zhu, Pu-Xin

    2014-01-30

    Films of thermoplastic starch (TPS) plasticized with different contents of urea were prepared by using a solution casting method. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy were used to characterize structures of the TPS films, respectively. Water vapor sorption isotherms and tensile properties of the films were determined. TPS films showed more smooth and transparent in appearance and less B-type crystallinity than the starch film without urea. The effect of urea content on the structure and behavior of the TPS film could be divided in three stages: (1) below urea 10% where urea interacted with starch via H-bonding and the films showed an antiplasticization effect, (2) from urea 10% to 30% where an apparent plasticization effect appeared on the starch because of free urea molecules as the effective plasticizer, and (3) a macroscopic phase separation occurred due to supersaturation of urea when urea content was more than 30%. PMID:24299881

  5. Urea biosensor for hemodialysis monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.

    1999-01-12

    This research discloses an electrochemical sensor capable of detecting and quantifying urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures. The sensor is based upon measurement of the pH change produced in an aqueous environment by the products of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The sensor may be fabricated using methods amenable to mass fabrication, resulting in low-cost sensors and thus providing the potential for disposable use. In a typical application, the sensor could be used in treatment centers, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. The sensor can also be utilized to allow at-home testing to determine if dialysis was necessary. Such a home monitor is similar, in principle, to devices used for blood glucose testing by diabetics, and would require a blood droplet sample by using a finger prick. 9 figs.

  6. Urea biosensor for hemodialysis monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting and quantifying urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures. The sensor is based upon measurement of the pH change produced in an aqueous environment by the products of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The sensor may be fabricated using methods amenable to mass fabrication, resulting in low-cost sensors and thus providing the potential for disposable use. In a typical application, the sensor could be used in treatment centers, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. The sensor can also be utilized to allow at-home testing to determine if dialysis was necessary. Such a home monitor is similar, in principle, to devices used for blood glucose testing by diabetics, and would require a blood droplet sample by using a finger prick.

  7. The effect of pH on the inhibition of bacterial growth by physiological concentrations of butyric acid: Implications for neonates fed on suckled milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Q Sun; Charmian J O'Connor; Susan J Turner; Gillian D Lewis; Roger A Stanley; Anthony M Roberton

    1998-01-01

    Butyric acid is released from milk by pre-intestinal lipases during suckling. It is also known to inhibit bacterial growth. To investigate whether butyric acid may be a significant factor in controlling bacterial growth in the stomach of pre-weaned animals, the ability of butyric acid to inhibit growth of selected bacteria was tested over physiological ranges of pH and butyric acid

  8. Evaluation of milk compositional variables on coagulation properties using partial least squares.

    PubMed

    Bland, Julie H; Grandison, Alistair S; Fagan, Colette C

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of numerous milk compositional factors on milk coagulation properties using Partial Least Squares (PLS). Milk from herds of Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cattle was collected across the year and blended (n=55), to maximise variation in composition and coagulation. The milk was analysed for casein, protein, fat, titratable acidity, lactose, Ca2+, urea content, micelles size, fat globule size, somatic cell count and pH. Milk coagulation properties were defined as coagulation time, curd firmness and curd firmness rate measured by a controlled strain rheometer. The models derived from PLS had higher predictive power than previous models demonstrating the value of measuring more milk components. In addition to the well-established relationships with casein and protein levels, CMS and fat globule size were found to have as strong impact on all of the three models. The study also found a positive impact of fat on milk coagulation properties and a strong relationship between lactose and curd firmness, and urea and curd firmness rate, all of which warrant further investigation due to current lack of knowledge of the underlying mechanism. These findings demonstrate the importance of using a wider range of milk compositional variables for the prediction of the milk coagulation properties, and hence as indicators of milk suitability for cheese making. PMID:25287607

  9. Mechanistic insights into osmolyte action in protein stabilization under harsh conditions: N-methylacetamide in glycine betaine-urea mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Narendra; Kishore, Nand

    2014-10-01

    Glycine betaine (GB), a small naturally occurring osmolyte, stabilizes proteins and counteracts harsh denaturing conditions such as extremes of temperature, cellular dehydration, and presence of high concentration of urea. In spite of several studies on understanding mechanism of protein stabilization and counteraction of these harsh conditions by osmolytes, studies centred on GB, one of the most important osmolyte, are scarce, hence, there is need for more investigations. To explore mechanism of protein stabilization and counteraction of denaturing property of urea by GB, molecular dynamics studies of N-methylacetamide (NMA), a model peptide representing denatured state of a protein, in the presence of GB, urea, and GB-urea mixture were carried out. The results show that GB and urea work such that the strength of GB as a protecting osmolyte is increased and the denaturing ability of urea is decreased in the GB-urea mixture. It can be inferred that GB counteracts urea by decreasing its hydrophobic interactions with proteins. The mutual interactions between GB and urea also play an important role in protein stabilization. This study provides insights on osmolyte induced counteraction of denaturing property of urea.

  10. Daily intake of heavy metals by infants through milk and milk products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M Tripathi; R Raghunath; V. N Sastry; T. M Krishnamoorthy

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of the essential elements Zn and Cu and potentially toxic elements Pb and Cd in different milk samples and baby food materials were measured, primarily to assess whether the intakes comply with recommended desired levels for essential and permissible levels for toxic elements. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in different types of milk were

  11. Genetic regulation of bovine milk fatty acid composition: Improving the healthfulness of milk through selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Nafikov

    2010-01-01

    The current study was designed to identity polymorphisms in the genes involved in milk lipid biosynthesis to provide animal breeders with tools that allow selection of animals producing milk with healthier fatty acid composition. High concentrations of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in human diets are known to increase plasma cholesterol concentrations and, as a result, increase the risk of developing

  12. Production and Selected Properties of Bioghurt Made from Goat Milk and Cow–Goat Milk Mixtures by Ultrafiltration and Addition of Skim Milk Powder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gokhan Kavas; Harun Uysal; Sevda Kilic; Necati Akbulut; Harun Kesenkas

    2004-01-01

    In this study, bioghurt was produced from goat milk (A) and 70% goat–30% cow (B), 50% goat–50% cow milk (C) mixtures, and stored 14 days at 4 ± 1°C. Two concentration methods of ultrafiltration (UF) and skim milk powder addition (MP) were applied to milk mixtures, therefore six different bioghurt samples were obtained. Selected physical, chemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of bioghurt

  13. Some factors in liquid supplements affecting urea toxicity 

    E-print Network

    McClain, William Ray

    1979-01-01

    Experiment 1: Site of Rumen Sampling Experiment 2: Determination of Lethal Levels of Urea in Molasses-Urea or Water-Urea Solutions Sheep Work Cattle Work Experiment 3: Effect of Repetitive Doses of Urea on Toxicity Pooled Data of Experiments 2 and 3... DOSE OF UREA (SHEEP) COMPOSITION OF MAINTENANCE RATION (CATTLE). TREATMENT AND LEVEL OF INITIAL DOSE OF UREA (CATTLE) ~Pa e 15 18 19 TREATMENT, TIME INTERVAL, AND LEVEL OF UREA DRENCHED IN REPETITIVE DOSAGE EXPERIMENT 21 EFFECT OF THREE...

  14. Urea transformation of wetland microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Thorén, Ann-Karin

    2007-02-01

    Transformation of urea to ammonium is an important link in the nitrogen cycle in soil and water. Although microbial nitrogen transformations, such as nitrification and denitrification, are well studied in freshwater sediment and epiphytic biofilm in shallow waters, information about urea transformation in these environments is scarce. In this study, urea transformation of sedimentary, planktonic, and epiphytic microbial communities was quantified and urea transformation of epiphytic biofilms associated with three different common wetland macrophyte species is compared. The microbial communities were collected from a constructed wetland in October 2002 and urea transformation was quantified in the laboratory at in situ temperature (12 degrees C) with the use of the 14C-urea tracer method, which measures the release of 14CO2 as a direct result of urease activity. It was found that the urea transformation was 100 times higher in sediment (12-22 mmol urea-N m(-2) day(-1)) compared with the epiphytic activity on the surfaces of the submerged plant Elodea canadensis (0.1-0.2 mmol urea-N m(-2) day(-1)). The epiphytic activity of leaves of Typha latifolia was lower (0.001-0.03 mmol urea-N m(-2) day(-1)), while urea transformation was negligible in the water column and on the submerged leaves of the emergent plant Phragmites australis. However, because this wetland was dominated by dense beds of the submerged macrophyte E. canadensis, this plant provided a large surface area for epiphytic microbial activity-in the range of 23-33 m2 of plant surfaces per square meter of wetland. Thus, in the wetland system scale at the existing plant distribution and density, the submerged plant community had the potential to transform 2-7 mmol urea-N m(-2) day(-1) and was in the same magnitude as the urea transformation in the sediment. PMID:17268879

  15. Effects of abomasal infusion of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) oil on microbial ?-glucuronidase activity and concentration of the mammalian lignan enterolactone in ruminal fluid, plasma, urine and milk of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Côrtes, Cristiano; da Silva-Kazama, Daniele; Kazama, Ricardo; Benchaar, Chaouki; dos Santos, Geraldo; Zeoula, Lucia M; Gagnon, N; Petit, Hélène V

    2013-02-14

    Ruminal microbiota plays an important role in the conversion of plant lignans into mammalian lignans. The main mammalian lignan present in the milk of dairy cows fed flax products is enterolactone (EL). The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of abomasal infusion of flax oil on the metabolism of flax lignans and concentrations of EL in biological fluids of dairy cows. A total of six rumen-cannulated dairy cows were assigned within a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of six treatments utilising flax hulls (0 and 15·9 % of DM) and abomasal infusion of flax oil (0, 250 and 500 g/d). There were six periods of 21 d each. Samples were collected during the last 7 d of each period and subjected to chemical analysis. Flax hull supplementation increased concentrations of EL in ruminal fluid, plasma, urine and milk, while flax oil infusion had no effect. Post-feeding, ?-glucuronidase activity in the ruminal fluid of cows infused with 250 g flax oil was significantly lower for cows fed hulls than for those fed the control diet. The present study demonstrated that the presence of a rich source of n-3 fatty acids such as flax oil in the small intestine does not interfere with the absorption of the mammalian lignan EL and that lower ruminal ?-glucuronidase activity had no effect on the conversion of flax lignans into EL in the rumen of dairy cows. PMID:22717302

  16. Trimethylamine N-Oxide Counteracts Urea Effects on Rabbit Muscle Lactate Dehydrogenase Function: A Test of the Counteraction Hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilia Baskakov; Aijun Wang; D. W. Bolen

    1998-01-01

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in the cells of sharks and rays is believed to counteract the deleterious effects of the high intracellular concentrations of urea in these animals. It has been hypothesized that TMAO has the generic ability to counteract the effects of urea on protein structure and function, regardless of whether that protein actually evolved in the presence of these two

  17. Effects of dietary protein concentration and coconut oil supplementation on nitrogen utilization and production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Heyler, K S; Cassidy, T W; Long, M; Corl, B A; Karnati, S K R

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of metabolizable protein (MP) deficiency and coconut oil supplementation on N utilization and production in lactating dairy cows. The hypothesis of the study was that a decrease in ruminal protozoal counts with coconut oil would increase microbial protein synthesis in the rumen, thus compensating for potential MP deficiency. The experiment was conducted for 10 wk with 36 cows (13 primiparous and 23 multiparous), including 6 ruminally cannulated cows. The experimental period, 6 wk, was preceded by 2-wk adaptation and 2-wk covariate periods. Cows were blocked by parity, days in milk, milk yield, and rumen cannulation and randomly assigned to one of the following diets: a diet with a positive MP balance (+44 g/d) and 16.7% dietary crude protein (CP) concentration (AMP); a diet deficient in MP (-156 g/d) and 14.8% CP concentration (DMP); or DMP supplemented with approximately 500 g of coconut oil/head per day (DMPCO). Ruminal ammonia tended to be greater and plasma urea N (20.1, 12.8, and 13.1 mg/dL, for AMP, DMP, and DMPCO diets, respectively) and milk urea N (12.5, 8.3, and 9.5mg/dL, respectively) were greater for AMP compared with DMP and DMPCO. The DMPCO diet decreased total protozoa counts (by 60%) compared with DMP, but had no effect on the methanogens profile in the rumen. Total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and CP was decreased by DMP compared with AMP. Fiber digestibility was lower for both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP. Urinary N excretion was decreased (by 37%) by both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP. The DMP and DMPCO diets resulted in greater milk N efficiency compared with AMP (32.0 and 35.1 vs. 27.6%, respectively). Milk yield was decreased by both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP (36.2, 34.4, and 39.3 kg/d, respectively) and coconut oil supplementation suppressed feed intake and caused milk fat depression. Coconut oil supplementation decreased short-chain fatty acid (C4:0, C6:0, and C8:0) concentration and increased medium-chain (C12:0 and C14:0) and total trans fatty acids in milk. Overall, the MP-deficient diets decreased N losses, but could not sustain milk production in this study. Coconut oil decreased feed intake and similar to DMP, suppressed fiber digestibility. Despite decreased protozoal counts, coconut oil had no effect on the methanogen population in the rumen. PMID:22032378

  18. INCREASING MILKING FREQUENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk Yield increases by a fixed amount due to increased milking frequency and not by some percentage of previous milk yields. Six times-a-day milking frequency from calving through six weeks post-partum results in not only increased production during the period of high frequency milking by also in ...

  19. Got Milk? Cows Do!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Patterson

    2010-03-25

    Essential Question: Where does milk come from, and how is it produced and distributed? Second grade students will learn where milk comes from, how milk is made, and where the milk is sold. Enrichment Resources: Where does milk come from? Click the link ...

  20. Relation Between Micellar and Serum Casein in Bovine Milk1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dyson Rose

    1968-01-01

    Little or no additional casein dissolved when milk was diluted with large volumes of milk dialysate. Some dissolution of mi- cellar to serum casein occurred when sedi- mented micelles were redispersed in ultra- filtrate mechanically, but the concentration of serum casein remained far below that of the original milk. It is concluded that micellar and serum casein do not form

  1. [Occurrence and roles of estrogens in bovine milk. A review].

    PubMed

    Zdunczyk, S; Malecki-Tepicht, J; Janowski, T

    2001-04-01

    This review describes biosynthesis and excretion of oestrogens in cattle as well as their concentrations in blood and milk during various phases of lactation. Possibilities for endocrinological diagnostic by determination of oestrogens in milk are presented. Furthermore, the biological importance of milk oestrogens for progeny and consumers are discussed. PMID:11370480

  2. Urea Transformation of Wetland Microbial Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann-Karin Thorén

    2007-01-01

    Transformation of urea to ammonium is an important link in the nitrogen cycle in soil and water. Although microbial nitrogen\\u000a transformations, such as nitrification and denitrification, are well studied in freshwater sediment and epiphytic biofilm\\u000a in shallow waters, information about urea transformation in these environments is scarce. In this study, urea transformation\\u000a of sedimentary, planktonic, and epiphytic microbial communities was

  3. Factors influencing urea space estimates in goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Asmare; L. J. Dawson; R. Puchala; T. A. Gipson; M. Villaquiran; I. Tovar-Luna; G. Animut; T. Ngwa; T. Sahlu; R. C. Merkel; A. L. Goetsch

    2007-01-01

    Female Alpine goats, 18 approximately 17 months of age (yearling) and 18 approximately 5-month-old (growing), were used in an experiment to determine effects of animal age, urea dose (100, 130, and 160mg\\/kg BW), and time without feed and water (shrink; 0, 16, and 24h) on urea space (US) estimates. A 20% (w\\/v) urea solution was infused into a jugular vein,

  4. Low Temperature Urea Decomposition and SCR Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Scott Sluder; John M. E. Storey; Samuel A. Lewis; Linda A. Lewis

    Urea-SCR systems are potentially a highly-effective means of NOX reduction for light-duty diesel vehicles. However, use of urea-SCR technologies at low temperatures presents unique technical challenges. This study was undertaken to provide more knowledge about low temperature urea decomposition and the resulting effects on SCR performance. Data are presented for experiments using two SCR catalysts of differing size with a

  5. Original Article Effect of milk sampling techniques on milk

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original Article Effect of milk sampling techniques on milk composition, bacterial contamination, viability and functions of resident cells in milk Frédéric VANGROENWEGHE, Hilde DOSOGNE, Jalil MEHRZAD June 2001) Abstract ­ Three different milk sampling techniques were evaluated during milk sampling

  6. Substituted Ureas. Methods of Synthesis and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnyakova, T. P.; Golubeva, I. A.; Glebova, E. V.

    1985-03-01

    Systematic data on the method of synthesis of ureas by the interaction of compounds containing the amino-group with organic isocyanates, of amines and alkyl halides with alkali metal cyanates, and of primary and secondary amines with phosgene, carbon dioxide, urea, or nitrourea and by the carbonylation of amines are presented. The reactions involving the alkylation of urea and its interaction with various compounds containing functional groups are considered. The advantages and disadvantages of various methods are noted. The principal and practical applications of substituted ureas, including their applications as additives to organic materials, are discussed. The bibliography includes 314 references.

  7. Wetting of soy protein adhesives modified by urea on wood surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua-Neng Xu; Qiu-Yun Shen; Xiao-Kun Ouyang; Li-Ye Yang

    Wetting of soy protein adhesives modified by urea on wood surfaces was investigated with sessile liquid droplet method. Dynamic\\u000a contact angles were used to illustrate the wetting process. The effects of wood surface roughness and urea concentration on\\u000a contact angles were investigated. Moreover, two wetting models were used to describe the dynamic contact angle process, in\\u000a which the contact angle

  8. Effects of flaxseed supplementation on milk production, milk fatty acid composition and nutrient utilization by lactating dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. W. Soita; J. A. Meier; M. Fehr; P. Yu; D. A. Christensen; J. J. Mckinon; A. F. Mustafa

    2003-01-01

    Twelve multiparous Holstein cows at 72 ± 20 days in milk were used in a switch-back design with 14-d periods to determine the effect of replacing barley grain into a dairy total mixed ration with micronized or raw flaxseed on nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition. Total mixed diets were (DM basis) 50% barley silage, 50% concentrate mix mainly rolled

  9. Increasing urea-N efficiency in transplanted lowland rice by urea solution band placement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Devasenapathy; S. P. Palaniappan

    1996-01-01

    Alternative N fertiliser management strategies are needed to increase N-use efficiency in wetland rice (Oryza sativa L.). In the wet season of 1993–1994, field experiments were conducted to evaluate the band placement of urea solution in comparison with broadcast prilled urea, neem-coated urea, or point-placement of urea supergranules. Both grain yield and N-use efficiency were higher with band placement of

  10. Simple and sensitive determination of urea in serum and urine.

    PubMed

    Orsonneau, J L; Massoubre, C; Cabanes, M; Lustenberger, P

    1992-05-01

    In this method for serum and urinary urea determination, the same reagent is used without predilution of urine samples. The method is based on the pH increase resulting from the ammonia released by urease hydrolysis of urea. o-Cresolphthalein complexone is used to monitor the pH change colorimetrically. Urea concentration and absorbance at 570 nm are linearly related for concentrations as great as 600 mmol/L for urine samples and 100 mmol/L for serum. There are no clinically significant interferences from physiological substances or drugs, and precision and accuracy are excellent (CV approximately 2%, except at very low concentrations in serum; analytical recovery was 99% in urine, 100% in serum). Results by this method (y) and by the Astra method (x) for urine correlated well (y = 0.991x - 2.87, Sy/x = 9.21, r = 0.994), as did the results by this method and by the total enzymatic method (x') for serum (y = 1.002x' + 0.192, Sy/x' = 0.598, r = 0.997). This method is applicable to automated as well as manual instruments, and one-reagent or two-reagent formats can be used. PMID:1582010

  11. Original article Plasma osteocalcin concentrations

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (milk fever) is a metabolic disorder occurring at the onset of lactation, when demands for calcium (Ca of Hol- stein cows around 2nd calving. Thirteen cows were milked until their daily milk production calcique de la vache laitière aux alentours de la parturition. Les concentrations plasmatiques en calcium

  12. Cow's milk and children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for children over 1 year old to drink cow's milk. However, there's no scientific evidence that this is true. While most experts recommend not giving cow's milk to infants , it is safe to give milk ...

