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The Gulf Stream transports approximately 31 Sv (1 Sv = 10(6) m(3) s(-1)) of water and 1.3 x 10(15) W of heat into the North Atlantic ocean. The possibility of abrupt changes in Gulf Stream heat transport is one of the key uncertainties in predictions of climate change for the coming centuries. Given the limited length of the instrumental record, our knowledge of Gulf Stream behaviour on long timescales must rely heavily on information from geologic archives. Here we use foraminifera from a suite of high-resolution sediment cores in the Florida Straits to show that the cross-current density gradient and vertical current shear of the Gulf Stream were systematically lower during the Little Ice Age (ad approximately 1200 to 1850). We also estimate that Little Ice Age volume transport was ten per cent weaker than today's. The timing of reduced flow is consistent with temperature minima in several palaeoclimate records, implying that diminished oceanic heat transport may have contributed to Little Ice Age cooling in the North Atlantic. The interval of low flow also coincides with anomalously high Gulf Stream surface salinity, suggesting a tight linkage between the Atlantic Ocean circulation and hydrologic cycle during the past millennium. PMID:17136090
Lund, David C; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean; Curry, William B
This paper discusses the impact of globalization and new information and communication technologies on the structures and practices of higher education. The first section addresses the integration of library and information technology services, focusing on experiences at the University of the Sunshine Coast (Queensland, Australia). The second…
After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the “millennium bug.”
After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the "millennium bug."
Reviews core values which form the basis for person-centered planning. Looking to the future, the authors then examine key system and skill problems, suggesting solutions where possible. Concludes that more emphasis must be paid to specific traits of individual clients, and that shifts in power relationships must occur in keeping with the model's…
Personality descriptors—3,302 adjectives—were extracted from a dictionary of the modern Greek language. Those terms with the highest frequency were administered to large samples in Greece to test the universality of the Big-Five dimensions of personality in comparison to alternative models. One- and 2-factor structures were the most stable across variable selections and subsamples and replicated such structures found in previous
Gerard Saucier; Stelios Georgiades; Ioannis Tsaousis; Lewis R. Goldberg
This paper is concerned with a number of topics related to the lightning protection of structures and personal safety, as outlined next. Lightning incidence to areas and structures is discussed. A review of lightning protective systems of structures, whose function is to intercept lightning and safely direct its current to ground, is given. Small open shelters commonly found on golf
These authors, who have managed a small, entrepreneurial applied-research firm for more than twenty years, share their reflections about what elements of organizational structure have worked best for them, and offer some observations on a personal level as well about how to optimize and remain viable in a volatile professional field. The term…
Personality descriptors--3,302 adjectives--were extracted from a dictionary of the modern Greek language. Those terms with the highest frequency were administered to large samples in Greece to test the universality of the Big-Five dimensions of personality in comparison to alternative models. One- and 2-factor structures were the most stable across variable selections and subsamples and replicated such structures found in previous studies. Among models with more moderate levels of replication, recently proposed 6- and 7-lexical-factor models were approximately as well replicated as the Big Five. An emic 6-factor structure showed relative stability; these factors were labeled Negative-Valence/Honesty, Agreeableness/Positive Affect, Prowess/Heroism, Introversion/Melancholia, Even Temper, and Conscientiousness. PMID:15898880
Saucier, Gerard; Georgiades, Stelios; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Goldberg, Lewis R
The birth order and family structure variables assessed included first or only child, position in multi-child family, position in dyadic family, age of parents at birth of given child, whether reared by one or both parents, whether reared under permissive or authoritarian family atmosphere. The personality variables assessed included Sociability, Anxiety, Dominance, Superego, Phlegmatic Temperament, Involvement, Self-Regard and other scales measured by the Howarth Personality Questionnaire. One hundred seventy female and 142 male undergraduates were tested. Significant relationships found included: anxiety lower in firstborns; superego higher in firstborns; persistence higher in those not dominated by elder sibling; phlegmatic temperament higher in permissive families; involvement and phlegmatic temperament lower in single parent families; self-pride higher in the elder of a sibling pair; individual tolerance higher in children reared by both rather than single parent. PMID:16366939
This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about the Millennium Assessment. Charged with describing the current state of the environment, scientists worldwide collaborated to produce the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. In seven synthesis reports and other technical documents, the assessment summarizes the Earth's present condition and the impacts humans have on critical ecosystem services
Background This study examines the structure of the Personality Belief Questionnaire (PBQ), a self-report instrument designed to assess dysfunctional beliefs associated with personality pathology, as proposed by the cognitive theory of personality dysfunction. Methods The PBQ was examined using exploratory factor analysis with responses from 438 depressed outpatients, and confirmatory factor analysis with responses from 683 treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatients. All participants were assessed for personality disorder using a standard clinical interview. The validity of the resulting factor structure was assessed in the combined sample (N=1121) by examining PBQ scores for patients with and without personality disorder diagnoses. Results Exploratory and confirmatory analyses converged to indicate that the PBQ is best described by 7 empirically identified factors: 6 assess dysfunctional beliefs associated with forms of personality pathology recognized in DSM-IV. Validity analyses revealed that those diagnosed with a personality disorder evidenced a higher average score on all factors, relative to those without these disorders. Subsets of patients diagnosed with specific DSM-IV personality disorders scored higher, on average, on the factor associated with their respective diagnosis, relative to all other factors. Conclusions The pattern of results has implications for the conceptualization of personality pathology. To our knowledge, no formal diagnostic or assessment system has yet systematically incorporated the role of dysfunctional beliefs into its description of personality pathology. The identification of dysfunctional beliefs may not only aid in case conceptualization, but may provide unique targets for psychological treatment. Recommendations for future personality pathology assessment systems are provided.
Fournier, Jay C.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Beck, Aaron T.
The structural and external validity of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and the relations among TPQ lower-order and higher-order scales and those of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire were examined. Results for 1,236 adults support the TPQ's validity but indicate its failure to operationalize portions of the…
The authors used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of criminal psychopaths on the basis of differences in personalitystructure. Participants included 96 male prisoners diagnosed as psychopathic, using the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). Personality was assessed using the brief form of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF; C. J. Patrick, J. J. Curtin, & A. Tellegen,
Brian M. Hicks; Kristian E. Markon; Christopher J. Patrick; Robert F. Krueger; Joseph P. Newman
Millennium Development Goal 5 incorporates targets related to improving maternal mortality in resource poor countries with universal access to reproductive healthcare. The complex interrelationship between causation and solution of these problems is expounded together with strategies of care. Healthcare modelling based on the provision of skilled birth attendants and emergency obstetric care facilities will reduce the terrible tragedy of maternal
The countdown to a new century provides a unique opportunity to engage America's youth in charting a course for the future. The Mars Millennium Project challenges students across the nation to design a community yet to be imagined for the planet Mars. This interdisciplinary learning project aims to encourage K-12 students in classrooms and youth…
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.
Describes a year-long social studies program called "Passport to the Millennium." Students "travel" around the world learning about the history, geography, culture, and economy of different countries. The program is appropriate for students in elementary to secondary grades. Includes a sample lesson plan. (CMK)
Presents advice from five school administrators on how schools are meeting facility and business challenges in the new millennium. Issues discussed concern power needs, the Y2K computer problem, the explosion of new educational technology, school security, educational finance, and building deterioration. (GR)
Alemtuzumab, a lymphocyte-depleting humanized monoclonal antibody, is being developed by Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc and ILEX Oncology for the potential treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) . The utility of the compound for treating bone marrow (BM) stem cell transplantation-associated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)  and for ex vivo purging of BM to remove malignant T-cells  is also being investigated. Additional potential therapeutic areas for which clinical trials are planned or ongoing include vasculitis, multiple sclerosis  and organ transplantation . A Biologics License Application (BLA) was filed with the FDA in December 1999 by ILEX and Millennium , , . The FDA accepted the application for filing in February 2000  and returned a complete response letter in June 2000 . Millennium and ILEX submitted a response to the FDA in August 2000 . Alemtuzumab has received Fast Track designation  and orphan drug status from the FDA , and the drug was reviewed by the FDA's Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee on 14 December, 2000 . The committee voted 14 to 1 to recommend accelerated approval of alemtuzumab for patients with CLL who have been treated with alkylating agents and who have failed fludarabine therapy , . In March 2000, Millennium and ILEX also submitted a Marketing Authorization Application (MAA) for alemtuzumab to the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) . In October 2000, EMEA accepted the MAA for alemtuzumab under the agency's centralized approval procedure . Alemtuzumab was originally synthesized by Herman Waldmann and colleagues at Cambridge University and licensed to Burroughs Wellcome (BW) via the British Technology Group (BTG) . BW conducted phase I and II trials for a broad range of indications, but then discontinued development because of disappointing results in phase II rheumatoid arthritis trials . In April 1997, LeukoSite licensed rights to the antibody from BTG for the treatment of CLL and prolymphocytic leukemia, plus an option to develop it for other indications. BW agreed to supply LeukoSite with intellectual property , . In May 1997, LeukoSite entered into a joint venture with ILEX Oncology for the further development of alemtuzumab . By the end of 1999, Millennium acquired LeukoSite with commitment to pursue development of the compound through the joint venture Millennium & ILEX Partners LP , . In August 1999, Schering AG and its US affiliate Berlex Laboratories obtained exclusive worldwide marketing rights for alemtuzumab, excluding Japan and East Asia. In the US, Berlex, Millennium and ILEX will divide profits from alemtuzumab sales equally , . PMID:11527007
The costs of constructing and operating personal communications service (PCS) systems are examined to assess the potential spectrum requirements of these services. The cost model developed for this task estimated the costs of building and operating a new PCS network, as well as the costs of providing PCSs using existing infrastructure such as the telephone, cable television, and cellular telephone
This paper elaborates the notion of a personal example space as the set of mathematical objects and construction techniques that a learner has access to as examples of a concept while working on a given task. This is different from the conventional space of examples that is represented by the worked examples and exercises in textbooks. We refer to…
Sinclair, Nathalie; Watson, Anne; Zazkis, Rina; Mason, John
We outline three main ways how personality differences can affect social functioning and social structure. By highlighting the broad and significant consequences that personality differences can have for social processes, our article might serve as a starting point for a research focus that aims at a systematic understanding of these consequences. PMID:24679987
The Hand Test and the High School Personality Questionnaire were administered to 15 boys and 15 girls in Grades 9 and 10 transferred to an alternative school for acting-out behavior. They were of average intelligence. Several significant correlations between Hand Test and High School Personality Questionnaire variables were noted. Results are discussed in reference to Structural Analysis. PMID:6371701
The authors used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of criminal psychopaths on the basis of differences in personalitystructure. Participants included 96 male prisoners diagnosed as psychopathic, using the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). Personality was assessed using the brief form of the Multidimensional…
Hicks, Brian M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Krueger, Robert F.; Newman, Joseph P.
This study examined the structure of PTSD comorbidity and its relationship to personality in a sample of 214 veterans using data from diagnostic interviews and the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire-Brief Form (MPQ-BF; Patrick, Curtin, & Tellegen, 2002). Confirmatory factor analyses supported a three factor model composed of Externalizing, Fear and Distress factors. Analyses that examined the location of borderline personality disorder revealed significant cross-loadings for this disorder on both Externalizing and Distress. Structural equation models showed trait negative emotionality to be significantly related to all three comorbidity factors whereas positive emotionality and constraint evidenced specific associations with Distress and Externalizing, respectively. These results shed new light on the location of borderline personality disorder within the internalizing/externalizing model and clarify the relative influence of broad dimensions of personality on patterns of comorbidity.
In this paper, the common dimensional-structure of measures of Big Five personality, social attitudes, personal values, conservatism, and ideological beliefs (right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation) was investigated in two convenience samples of adults (Study 1, paper-and-pencil, N = 302; Study 2, Internet, N = 154). A principal components analysis resulted in a three-factor solution in both samples. In particular,
Science for the Millennium, provided by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), is a Multimedia Online Expo. The Expo is a beautifully designed virtual museum of science and industry which will be of interest to students and others with an interest in science and computing. Users have access to three pavilions: Science and Industry, Collaboration, and Computation, as well as the Online Science Theatre. Exhibits include Whispers from the Cosmos, Spacetime Wrinkles and The Metacomputer. The Online Science Theatre offers MPEG and QuickTime movies on many of the same topics discussed in the pavilions. Science for the Millennium is a highly graphical site and some of the files will take a while to download, but your patience will be rewarded.
We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families.
How closely do observed, phenotypic personalitystructures correspond with underlying, genetic, and environmental personalitystructures? This question was addressed using data from 2,490 pairs of twins from the Minnesota Twin Registry, who completed A. Tellegen's (1982) Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Phenotypic, additive genetic, and nonshared environmental correlations were computed among the MPQ's eleven primary scales. Principal component analyses of all
This paper looks at the role of employment-intensive growth in attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000 ratified by setting specific targets with respect to eight different goals: eradication of extreme poverty and hunger; universal primary education; gender equality; reduction of child mortality; improved maternal health; combating HIV\\/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; ensuring
A multidimensional trait system has been proposed for representing personality disorder (PD) features in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) to address problematic classification issues such as comorbidity. In this model, which may also assist in providing scaffolding for the underlying structure of major forms of psychopathology more generally, 25 primary traits are organized by 5 higher order dimensions: Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism. We examined (a) the generalizability of the structure proposed for DSM-5 PD traits, and (b) the potential for an integrative hierarchy based upon DSM-5 PD traits to represent the dimensions scaffolding psychopathology more generally. A large sample of student participants (N = 2,461) completed the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, which operationalizes the DSM-5 traits. Exploratory factor analysis replicated the initially reported 5-factor structure, as indicated by high factor congruencies. The 2-, 3-, and 4-factor solutions estimated in the hierarchy of the DSM-5 traits bear close resemblance to existing models of common mental disorders, temperament, and personality pathology. Thus, beyond the description of individual differences in personality disorder, the trait dimensions might provide a framework for the metastructure of psychopathology in the DSM-5 and the integration of a number of ostensibly competing models of personality trait covariation. PMID:22448740
Wright, Aidan G C; Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Markon, Kristian E; Pincus, Aaron L; Krueger, Robert F
A multidimensional trait system has been proposed for representing personality disorder (PD) features in DSM-5 to address problematic classification issues such as comorbidity. In this model, which may also assist in providing scaffolding for the underlying structure of major forms of psychopathology more generally, 25 primary traits are organized by 5 higher order dimensions: Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism. We examined a) the generalizability of the structure proposed for DSM-5 PD traits and b) the potential for an integrative hierarchy based upon DSM-5 PD traits to represent the dimensions scaffolding psychopathology more generally. A large sample of student participants (N=2,461) completed the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, which operationalizes the DSM-5 traits. Exploratory factor analysis replicated the initially reported five-factor structure as indicated by high factor congruencies. The two-, three-, and four- factor solutions estimated in the hierarchy of the DSM-5 traits bear close resemblance to existing models of common mental disorders, temperament, and personality pathology. Thus, beyond the description of individual differences in personality disorder, the trait dimensions might provide a framework for the metastructure of psychopathology in the DSM-5 and the integration of a number of ostensibly competing models of personality trait covariation.
Wright, Aidan G.C.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Markon, Kristian E.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Krueger, Robert F.
Researchers have proposed replacing the current system for diagnosing personality disorders with a dimensional trait model. Proposed trait models have been derived primarily from data provided by untrained lay informants (often via self-report questionnaires) using item sets derived from lay conceptions of personality. An alternative is to derive personality trait dimensions from data provided by clinically expert informants using an instrument that includes personality features salient to clinicians who treat personality dysfunction. The authors report the factor structure of the latest edition of the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-II) using a normative clinical sample of 1,201 North American patients assessed by experienced psychologists and psychiatrists. Factor analysis identified 14 clinically and empirically coherent factors. The findings highlight dimensions of personality and personality pathology that have not emerged in personality item sets designed for lay personality description. PMID:22984863
Westen, Drew; Waller, Niels G; Shedler, Jonathan; Blagov, Pavel S
Suggests that the heterogeneity of human personality characteristics increases with age. Examines reasons for this phenomenon in terms of individual differentiation, social structure/allocation, and behavioral genetics. Develops a model synthesizing various study designs that prevent variation and covariation errors from occurring in life course…
User data stored in personal information systems is growing massively. Simultaneously, this data is increasingly distributed across multiple organizational domains such as email, music databases, and photo albums, some of which are structured automatically by applications. Powerful search tools are needed to help users locate data in these expanding yet fragmented data sets. In this paper, we present a novel
This study gives an analytical overview of the evolution of the banking sectors of ten relatively large Central and Eastern European countries (Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia; Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia, Serbia; Russia and Ukraine) since 1999—2000. Set in the period following the banking crises and painful transformation of the 1990s, the analysis focuses on the newest structural changes and
Interrater reliability is considered a precondition for the validity of theoretical models and their corresponding diagnostic instruments. Studies have documented good interrater reliability for structured interviews measuring personality characteristics on a descriptive-phenomenological level but there is little research on reliability of assessment procedures on a structural level. The current study investigated the interrater reliability of the structural interview (SI) designed to assess neurotic, borderline, and psychotic personality organization according to Kernberg. Videotaped SIs of 69 psychiatric patients were randomly and independently rated by two out of three trained psychologists. Agreement between rater pairs was expressed as square weighted kappa (K(sw), 95% CI). Results indicate satisfactory interrater reliability with respect to Kernberg's tripartite classification (K(sw) = 0.42, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.77). Subdivision of the borderline category or introduction of intermediate subcategories to the tripartite system did not significantly affect reliability (K(sw) = 0.55, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.80; K(sw) = 0.59, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.84, respectively). The conclusion is that trained clinicians can reliably assess structuralpersonality organization using the SI. Refining the nosological system adding subcategories did not reduce reliability. PMID:19817632
Ingenhoven, Theo J M; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Brogtrop, Janneke; Lindenborn, Anne; van den Brink, Wim; Passchier, Jan
A scientific taxonomy of human personality attributes should optimally be based on studies from multiple languages and cultures. Study 1 demonstrates convergence between seven- factor structures found in previous studies of Filipino and Hebrew languages. Study 2 shows that this 'Multi-Language Seven' (ML7) factor model overlaps partially with the Big Five model, but includes four rather than three affective-interpersonal factors,
We report an investigation of the genesis and interpretation of simple structure in personality data using two very different self-reported data sets. The first consists of a set of relatively unselected lexical descriptors, whereas the second is based on responses to a carefully constructed instrument. In both data sets, we explore the degree of simple structure by comparing factor solutions to solutions from simulated data constructed to have either strong or weak simple structure. The analysis demonstrates that there is little evidence of simple structure in the unselected items, and a moderate degree among the selected items. In both instruments, however, much of the simple structure that could be observed originated in a strong dimension of positive vs. negative evaluation.
The Millennium Gas simulations are a series of large cosmological N-body+hydrodynamic simulations, based on the Millennium Simulation. The large (500 Mpc/h) box contains thousands of galaxy clusters and therefore allows robust statistical conclusions to be drawn regarding their structure and scaling properties. In this talk I will present some of the key results from these simulations, including results from our latest simulation, where feedback from stars and AGN is included. Particular attention will be paid to the relationship between X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich properties of the simulated clusters.
Environmental variables are often assumed to constitute a qualitatively different domain from personality variables, and unlike personality variables, their structure is relatively poorly understood. We studied retrospective descriptions of families-of-origin in 3 samples using the items of Moos's (1974) Family Environment Scale (FES). Using cluster-analytic procedures, we generated a new set of 22 homogeneous item clusters for the FES at
A home-made sundial offers a unique blend of design, construction and mathematical challenge. Readers armed with no more than a calculator and toolbox may wish to celebrate the millennium by constructing a sundial for their school, college or home. The design and construction of two dials is detailed in this article.
We present a neural network model that aims to bridge the historical gap between dynamic and structural approaches to personality. The model integrates work on the structure of the trait lexicon, the neurobiology of personality, temperament, goal-based models of personality, and an evolutionary analysis of motives. It is organized in terms of two…
Read, Stephen J.; Monroe, Brian M.; Brownstein, Aaron L.; Yang, Yu; Chopra, Gurveen; Miller, Lynn C.
The New Millennium Program (NMP) is a NASA technology program that focuses on the validation of advanced spacecraft and instrumentation technologies in space. This program specifically seeks technologies that could significantly benefit future space and Earth science missions by enabling new science capabilities and reducing life cycle costs. These technologies must also require a validation in space to mitigate risks to the first science users, and provide cross-cutting benefits to both NASA's Earth and Space Science enterprises. The NASA Office of Earth Science (OES) directed the NMP to focus the third Earth Observing mission, E03, on innovative measurement concepts that would facilitate remote sensing observations from orbits beyond conventional low-Earth orbit (LEO). These orbits include geosynchronous orbits, highly elliptical orbits, mid-Earth and high-Earth orbits, and other unique vantage points such as L1 and L2. To maximize the input from the Earth science community, a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) was released to solicit innovative measurement concepts for this NMP flight. Because the NMP is a technology validation program, rather than a conventional science program, the NRA required that these measurement concepts employ revolutionary technologies and/or measurement strategies that will enable future science missions from orbits beyond LEO. Another requirement was that a validation in space was needed to reduce real or perceived risks of this concept to future science users. The proposals submitted in response to this NRA were peer reviewed by the NASA OES. The measurement concepts selected through this process will be summarized in this presentation. The E03 measurement concept NRA did not solicit complete mission concepts or flight hardware. Instead, the selected investigators will join integrated project formulation teams to define the mission for the demonstration of the measurement technique and participate in mission design trades and implementation planning. The teams will define and document the measurement approach, the required technologies, the validation plan, the scalability of the design to future science missions, and the infusion path for the completely validated instrument. During this project formulation phase, the specific technologies required to implement each measurement concept will be solicited through an open technology solicitation, and the technology providers will be added to the integrated teams. Once a complete candidate mission concept has been formulated for each measurement concept, these concepts will be subjected to a comprehensive review. The Associate Administrator of the OES will use the results of this review to select a single concept for the E03 flight opportunity. That mission concept will enter its implementation phase, which is expected to last for less than 36 months before launch. During this phase, and after launch, the implementation team will work with the NMP to document and disseminate the information gathered during the flight qualification testing and operations of the measurement concept and its component technologies. This information will be archived and published, where appropriate, to encourage the rapid infusion of these validated technologies into future space and Earth science missions. I
In the first study, we administered the 40-item Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988) to 843 female and 843 male college students, most of whom were Euro-American, to comprehensively assess the NPI factor structure using confirmatory factor analysis. Initial exploratory common factor analyses (N = 724) revealed a 2-factor model (Leadership/Authority and Exhibitionism/Entitlement). Subsequently, we used confirmatory factor analysis in a separate sample (N = 724) to evaluate the Emmons (1987) 4-factor model, the Raskin and Terry (1988) 7-factor model, the Kubarych, Deary, and Austin (2004) 2- and 3-factor models, and our 2-factor model. Finally, we assessed construct validity by correlating the scale scores with the Five-factor model of personality in an independent sample (N = 238). The 2-factor models for the NPI we obtained in this study and by Kubarych et al. (2004) appeared to be the most parsimonious models, with both a good fit to the data and satisfactory internal consistency values; so they are recommended for use. However, additional NPI research is needed to rescale, modify, or omit several NPI items and develop gender-equivalent items. PMID:18925501
Corry, Nida; Merritt, Rebecca Davis; Mrug, Sylvie; Pamp, Barbara
This viewgraph presentation reviews the New Millennium Program (NMP) which was established in 1994 to revolutionize NASA's Space and Earth science programs to achieve more capable, less costly missions in th e 2lst Century by: 1. Developing and flight-validating revolutionary technologies; 2. Reducing development times and life cycle missi0n cost; 3. Enabling highly autonomous spacecraft and 4. Promoting nat ionwide teaming and coordination
Previous factor-analytic studies of lexical person descriptors have produced some recurrent patterns of results, but their integration has been hampered by divergences in variable sampling, such as disparate criteria for what is considered a personality descriptor. To isolate effects of variable selection on factor structures, 500 of the most familiar English person descriptors were identified. Fifteen judges provided reliable classifications
Fairbairn's structural theory is based on the developing child's need to dissociate actual events between himself or herself and his or her objects that are excessively rejecting in order to contine an uninterrupted, pristine attachment to them. This eventuates in three selves in relation to three objects: One pair is conscious (the central ego which relates to the ideal object), while the other two pairs (the antilibidinal ego, which relates to the rejecting object, and the libidinal ego, which relates to the exciting object) are mostly held in the unconscious. Fairbairn saw the fluid relationship between the two split-off pairs of unconscious part selves and the conscious central ego as the primary dynamic of the human personality. The author proposes a specific variation in Fairbairn's structural theory to account for the development of narcissism. Specifically, this disorder is viewed as the result of a developmental history in which the child finds himself or herself in an exceedingly hostile interpersonal environment that precludes the child from using an idealized version either of his or her parental objects as the "exciting object." The child therefore substitutes a grandiose view of himself or herself as the exciting object. This defense deflects external influences and replaces relationships with external objects with a closed internal world that is comprised of an admiring part-self basking in reflected love from its relationship with an exciting part-object. PMID:24866161
Increasing evidence indicates that normal and abnormal personality can be treated within a single structural framework. However, identification of a single integrated structure of normal and abnormal personality has remained elusive. Here, a constructive replication approach was used to delineate an integrative hierarchical account of the structure of normal and abnormal personality. This hierarchical structure, which integrates many Big Trait models proposed in the literature, replicated across a meta-analysis as well as an empirical study, and across samples of participants as well as measures. The proposed structure resembles previously suggested accounts of personality hierarchy and provides insight into the nature of personality hierarchy more generally. Potential directions for future research on personality and psychopathology are discussed.
Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.; Watson, David
Among the more recent personality assessment tools used by counseling psychologists is Millon's Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI). This instrument was created, in part, to reflect the changes that had occurred in psychologists' understanding of personality, psychopathology, and diagnostic assessment. The MCMI is derived from Millon's biosocial…
A rationale and procedures for the development of a taxonomic basis for personality research and theory construction are outlined. Some prior research efforts in this area are briefly reviewed and evaluated. Results of a series of studies are presented which employed primarily groups of university male Ss who varied in length and intimacy of previous associations. Data were obtained using
Public libraries can make a major contribution to the achievement of the eight United Nations Millennium Development Goals. This paper examines actual and potential uses highlighting the importance of libraries to community development, and provides some examples, such as mobile libraries in slums and reading tents, where libraries are already assisting with Millennium Development Goals being achieved.
NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. This is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The New Millennium Program identifies the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that will help provide
The generalizability of the correlates of organizational commitment is examined using two definitions of commitment. Personal, job, organizational, and labor market variables are examined in relation to organizational commitment and employee turnover. Res...
People in academic social systems who are interested in promotions learn about decision-making processes in academe, and about communication linkages. They learn to grasp the impact of these linkages and the support networks. An irrefutable ingredient is a sterling professional performance. Applying personal power requires individual tailoring.…
Prior studies indicate that a personality dimension reflecting thin versus thick boundaries is related to global ratings of dream vividness, amount of emotion, and amount of interaction. In the present study, these relationships were examined by relating scores from the Boundary Questionnaire ( Hartmann, 1991) to dream content among 80 patients seen at a sleep disorders center. Thinness of boundaries
Brain abnormalities are found in association with antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia, the two mental disorders most implicated in violent behaviour. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate the whole brain, cerebellum, temporal lobe, lateral ventricles, caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala and the prefrontal, pre-motor, sensorimotor, occipito-parietal regions in 13 men with antisocial personality disorder, 13 men with
Ian Barkataki; Veena Kumari; Mrigendra Das; Pamela Taylor; Tonmoy Sharma
This study attempts to explore the relationships among novelty preference for corporate meeting destination choice, consumption value, organizational structure, and personality. A total of 75 corporate meeting planners from public listed service organizations were involved. The data was collected through questionnaire survey which was then analysed using multiple regression analysis. The results revealed that consumption value and personality contributed significantly
Ahmad Azmi M. Ariffin; Azhar Hj. Ahmad; Nor Khomar Ishak
The study examines the cost structure of proposed personal communications services (PCS) in order to assess the potential spectrum requirements of these new services. The cost model developed for the report estimates the costs of building and operating a ...
NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. This is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The New Millennium Program identifies the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that will help provide those capabilities.
Simulations of galaxy evolution aim to capture our current understanding as well as to make predictions for testing by future experiments. Simulations and observations are often compared in an indirect fashion: physical quantities are estimated from the observational data and compared to models. However, many applications can benefit from a more direct approach, where the observing process is also simulated, so that the models are seen fully from the observer's perspective. To facilitate this, we have developed the Millennium Run Observatory (MRObs), a theoretical virtual observatory which uses virtual telescopes to `observe' semi-analytic galaxy formation simulations based on the suite of Millennium Run (MR) dark matter simulations. The MRObs produces data that can be processed and analysed using the standard observational software packages developed for real observations. At present, we produce images in 40 filters covering the rest-frame ultraviolet to infrared for two stellar population synthesis models, for three different models of absorption by the intergalactic medium, and in two cosmologies (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe year 1 and 7). Galaxy distributions for a large number of mock light cones can be `observed' using models of major ground- and space-based telescopes. The data include light cone catalogues linked to structural properties of galaxies, pre-observation model images, mock telescope images and Source Extractor products that can all be traced back to the higher level dark matter, semi-analytic galaxy and light cone catalogues available in the MR data base. Here, we describe our methods and announce a first public release of simulated observations that emulate a large number of extragalactic surveys [e.g. Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHT-LS), Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), GOODS/Early Release Science (ERS), Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF)]. The MRObs browser, an online tool, further facilitates exploration of the simulated data. We demonstrate the benefits of a direct approach through a number of example applications: (1) deep galaxy number counts in the CANDELS survey; (2) observed properties of galaxy clusters; (3) structural parameters of galaxies; and (4) identification of dropout galaxies. The MRObs enhances the range of questions that can be asked of semi-analytic models, allowing observers and theorists to work towards each other with virtually complete freedom of where to meet.
Overzier, R.; Lemson, G.; Angulo, R. E.; Bertin, E.; Blaizot, J.; Henriques, B. M. B.; Marleau, G.-D.; White, S. D. M.
This year marks a pivotal moment in international efforts to fight extreme poverty. During the United Nations (UN) Millennium Summit in 2000, 147 heads of state gathered and adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, panel 1) to address extreme poverty in its many dimensions—income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter, and exclusion—while promoting education, gender equality, and environmental sustainability,
For the past 43 years, NASA has devoted its facilities, labor force, and expertise to sharing the abundance of technology developments used for its missions with the nation's industries. These countless technologies have not only successfully contributed to the growth of the U.S. economy, but also to the quality of life on Earth. For the past 25 years, NASA's Spinoff publication has brought attention to thousands of technologies, products, and services that were developed as a direct result of commercial partnerships between NASA and the private business sector. Many of these exciting technologies included advances in ceramics, computer technology, fiber optics, and remote sensing. New and ongoing research at the NASA field centers covers a full spectrum of technologies that will provide numerous advantages for the future, many of which have made significant strides in the commercial market. The NASA Commercial Technology Network plays a large role in transferring this progress. By applying NASA technologies such as data communication, aircraft de-icing technologies, and innovative materials to everyday functions, American consumers and the national economy benefit. Moving forward into the new millennium, these new technologies will further advance our country's position as the world leader in scientific and technical innovation. These cutting-edge innovations represent the investment of the U.S. citizen in the Space Program. Some of these technologies are highlighted in Spinoff 2001, an example of NASA's commitment to technology transfer and commercialization assistance. This year's issue spotlights the commercial technology efforts of NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center. Kennedy's extensive network of commercial technology opportunities has enabled them to become a leader in technology transfer outreach. This kind of leadership is exemplified through Kennedy's recent partnership with the State of Florida, working toward the development of the Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory. The new laboratory is the first step toward the development of a proposed 400-acre Space Commerce Park, located at Kennedy Space Center. Spinoff, once again, successfully showcases the variety of commercial successes and benefits resulting from the transfer of NASA technology to private industry. It is with great pride and pleasure that we present Spinoff 2001 with a Special Millennium Feature. With help from U.S. industry and commercial technology programs, NASA will continue to assist in the presentation of innovative new products to our nation.
In the year 2000, all of the world's countries and all the world's leading development institutions signed on to a compact sponsored by the United Nations in order to assist the needs of the world's poorest people. This compact included eight primary development goals that would be met by 2015. Some of these goals included a significant reduction of child mortality and the promotion of gender equality. This particular site offers updates on the progress towards these eight primary goals, along with links to the annual report on these goals. Visitors can visit the documents area to read the text of the previous annual reports, along with reading some of the regional reports filed for Latin American, Africa, Asia, and Europe. The "Background" area is another good place to look for summary materials, as it features the text of the millennium declaration and progress reports from 2004 and 2005. The site is rounded out by a selection of links to additional sites that may be helpful, such as those for the United Nations Population Fund and the Food and Agriculture Organization.
Functional and structural alterations of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a key region for emotional and cognitive processing, are associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, the interhemispheric structural connectivity between the left and right ACC and between other prefrontal regions in this condition is unknown. We acquired diffusion-tensor imaging data from 20 healthy women and 19 women with BPD
Nicolas Rüsch; Tobias Bracht; Björn W. Kreher; Susanne Schnell; Volkmar Glauche; Kamil A. Il'yasov; Dieter Ebert; Klaus Lieb; Jürgen Hennig; Dorothee Saur; Ludger Tebartz van Elst
Presents literature relevant to initial group structure and advances a model of group development based upon personal construct theory. The proposed model illuminates the relationship between initial structure and the psychological processes underlying group development. Research questions are posited to advance empirical tests of the model. (RC)
This report includes four recommendations to Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCCs) vice president of compact implementation and vice president of congressional and public affairs to (1) issue clarifying guidance to the Millennium Challenge Account-Madag...
Network-based interventions are gaining prominence in the treatment of chronic illnesses; however, little is known about what aspects of network structure are easily identified by non-experts when shown network visualizations. This study examines which structural features are recognizable by non-experts. Nineteen non-experts were asked to pile-sort 68 network diagrams. Results were analyzed using multidimensional scaling, discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, and PROFIT analysis. Participants tended to sort networks along the dimensions of isolates and size of largest component, suggesting that interventions aimed at helping individuals understand and change their social environments could benefit from incorporating visualizations of social networks.
Kennedy, David P.; Green, Harold D.; McCarty, Christopher; Tucker, Joan
Studies addressing brain correlates of emotional personality have remained sparse, despite the involvement of emotional personality in health and well-being. This study investigates structural and functional brain correlates of psychological and physiological measures related to emotional personality. Psychological measures included neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness scores, as assessed using a standard personality questionnaire. As a physiological measure we used a cardiac amplitude signature, the so-called E? value (computed from the electrocardiogram) which has previously been related to tender emotionality. Questionnaire scores and E? values were related to both functional (eigenvector centrality mapping, ECM) and structural (voxel-based morphometry, VBM) neuroimaging data. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were obtained from 22 individuals (12 females) while listening to music (joy, fear, or neutral music). ECM results showed that agreeableness scores correlated with centrality values in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens). Individuals with higher E? values (indexing higher tender emotionality) showed higher centrality values in the subiculum of the right hippocampal formation. Structural MRI data from an independent sample of 59 individuals (34 females) showed that neuroticism scores correlated with volume of the left amygdaloid complex. In addition, individuals with higher E? showed larger gray matter volume in the same portion of the subiculum in which individuals with higher E? showed higher centrality values. Our results highlight a role of the amygdala in neuroticism. Moreover, they indicate that a cardiac signature related to emotionality (E?) correlates with both function (increased network centrality) and structure (grey matter volume) of the subiculum of the hippocampal formation, suggesting a role of the hippocampal formation for emotional personality. Results are the first to show personality-related differences using eigenvector centrality mapping, and the first to show structural brain differences for a physiological measure associated with personality.
Koelsch, Stefan; Skouras, Stavros; Jentschke, Sebastian
Factor structure and circumplex approaches were integrated to develop a refined structure of personality attributes in Italian. In Study 1, the factor analytic approach was applied on the data set. The 3-factor solution, resembling the Big Three, was the most stable among others; the Big Five were not replicated. In Study 2, it was verified that differences in language and
Objective Recent neuroscience studies explored the neuronal mechanisms underlying our sense of self. Thereby the cortical midline structures and their anterior and posterior regions have been shown to be central. What remains unclear though is how both, self and cortical midline structures, are related to the identity of the self which is of central importance in especially personality disorders. Methods Conducting an exploratory study with a dimensional approach, we here compared subjects with high and low level of personality functioning and identity integration as measured in a standardized way in fMRI during both, emotion- and reward-related tasks. Results Low levels of personality functioning and identity integration were predicted by significantly decreased degrees of deactivation in the anterior and posterior cortical midline structures. Conclusions Though exploratory our results show for the first time direct relationship between cortical midline structures and personality functioning in terms of identity integration. This does not only contribute to our understanding of the neuronal mechanism underlying self and identity but carries also major implications for the treatment of patients with personality disorders.
Faber, Cornelius; Hinrichs, Jens; Bahmer, Judith; Northoff, Georg
The DSM-5 Section III includes a hybrid model for the diagnosis of personality disorders, in which sets of dimensional personality trait facets are configured into personality disorder types. These PD types resemble the Section II categorical counterparts with dimensional traits descriptive of the Section II criteria to maintain continuity across the diagnostic systems. The current study sought to evaluate the continuity across the Section II and III models of personality disorders. This sample consisted of 397 undergraduate students, administered the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (Krueger et al., 2012) and the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II Disorders-Personality Questionnaire (First et al., 2013). We examined whether the DSM-5 Section III trait facets for the PDs would be associated with their respective Section II counterparts, as well as determining whether additional facets could augment the prediction of the Section II disorders. Results revealed that, generally, the DSM-5 Section II disorders were most strongly associated with their Section III traits. Results also showed evidence to support the addition of facets not included in the Section III diagnostic criteria in the prediction of most disorders. These results show general support for the Section III model of personality disorders, however, results also show that additional research is needed to replicate these findings. PMID:24656519
Anderson, Jaime; Snider, Stephen; Sellbom, Martin; Krueger, Robert; Hopwood, Christopher
Background Structural brain abnormalities have been demonstrated in subjects with BPD in prefrontal and fronto-limbic regions involved in the regulation of emotion and impulsive behavior, executive cognitive function and episodic memory. Impairment in these cognitive functions is associated with increased vulnerability to suicidal behavior. We compared BPD suicide attempters and non-attempters, high and low lethality attempters to healthy controls to identify neural circuits associated with suicidal behavior in BPD. Methods Structural MRI scans were obtained on 68 BPD subjects (16 male, 52 female), defined by IPDE and DIB/R criteria, and 52 healthy controls (HC: 28 male, 24 female). Groups were compared by diagnosis, attempt status, and attempt lethality. ROIs were defined for areas reported to have structural or metabolic abnormalities in BPD, and included: mid-inf. orbitofrontal cortex, mid-sup temporal cortex, anterior cingulate, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, fusiform, lingual and parahippocampal gyri. Data were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry implemented with DARTEL in SPM5, co-varied for age and gender, corrected for cluster extent (p<.001). Results Compared to HC, BPD attempters had significantly diminished gray matter concentrations in 8 of 9 ROIs, non-attempters in 5 of 9 ROIs. Within the BPD sample, attempters had diminished gray matter in Lt. insula compared to non-attempters. High lethality attempters had significant decreases in Rt. mid-sup. temporal gyrus, Rt. mid-inf. orbitofrontal gyrus, Rt. insular cortex, Lt. fusiform gyrus, Lt. lingual gyrus and Rt. parahippocampal gyrus compared to low lethality attempters. Conclusions Specific structural abnormalities discriminate BPD attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters.
Soloff, Paul H.; Pruitt, Patrick; Sharma, Mohit; Radwan, Jacqueline; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.
The previous review on stochastic buckling of structures was written by Amazigo in 1976. This review summarizes some of the developments which took place in recent two decades. A brief overview is given of the effect on uncertainty in the initial geometric imperfections, elastic moduli, applied forces, and thickness variation. For the benefit of the thinking reader, the review has a critical nature. It should be noted that this manuscript has yet to be completed.
Objective: To examine the joint hierarchical structure of two measures of adolescent personality pathology within a community sample of Canadian adolescents. Method: Self-reported data on demographic information and pathological personality traits were obtained from 144 youth (Mage = 16.08 years, SD = 1.30). Personality pathology was measured using the youth-version of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP-Y; Linde, Stringer, Simms, & Clark, in press) and the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI; De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006). Lower-order scales were subjected to structural hierarchical analyses. Results: Scales from the two measures were complementary in defining higher-order traits. Traits at the 4-factor level of the hierarchy (Need for Approval, Disagreeableness, Detachment, and Compulsivity) showed similarities and differences with previous results in adults. Conclusions: The current investigation integrated top-down and bottom-up measures for a comprehensive account of the higher-order hierarchy of adolescent personality pathology. Results are discussed in the context of convergence across approaches and in comparison with previous findings in adult samples.
Kushner, Shauna C.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; De Clercq, Barbara
The personalized medicine era stresses a growing need to combine evidence-based medicine with case based reasoning in order to improve the care process. To address this need we suggest a framework to generate multi-tiered statistical structures we call Evicases. Evicase integrates established medical evidence together with patient cases from the bedside. It then uses machine learning algorithms to produce statistical results and aggregators, weighted predictions, and appropriate recommendations. Designed as a stand-alone structure, Evicase can be used for a range of decision support applications including guideline adherence monitoring and personalized prognostic predictions. PMID:22874262
In this article, we describe the development and preliminary psychometric properties of the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO), a semistructured interview designed for the dimensional assessment of identity, primitive defenses, and reality testing, the three primary content domains in the model of personality health and disorder elaborated by Kernberg (1984; Kernberg & Caligor, 2005). Results of this investigation, conducted in a clinical sample representing a broad range of personality pathology, indicate that identity and primitive defenses as operationalized in the STIPO are internally consistent and that interrater reliability for all 3 content domains is adequate. Validity findings suggest that the assessment of one's sense of self and significant others (Identity) is predictive of measures of positive and negative affect, whereas the maladaptive ways in which the subject uses his or her objects for purposes of regulating one's self experience (Primitive Defenses) is predictive of measures of aggression and personality disorder traits associated with cluster B personality disorders. We discuss implications of these findings in terms of the theory-driven and trait-based assessment of personality pathology. PMID:20013454
Stern, Barry L; Caligor, Eve; Clarkin, John F; Critchfield, Kenneth L; Horz, Susanne; MacCornack, Verna; Lenzenweger, Mark F; Kernberg, Otto F
The controversial claim that El Niño events might be partially caused by radiative forcing due to volcanic aerosols is reassessed. Building on the work of Mann et al., estimates of volcanic forcing over the past millennium and a climate model of intermediate complexity are used to draw a diagram of El Niño likelihood as a function of the intensity of
Julien Emile-Geay; Richard Seager; Mark A. Cane; Edward R. Cook; Gerald H. Haug
This publication examines ways to teach about law in the liberal arts. This issue focuses on future voting rights issues by exploring the 2000 presidential election. Articles included are: "Voting Rights in the New Millennium" (Jason F. Kirksey); "Legal and Political Lessons from 'Bush v. Gore'" (David Schultz); "The Ford-Carter Commission and…
The New Millennium ST6 project developed the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE)and the Inertial Stellar Compass (ISC). ASE improves a spacecraft's ability to make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and downlink. ISC determines a spacecraft's attitude and adjusts its pointing.
A. B. Chmielewski; R. M. Nelson; C. M. Stevens; S. Chien; A. G. Davies; R. L. Sherwood; W. Wyman
ABSTRACT Maternal health is one of the main global health challenges and reduction of the maternal mortality ratio, from the present 0.6 mio. per year, by three- quarters by 2015 is the target for the fifth Millennium Development ,Goal (MDG 5). However this goal is the one towards which the least progress has been made. There is not a simple
This article proposes a two-stage procedure aimed at identifying faking in personality tests. The procedure, which can be considered as an extension and refinement of previous item response theory (IRT)-based proposals, combines the information provided by a structural equation model (SEM) in the first stage with that provided by an IRT-based…
Surveys 30 studies involving 104 separate tests of the "similar structure hypothesis" which holds that, when nonorganically impaired retarded and nonretarded persons are similar in developmental level, they are also similar in the processes and concepts by which they reason. (Researchers distinguished between studies that excluded organically…
This research compares the way in which various group structural models affect self-understanding, interpersonal relationships and catharsis in hospitalized patients with borderline personality disorders. Each of the models is characterized by a different combination of group focus and leadership style. Three psychotherapy groups were chosen as paradigms: the dynamic psychotherapy group; the therapeutic games group, and psychodrama group. Sixty three
Assesses feminism and economics, redefining the field of economics from its contemporary emphasis on rationality and market forces to an emphasis on provisioning, suggesting more balanced and adequate theoretical and methodological approaches and noting that neoclassical economics is a parody of what feminist scholars of science argue against.…
The present research was conducted to map the hierarchical structure of youths' personality traits, to identify the foundational level of this structure, and to test whether the meanings of some youth personality dimensions shift with age. We addressed these issues by analyzing personality parent reports describing a cross-sectional sample of 16,000 children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 3 to 20). These parent reports were made using a broadband measure of youths' personal characteristics, the common-language California Child Q-Set. Analyses of the full sample and comparisons of 16 age groups supported three main conclusions. First, the hierarchical structure of youths' personality traits both resembles and differs from the adult personality hierarchy in important ways. Second, a set of six dimensions-Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Activity-may constitute the foundational level of the youth personality hierarchy from middle childhood through adolescence. This "Little Six" structure represents a union of the most prominent personality and temperament dimensions. Third, the meanings of some youth personality dimensions (e.g., Activity, Conscientiousness) shift systematically with age. These findings advance our understanding of when and how personalitystructure develops during the first two decades of life. PMID:23734942
Observations of supernovae carried out during the last decade were the first to provide direct evidence for the acceleration of the Universe due to a dark energy, which led to a profound change in our cosmological vision. The efforts in the upcoming years will be focussed in the refinement of the supernova measurements with the purpose to understand the origin of the Universe's dark energy and its properties. This challenge will require a sample of thousands of high-z supernovae as well as an equally accurate and massive low-z sample. Recently, the Millennium Scientific Initiative approved the creation in Chile of the "Millennium Center of Supernova Science" (MCSS) with the aim to produce this critical nearby sample. Here we report the goals and scientific activities of the MCSS for the upcoming years.
This paper presents viewgraphs of Space Transportation in the New Millennium. Pictures are shown of the space shuttle lift Off, rocket motion, the space shuttle main engine, the space shuttle external tank, the space shuttle solid rocket booster, the X-33, X-34, X-37, X-38, magnetic levitation, the rbcc, nuclear thermal propulsion, anti-matter propulsion system, the NTP or anti-matter concept vehicles, and the Space Elevator.