  13. Creamatocrit and the Nutrient Composition of Human Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine D Wang; Patricia S Chu; Beverly G Mellen; Jayant P Shenai

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:We tested the hypothesis that creamatocrit, the length of the cream column separated from milk by centrifugation and expressed as a percentage of the length of the total milk column, is a useful measure of the lipid concentration and the energy content of human milk.STUDY DESIGN:Milk samples from 17 mothers of preterm infants were analyzed prospectively, fresh as well as

  14. Structural characteristics that stabilize or destabilize different assembly levels of phycocyanin by urea.

    PubMed

    Marx, Ailie; Adir, Noam

    2014-07-01

    Phycocyanin is one of the two phycobiliproteins always found in the Phycobilisome antenna complex. It is always situated at the ends of the peripheral rods, adjacent to the core cylinders composed of allophycocyanin. The basic phycocyanin monomer is an (??) dimer of globin-like subunits with three covalently linked phycocyanobilin cofactors. Monomers assemble further into trimers, hexamers, and rods which include non-pigmented linker proteins. Upon isolation in low ionic strength solution, rods quickly disintegrate into phycocyanin trimers, which lose contacts with other phycobiliproteins and with the linker proteins. The trimers, however, are quite stable and only the presence of high concentrations of chaotropic agents (such as urea), very acidic solutions, or elevated temperatures induces monomerization, followed by separation between the subunits. We have recently determined the crystal structures of phycocyanin from the thremophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus vulcanus in the presence of 2 or 4 M urea, and shown that 4 M urea monomerizes the phycocyanin trimers. In this paper, we will describe the phycocyanin structures in 2 and 4 M urea more completely. By mapping out the urea positions, we describe the structural elements within the trimeric interaction interface that may be interrupted by the presence of 4 M urea. In addition, we also identify what are the structural characteristics that prevent 4 M urea from inducing subunit dissociation. PMID:24687534

  15. Molecular and functional characterization of a urea transporter from the kidney of the Atlantic stingray.

    PubMed

    Janech, Michael G; Fitzgibbon, Wayne R; Chen, Ruihua; Nowak, Mark W; Miller, Donald H; Paul, Richard V; Ploth, David W

    2003-05-01

    In general, marine elasmobranch fishes (sharks, skates, and rays) maintain body fluid osmolality above seawater, principally by retaining large amounts of urea. Maintenance of the high urea concentration is due in large part to efficient renal urea reabsorption. Regulation of renal urea reabsorption also appears to play a role in maintenance of fluid homeostasis of elasmobranchs that move between habitats of different salinities. We identified and cloned a novel 2.7-kb cDNA from the kidney of the euryhaline Atlantic stingray Dasyatis sabina (GenBank accession no. AF443781). This cDNA putatively encoded a 431-amino acid protein (strUT-1) that had a high degree of sequence identity (71%) to the shark kidney facilitated urea transporter (UT). However, the predicted COOH-terminal region of strUT-1 appears to contain an additional sequence that is unique among cloned renal UTs. Injection of strUT-1 cRNA into Xenopus oocytes induced a 33-fold increase in [(14)C]urea uptake that was inhibited by phloretin. Four mRNA bands were detected in kidney by Northern blot: a transcript at 2.8 kb corresponding to the expected size of strUT-1 mRNA and bands at 3.8, 4.5, and 5.5 kb. Identification of a facilitated UT in the kidney of the Atlantic stingray provides further support for the proposal that passive mechanisms contribute to urea reabsorption by elasmobranch kidney. PMID:12388386

  16. Influence of exogenous urea on photosynthetic pigments, (14)CO 2 uptake, and urease activity in Elodea densa-environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Maleva, Maria; Borisova, Galina; Chukina, Nadezda; Nekrasova, Galina; Prasad, M N V

    2013-09-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of exogenous urea in increased concentration gradient (0, 100, 500 and 1,000 mg L(-1)) on photosynthetic pigments (measured spectrophotometrically), uptake of (14)CO2 (using radioisotope), and urease activity (by measuring ammonia with Nessler's reagent) in leaves of Elodea densa Planch. We have observed that low concentration of urea (100 mg L(-1)) stimulates the accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and intensifies photosynthesis in E. densa, whereas high concentration (1,000 mg L(-1)) suppresses these processes. Urease activity increased by approximately 2.7 and 8 fold when exogenous urea concentrations were 100 and 500 mg L(-1), respectively. However, exogenous urea in high concentration (1,000 mg L(-1)) decreased urease activity by 1.5 fold compared to the control. The necessity of mitigating urea and other nitrogen-containing compounds (NH3 from urea) in water bodies has been discussed with emphasis on the potential for phytoremediation of urea using common water weed viz. E. densa. PMID:23546854

  17. Understanding Strategy of Nitrate and Urea Assimilation in a Chinese Strain of Aureococcus anophagefferens through RNA-Seq Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hong-Po; Huang, Kai-Xuan; Wang, Hua-Long; Lu, Song-Hui; Cen, Jing-Yi; Dong, Yue-Lei

    2014-01-01

    Aureococcus anophagefferens is a harmful alga that dominates plankton communities during brown tides in North America, Africa, and Asia. Here, RNA-seq technology was used to profile the transcriptome of a Chinese strain of A. anophagefferens that was grown on urea, nitrate, and a mixture of urea and nitrate, and that was under N-replete, limited and recovery conditions to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie nitrate and urea utilization. The number of differentially expressed genes between urea-grown and mixture N-grown cells were much less than those between urea-grown and nitrate-grown cells. Compared with nitrate-grown cells, mixture N-grown cells contained much lower levels of transcripts encoding proteins that are involved in nitrate transport and assimilation. Together with profiles of nutrient changes in media, these results suggest that A. anophagefferens primarily feeds on urea instead of nitrate when urea and nitrate co-exist. Furthermore, we noted that transcripts upregulated by nitrate and N-limitation included those encoding proteins involved in amino acid and nucleotide transport, degradation of amides and cyanates, and nitrate assimilation pathway. The data suggest that A. anophagefferens possesses an ability to utilize a variety of dissolved organic nitrogen. Moreover, transcripts for synthesis of proteins, glutamate-derived amino acids, spermines and sterols were upregulated by urea. Transcripts encoding key enzymes that are involved in the ornithine-urea and TCA cycles were differentially regulated by urea and nitrogen concentration, which suggests that the OUC may be linked to the TCA cycle and involved in reallocation of intracellular carbon and nitrogen. These genes regulated by urea may be crucial for the rapid proliferation of A. anophagefferens when urea is provided as the N source. PMID:25338000

  18. 21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to...

  3. Original article Effect of concentrate type and distribution method

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Effect of concentrate type and distribution method on milk fat content and milk fermentation. dairy cow / fat content / concentrate / milk yield Résumé - Effet de la nature et des modalités affect milk fat con- tent, especially dietary factors linked to the type of forage and to the proportion

  4. Influence of urea fertilizer placement on nitrous oxide production from a silt loam soil.

    PubMed

    Engel, R; Liang, D L; Wallander, R; Bembenek, A

    2010-01-01

    Urea placement in band or nests has been shown to enhance N use efficiency, but limited work has been done to assess its affect on N(2)O emissions. This study compared N(2)O emissions from urea prills applied to an Amsterdam silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, frigid Typic Haplustolls) using broadcast, band, and nest placements. Experiments were conducted in greenhouse pots (200 kg N ha(-1)) and in canola (Brassica rapa L.) seeded fields using rates of 100 kg N ha(-1) (recommended) and 200 kg N ha(-1). Urea placement affected N(2)O emission patterns and cumulative N(2)O losses in the greenhouse and field. Urea prills placed in nests, and sometimes bands delayed N(2)O production with peak flux activity occurring later, and elevated emission activity being more prolonged than for broadcast applications. Differences were more obvious at 200 kg N ha(-1). These effects were attributed to a delay in urea hydrolysis and inhibition of nitrification. The fraction of applied urea-N lost as N(2)O for broadcast, band, and nest placements applied at the recommended rate averaged 2.0, 2.7, and 5.8 g N kg(-1) N, respectively. The fraction of applied urea-N lost as N(2)O averaged 2.9, 10.4, and 9.2 g N kg(-1) N for broadcast, band, and nest placements when urea-N rate was increased from 100 to 200 kg N ha(-1), respectively. Greater N(2)O production with nest placement may in part be due to significant soil NO(2)-N accumulations. Potential benefits to crop fertilizer use efficiency that come with placement of urea in concentrated zones may lead to enhanced N(2)O production. PMID:20048299

  5. Urea transporter and glutamine synthetase regulation and localization in gulf toadfish gill.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M Danielle; Vulesevic, Branka; Perry, Steve F; Walsh, Patrick J

    2009-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of circulating cortisol and urea in the transcriptional regulation of branchial glutamine synthetase (GS), which incorporates NH(3) into glutamate to form glutamine, and the toadfish urea transporter, tUT, which is involved in urea excretion across the gill of the gulf toadfish. GS (of which there are two isoforms, LGS and GGS) and tUT mRNA expression and activity were measured in toadfish exposed to treatments that would induce variable stress responses. In addition, the role of circulating urea in tUT regulation was investigated by infusing toadfish with urea alone or in combination with intraperitoneal injection of RU486, a corticosteroid type II receptor antagonist. There was a 4.8-fold upregulation in the mRNA expression of the gill-specific GS isoform (GGS) in response to cortisol infusion and a similar upregulation in the more ubiquitous isoform (LGS). Furthermore, there was a significant 1.9-fold and 3.3-fold upregulation in the mRNA expression of the toadfish urea transporter, tUT, in response to stress through crowding or exogenous cortisol loading through infusion, respectively. In addition, tUT was found to have a urea-sensitive component to transcriptional regulation that was independent of circulating cortisol concentrations. However, the changes measured in mRNA expression of GGS, LGS and tUT did not correspond with changes in protein activity. To determine the cell type(s) involved in glutamine production and urea excretion, we attempted to localize GGS, LGS and tUT using in situ hybridization. This study is the first to show that GGS and tUT expression appear to occur in gill mitochondria-rich cells of toadfish, suggesting that these cells play a combined glutamine production and urea excretion role, which may have implications for predator avoidance. PMID:19218522

  6. Effect of 10.5 M Aqueous Urea on Helicobacter pylori Urease: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Minkara, Mona S; Weaver, Michael N; Merz, Kenneth M

    2015-07-01

    The effects of a 10.5 M solution of aqueous urea on Helicobacter pylori urease were investigated over the course of a 500 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The enzyme was solvated by 25321 water molecules, and additionally, 4788 urea molecules were added to the solution. Although concentrated urea solutions are known laboratory denaturants, the protein secondary structure is retained throughout the simulation largely because of the short simulation time (urea denaturation occurs on the millisecond time scale). The relatively constant solvent accessible surface area over the last 400 ns of the simulation further confirms the overall lack of denaturation. The wide-open flap state observed previously in Klebsiella areogenes urease [Roberts, B. P., et al. (2012) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 9934] and H. pylori [Minkara, M. S., et al. (2014) J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 1852-1862] was also identified in this aqueous urea simulation. Over the course of the trajectory, we were able to observe urea molecules entering the active site in proportions related to the extent of opening of the active site-covering flap. Furthermore, urea molecules were observed to approach the pentacoordinate Ni(2+) ion in position to bind in a manner consistent with the proposed initial coordination step of the hydrolysis mechanism. We also observed a specific and unique pattern in the regions of the protein with a high root-mean-square fluctuation (rmsf). The high-rmsf regions in the ?-chain form a horseshoelike arrangement surrounding the active site-covering flap on the surface of the protein. We hypothesize that the function of these regions is to both attract and shuttle urea toward the loop of the active site-covering flap before entry into the cavity. Indeed, urea is observed to interact with these regions for extended periods of simulation time before active site ingress. PMID:26057619

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MILK PRODUCTION AND MILK EPD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many breeders of registered beef cattle do not trust the genetic evaluation for maternal weaning weight or milk EPD. This research sought to validate the milk EPD using actual milk production records from Line 1 Hereford cattle at Miles City, MT. Data were collected using the weigh-suckle¿weigh tech...

  8. Determination of Energy Efficiency of Beef Cows under Grazing Conditions Using a Mechanistic Model and the Evaluation of a Slow-Release Urea Product for Finishing Beef Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Bourg, Brandi Marie

    2012-02-14

    , and efficient cows might have greater peak milk and be leaner. In typical feedlot diets, the rates of ruminal fermentation of highly processed grains and the hydrolysis rate of urea may not match. Asynchronous utilization of carbohydrate and protein would result...

  9. Human serum amyloid A protein. Behaviour in aqueous and urea-containing solutions and antibody production.

    PubMed

    Strachan, A F; Shephard, E G; Bellstedt, D U; Coetzee, G A; van der Westhuyzen, D R; de Beer, F C

    1989-10-15

    Human serum amyloid A protein (apo-SAA) can be prepared by gel filtration of delipidated acute-phase high-density lipoprotein in the presence of urea. The resultant apo-SAA is soluble (greater than 90% solubility) in a wide range of buffer solutions, with all of the six major isoforms of apo-SAA being equally soluble. In urea-containing solutions the isoforms behave qualitatively differently in various urea concentrations, probably reflecting subtle primary-structure variations. The higher-pI isoforms are only completely unfolded at greater than 7 M-urea. By immunizing with apo-SAA adsorbed to acid-treated bacteria (Salmonella minnesota R595), high-titre antibodies can easily be elicited in rabbits. PMID:2597108

  10. Effect of ornithine and lactate on urea synthesis in isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, S; Freedland, R A

    1976-01-01

    1. In hepatocytes isolated from 24 h-starved rats, urea production from ammonia was stimulated by addition of lactate, in both the presence and the absence of ornithine. The relationship of lactate concentration to the rate of urea synthesis was hyperbolic. 2. Other glucose precursors also stimulated urea production to varying degrees, but none more than lactate. Added oleate and butyrate did not stimulate urea synthesis. 3. Citrulline accumulation was largely dependent on ornithine concentration. As ornithine was increased from 0 to 40 mM, the rate of citrulline accumulation increased hyperbolically, and was half-maximal when ornithine was 8-12 mM. 4. The rate of citrulline accumulation was independent of the presence of lactate, but with pyruvate the rate increased. 5. The rate of urea production continued to increase as ornithine was varied from 0 to 40 mM. 6. It was concluded that intermediates provided by both ornithine and lactate are limiting for urea production from ammonia in isolated liver cells. It was suggested that the stimulatory effect of lactate lies in increased availability of cytosolic aspartate for condensation with citrulline. PMID:1008850

  11. Counteraction of Urea by Trimethylamine N-Oxide Is Due to Direct Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Meersman, Filip; Bowron, Daniel; Soper, Alan K.; Koch, Michel H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a naturally occurring osmolyte that stabilizes proteins, induces folding, and counteracts the denaturing effects of urea, pressure, and ice. To establish the mechanism behind these effects, isotopic substitution neutron-scattering measurements were performed on aqueous solutions of TMAO and 1:1 TMAO-urea at a solute mole fraction of 0.05. The partial pair distribution functions were extracted using the empirical potential structure refinement method. The results were compared with previous results obtained with isosteric tert-butanol, as well as the available data from spectroscopy and molecular-dynamics simulations. In solution, the oxygen atom of TMAO is strongly hydrogen-bonded to, on average, between two and three water molecules, and the hydrogen-bond network is tighter in water than in pure water. In TMAO-urea solutions, the oxygen atom in TMAO preferentially forms hydrogen bonds with urea. This explains why the counteraction is completed at a 2:1 urea/TMAO concentration ratio, independently of urea concentration. These results strongly support models for the effect of TMAO on the stability of proteins based on a modification of the simultaneous equilibria that control hydrogen bonding between the peptide backbone and water or intramolecular sites, without any need for direct interaction between TMAO and the protein. PMID:19883599

  12. Rapid detection of economic adulterants in fresh milk by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, Grant; Higgs, Kerianne

    2013-05-01

    A method to aid in the detection of the economically driven adulteration of fresh milk with a range of small, nitrogen containing compounds, including melamine, ammeline, ammelide, cyanuric acid, allantoin, thiourea, urea, biuret, triuret, semicarbazide, aminotriazine, 3- and 4-aminotriazole, cyanamide, dicyandiamide, guanidine, choline, hydroxyproline, nitrate, and a range of amino acids, has been developed. (15)N2-Urea is used as an internal standard. The adulteration of milk with exogenous urea has previously been difficult to detect because of the variation in the naturally occurring levels of urea in milk. However, by monitoring the contaminants biuret and triuret, which comprise up to 1% of synthetic urea, the adulteration of milk with urea-based fertilizer can be detected. We estimate that to be economically viable, adulteration of the order of 90-4000ppm of the above adulterants would need to be added to fresh milk. For most of the compounds, an arbitrary detection threshold of 2ppm is therefore more than sufficient. For biuret, a lower detection threshold, better than 0.5ppm, is desirable and the sensitivity for biuret and triuret can be improved by the post-column addition of lithium to create lithium adducts under electrospray ionisation. Sample handling involves a two-step solvent precipitation method that is deployed in a 96-well plate format, and the hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography uses a rapid gradient (1.2min). Three separate injections, to detect the positively charged compounds, the negatively charged compounds and amino acids and finally the lithium adducts, are used. This rapid and qualitative survey method may be deployed as a second tier screening method to quickly reduce sample numbers indicated as irregular by an FTIR based screening system, and to direct analysis to appropriate quantification methods. PMID:23540766

  13. Increased amino acid clearance and urea synthesis in a patient with glucagonoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T P Almdal; H Heindorff; L Bardram; H Vilstrup

    1990-01-01

    Fasting concentrations, clearance of exogenous infused amino acids, and lean body mass were studied in a patient with glucagonoma syndrome (fasting glucagon = 380 pmol\\/l, normal range 15-45 pmol). The fasting concentrations of all amino acids were reduced. The clearances of alanine, arginine, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, proline, serine, threonine, and tyrosine were increased. The urea synthesis rate during

  14. Influence of fertilisation with foliar urea on the content of amines in wine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ancín-Azpilicueta; R. Nieto-Rojo; J. Gómez-Cordón

    2011-01-01

    Amines are substances that could cause toxic effects in the consumer. The concentration of amines in wine depends on different factors such as grape variety, vinification conditions and nitrogen fertilisation of the vines. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the application of foliar urea on the concentration of amines in wine. To carry out the

  15. Rapid dissolution of cellulose in LiOH/urea and NaOH/urea aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jie; Zhang, Lina

    2005-06-24

    Rapid dissolution of cellulose in LiOH/urea and NaOH/urea aqueous solutions was studied systematically. The dissolution behavior and solubility of cellulose were evaluated by using (13)C NMR, optical microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC, and viscometry. The experiment results revealed that cellulose having viscosity-average molecular weight ((overline) M eta) of 11.4 x 104 and 37.2 x 104 could be dissolved, respectively, in 7% NaOH/12% urea and 4.2% LiOH/12% urea aqueous solutions pre-cooled to -10 degrees C within 2 min, whereas all of them could not be dissolved in KOH/urea aqueous solution. The dissolution power of the solvent systems was in the order of LiOH/urea > NaOH/urea > KOH/urea aqueous solution. The results from DSC and (13)C NMR indicated that LiOH/urea and NaOH/urea aqueous solutions as non-derivatizing solvents broke the intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonding of cellulose and prevented the approach toward each other of the cellulose molecules, leading to the good dispersion of cellulose to form an actual solution. PMID:15954076

  16. The effect of product formulation and homogenization on the physical properties of the milk-fat globule and acid milk gels 

    E-print Network

    Materon, Liliana

    2000-01-01

    The elect of homogenization pressure and product formulation on the composition physical and chemical properties of acid milk gels was evaluated. Nonfat dry milk, whey protein concentrate (WPC), cream, Span 60 and Tween 20, were combined to prepare...

  17. Effects of feed delivery time on feed intake, milk production, and blood metabolites of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nikkhah, A; Furedi, C J; Kennedy, A D; Crow, G H; Plaizier, J C

    2008-11-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feed delivery time and its interactions with dietary concentrate inclusion and parity on milk production and on 24-h averages and patterns of feed intake and blood metabolites. Four multiparous and 4 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Experimental periods included 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling. A higher concentrate diet with a forage:concentrate ratio (dry matter basis) of 38:62 or a lower-concentrate diet with a forage:concentrate ratio of 51:49 was delivered at either 0900 or 2100 h. During sampling periods, daily feed intakes, as well as feed intakes during 3-h intervals relative to feed delivery, were determined. During 2 nonconsecutive days of the sampling period, jugular blood was sampled every 2 h. Average temperature and relative humidity in the experimental facility were 20.4 degrees C and 68.1%, and the maximum daily air temperature did not exceed 25 degrees C. This data does not suggest that cows were heat-stressed. Changing feed delivery time from 0900 to 2100 h increased the amount of feed consumed within 3 h after feeding from 27 to 37% of total daily intake but did not affect daily dry matter intake. The cows fed at 2100 h had lower blood glucose at 2 h after feeding but greater blood lactate and beta-hydroxybutyrate acid at 2 and 4 h after feeding than cows fed at 0900 h. These effects of feed delivery time on the 24-h patterns in blood metabolites may be caused by the greater feed intake during the 3 h after feed delivery of the cows fed at 2100 h. Daily averages of glucose, urea, lactate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate acid and nonesterified fatty acids in peripheral blood were not affected by time of feeding. The change in feed delivery time did not affect milk yield and milk protein but increased milk fat percentage from 2.5 to 2.9% and milk fat yield from 0.98 to 1.20 kg/d in multiparous cows, without affecting milk fat in primiparous cows. The interactions between diet and time of feeding on daily feed intake, milk production, and blood metabolites were not significant. The effects of the time of feed delivery on the 24-h patterns in blood metabolites suggest that this time may affect peripheral nutrient availability. Results of this study suggest beneficial effects of feeding at 2100 h instead of at 0900 h on milk fat production of lactating cows, but parity appears to mediate this effect. PMID:18946130

  18. Interactions of S-peptide analogue in aqueous urea and trimethylamine-N-oxide solutions: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Rahul; Paul, Sandip

    2013-07-21

    The ability of the osmolyte, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), to protect proteins from deleterious effect of urea, another commonly available osmolyte, is well-established. However, the molecular mechanism of this counteraction is not understood yet. To provide a molecular level understanding of how TMAO protects proteins in highly concentrated urea solution, we report here molecular dynamics simulation results of a 15-residue model peptide in two different conformations: helix and extended. For both conformations, simulations are carried out in pure water as well as in binary and ternary aqueous solutions of urea and TMAO. Analysis of solvation characteristics reveals direct interactions of urea and TMAO with peptide residues. However, the number of TMAO molecules that enter in the first solvation shell of the peptide is significantly lower than that of urea, and, unlike water and urea, TMAO shows its inability to form hydrogen bond with backbone oxygen and negatively charged sidechains. Preferential accumulation of urea near the peptide surface and preferential exclusion of TMAO from the peptide surface are observed. Inclusion of osmolytes in the peptide solvation shell leads to dehydration of the peptide in binary and ternary solutions of urea and TMAO. Solvation of peptide residues are investigated more closely by calculating the number of hydrogen bonds between the peptide and solution species. It is found that number of hydrogen bonds formed by the peptide with solution species increases in binary urea solution (relative to pure water) and this relative enhancement in hydrogen bond number reduces upon addition of TMAO. Our simulation results also suggest that, in the ternary solution, the peptide solvation layer is better mixed in terms of water and urea as compared to binary urea solution. Implications of the results for counteraction mechanism of TMAO are discussed. PMID:23883044

  19. Interactions of S-peptide analogue in aqueous urea and trimethylamine-N-oxide solutions: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Rahul; Paul, Sandip

    2013-07-01

    The ability of the osmolyte, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), to protect proteins from deleterious effect of urea, another commonly available osmolyte, is well-established. However, the molecular mechanism of this counteraction is not understood yet. To provide a molecular level understanding of how TMAO protects proteins in highly concentrated urea solution, we report here molecular dynamics simulation results of a 15-residue model peptide in two different conformations: helix and extended. For both conformations, simulations are carried out in pure water as well as in binary and ternary aqueous solutions of urea and TMAO. Analysis of solvation characteristics reveals direct interactions of urea and TMAO with peptide residues. However, the number of TMAO molecules that enter in the first solvation shell of the peptide is significantly lower than that of urea, and, unlike water and urea, TMAO shows its inability to form hydrogen bond with backbone oxygen and negatively charged sidechains. Preferential accumulation of urea near the peptide surface and preferential exclusion of TMAO from the peptide surface are observed. Inclusion of osmolytes in the peptide solvation shell leads to dehydration of the peptide in binary and ternary solutions of urea and TMAO. Solvation of peptide residues are investigated more closely by calculating the number of hydrogen bonds between the peptide and solution species. It is found that number of hydrogen bonds formed by the peptide with solution species increases in binary urea solution (relative to pure water) and this relative enhancement in hydrogen bond number reduces upon addition of TMAO. Our simulation results also suggest that, in the ternary solution, the peptide solvation layer is better mixed in terms of water and urea as compared to binary urea solution. Implications of the results for counteraction mechanism of TMAO are discussed.

  20. Unfolding mechanism of lysozyme in various urea solutions: Insights from fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bang; Zhang, Hongjia; Xi, Wenying; Zhao, Liqing; Liang, Li; Chen, Yantao

    2014-11-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopic technique is very popular in exploring the folding/unfolding process of proteins. In this paper, unfolding process of hen egg-white lysozyme was investigated in various denaturing solutions. Firstly, polymer solution theory was employed to comprehend the dependence of fluorescence quenching effect on protein concentration, and dynamic contact concentration was suggested as a critical value for related fluorescence experiment. Secondly, it was found that urea alone could not completely unfold lysozyme but did when together with DTT or HCl. Lysozyme was destabilized in concentrated urea solution, but still could maintain its spatial structure. Phase diagram of fluorescence intensities revealed that HCl could enhance the denaturing capacity of urea, resulting in the emergence of intermediate state in the thermodynamic unfolding process of lysozyme.

  1. Investigation of the migration of triclabendazole residues to milk products manufactured from bovine milk, and stability therein, following lactating cow treatment.

    PubMed

    Power, C; Danaher, M; Sayers, R; O'Brien, B; Clancy, C; Furey, A; Jordan, K

    2013-10-01

    Triclabendazole (TCB) is a flukicide used in the treatment of liver fluke in cattle; however, its use is currently prohibited in lactating dairy cows. In this study, following administration of 10% Fasinex (triclabendazole, Novartis Animal Health UK Ltd., Camberley, UK) the milk of 6 animals was used to manufacture dairy products, to ascertain if TCB residues in milk migrate into dairy products. The detection limit of the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method used was 0.67 ?g/kg. The highest concentrations of TCB residue measured, within the individual cow milk yield, was 1,529 ± 244 µg/kg (n=6), on d 2 posttreatment. Days 2 and 23 posttreatment represented high and low residue concentrations, respectively. At each of these 2 time points, the milk was pooled into 2 independent aliquots and refrigerated. Milk products, including cheese, butter, and skim milk powder were manufactured using pasteurized and unpasteurized milk from each aliquot. The results for high residue milks demonstrated that TCB residues concentrated in the cheese by a factor of 5 (5,372 vs. 918 µg/kg for cheese vs. milk) compared with the starting milk. Residue concentrations are the sum of TCB and its metabolites, expressed as keto-TCB. Residues were concentrated in the butter by a factor of 9 (9,177 vs. 1,082 ?g/kg for butter vs. milk) compared with the starting milk. For milk, which was separated to skim milk and cream fractions, the residues were concentrated in the cream. Once skim milk powder was manufactured from the skim milk fraction, the residue in powder was concentrated 15-fold compared with the starting skim milk (7,252 vs. 423 µg/kg for powder vs. skim milk), despite the high temperature (185 °C) required during powder manufacture. For products manufactured from milk with low residue concentrations at d 23 posttreatment, TCB residues were detected in butter, cheese, and skim milk powder, even though there was no detectable residue in the milk used to manufacture these products. Triclabendazole residues were concentrated in some milk products (despite manufacturing treatments), exceeding residue levels in the starting milk and, depending on the storage conditions, may be relatively stable over time. PMID:23932132

  2. Rigid urea and self-healing thiourea ethanolamine monolayers.

    PubMed

    Stefaniu, Cristina; Zaffalon, Pierre-Léonard; Carmine, Alessio; Verolet, Quentin; Fernandez, Samuel; Wesolowski, Tomasz A; Brezesinski, Gerald; Zumbuehl, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    A series of long-tail alkyl ethanolamine analogs containing amide-, urea-, and thiourea moieties was synthesized and the behavior of the corresponding monolayers was assessed on the Langmuir-Pockels trough combined with grazing incidence X-ray diffraction experiments and complemented by computer simulations. All compounds form stable monolayers at the soft air/water interface. The phase behavior is dominated by strong intermolecular headgroup hydrogen bond networks. While the amide analog forms well-defined monolayer structures, the stronger hydrogen bonds in the urea analogs lead to the formation of small three-dimensional crystallites already during spreading due to concentration fluctuations. The hydrogen bonds in the thiourea case form a two-dimensional network, which ruptures temporarily during compression and is recovered in a self-healing process, while in the urea clusters the hydrogen bonds form a more planar framework with gliding planes keeping the structure intact during compression. Because the thiourea analogs are able to self-heal after rupture, such compounds could have interesting properties as tight, ordered, and self-healing monolayers. PMID:25594235

  3. Developing Hypothetical Inhibition Mechanism of Novel Urea Transporter B Inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Tou, Weng Ieong; Zhou, Hong; Li, Fei; Ren, Huiwen; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian; Yang, Baoxue

    2014-07-01

    Urea transporter B (UT-B) is a membrane channel protein that specifically transports urea. UT-B null mouse exhibited urea selective urine concentrating ability deficiency, which suggests the potential clinical applications of the UT-B inhibitors as novel diuretics. Primary high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) of 50000 small-molecular drug-like compounds identified 2319 hit compounds. These 2319 compounds were screened by high-throughput screening using an erythrocyte osmotic lysis assay. Based on the pharmacological data, putative UT-B binding sites were identified by structure-based drug design and validated by ligand-based and QSAR model. Additionally, UT-B structural and functional characteristics under inhibitors treated and untreated conditions were simulated by molecular dynamics (MD). As the result, we identified four classes of compounds with UT-B inhibitory activity and predicted a human UT-B model, based on which computative binding sites were identified and validated. A novel potential mechanism of UT-B inhibitory activity was discovered by comparing UT-B from different species. Results suggest residue PHE198 in rat and mouse UT-B might block the inhibitor migration pathway. Inhibitory mechanisms of UT-B inhibitors and the functions of key residues in UT-B were proposed. The binding site analysis provides a structural basis for lead identification and optimization of UT-B inhibitors.

  4. Association Between Preovulatory Concentrations of Estradiol and Expression of Uterine Milk Protein Precursor, Inhibin Beta A, Period 1, Proenkephalin, and Receptors for Oxytocin, Progesterone, and Estradiol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eliminating the preovulatory surge of estradiol decreased uterine weight, uterine protein, RNA to DNA ratio, rate of protein synthesis, and embryo survival following embryo transfer in sheep. Furthermore, cows that did not exhibit standing estrus (decreased preovulatory concentrations of estradiol) ...

  5. Managing Urea-Containing Fertilizers1 Larry G. Bundy2

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    of the reactions urea undergoes when added to soils. Urea is hydrolyzed or broken down to ammonia and carbon of the urea was hydrolyzed within 2 days after application at 50o F and over 80% was broken down within 4 days was hydrolyzed within 2 days at a temperature of 79o F. Alternatively, cold temperatures slow down urea

  6. Mechanisms of molecular transport through the urea channel of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, Reginald; Ulmschneider, Jakob P.; Luecke, Hartmut; Ulmschneider, Martin B.

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori survival in acidic environments relies on cytoplasmic hydrolysis of gastric urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, which buffer the pathogen’s periplasm. Urea uptake is greatly enhanced and regulated by HpUreI, a proton-gated inner membrane channel protein essential for gastric survival of H. pylori. The crystal structure of HpUreI describes a static snapshot of the channel with two constriction sites near the center of the bilayer that are too narrow to allow passage of urea or even water. Here we describe the urea transport mechanism at atomic resolution, revealed by unrestrained microsecond equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the hexameric channel assembly. Two consecutive constrictions open to allow conduction of urea, which is guided through the channel by interplay between conserved residues that determine proton rejection and solute selectivity. Remarkably, HpUreI conducts water at rates equivalent to aquaporins, which might be essential for efficient transport of urea at small concentration gradients. PMID:24305683

  7. Mechanisms of molecular transport through the urea channel of Helicobacter pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNulty, Reginald; Ulmschneider, Jakob P.; Luecke, Hartmut; Ulmschneider, Martin B.

    2013-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori survival in acidic environments relies on cytoplasmic hydrolysis of gastric urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, which buffer the pathogen’s periplasm. Urea uptake is greatly enhanced and regulated by HpUreI, a proton-gated inner membrane channel protein essential for gastric survival of H. pylori. The crystal structure of HpUreI describes a static snapshot of the channel with two constriction sites near the center of the bilayer that are too narrow to allow passage of urea or even water. Here we describe the urea transport mechanism at atomic resolution, revealed by unrestrained microsecond equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the hexameric channel assembly. Two consecutive constrictions open to allow conduction of urea, which is guided through the channel by interplay between conserved residues that determine proton rejection and solute selectivity. Remarkably, HpUreI conducts water at rates equivalent to aquaporins, which might be essential for efficient transport of urea at small concentration gradients.

  8. Transcriptional Responses of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli to Increased Environmental Osmolality Caused by Salt or Urea

    PubMed Central

    Withman, Benjamin; Gunasekera, Thusitha S.; Beesetty, Pavani; Agans, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the most common causative agent of urinary tract infections in humans. The majority of urinary infections develop via ascending route through the urethra, where bacterial cells come in contact with human urine prior to reaching the bladder or kidneys. Since urine contains significant amounts of inorganic ions and urea, it imposes osmotic and denaturing stresses on bacterial cells. In this study, we determined the transcriptional adaptive responses of UPEC strain CFT073 to the presence of 0.3 M NaCl or 0.6 M urea in the growth medium. The cell responses to these two osmolytes were drastically different. Although most of the genes of the osmotically inducible regulon were overexpressed in medium with salt, urea failed to stimulate osmotic stress response. At the same time, UPEC colonization genes encoding type 1 and F1C fimbriae and capsule biosynthesis were transcriptionally induced in the presence of urea but did not respond to increased salt concentration. We speculate that urea can potentially be sensed by uropathogenic bacteria to initiate infection program. In addition, several molecular chaperone genes were overexpressed in the presence of urea, whereas adding NaCl to the medium led to an upregulation of a number of anaerobic metabolism pathways. PMID:23090957

  9. Original article Milk protein-iron complexes: Inhibition of lipid

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ) to common milk protein products, sodium caseinate, whey protein isolate (WPI) and milk protein concentrate as functions of the iron concentration. In an emulsion containing linoleic acid, the oxidation activity with high bioavailability, good flavour and no solubility problems. sodium caseinate / whey protein isolate

  10. Toward Understanding Mechanisms Controlling Urea Delivery in a Coastal Plain Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzilkowski, S. S.; Buda, A. R.; Boyer, E. W.; Bryant, R. B.; May, E. B.