This study assessed the structural relations between borderline personality disorder (BPD) features and purported etiological correlates. Approximately 5,000 18-year-old nonclinical young adults were screened for BPD features, and 2 cohorts of participants (total N = 421; approximately one half of whom endorsed significant borderline features) completed the laboratory phase of the study. Measures included self-report and interview-based assessments of BPD
Quantitative temperature reconstructions are hampered by several problems. Proxy records are sparse which is witnessed by the fact that roughly half of all available high-resolution millennia-long proxy data have been published in the last five years. Moreover, proxies are inhomogeneously distributed around the globe and they often have coarse temporal resolution. The period of overlap between proxies and instrumental observations - the calibration period - is brief and dominated by a strong warming trend. Furthermore, proxies are often only weakly correlated to temperature and it is common that some form of screening procedure is applied to select only informative proxies. We study the influence of these limitations on the reliability of temperature reconstructions for the previous millennium. This influence depends on the spatial and temporal correlation structure of the surface temperature field. It also depends on the reconstruction methodology. We use gridded surface temperature data from GISTEMP and HadCRUT4 to investigate the geographical distribution of the spatial decorrelation length and of the temporal decorrelation time. The spatial decorrelation length varies with more than a factor of 5 with the largest values in the region dominated by the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The temporal decorrelation time varies less with typical values of 1-2 years over land and 2-5 years over ocean. We also investigate the correlations between proxies and local temperatures (using the 91 proxies from Christiansen and Ljungqvist 2012) and between local temperatures and the NH mean temperature. These correlations have typical values around 0.3 but cover a wide range from weakly negative to larger than 0.8. The results outlined above allow us to identify regions where the effect of the lack of proxies is most important. They also inform us on the consequences of the short calibration period and on the influence of the recent trend. Finally, we demonstrate the effect of a weak proxy/temperature relationship on three different simple reconstruction methodologies. We show that the size and strength of this effect depends strongly on the chosen methodology.
Impulsivity and aggressiveness are trait dispositions associated with the vulnerability to suicidal behavior across diagnoses. They are associated with structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in regulation of mood, impulse and behavior. They are also core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder defined, in part, by recurrent suicidal behavior. We assessed the relationships between personality traits, brain structure and lethality of suicide attempts in 51 BPD attempters using multiple regression analyses on structural MRI data. BPD was diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients-revised, impulsivity by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), aggression by the Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression (LHA), and high lethality by a score of 4 or more on the Lethality Rating Scale (LRS). Sixteen High Lethality attempters were compared to 35 Low Lethality attempters, with no significant differences noted in gender, co-morbidity, childhood abuse, BIS or LHA scores. Degree of medical lethality (LRS) was negatively related to gray matter volumes across multiple fronto-temporal-limbic regions. Effects of impulsivity and aggression on gray matter volumes discriminated High from Low Lethality attempters and differed markedly within lethality groups. Lethality of suicide attempts in BPD may be related to the mediation of these personality traits by specific neural networks. PMID:24656768
...CP13-14-000; PF12-10-000] Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 1, 2012, Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Millennium), One Blue Hill Plaza, Seventh...
...MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION [MCC FR 10-03] Notice of the March 24, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...Act Meeting AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. Time and Date:...
...MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION [MCC 12-04] Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal Year 2012...Legal Prohibitions AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. ACTION:...
We investigate from a fractal viewpoint the way in which dark matter is grouped at z = 0 in the Millennium dark matter cosmological simulation. Determination of the crossing point to homogeneity in the Millennium Simulation data is described with regard to the behaviour of the fractal dimension and lacunarity. We use the sliding-window technique to calculate the fractal mass-radius dimension, the pre-factor F and the lacunarity of this fractal relation. Additionally, we determine the multifractal dimension and the lacunarity spectrum, including their dependence on radial distance. The calculations show a radial distance dependence of all fractal quantities, with heterogeneous clustering of dark matter haloes up to depths of 100 Mpc h-1. Dark matter halo clustering in the Millennium Simulation shows a radial distance dependence, with two regions clearly defined. The lacunarity spectrum for values of the structure parameter q ? 1 shows regions with relative maxima, revealing the formation of clusters and voids in the dark matter halo distribution. With use of the multifractal dimension and the lacunarity spectrum, the transition to homogeneity at depths between 100 Mpc h-1 and 120 Mpc h-1 for Millennium Simulation dark matter haloes is detected.
Summary--The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was completed by 4874 female and 2746 male Australian adults from the Australian Twin Register. Tetrachoric correlations between item responses were computed by maximum likelihood, and factor analysed. Stable Extraversion, Neuroticism and Social desirability ('Lie') factors were identified. In the four-factor solution, the fourth factor was clearly a Psychoticism factor, which had loadings greater than 0.2
A. C. HEATH; R. JARDINE; L. J. EAVES; N. G. MARTIN
The emotion of anxiety represents one of the most studied topics in the neurosciences, in part due to its relevance for understanding the evolutionary development of the human brain and its role in the pathogenesis of psychopathological conditions. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) has enabled mapping of the anxious human brain and has contributed substantially to the understanding of anxiety. Alongside the fields of clinical psychology/psychiatry, personality psychology aims to support the research endeavor of mapping the anxious brain and has found that individual differences in anxiety-related personality dimensions such as Neuroticism or Harm Avoidance (measured by self-report) are correlated with gray and white matter volumes in different areas of the human brain. This review reveals that structures including parts of the frontal cortex (e.g., the orbitofrontal cortex) and the temporal lobe (e.g., the hippocampus) are often associated with trait anxiety, and it points out the inconsistencies that exist in the personality-sMRI literature on human anxiety. Consequently, we suggest new research strategies to overcome the inconsistencies. This review outlines how results from animal research can guide scientists in developing testable hypotheses in search of the anxious brain. Moreover, genetic imaging is presented as an interesting approach to mapping the anxious brain. PMID:23585212
Montag, Christian; Reuter, Martin; Jurkiewicz, Magdalena; Markett, Sebastian; Panksepp, Jaak
This study replicates and extends a recent study on personality, intelligence and uses of music [Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Furnham, A. (2007). Personality and music: Can traits explain how people use music in everyday life? British Journal of Psychology, 98, 175–185] using Spanish participants and structural equation modeling. Data from 245 university students showed that, in line with our hypotheses, individuals
Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic; Montserrat Gomà-i-Freixanet; Adrian Furnham; Anna Muro
Purpose: To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural and dialectal characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method: Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, generated a fictional narrative and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a…
Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.
Genetic analysis of data from 2,680 adult Australian twin pairs demonstrated significant genetic contributions to variation in scores on the Harm Avoidance, Novelty Seeking, and Reward Dependence scales of Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), accounting for between 54% and 61% of the stable variation in these traits. Multivariate genetic triangular decomposition models were fitted to determine the extent to which
Andrew C. Heath; C. Robert Cloninger; N. G. Martin
A theory was proposed to reconcile paradoxical findings on the invariance of personality and the variability of behavior across situations. For this purpose, individuals were assumed to differ in (a) the accessibility of cognitive-affective mediating units (such as encodings, expectancies and beliefs, affects, and goals) and (b) the organization of relationships through which these units interact with each other and
The purposes of this research were to first examine the evidence regarding the factor structure of educational achievement tests in the context of two theoretical models of cognitive ability (psychometric g and mutualism) that have been proposed to explain this structure as well as the underlying processes that may be responsible for its emergence in dimensionality studies. Then, the factor structure underlying a sample of the standardized educational achievement tests used by California in its statewide school accountability program was compared to those emerging from a selection of behavioral and personality assessments. As expected, the educational achievement tests exhibited a strong and uniformly positive manifold resulting in greater unidimensionality as evidenced by a dominant general factor in bi-factor analysis then either the personality or behavioral assessments. The implications of these structural differences are discussed with respect to the two theoretical perspective as well as in the context of formative and summative educational inferences in particular, and the school accountability and reform movement in general. PMID:22805361
Part two of this special series in The New York Times Magazine devoted to the millennium focuses on the evolution of the role of women in the last thousand years and the contributions they have made to the millennium's history. Over a dozen features touch on everything from changes in the world of medicine vis-a-vis women's bodies, to the changing role of women in China, to the female mystical experience over the last thousand years. Highlights include an article by novelist Jim Harrison entitled "First Person Female," "The Truth About Sex - at Any Given Moment" by Camille Sweeney, and "The Rest of the Story" by Jill Kerr Conway and Natalie Zemon Davis, which focuses on the untold part of human history, the "shape of women's lives." There are also video and audio companions to a number of the articles, columns on gender-related issues by William Safire and Deborah Tannen, and online forums discussing such issues as Women Through the Millennium; Power, Suffering, Gender, and Communication; and Fertility.
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 ) Restructured Clinical scales and Higher Order scales were linked to the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (Millon, Millon, Davis, & Grossman, 2009 ) personality disorder scales and clinical syndrome scales in a Flemish/Dutch sample of psychiatric inpatients and outpatients, substance abuse patients, correctional inmates, and forensic psychiatric patients (N = 968). Structural validity of psychopathology and personality disorders as conceptualized by both instruments was investigated by means of principal component analysis. Results reveal a higher order structure with 4 dimensions (internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, paranoid ideation/thought disturbance, and pathological introversion) that parallels earlier research on pathological personality dimensions as well as research linking pathological personality traits with mental disorders. Theoretical and clinical implications are considered. PMID:22338624
van der Heijden, Paul T; Egger, Jos I M; Rossi, Gina M P; Derksen, Jan J L
An NHS hospital is a complex organisation with many departments which are all inter-dependent. The “millennium bug” can potentially affect any or all of its systems. Disruption in one department, over the millennium period, is likely to affect the overall delivery of health care with potential threat to life. The NHS Executive has identified the year 2000 issue as the
The author of "1,000 Years Ago on Planet Earth" shares his reasons for taking a backward glance at civilizations all over the globe at the start of the last millennium. He also considers several other new books in various genres and the context such books offer children in approaching both history and the future. Includes books for the millennium…
Ben-Porath and Tellegen (2008) recommend organizing MMPI-2-RF scale interpretive information around 3 broad topics, emotional/internalizing dysfunction, thought dysfunction, and externalizing/behavioral dysfunction, and 3 additional topics labeled somatic complaints, interpersonal functioning, and interests. That organization is based primarily on structural analyses of the Restructured Clinical (RC) scales. This study reviewed the MMPI-2-RF's scale structure when the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) scales are included. Principal axis factor analyses with oblique rotation were conducted on the Restructured Clinical, PSY-5, and Special Problem (SP) scales in 2 samples, by gender. One sample was an outpatient community health center, the other a large, metropolitan inpatient psychiatric facility. The 6-factor solution evidenced each of the PSY-5 constructs plus a general somatic concerns factor. Implications of this solution in comparison to the 3-factor organizing structure recommended by Ben-Porath and Tellegen are discussed. PMID:24111881
Studies of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) are important because the condition is genetically related to schizophrenia and because data accumulating to confirm its biological underpinnings are challenging some traditional views about the nature of personality disorders. This review of 17 structural imaging studies in SPD indicates that individuals with this disorder show brain abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus, parahippocampus, temporal horn region of the lateral ventricles, corpus callosum, thalamus, and septum pellucidum, as well as in total cerebrospinal fluid volume, similar to those seen in persons with schizophrenia. Differences between SPD and schizophrenia include lack of abnormalities in the medial temporal lobes and lateral ventricles in SPD. Whether the normal volume, and possibly normal functioning, of the medial temporal lobes in individuals with SPD may help to suppress psychosis in this disorder remains an intriguing but still unresolved question. Such speculation must be tempered due to a paucity of studies, and additional work is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. The imaging findings do suggest, however, that SPD probably represents a milder form of disease along the schizophrenia continuum. With further clarification of the neuroanatomy of SPD, researchers may be able to identify which neuroanatomical abnormalities are associated with the frank psychosis seen in schizophrenia.
Dickey, Chandlee C.; McCarley, Robert W.; Shenton, Martha E.
NOAA's New Millennium Observatory (NeMO) "studies the dynamic interactions between submarine volcanic activity and seafloor hotsprings at an observatory, Axial seamount." The website presents a host of information on the participants, tools, and cruise plans for past, present, and scheduled expeditions. Researchers can learn about the Remote Access Sampler (RAS) and a Bottom Access Pressure Recorder (BPR) which transmits the latest data from the seafloor to the website. Through NeMO explorer, users can explore the seafloor with panorama, fly-throughs, and video clips. The education section offers stimulating curriculum materials where students can learn about mid-ocean ridges, hydrothermal vents, axial volcanoes, and much more.
As pressures from an exponentially increasing population and economic expectations rise against a finite water resource, how do we address management? This was the main focus of the Dubai International Conference on Water Resources and Integrated Management in the Third Millennium in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2-6 February 2002. The invited forum attracted an eclectic mix of international thinkers from five continents. Presentations and discussions on hydrology policy/property rights, and management strategies focused mainly on problems of water supply, irrigation, and/or ecosystems.
A broadband modem/channelizer test set developed by NASA Lewis Research Center is discussed. The test set is a fully programmable, bit-error-rate (BER) test set designed for broadband modem-only and multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator characterization. It is currently configured for testing a multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator and was developed for the Advanced Research and Projects Agency under a Technology Reinvestment Program Cooperative Agreement entitled 'Millennium: 21st Century Broadband Digital Telecommunications Technology.' The test set can easily be modified to provide testing of other modems and multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator systems and is available to industry for such testing.
The rating scale used to assess the motivators of maladaptive behaviors in persons with mental retardation was the Motivation Assessment Scale. In the current study, we validated the factor structure of the scale on a sample of 118 subjects with predominately severe or profound mental retardation. They exhibited deviant behaviors such as self-injurious and tantrum behavior, aggression, and passivity. The results of the factor analysis with varimax rotation validated the assumptions of the developers of the scale that the motivators could be grouped into sensory, escape, attention, and tangible reinforcers. These four subscales are easily interpretable and should continue to provide valuable information. PMID:1924623
Bihm, E M; Kienlen, T L; Ness, M E; Poindexter, A R
This work presents a protein structure that has been designed purely for aesthetic reasons, symbolizing decades of coiled-coil research and praising its most fundamental model system, the GCN4 leucine zipper. The GCN4 leucine zipper is a highly stable coiled coil which can be tuned to adopt different oligomeric states via mutation of its core residues. For these reasons it is used in structural studies as a stabilizing fusion adaptor. On the occasion of the 50th birthday of Andrei N. Lupas, we used it to create the first personalized protein structure: we fused the sequence ANDREI-N-LVPAS in heptad register to trimeric GCN4 adaptors and determined its structure by X-ray crystallography. The structure demonstrates the robustness and versatility of GCN4 as a fusion adaptor. We learn how proline can be accommodated in trimeric coiled coils, and put the structure into the context of the other GCN4-fusion structures known to date. PMID:24486584
Deiss, Silvia; Hernandez Alvarez, Birte; Bär, Kerstin; Ewers, Carolin P; Coles, Murray; Albrecht, Reinhard; Hartmann, Marcus D
A growing body of research has suggested that narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) contains two factors or types: overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable. A recent factor analysis of DSM-IV NPD symptoms supported a similar two-factor model. The present research tested this proposed two-factor solution against a one-factor solution (N = 298; 72% patients) using both confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and an examination of associations between the resultant factors and theoretically relevant criteria (other PDs; depression, anxiety). The results of the CFA supported a one-factor solution. Likewise, the two factors each yielded a similar pattern of correlations with relevant criteria. Together, these results argue against a two-factor structure for the current DSM-IV NPD symptoms. Given the broader research literature suggesting a two-factor structure of narcissism, strategies for assessing both overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable forms of narcissism in DSM-V are discussed.
Miller, Joshua D.; Hoffman, Brian J.; Campbell, W. Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A.
This study addressed whether personality ratings using a 43 adjective questionnaire based on the Five-Factor Model generalized from a sample of 202 zoo-housed chimpanzees to a sample of 175 chimpanzees housed in Yerkes National Primate Research Center. Mean interrater reliabilities of adjectival ratings were lower for the chimpanzees housed in Yerkes. In addition, rank order of the interrater reliabilities of items differed between settings. To compare factor structure, we first examined whether we could replicate the original six factor structure found in an earlier study of 100 zoo chimpanzees using principal factors analysis in the Yerkes sample and 102 new zoo chimpanzees. The dominance, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness factors were clearly replicated in the Yerkes sample and the 102 new zoo chimpanzees. The Neuroticism and Openness factors did not replicate in the Yerkes sample, but they also did not replicate in the new zoo chimpanzees. These findings suggest the need to sample more adjectives representing neuroticism and openness in future versions of the questionnaire. We next sought to determine whether factor structure, as determined by principal components analysis, remained invariant across the two settings. This analysis revealed dominance, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness factors in both settings and a high level of congruence between the zoo and Yerkes samples for these factors. Finally, we tested whether factor scores in the two samples were similarly related to age and sex. With the exception of differences in age effects for dominance and agreeableness, age, and sex effects were consistent across samples. These findings suggest that, whereas there may be differences in the ease with which ratings are made, personalitystructure, and development are largely consistent across widely differing settings.
WEISS, ALEXANDER; KING, JAMES E.; HOPKINS, WILLIAM D.
Previous research indicates that people respond to heightened death-related cognition with increased defense of predominant cultural beliefs (cultural worldview defense). However, recent research indicates that individual differences in personal need for structure (PNS) impact responses to threatening thoughts of death such that those high, but not low, in PNS respond to death thoughts by seeking a highly structured, clear, and coherent view of the world. Research has yet to fully consider the extent to which PNS affects the cultural worldview defenses typically exhibited after death is rendered salient. The current 3 studies examine the potential for PNS to determine the extent to which people respond to mortality salience with increased worldview defense. In all three studies PNS was measured and mortality salience induced. Subsequently, university-related (Study 1) or religious (Studies 2 and 3) worldview defense was assessed. Only individuals high in PNS responded to mortality salience with increased worldview defense. PMID:20573132
One of the major contributions of recent personality psychology is the finding that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy. To date, however, researchers have yet to investigate this hierarchy in nonhuman primates. Such investigations are critical in confirming the cross-species nature of trait personality helping to illuminate personality as neurobiologically-based and evolutionarily-derived dimensions of primate disposition. Investigations of potential genetic polymorphisms associated with hierarchical models of personality among nonhuman primates represent a critical first step. The current study examined the hierarchical structure of chimpanzee personality as well as sex-specific associations with a polymorphism in the promoter region of the vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A), a gene associated with dispositional traits, among 174 chimpanzees. Results confirmed a hierarchical structure of personality across species and, despite differences in early rearing experiences, suggest a sexually dimorphic role of AVPR1A polymorphisms on hierarchical personality profiles at a higher-order level.
Latzman, Robert D.; Hopkins, William D.; Keebaugh, Alaine C.; Young, Larry J.
This paper illustrates the use of composite first person narrative interpretive methods, as described by Todres, across a range of phenomena. This methodology introduces texture into the presently understood structures of phenomena and thereby creates new understandings of the phenomenon, bringing about a form of understanding that is relationally alive that contributes to improved caring practices. The method is influenced by the work of Gendlin, Heidegger, van Manen, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty. The method's applicability to different research topics is demonstrated through the composite narratives of nursing students learning nursing practice in an accelerated and condensed program, obese female adolescents attempting weight control, chronically ill male parolees, and midlife women experiencing distress during menopause. Within current research, these four phenomena have been predominantly described and understood through quantified articulations that give the reader a structural understanding of the phenomena, but the more embodied or “contextual” human qualities of the phenomena are often not visible. The “what is it like” or the “unsaid” aspects of such human phenomena are not clear to the reader when proxies are used to “account for” a variety of situated conditions. This novel method is employed to re-present narrative data and findings from research through first person accounts that blend the voices of the participants with those of the researcher, emphasizing the connectedness, the “we” among all participants, researchers, and listeners. These re-presentations allow readers to develop more embodied understandings of both the texture and structure of each of the phenomena and illustrate the use of the composite account as a way for researchers to better understand and convey the wholeness of the experience of any phenomenon under inquiry.
Wertz, Marcia Stanley; Nosek, Marcianna; McNiesh, Susan; Marlow, Elizabeth
In a year that will probably be remembered almost as much for books about the millennium as for the turn of 2000 A.D itself, Patrick Moore's Millennium Yearbook celebrates.....well, the wrong millennium! This thoroughly entertaining book - which is for everyone, not just astronomers - contains articles on King Alfred's chronological work, reviews of the new Star Catalogue by the Arab Al-Sufi and the latest edition of Ptolemy's Almagast. And foreshadowing the change to metric units by 1000 years, the book uses arabic numbers instead of Roman - but there is a conversion table if you have trouble with the idea of "zero" and prefer the older system.
A section of the special turn-of-the-millennium edition of the Wall Street Journal Interactive, "The Millennium: One Thousand Years of Finance and Companies" recapitulates world business and economics in the past1,000 years. A timeline chronicling "Finance and Firms" in the eleventh through the twentieth centuries is featured along with a look at taxes throughout the millennium. Five articles focus on the twentieth century, looking at the rise of Manhattan as the finance center of the US, the history of the DuPont company, and the stock market.
A statistical review of published data for 37 personality and psychopathology inventories was conducted to determine whether there are dimensional structure differences between clinical and nonclinical respondents. Correlation and factor-loading matrices from multiscale inventories and from specialized measures were tested for structural invariance across populations. There was relatively consistent evidence for high levels of similarity between normal and abnormal populations
Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel. The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.
NASA's New Millennium Program is intended to validate advanced technologies in space and thus lower the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on spacecraft of the future. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing to deploy resources on other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA
Nelson, R. M.; Chmielewski, A.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S.; Davies, A.; Wyman, W.
NASA's New Millennium Program validates advanced technologies in space and thus lowers the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on future missions. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing re-deployment of resources to other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA
Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S. A.; Davies, A.; Sherwood, R. L.; Wyman, W.
The purpose of NASA's New Millennium Program is to validate advanced technologies in space and thus lower the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on spacecraft of the future. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing to deploy resources on other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA
Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S.; Davies, A.; Wyman, W.
Brain morphologic changes have been reported in borderline personality disorder (BPD), but it remains largely unknown whether BPD is associated with midline brain abnormalities. We used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the length of the adhesio interthalamica (AI) and cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) as well as third ventricular volume in 20 teenagers with first-presentation BPD and 20 healthy controls. While the CSP length did not differ between the groups, the AI was significantly shorter in BPD patients than in controls. Furthermore, the BPD patients had a significantly larger third ventricle than controls. These preliminary findings suggest that ongoing neuroimaging studies should further evaluate a potential involvement of midline brain structures in the pathogenesis of BPD. PMID:19351552
Takahashi, Tsutomu; Chanen, Andrew M; Wood, Stephen J; Walterfang, Mark; Harding, Ian H; Yücel, Murat; Nakamura, Kazue; McGorry, Patrick D; Suzuki, Michio; Velakoulis, Dennis; Pantelis, Christos
BackgroundBipolar disorder (BPD) has been associated with variations in personality dimensions, but the nature of this relationship has been unclear. In this study, the heritabilities of BPD and the Big Five personality factors and the genetic correlations between BPD and personality factors are reported.
Elizabeth Hare; Javier Contreras; Henriette Raventos; Deborah Flores; Alvaro Jerez; Humberto Nicolini; Alfonso Ontiveros; Laura Almasy; Michael Escamilla
Describes the Mars Millennium Project that challenges elementary and secondary school students across the nation to design communities on Mars. Lists the sponsoring organizations, explains how to participate in the project, and suggests appropriate books and Web sites. (LRW)
Single specimens of foraminifera are used as recorders of ENSO variabilityENSO has remained remarkably constant over the past millenniumMCA characterized by departures toward stronger\\/more frequent La Nina
D. Khider; L. D. Stott; J. Emile-Geay; R. Thunell; D. E. Hammond
NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) was created to accelerate the insertion of advanced space-related technologies into future science missions by validating these technologies on deep space and Earth-orbiting technology validation missions.
Minning, C.; Buehler, M.; Fujita, T.; Lansing, F.; Man, G.; Aljabri, A.; Stevens, C.
This article defines telemedicine, discusses evidence of its effectiveness, looks at its advantages and disadvantages (and barriers to implementation), and considers its role in the NHS for the millennium and beyond.