    2012-12-01

    Improved understanding of nutrient mobilization and delivery to surface waters is critical to protecting water quality in agricultural watersheds. Urea, a form of organic nitrogen, is a common nutrient found in fertilizers, manures, and human waste, and is gaining recognition as an important driver of coastal eutrophication, particularly through the development of harmful algal blooms. While several studies have documented elevated urea concentrations in tributaries draining to the Chesapeake Bay, little is known about the potential sources and flow pathways responsible for urea delivery from the landscape to surface waters, as well as how these sources and pathways might vary with changing seasons, antecedent conditions, and storm types. In this study, we investigated hydrologic controls on urea delivery in the Manokin River watershed through the analysis of urea concentration dynamics and hysteresis patterns during seven storm events that occurred in 2010 and 2011. The Manokin River is a Coastal Plain watershed (11.1 km2) on the Delmarva Peninsula that drains directly to the Chesapeake Bay and is characterized by extensive rural development coupled with intensive agriculture, particularly poultry production. Sampling was conducted through monthly grab sampling at baseflow conditions and by time-weighted, automated (Sigma) samplers during stormflow events. Monitored storms were chosen to represent a spectrum of antecedent conditions based on precipitation and groundwater levels in the area. Flushing from the landscape during events was found to be the predominant urea delivery mechanism, as urea concentrations increased 3-9 times above baseflow concentrations during storms. The timing and number of flushes, as well as the degree of increased concentrations were dependent on antecedent conditions and the characteristics of the storm event. For instance, during an intense (13.7 mm hr-1), short-duration (4 hrs) storm in August of 2010 when antecedent conditions were dry (5-day antecedent precipitation index = 0 mm), we observed an anticlockwise hysteresis pattern and a delayed, yet high, peak in urea concentrations (0.17 mg L-1) on the falling limb of the hydrograph. These trends suggest that urea was delivered via slow, diffuse flow pathways and from sources distal from the sampling point. In contrast, during a less intense (3.2 mm hr-1), longer duration (22 hrs) storm in October of 2010 when antecedent conditions were wetter (5-day antecedent precipitation index = 67.31 mm), we observed a clockwise hysteresis pattern and a smaller peak in urea concentrations (0.06 mg L-1) timed with the hydrograph peak. Here, the trends suggest that urea delivery occurred through faster flow pathways (e.g., shallow lateral flow) and from proximal (e.g., near-stream, in-stream) sources of urea. Collectively, these trends demonstrate that urea is flushed to streams during storm events, but that the mechanism for delivery depends on antecedent conditions, as well as the nature of the storm event.

  11. Urea production and arginine metabolism are reduced in the growth restricted ovine foetus.

    PubMed

    de Boo, H A; van Zijl, P L; Lafeber, H N; Harding, J E

    2007-06-01

    Urea production may be impaired in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), increasing the risk of toxic hyperammonaemia after birth. Arginine supplementation stimulates urea production, but its effects in IUGR are unknown. We aimed to determine the effects of IUGR and arginine supplementation on urea production and arginine metabolism in the ovine foetus. Pregnant ewes and their foetuses were catheterised at 110 days of gestation and randomly assigned to control or IUGR groups. IUGR was induced by placental embolisation. At days 120 and 126 of gestation, foetal urea production was determined from [14C]-urea kinetics and arginine metabolism was determined from the appearance of radioactive metabolites from [3H]-arginine, both at baseline and in response to arginine or an isonitrogenous mixed amino acid supplementation. Urea production decreased with gestational age in the embolised animals (13.9 ±  3.1 to 11.2 ±  3.0 ?mol/kg per min, P ? 0.05) but not in the controls (13.3 ±  3.5 to 14.8 ±  6.0 ?mol/kg per min). Arginine supplementation increased urea production in both groups, but only at 126 days of gestation (control: 15.0 ±  8.5 to 17.0 ±  9.4 ?mol/kg per min; embolised: 11.7 ±  3.1 to 14.3 ±  3.1 ?mol/kg per min, P ? 0.05). Embolisation reduced foetal arginine concentrations by 20% ( P ? 0.05) while foetal arginine consumption was reduced by 27% ( P ? 0.05). The proportions of plasma citrulline and hydroxyproline derived from arginine were reduced in the embolised animals. These data suggest that foetal urea production and arginine metabolism are perturbed in late gestation after placental embolisation. PMID:22444470

  12. Helicobacter pylori requires an acidic environment to survive in the presence of urea.

    PubMed Central

    Clyne, M; Labigne, A; Drumm, B

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the significance of the urease enzyme in promoting Helicobacter pylori survival in various environments. A urease-positive H. pylori isolate, strain N6, and an isogenic urease-negative strain, strain N6(ureB::TnKm), were incubated in phosphate-buffered saline at a pH ranging from 2.2 to 7.2 for 60 min at 37 degrees C in both the presence and the absence of 10 mM urea. The number of CFU per milliliter in each solution, the pH of the bacterial supernatant, and the amounts of ammonia present in the solutions were measured. H. pylori N6 survived well in solutions with pH values ranging from 4.5 to 7.0 in the absence of urea but survived in solutions only with an initial pH below 3.5 in the presence of urea. Neither strain grew after incubation in an alkaline environment. The pH of an acidic solution (i.e., 3.5) rose rapidly to 8.45 in the presence of the wild-type strain and urea. The urease-negative mutant survived in solutions with pH values ranging from 4.5 to 7.2 irrespective of the presence of urea. Ammonia was present in significant amounts when H. pylori N6 was incubated in the presence of urea. Strain N6 survived exposure to concentrations of ammonia as high as 80 mM. The acid environment of the stomach may be crucial for H. pylori survival in the presence of urea. H. pylori does not survive in the normal environment in the presence of urea because of the subsequent rise in pH rather than ammonia toxicity. PMID:7729871

  13. Detection of Interstellar Urea with Carma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, H.-L.; Snyder, L. E.; Friedel, D. N.; Looney, L. W.; McCall, B. J.; Remijan, A. J.; Lovas, F. J.; Hollis, J. M.

    2010-06-01

    Urea, a molecule discovered in human urine by H. M. Rouelle in 1773, has a significant role in prebiotic chemistry. Previous BIMA observations have suggested that interstellar urea [(NH_2)_2CO] is a compact hot core molecule such as other large molecules, e.g. methyl formate and acetic acid (2009, 64th OSU Symposium On Molecular Spectroscopy, WI05). We have conducted an extensive search for urea toward the high mass hot molecular core Sgr B2(N-LMH) using CARMA and the IRAM 30 m. Because the spectral lines of heavy molecules like urea tend to be weak and hot cores display lines from a wide range of molecules, a major problem in identifying urea lines is confusion with lines of other molecules. Therefore, it is necessary to detect a number of urea lines and apply sophisticated statistical tests before having confidence in an identification. The 1 mm resolution of CARMA enables favorable coupling of the source size and synthesized beam size, which was found to be essential for the detection of weak signals. The 2.5^"×2^" synthesized beam of CARMA significantly resolves out the contamination by extended emission and reveals the eight weak urea lines that were previously blended with nearby transitions. Our analysis indicates that these lines are likely to be urea since the resulting observed line frequencies are coincident with a set of overlapping connecting urea lines, and the observed line intensities are consistent with the expected line strengths of urea. In addition, we have developed a new statistical approach to examine the spatial correlation between the observed lines by applying the Student T-test to the high resolution channel maps obtained from CARMA. The T-test shows similar spatial distributions from all eight candidate lines, suggesting a common molecular origin, urea. Our T-test method could have a broad impact on the next generation of arrays, such as ALMA, because the new arrays will require a method to systematically determine the credibility of detections of weaker signals from new and larger interstellar molecules.

  14. [Advantages of individualized fortification of human milk for preterm infants].

    PubMed

    de Halleux, V; Close, A; Stalport, S; Studzinski, F; Habibi, F; Rigo, J

    2007-09-01

    Despite the benefits of human milk fortification, nutrients of human milk are not sufficient to cover the greater needs of very low birth weight and to ensure a growth similar to that of premature infants fed with preterm formula. These differences could be related to the variation in the macronutrient composition of expressed breast milk with lower protein and energy content. Unfortunately there is unusually no information on macronutrients composition prior human milk fortification. With such data, it would be possible to individualize the fortification. In order to use adjustable fortification of human milk, we have assessed a rapid and simple method using full spectrum infrared laser technology (Milkoscan) to analyze human milk composition. We describe the variation in concentration of protein, lipid and energy in the human milk received in our neonatal unit. Then we evaluate the benefit of adjustable fortification of human milk compared with standard fortification. After standard fortification the variability of protein and lipid remains with a risk of protein deficiency or excess and a risk of energy deficiency. After adjustable human milk fortification based on human milk analysis using Milkoscan, we observe a more stable protein content and a lower amount of added fortifier decreasing the risk of hyperosmolarity. Furthermore, the energy content is higher following of the fat human milk adjusted content. Up to now, our preliminary results suggest that individualized fortification of human milk improves growth rate in preterm infants (21 g/kg/d) to a level close to formula fed infants. PMID:17939959

  15. The fractionation of lanolin with urea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abner Eisner; Wilfred R. Noble; John T. Scanlan

    1959-01-01

    Summary  A fractionation of lanolin was effected by contacting lanolin with urea in the presence of methyl alcohol. About 6–8% of the\\u000a lanolin formed a urea adduct which, upon decomposition, yielded a hard, nontacky wax fraction. In addition to the wax fraction,\\u000a a fluid fraction and a sticky semi-solid were also obtained. The latter two fractions were obtained by the solvent

  16. Nanostructured zinc oxide film for urea sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azahar Ali; Anees A. Ansari; Ajeet Kaushik; Pratima R. Solanki; A. Barik; M. K. Pandey; B. D. Malhotra

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured zinc oxide (Nano-ZnO) film has been electrochemically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plate to co-immobilized urease (Urs) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) for urea detection. The observed reflection planes corresponding to wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles (~25nm) in XRD diffraction pattern and UV-visible absorption band at 338nm reveal the formation of Nano-ZnO. Urs-GLDH\\/Nano-ZnO\\/ITO bioelectrode shows high sensitivity for urea detection within

  17. Effect of forage conservation (hay or silage) on chemical composition of milk

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    rations isonitrogenous. The cows fed grass silage yielded 0.7 kg/day (P milk than those fed of the milk were not significantly different between the two types of forage. The calcium concentration was lower, and the phosphorus concentration higher when cows were fed hay. dairy cows / milk composition

  18. Effects of milk powders in milk chocolate.

    PubMed

    Liang, B; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    The physical characteristics of milk powders used in chocolate can have significant impact on the processing conditions needed to make that chocolate and the physical and organoleptic properties of the finished product. Four milk powders with different particle characteristics (size, shape, density) and "free" milk fat levels (easily extracted with organic solvent) were evaluated for their effect on the processing conditions and characteristics of chocolates in which they were used. Many aspects of chocolate manufacture and storage (tempering conditions, melt rheology, hardness, bloom stability) were dependent on the level of free milk fat in the milk powder. However, particle characteristics of the milk powder also influenced the physical and sensory properties of the final products. PMID:14765806

  19. Exposure assessment of mycotoxins in dairy milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rory Coffey; Enda Cummins; Shane Ward

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative Monte Carlo exposure assessment model for mycotoxins in dairy milk and to assess the potential human exposure levels. Mean concentrations of mycotoxins in milk were estimated using the simulation model (Aflatoxin M1=0.0161?g\\/kg, Ochratoxin A=0.0002?g\\/kg, Deoxynivalenol=1?g\\/kg, Fumonisin B1=0.36?g\\/kg, Zearalenone=0.39?g\\/kg, T-2=0.0722?g\\/kg) while the simulated tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) from milk for males

  20. Human milk and human milk fortifiers.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2014-01-01

    Human milk contains numerous immune-protective components that protect the premature infant from sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Because of these protective effects, human milk is the feeding of choice for the premature infant. However, human milk does not provide adequate amounts of most nutrients for premature infants and must therefore be supplemented (fortified) with nutrients. Commercially available fortifiers provide energy and most nutrients in adequate amounts. The exception is protein, which is present in expressed milk in highly variable amounts and which is not provided in sufficient amounts by most fortifiers. Some liquid fortifiers are higher in protein content than powder fortifiers and provide adequate amounts of protein. PMID:24751632

  1. Impact of urea on the three-dimensional structure, viscoelastic and thermal behavior of iota-carrageenan

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bhavesh K.; Campanella, Osvaldo H.; Janaswamy, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    Urea breaks hydrogen bonds among biopolymers leading to structural destabilization. In the case of hydrocolloids urea addition is thought to impact gelation. Detailed information about its pertinent role on influencing the structure-function relationships of hydrocolloids is still elusive, however. The present investigation is aimed at delineating hydrocolloids structural behavior in the presence of urea employing iota-carrageenan as a model system. X-ray fiber diffraction, rheological and thermal properties of two iota-carrageenan solutions with weight concentrations 4.5 and 6.0% w/w at two urea molar concentrations (0.5 and 2.0 M) with and without heat treatments have been analyzed. X-ray results suggest that the canonical double helical structural arrangement of iota-carrageenan is maintained even after urea addition. However, improved crystallinity, ordering and altered unit cell dimensions especially with heat treatments of the binary mixtures indicate the promotion of favorable interactions among carrageenan helices in the presence of urea. Increased elastic modulus and onset temperature of melting endotherm with the heat treatment compared to cold addition further attests the X-ray observations of enhanced structural ordering. Overall, results suggest that urea molecules synergistically aid iota-carrageenan interactions and stabilize structure of junction zones. Our findings are deemed to be helpful in the design and development of novel non-food applications of hydrocolloids. PMID:23399231

  2. Properties of the Colostrum of the Dairy Cow. V. Yield, Specific Gravity and Concentrations of Total Solids and its Various Components of Colostrum and Early Milk1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Parrish; G. H. Wise; J. S. Hughes; F. W. Atkeson

    1950-01-01

    Considerable information on specific gravity and on concentrations of total solids, fat, protein, lactose and ash of colostrum has been accumulated. From the early studies, many of which are referred to by Houdini~re (7), Overman and Sanmann (8) and Weber (18), there emerged a general picture of the gross composition of colostrum and a recognition of its variability. Within the

  3. Effect of dietary starch level and high rumen-undegradable protein on endocrine-metabolic status, milk yield, and milk composition in dairy cows during early and late lactation.

    PubMed

    Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Loor, J J; Seal, C J; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2014-12-01

    Diet composition defines the amount and type of nutrients absorbed by dairy cows. Endocrine-metabolic interactions can influence these parameters, and so nutrient availability for the mammary gland can significantly vary and affect milk yield and its composition. Six dairy cows in early and then late lactation received, for 28 d in a changeover design, 2 diets designed to provide, within the same stage of lactation, similar amounts of rumen fermentable material but either high starch plus sugar (HS) content or low starch plus sugar content (LS). All diets had similar dietary crude protein and calculated supply of essential amino acids. Dry matter intake within each stage of lactation was similar between groups. Milk yield was similar between groups in early lactation, whereas a higher milk yield was observed in late lactation when feeding HS. At the metabolic level, the main difference observed between the diets in both stages of lactation was lower blood glucose in cows fed LS. The lower glucose availability during consumption of LS caused substantial modifications in the circulating and postprandial pattern of metabolic hormones. Feeding LS versus HS resulted in an increase in the ratio of bovine somatotropin to insulin. This increased mobilization of lipid reserves resulted in higher blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate, which contributed to the higher milk fat content in both stages of lactation in the LS group. This greater recourse to body fat stores was confirmed by the greater loss of body weight during early lactation and the slower recovery of body weight in late lactation in cows fed LS. The lower insulin to glucagon ratio observed in cows fed LS in early and late lactation likely caused an increase in hepatic uptake and catabolism of amino acids, as confirmed by the higher blood urea concentrations. Despite the higher catabolism of amino acids in LS in early lactation, similar milk protein output was observed for both diets, suggesting similar availability of amino acids for peripheral tissue and mammary gland. The latter could be the result of sparing of amino acids at the gut level due to starch that escaped from the rumen, and to the balanced amino acid profile of digestible protein. This last aspect appears worthy of further research, with the aim to enhance the efficiency of protein metabolism of dairy cows, reducing environmental nitrogen pollution without affecting milk yield potential. PMID:25459908

  4. Modulation of sheep ruminal urea transport by ammonia and pH.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhongyan; Stumpff, Friederike; Deiner, Carolin; Rosendahl, Julia; Braun, Hannah; Abdoun, Khalid; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Martens, Holger

    2014-09-01

    Ruminal fermentation products such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and CO2 acutely stimulate urea transport across the ruminal epithelium in vivo, whereas ammonia has inhibitory effects. Uptake and signaling pathways remain obscure. The ruminal expression of SLC14a1 (UT-B) was studied using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The functional short-term effects of ammonia on cytosolic pH (pHi) and ruminal urea transport across native epithelia were investigated using pH-sensitive microelectrodes and via flux measurements in Ussing chambers. Two variants (UT-B1 and UT-B2) could be fully sequenced from ovine ruminal cDNA. Functionally, transport was passive and modulated by luminal pH in the presence of SCFA and CO2, rising in response to luminal acidification to a peak value at pH 5.8 and dropping with further acidification, resulting in a bell-shaped curve. Presence of ammonia reduced the amplitude, but not the shape of the relationship between urea flux and pH, so that urea flux remained maximal at pH 5.8. Effects of ammonia were concentration dependent, with saturation at 5 mmol/l. Clamping the transepithelial potential altered the inhibitory potential of ammonia on urea flux. Ammonia depolarized the apical membrane and acidified pHi, suggesting that, at physiological pH (< 7), uptake of NH4 (+) into the cytosol may be a key signaling event regulating ruminal urea transport. We conclude that transport of urea across the ruminal epithelium involves proteins subject to rapid modulation by manipulations that alter pHi and the cytosolic concentration of NH4 (+). Implications for epithelial and ruminal homeostasis are discussed. PMID:24920734

  5. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for CLA-rich milk production included linseed supplement and contained less maize meal than conventional rations and a greater proportion of unsaturated fatty acids and salts. The relative proportions of the phospholipids studied were similar in all 3 types of milk, descending in the order PE>(PC, SM)>PS>PI, with PC being slightly more abundant than SM in organic milk and vice versa in CLA-rich milk. PMID:25465571

  6. STATUS OF IODINE IN FORMALDEHYDE-PRESERVED MILK - REVISITED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of formaldehyde as a preservative for milk prior to radiochemical analysis for 131I was studied. Results suggest that the formaldehyde concentration is critical and that at low formaldehyde concentrations (...

  7. Terrestrial sources of urea to water in a mixed land use watershed: exploring the roles of current and past nitrogen management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A global increase in the use of urea-based fertilizers and manures has been implicated in rising urea concentrations in coastal waters, and by extension, more frequent and toxic harmful algal blooms. Drawing upon research from a mixed land use basin on Maryland’s Atlantic Coastal Plain, this present...