A. Raine et al.'s (1994) 3-factor scheme is currently the most widely accepted model of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). Factor analytic studies of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ; A. Raine, 1991) subscales, which represent the 9 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria for SPD, have provided the model's primary support. The use of only 9 modeled variables, however, limits the number of factors that can be extracted. To explicate this structure more fully, the authors conducted item-level factor analyses of the SPQ in a large student sample that completed the instrument twice within a 2-week interval. The authors' analyses failed to support either the 3-factor model of SPD or the 9 existing DSM-based subscales of the SPQ. Instead, 5 replicable dimensions emerged that capture recurrent symptom pairings found in the broader SPD literature: Social Anhedonia, Unusual Beliefs and Experiences, Social Anxiety, Mistrust, and Eccentricity/Oddity. These factors are only weakly correlated with each other and show differential correlational patterns with the Big Five personality traits, dissociative tendencies, and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Moreover, they are congruent with dimensional models of personality psychopathology. Implications for SPD in DSM-V are discussed. PMID:18489212
Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS), whole genome sequencing, and high-throughput omics techniques have generated vast amounts of genotypic and molecular phenotypic data. However, these data have not yet been fully explored to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of drug discovery, which continues along a one-drug-one-target-one-disease paradigm. As a partial consequence, both the cost to launch a new drug and the attrition rate are increasing. Systems pharmacology and pharmacogenomics are emerging to exploit the available data and potentially reverse this trend, but, as we argue here, more is needed. To understand the impact of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors on drug action, we must study the structural energetics and dynamics of molecular interactions in the context of the whole human genome and interactome. Such an approach requires an integrative modeling framework for drug action that leverages advances in data-driven statistical modeling and mechanism-based multiscale modeling and transforms heterogeneous data from GWAS, high-throughput sequencing, structural genomics, functional genomics, and chemical genomics into unified knowledge. This is not a small task, but, as reviewed here, progress is being made towards the final goal of personalized medicines for the treatment of complex diseases.
Xie, Lei; Ge, Xiaoxia; Tan, Hepan; Xie, Li; Zhang, Yinliang; Hart, Thomas; Yang, Xiaowei; Bourne, Philip E.
Using exploratory structural equation modeling and multiple regression, we examined the factor structure and criterion relations of the primary scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO; Kernberg & Clarkin, 1995) in a nonclinical sample. Participants (N = 1,260) completed the IPO and measures of self-concept clarity, defenses,…
Using exploratory structural equation modeling and multiple regression, we examined the factor structure and criterion relations of the primary scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO; Kernberg & Clarkin, 1995) in a nonclinical sample. Participants (N = 1,260) completed the IPO and measures of self-concept clarity, defenses, affect and emotion regulation, and risky and self-injurious behavior. In contrast to
...MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION [MCC FR 10-03] Notice of the June 16, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. TIME AND DATE:...
...MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION [MCC FR 11-06] Notice of the June 22, 2011 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. TIME AND DATE:...
...MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION [MCC FR 10-16] Change of Date for December 15, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. TIME AND DATE: 10...
With 575 college students, the relationship between A. Tellegen's (1985) personality model, assessed with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), and the Big Five model, operationalized by Costa and McCrae's (1985) NEO Personality Inventory, was investigated. Correlations and joint factor analyses indicated that the MPQ constructs could be well-organized under the Big Five model, and the NEO constructs could be well-organized
The joint likelihood of observable cluster signals reflects the astrophysical evolution of the coupled baryonic and dark matter components in massive halos, and its knowledge will enhance cosmological parameter constraints in the coming era of large, multiwavelength cluster surveys. We present a computational study of intrinsic covariance in cluster properties using halo populations derived from Millennium Gas Simulations (MGS). The MGS are re-simulations of the original 500 h -1 Mpc Millennium Simulation performed with gas dynamics under two different physical treatments: shock heating driven by gravity only (GO) and a second treatment with cooling and preheating (PH). We examine relationships among structural properties and observable X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signals for samples of thousands of halos with M 200 >= 5 × 1013 h -1 M sun and z < 2. While the X-ray scaling behavior of PH model halos at low redshift offers a good match to local clusters, the model exhibits non-standard features testable with larger surveys, including weakly running slopes in hot gas observable-mass relations and ~10% departures from self-similar redshift evolution for 1014 h -1 M sun halos at redshift z ~ 1. We find that the form of the joint likelihood of signal pairs is generally well described by a multivariate, log-normal distribution, especially in the PH case which exhibits less halo substructure than the GO model. At fixed mass and epoch, joint deviations of signal pairs display mainly positive correlations, especially the thermal SZ effect paired with either hot gas fraction (r = 0.88/0.69 for PH/GO at z = 0) or X-ray temperature (r = 0.62/0.83). The levels of variance in X-ray luminosity, temperature, and gas mass fraction are sensitive to the physical treatment, but offsetting shifts in the latter two measures maintain a fixed 12% scatter in the integrated SZ signal under both gas treatments. We discuss halo mass selection by signal pairs, and find a minimum mass scatter of 4% in the PH model by combining thermal SZ and gas fraction measurements.
Stanek, R.; Rasia, E.; Evrard, A. E.; Pearce, F.; Gazzola, L.
Imaging studies using region-of-interest morphometry and positron emission tomography have contributed to our understanding of structural and functional abnormalities in borderline personality disorder (BPD); however, both methods have practical limitations to their usefulness for exploratory studies of brain-behavior relationships. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 34 subjects with BPD and 30 healthy control (HC) subjects to study effects of diagnosis, gender, childhood sexual abuse, depressed mood, impulsivity and aggression on group differences. VBM is a computer-based method for whole brain analysis that combines the advantages of a functional study with a structural method. The BPD subjects, diagnosed with the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients and the International Personality Disorders Examination, were compared with 30 HC subjects, with age and gender covaried. Analyses were repeated separately by gender and, in women, by histories of childhood sexual abuse. Depressed mood, impulsivity, and aggression were covaried in separate analyses. Compared with HC, BPD subjects had significant bilateral reductions in gray matter concentrations in ventral cingulate gyrus and several regions of the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, and uncus. BPD women (and abused BPD women), but not BPD men, had significant reductions in medial temporal lobe, including the amygdala. BPD men, but not BPD women, showed diminished gray matter concentrations in the anterior cingulate gyrus compared with findings in HC subjects. Covarying for depressed mood rendered group differences non-significant in the ventral cingulate but had little effect on differences in medial temporal cortex. Covarying for aggression (LHA) had relatively little effect on group differences, while covarying for impulsivity, as determined by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, rendered all previously noted voxel-level group differences non-significant. Diminished gray matter in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal cortex may mediate the dysregulation of impulse and affect in BPD. Group differences varied greatly by gender, levels of depression, and impulsivity. VBM is an efficient method for exploratory study of brain-behavior relationships. PMID:19019636
The current study set out to replicate and extend a recent paper (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2007) on personality and uses of music using structural equation modeling. Responses to questionnaire data from 227 Malaysian university students showed that, in line with our hypotheses, individuals higher in Neuroticism were more likely to use music for emotional regulation (influencing their mood states), Extraversion
Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic; Viren Swami; Adrian Furnham; Ismail Maakip
The empirical structure of the item set from the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems was examined in the context of the interpersonal circumplex and Big Five factors of personality using results from 1,093 undergraduates. Results support using a theoretically guided empirical analysis rather than blind analysis of empirical methods. (SLD)
Though sexuality is often described categorically, the sexual experiences that form the basis of heterosexuals' self-perceived sexuality are often not clear cut and can be open to interpretation. Factors other than actual sexual experiences may also be associated with self-perceptions of sexuality. The present research examined how personal need for structure (Neuberg & Newsom, 1993; Thompson, Naccarato, Parker, & Moskowitz,
Though sexuality is often described categorically, the sexual experiences that form the basis of heterosexuals' self-perceived sexuality are often not clear cut and can be open to interpretation. Factors other than actual sexual experiences may also be associated with self-perceptions of sexuality. The present research examined how personal need for structure (Neuberg & Newsom, 1993; Thompson, Naccarato, Parker, & Moskowitz,
Nuclear units nationwide are struggling to increase plant reliability and availability while at the same time reduce their operating and maintenance costs. Some very costly investments have been made in programs such as Reliability Centered Maintenance [RCM]. Florida Power and Light's approach at the St. Lucie Nuclear Plant has taken a slightly different approach. Building on our knowledge of the RCM process and an already existing 'World Class' Predictive Maintenance Program, a 'Condition-Based' Maintenance Program that takes advantage of the RCM philosophy and our toolbox full of advanced and highly successful predictive maintenance technologies. These tools currently consist of vibration analysis, lubricant analysis (both physical property and wear metals analysis, thermographic analysis, motor current signature analysis, tribology and process parameter trending. All employed with the intent to evaluate a machines health. This machine health check allows the forecasting of future preventative maintenance [PM's] tasks and the revision of existing PM's to maximize machine performance and eliminate 'no-value-added' maintenance activities/costs. Within the last year, the Condition-Based Maintenance Program has produced a cost saving of approximately $1.5 million dollars. As the program matures, these cost savings will accumulate well into the millennium. (authors)
Sculthorpe, Barruy R. [Florida Power and Light Company, Miami, FL (United States)
The primary instrument of the first Earth Orbiter satellite (EO-1) under NASA's New Millennium Program will be an Advanced Land Imager (ALI), with multispectral and imaging spectrometer capabilities. The principal motivation for this mission is to flight-validate advanced technologies which are relevant to the next-generation of Earth Science Systems Program Office science needs. The ALI telescope is a reflective triplet design employing silicon carbide mirrors with a 15 degree cross-track field of view. There are three imaging technologies in the ALI. The first is a multispectral panchromatic array with 10 spectral bands in the visible and near IR and short wave IR. The two additional imaging technologies are the Wedge Imaging Spectrometer (WIS) and the Grating Imaging Spectrometer (GIS) that each provides a continuous range of wavelength selections from 0.4 to 2.5 micrometers . Elements of the WIS and GIS were developed but due to budgetary and schedule constraints, and some performance issues, were not included in the flight assembly. The paper will present details of the ALI design and status.
Digenis, Constantine J.; Lencioni, Donald E.; Bicknell, William E.
Paraphilias are psychiatric disorders of abnormal sexual behavior whose prevalence has markedly increased during the last decade. Treatment modalities currently used fall into three categories: surgical castration, psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy. The pharmacological interventions consist of antiandrogens that either completely reduce testosterone secretion and/or antagonize the action of testosterone at the level of the receptor, and psychotropic drugs, namely antidepressants. Cyproterone and medroxyprogesterone acetates are the two antiandrogens more commonly used. They are only effective in relatively high doses, but have a substantial number of severe side effects which has considerably limited their use. Psychotropic drugs may be effective solely in men with a definite obsessive-compulsive disorder component. Because of the erratic results and lack of permanent eradication of the paraphilic manifestations their use in paraphilias is highly controversial. Long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist analogues are the most potent antiandrogens, and selectively abolish testosterone secretion in a totally reversible fashion. They are administered parenterally once every 1 to 3 months, and have the fewest side effects. Long-acting GnRH analogues, together with psychotherapy, are highly effective in controlling selected paraphilias (pedophilia, exhibitionism, and voyeurism), and are the most promising mode of therapy in the next millennium. There is an urgent need for good methodological research; carefully designed double-blind controlled studies with a large number of subjects in order to validate or not the use of the various pharmacotherapies. PMID:10736576
In September 2000, world leaders made a commitment to build a more equitable, prosperous and safer world by 2015 and launched the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In the previous year, the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness in partnership launched the global initiative to eliminate avoidable blindness by the year 2020–VISION 2020 the Right to Sight. It has focused on the prevention of a disability-blindness and recognized a health issue–sight as a human right. Both global initiatives have made considerable progress with synergy especially on MDG 1–the reduction of poverty and the reduction in numbers of the blind. A review of the MDGs has identified the need to address disparities within and between countries, quality, and disability. Noncommunicable diseases are emerging as a challenge to the MDGs and Vision 2020:0 the Right to Sight. For the future, up to and beyond 2015, there will be need for both initiatives to continue to work in synergy to address present and emerging challenges.
The "Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium" project tackles the issue of reengineering and extension of validated physics-based modeling capabilities ("legacy" computer codes) to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. While the design and architecture layouts are in terms of general particle distributions involved in scattering, impact, and reactive interactions, initial Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT) implementations are aimed at construction and evaluation of photochemical transport models with rapid execution for use in remote sensing data analysis activities in distributed systems. Current focus is on the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data acquired during the CASSINI flyby of Jupiter. Overall, the project has stayed on the development track outlined in the Year 1 annual report and most Year 2 goals have been met. The issues that have required the most attention are: implementation of the core photochemistry algorithms; implementation of a functional Java Graphical User Interface; completion of a functional CORBA Component Model framework; and assessment of performance issues. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Work to be carried out in the next year center on: completion of testing of the initial operational implementation; its application to analysis of the CASSINI/CIRS Jovian flyby data; extension of the PPMT to incorporate additional phenomenology algorithms; and delivery of a mature operational implementation.
In September 2000, world leaders made a commitment to build a more equitable, prosperous and safer world by 2015 and launched the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In the previous year, the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness in partnership launched the global initiative to eliminate avoidable blindness by the year 2020-VISION 2020 the Right to Sight. It has focused on the prevention of a disability-blindness and recognized a health issue-sight as a human right. Both global initiatives have made considerable progress with synergy especially on MDG 1-the reduction of poverty and the reduction in numbers of the blind. A review of the MDGs has identified the need to address disparities within and between countries, quality, and disability. Noncommunicable diseases are emerging as a challenge to the MDGs and Vision 2020:0 the Right to Sight. For the future, up to and beyond 2015, there will be need for both initiatives to continue to work in synergy to address present and emerging challenges. PMID:22944751
Comorbidity among mental disorders is commonly observed in clinical and epidemiological samples. Can comorbidity be understood as meaningful covariance, and is this covariance structure linked with personality? We addressed this question in a sample of 634 female and 549 male, middle-aged participants in the Minnesota Twin-Family Study (MTFS). Mental disorders were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, the
Personal Web usage (PWU) represents a tension between employers and employees as employers generally regard employees' PWU as negative and employees see many PWU behaviors as acceptable. Employers attempt to limit PWU primarily through electronic monitoring and Internet usage policies. Employees, however, find PWU not only permissible, but also useful and rationalize these workplace behaviors. While researchers identified many PWU behaviors, the underlying structure of the phenomenon is not clearly understood. In this article, we offer a comprehensive new definition of PWU, and develop an empirically grounded classification of PWU framed by psychological contract theory and based on two studies. Using multidimensional scaling techniques and cluster analysis, we identified four clusters of PWU behaviors-work/family, hedonic, self-development, and citizenship. The results provide information as to what constitutes the domain of PWU, and how various usages are related to one another via the dimensions of individual and organizational benefits. We offer directions for future work and suggest how our work might be useful to practitioners. PMID:21728817
Anandarajan, Murugan; Simmers, Claire A; D'Ovidio, Rob
A wealth of research has underscored the strong relationship between PCL-R scores and recidivism. However, mounting criticism cites the PCL-R's cumbersome administration procedures and failure to adequately measure core features associated with the construct of psychopathy (Skeem, Polaschek, Patrick, & Lilienfeld, 2011). In light of these concerns, this study examined the PPI and the PPI-R, which were designed to measure core personality features associated with psychopathy (Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). Study one examined the PPI relative to the PCL-R and examined its factor structure. The instruments shared few significant correlations and neither the PCL-R nor the PPI significantly predicted recidivism. Study two examined the PPI-R relative to the PCL-R, the PPI, both history of violence and future criminal activity and measure of related constructs. The PPI-R was significantly correlated with measures of empathy and criminal thinking and the factors were related to a history of violence and predicted future violent criminal behavior. PMID:23399313
Gonsalves, Valerie M; McLawsen, Julia E; Huss, Matthew T; Scalora, Mario J
Defines personal axioms as deeply held beliefs of individuals about themselves and their world that determine their activities, interests, and performance. Discusses the role of the teacher with regard to cognitive restructuring techniques that may help students change negative personal axioms and free themselves to learn more efficiently. (JHZ)
Presents an exploratory factor analysis of the scores of 248 counselors-in-training on the Counselor Skills Personal Development Rating Form (CSPD-RF). Authors of the test hypothesized that the CPSD-RF measured 2 factors, personal development and skills development. Factor analysis revealed 4 factors accounting for 58.4% of the total variance,…
This study examined components of perfectionism and their relation to other personality constructs, based on data on the Frost et al. [Frost, R. O., Heimberg, R. G., Holt, C. S., Mattia, J.S., & Neubauer, A. L. (1993). A comparison of two measures of perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 119–126; Frost, R. O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R.
This article describes a series of studies involving 2,730 participants on the development and validity testing of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP), a self-report questionnaire covering important core components of (mal)adaptive personality functioning. Results show that the 16 facets constituted homogeneous item clusters (i.e.,…
Verheul, Roel; Andrea, Helene; Berghout, Caspar C.; Dolan, Conor; Busschbach, Jan J. V.; van der Kroft, Petra J. A.; Bateman, Anthony W.; Fonagy, Peter
Imaging studies using ROI morphometry and PET have contributed to our understanding of structural and functional abnormalities in BPD; however, both methods have practical limitations to their usefulness for exploratory studies of brain-behavior relationships. We used voxel based morphometry (VBM) in 34 subjects with BPD and 30 healthy controls (HC) to study effects of diagnosis, gender, childhood sexual abuse, depressed mood, impulsivity and aggression on group differences. VBM is a computer-based method for whole brain analysis that combines the advantages of a functional study with a structural method. The BPD subjects, diagnosed with the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients and the International Personality Disorders Examination, were compared with 30 HC, with age and gender covaried. Analyses were repeated separately by gender and, in women, by histories of childhood sexual abuse. Depressed mood, impulsivity, and aggression were covaried in separate analyses. Compared with HC, BPD subjects had significant bilateral reductions in gray matter concentrations in ventral cingulate gyrus and several regions of the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, and uncus. BPD women (and abused BPD women), but not BPD men, had significant reductions in medial temporal lobe, including the amygdala. BPD men, but not BPD women, showed diminished gray matter concentrations in the anterior cingulate gyrus compared with findings HC. Covarying for depressed mood rendered group differences non-significant in the ventral cingulate but had little effect on differences in medial temporal cortex. Covarying for aggression (LHA) had relatively little effect on group differences, while covarying for impulsivity (BIS) rendered all previously noted voxel-level group differences non-significant. Diminished gray matter in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal cortex may mediate the dysregulation of impulse and affect in BPD. Group differences varied greatly by gender, levels of depression, and impulsivity. VBM is an efficient method for exploratory study of brain-behavior relationships.
This study used a multi-sample, multiple-instrument strategy to evaluate the hypothesis that schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is taxonic. In Study 1, 721 consecutively admitted inpatients and outpatients were evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II) and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+). The data from both questionnaire types were submitted to multivariate normal mixture analysis, which was carried out on factor scores obtained from a three-factor model of SPD criteria; these results supported the hypothesis that SPD is taxonic. The same was true of Study 2, which administered the Semi-structured Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SIDP-R) to an independent sample of 537 consecutively admitted outpatients. Similar findings were observed in Study 3, in which the SIDP-R was administered to 225 non-clinical subjects. The results show that the typology of DSM III-R and -IV SPD diagnosis is consistent with the latent structure of SPD features. PMID:16226811
...Millennium) in the above-referenced docket. Millennium requests authorization to construct and operate a natural gas compressor station in Minisink, New York to increase deliveries to its interconnection with Algonquin Gas Transmission, LLC...
Smith College has recently established the Louise B. and Edmund J. Kahn Liberal Arts Institute to foster interdisciplinary scholarship among the faculty. In the 1999-2000 academic year, the Kahn Institute is sponsoring a project entitled "Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium." The project will explore the impact of the astronomical discoveries of Galileo and his contemporaries on the Renaissance world-view and also use Galileo's experience as a lens for examining scientific and cultural developments at the symbolic juncture represented by the year 2000. Seven faculty fellows and 10-12 student fellows will participate in a year-long colloquium pursuing these themes, aided by the participation of some five Visiting Fellows. The inaugural public event will be a symposium on the historical Galileo, with presentation by three noted scholars, each of whom will return to campus for a second meeting with the Kahn colloquium. Additional events will include an exhibit of prints, artifacts, and rare books related to Galileo and his time, an early music concert featuring music composed by Galileo's father, and a series of other events sponsored by diverse departments and programs, all related to the broad themes of the Galileo project. The culminating events will be the premiere of a new music theater work, which will encapsulate the insights of the colloquium about human reactions to novel insights about the world, and a symposium presenting the research results of faculty and student fellows. The symposium will feature a capstone lecture by an visionary scholar projecting the implication of historical and contemporary trends into the future.
Reduction in prevalence of underweight children (under five years of age) has been included as an indicator for one of the targets to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (Goal 1) of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The most recent MDG report of 2012 indicates that the target of reducing extreme poverty by half has been reached five years ahead of the 2015 deadline but close to one third of children in Southern Asia were underweight. In India, at the historical rate of decline the proportion of underweight children below 3 years, required to be reduced to 26% by 2015, is expected to come down only to about 33%. With barely 3 years left for achieving MDGs, the level of commitment to reduce child undernutrition needs to be gauged and effectiveness of current strategies and programmes ought to be reviewed. Undernutrition in children is not affected by food intake alone; it is also influenced by access to health services, quality of care for the child and pregnant mother as well as good hygiene practices. Would the scenario be different if child undernutrition was a part of Goal 4 of MDGs? What difference it would have made in terms of strategies and programmes if reduction in undernutrition in children underfive was a target instead of an indicator? It is time for nutrition to be placed higher on the development agenda. A number of simple, cost-effective measures to reduce undernutrition in the critical period from conception to two years after birth are available. There is a need for choosing nutrition strategies relevant in Indian context. Experiences from other countries should lead India toward innovative nutritional strategies to reduce underfive undernutrition in the country- that too on a fast track. PMID:23778725
This report was commissioned by the Population Program of the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation in December 2004. The author was charged with analyzing the United Nations' deliberations that led to the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to answer the question of why there is no specific reproductive health goal. Her report, of which this is a lightly edited version, is also available online at . This coverage of the MDG process will be complemented by a special section of Studies in the June 2005 issue on reproductive health and the MDGs. The section will include excerpts about reproductive health from the final report of the Millennium Development Project entitled "Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals," which was submitted to Secretary General Kofi Annan in January 2005, as well as commentaries by leading scholars and policymakers in the fields of population and reproductive health. PMID:15828526
The results of the analyses offer empirical support for the hexagonal arrangement of the personality types and also support the organization of the Self-Directed Search and Holland's Occupational Classification. (Author)
Dispersal is one of the most fundamental components of ecology, and affects processes as diverse as population growth, metapopulation dynamics, gene flow and adaptation. Although the act of moving from one habitat to another entails major costs to the disperser, empirical and theoretical studies suggest that these costs can be reduced by having morphological, physiological or behavioural specializations for dispersal. A few recent studies on different systems showed that individuals exhibit personality-dependent dispersal, meaning that dispersal tendency is associated with boldness, sociability or aggressiveness. Indeed, in several species, dispersers not only develop behavioural differences at the onset of dispersal, but display these behavioural characteristics through their life cycle. While personality-dependent dispersal has been demonstrated in only a few species, we believe that it is a widespread phenomenon with important ecological consequences. Here, we review the evidence for behavioural differences between dispersers and residents, to what extent they constitute personalities. We also examine how a link between personality traits and dispersal behaviours can be produced and how personality-dependent dispersal affects the dynamics of metapopulations and biological invasions. Finally, we suggest future research directions for population biologists, behavioural ecologists and conservation biologists such as how the direction and the strength of the relationship between personality traits and dispersal vary with ecological contexts.
Cote, J.; Clobert, J.; Brodin, T.; Fogarty, S.; Sih, A.
It has been proved that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic Parkinson's disease. No indication for postencephalitic parkinsonism was found in the clinical symptoms or the case history. Professor Max de Crinis established his diagnosis of Parkinson's disease in Hitler early in 1945 and informed the SS leadership, who decided to initiate treatment with a specially prepared 'antiparkinsonian mixture' to be administered by a physician. However, Hitler never received the mixture, this implies that the SS intended to remove the severely diseased 'Leader'. Two different character traits can be analysed in Hitler's personality: on the one hand the typical premorbid personality of parkinsonian patients with uncorrectable mental rigidity, extreme inflexibility and insupportable pedantry. On the other an antisocial personality disorder with lack of ethical and social values, a deeply rooted tendency to betray others and to deceive himself and uncontrollable emotional reactions. This special combination in Hitler's personality resulted in the uncritical conviction of his mission and an enormous driving for recognition. The neuropsychiatric analysis of Hitler's personality could lead to a better explanation of the pathological traits of one of the most conspicuous historical personalities. PMID:10053222
In this study our goal was to examine the hierarchical structure of personality pathology as conceptualized by Harkness and McNulty's (1994) Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) model, as recently operationalized by the MMPI-2-RF (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2011) PSY-5r scales. We used Goldberg's (2006) "bass-ackwards" method to obtain factor structure using PSY-5r item data, successively extracting from 1 to 5 factors in a sample of psychiatric patients (n = 1,000) and a sample of university undergraduate students (n = 1,331). Participants from these samples had completed either the MMPI-2 or the MMPI-2-RF. The results were mostly consistent across the 2 samples, with some differences at the 3-factor level. In the patient sample a factor structure representing 3 broad psychopathology domains (internalizing, externalizing, and psychoticism) emerged; in the student sample the 3-factor level represented what is more commonly observed in "normal-range" personality models (negative emotionality, introversion, and disconstraint). At the 5-factor level the basic structure was similar across the 2 samples and represented well the PSY-5r domains. PMID:24004403
Bagby, R Michael; Sellbom, Martin; Ayearst, Lindsay E; Chmielewski, Michael S; Anderson, Jaime L; Quilty, Lena C
The present study focuses on the neurostructural foundations of the human personality. In a large sample of 227 healthy human individuals (168 women and 59 men), we used MRI to examine the relationship between personality traits and both regional gray and white matter volume, while controlling for age and sex. Personality was assessed using the German version of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory that measures individual differences in the 'Big Five of Personality': extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. In contrast to most previous studies on neural correlates of the Big Five, we used improved processing strategies: white and gray matter were independently assessed by segmentation steps before data analysis. In addition, customized sex-specific diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra templates were used. Our results did not show significant correlations between any dimension of the Big Five and regional gray matter volume. However, among others, higher conscientiousness scores correlated significantly with reductions in regional white matter volume in different brain areas, including the right insula, putamen, caudate, and left fusiformis. These correlations were driven by the female subsample. The present study suggests that many results from the literature on the neurostructural basis of personality should be reviewed carefully, considering the results when the sample size is larger, imaging methods are rigorously applied, and sex-related and age-related effects are controlled. PMID:23531766
NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft, four technologies These are : 1. Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; 2. SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; 3. UltraFlex-175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array 3. Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science computing. These technologies have been identified, with input from the space science community, as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The Thermal Loop, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The UltraFlex-175 will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fanfolded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3 ), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. 1 The Dependable Multiprocessor will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform. It is expected that this experiment will enable more capable, high performance, fault-tolerant, processing to handle, in a variety of planetary and deep space environments, the large science and autonomy data processing loads expected in the future. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA. 2
Abakians, H.; Botwell, M.; Chmielski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; White, S.; Samson, J. R.; Zsoldos, J.
NASA's Space Technology 8 project (ST-8) is subsystem demonstration which will validate four technologies that have been identified as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. NASA's New Millennium Program, with input from the science community, identified the following four technologies: Miniature Loop Heat Pipe with Multiple Evaporators Thermal Management System (MLHP), Scalable Architecture for the Investigation of the Load Managing Attributes of a Slender Truss (SAILMAST), Next Generation UltraFlex (NGU), and Environmentally Adaptive Fault Tolerant Computing (EAFTC). Once validated on a deep space mission, these technologies will be available for use on future science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The MLHP, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The NGU will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The EAFTC will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform. It is expected that this experiment will enable more capable, high performance, fault-tolerant, processing to handle, in a variety of planetary and deep space environments, the large science and autonomy data processing loads expected in the future. This work performed at JPL/Caltech under contract with NASA.
Bothwell, M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Fujita, T.; Minning, C.; Nelson, R. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; Sampson, J. R.
NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, four technologies: Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; Ultraflex 175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array; and Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science computing. These technologies have been identified by NMP, with input from the space science community, as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The Thermal Loop, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The Ultraflex 175 will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultracompact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The Dependable Multiprocessor will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform. It is expected that this experiment will enable more capable, high performance, fault-tolerant, processing to handle, in a variety of planetary and deep space environments, the large science and autonomy data processing loads expected in the future. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA
Abakians, H.; Kim, Y.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; White, S.; Samson, J. R., Jr.; Zsoldos, J.; McDermott, T.
NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, four technologies: Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; Ultraflex 175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array; and Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science computing. These technologies have been identified by NMP, with input from the space science community, as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The Thermal Loop, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The Ultraflex 175 will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The Dependable Multiprocessor will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform. It is expected that this experiment will enable more capable, high performance, fault-tolerant, processing to handle, in a variety of planetary and deep space environments, the large science and autonomy data processing loads expected in the future. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA
NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, four technologies: Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; UltraFlex-175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array; and Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science computing. These technologies have been identified by NMP, with input from the space science community, as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The Thermal Loop, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The UltraFlex-175 will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The Dependable Multiprocessor will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform. It is expected that this experiment will enable more capable, high performance, fault-tolerant, processing to handle, in a variety of planetary and deep space environments, the large science and autonomy data processing loads expected in the future. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA.
Abakians, H.; Bothwell, M.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; White, S.; Samson, J. R.; Zsoldos, J.; McDermott, T.
Based on a 1996 national study of community college presidents, this monograph presents a snapshot of presidents' personal and professional characteristics. A preface describes the purpose of the study and reviews methodology, indicating that the Career and Lifestyle Survey (CLS) was sent to 926 presidents, resulting in 680 responses, and that…
This volume of essays was written as a tribute to the ideals of Phi Delta Kappa and to the fraternity's retiring executive director, Lowell C. Rose, who led the international professional fraternity in education from 1971 to 1995. Each contributor was invited to reflect on his or her personal experiences in education and life and to speculate on…
There is increasing agreement that the current categorical system of personality disorders (PDs) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) should be replaced by a trait dimensional scheme in DSM-V. In particular, the consensus appears to be converging on a hierarchical Big Four model. The broad factors that form the apex of this hierarchy are essentially maladaptive variants of the Big Five traits of normal personality, minus Openness. We argue that this Big Four model is incomplete, however, in that it fails to model characteristics related to the "odd or eccentric" Cluster A PDs adequately. We report the results of three studies that examine these odd, eccentric characteristics in relation to basic dimensions of normal and abnormal personality. The results of these studies establish the existence of an Oddity factor that is (a) broader than the Cluster A traits and (b) distinct from Openness and the other Big Five dimensions. Consequently, its addition yields an alternative five-factor model of personality pathology (considering only abnormal traits) and an expanded, integrated Big Six taxonomy that subsumes both normal and abnormal personality characteristics. PMID:19012658
Watson, David; Clark, Lee Anna; Chmielewski, Michael
We have constructed the first all-sky cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization lensed maps based on a high-resolution cosmological N-body simulation, the Millennium Simulation (MS). We have exploited the lensing potential map obtained using a previously developed map-making procedure which integrates along the line-of-sight the MS dark matter distribution by stacking and randomizing the simulation boxes up to z = 127, and which semi-analytically supplies the large-scale power in the angular lensing potential that is not correctly sampled by the N-body simulation. The lensed sky has been obtained by properly modifying the latest version of the LensPix code to account for the MS structures. We have also produced all-sky lensed maps of the so-called ?E and ?B potentials, which are directly related to the electric and magnetic types of polarization. The angular power spectra of the simulated lensed temperature and polarization maps agree well with semi-analytic estimates up to l <= 2500, while on smaller scales we find a slight excess of power which we interpret as being due to non-linear clustering in the MS. We also observe how non-linear lensing power in the polarized CMB is transferred to large angular scales by suitably misaligned modes in the CMB and the lensing potential. This work is relevant in view of the future CMB probes, as a way to analyse the lensed sky and disentangle the contribution from primordial gravitational waves.
This newsletter features innovations in resource management and information technology to support New York State government. The newsletter contains the following six sections: (1) "Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium" -- examining the need for government involvement in electronic commerce policy and partnership; (2)…
This article explores the role of race in new millennium schools and its impact on students. Multicultural, psycho-social, and academic issues are addressed, and interventions for school counselors are discussed. Racially correlated disparities in K-12 education are apparent in: test scores, grades, retention and drop-out rates, identification for…
In the closing days of the second millennium, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States issued a scathing indictment of medical ‘‘errors’’ and asserted that the frequency of these incidents was ‘‘stunningly high’’ . The report stated that ‘‘health care is a decade or more behind other high risk industries in its attention
Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…
Leipziger, Fay, Wodon, and Yepes provide an empirical analysis of the determinants of three child-health outcomes related to the Millennium Development Goals: the infant mortality rate, the child mortality rate, and the prevalence of malnutrition. Using data from Demographic and Health Surveys, they go beyond traditional cross-country regressions by exploiting the variability in outcomes and explanatory variables observed within countries
Danny Leipziger; Marianne Fay; Quentin Wodon; Tito Yepes
This paper reviews, assesses and evaluates the performance of sub-Saharan African countries towards achieving the international development goals and targets set by the United Nations, UN Millennium Development Goals and the Agenda for Action of the 2nd Tokyo International Conference on African Development. Africa's recent economic performance is a reflection of the policies it has pursued since the 1960s. It
The Commonwealth has a stronger reason than other comparable international organizations to commit to the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Most of its member states are classified as developing, a large minority of its peoples live in poverty, afflicted by internally high rates of HIV\\/AIDS and maternal mortality. Specifically, more than half the world's 115 million people without education
Every preventable death poses a challenge to health, development, and human rights initiatives. Although the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) prioritize reducing maternal and child mortality, progress is unequal and the sustainability of related efforts beyond 2015 is a concern. Strategies that link the MDGs and human rights would facilitate more comprehensive, equitable, and sustainable progress in health and development. Strategies
Shyama Kuruvilla; Flavia Bustreo; Paul Hunt; Amarjit Singh; Eric Friedman; Thiago Luchesi; Stefan Germann; Kim Terje Loraas; Alicia Ely Yamin; Ximena Andion; Julio Frenk
National Aeronautic and Space Administration's (NASA) New Millennium Program (NMP) seeks to advance space exploration by providing an in-space validating mechanism to verify the maturity of promising advanced technologies that cannot be adequately validated with Earth-based testing alone. In meeting this objective, NMP uses NASA Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) as key indicators of technology advancement and assesses development progress against
This document contains 14 papers from the skills for the new millennium section of an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Research on Vocational Education and Training as a Field for Knowledge Development--Starting Points for the…
Argues that 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act, providing increased protection against unauthorized access to copyrighted electronic media, and the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, extending the term of most copyrighted books, unduly burden users of electronic media and books. Discusses the negative impact of recent federal laws to…
This paper examines copyright issues vital to education. It explores copyright in terms of both statutory and case law, and in particular in relation to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), which is a complex set of rules and regulations that affects anyone involved in copyright. Among the new issues are the impact of technology and the…
Believes that with the turn of the millennium, the United States should undergo a self-examination of the state of democracy in the country. Addresses various concerns in relation to societal reform movements and idealism, the country's performance on the world stage, inequalities still prevalent in society, and the call for social justice. (CMK)
Brain morphologic changes have been reported in borderline personality disorder (BPD), but it remains largely unknown whether BPD is associated with midline brain abnormalities. We used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the length of the adhesio interthalamica (AI) and cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) as well as third ventricular volume in 20 teenagers with first-presentation BPD and 20 healthy controls. While
Tsutomu Takahashi; Andrew M. Chanen; Stephen J. Wood; Mark Walterfang; Ian H. Harding; Murat Yücel; Kazue Nakamura; Patrick D. McGorry; Michio Suzuki; Dennis Velakoulis; Christos Pantelis
Summary-Most studies of the inheritance of personality have performed genetic analysis of scale scores, which will sometimes give a misleading impression of what is inherited. Item genetic analysis, where this is focused on differences in genetic architecture rather than merely differences in item heritability, should guide the development of genetically homogeneous scales. Item genetic analyses of the EPQ were performed,
According to Mednick's (1962) theory of individual differences in creativity, creative individuals appear to have a richer and more flexible associative network than less creative individuals. Thus, creative individuals are characterized by “flat” (broader associations) instead of “steep” (few, common associations) associational hierarchies. To study these differences, we implement a novel computational approach to the study of semantic networks, through the analysis of free associations. The core notion of our method is that concepts in the network are related to each other by their association correlations—overlap of similar associative responses (“association clouds”). We began by collecting a large sample of participants who underwent several creativity measurements and used a decision tree approach to divide the sample into low and high creative groups. Next, each group underwent a free association generation paradigm which allowed us to construct and analyze the semantic networks of both groups. Comparison of the semantic memory networks of persons with low creative ability and persons with high creative ability revealed differences between the two networks. The semantic memory network of persons with low creative ability seems to be more rigid, compared to the network of persons with high creative ability, in the sense that it is more spread out and breaks apart into more sub-parts. We discuss how our findings are in accord and extend Mednick's (1962) theory and the feasibility of using network science paradigms to investigate high level cognition.
Drawing on Conservation of Resources Theory and previous research on work engagement, the present study investigates gain spirals between employees' engagement and their task, social, and personal resources. It focuses on the key resources of job control, positive work relationships, and active coping behavior. In a three-wave design, work…
The authors formed and tested a model of the antecedents, consequences, and possible moderators or mediators of the role ambiguity construct in a new occupational group of nurses (N = 1,240) in Finland. They hypothesized that (a) job characteristics (control and feedback) would be associated with role ambiguity and (b) this association, in turn, would be moderated by personal need
Objectives: Suicide among the elderly is a dramatic global health problem. Although fatal attempts are frequent in the elderly, research indicated that they rarely present long-term elaboration of suicidal ideation and communicate their intents. Consequently, risk factor detection and assessment are salient. Although evidence on the association between personality and suicidal ideation in young adults is accumulating, little is known about its relevance in the elderly. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the components of a measurement model that are invariant across young adults and older adults and then investigate the relations among dimensions of personality and suicide risk. We postulated a specific relation pattern a priori and tested the hypotheses statistically in order to examine the models for equivalency of the factorial measurement. Method: We investigated 316 young adults and 339 older adults, who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess depression, hopelessness, alternative five-factor model of personality, and self-other perception. Results: Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses were conducted, yielding a final model with excellent fit to the data. This model showed a similar pattern of associations between suicidal ideation and personality across both groups. Conclusions: Although the elderly are exposed to specific life stressors associated with suicidal ideation, our findings suggest that the elderly and young adults may be similar on personality and psychopathology variables predicting suicidal ideation than previously hypothesized. Implications are provided for enhanced assessment and intervention of the elderly high in neuroticism, depression, hopelessness, and with negative self-other perception. PMID:24479767
A series of surveys were carried out to characterize the physical and biological parameters of the Millennium Atoll lagoon during a research expedition in April of 2009. Millennium is a remote coral atoll in the Central Pacific belonging to the Republic of Kiribati, and a member of the Southern Line Islands chain. The atoll is among the few remaining coral reef ecosystems that are relatively pristine. The lagoon is highly enclosed, and was characterized by reticulate patch and line reefs throughout the center of the lagoon as well as perimeter reefs around the rim of the atoll. The depth reached a maximum of 33.3 m in the central region of the lagoon, and averaged between 8.8 and 13.7 m in most of the pools. The deepest areas were found to harbor large platforms of Favia matthaii, which presumably provided a base upon which the dominant corals (Acropora spp.) grew to form the reticulate reef structure. The benthic algal communities consisted mainly of crustose coralline algae (CCA), microfilamentous turf algae and isolated patches of Halimeda spp. and Caulerpa spp. Fish species richness in the lagoon was half of that observed on the adjacent fore reef. The lagoon is likely an important nursery habitat for a number of important fisheries species including the blacktip reef shark and Napoleon wrasse, which are heavily exploited elsewhere around the world but were common in the lagoon at Millennium. The lagoon also supports an abundance of giant clams (Tridacna maxima). Millennium lagoon provides an excellent reference of a relatively undisturbed coral atoll. As with most coral reefs around the world, the lagoon communities of Millennium may be threatened by climate change and associated warming, acidification and sea level rise, as well as sporadic local resource exploitation which is difficult to monitor and enforce because of the atoll's remote location. While the remote nature of Millennium has allowed it to remain one of the few nearly pristine coral reef ecosystems in the world, it is imperative that this ecosystem receives protection so that it may survive for future generations.
Barott, Katie L.; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Maragos, James E.; Obura, David; Rohwer, Forest L.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Zgliczynski, Brian
This study sought to confirm a multi-factor model of Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in a Hispanic outpatient sample and to explore associations of the OCPD factors with aggression, depression, and suicidal thoughts. One hundred and thirty monolingual, Spanish-speaking participants were recruited from a community mental health center and were assessed by bilingual doctoral-level clinicians. OCPD was highly prevalent (26%) in
Emily B. Ansell; Anthony Pinto; Ross D. Crosby; Daniel F. Becker; Luis M. Añez; Manuel Paris; Carlos M. Grilo
Purpose To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method Forty-three children, grades two through five, generated a fictional and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a story-prompt task, respectively. Narratives produced in these two contexts were characterized for macrostructure, microstructure, and dialect density. Differences across narrative type and grade level were examined. Results Statistically significant differences between the two types of narratives were found for both macrostructure and microstructure but not for dialect density. There were no grade-related differences in macrostructure, microstructure, or dialect density. Conclusion The results demonstrate the complementary role of fictional and personal narratives for describing young children's narrative skills. Use of both types of narrative tasks and descriptions of both macrostructure and macrostructure may be particularly useful for characterizing the narrative abilities of young school-age African American children, for whom culture-fair methods are scarce. Further study of additional dialect groups is warranted.
Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.
Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) is the first in a series of Earth Orbiter spacecraft for NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). Government, academia and industry have been teamed together to develop the EO-1 spacecraft. The mission, instruments, NMP technologies, and spacecraft subsystems are discussed. The remote sensing science instruments which will be flown on the EO-1 spacecraft are the Advanced Land Imager and the Atmospheric Corrector. The NMP technologies planned for spaceflight validation by EO-1 include an X-band phased array antenna, a pulsed plasma thruster, a high-rate fiber optic data bus, a lightweight flexible solar array, formation flight with Landsat-7, and carbon-carbon thermal radiators. The data subsystem contains several new technologies. Other subsystems include attitude control, power, RF communications, structure and mechanisms, and thermal subsystem. The EO-1 mission is a good example of the faster-better-cheaper philosophy that NASA has adopted for its spacecraft, and paves the way for constructing future spacecraft in the new millennium.
This article presents a theoretical framework for analyzing psychological systems that contribute to the variability, consistency, and cross-situational coherence of personality functioning. In the proposed knowledge-and-appraisal personality architecture (KAPA), personalitystructures and processes are delineated by combining 2 principles:…
Use of technology in individual health monitoring is predicted to be widespread in near future healthcare systems and in smart home environments. The term Personalized Health Monitoring (PHM) is proposed for these applications. A framework describing aspects of personalization and personality that are relevant to personalized health monitoring is presented. The framework addresses personal data, adaptability, feedback, and personality. Influence
Research on the factor structure of psychopathy has yielded mixed results, supporting anywhere from one to three factors. Additionally, most of this research has used all-male samples, and the possibility of structural invariance across gender has not been examined. Using a mixed-gender sample of 360 undergraduates, the factor structure of the…
Anestis, Joye C.; Caron, Kelly M.; Carbonell, Joyce L.
Division of labor is a defining characteristic of social insects and fundamental to their ecological success. Many of the numerous tasks essential for the survival of the colony must be performed at a specific location. Consequently, spatial organization is an integral aspect of division of labor. The mechanisms organizing the spatial distribution of workers, separating inside and outside workers without central control, is an essential, but so far neglected aspect of division of labor. In this study, we investigate the behavioral mechanisms governing the spatial distribution of individual workers and its physiological underpinning in the ant Myrmica rubra. By investigating worker personalities we uncover position-associated behavioral syndromes. This context-independent and temporally stable set of correlated behaviors (positive association between movements and attraction towards light) could promote the basic separation between inside (brood tenders) and outside workers (foragers). These position-associated behavior syndromes are coupled with a high probability to perform tasks, located at the defined position, and a characteristic cuticular hydrocarbon profile. We discuss the potentially physiological causes for the observed behavioral syndromes and highlight how the study of animal personalities can provide new insights for the study of division of labor and self-organized processes in general. PMID:24497911
Division of labor is a defining characteristic of social insects and fundamental to their ecological success. Many of the numerous tasks essential for the survival of the colony must be performed at a specific location. Consequently, spatial organization is an integral aspect of division of labor. The mechanisms organizing the spatial distribution of workers, separating inside and outside workers without central control, is an essential, but so far neglected aspect of division of labor. In this study, we investigate the behavioral mechanisms governing the spatial distribution of individual workers and its physiological underpinning in the ant Myrmica rubra. By investigating worker personalities we uncover position-associated behavioral syndromes. This context-independent and temporally stable set of correlated behaviors (positive association between movements and attraction towards light) could promote the basic separation between inside (brood tenders) and outside workers (foragers). These position-associated behavior syndromes are coupled with a high probability to perform tasks, located at the defined position, and a characteristic cuticular hydrocarbon profile. We discuss the potentially physiological causes for the observed behavioral syndromes and highlight how the study of animal personalities can provide new insights for the study of division of labor and self-organized processes in general.