  8. Genetic variability of milk fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M.-R. Arnould; H. Soyeurt

    2009-01-01

    The milk fatty acid (FA) profile is far from the optimal fat composition in regards to human health. The natural sources of\\u000a variation, such as feeding or genetics, could be used to increase the concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids. The impact\\u000a of feeding is well described. However, genetic effects on the milk FA composition begin to be extensively studied. This

  9. Comprehensive and quantitative profiling of lipid species in human milk, cow milk and a phospholipid-enriched milk formula by GC and MS/MSALL

    PubMed Central

    Sokol, Elena; Ulven, Trond; Færgeman, Nils J; Ejsing, Christer S

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a workflow for in-depth analysis of milk lipids that combines gas chromatography (GC) for fatty acid (FA) profiling and a shotgun lipidomics routine termed MS/MSALL for structural characterization of molecular lipid species. To evaluate the performance of the workflow we performed a comparative lipid analysis of human milk, cow milk, and Lacprodan® PL-20, a phospholipid-enriched milk protein concentrate for infant formula. The GC analysis showed that human milk and Lacprodan have a similar FA profile with higher levels of unsaturated FAs as compared to cow milk. In-depth lipidomic analysis by MS/MSALL revealed that each type of milk sample comprised distinct composition of molecular lipid species. Lipid class composition showed that the human and cow milk contain a higher proportion of triacylglycerols (TAGs) as compared to Lacprodan. Notably, the MS/MSALL analysis demonstrated that the similar FA profile of human milk and Lacprodan determined by GC analysis is attributed to the composition of individual TAG species in human milk and glycerophospholipid species in Lacprodan. Moreover, the analysis of TAG molecules in Lacprodan and cow milk showed a high proportion of short-chain FAs that could not be monitored by GC analysis. The results presented here show that complementary GC and MS/MSALL analysis is a powerful approach for characterization of molecular lipid species in milk and milk products. Practical applications : Milk lipid analysis is routinely performed using gas chromatography. This method reports the total fatty acid composition of all milk lipids, but provides no structural or quantitative information about individual lipid molecules in milk or milk products. Here we present a workflow that integrates gas chromatography for fatty acid profiling and a shotgun lipidomics routine termed MS/MSALL for structural analysis and quantification of molecular lipid species. We demonstrate the efficacy of this complementary workflow by a comparative analysis of molecular lipid species in human milk, cow milk, and a milk-based supplement used for infant formula.

  10. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in cow's, buffalo's, and sheep's milk from Afyonkarahisar region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Sait; Akkaya, Levent; Gök, Veli; Konuk, Muhsin

    2011-10-01

    In this study, it was aimed to determine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in three types of milk (cow's, buffalo's, and sheep's milk) produced in Afyonkarahisar province of Turkey. The results indicated that these milk specimens were found to be contaminated by 21 different pesticides. Sixteen OCP residues were detected in sheep's milk and it was followed with 14 pesticides in buffalo's milk and 11 pesticides in cow's milk. Dominant pesticides in all samples examined were beta-HCH in buffalo's, cow's, and sheep's milk in the concentrations of 63.36, 91.32, and 122.98 ng/ml, respectively. Total OCP levels were found to be 243.81 ng/ml in sheep's milk, 151.02 ng/ml in cow's milk, and 133.38 ng/ml in buffalo's milk. Some of the pesticides detected were found to be in the excess amount of the acceptable level regarding the EU regulations. PMID:21188503

  11. Effect of Dried Raisins and Apricots Extract on the Growth of Bifidobacteria in Cows and Goats Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    The study confirms the growth of Bifidobacteria (B. infantis) in milk mixed with dried fruits (apricots and raisins) extract with no significant difference at (p<0.05) regardless of the milk type and the fruit extract concentration. The sensory evaluation of bifidus milk extracts fermented by B. infantis prepared from cow's and goat's milk with dried raisin and apricot extract each at

  12. Second-harmonic scattering in aqueous urea solutions: evidence for solute clusters?

    PubMed

    Ward, Martin R; Botchway, Stanley W; Ward, Andrew D; Alexander, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of second-harmonic scattering (SHS) from concentrated aqueous solutions of urea are reported for the first time using scanning microscopy. SHS signal was measured as a function of solution concentration (C) over a range of saturation conditions from undersaturated (S = 0.15) to supersaturated (5 = 1.86), where S = C/C(sat) and C(sat) is the saturation concentration. The results show a non-linear increase in SHS signal against concentration, with local maxima near S = 0.95 and 1.75 suggesting a change in solution structure near these points. Rayleigh scattering images indicate the presence of particles in nearly saturated (S = 0.95) urea solutions. Time-dependent SHS measurements indicate that signals originate from individual events encountered during scanning of the focal volume through the solution, consistent with second harmonic generation (SHG) from particles. SHG from aqueous dispersions of barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles with diameters <200 nm, showed signals approximately 20 times larger than urea solutions. The results suggest the existence of a population of semi-ordered clusters of urea that changes with solution concentration. PMID:24640505

  13. Effect of milk composition upon the partition coefficents of diacetyl, acetaldehyde, and ethanol in acidified milk products 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Kai-Ping

    1991-01-01

    SNF and milk fat concentrations in the milk matrix at either concentration of compounds or incubation temperature. The highest partition coefficients were observed in a milk matrix which contained 12% SNF or 20% milk fat. Interaction effects of SNF... by fat, SNF by pH, fat by pH, and SNF by fat by pH on the partition coefficient were not observed except for a fat by pH interaction for diacetyl. The partition coefficient for acetaldehyde was higher than the partition coefficient for diacetyl...

  14. Effect of milk composition upon the partition coefficents of diacetyl, acetaldehyde, and ethanol in acidified milk products

    E-print Network

    Lee, Kai-Ping

    1991-01-01

    SNF and milk fat concentrations in the milk matrix at either concentration of compounds or incubation temperature. The highest partition coefficients were observed in a milk matrix which contained 12% SNF or 20% milk fat. Interaction effects of SNF... by fat, SNF by pH, fat by pH, and SNF by fat by pH on the partition coefficient were not observed except for a fat by pH interaction for diacetyl. The partition coefficient for acetaldehyde was higher than the partition coefficient for diacetyl...

  15. An excess electron bound to urea. III. The urea dimer as an electron trap Piotr Skurski

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    Simonsa) Henry Eyring Center for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, SaltAn excess electron bound to urea. III. The urea dimer as an electron trap Piotr Skurski Henry Eyring Center for Theoretical Chemistry Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

  16. Winter Wheat and Maize Response to Urea Ammonium Nitrate and a New Urea Formaldehyde Polymer Fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Slow release nitrogen (N) fertilizers have potential to improve yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). A slow release urea formaldehyde polymer (UFP) was compared with conventional aqueous urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) [(NH2)2CO, NH4NO3]...

  17. A Method for Estimating Uptake and Produdion Rates for Urea in Seawater using Urea and

    E-print Network

    Hansell, Dennis

    estimatinguptakeand productionrates for urea in seawater using [j4"N]ureaand ["Clurea. Can. J.Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46: 19. Several models have been developed that attempt to describe the pathways sf the nitrogennutrientsmost have not been horougMy tested. Urea is an endproduct of hekrotrophic nitrogen metabolism thatcanbe

  18. Special Milk Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  19. Seasonal variations of trimethylamine oxide and urea in the blood of a cold-adapted marine teleost, the rainbow smelt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), which has previously not been known to occur in significant amounts in the blood of marine teleosts,\\u000a rose to concentrations of approximately 50 mM in the blood of winter-acclimatized rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax. Urea also increased in the blood of cold-acclimatized smelt, and, with TMAO, contributed significantly to the winter freezing\\u000a point depression. TMAO and urea also

  20. 69 FR 58957 - Solid Urea From Belarus, Estonia, Lithuania, Romania, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-10-01

    ...Urea From Belarus, Estonia, Lithuania, Romania, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan...urea from Belarus, Estonia, Lithuania, Romania, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan...urea from Belarus, Estonia, Lithuania, Romania, Russia, Tajikistan,...

  1. Testing the ability of non-methylamine osmolytes present in kidney cells to counteract the deleterious effects of urea on structure, stability and function of proteins.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sheeza; Bano, Zehra; Singh, Laishram R; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan

    2013-01-01

    Human kidney cells are under constant urea stress due to its urine concentrating mechanism. It is believed that the deleterious effect of urea is counteracted by methylamine osmolytes (glycine betaine and glycerophosphocholine) present in kidney cells. A question arises: Do the stabilizing osmolytes, non-methylamines (myo-inositol, sorbitol and taurine) present in the kidney cells also counteract the deleterious effects of urea? To answer this question, we have measured structure, thermodynamic stability (?G D (o)) and functional activity parameters (K m and k cat) of different model proteins in the presence of various concentrations of urea and each non-methylamine osmolyte alone and in combination. We observed that (i) for each protein myo-inositol provides perfect counteraction at 1?2 ([myo-inositol]:[urea]) ratio, (ii) any concentration of sorbitol fails to refold urea denatured proteins if it is six times less than that of urea, and (iii) taurine regulates perfect counteraction in a protein specific manner; 1.5?2.0, 1.2?2.0 and 1.0?2.0 ([taurine]:[urea]) ratios for RNase-A, lysozyme and ?-lactalbumin, respectively. PMID:24039776

  2. [Chemical pollution and breast milk: Taking positions].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gómez, N M; Ares, S; Hernández-Aguilar, M T; Ortega-García, J A; Paricio-Talayero, J M; Landa-Rivera, L

    2013-12-01

    Chemical pollution affects all ecosystems of our planet. Human milk has been used as a biomarker of environmental pollution as, due to bioaccumulation processes in fat tissue, many chemical compounds reach measurable concentrations that can be readily tested in breast milk. Quite frequently information about the presence of contaminants in breast milk appears in the media, leading to misunderstanding among parents and health professionals, and in some cases breastfeeding the child is stopped. In this article, the Breastfeeding Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics stresses the importance of promoting breastfeeding as the healthiest option, because its benefits clearly outweigh any health risks associated with chemical contaminants in breast milk. Breast milk contains protective factors that counteract the potential effects related to prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants. This article summarises the key recommendations to reduce the level of chemical contaminants in breast milk. It also highlights the importance of government involvement in the development of programs to eliminate or reduce chemical contamination of food and the environment. In this way, the negative effects on child health resulting from exposure to these toxic compounds through the placenta and breast milk may be prevented. PMID:23791806

  3. Influence of Land Management and Hydrology on Urea Fate and Transport Within a Coastal Plain Watershed Dominated by Intensive Poultry Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, S. S.; Buda, A. R.; Boyer, E. W.; Bryant, R.; May, E.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing nutrient loads delivered from the landscape to coastal ecosystems has widely been recognized as a major contributor to coastal eutrophication and as a driver of the escalation of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Urea, a form of organic nitrogen, is a common nutrient found in fertilizers, manures, and septic waste, and is gaining recognition as a preferred nutrient for the development of toxic HABs. While several studies have documented elevated urea concentrations in tributaries draining the Delmarva Peninsula and in the Chesapeake Bay, little is known about the key factors that influence urea delivery from the landscape to surface waters. Here, in attempt to address the need to better understand urea behavior, we investigated land management and hydrologic controls on urea loss, both spatially and temporally, in the Manokin River. The Manokin River is a Coastal Plain watershed (300 km2) on the Delmarva Peninsula that drains directly to the Chesapeake Bay and is characterized by extensive rural development coupled with intensive agriculture, particularly poultry production. Monthly synoptic sampling during baseflow conditions was conducted throughout the watershed in order to represent the variety of potential point and non-point sources of urea. Sampling was also conducted during stormflow conditions using time-weighted automated (SIGMA) samplers at select sites within the watershed. Temporal baseflow trends illustrate higher average urea concentrations through the summer months (0.61 ?M L-1) and generally lower (0.35 ?M L-1) concentrations during the winter months. Spatial trends show higher average baseflow urea concentrations in the agricultural ditches and headwaters (0.93?M L-1) with decreasing concentrations moving downstream (0.37 ?M L-1). Stormflow was found to be the predominant urea delivery mechanism, as urea concentrations typically increased 3-9 times above baseflow concentrations (0.27 ?M L-1) during storms, with peaks in urea concentration generally following peaks in discharge. Results from this study will be used to determine whether there is a link between urea delivery from the Manokin River and harmful algal blooms in the Chesapeake Bay as well as to guide the development of best management practices to control urea loss from agricultural activities.

  4. The Effect of Ethylene Glycol, Glycine Betaine, and Urea on Lysozyme Thermal Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Nordstrom, Anna R.

    2010-01-01

    The four-week student project described in this article is an extension of protein thermal denaturation experiments to include effects of added cosolutes ethylene glycol, glycine betaine, and urea on the unfolding of lysozyme. The transition temperatures and van't Hoff enthalpies for unfolding are evaluated for six concentrations of each cosolute,…

  5. The incidence of urea cycle disorders.

    PubMed

    Summar, Marshall L; Koelker, Stefan; Freedenberg, Debra; Le Mons, Cynthia; Haberle, Johannes; Lee, Hye-Seung; Kirmse, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A key question for urea cycle disorders is their incidence. In the United States two UCDs, argininosuccinic synthetase and lyase deficiency, are currently detected by newborn screening. We used newborn screening data on over 6million births and data from the large US and European longitudinal registries to determine how common these conditions are. The incidence for the United States is predicted to be 1 urea cycle disorder patient for every 35,000 births presenting about 113 new patients per year across all age groups. PMID:23972786

  6. Original article The effects of milking method and post-milking suckling

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article The effects of milking method and post-milking suckling on ewe milk production; accepted 12 December 1989) Summary — The effects of milking method (machine milking, machine milking and hand stripping, hand milking) and of post-milking suckling on milk yield and milk fat percentage

  7. Fortified malted milk drinks containing low-dose ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol do not differ in their capacity to raise serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in healthy men and women not exposed to UV-B.

    PubMed

    Fisk, Catherine M; Theobald, Hannah E; Sanders, Thomas A B

    2012-07-01

    Uncertainty remains regarding the efficacy of low intakes of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2 or D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 or D3) provided in food to increase serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D) metabolite concentrations when UV-B exposure is low. We recruited 40 healthy men and women into a double-blind, parallel design, randomized controlled trial. Participants received placebo or 1 of 4 experimental treatments (D2 or D3 at 5 or 10 ?g/d) supplied as a malted milk drink for 4 wk during a period of minimal UV-B exposure in the UK. The primary outcome was a change in serum 25-OH-D2 and 25-OH-D3 concentrations measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem MS. The secondary outcomes were changes in concentrations of plasma parathyroid hormone and serum calcium (Ca(2+)). Baseline concentrations (geometric mean ± SD) of 25-OH-D2, 25-OH-D3, and total 25-OH-D were 3 ± 4, 32 ± 22, and 37 ± 22 nmol/L, respectively. Both D2- and D3-fortified drinks resulted in dose-dependent increases (P < 0.001) in their respective 25-OH metabolites that did not significantly differ in size. Increments from baseline compared with the placebo group following 5 and 10 ?g/d of D2 were (mean ± SEM) 9.4 ± 2.5 and 17.8 ± 2.4 nmol/L for 25-OH-D2 and following 5 and 10 ?g/d of D3 were 15.1 ± 4.7 and 22.9 ± 4.6 nmol/L for 25-OH-D3, respectively. There was no difference between D2 and D3 groups in the incremental AUC of their respective metabolites. These findings suggest that D2 and D3 are equipotent in increasing 25-OH-D in healthy men and women with negligible UV-B exposure. PMID:22623396

  8. Effect of omitting one or two milkings weekly on lactational performance in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Hervás, Gonzalo; Ramella, Jorge L; López, Secundino; González, Jesús S; Mantecón, Angel R

    2006-05-01

    We investigated the effects of omitting one or two milkings weekly on milk yield and milk composition in dairy sheep. Ninety Spanish Assaf ewes were allocated to three experimental treatments: T0 (no milking omission; 14 milkings/week), T1 (omission of one evening milking per week; 13 milkings/week) and T2 (omission of two evening milkings per week; 12 milkings/week). The experiment was extended for 11 weeks, from week 7 after lambing to week 17 of lactation. Once a week, daily milk production was recorded just before and after the omission. Milk quality and composition was analysed in lactation weeks 9, 13 and 16. Omission of one or two evening milkings each week resulted in an increase in milk production recorded the day immediately after the omission (27% for T1 and 16% for T2), which can be attributed to accumulation of milk in the udder cisterns. This increase did not compensate completely for the loss of yield in the omitted milking. The lack of significant differences among the three milking strategies in milk production (on average 1903, 2062 and 1833 ml/d for T0, T1 and T2, respectively) recorded before omission throughout the trial, would indicate the absence of residual effects of the omission on production in subsequent weeks. Treatment T2 resulted in a loss of milk production of approximately 39% during those days when milkings were omitted, representing a decrease of approximately 10% of the estimated weekly milk production. In relation to milk composition, milking omission led to significant increases in the fat and protein concentrations of the milk collected after the omission, whereas differences were not significant for the milk obtained before the omission. Despite the slight increase observed in treatment T2 after the milking omission, the somatic cell count was always far below that considered as indicative of possible pathologies. In conclusion, at least one evening milking could be omitted each week in high-producing dairy sheep without adversely affecting milk yield and milk composition. PMID:16476180

  9. Backbone and Side-Chain Contributions in Protein Denaturation by Urea

    PubMed Central

    Canchi, Deepak R.; García, Angel E.

    2011-01-01

    Urea is a commonly used protein denaturant, and it is of great interest to determine its interaction with various protein groups to elucidate the molecular basis of its effect on protein stability. Using the Trp-cage miniprotein as a model system, we report what we believe to be the first computation of changes in the preferential interaction coefficient of the protein upon urea denaturation from molecular-dynamics simulations and examine the contributions from the backbone and the side-chain groups. The preferential interaction is obtained from reversible folding/unfolding replica exchange molecular-dynamics simulations of Trp-cage in presence of urea, over a wide range of urea concentration. The increase in preferential interaction upon unfolding is dominated by the side-chain contribution, rather than the backbone. Similar trends are observed in simulations using two different force fields, Amber94 and Amber99sb, for the protein. The magnitudes of the side-chain and backbone contributions differ in the two force fields, despite containing identical protein-solvent interaction terms. The differences arise from the unfolded ensembles sampled, with Amber99sb favoring conformations with larger surface area and lower helical content. These results emphasize the importance of the side-chain interactions with urea in protein denaturation, and highlight the dependence of the computed driving forces on the unfolded ensemble sampled. PMID:21402035

  10. Selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub 2} with urea in nanocrystalline NaY zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Gonghu Li; Conrad A. Jones; Vicki H. Grassian; Sarah C. Larsen [University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States). Department of Chemistry

    2005-09-10

    In this study, the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub 2} with urea in nanocrystalline NaY zeolite was investigated with in situ transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At T=473 K, the reaction rate for urea-SCR of NO{sub 2} in nanocrystalline NaY zeolite was significantly greater than that in commercial NaY zeolite with a larger crystal size. In addition, a dramatic decrease in the concentration of undesirable surface species, including biuret and cyanuric acid, was observed in nanocrystalline NaY compared with commercial NaY after urea-SCR of NO{sub 2} at T=473 K. The increased reactivity for urea-SCR of NO{sub 2} was attributed to silanol groups and extra-framework aluminum species located on the external surface of nanocrystalline NaY. Specifically, NOx storage as nitrate and nitrite on the internal zeolite surface was coupled to reactive deNOx sites on the external surface. Isotopic labeling combined with IR analysis suggest that NN bond formation involved both an N-atom originating from NO{sub 2} and an N-atom originating from urea. This is the first clear example demonstrating that the increased external surface area (up to 40% of total surface area) of nanocrystalline zeolites can be used as a reactive surface with unique active sites for catalysis.

  11. B: Cheerios, Toast, Oranges, Milk

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    B: Cheerios, Toast, Oranges, Milk L: Chicken fajita, Black Beans, Pineapple, Milk S: Cheese Crackers B: Turkey sausage, Biscuit, apple Slices, Milk L: Turkey Breast Deli Meat, Iceberg Lettuce and Tomato, Baked Apples, Wheat Bread, Milk S: Yogurt B: Boiled Egg, Toast, Oranges, Milk L: Hamburger on Bun

  12. Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs

    PubMed Central

    Puiman, Patrycja; Stoll, Barbara; Mølbak, Lars; de Bruijn, Adrianus; Schierbeek, Henk; Boye, Mette; Boehm, Günther; Renes, Ingrid; Burrin, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously administered antibiotics, or probiotics affects whole body nitrogen and amino acid turnover. We quantified whole body urea kinetics, threonine fluxes, and threonine disposal into protein, oxidation, and tissue protein synthesis with stable isotope techniques. Compared with controls, antibiotics reduced the number and diversity of bacterial species in the distal small intestine (SI) and colon. Antibiotics decreased plasma urea concentrations via decreased urea synthesis. Antibiotics elevated threonine plasma concentrations and turnover, as well as whole body protein synthesis and proteolysis. Antibiotics decreased protein synthesis rate in the proximal SI and liver but did not affect the distal SI, colon, or muscle. Probiotics induced a bifidogenic microbiota and decreased plasma urea concentrations but did not affect whole body threonine or protein metabolism. Probiotics decreased protein synthesis in the proximal SI but not in other tissues. In conclusion, modulation of the gut microbiota by antibiotics and probiotics reduced hepatic ureagenesis and intestinal protein synthesis, but neither altered whole body net threonine balance. These findings suggest that changes in amino acid and nitrogen metabolism resulting from antibiotic- or probiotic-induced shifts in the microbiota are localized to the gut and liver and have limited impact on whole body growth and anabolism in neonatal piglets. PMID:23139222

  13. Guanidine hydrochloride and urea effects upon thermal stability of Glossoscolex paulistus hemoglobin (HbGp).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Francisco A O; Alves, Fernanda R; Carvalho, José W P; Tabak, Marcel

    2015-03-01

    Glossoscolex paulistus hemoglobin (HbGp) has a molecular mass of 3600kDa. It belongs to the hexagonal bilayer hemoglobin class, which consists of highly cooperative respiratory macromolecules found in mollusks and annelids. The present work focusses on oxy-HbGp thermal stability, in the presence of urea and guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl), monitored by several techniques. Initially, dynamic light scattering data show that the presence of GuHCl induces the protein oligomeric dissociation, followed by a significant 11-fold increase in the hydrodynamic diameter (DH) values, due to the formation of protein aggregates in solution. In contrast, urea promotes the HbGp oligomeric dissociation, followed by unfolding process at high temperatures, without aggregation. Circular dichroism data show that unfolding critical temperature (Tc) of oxy-HbGp decreases from 57°C, at 0.0 mol/L of the denaturant, to 45°C, in the presence of 3.5 mol/L of urea, suggesting the reduction of HbGp oligomeric stability. Moreover, differential scanning calorimetry results show that at lower GuHCl concentrations, some thermal stabilization of the hemoglobin is observed, whereas at higher concentrations, the reduction of stability takes place. Besides, HbGp is more stable in the presence of urea when compared with the guanidine effect, as deduced from the differences in the concentration range of denaturants. PMID:25433131

  14. Leveraging the beneficial compounds of organic and pasture milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much discussion has arisen over the possible benefits of organic food, including milk. Organic milk comes from cows that are on pasture during the growing season, and would be expected to contain some compounds that are not found in animals receiving conventional feed, or at higher concentrations. ...

  15. Determination of the Content of Calcium Ions in Milk Ultrafiltrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Th. G. M. Smeets; L. Seekles

    1952-01-01

    THE determination of free calcium ions is very important in human and veterinary pathology and in dairy chemistry. Evidence has been obtained that the instability of milk known as the `Utrecht abnormality of milk' is caused by an abnormally high level of the concentration of calcium ions1. On the other hand, there are some indications that an increased curdling time

  16. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS (PBDES) IN AMERICAN MOTHERS' MILK

    EPA Science Inventory

    No previous reports exist on polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in individual American mothers' milk. This report on PBDEs is an extension of our previous studies on concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans, PCBs, and other chlorinated organics in human milk in a num...

  17. Rapid Separation and Quantification of Major Caseins and Whey Proteins of Bovine Milk by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. F. Ng-Kwai-Hang; E. M. Kroeker

    1984-01-01

    A rapid polyacrylamide gel electro- phoretic method was developed for separating and quantifying major pro- teins in casein and whey protein fractions of bovine milk. For casein separation, best results were achieved by an 8% poly- acrylamide gel containing 4 M urea and a top layer of large pore sample gel; for whey protein the most_ satisfactory separation was with

  18. Detection of bovine milk adulterated with cheese whey by western blot immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norma A. Chávez; Eva Salinas; Juan Jauregui; Laura A. Palomares; Karla Macías

    2008-01-01

    Milk processor industries and distributors have problems of milk adulteration with cheese whey. The most frequently used method to detect cheese whey is the identification of a glycomacropeptide (GMP) which is present only in cheese whey but not in milk. At present, methods to detect GMP require major work and time, presenting problems of sensitivity and accuracy at low concentrations.

  19. Effects on milk yield and composition of infusions of volatile fatty acids and caseinate into

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects on milk yield and composition of infusions of volatile fatty acids and caseinate Laitière, Saint-Gilles, 35590 L'Hermitage, France Changes in milk secretion and composi- tion, particularly concentrate and 7.5% soya bean meal. Duodenal infusion of casein increased milk yield (+ 1.9 kg

  20. Fat Separation in Evaporated Milk I. Homogenization, Separation, and Viscosity Tests1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Maxcy; H. H. Sommer

    1954-01-01

    The rising of fat in evaporated milk on prolonged storage will inevitably occur since the density of the fat particles is lower than that of the concentrated milk plasma in which they are suspended. It has been shown that the velocity of rise of individual fat globules in milk plasma is in good agreement with the velocity as predicated by

  1. Aldehyde-containing urea-absorbing polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, W. A.; Hsu, G. C.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (inventors)

    1977-01-01

    A novel aldehyde containing polymer (ACP) is prepared by reaction of a polysaccharide with periodate to introduce aldehyde groups onto the C2 - C3 carbon atoms. By introduction of ether and ester groups onto the pendant primary hydroxyl solubility characteristics are modified. The ACP is utilized to absorb nitrogen bases such as urea in vitro or in vivo.

  2. Continuous Crystallization of Urea-Water Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokamura, Taku; Ohkubo, Hidetoshi; Watanabe, Satoshi; Seki, Mitsuo; Murakoshi, Hiromichi

    Ice slurries have been used as environmentally-friendly secondary refrigerants. In addition to such ice slurries, aqueous solutions in slurry-state have also been put to practical use at temperatures below 0 oC. Urea-water mixture is a multi-component substance that has a eutectic point. If we can form a two-phase fluid substance by the liquid-solid phases at the eutectic point, it can be used as a fluid latent heat storage material, which will maintain the secondary refrigerant in a heat exchanger at constant temperature. In the present study, we propose a urea-water mixture as a novel functional thermal fluid that can be used as a fluid latent heat material. To demonstrate its feasibility, we first measured the latent heat and density of a urea-water mixture, and then used a counter-flow double tube heat exchanger to produce a liquid-solid two-phase flow of the urea-water mixture. This work demonstrates that it is possible to make a fluid latent heat storage material continuously from an aqueous solution at the eutectic point by flowing it through a double tube heat exchanger equipped with a stirrer.

  3. An investigation of urea decomposition and selective non-catalytic removal of nitric oxide with urea 

    E-print Network

    Park, Yong Hun

    2004-09-30

    The use of urea (NH2CONH2) to remove nitric oxide (NO) from exhaust streams was investigated using a laboratory laminar-flow reactor. The experiments used a number of gas compositions to simulate different combustion exhaust ...

  4. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED PREPARATION OF CYCLIC UREAS FROM DIAMINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rajender S. Varma* and Yong-Jin Kim Cyclic ureas are useful intermediates for a variety of pharmaceuticals and pesticides. One of the attractive approaches for the synthesis of cyclic ureas uses condensation of diamines with urea as a carbonyl source under dynamic evacuation. ...

  5. Homogeneous precipitation of alumina precursors via enzymatic decomposition of urea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidero Unuma; Shinichi Kato; Toshitaka Ota; Minoru Takahashi

    1998-01-01

    A modified homogeneous precipitation technique involving enzymatic decomposition of urea was proposed and was applied to the synthesis of alumina precursors. Spherical aluminum hydroxide aggregates were prepared at 298 K from aqueous solutions containing aluminum sulfate, urea and urease. In contrast to the conventional technique involving thermally induced decomposition of urea, the resultant aggregates were amorphous with no trace of

  6. Hemodialysis urea rebound: The effect of increasing dialysis efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Spiegel; Penny L. Baker; Susan Babcock; Robert Contiguglia; Melvyn Klein

    1995-01-01

    Urea rebound has been documented to occur after hemodialysis, but the magnitude and causes are not clearly defined. In this study we evaluated the effect of high-flux hemodialysis on urea rebound and Kt\\/V. Blood urea nitrogen samples were obtained before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after hemodialysis in 49 patients. Rebound was evaluated with respect to dialysis efficiency, dialysis treatment

  7. Characterization of urea transport in Bufo arenarum oocytes.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Claudia; Zotta, Elsa; Ripoche, Pierre; Ibarra, Cristina

    2003-07-01

    Xenopus laevis oocytes have been extensively used for expression cloning, structure/function relationships, and regulation analysis of transporter proteins. Urea transporters have been expressed in Xenopus oocytes and their properties have been described. In order to establish an alternative system in which urea transporters could be efficiently expressed and studied, we determined the urea transport properties of ovarian oocytes from Bufo arenarum, a toad species common in Argentina. Bufo oocytes presented a high urea permeability of 22.3 x 10(-6) cm/s, which was significantly inhibited by the incubation with phloretin. The urea uptake in these oocytes was also inhibited by mercurial reagents, and high-affinity urea analogues. The urea uptake was not sodium dependent. The activation energy was 3.2 Kcal/mol, suggesting that urea movement across membrane oocytes may be through a facilitated urea transporter. In contrast, Bufo oocytes showed a low permeability for mannitol and glycerol. From these results, we propose that one or several specific urea transporters are present in ovarian oocytes from Bufo arenarum. Therefore, these oocytes cannot be used in expression studies of foreign urea transporters. The importance of Bufo urea transporter is not known but could be implicated in osmotic regulation during the laying of eggs in water. PMID:12840834

  8. Milk fat content and DGAT1 genotype determine lipid composition of the milk fat globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Argov-Argaman, Nurit; Mida, Kfir; Cohen, Bat-Chen; Visker, Marleen; Hettinga, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    During secretion of milk fat globules, triacylglycerol (TAG) droplets are enveloped by a phospholipid (PL) trilayer. Globule size has been found to be related to polar lipid composition and fat content, and milk fat content and fatty acid composition have been associated with the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism; however, the association between the DGAT1 polymorphism and fat globule size and polar lipid composition has not been studied. The ratio between polar and neutral lipids as well as the composition of the polar lipids in milk has industrial as well as nutritional and health implications. Understanding phenotypic and genotypic factors influencing these parameters could contribute to improving milk lipid composition for dairy products. The focus of the present study was to determine the effect of both fat content and DGAT1 polymorphism on PL/TAG ratio, as a marker for milk fat globule size, and detailed PL composition. Milk samples were selected from 200 cows such that there were equal numbers of samples for the different fat contents as well as per DGAT1 genotype. Samples were analyzed for neutral and polar lipid concentration and composition. PL/TAG ratio was significantly associated with both fat content and DGAT1 genotype. Phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine concentrations were associated with fat content*DGAT1 genotype with a stronger association for the AA than the KK genotype. Sphingomyelin concentration tended to interact with fat content*DGAT1 genotype. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) concentration showed a biphasic response to fat content, suggesting that multiple biological processes influence its concentration. These results provide a new direction for controlling polar lipid concentration and composition in milk through selective breeding of cows. PMID:23874734

  9. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants. PMID:23158513

  10. Ammonia volatilization losses from prilled urea, urea supergranules (USG) and coated USG in rice fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sudhakara; R. Prasad

    1986-01-01

    Summary  About 8.4 per cent of applied nitrogen was lost as ammonia during a week after application when prilled urea was broadcast\\u000a or banded and incorporated in soil 20 days after sowing of rice. Ammonia volatilization was reduced to 3.3 per cent when urea\\u000a supergranules (USG) were used. Coating of USG with DCD or neem cake showed no advantage. Ammonia volatilization

  11. Verification of factors to estimate daily milk yield from one milking of cows milked twice daily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to verify factors to predict daily milk yield when milk is sampled once per d for cows milked twice (2x) per d. Milk weights for both milkings were recorded automatically by 30 herds and collected by Dairy Herd Improvement supervisors. Data was split into 2 subsets...

  12. Status of the PCDD and PCDF contamination of commercial milk caused by milk cartons.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, P W; Herrmann, T; Stehr, C; Ball, M

    2006-04-01

    Within the scope of this study, possible migration of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and -furans (PCDDs/PCDFs) from cartons (produced using bleached cardboard) into cow's milk was investigated. Three different types of carton were examined. The milk samples were taken at different times of storage and analysed for PCDDs/PCDFs. In contrast to a similar study carried out in 1990, the I-TEQ-results of all cartons analysed may be considered very low. No significant migration of toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorine-substituted) PCDDs/PCDFs could be observed. This is due to the very low PCDD/PCDF concentrations in modern cardboards as a result of the elemental chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching processes used. As far as the milk samples are concerned, no influence of the cardboards (according to the I-TEQ data) could be ascertained. I-TEQ concentrations in milk did not noticeably change during storage times of three, six and eight days. The I-TEQ-data obtained for all milk samples was found to be in the range typical of background concentrations in cow's milk in Germany. Although 1,2,7,8-TCDF is not included in the calculation of the TEQ (no 2,3,7,8-chlorine-substitution), analysis of this congener in cardboard samples was also carried out as a matter of general interest for cardboard investigations and an indicator of pulp bleaching with free chlorine. PMID:16434079

  13. Effects of Urea and Trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO) on the Interactions of Lysozyme in Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Niebuhr; Michel H. J. Koch

    2005-01-01

    The effect of two physiological cosolutes (urea and trimethylamine-N-oxide) and of KCl on the intermolecular interactions in concentrated lysozyme solutions were studied by synchrotron radiation small angle x-ray scattering. The evolution of the structure factors as a function of cosolute and\\/or salt concentration was modeled using pair potentials following an approach recently described in the literature. It was found that

  14. Lipids in human milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert G. Jensen

    1999-01-01

    I have reviewed recent (March 1995–December 1997) papers on human milk lipids including many on fatty acid (FA) composition.\\u000a The effects of maternal diets on the profiles are apparent. However, more data on the composition of milk lipids are needed.\\u000a It is noteworthy that so few papers on milk FA composition have reported analyses using high-resolution gas-liquid chromatography\\u000a columns. Two

  15. Milking Song 4

    E-print Network

    Zla ba sgrol ma

    2009-11-10

    . Sman shad milking song 4.WAV Length of track 00:01:18 Related tracks (include description/relationship if appropriate) Title of track Milking Song 4 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Bo nyed provides a... milking song and discusses where and why such songs are sung. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual) Milking song Name of recorder (if different from collector) Zla ba sgrol ma Date of recording November 10th 2009. Place of recording Ci jo...

  16. The Action of Certain Acid Reagents on the Substituted Ureas

    E-print Network

    Brewster, Ray Q.

    1915-01-01

    aniline and methyl phenyl urea chloride with pyridine - 6 Di-phenyl ethyl thio urea and phosgene with pyridine 7 Para mono brom di-phenyl thio urea and methyl phenyl urea chloride - 8 Di-phenyl thio urea and chlor formic ethyl ester with pyridine 9...°C. to 150°C. for an hour. A gas was given off which darkened lead acetate paper. The reaction product, a green resinous mass, on distillation with steam, gave phenyl mustard oil and a trace of methyl aniline. The gummy product remaining...

  17. Investigation of the persistence of rafoxanide residues in bovine milk and fate during processing.

    PubMed

    Power, C; Danaher, M; Sayers, R; O'Brien, B; Whelan, M; Furey, A; Jordan, K

    2013-01-01

    Rafoxanide is an effective treatment for the control of fluke infections in animals, but it is currently not permitted for treating animals whose milk is intended for human consumption. In this study, the persistence of rafoxanide residues in milk, and their migration to dairy products, was investigated following the treatment of six lactating dairy cows with Curafluke 10% oral drench. The highest concentration of rafoxanide residues detected in the individual cows milk ranged from 249 to 627 ?g kg(-1) and occurred at 2-3 days post-treatment. At 2 and 23 days post-treatment (representing high and low residue concentrations) the milk was pooled into two independent aliquots, each containing the full day's milk produced by three cows. Milk products were made from pasteurised and unpasteurised milk. Pasteurisation appeared to have little impact on the stability of the residues. Rafoxanide concentrated sixfold in the cheese (week 0) compared to the starting milk (2070 vs. 349 ?g kg(-1)) but was four times lower in whey (75 ?g kg(-1)). Rafoxanide residues were up to 14 times higher in butter (week 0) than in the starting milk (5468 vs. 376 ?g kg(-1)). Residues were found to further concentrate in butter and cheese at longer storage and ripening times, respectively. Skim-milk powder was manufactured from skim milk, and residues were 10-fold higher than in the starting skim milk (5468 vs. 376 ?g kg(-1)) despite the 185°C temperature required for the process. Rafoxanide residues were stable in this skim-milk powder when stored at ambient temperature for at least 1 year. Results showed that detectable rafoxanide residues were excreted in milk for 47 days, and concentrated in the fat-based products. The analytical ranges of the UHPLC-MS/MS method used were 1.0-200 ?g kg(-1) (milk and whey) and 10-2000 ?g kg(-1) (other dairy products). PMID:23713694

  18. Reflection coefficient and permeability of urea and ethylene glycol in the human red cell membrane

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    The reflection coefficient (sigma) and permeability (P) of urea and ethylene glycol were determined by fitting the equations of Kedem and Katchalsky (1958) to the change in light scattering produced by adding a permeable solute to a red cell suspension. The measurements incorporated three important modifications: (a) the injection artifact was eliminated by using echinocyte cells; (b) the use of an additional adjustable parameter (Km), the effective dissociation constant at the inner side of the membrane; (c) the light scattering is not directly proportional to cell volume (as is usually assumed) because refractive index and scattering properties of the cell depend on the intracellular permeable solute concentration. This necessitates calibrating for known changes in refractive index (by the addition of dextran) and cell volume (by varying the NaCl concentration). The best fit was for sigma = 0.95, Po = 8.3 X 10(-4) cm/s, and Km = 100 mM for urea and sigma = 1.0, Po = 3.9 X 10(-4) cm/s, and Km = 30 mM for ethylene glycol. The effects of the inhibitors copper, phloretin, p- chloromercuriphenylsulfonate, and 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitro) benzoic acid on the urea, ethylene glycol, and water permeability were determined. The results suggest that there are three separate, independent transport systems: one for water, one for urea and related compounds, and one for ethylene glycol and glycerol. PMID:6842174

  19. Pseudoephedrine and triprolidine in plasma and breast milk of nursing mothers.

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, J W; Butz, R F; Sailstad, J M; Warren, J T; Welch, R M

    1984-01-01

    Plasma and milk concentrations of pseudoephedrine and triprolidine were determined (by radioimmunoassay) in three lactating mothers over 12-48 h after ingestion of a combination medication containing 60 mg of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and 2.5 mg of triprolidine hydrochloride monohydrate. Pseudoephedrine concentrations in milk were consistently higher than those in plasma. The total amount of drug in milk, as judged by areas under the respective curves (AUC), was two to three times greater than in plasma. Triprolidine concentrations in milk and plasma were more variable between subjects than those of pseudoephedrine. AUC values for milk and plasma were similar for one subject, while the plasma value exceeded that for milk in another woman. The fraction of the dose excreted in milk was estimated to be 0.4-0.7% for pseudoephedrine and 0.06-0.2% for triprolidine. PMID:6529531

  20. 21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...spoilage. It may be homogenized. (b) Vitamin addition (Optional). If added, vitamin D shall be present in such quantity that...ingredients may be used: (1) Carrier for vitamin D. (2) Characterizing flavoring...