The Millennium Development Goals depend critically on scaling up public health investments in developing countries. As a matter of urgency, developing-country governments must present detailed investment plans that are sufficiently ambitious to meet the goals, and the plans must be inserted into existing donor processes. Donor countries must keep the promises they have often reiterated of increased assistance, which they can easily afford, to help improve health in the developing countries and ensure stability for the whole world. PMID:15654410
This article presents a brief history and description of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as a framework for addressing the world's health needs. They focus on decreasing poverty, decreasing child and maternal mortality, and ensuring gender equality in terms of education, work opportunities, and health and health care. Progress on attainment of MDGs is reported, and links between social determinants of health and the well-being of women and newborns are presented. Implications for maternal newborn nurses are discussed. PMID:20673315
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of the United Nations (UN) are at the heart of the global development agenda. This\\u000a chapter examines the role of agroforestry research and development (R&D) in light of the MDGs. It reviews some of the ways\\u000a in which agroforestry is substantively assisting to achieve the goals and discusses how the agenda can be realigned to
Functional neurological symptoms (FNS) are commonly encountered but have engendered remarkably little academic interest. 'UK-Functional Neurological Symptoms (UK-FNS)' was an informal inaugural meeting of UK based clinicians in March 2011 with a variety of research and clinical interests in the field. This narrative review reflects the content of the meeting, and our opinion of key findings in the field since the turn of the millennium. PMID:22661497
Carson, Alan J; Brown, Richard; David, Anthony S; Duncan, Roderick; Edwards, Mark J; Goldstein, Laura H; Grunewald, Richard; Howlett, Stephaine; Kanaan, Richard; Mellers, John; Nicholson, Timothy R; Reuber, M; Schrag, Anette-Eleonore; Stone, Jon; Voon, Valerie
The Revised Person's Relating to Others Questionnaire (PROQ2) is a self-administered questionnaire of 96 items for measuring a person's negative relating. Its eight scales correspond to the eight octants of the theoretical structure called the interpersonal octagon, which is based upon the assumption that relating occurs along a horizontal, close-distant axis and a vertical, upper-lower axis. The present study concerns the Greek translation of the questionnaire called the PROQ2-GR. The psychometric properties and the factor structure of the PROQ2-GR were studied in a Greek population sample of 457. The findings were compared with those of an English population sample of 276. All scales showed good internal reliability. Four factors were extracted, representing the four main poles of the interpersonal octagon, with good psychometric properties. The positive correlations between all adjacent scales and the negative correlations between certain pairs of opposite scales are as would be expected in a model of circular ordering. The PROQ2-GR showed a greater degree of bipolarity than the PROQ2. Women were significantly more upper close and neutral close than men. The Greeks had a higher total mean score than the English and had higher mean scores on five out of the eight scales. PMID:14577895
In this experimental study, the feelings of climacterium in two groups of menopausal women were compared (a test group with climacteric complaints vs a control group without complaints). 70 patients were given a questionnaire: EWL by Janke and Debus, FPI and Giessen-test. The evaluation of the socio-economic data exhibited the fact, that patients in the group with complaints took more drugs than the other group and were more inclined to weight gain. Gynecological data showed significant differences in the beginning and the experience of menstruation. Psychological tests of the group with complaints showed a lack of self-assurance and increased anxiety. These women had also a tendency toward psychosomatic disorders and were less assertive in their social contacts. The discriminant analysis of menopausal and personality variables classified the women equally into the group with complaints compared to the control group. PMID:2721891
Background.?Persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Few studies have focused on echocardiographic abnormalities in this population. Methods.?China AIDS Clinical Trial 0810 is a prospective, multicenter cohort study of persons living with HIV (PLWH). We performed an echocardiography substudy of 325 PLWH. We examined the prevalence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD), diastolic dysfunction (DD), pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and increased left ventricular mass (ILVM) in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive PLWH at baseline and week 48 after initiation of ART. Results.?Compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls, PLWH had a higher prevalence of DD (16.5% vs 7.2%, P < .027) and a marginally significant higher prevalence of LVSD (7.3% vs 2.1%, P = .056). The increase in the prevalence of DD from baseline to week 48 in PLWH was marginally significant (P = .056). No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of LVSD, PAH, or ILVM at baseline and week 48 in PLWH. In logistic regression analysis of all participants, age was significantly associated with LVSD; HIV infection, age, and hypertension were associated with DD whereas HIV infection and hypertension were associated with ILVM at baseline. Logistic regression analysis of PLWH showed that only age was significantly associated with LVSD and DD. Conclusions.?The prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities was significantly higher in ART-naive PLWH than in controls. HIV infection was significantly associated with cardiac abnormalities. No significant change in echocardiographic abnormalities was observed after 48 weeks of ART. Longer-term prospective studies are warranted. PMID:24569532
In DSM-5, the categorical model and criteria for the 10 personality disorders included in DSM-IV will be reprinted in Section II. Moreover, an alternative dimensional classification model will appear in Section III. This alternative DSM-5 proposal for the diagnosis of a personality disorder is based on two fundamental criteria: impairments in personality functioning (Criterion A) and the presence of pathological personality traits (Criterion B). In the maladaptive trait model that has been developed to operationalize Criterion B, 25 pathological traits are organized according to five higher order dimensions. The current study focuses on the convergence of the proposed DSM-5 trait model (as measured by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 [PID-5]) with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP) model (as measured by the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire [DAPP-BQ]) in a sample of older people. A joint hierarchical factor analysis showed clear convergence between four PID-5 dimensions (Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition) and conceptually similar DAPP-BQ components. Moreover, the PID-5 and the DAPP-BQ showed meaningful associations on different levels of their joint hierarchical factor structure. Methodological and theoretical implications of these initial results for the conceptualization of personality pathology are discussed. PMID:23786271
Van den Broeck, Joke; Bastiaansen, Leen; Rossi, Gina; Dierckx, Eva; De Clercq, Barbara; Hofmans, Joeri
This article presents a theoretical framework for analyzing psychological systems that contribute to the variability, consistency, and cross-situational coherence of personality functioning. In the proposed knowledge-and-appraisal personality architecture (KAPA), personalitystructures and processes are delineated by combining 2 principles: distinctions (a) between knowledge structures and appraisal processes and (b) among intentional cognitions with varying directions of fit, with the latter
Recent contributions to the body of knowledge on traumatic brain injury (TBI) favor the view that multimodal neuroimaging using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and fMRI, respectively) as well as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has excellent potential to identify novel biomarkers and predictors of TBI outcome. This is particularly the case when such methods are appropriately combined with volumetric/morphometric analysis of brain structures and with the exploration of TBI-related changes in brain network properties at the level of the connectome. In this context, our present review summarizes recent developments on the roles of these two techniques in the search for novel structural neuroimaging biomarkers that have TBI outcome prognostication value. The themes being explored cover notable trends in this area of research, including (1) the role of advanced MRI processing methods in the analysis of structural pathology, (2) the use of brain connectomics and network analysis to identify outcome biomarkers, and (3) the application of multivariate statistics to predict outcome using neuroimaging metrics. The goal of the review is to draw the community's attention to these recent advances on TBI outcome prediction methods and to encourage the development of new methodologies whereby structural neuroimaging can be used to identify biomarkers of TBI outcome.
Irimia, Andrei; Wang, Bo; Aylward, Stephen R.; Prastawa, Marcel W.; Pace, Danielle F.; Gerig, Guido; Hovda, David A.; Kikinis, Ron; Vespa, Paul M.; Van Horn, John D.
We evaluated a structural analysis methodology for enhancing the utility of a staff management program. In Experiment 1, a structural analysis of direct-care staff behavior in a mental retardation facility revealed differences in work patterns over time. Specific times were identified when few basic care duties were necessary and staff engaged in nonwork activity. In Experiment 2, a management program was implemented to increase staff members' training activities during periods identified through the structural analysis. The program was accompanied by increases in training activities and decreases in nonwork behavior. The improvements were maintained during a 43-week period while the most labor-intensive component of the program was withdrawn. Staff acceptability measures indicated a positive response to the management intervention, although responses varied across components within the multifaceted program. The increased training was accompanied by beneficial changes among clients with profound handicaps. Results are discussed regarding practical considerations for improving staff performance and for adopting innovations resulting from applied research.
Extraversion has two central characteristics: (1) interpersonal engagement, which consists of affiliation (enjoying and valuing close interpersonal bonds, being warm and affectionate) and agency (being socially dominant, enjoying leadership roles, being assertive, being exhibitionistic, and having a sense of potency in accomplishing goals) and (2) impulsivity, which emerges from the interaction of extraversion and a second, independent trait (constraint). Agency is a more general motivational disposition that includes dominance, ambition, mastery, efficacy, and achievement. Positive affect (a combination of positive feelings and motivation) is closely associated with extraversion. Extraversion is accordingly based on positive incentive motivation. Parallels between extraversion (particularly its agency component) and a mammalian behavioral approach system based on positive incentive motivation implicate a neuroanatomical network and modulatory neurotransmitters in the processing of incentive motivation. A corticolimbic-striatal-thalamic network (1) integrates the salient incentive context in the medial orbital cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus; (2) encodes the intensity of incentive stimuli in a motive circuit composed of the nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, and ventral tegmental area dopamine projection system; and (3) creates an incentive motivational state that can be transmitted to the motor system. Individual differences in the functioning of this network arise from functional variation in the ventral tegmental area dopamine projections, which are directly involved in coding the intensity of incentive motivation. The animal evidence suggests that there are three neurodevelopmental sources of individual differences in dopamine: genetic, "experience-expectant," and "experience-dependent." Individual differences in dopamine promote variation in the heterosynaptic plasticity that enhances the connection between incentive context and incentive motivation and behavior. Our psychobiological threshold model explains the effects of individual differences in dopamine transmission on behavior, and their relation to personality traits is discussed. PMID:11301519
We report in this paper on the design and development of a novel on-line structural health monitoring and fire detection system based on an array of optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and interrogation system installed on a new, precommercial compact aircraft. A combined total of 17 FBG sensors - strain, temperature and high-temperature - were installed at critical locations in an around the wings, fuselage and engine compartment of a prototype, Comp Air CA 12 all-composite, ten-passenger personal airplane powered by a 1,650 hp turbine engine. The sensors are interrogated online and in real time by a swept laser FBG interrogator (Micron Optics sm125-700) mounted on board the plane. Sensors readings are then combined with the plane's avionics system and displayed on the pilot's aviation control panel. This system represents the first of its kind in commercial, small frame, airplanes and a first for optical fiber sensors.
Chandler, K.; Ferguson, S.; Graver, T.; Csipkes, A.; Mendez, A.
Although the there is considerable public interest in farm animal welfare, relatively little work has been done on the welfare attitudes of farmers. We describe the development of a welfare attitude scale, the EFAWS. The factor structure and correlates of this scale were examined in Scottish pig and sheep farmers, and in agriculture students. The EFAWS was found to have
Elizabeth J. Austin; Ian J. Deary; Gareth Edwards-Jones; Dale Arey
Although the there is considerable public interest in farm animal welfare, relatively little work has been done on the welfare attitudes of farmers. We describe the development of a welfare attitude scale, the EFAWS. The factor structure and correlates of this scale were examined in Scottish pig and sheep farmers, and in agriculture students. The EFAWS was found to have
Elizabeth J. Austin; Ian J. Deary; Gareth Edwards-Jones; Dale Arey
The visualization of the progression of brain tissue loss in neurodegenerative diseases like corticobasal syndrome (CBS) can provide not only information about the localization and distribution of the volume loss, but also helps to understand the course and the causes of this neurodegenerative disorder. The visualization of such medical imaging data is often based on 2D sections, because they show both internal and external structures in one image. Spatial information, however, is lost. 3D visualization of imaging data is capable to solve this problem, but it faces the difficulty that more internally located structures may be occluded by structures near the surface. Here, we present an application with two designs for the 3D visualization of the human brain to address these challenges. In the first design, brain anatomy is displayed semi-transparently; it is supplemented by an anatomical section and cortical areas for spatial orientation, and the volumetric data of volume loss. The second design is guided by the principle of importance-driven volume rendering: A direct line-of-sight to the relevant structures in the deeper parts of the brain is provided by cutting out a frustum-like piece of brain tissue. The application was developed to run in both, standard desktop environments and in immersive virtual reality environments with stereoscopic viewing for improving the depth perception. We conclude, that the presented application facilitates the perception of the extent of brain degeneration with respect to its localization and affected regions.
This study assessed aspects of the construct validity of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), a measure of normal personality characteristics, in a clinically relevant sample through joint factor analyses of primary and second-order scales of the MPQ and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). A subsample from the Washington University Twin Study of Psychopathology was analyzed. The MPQ’s primary scales
David L. DiLalla; Irving I. Gottesman; Gregory Carey; George P. Vogler
A finite element based programming system for minimum weight design of a truss-type structure subjected to displacement, stress, and lower and upper bounds on design variables is presented. The programming system consists of a number of independent processors, each performing a specific task. These processors, however, are interfaced through a well-organized data base, thus making the tasks of modifying, updating, or expanding the programming system much easier in a friendly environment provided by many inexpensive personal computers. The proposed software can be viewed as an important step in achieving a 'dummy' finite element for optimization. The programming system has been implemented on both large and small computers (such as VAX, CYBER, IBM-PC, and APPLE) although the focus is on the latter. Examples are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the code. The present programming system can be used stand-alone or as part of the multilevel decomposition procedure to obtain optimum design for very large scale structural systems. Furthermore, other related research areas such as developing optimization algorithms (or in the larger level: a structural synthesis program) for future trends in using parallel computers may also benefit from this study.
A comparison of different paleoclimate simulations of the last millennium is carried out by attending to several aspects of their response to external forcing at global, hemispherical and large scales. The simulations have been performed with three high complexity general circulation models (ECHO-G, HADCM3 and CCSM) and incorporate yearly changes in external forcing conditions along the last millennium. Both, natural (solar variability, volcanic aerosols) and anthropogenic (CO2, CH4 and N2O changes) forcing are considered for all simulations. The forcing factors considered are however not identical in all model runs: the ECHO-G model does not consider the cooling effect of anthropogenic aerosols or land use changes that the HadCM3 model includes, for instance. The forced response in these model simulations can be compared to the steady climate as represented by the control simulations when available. This work focusses on the temperature and circulation response in the various model simulations, attending also to the influence of the different model internal variability and the different model climate sensitivities to external forcing changes. The temperature is studied in a global and hemispheric context, comparing the control and the forced runs during the last millennium. The circulation response is focused on various well known dynamical patterns, as the annular modes: the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO). Within more regional scales, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are considered. The variability of the model response is pictured in comparison with available paleoclimate reconstructions targetting the same past climate variability.
Fernández-Donado, Laura; Fidel González-Rouco, J.; Raible, Cristoph C.
The Earth's climate system is driven by a complex interplay of internal chaotic dynamics and natural and anthropogenic external forcing. Recent instrumental data have shown a remarkable degree of asynchronicity between Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere temperature fluctuations, thereby questioning the relative importance of internal versus external drivers of past as well as future climate variability. However, large-scale temperature reconstructions for the past millennium have focused on the Northern Hemisphere, limiting empirical assessments of inter-hemispheric variability on multi-decadal to centennial timescales. Here, we introduce a new millennial ensemble reconstruction of annually resolved temperature variations for the Southern Hemisphere based on an unprecedented network of terrestrial and oceanic palaeoclimate proxy records. In conjunction with an independent Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstruction ensemble, this record reveals an extended cold period (1594-1677) in both hemispheres but no globally coherent warm phase during the pre-industrial (1000-1850) era. The current (post-1974) warm phase is the only period of the past millennium where both hemispheres are likely to have experienced contemporaneous warm extremes. Our analysis of inter-hemispheric temperature variability in an ensemble of climate model simulations for the past millennium suggests that models tend to overemphasize Northern Hemisphere-Southern Hemisphere synchronicity by underestimating the role of internal ocean-atmosphere dynamics, particularly in the ocean-dominated Southern Hemisphere. Our results imply that climate system predictability on decadal to century timescales may be lower than expected based on assessments of external climate forcing and Northern Hemisphere temperature variations alone.
Neukom, Raphael; Gergis, Joëlle; Karoly, David J.; Wanner, Heinz; Curran, Mark; Elbert, Julie; González-Rouco, Fidel; Linsley, Braddock K.; Moy, Andrew D.; Mundo, Ignacio; Raible, Christoph C.; Steig, Eric J.; van Ommen, Tas; Vance, Tessa; Villalba, Ricardo; Zinke, Jens; Frank, David
This article argues that the health-related Millennium Development Goals do not appropriately address the challenges faced by the countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. By ignoring adult mortality, their achievement would result in relatively small gains in life expectancy. To achieve greater impact, policies in this region must supplement the classical Millennium Development Goals with indicators of adult health,
BACKGROUND: Achieving sustainable economic and social growth through advances in health is crucial in Latin America within the framework of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. DISCUSSION: Health-related Millennium Development Goals need to incorporate a multidimensional approach addressing the specific epidemiologic profile for each region of the globe. In this regard, addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with
Carlos Franco-Paredes; Anna Von; Alicia Hidron; Alfonso J Rodríguez-Morales; Ildefonso Tellez; Maribel Barragán; Danielle Jones; Cesar G Náquira; Jorge Mendez
At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which set targets for reducing poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women by 20151. The need for additional development funding, if the MDGs are to be achieved by 2015, is…
While in some senses the start of a new millennium is merely an accident of Western counting, the turn of the century will be a watershed in two important areas. For the majority of this millennium, and all those preceding it, the greatest dangers individuals have faced arose from agents outside ourselves - diseases, natural disasters, famine. In both Palaeolithic
The papers from this symposium, that was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on April 3-4, 1990, are presented. The theme selected for the symposium was space travel for the next millennium. It was hoped that the participants would allow their focus to consider possible advances in technologies for space travel not just for currently envisioned projects, but for possibilities beyond the next generation and the next thousand years. About half of the contributed papers focussed on propulsion and the other half on other issues related to space travel.
The latest release from the National Academy Press is the free online version of Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium: Panel Reports. The book contains contributions from the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Space Studies Board, and National Research Council. Although the online version is a "free, browseable, nonproprietary, fully and deeply searchable version of the publication," a disclaimer suggests that it is not designed to replace printed books. Users can search, browse, or print the document through the easy-to-use Open Book page image presentation framework.
In this work I investigate the statistical properties of a huge catalog of closely interacting pairs of dark matter haloes, extracted from the Millennium Simulation database. Only haloes that reach a minimum mass ? 8.6 × 1010 M? h-1 (corresponding to 100 particles) are considered. Close pairs are selected if they come within a critical distance dcrit. I explore the effects of replacing dcrit = 1 Mpc h-1 ? 200 kpc h-1 on the evolution of separations, lifetimes, total masses and mass ratios of these pairs.
In this study, we conducted an experiment to investigate the evaluation structure that lies at the basis of peoples' psychological evaluation of environmental sounds. In the experiment, subjects were given cards on each of which a name of one of the environmental sounds in the specified context is written. Then they did the following three tasks: (1) to sort the cards into groups by the similarity of their impressions of the imagined sounds; (2) to name each group with the word that best represented their overall impression of the group; and (3) to evaluate all sounds on the cards using the words obtained in the previous task. These tasks were done twice: once assuming they heard the sounds at ease inside their homes and once while walking outside in a resort theme park. We analysed the similarity of imagined impression between the sounds with a cluster analysis and clusters of sounds were produced, namely, sounds labelled "natural," "transportation," and so on. A principal component analysis revealed the three major factors of the evaluation structure for both contexts and they were interpreted as preference, activity and sense of daily life.
Gridded past millennium climate reconstructions, encompassing the European continent (e.g. Luterbacher et al 2004), based on proxy records, have previously been generated assuming that spatial temperature covariance across the region behaves in the past in the same way as it does in the observational period. This strategy bears the risk of artificially identifying the same patterns of variability as presently observed and overlooking periodically occurring modes of internal climate variability, that are not uniformly spatio-temporally expressed. Here, we construct regional proxy composites for Europe which are not constrained by the modes of variability expressed in the 20th century, and should thus broadly represent coherent regional summer temperatures back through time, independent from present modes of variability. The proxy data set analysed was provided by the efforts of the EU 6th Framework Millennium project. Proxy data are dominated by tree ring width, density and annual height increment. Four composites are used describing summer temperatures in the Arctic, Central, Pyrenean and Alpine zones of Europe. The proxy data sets cover the period AD 1260-1996. We jointly analyse an ensemble of simulations with global climate models participating in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) included in the 5th Assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) covering the period AD 850-2005, with the above aims in mind. The climate models were driven by estimations of the main external forcings. The implementations of these forcings may vary among simulations, depending on the different estimates used and on the structure of the models themselves. We analyse three simulations (CCSM4, IPSL, MPI-ESM) that, at the time of writing, provide daily data over the period AD 850-2005 obtained with the very same model version through the whole period. The analysis of both proxy and model data allowed us to more precisely identify the behaviour of the internal climate mode identified.
The Millennium N-body simulation and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey seventh data release (SDSS DR7) galaxy and galaxy group catalogues are compared to study the properties of galaxy groups and the distribution of galaxies in groups. We construct mock galaxy group catalogues for a Millennium semi-analytical galaxy catalogue by using the same friends-of-friends method, which was used by Tago et al to analyse the SDSS data. We analyse in detail the group luminosities, group richnesses, virial radii, sizes of groups and their rms velocities for four volume-limited samples from observations and simulations. Our results show that the spatial densities of groups agree within one order of magnitude in all samples with a rather good agreement between the mock catalogues and observations. All group property distributions have similar shapes and amplitudes for richer groups. For galaxy pairs and small groups, the group properties for observations and simulations are clearly different. In addition, the spatial distribution of galaxies in small groups is different: at the outskirts of the groups the galaxy number distributions do not agree, although the agreement is relatively good in the inner regions. Differences in the distributions are mainly due to the observational limitations in the SDSS sample and to the problems in the semi-analytical methods that produce too compact and luminous groups.
Nurmi, P.; Heinämäki, P.; Sepp, T.; Tago, E.; Saar, E.; Gramann, M.; Einasto, M.; Tempel, E.; Einasto, J.
Managing in the new technocracy of the new millennium will be challenging but also much more exciting than the work we do now. Twenty years ago, nurse managers weren't held accountable for the level of knowledge about financial outcomes that is expected now. The same will be true for technology. With electronic medical records, innovations in medical treatments, and the impact of the information and technologic revolution on the entire world, the interface between technology assessment, operationalizing technology, and continually upgrading staff to know what the implications of the technology revolution are will be imperative for success. That means that we must influence schools of nursing to include technology in their content now, and to help us prepare this generation of health care leaders to take a full seat at the leadership table to manage these complexities in the future. The success of the leader of the future will be measured by that person's ability to integrate the very complex issues of patient care and technology in a way that makes sense for patients, the organization, and the staff who will be working in a very complex environment. The leader's TIQ will be as important as other intelligences in the next 20 years. PMID:11029917
Managing in the new technocracy of the new millennium will be challenging but also much more exciting than the work we do now. Twenty years ago, nurse managers weren't held accountable for the level of knowledge about financial outcomes that is expected now. The same will be true for technology. With electronic medical records, innovations in medical treatments, and the impact of the information and technologic revolution on the entire world, the interface between technology assessment, operationalizing technology, and continually upgrading staff to know what the implications of the technology revolution are will be imperative for success. That means that we must influence schools of nursing to include technology in their content now, and to help us prepare this generation of health care leaders to take a full seat at the leadership table to manage these complexities in the future. The success of the leader of the future will be measured by that person's ability to integrate the very complex issues of patient care and technology in a way that makes sense for patients, the organization, and the staff who will be working in a very complex environment. The leader's TIQ will be as important as other intelligences in the next 20 years. PMID:12026310
The current study examines the relations among contemporary models of pathological and normal range personality traits. Specifically, we report on (a) conjoint exploratory factor analyses of the Computerized Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder static form (CAT-PD-SF) with the Personality Inventory for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition and NEO Personality Inventory-3 First Half, and (b) unfolding hierarchical analyses of the three measures in a large general psychiatric outpatient sample (n = 628; 64% Female). A five-factor solution provided conceptually coherent alignment among the CAT-PD-SF, PID-5, and NEO-PI-3FH scales. Hierarchical solutions suggested that higher-order factors bear strong resemblance to dimensions that emerge from structural models of psychopathology (e.g., Internalizing and Externalizing spectra). These results demonstrate that the CAT-PD-SF adheres to the consensual structure of broad trait domains at the five-factor level. Additionally, patterns of scale loadings further inform questions of structure and bipolarity of facet and domain level constructs. Finally, hierarchical analyses strengthen the argument for using broad dimensions that span normative and pathological functioning to scaffold a quantitatively derived phenotypic structure of psychopathology to orient future research on explanatory, etiological, and maintenance mechanisms. PMID:24588061
The SCID was administered twice, once by telephone and once in person (1 week later) to 41 college age men. For major depression (lifetime K = .64, current K = .66), results indicated good agreement. The lifetime occurrence estimate based on the telephone SCID diagnosis was lower than the in-person SCID estimate. Kappas for specific diagnoses were calculable for simple
John S. Cacciola; Arthur I. Alterman; Megan J. Rutherford; James R. McKay; Denise Janssen May
Caricaturing twelve American presidents from Herbert Hoover to Bill Clinton, editorial cartoonist Herbert Block has chronicled the nation's political history from the stock market crash in 1929 through the new millennium. Some of his many achievements include three Pulitzer Prizes for editorial cartooning (1942, 1954, and 1979) and a fourth with Washington colleagues for public service during the Watergate investigation (1973). Herblock's History celebrates Block's gift to the Library of Congress of more than one hundred works, spanning seventy years of world history. His cartoons are not only humorous but also enlightening and inspiring. For political cartoon enthusiasts and users with a funny bone waiting for a tickle, this site is definitely one to explore.