  1. 21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...spoilage. It may be homogenized. (b) Vitamin addition (Optional). If added, vitamin D shall be present in such quantity that...ingredients may be used: (1) Carrier for vitamin D. (2) Characterizing flavoring...

  2. 21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...spoilage. It may be homogenized. (b) Vitamin addition (Optional). If added, vitamin D shall be present in such quantity that...ingredients may be used: (1) Carrier for vitamin D. (2) Characterizing flavoring...

  3. 21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...spoilage. It may be homogenized. (b) Vitamin addition (Optional). If added, vitamin D shall be present in such quantity that...ingredients may be used: (1) Carrier for vitamin D. (2) Characterizing flavoring...

  4. 21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...spoilage. It may be homogenized. (b) Vitamin addition (Optional). If added, vitamin D shall be present in such quantity that...ingredients may be used: (1) Carrier for vitamin D. (2) Characterizing flavoring...

  5. The combined effects of urea application and simulated acid rain on soil acidification and microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingmei; Zhou, Jian; Li, Wanlu; Xu, Jianming; Brookes, Philip C

    2014-05-01

    Our aim was to test the effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) at different pHs, when applied to fertilized and unfertilized soils, on the leaching of soil cations (K, Ca, Mg, Na) and Al. Their effects on soil pH, exchangeable H(+) and Al(3+) and microbial community structure were also determined. A Paleudalfs soil was incubated for 30 days, with and without an initial application of urea (200 mg N kg(-1)soil) as nitrogen (N) fertilizer. The soil was held in columns and leached with SAR at three pH levels. Six treatments were tested: SAR of pH 2.5, 4.0 and 5.6 leaching on unfertilized soil (T1, T2 and T3), and on soils fertilized with urea (T4, T5 and T6). Increasing acid inputs proportionally increased cation leaching in both unfertilized and fertilized soils. Urea application increased the initial Ca and Mg leaching, but had no effect on the total concentrations of Ca, Mg and K leached. There was no significant difference for the amount of Na leached between the different treatments. The SAR pH and urea application had significant effects on soil pH, exchangeable H(+) and Al(3+). Urea application, SAR treated with various pH, and the interactions between them all had significant impacts on total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). The highest concentration of total PLFAs occurred in fertilized soils with SAR pH5.6 and the lowest in soils leached with the lowest SAR pH. Soils pretreated with urea then leached with SARs of pH 4.0 and 5.6 had larger total PLFA concentrations than soil without urea. Bacterial, fungal, actinomycete, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial PLFAs had generally similar trends to total PLFAs. PMID:24488523

  6. Inactivation and Unfolding of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase from Thermus thermophilus HB27 during Urea and Guanidine Hydrochloride Denaturation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lina; Gao, Chunyan; Xu, Shui; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    The effects of urea and guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) on the activity, conformation and unfolding process of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase), a thermostable low molecular weight protein from Thermus thermophilus HB27, have been studied. Enzymatic activity assays showed both urea and GdnHCl resulted in the inactivation of PTPase in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Inactivation kinetics analysis suggested that the inactivation of PTPase induced by urea and GdnHCl were both monophasic and reversible processes, and the effects of urea and GdnHCl on PTPase were similar to that of mixed-type reversible inhibitors. Far-ultraviolet (UV) circular dichroism (CD), Tryptophan and 1-anilinonaphthalene -8-sulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescence spectral analyses indicated the existence of a partially active and an inactive molten globule-like intermediate during the unfolding processes induced by urea and GdnHCl, respectively. Based on the sequence alignment and the homolog Tt1001 protein structure, we discussed the possible conformational transitions of PTPase induced by urea and GdnHCl and compared the conformations of these unfolding intermediates with the transient states in bovine PTPase and its complex structures in detail. Our results may be able to provide some valuable clues to reveal the relationship between the structure and enzymatic activity, and the unfolding pathway and mechanism of PTPase. PMID:25255086

  7. Computation and simulation of the structural characteristics of the kidney urea transporter and behaviors of urea transport.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Yu, Tao; Sang, Jian-Ping; Zou, Xian-Wu; Yan, Chengfei; Zou, Xiaoqin

    2015-04-23

    Urea transporters are a family of membrane proteins that transport urea molecules across cell membranes and play important roles in a variety of physiological processes. Although the crystal structure of bacterial urea channel dvUT has been solved, there lacks an understanding of the dynamics of urea transport in dvUT. In this study, by using molecular dynamics simulations, Monte Carlo methods, and the adaptive biasing force approach, we built the equilibrium structure of dvUT, calculated the variation in the free energy of urea, determined the urea-binding sites of dvUT, gained insight into the microscopic process of urea transport, and studied the water permeability in dvUT including the analysis of a water chain in the pore. The strategy used in this work can be applied to studying transport behaviors of other membrane proteins. PMID:25781365

  8. Crosslinking of milk whey proteins by transglutaminase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cony Gauche; Joana T. C. Vieira; Paulo J. Ogliari; Marilde T. Bordignon-Luiz

    2008-01-01

    Milk whey powder was used to evaluate the polymerization reaction of the proteins ?-lactalbumin and ?-lactoglobulin by the enzyme transglutaminase. Measurement of the flow behavior was carried out as a parameter to monitor the viscosity changes of the solutions after the enzymatic reaction. Through an experimental design the optimum reaction conditions were evaluated as a function of the enzyme concentration,

  9. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED MILK POWDERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), and nonfat dry milk (NDM) may be processed through a twin-screw extruder to produce ingredients for protein-fortified food. The products ranged from rigid to flexible to soft, and small amplitude oscillatory shear measurements showed that ...

  10. Ethanol self-administration in rats responding under concurrent schedules for milk or ethanol plus milk.

    PubMed

    Paronis, Carol A

    2013-09-01

    The relative reinforcing strength of drugs can be characterized by the distribution of operant behavior during the availability of other reinforcing stimuli. 'Choice' procedures are not widely used in rats, with the exception of ethanol self-administration in which there often is a choice between ethanol and water, which typically does not maintain much responding. A procedure was developed to evaluate the relative reinforcing strength of ethanol in rats when a similar appetitive reinforcer is concurrently available. Rats were trained to respond on two levers under concurrent fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement with milk (1-50%) or ethanol+milk (4-32% ethanol+5-10% milk). Daily 60-min sessions began with a forced sample of each reinforcer, followed by the concurrent schedules. Under this schedule, rats preferentially allocated their responding to the ethanol-associated lever under conditions of ethanol+5% milk versus 5% milk, but neither preferred nor avoided ethanol when ethanol+10% milk versus 10% milk was available. When 8% ethanol+5% milk was available, 85±6% of responses were directed toward the ethanol-associated lever and the mean ethanol intake was 1.55±0.10 g/kg. The response rate decreased monotonically with the concentration of ethanol. Naltrexone injections did not affect the distribution of responding, but slightly decreased ethanol intake. It is concluded that stable behavior can be maintained under concurrent fixed-ratio schedules of ethanol and milk presentation in rats, resulting in intake of behaviorally active amounts of ethanol. PMID:23903243

  11. Enzymatic Characterization of a Prokaryotic Urea Carboxylase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Kanamori; Norihisa Kanou; Haruyuki Atomi; Tadayuki Imanaka

    2004-01-01

    We identified the first prokaryotic urea carboxylase (UCA) from a member of the alpha subclass of the class Proteobacteria, Oleomonas sagaranensis. This enzyme (O. sagaranensis Uca) was composed of 1,171 amino acids, and its N-terminal region resembled the biotin carboxylase domains of various biotin-dependent carboxylases. The C-terminal region of the enzyme harbored the Met-Lys-Met motif found in biotin carboxyl carrier

  12. [Effect of ion exchange resins on the composition of milk].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, L; Goudable, J; Accominotti, M; Fontaine, D; Cochat, P

    1997-01-01

    Pretreatment of milk with either sodium or calcium polystyrene sulfonate resins is useful in limiting potassium dietary intake in children with renal failure. We therefore studied the in vitro effects of Kayexalate and Calcium Sorbisterit on potassium, sodium and calcium concentrations in 3 standard formulas and in human milk. It is concluded that wide variations in the final potassium, sodium and calcium concentrations can be observed according to the resin but also to the formula. PMID:9496569

  13. Neutron activation analysis of extractable organohalogens in milk from China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weike Zhong; Diandou Xu; Zhifang Chai; Xueying Mao

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been used for the determination of extractable organohalogens (EOX) in\\u000a milk. The detection limits are 50 ng, 8 ng and 3.5 ng for Cl, Br and I, respectively. The EOX concentrations in milk samples\\u000a from various regions of China were determined. Meanwhile, organochlorine pesticides residues were detected by gas chromatography.\\u000a The concentrations of the

  14. Milking lactating mares using oxytocin : milk volume and composition

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Milking lactating mares using oxytocin : milk volume and composition M. DOREAU, Sylviane BOULOT W mares were milked using oxytocin 5 times during the first two months of lactation. The two sides of the udder were milked alternatively and 60-ml fractions (from each side) were sampled for the analysis

  15. Dichloridobis(thio-urea-?S)nickel(II).

    PubMed

    Zouihri, Hafid

    2012-03-01

    The title complex, [NiCl(2)(CH(4)N(2)S)(2)], has been synthesized from the previously reported (diamino-methyl-idene)sulfonium chloride-thio-urea (3/2) salt [Zouihri (2012b ?). Acta Cryst. E68, o257]. The Ni(II) ion is coordinated in a distorted tetra-hedral geometry by two mol-ecules of thio-urea [Ni-S = 2.3079?(7) and 2.3177?(6)?Å] and two chloride anions [Ni-Cl = 2.2516?(7) and 2.2726?(7)?Å]. The bond angles at the Ni atom lie between 96.69?(2) and 115.40?(3)°, while the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the two thio-urea ligands is 6.36?(15)°. The crystal structure is characterized by intra- and inter-molecular N-H?Cl hydrogen bonds, which lead to the formation of two-dimensional networks lying parallel to the ab plane. The networks are linked via classical N-H?Cl and N-H?S hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional arrangement. PMID:22412454

  16. Dichloridobis(thio­urea-?S)nickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Zouihri, Hafid

    2012-01-01

    The title complex, [NiCl2(CH4N2S)2], has been synthesized from the previously reported (diamino­methyl­idene)sulfonium chloride–thio­urea (3/2) salt [Zouihri (2012b ?). Acta Cryst. E68, o257]. The NiII ion is coordinated in a distorted tetra­hedral geometry by two mol­ecules of thio­urea [Ni—S = 2.3079?(7) and 2.3177?(6)?Å] and two chloride anions [Ni—Cl = 2.2516?(7) and 2.2726?(7)?Å]. The bond angles at the Ni atom lie between 96.69?(2) and 115.40?(3)°, while the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the two thio­urea ligands is 6.36?(15)°. The crystal structure is characterized by intra- and inter­molecular N—H?Cl hydrogen bonds, which lead to the formation of two-dimensional networks lying parallel to the ab plane. The networks are linked via classical N—H?Cl and N—H?S hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional arrangement. PMID:22412454

  17. An in vitro digestibility study on human milk and related proteins used in infant formula

    E-print Network

    Vethencourt-Petrini, Adriana Coromoto

    1988-01-01

    ) clearly identified two casein subunits as 8- and k-caseins, representing 64% and 27% of the total casein content in human milk. They also determined that the remaining 95 corresponds to a fraction high in phosphorous that migrates quickly in acrylamide... (Greenberg et al. , 1984). The presence of a 7 -casein subunit in human milk was studied by Nagasawa et al. (1967). This component showed the slowest mobility in AGUE (acrylamide-gel-electrophoresis in the presence of urea) (Nagasawa et al. , 1967...

  18. Primary productivity and nitrogen assimilation with identifying the contribution of urea in Funka Bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Isao; Hisatoku, Takatsugu; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Maita, Yoshiaki

    2015-06-01

    Primary production is supported by utilization of several forms of nitrogen (N), such as nitrate, ammonium, and urea. Nevertheless, only few studies have measured the concentration and uptake of urea despite its importance as a nitrogenous nutrient for phytoplankton. We measured primary productivity monthly at four depths within the euphotic zone using a clean technique and the 13C method by a 24 h in situ mooring incubation over a year in Funka Bay, a subarctic coastal area in Japan, to make better updated estimates (re-evaluation) of annual primary production. Nitrogenous (N) nutrient assimilation rates (nitrate, ammonium and urea) were also measured to elucidate the relative contributions of these nutrients to autotrophic production and to distinguish between new and regenerated production. The estimated annual primary production was 164 g C m-2, which was 40-60% higher than the previously reported values in the bay. Use of a clean technique and more frequent measurement during the spring bloom may have contributed to the higher rates. The production during the spring bloom was 56.5 g C m-2, accounting for 35% of the annual production. The maximum daily productivity occurred in the bloom at 1.4 g C m-2 d-1, which is one of the highest values among the world embayments. The annual primary production in the bay was classified as mesotrophic state based on the classification by Cloern et al. (2014). The assimilation rate of nitrate was maximal at 54 nmol N L-1 h-1 during the bloom. During the post-bloom periods with nitrate depleted conditions, assimilation rates of ammonium and urea increased and accounted for up to 85% of the total N assimilation. The assimilation rate of urea was almost comparable to that of ammonium throughout the year. Taking urea into account, the f-ratio ranged from 0.15 under the nitrate-depleted conditions to 0.8 under the spring bloom conditions. These ratios were overestimated by 50% and 10%, respectively, if urea uptake was eliminated. We provide a valuable data for the primary production dataset in the world's ecosystems, and show that urea plays an important role in supporting regenerated production during late spring and summer.

  19. Survey of retail milk composition as affected by label claims regarding farm-management practices.

    PubMed

    Vicini, John; Etherton, Terry; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Ballam, Joan; Denham, Steven; Staub, Robin; Goldstein, Daniel; Cady, Roger; McGrath, Michael; Lucy, Matthew

    2008-07-01

    A trend in food labeling is to make claims related to agricultural management, and this is occurring with dairy labels. A survey study was conducted to compare retail milk for quality (antibiotics and bacterial counts), nutritional value (fat, protein, and solids-not-fat), and hormonal composition (somatotropin, insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], estradiol, and progesterone) as affected by three label claims related to dairy-cow management: conventional, recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST)-free (processor-certified not from cows supplemented with rbST), or organic (follows US Department of Agriculture organic practices). Retail milk samples (n=334) from 48 states were collected. Based on a statistical analysis that reflected the sampling schema and distributions appropriate to the various response variables, minor differences were observed for conventional, rbST-free, and organic milk labels. Conventionally labeled milk had the lowest (P<0.05) bacterial counts compared to either milk labeled rbST-free or organic; however, these differences were not biologically meaningful. In addition, conventionally labeled milk had significantly less (P<0.05) estradiol and progesterone than organic milk (4.97 vs 6.40 pg/mL and 12.0 vs 13.9 ng/mL, respectively). Milk labeled rbST-free had similar concentrations of progesterone vs conventional milk and similar concentrations of estradiol vs organic milk. Concentrations of IGF-1 in milk were similar between conventional milk and milk labeled rbST-free. Organic milk had less (P<0.05) IGF-1 than either conventional or rbST-free milk (2.73 ng/mL vs 3.12 and 3.04 ng/mL, respectively). The macronutrient profiles of the different milks were similar, except for a slight increase in protein in organic milk (about 0.1% greater for organic compared to other milks). Label claims were not related to any meaningful differences in the milk compositional variables measured. It is important for food and nutrition professionals to know that conventional, rbST-free, and organic milk are compositionally similar so they can serve as a key resource to consumers who are making milk purchase (and consumption) decisions in a marketplace where there are misleading milk label claims. PMID:18589029

  20. Cortisol in mother’s milk across lactation reflects maternal life history and predicts infant temperament

    PubMed Central

    Skibiel, Amy L.; Foster, Alison B.; Del Rosso, Laura; Mendoza, Sally P.; Capitanio, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The maternal environment exerts important influences on offspring mass/growth, metabolism, reproduction, neurobiology, immune function, and behavior among birds, insects, reptiles, fish, and mammals. For mammals, mother’s milk is an important physiological pathway for nutrient transfer and glucocorticoid signaling that potentially influences offspring growth and behavioral phenotype. Glucocorticoids in mother’s milk have been associated with offspring behavioral phenotype in several mammals, but studies have been handicapped by not simultaneously evaluating milk energy density and yield. This is problematic as milk glucocorticoids and nutrients likely have simultaneous effects on offspring phenotype. We investigated mother’s milk and infant temperament and growth in a cohort of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) mother–infant dyads at the California National Primate Research Center (N = 108). Glucocorticoids in mother’s milk, independent of available milk energy, predicted a more Nervous, less Confident temperament in both sons and daughters. We additionally found sex differences in the windows of sensitivity and the magnitude of sensitivity to maternal-origin glucocorticoids. Lower parity mothers produced milk with higher cortisol concentrations. Lastly, higher cortisol concentrations in milk were associated with greater infant weight gain across time. Taken together, these results suggest that mothers with fewer somatic resources, even in captivity, may be “programming” through cortisol signaling, behaviorally cautious offspring that prioritize growth. Glucocorticoids ingested through milk may importantly contribute to the assimilation of available milk energy, development of temperament, and orchestrate, in part, the allocation of maternal milk energy between growth and behavioral phenotype. PMID:25713475

  1. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk.

    PubMed

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Grape extracts can be added to milk to produce cheese with a high concentration of polyphenols. Four commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, and grape skin (2 extracts) were characterized and added to milk at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (wt/vol). The effect of grape extracts on the kinetics of milk clotting, milk gel texture, and syneresis were determined, and model cheeses were produced. Whole grape and grape seed extracts contained a similar concentration of polyphenolic compounds and about twice the amount found in grape skin extracts. Radical scavenging activity was directly proportional to the phenolic compounds content. When added to milk, grape extracts increased rennet-induced clotting time and decreased the clotting rate. Although differences were observed between the extracts, the concentration added to milk was the main factor influencing clotting properties. With increasing concentrations of grape extracts, milk gels showed increased brittleness and reduced firmness. In addition, syneresis of milk gels decreased with increasing concentrations of grape extracts, which resulted in cheeses with a higher moisture content. The presence of grape extracts in milk slightly increased protein recovery in cheese but had no effect on fat recovery. With whole grape or grape seed extracts added to milk at 0.1% (wt/vol), the recovery coefficient for polyphenols was about 0.63, and decreased with increasing extract concentration in milk. Better polyphenol recovery was observed for grape seed extracts (0.87), with no concentration effect. Commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, or grape skin can be added to milk in the 0.1 to 0.3% (wt/vol) concentration range to produce cheese with potential health benefits, without a negative effect on cheese yield. PMID:25597978

  2. Bile salt-stimulated lipase of human milk: characterization of the enzyme from preterm and term milk

    SciTech Connect

    Freed, L.M.; Hamosh, P.; Hamosh, M.

    1986-03-01

    The bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) of human milk is an important digestive enzyme in the newborn whose pancreatic function is immature. Milk from mothers delivering premature infants (preterm milk) has similar levels of BSSL activity to that of mothers of term infants (term milk). This study has determined whether the BSSL in preterm milk has the same characteristics as that in term milk. Milk samples were collected during the first 12 wk of lactation from seven mothers of infants born at 26-30 wk (very preterm, VPT), 31-37 wk (preterm, PT) and 37-42 wk (term, T) gestation. BSSL activity was measured using /sup 3/H-triolein emulsion as substrate. Time course, bile salt and enzyme concentration, pH and pH stability were studied, as well as inhibition of BSSL by eserine. The characteristics of BSSL from preterm and term milk were identical as were comparisons between colostrum and mature milk BSSL. BSSL from all milk sources had a neutral-to-alkaline pH optimum (pH 7.3-8.9), was stable at low pH for 60 min, and was 95-100% inhibited by eserine (greater than or equal to 0.6 mM). BSSL activity, regardless of enzyme source, was bile-salt dependent and was stimulated only by primary bile salts (taurocholate, glycocholate). The data indicate that the BSSL in milks of mothers delivering as early as 26 wk gestation is identical to that in term milk.

  3. Milk-borne campylobacter infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D A Robinson; D M Jones

    1981-01-01

    The common factor in 13 recent outbreaks of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis was the consumption of unpasteurised or incompletely pasteurised milk. C jejuni is a common commensal in the alimentary tract of milking cows, but it is not clear how the milk becomes contaminated with the organism. Pasteurisation will readily eliminate the organism from milk. In England and Wales 3% of

  4. Effect of abraded intramammary device on milk yield, tissue damage, and cellular composition.

    PubMed

    Paape, M J; Weinland, B T

    1988-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine effects of an abraded intramammary device on milk yield, tissue damage, and milk somatic cells during late lactation. Abraded intramammary devices were inserted into diagonally opposed quarters of 20 cows. One group of 11 cows (devices inserted 30 wk of lactation) was quarter machine milked daily for 2 wk before and for 8 wk after insertion. Nine cows had devices inserted within 4 wk postpartum and were quarter milked at 20 and 40 wk of lactation. Aliquots of quarter bucket milk were obtained for determination of milk somatic cells, red blood cells, and NAGase activity. Stripping milk was obtained for milk somatic cell counts. For both groups, there was no significant effect of the abraded intramammary device on NAGase activity. There was a tendency for quarters with devices to produce less milk than control quarters, but the difference was not significant. Milk SCC were significantly elevated in quarter bucket and stripping milk from quarters containing intramammary devices. Red blood cells were higher in quarters containing intramammary devices when compared with controls. Results indicate that abraded intramammary devices increased concentrations of somatic cells and red blood cells in bucket milk, did not damage tissue as measured by NAGase activity, and loss in milk production was nonsignificant. PMID:3372805

  5. Analysis of Human Milk Composition After Preterm Delivery With and Without Fortification.

    PubMed

    Krcho, Peter; Vojtova, Vladimira; Benesova, Michaela

    2015-08-01

    Human milk is often assumed to have a consistent composition, and when fortification is needed, fortifiers are added at fixed doses. However, if the milk contains less than the assumed quantities of nutrients, then the infant drinking that milk may receive inadequate nutrition. In this study, we compared changes in the concentrations of the main constituents of human breast milk before and after fortification. We tested the hypothesis that the protein concentration would increase less than that of other nutrients. Thirty breast milk samples were obtained from mothers of preterm infants (gestational age 28-36 weeks; birthweight 900-2,470 g). The concentrations of fat, carbohydrates, dry matter, protein and energy in the breast milk samples were analyzed and compared with the concentrations of these nutrients in the same samples of milk fortified with a standard amount of HMF FM 85. Dry matter and energy content increased the most after fortification. Although protein also increased, the magnitude of this increase was small relative to the increases in the other components. Lipid concentrations did not significantly change with fortification. Protein is needed for adequate growth in premature infants; however, fortification of breast milk from the mothers of preterm infants resulted in only a small increase in this essential nutrient. Based on these results, we conclude that fortification of human milk must be individually adjusted based on continuous analysis of breast milk composition. Customized fortification would provide more optimal nutrition to preterm infants to support better growth and development. PMID:25626715

  6. Effect of daily consumption of ß-cryptoxanthin-rich tangerines and ß-carotene-rich sweet potatoes on vitamin A and carotenoid concentrations in plasma and breast milk of Bangladeshi women with low vitamin A status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The potential of ß-cryptoxanthin-rich foods to form vitamin A (VA) in humans is not well understood. Objective: To measure the effects of consuming ß-cryptoxanthin (CX) and ß-carotene-rich (BC) foods on breast milk and plasma VA and carotenoids in VA deficient lactating women. Design: Su...

  7. Murine lethal milk mutation causes maternal accumulation of zinc in intestine and kidney and reduced zinc transport to milk

    SciTech Connect

    Dohyeel Lee; Cousins, R.J. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The lethal milk (Lm) mutation is autosomal recessive in C57BL/6J mice and causes Zn deficiency in pups nursed by Lm dams. The genetic defect may cause a shift in the tissue Zn distribution in Lm dams since their milk has a 34-45% lower Zn concentration than milk of normal (N) dams. To examine tissue Zn distribution and Zn transport to milk and pups, 1 {mu}Ci of {sup 65}Zn was administered ip to lactating N and Lm dams. They also received 800 {mu}g Zn/ml in their drinking water to preclude short term, terminal zinc deficiency in the neonates nursed by Lm dams. {sup 65}Zn content of milk and tissues of dams and tissues of pups was measured. Transport of {sup 65}Zn to milk of Lm dams was about 50% compared to milk of N dams. The percentage of the {sup 65}Zn dose recovered in the intestine, liver, and kidney of N pups nursed by LM dams was markedly lower than those of N pups nursed by N dams. In contrast, the percentage of {sup 65}Zn in the intestine and kidney of Lm dams was about twice that of N dams. The elevated intestinal {sup 65}Zn was paralleled by and elevated metallothionein concentration, but the increased {sup 65}Zn in the kidney was not. The Lm gene defect might limit Zn transport to milk by shifting the Zn distribution in lactating dams to the intestine, kidney, and perhaps other tissues.

  8. Efficacy of liquid feeds varying in concentration and composition of fat, nonprotein nitrogen, and nonfiber carbohydrates for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Firkins, J L; Oldick, B S; Pantoja, J; Reveneau, C; Gilligan, L E; Carver, L

    2008-05-01

    In trial 1, we evaluated the efficacy of a liquid feed (LF) containing cane molasses and corn steep liquor as carriers of suspended white grease (WG) without or with urea (U) or with soybean lipid (SL; a byproduct of soybean processing) compared with roasted soybeans plus tallow blended into respective concentrates in a 16-wk lactation study. The dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production for LF diets were either similar to or greater than respective controls, although SL decreased milk fat percentage. In trial 2, we compared LF without fat to LF plus WG or SL and also evaluated the dose response to increasing amount of LF + WG in a 16-wk lactation trial in which the LF products were added to respective total mixed rations. The DMI was increased and then decreased (quadratic response) with increasing LF + WG without a linear response. However, production of milk, protein, and fat increased linearly with corresponding quadratic responses, which we interpret to be a result of a limiting returns response from DMI and density of net energy for lactation. When LF plus SL was fed, milk fat percentage and yield decreased compared with the comparable amount of LF + WG. In a 12-wk lactation study (trial 3), we added 3.25 or 6.5% of the dry matter as LF (a different but generally similar product than the previous trials and without fat) to diets formulated to maintain comparable ruminal nonstructural carbohydrate digestibility by adding soybean hulls to decrease nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) concentration; the 6.5% LF diet was without or with Rumensin (11.5 g/909 kg of dry matter). When 3.25% LF was added but NFC was decreased from 40 to 37%, cows increased DMI and production of milk fat. Adding Rumensin decreased DMI but maintained milk fat yield compared with its 6.25% LF control without Rumensin. In trials 1 and 3, apparent total tract nutrient digestibility was not affected by treatment. In conclusion, feeding LF at about 5% (trial 2, which contained WG, 1.6% added sugar) or 3.25% (trial 3, 1.7% added sugar) generally increased DMI and maintained or increased production of milk, protein, and fat. PMID:18420628

  9. Differential response of nucleus pulposus intervertebral disc cells to high salt, sorbitol, and urea.

    PubMed

    Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Kletsas, Dimitris

    2012-03-01

    Nucleus pulposus intervertebral disc cells are routinely confronted with high osmolality in their microenvironment and respond to this stress in vitro by regulating cell cycle progression and by activating a DNA repair machinery in order to counteract its genotoxic effect. In the present study, we attempted to identify the origin of this osmo-regulatory response, by using an ionic NaCl/KCl solution, the compatible osmolyte sorbitol, and the readily permeant urea. High salt and sorbitol were found to activate similar molecular pathways, including the p38 MAPK and the p53-p21(WAF1)-pRb axis, that were not stimulated by high urea. On the other hand, only high urea led to the phosphorylation of ERKs and JNKs. Furthermore, salt- and sorbitol-treated cells were able to phosphorylate histone H2A.X on Ser139, in contrast to cells exposed to urea, indicating a common mechanism for DNA repair, which was achieved by a p53-dependent activation of the G1 checkpoint by both solutes. DNA repair, as directly measured by a host cell reactivation assay, occurred under conditions of hyperosmolar salt and sorbitol, although to a lesser extent in sorbitol-treated cells than in cells exposed to high salinity. Taken as a whole, our findings suggest that the hyperosmolality-provoked DNA damage and the responses of nucleus pulposus cells induced by this genotoxic stress most probably originate from cell volume alterations mediated by hypertonicity and not from increased intracellular ionic concentration. PMID:21604265

  10. The endogenous GABA bioactivity of camel, bovine, goat and human milks.

    PubMed

    Limon, Agenor; Gallegos-Perez, Jose-Luis; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge M; Aljohi, Mohammad A; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Miledi, Ricardo

    2014-02-15

    GABA orally administered has several beneficial effects on health, including the regulation of hyperglycaemic states in humans. Those effects are similar to the effects reported for camel milk (CMk); however, it is not known whether compounds with GABAergic activity are present in milk from camels or other species. We determined CMk free-GABA concentration by LS/MS and its bioactivity on human GABA receptors. We found that camel and goat milks have significantly more bioavailable GABA than cow and human milks and are able to activate GABA? receptors. The relationship between GABA and taurine concentrations suggests that whole camel milk may be more efficient to activate GABA?1 receptors than goat milk. Because GABA? receptors are normally found in enteroendocrine cells in the lumen of the digestive tract, these results suggest that GABA in camel and goat milk may participate in GABA-modulated functions of enteroendocrine cells in the GI lumen. PMID:24128504

  11. Antioxidant capacity of human milk and its association with vitamins A and E and fatty acid composition

    PubMed Central

    Tijerina-Sáenz, A; Innis, SM; Kitts, DD

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The antioxidant capacity of human milk reflects the presence and activity of multiple components, which prevent oxidative rancidity. The aim of this study was to use the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity assay to assess human milk antioxidant capacity and find correlations with milk components. Methods: Milk samples collected from 60 breastfeeding women at 1 month postpartum were assayed for antioxidant capacity, vitamins E and A, and fatty acids. Potential statistical relationships of concentrations of vitamins A and E and polyunsaturated fatty acids on the antioxidant capacity of human milk were determined. Results: Human milk antioxidant capacity was positively attributed to ?-tocopherol concentration (? < 0.05). The vitamin A concentration did not significantly contribute to milk antioxidant capacity, but was correlated to milk ?-tocopherol concentration (r=0.587; ? < 0.001). There was no evidence of an inverse relationship between polyunsaturated fatty acids concentration and the antioxidant capacity value of milk. Conclusion: This study shows that ?-tocopherol is an important contributor to the oxidative stability of human milk. Moreover, there was no evidence obtained to show that women who have high levels of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids are predisposed to lower milk antioxidant capacity. PMID:19807706

  12. Advances in analysis of human milk oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Ruhaak, L Renee; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2012-05-01

    Oligosaccharides in human milk strongly influence the composition of the gut microflora of neonates. Because it is now clear that the microflora play important roles in the development of the infant immune system, human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are studied frequently. Milk samples contain complex mixtures of HMO, usually comprising several isomeric structures that can be either linear or branched. Traditionally, HMO profiling was performed using HPLC with fluorescence or UV detection. By using porous graphitic carbon liquid chromatography MS, it is now possible to separate and identify most of the isomers, facilitating linkage-specific analysis. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight analysis allows fast profiling, but does not allow isomer separation. Novel MS fragmentation techniques have facilitated structural characterization of HMO that are present at lower concentrations. These techniques now facilitate more accurate studies of HMO consumption as well as Lewis blood group determinations. PMID:22585919

  13. Caregivers’ Attitudes Toward Milk Fat Type and Milk Consumption Among WIC Participants: An Exploratory Study 

    E-print Network

    Serrano, Katrina Jane

    2012-07-16

    Drinking 1% Milk and Offering Child 1% Milk ...................................................................... 13 5 Crosstabulation of Caregivers? Attitudes Toward Drinking Skim Milk and Offering Child Skim Milk... Crosstabulation and Standardized Residuals of Caregivers? Attitudes Toward Drinking Skim Milk and Their Own Milk Fat Type Intake ......... 16 10 Crosstabulation of Caregivers? Attitudes Toward Offering Child 1% Milk and Their Child?s Milk Fat Type...

  14. Short communication: effect of production variables on the cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid content of cows' milk.

    PubMed

    Lock, A L; Bauman, D E; Garnsworthy, P C

    2005-08-01

    Although there have been numerous studies investigating effects of nutrition and individual variation on the concentration of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (rumenic acid; RA) in milk, there is limited information on relationships among RA content of milk and production variables. The objective of the current analysis was to examine the effects of production variables on RA content and desaturase index of milk fat. A total of 430 samples were collected from cows fed a commercial total mixed ration in winter and grazing in summer. Across a >6-fold range in production variables, RA content of milk ranged from 1 to 32 mg/g of fatty acids and desaturase index ranged from 0.03 to 0.15. Days in milk, milk yield, milk fat content, and milk fat yield had minimal or no effect on RA content of milk fat or desaturase index (R(2) values all <0.08). Thus, whereas nutrition and individual variation are major factors affecting RA content and desaturase index of milk fat, these values are minimally affected by days in milk, milk yield, milk fat content, and milk fat yield. Differences in these parameters do not need to be considered, therefore, when designing management strategies to increase RA content of milk fat. PMID:16027184

  15. IMPROVEMENT IN PROPERTIES OF UREA BY PHOSPHOGYPSUM COATING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manish Vashishtha; Papireddy Dongara; Dhananjay Singh

    Particle coating is becoming increasingly important in fertilizer, pharmaceutical and food industries. The demand for coating granular fertilizers with minerals is increasing. Urea is coated with PhosphoGypsum, neem oil, polymeric suspensions and micronutrients like sulfer, zinc etc.Coating of PhosphoGypsum on urea fertilizer is a important application of coating process . Coating of urea particles is done to increase nitrogen use

  16. Use of urease inhibitors and urea fertilizers on winter wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AJ Schlegel; DW Nelson; LE Sommers

    1987-01-01

    Phosphoroamide urease inhibitors were evaluated for their ability to increase grain protein and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) when added to surfaceapplied urea-based fertilizers. Six urease inhibitors [trichloroethyl phosphorodiamidate, diethyl phosphoric triamide, dimethyl phosphoric triamide, N-(diaminophosphinyl)-cyclohexylamine, N-benzyl-N-methyl phosphoric triamide, and phenylphosphorodiamide] were evaluated. Nitrogen treatments were urea prills, urea solution, and ureaammonium nitrate (UAN) solution broadcast and UAN

  17. Macrocyclic ureas: A simple building block for supramolecular structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda S. Shimizu

    There is great interest in developing new building blocks that predictably self-assemble into well-defined supramolecular structures. We have utilized the self-assembly of simple, rigid macrocyclic bis-ureas to reliably form columnar structures. Larger macrocycles assemble into porous crystals containing channels of predetermined dimensions. The self-assembly of these monomers is directed by the formation of strong urea-urea hydrogen bond and by the

  18. Urea and ethanolamine as a mixed plasticizer for thermoplastic starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. F. Ma; J. G. Yu; J. J. Wan

    2006-01-01

    Mixtures of urea and ethanolamine were used as plasticizers for preparing thermoplastic starch (TPS) in a single-screw extruder. The interaction between urea\\/ethanolamine and starch was investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR). Glass transition temperature of TPS was tested by Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both FT-IR and DSC proved that the mixture of urea and ethanolamine could form more stable and

  19. The Physiology and Evolution of Urea Transport in Fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. McDonald; C. P. Smith; P. J. Walsh

    2006-01-01

    This review summarizes what is currently known about urea transporters in fishes in the context of their physiology and evolution\\u000a within the vertebrates. The existence of urea transporters has been investigated in red blood cells and hepatocytes of fish\\u000a as well as in renal and branchial cells. Little is known about urea transport in red blood cells and hepatocytes, in

  20. Urea and glutamine synthesis: Environmental influences on nitrogen excretion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Anderson

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on recent developments in our understanding of the expression of the urea cycle and the roles of glutamine synthetase (GSase) and glutamine-dependent carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CPSase III) in ammonia detoxification in fish, with emphasis on teleosts. Marine elasmobranch fishes have an active urea cycle, synthesizing and retaining urea for the purpose of osmoregulation. Well-characterized biochemical