Positive Health of the communities could only be brought out through the interrelationship between conventional health sector and other development sectors. It was a dream that came true when World Health Organization (WHO) accepted Primary Health Care (PHC) as the major tool to achieve its proposed goal of Health For All (HFA) by 2000 A.D., but we could not succeed as expected. Now we have the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which place health at the heart of development but the achievements in health is still challenging. The literature search in this article has been conducted in Pub Med and Google scholar, with the aim to draw references to discuss the major health issues and ways to tackle them. The current article briefly narrates the burden and complexities of challenges faced by the present global health. Revisiting the concept of PHC and reaffirming our solidarity to this philosophy is the need of this hour.
The World Bank established a set of Millennium Development Goals as both a challenge to poor countries to demonstrate "good governance" and to wealthy nations as a spur that would hopefully encourage them to support economic and social development. Recently, the World Bank created this visually engaging and sophisticated interactive atlas to track those eight goals, which include the promotion of gender equality, combating disease, and reducing child mortality. Visitors can click on any of these eight goals and they will be able to view maps of the world that document the progress that has been made in each nation. Clicking on each nation individually brings up clear and easy-to-read tables that chart additional changes within each separate goal. Visitors can export the data for their own use, and they can also resize the map to demonstrate the changes made over the past few years.
NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) seeks to advance space exploration by providing an in-space validating mechanism to verify the maturity of promising advanced technologies that cannot be adequately validated with Earth-based testing alone. In meeting this objective, NMP uses NASA Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) as key indicators of technology advancement and assesses development progress against this generalized metric. By providing an opportunity for in-space validation, NMP can mature a suitable advanced technology from TRL 4 (component and/or breadboard validation in laboratory environment) to a TRL 7 (system prototype demonstrated in an Earth-based space environment). Spaceflight technology comprises a myriad of categories, types, and functions, and as each individual technology emerges, a consistent interpretation of its specific state of technological advancement relative to other technologies is problematic.
Objectives: Limited human resources are widely recognised as a barrier to achieve health-related Millennium Development Goals. Availability of medical supplies and suitably trained health personnel are crucial to ensuring a well-functioning medical supply system. The objective of this paper is to identify the factors which influence the availability of medical supplies within the health facilities of Vanuatu. Methods: A qualitative triangulated strategy using semi-structured interviews, observational workplace surveys and semi-structured focus groups was developed. This research was approved by the Human Ethics Committee of the University of Canberra and was funded through a direct grant from the United Nations Population Fund Suva, Pacific sub regional office. Results: During two weeks of data collection, 21 interviews were conducted, observational workplace surveys were completed in 19 facilities and 22 personnel participated in three focus groups across three provinces. The interviewees had a wide range of primary professional groupings and were representative of the Vanuatu health workforce. A complex array of medical supply issues are described from within the three tiered structure of the medical supply system. Conclusion: The results of this research have further informed our understanding of the competencies required by healthcare personnel to conduct medical supply management activities effectively in Pacific Island countries. As a result of this research, a platform is provided for the government of Vanuatu to engage development partners to work toward a sustainable medical supply system.
Does military service, in particular operational deployment, result in a higher risk of chronic illness among military personnel and veterans. The Millennium Cohort Study, the largest Department of Defense prospective cohort study ever conducted, will att...
K. B. Chesbrough M. A. Ryan P. Amoroso E. J. Boyko G. D. Gackstetter
The legacy of the twentieth century and the promise of the twenty-first century were on the minds of leaders, change agents,\\u000a and ordinary people around the world as the new millennium approached. The most far-reaching aspirations—the Millennium Development\\u000a Goals (MDGs)—were adopted in 2000 by all 189 memberstates of the United Nations General Assembly, the International Monetary\\u000a Fund (IMF), the Organization
This article presents a theoretical framework for analyzing psychological systems that contribute to the variability, consistency, and cross-situational coherence of personality functioning. In the proposed knowledge-and-appraisal personality architecture (KAPA), personalitystructures and processes are delineated by combining 2 principles: distinctions (a) between knowledge structures and appraisal processes and (b) among intentional cognitions with varying directions of fit, with the latter distinction differentiating among beliefs, evaluative standards, and aims. Basic principles of knowledge activation and use illuminate relations between knowledge and appraisal, yielding a synthetic account of personalitystructures and processes. Novel empirical data illustrate the heuristic value of the knowledge/appraisal distinction by showing how self-referent and situational knowledge combine to foster cross-situational coherence in appraisals of self-efficacy. PMID:14756593
Although a considerable amount of research has been conducted to conceptualize brand personality, no study yet examined the structure of brand personality dimensions in China. This research identifies a theoretical framework of six brand personality dimensions in China. Of the six dimensions identified, three dimensions (Competence, Excitement, and Sophistication) are consistent with those found in the USA, whereas three dimensions
The free-form, evolving, personal information that people deal with in the course of their daily activities requires more flexible data structures and data management systems than tabular data structures provide. A tool for managing personal information must conveniently handle freetextual data; allow for structure to evolve gracefully as the database grows; represent unnormalized data; and support data entry through database
S. Jerrold Kaplan; Mitchell D. Kapor; Edward J. Belove; Richard A. Landsman; Todd R. Drake
In the middle part of the 20th century, a healthy dialogue existed between sociology and personality psychology. Leading scholars\\u000a in sociology actively discussed the relationship between social structure and personality (Neugarten, 1968; Parsons, 1942), and between organizations and personality (Inkeles & Levinson, 1963). In turn, many personality psychologists studied similar phenomena (e.g., Sanford, 1956; Sarbin, 1964). However, over the past
Brent W. Roberts; Richard W. Robins; Kali H. Trzesniewski; Avshalom Caspi
A 32-cm active stalagmite collected in 2007 in eastern Guatemala near the Belize border began growing in ~1000 AD, and provides a near continuous record of the past 1000 years. The cave was at 350 m asl, and 23C. 15 U/Th MC ICPMS dates were used to establish the growth model, and almost 1000 ?18O stable isotope samples have been analyzed at sub-annual resolution. The GUXI-1 speleothem grew at a rate of 0.35mm/y from ~1000 to ~1450, when it tilted 25 mm/ 11 degrees from its original axis, possibly related to seismic events of the Motagua River plate margin to the south. Growth continued on the angled upside as a transparent calcite, but with restricted deposition rates from ~1460 to 1650: this reduction was likely due to the time to re-create a more suitable site for deposition, but also to environmental conditions on the surface. After 1660 to the present, GUXI-1 grew steadily along a new axis, much faster at 0.58mm/yr than its pre-tilt rate. The ?18 oxygen isotopes of the deposited calcite are construed as a rainfall proxy, influenced by the amount effect of the tropics. The values range from -4 ‰ to -2.75‰, showing four major regimes over the millennium, and indicating several periods of drought [less-negative ?18O]. Prior to tilting, the Guatemala stalagmite displayed a trend of increasing precipitation following its inception, until it was tilted. Average ?18O was -3.4‰. The record during the ~1450-1660 tilt suggests a period of aridity, but from 1700-1800 precipitation was increasing again as ?18O reached its most negative mean values of ~ -3.6‰, and growth rate was also at its highest. A very abrupt drop in ?18O [0.2 ‰] occurred in 1816 (the year of a major nearby earthquake and a year after the Tambora mega-eruption), and continued as a long-term drying trend to the present, though with a sharp central peak and 2 troughs. This drying trend was also accompanied by a 1/3 decrease in growth rate. A new ?18O mean of -3.1‰ is higher than that during the tilt interval. Other nearby climate records include stalagmites from Belize. The closest (Macal Chasm) speleothem record 30 km to the north reported a coarse ?18O resolution of 50 years, and suggest a long arid period ending about 1150 AD, and another centered about 1500 [mean ?18O -4‰]. The luminescence record [organic acid concentration indicating greater rainfall] of this speleothem supports the presence of the first long arid period, but not that of about 1500; a long modern drying began about 1800. A second stalagmite [Yok Balum] a similar distance to the south also recorded its "most pronounced dry period" between 1000-1100 AD, with elevated rainfall in about half of the subsequent millennium. The final years from 1840 to the present have been drier. A wider Caribbean comparison is possible with speleothem from the northern Yucatan and one as far east as Puerto Rico. Like that of GUXI-1, the period from 1100-1550 appears relatively wetter than preceding centuries, declining to a minimum about 1600, recovering by 1750, then dropping rapidly after 1800. Each of the three also experienced a brief wet interval about 1900. In summary, Central America and the Caribbean appeared to be recovering from dry conditions in the first centuries of the past millennium, encountered a deep rainfall decline in the middle followed by wetter conditions until ~1800, and since then have been experiencing increasing dryness.
Miller, T.; Winter, A.; Burnett, A.; Haug, G. H.; Kelly, M. J.; Edwards, R.
Research has revealed that approximately one third of persons with a serious mental illness (SMI) experience elevated internalized stigma, which is associated with a large number of negative outcomes. Family members of persons with SMI are also often subject to stigma, but the degree to which these experiences are internalized and lead to self-stigma has rarely been studied. The present study investigated the factor structure of a modification of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale by Ritsher, Otilingam, and Grajales (Psychiatry Res 121:31-49, 2003). A central assumption of this investigation was that the factor structure of the Parents' Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (PISMI) scale would be similar to the factor structure of the ISMI scale. A total of 194 parents of persons with SMI completed the PISMI scale. The results revealed that the PISMI scale has high internal consistency and that it is made up of three distinctive factors: discrimination experience, social withdrawal and alienation, and stereotype endorsement. These factors are similar, but not identical, to the factors that underlie the ISMI scale. This study's findings also indicate that parents' prominent reaction to self-stigma is stereotype endorsement. PMID:23443038
Objectives To investigate parents’ perceptions of weight status in children and to explore parental understanding of and attitudes to childhood overweight. Design Questionnaires and focus groups within a longitudinal study. Subjects 536 parents of Gateshead Millennium Study children, of which 27 attended 6 focus groups. Main outcome measures Parents’ perception of their child’s weight status according to actual weight status as defined by International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) cut-offs. Focus group outcomes included parental awareness of childhood overweight nationally and parental approaches to identifying overweight children. Results The sensitivity of parents recognising if their child was overweight was 0.31. Prevalence of child overweight was underestimated: 7.3% of children were perceived as ‘overweight’ or ‘very overweight’ by their parents, 23.7% were identified as overweight or obese using IOTF criteria. 69.3% of parents of overweight or obese children identified their child as being of ‘normal’ weight. During focus groups parents demonstrated an awareness of childhood overweight being a problem nationally but their understanding of how it is defined was limited. Parents used alternative approaches to objective measures when identifying overweight in children such as visual assessments and comparisons with other children. Such approaches relied heavily on extreme and exceptional cases as a reference point. The apparent lack of relevance of childhood overweight to their child’s school or own community along with scepticism towards both media messages and clinical measures commonly emerged as grounds for failing to engage with the issue at a personal level. Conclusion Parents’ ability to identify when their child was overweight according to standard criteria was limited. Parents did not understand, use or trust clinical measures and used alternative approaches primarily reliant on extreme cases. Such approaches underpinned their reasoning for remaining detached from the issue. This study highlights the need to identify methods of improving parental recognition of and engagement with the problem of childhood overweight.
Jones, Angela R; Parkinson, Kathryn N; Drewett, Robert F; Hyland, Robert M; Pearce, Mark S; Adamson, Ashley J
Member countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) met in Alma Ata (8-12 September 1978) to define and advocate the implementation of primary health care (PHC) worldwide, above all, in developing countries, which had a real need to review their strategies for meeting the health needs of their populations. They did not suspect that 20 years later the vision they displayed would remain undeniably relevant. Here we examine the similarities and points of convergence of their declaration about PHC with the Millennium Development Goals that seek today to reduce poverty across the world. An exhaustive and analytic literature review was conducted to collect those similarities. Further analysis of the definitions, objectives, principles and recommendations of the Alma Ata Declaration and the Millennium Declaration reveals multiple dependencies and fundamental points of similarity between these two representations. Almost all states have pledged to achieve the eight MDG by 2015: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as essential health care, based on practical methods and techniques that are both scientifically sound and socially acceptable, universally accessible to all individuals and all families of the community, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and countries can afford at all stages of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It is an integral part of economic and social development. The following principles are involved in the achievement of both primary health care and the MDG: social equity, community participation, and intersectorality. Public health is an essential condition of poverty eradication and MDG achievement. Public health issues are central to the problem of sustainable development and must therefore remain the focus of attention. It is increasingly urgent to break the vicious circle created by the close correlation between environmental degradation, poor health, and poverty. PMID:22868717
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses when the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA-II) interview was administered in person with the prevalence when the SSAGA-II was conducted by telephone. Method: As part of the Collaborative Studies on the Genetics of Alcoholism, SSAGAs were administered either by telephone (n = 1,294) or in person (n = 1,484) to adult relatives of probands (42.3% male). The two modes of interview were compared with respect to reported lifetime prevalence of (1) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) alcohol dependence; (2) other DSM-IV substance-dependence diagnoses (nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, opioid, stimulant, sedative); and (3) DSM-IV nonsubstance diagnoses (i.e., antisocial personality disorder, major depressive disorder, mania, panic, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder). These analyses took into account the potential confounds of gender, age, race, education, income, marital status, and potential within-family correlation. Results: Diagnostic prevalence rates for alcohol dependence and major depressive disorder were lower for telephone interviews than for in-person interviews (7% and 2%, respectively); there were no other significant differences. Conclusions: When circumstances dictate (e.g., subject out of area, subject preference), telephone administration of the SSAGA should be considered.
Kramer, John R.; Chan, Grace; Kuperman, Samuel; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Polgreen, Linnea A.; Kapp, Ellen S.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Nurnberger, John I.; Bierut, Laura J.
In conclusion, it is obvious to each of us that the nursing shortage issue is complex. There are no simple solutions. In the acute care arena we can expect to see the usual recruitment wars using sign-on bonuses, increased salaries for per diem staff, internship programs and all sorts of methods used in the past to recruit needed staff. It is that sort of crisis management and short term thinking that has plagued the profession in the past. These are bandaid efforts especially in light of the factors of supply vs demand with short-term quick fixes. There must be, however, more efforts towards addressing the long-term issues such as wage compression, differentiated practice and pay, effective models of care delivery, educating the public about nursing, and public/government funding more nursing education and research at all levels. There may need to be a federal subsidy for nursing education and recruitment included to affect the magnitude of this potential societal problem. The profession is at a crossroads. One thing is certain however, this nursing shortage is different and will get worse before it gets better. Let's not let the demand for nurses become so large and supply become so small that we are an endangered species or near extinction in the new millennium. What will be the scenario for nurses in 2050? Are we, as the largest healthcare profession, so complacent about our continued existence that we are at a point of paralysis? Are we in such a state of deep depression in response to current changing environment that we will allow ourselves to be devoured by our predators. Are we cannibalistic as we eat our young and chew on our own unresolved internal issues with a lack of action? Are we septic as a result of our own self-inflicted professional wounds? Our profession must become immediately aware of our possibly tenuous future. We must work together as a community of nurses to strategically address the areas of recruitment, education, retention and environmental factors with actionable plans for short term and long term solutions. There is ample opportunity to redefine and build new paradigms and implement structures that will enhance and encourage the growth of the profession into the new millennium. Your Florida nursing professional associations, leaders, and educators are working towards solutions and invite you to help shape the future of nursing by participating actively in your professional organizations. PMID:11995511
This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this coordination.…
This study sought to: (a) determine whether personal-growth orientation and hardiness mediated the relations of parental alcoholism and family functioning to psychological well-being and distress; (b) determine whether this model was invariant across men and women; and (c) examine the role of parental alcoholism in a model that included family…
People yearn for more integration of their information. But tools meant to help often do the opposite-pulling people and their information in different directions. Fragmentation is potentially worsened as personal information moves onto the Web and into a myriad of special-purpose, mobile-enabled applications. How can tool developers innovate \\
The first decade of the 21st century has seen significant development in the production of paleo proxies for the Asian monsoon, exemplified by the Monsoon Asian Drought Atlas that was comprised of more than 300 tree ring chronologies. Noteworthy among them is the Vietnamese cypress tree-ring record which reveals that the two worst droughts of the past 7 centuries, each more than a decade in length, coincided with the demise of the Khmer civilization at Angkor in the early 15th century CE. The 18th century was nearly as tumultuous a period across Southeast Asia, where several polities fell against a backdrop of epic decadal-scale droughts. At this time all of the region's charter states saw rapid realignment in the face of drought, famine, disease and a raft of related and unrelated social issues. Several other droughts, some more extreme but of lesser duration, punctuate the past millennium, but appear to have had little societal impact. Historical documentation is being used not only to provide corroborative evidence of tree-ring reconstructed climate extremes, but to attempt to understand the dynamics of the coupled human-natural systems involved, and to define what kinds of thresholds need to be reached before societies respond. This paleo perspective can assist our analyses of the role of climate extremes in the collapse or disruption of regional societies, a subject of increasing concern given the uncertainties surrounding projections for future climate across the highly populated areas of Asia.
Rapid progress in the complementary fields of molecular genetics and cellular electrophysiology has led to a better understanding of many disorders which are caused by ion channel dysfunction. These channelopathies may manifest in a multitude of ways depending on the tissue specificity of the channel that is affected. Several important general medical conditions are now known to be channelopathies but the neurological members of this family are amongst the best characterized. Over recent years, ion channel dysfunction in skeletal muscle in particular has emerged as a paradigm for understanding neurological ion channel disorders. This review concentrates mainly on the diseases caused by dysfunction of the voltage-gated ion channels. We initially focus on the skeletal muscle channelopathies (the periodic paralyses, malignant hyperthermia, paramyotonia congenita and myotonia congenita). The central nervous system channelopathies are then explored, with particular reference to the advances which have implications for understanding the mechanisms of common neurological disorders such as epilepsy and migraine. Looking towards the new millennium, DNA-based diagnosis will become a realistic proposition for most neurological channelopathies. Furthermore, it seems likely that new therapies will be designed based on genotype and mode of ion channel dysfunction. PMID:10680855
This report covers a millennium, from year 1000 when Sweden had only 0.4 million people until today's 9.4 million. In the 13th century, the first Swedish legal text about the mentally ill and the first hospital to treat them are documented. Control, care and cure of the ill have been shaped by social and cultural changes from time to time, e.g. King Gustav Vasa introduced a paradigm shift of care after the Reformation, when he altered Catholic buildings into state hospitals. He also ordered that medical texts should no longer be written in Latin but in Swedish. The first book dealing with mental illnesses was published in 1578. Laypersons ran the mental hospitals for centuries until the medical perspective and doctors were engaged in the 1800 s. To advance the hospital doctors' competence and skill, a Swedish Psychiatric Association was established in 1905. Severely psychotic patients could not be effectively treated until the introduction of chlorpromazine in the 1950s and there is still no cure available. Following the deinstitutionalization, from more than 35,000 beds 50 years ago down to about 4500 today, the request for outpatient treatment increased. Mandatory training in psychotherapies for all psychiatrists started in the 1970s. A major "psychiatry reform", with the hope of improving the situation for the mentally ill, and to reduce the stigma, was introduced in Sweden in 1995. The historic long-term effect of the reform cannot yet be fully evaluated. PMID:21770823
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) introduced a new framework for analyzing social–ecological systems that has had wide influence in the policy and scientific communities. Studies after the MA are taking up new challenges in the basic science needed to assess, project, and manage flows of ecosystem services and effects on human well-being. Yet, our ability to draw general conclusions remains limited by focus on discipline-bound sectors of the full social–ecological system. At the same time, some polices and practices intended to improve ecosystem services and human well-being are based on untested assumptions and sparse information. The people who are affected and those who provide resources are increasingly asking for evidence that interventions improve ecosystem services and human well-being. New research is needed that considers the full ensemble of processes and feedbacks, for a range of biophysical and social systems, to better understand and manage the dynamics of the relationship between humans and the ecosystems on which they rely. Such research will expand the capacity to address fundamental questions about complex social–ecological systems while evaluating assumptions of policies and practices intended to advance human well-being through improved ecosystem services.
Carpenter, Stephen R.; Mooney, Harold A.; Agard, John; Capistrano, Doris; DeFries, Ruth S.; Diaz, Sandra; Dietz, Thomas; Duraiappah, Anantha K.; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred; Pereira, Henrique Miguel; Perrings, Charles; Reid, Walter V.; Sarukhan, Jose; Scholes, Robert J.; Whyte, Anne
The United Nations continues to work on its Millennium Development Goals, which are meant to address human suffering throughout the world. While various media outlets have offered some coverage of these goals over the past ten years, some people may have not heard much about them. The unique learning materials offered on this site provide a bit of background about the goals and an increased understanding of the data that the United Nations collects in order to measure progress in these areas. Along the top of the site, visitors can look through the "Glossary" of terms and click on a link to get further help with using the site. The primary educational materials are contained within four separate sections that help users learn about the Economic and Social Data Services (ESDS) database, which is the primary data source for these types of international databases. Finally visitors can look through the "Activities" section to take in some hands-on activities that use various data sets from the ESDS database.
By 2000, most lead-acid, starting/lightening/ignition (SLI) batteries produced in the Western world had made the transition from traditional lead-antimony alloy grids to lead-calcium-based alloys. The automobile requirements for high cranking performance and maintenance-free batteries have accelerated the trend. Cost reductions as well as high numbers of grids-per-battery have led to automated, continuous grid-manufacturing processes which require lead-calcium-based alloys. Higher under-hood temperatures have lead to the introduction of higher tin content and silver additions to lead-calcium alloys to improve battery life. Lead-antimony alloys are still used as grid alloys in SLI batteries around the world. With higher performance requirements in vehicles and newer batteries in the next decade, however, the use of lead-antimony alloys for automobile batteries may decline significantly. This paper describes the operating conditions of automobile batteries in the new millennium and how the grid-production processes and grid alloys have changed to meet the requirements of these batteries.
Anecdotal evidence has suggested that mental health practitioners' report increased caseloads of clients whose primary complaint involves the Internet. However, little is known about the incidence, associated behaviors, attitudes of practitioners, and interventions involved related to this relatively new phenomenon. Therefore, this study surveyed therapists who have treated clients suffering from cyber-related problems to gather such outcome information. Respondents reported an average caseload of nine clients who they classified as Internet-addicted, with a range between 2 and 50 clients treated within the past year. Five general subtypes of Internet addiction were categorized based on the most problematic types of online applications, and they include addictions to Cybersex, Cyber-relationships, online stock trading or gambling, information surfing, and computer games. Treatment strategies included cognitive-behavioral approaches, sexual offender therapy, marital and family therapy, social skills training, and pharmacological interventions. Based on their client encounters, efforts to initiate support groups and recovery programs specializing in the treatment of Internet addiction were being considered. Finally, based upon the findings, this article examines the impact of cyberdisorders on future research, treatment, and public policy issues for the new millennium. PMID:19178220
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268
The variability of the extra-tropical atmospheric circulation and its potential dependence on external forcings have been debated topics in climate modeling and observation communities. A recent reconstruction of the North Atlantic Oscillation Index has argued that the Middle Age period yielded a persistent positive phase of this index in contrast with an oscillating mode during the Little Ice Age. We test whether this feature can be obtained, in millennium simulations from three different climate models (IPSL & CNRS, France; MIROC, Japan). We examine the daily atmospheric dynamics that drives the main modes of extra-tropical variability. We find that the transition from a Medieval Warm Anomaly to a Little Ice Age in the North Atlantic does not imply changes in patterns or frequency of weather regimes, although the mean surface temperature change is significant. This suggests that the interpretation of proxy records in terms of atmospheric variability should be revised in order to take into account the structure of daily meteorological patterns, and/or climate models are too constrained to infer large changes of atmospheric variability.
Yiou, P.; Servonnat, J.; Yoshimori, M.; Swingedouw, D.; Khodri, M.; Abe-Ouchi, A.
This article describes the identification of a 10-item set of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) items, which proved to be effective as a self-report assessment instrument in screening personality disorders. The item selection was based on the retrospective analyses of 495 SCID-II interviews. The…
Germans, Sara; Van Heck, Guus L.; Masthoff, Erik D.; Trompenaars, Fons J. W. M.; Hodiamont, Paul P. G.
This article presents a social-cognitive theory of personality assessment. We articulate the implications of social-cognitive theories of personality for the question of what constitutes an assessment of personalitystructure and behavioral dispositions. The theory consists of 5 social-cognitive principles of assessment. Personality assessments should (a) distin - guish the task of assessing internal personalitystructures and dynamics from that of
Describes the six basic elements of personalized instruction: The dual teacher role (coach and advisor), diagnosing student learning characteristics, a culture of collegiality, interactive learning environments, flexible scheduling and pacing, and authentic assessment. (Contains 23 references.) (PKP)
It is well established that emotional events are ingrained stronger into memory relative to neutral events. Facilitated emotional memory is highly variable between individuals within the normal population and is particularly exacerbated in those diagnosed with mood and anxiety disorders. In order to elucidate how variation of enhanced emotional memory within the normal population may manifest into psychopathological states, we explored the convergence between studies investigating the neural systems engaged in emotional memory facilitation and studies investigating how these systems differ from person to person. Converging evidence highlights the roles of three neural systems (1. Amygdala function and attention, 2. Neuroendocrine function, 3. Interactive effects with mood) that all govern emotional memory facilitation and are highly variable between individuals as a function of personality. We applied this neural system approach to models of vulnerability of three forms of psychopathology that are particularly characterized by atypical emotional memory function (depression, generalized anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder). This application suggests that the incorporation of known vulnerability markers across psychological, neuroimaging and neuroendocrinological domains is cardinal to how susceptibility is conceptualized and assessed in these disorders.
Climate variability in the pre-instrumental period can be estimated either from climate proxy data or from numerical simulations. Both approaches still have considerable uncertainties and consistency tests are crucial for identifying robust features. One of the problems when comparing simulations with proxy-based reconstructions are potential scale mismatches. If the proxy-based reconstructions represent regional climate a direct comparison with simulated variables from global climate models, which in palaeoclimate applications are run with coarse resolutions, can lead to misleading results for two reasons: (i) the climate model might be biased even on large spatial scales, and (ii) small-scale spatial variability cannot be represented by the climate model. This problem can be expected to be particularly relevant for precipitation because of its high spatial variability. One way of addressing this problem is by applying downscaling techniques to the simulations. We have applied a statistical downscaling and correction method to precipitation from a simulation for the last millennium with the MPI for Meteorology Earth System Model, which uses ECHAM5-T31 as the atmosphere component. Our downscaling method, which is based on model output statistics (MOS), has been shown to outperform more standard (so-called perfect-prog) statistical downscaling methods when applied to simulated precipitation from the second half of the twentieth century, but it has not yet been applied to palaeoclimate simulations. Our aim is two-fold: to assess (a) whether downscaling using MOS yields additional information about long-term changes in regional climate and (b) to what extent the downscaled simulations may be in greater agreement with proxy-based reconstructions than raw model output. Two MOS downscaling methods, based on local scaling and principal component regression, are calibrated 'event-wise' (i.e. between contemporaneous sequences of simulated and observed events) using precipitation from a simulation of ECHAM5 (nudged to ERA-40) and gridded observations. Both methods are then applied to simulated precipitation for the last millennium. Our findings show that, under cross-validation for the period 1958-2001, downscaling with MOS from the T31 resolution to a 0.5° x 0.5° target grid produces precipitation estimates that generally match the temporal variability of the observed record in large parts of Europe. MOS also shows good skill in estimating monthly precipitation amounts at small scales that are more realistic than raw model output. In comparison with a multi-proxy gridded reconstruction (Pauling et al., 2006) it is shown that reconstructed precipitation falls within the range of the downscaled ensemble spread in some parts of Europe. However, in many areas MOS fails to produce downscaled estimates that are in agreement with either the temporal evolution or magnitude indicated by the proxy record. Ultimately, this inconsistency limits the potential for such a comparison to be used as a validation tool except in individual cases.
To reconstruct the temperature in Greenland the data on 18O/16O concentration in Greenland ice cores over the last millennium (GISP2, Quaternary Isotope Laboratory, University of Washington, 1997) were analyzed. Original year- by-year data were averaged over 10-year intervals. For the purpose of calibration the temperature data and amount of precipitation in Greenland during 1873-2000 years (Danish Meteorological institute, Technical report 01-11, Ilulissat station)were used. The temperature data of Ilulissat station were averaged also over 10-year intervals with weight, deduced from the amount of precipitation. As a result of calibration the months, making the basic contribution to generation of fluctuations of 18O/16O concentration were identified. The greatest contribution to this variability is made by the February temperature. The correlation factor of weighted night temperature of February and 18O/16O concentration account for 0.85+/-0.01. For the reconstruction of the February temperature of preceded decade autoregressive model was used. The coefficient of this model were defined by concentration of isotopes and temperature in a period of a few decades. The main results of reconstruction are: 1. There is a long-time component of duration of a cycle ~1000 years and amplitude of ~0.3 degrees. 2. On the average cold winters were with 1335 to 1865 years. 3. On the average warm winters were with 890 to1335 years and since 1865 till the present time. 4. Reconstructed temperature of February fluctuated with the basis period of about 30 years. 5. The amplitude of ~30-year fluctuations varies in time. The greatest amplitude was in the 13 century and in 20 century. From the beginning of the 14 century till middle of the 19 century the amplitude was minimal. The nature of ~30-year temperature oscillations is discussed. This work was supported by INTAS, Grant 97-31008 and Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) - project 047.009.005.
Vasiliev, S. S.; Dergachev, V. A.; Raspopov, O. M.; Nevanlinna, H.
The purpose of this study has been to test, with a sample of 193 Professors of the University of Seville, a structural model on the mediating role of personal perceived competence in the appearance of burnout syndrome and stress symptoms under potentially stressful work conditions. The instruments used to evaluate were a socio-demographic and work-related data questionnaire, The Maslach Burnout Inventory (M.B.I.), The Labour Scale of Stress and the Magallanes Stress Scale. The model of strategy implementation and LISREL 8.71 were used. The estimated model was adjusted satisfactorily, ascertaining the mediating effect of perceived competence in the effect exerted by the work conditions studied on the depersonalization and personal fulfillment, as well as in the appearance of stress symptoms. The effect on the emotional exhaustion dimension was not confirmed. The latter also acted on the estimated model as a mediating variable, facilitating the negative impact of stressors on emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. PMID:20480697
Avargues Navarro, María Luisa; Borda Mas, Mercedes; López Jiménez, Ana María
In line with the commitment of the Philippine government to adopt the Millennium Declaration, there have been efforts geared towards the achievement of the millennium development goals (MDGs) particularly the specific targets set for each of the eight MDGs. The MDGs include eradication of extreme poverty and hunger; universal primary education; gender equality and women empowerment; reduction of child mortality;
The authors investigate how the global monsoon (GM) precipitation responds to the external and an- thropogenic forcing in the last millennium by analyzing a pair of control and forced millennium simulations with the ECHAM and the global Hamburg Ocean Primitive Equation (ECHO-G) coupled ocean-atmosphere model. The forced run, which includes the solar, volcanic, and greenhouse gas forcing, captures the major
Abstract Cancer is one of the leading noncommunicable diseases that vastly impacts both developed and developing countries. Truly innovative diagnostics that inform disease susceptibility, prognosis, and/or response to treatment (theragnostics) are seriously needed for global public health and personalized medicine for patients with cancer. This study examined the structure and content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in lethal and nonlethal breast cancer tissues from six patients. The glycosaminoglycan content isolated from tissue containing lethal cancer tumors was approximately twice that of other tissues. Molecular weight analysis showed that glycosaminoglycans from cancerous tissue had a longer weight average chain length by an average of five disaccharide units, an increase of approximately 15%. Dissacharide analysis found differences in sulfation patterns between cancerous and normal tissues, as well as sulfation differences in GAG chains isolated from patients with lethal and nonlethal cancer. Specifically, cancerous tissue showed an increase in sulfation at the “6S” position of CS chains and an increase in the levels of the HS disaccharide NSCS. Patients with lethal cancer showed a decrease in HS sulfation, with lower levels of “6S” and higher levels of the unsulfated “0S” disaccharide. Although these findings come from a limited sample size, they indicate that structural changes in GAGs exist between cancerous and noncancerous tissues and between tissues from patients with highly metastatic cancer and cancer that was successfully treated by chemotherapy. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that (1) there are putative changes in the body's construction of GAGs as tissue becomes cancerous; (2) there may be innate structuralperson-to-person variations in GAG composition that facilitate the metastasis of tumors in some patients when they develop cancer.
Ophthalmology has been an early adopter of personalized medicine. Drawing on genomic advances to improve molecular diagnosis, such as next-generation sequencing, and basic and translational research to develop novel therapies, application of genetic technologies in ophthalmology now heralds development of gene replacement therapies for some inherited monogenic eye diseases. It also promises to alter prediction, diagnosis and management of the complex disease age-related macular degeneration. Personalized ophthalmology is underpinned by an understanding of the molecular basis of eye disease. Two important areas of focus are required for adoption of personalized approaches: disease stratification and individualization. Disease stratification relies on phenotypic and genetic assessment leading to molecular diagnosis; individualization encompasses all aspects of patient management from optimized genetic counseling and conventional therapies to trials of novel DNA-based therapies. This review discusses the clinical implications of these twin strategies. Advantages and implications of genetic testing for patients with inherited eye diseases, choice of molecular diagnostic modality, drivers for adoption of personalized ophthalmology, service planning implications, ethical considerations and future challenges are considered. Indeed, whilst many difficulties remain, personalized ophthalmology truly has the potential to revolutionize the specialty. PMID:24665880
The purpose of the present study was to examine the long-interval test-retest reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn; DSM-IV) Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II) Japanese version. One hundred and twenty outpatients with anxiety disorders completed the self-report SCID-II personality questionnaire (SCID-II-PQ) and structured interviews, and then again 12 months later. In the SCID-II-PQ, 70.8% and 71.7% of the patients had a personality disorder (PD) at the first evaluation and second evaluation 12 months later, respectively, and Cohen's kappas ranged from 0.29 for paranoid PD to 0.83 for histrionic PD, and overall kappa was 0.56. In the SCID-II interviews, 47.5% and 41.7% of the patients fulfilled the criteria for PD at the first and the second evaluations, respectively. At least one PD was identified in 49 subjects (40.8%), of whom 65.3% had one PD, 30.6% had two PD, 2% had three PD, and 2% had four PD; the most frequently diagnosed PD were from cluster C (60.9%). The overall base rate of 12 PD was 7%, and overall kappa was 0.87. Cohen's kappas ranged from 0.86 for obsessive-compulsive PD to 0.93 for avoidant PD and schizoid PD, and were comparable with those in the previous interrater studies. The test-retest reliability of the SCID-II-PQ was moderately good, and after the SCID-II interview the test-retest reliability of the SCID-II appeared to be of almost perfect reliability. This first long-interval, large-sample, non-Western-language research on the test-retest reliability of the SCID-II for DSM-IV indicated its usefulness and excellent reliability. PMID:12950709
Activity: You are going to develop a scripture chain that teaches us how we can receive Personal Revelation. Remember, when we talk to Heavenly Father we call it prayer. When Heavenly Father responds to us by the Holy Ghost we call it Personal Revelation. Teaching Emphasis (Core) I cannot use any language that describes to you what a revelation is. Somebody said, How can I tell if I have a revelation? I have had a feeling that such and such is true. How can I be sure? ...Revelation is something you experience, and the way that ...
We use the Delaunay Tessellation Field Estimator (DTFE) to study the one-point density distribution functions of the Millennium Simulation (MS) and Millennium-II Simulation (MS-II). The DTFE technique is based directly on the particle positions, without requiring any type of smoothing or analysis grid, thereby providing high sensitivity to all non-linear structures resolved by the simulations. In order to identify the detailed origin of the shape of the one-point density probability distribution function (PDF), we decompose the simulation particles according to the mass of their host FoF haloes, and examine the contributions of different halo mass ranges to the global density PDF. We model the one-point distribution of the FoF haloes in each halo mass bin with a set of Monte Carlo realizations of idealized Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter haloes, finding that this reproduces the measurements from the N-body simulations reasonably well, except for a small excess present in simulation results. This excess increases with increasing halo mass. We show that its origin lies in substructure, which becomes progressively more abundant and better resolved in more massive dark matter haloes. We demonstrate that the high-density tail of the one-point distribution function in less massive haloes is severely affected by the gravitational softening length and the mass resolution. In particular, we find these two parameters to be more important for an accurate measurement of the density PDF than the simulated volume. Combining our results from individual halo mass bins we find that the part of the one-point density PDF originating from collapsed haloes can nevertheless be quite well described by a simple superposition of a set of NFW haloes with the expected cosmological abundance over the resolved mass range. The transition region to the low-density unbound material is however not well captured by such an analytic halo model.
Pandey, Biswajit; White, Simon D. M.; Springel, Volker; Angulo, Raul E.
Climate modelling studies have demonstrated that spatial and temporal sea-level variability observed in North Atlantic tide-gauge records is controlled by a complex array of processes, including ice-ocean mass exchange, freshwater forcing, steric changes, changes in wind fields, and variations in the speed of the Gulf Stream. Longer records of sea-level change, also covering the pre-industrial period, are important as a 'natural' and long-term baseline against which to test model performance and to place recent and future sea-level changes and ice-sheet change into a long-term context. Such records can only be reliably and continuously reconstructed from proxy methods. Salt marshes are capable of recording decimetre-scale sea-level variations with high precision and accuracy. In this paper we present four new high-resolution proxy records of (sub-) decadal sea-level variability reconstructed from salt-marsh sediments in Iceland, Nova Scotia, Maine and Connecticut that span the past 400 to 900 years. Our records, based on more than 100 new radiocarbon analyses, Pb-210 and Cs-137 measurements as well as other biological and geochemical age markers, together with hundreds of new microfossil observations from contemporary and fossil salt marshes, capture not only the rapid 20th century sea-level rise, but also small-scale (decimetre, multi-decadal) sea-level fluctuations during preceding centuries. We show that in Iceland three periods of rapid sea-level rise are synchronous with the three largest positive shifts of the reconstructed North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Along the North American east coast we compare our data with salt-marsh records from New Jersey, North Carolina and Florida and observe a trend of increased pre-industrial sea-level variability from south to north (Florida to Nova Scotia). Mass changes and freshwater forcing cannot explain this pattern. Based on comparisons with instrumental sea-level data and modelling studies we hypothesise that multi-decadal to centennial changes in wind and air pressure are more important than mass flux from land-based ice as drivers of North Atlantic sea-level variability during the last millennium.
The focus of this special issue of Research in Human Development is on adult personality and how personality may contribute to and be involved in adult development. Specifically, the contributions in this issue focus on the links between personalitystructures (e.g., traits) and personality processes (e.g., goal pursuit, self--regulation) and emphasize the contributions that intensive repeated measurement approaches can make to the understanding of personality and development across the adult life span.
The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO-PI-3, a more readable version of the NEO-PI-R, are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 from 24 cultures. Replacement items in the PI-3 showed on average stronger item/total correlations and slightly improved facet reliabilities compared with the NEO-PI-R in both English- and non-English-speaking samples. NEO-PI-3 replacement items did not substantially affect scale means compared with the original scales. Analyses across and within cultures confirmed the intended factor structure of both versions when used to describe young adolescents. We discuss implications of these cross-cultural findings for the advancement of studies in adolescence and personality development across the lifespan.
De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T.
Treatment options are limited for families in which the child has severe and intractable disturbances of emotion and behavior, in which there is suspected or confirmed maltreatment by the mother, and in which the mother has her own history of childhood neglect and abuse. This paper proposes a model for understanding maltreatment in mother-child dyads, drawing upon the developmental psychopathology, behavior, and trauma literatures. At the core of this model is the hypothesis that a mother's maltreating behavior arises from unconscious attempts to experientially avoid the reemergence of an attachment-related dissociative part of the personality that contains the distress arising from her own early experiences of attachment relationships. The implications of this model for therapy are considered. PMID:21967177
Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on personal finance is designed to provide all Marines with the ability to manage their financial affairs successfully. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students, a course introduction, and a study guide (guidelines to…
This book is designed to assist counselors in becoming better informed about cybercounseling so that they can decide for themselves what their personal opinion is on its worth and use. It describes current practices that will give a glimpse as to the behavioral health professions in the future. The book contains the following chapters: (1)…
The dawning of this millennium broke new ground in life science and technology, presented us genomic and proteomic revolution, nanotechnology innovation, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) used for separating and identifying new chemical entities at pico-, or even femto-concentrations. Applications of these high technologies to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) opened a new chapter in the ancient medicine, and prompted us to re-evaluate the thousand-year-old phytomedicine- ginseng from current perspectives. We, therefore, collected the latest information (mostly within 10 years) on ginseng, and condensed the information into two parts of this review serial. The present part covers etymology of ginseng, its pharmacognosy (natural origin, physical appearance, chemical properties, and specie identification), its cultivation and processing-related metabolic changes in active ingredients, standardized analytical methods used for quality control of various ginseng products, modern analytical methods used to identify and classify more than 100 chemical entities (many were recently unfolded) derived from ginseng species and their metabolites. The global markets and production of ginseng and relevant government regulations are herein updated to exchange information and understandings about current people's uses and cultivation of ginseng. The second part of the review serial will classify all these 100 chemical entities separated from various ginseng species into different groups based on their structural similarities, and summarize bioactivities of these entities. The second part of the review serial will also focus on recent findings of ginseng pharmacology and its clinical trials for various diseases, and brief side effects of ginseng. PMID:19601793
A broad range of advanced technologies are needed to support NASA's ambitious plans for planetary exploration during the next decade. To address these needs, the NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) identifies breakthrough spacecraft and instrument technologies and validates them in space to reduce their cost and risk. The first NMP Deep Space mission, DS1, was launched on October 24, 1998. Since then, it has successfully validated a solar-powered ion propulsion system, a miniaturized deep space transponder, autonomous operations and navigation software, multifunctional structures, low-power microelectronics and 2 instruments: the Miniature Integrated Camera and Spectrometer (MICAS), and the Plasma Experiment for Planetary Exploration (PEPE). To validate these technologies in a realistic environment, DS1's trajectory includes a close (<10km) flyby of asteroid 1992KD. An extended mission will allow encounters with comets Wilson-Harrington and Borrelly. The second NMP mission, DS2, consists of a pair of micro penetrators that are targeted near the Martian South Pole (71 to 76 S). DS2 was launched on January 3, 1999 as a piggyback payload on the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander cruise stage. After crashing into the Martian surface at greater than 200 m/s on December 3, 1999, these probes will validate technologies that will enable future Mars penetrator networks. These technologies include a single-stage, passive atmospheric entry system and a high-impact landing system designed to deliver a payload up to 1 meter below the Martian surface. This mission will also validate a miniaturized telecom system, low-temperature batteries, a suite of miniaturized in-situ scientific instruments, and other innovative packaging technologies. The next 2 NMP space science missions are currently being planned. If approved, Space Technology 3 (ST3) will validate technologies for separated spacecraft optical interferometry, to enable the ambitious Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission. The ST5 mission will validate advanced technologies needed by the space physics and astrophysics communities.
Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) can significantly affect an individual’s quality of life, the health care system, and even society. The first decade of the new millennium has seen renewed interest in this condition, but etiological understanding and evidence-based treatment availability remain limited. After the diagnosis of PNES is established, the first therapeutic step includes a presentation of the diagnosis that facilitates engagement in treatment. The purpose of this review is to present the current evidence of treatments for PNES published since the year 2000 and to discuss further needs for clinical treatment implementation and research. This article reviews clinical trials that have evaluated the efficacy of structured, standardized psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological interventions. The primary outcome measure in clinical trials for PNES is event frequency, although it is questionable whether this is the most accurate indicator of functional recovery. Cognitive behavioral therapy has evidence of efficacy, including one pilot randomized, controlled trial where cognitive behavioral therapy was compared with standard medical care. The antidepressant sertraline did not show a significant difference in event frequency change when compared to placebo in a pilot randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, but it did show a significant pre- versus posttreatment decrease in the active arm. Other interventions that have shown efficacy in uncontrolled trials include augmented psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy, group psychodynamic psychotherapy, group psychoeducation, and the antidepressant venlafaxine. Larger clinical trials of these promising treatments are necessary, while other psychotherapeutic interventions such as hypnotherapy, mindfulness-based therapies, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing may deserve exploration. Flexible delivery of treatment that considers the heterogeneous backgrounds of patients is emphasized as necessary for successful outcomes in clinical practice.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments. Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation. Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the distribution of key vulnerable groups, and that doing so has substantial impacts on derived metrics through accounting for spatial demographic heterogeneities that exist within nations across Africa.
Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…
A high resolution account of Icelandic sea ice over the last millennium has been constructed using a novel proxy based on the presence in sediments of a biomarker (IP25) produced by sea ice algae. Comparison with historical sea ice records demonstrates a strong correlation between documented sea ice occurrences and the IP25 proxy. An excellent agreement is also observed between
Guillaume Massé; Steven J. Rowland; Marie-Alexandrine Sicre; Jeremy Jacob; Eystein Jansen; Simon T. Belt
Takes a strategic journey into the future of the airline industry and air travel. The strategic trends and profound changes that are sweeping through the world airline industry and air travel currently, as well as into the next millennium, are analysed. So too are the responses of the lead airlines that are leading the charge in shaping as well as
The purpose of this study was to identify and explore values and views that might underlie an essential ethic for teaching science in the new millennium. With such an ethic, teachers may be better able to prepare young people to form and fully participate in communities that restore and sustain Earth. Reviewed in the literature for this study were…
The United Nations (UN) mandate of achieving healthful living for all by the year 2015 through the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is facing several challenges. In the school environment, and particularly in less developed countries (LDCs), the situation is further strained by both relatively weak infrastructure and competing governmental…
The Millennium Development Goals launched in 2001 provide a worldwide agenda to reduce poverty by 2015. Though the eight goals provide synergies for the rapid reduction of poverty, the MDGs have come under criticism for being too narrow and sometimes leaving out critical aspects of human development and well-being. Although the MDGs address some…
Most would agree that today's art education is far more complex than art activities such as making pumpkin paintings in October. For one, art education continually evolves in response to arts technology integration. What exactly are the implications for art education in the new millennium? In this article, the author presents and shows some of the…
This yearbook reaffirms the connections between the field of education finance and the wider education community. Among the topics it examines are curricula reform, outcome assessment, accountability, community control, and privatization. Twelve chapters include: (1) "Education Finance in the New Millennium: Overview and Summary" (Stephen Chaikind…
Presents five educators' ideas about what the demands of literacy in the workplace in the next millennium will be. Notes increased expansion of multiple literacies and considers electronic performance support systems and expert systems. Considers how future workplace literacy is dependent on adult literacy skills. (SC)
Smith, M Cecil; Mikulecky, Larry; Kibby, Michael W.; Dreher, Mariam Jean; Dole, Janice A.
15 years after liberation from apartheid, South Africans are facing new challenges for which the highest calibre of leadership, vision, and commitment is needed. The effect of the unprecedented HIV\\/AIDS epidemic has been immense. Substantial increases in mortality and morbidity are threatening to overwhelm the health system and undermine the potential of South Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals
Mickey Chopra; Joy E Lawn; David Sanders; Peter Barron; Salim S Abdool Karim; Debbie Bradshaw; Rachel Jewkes; Quarraisha Abdool Karim; Alan J Flisher; Bongani M Mayosi; Stephen M Tollman; Gavin J Churchyard; Hoosen Coovadia
The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for gender equality in education by 2005 has been criticised for its grandiose ambition, its failure to adequately conceptualise the nature of gender inequality or the diverse forms this takes, the inadequate policies developed to put the goal into practice and the limited measurements used for monitoring. The…
Fifteen per cent of British babies are now born to parents who are neither cohabiting nor married. Little is known about non-residential fatherhood that commences with the birth of a child. Here, we use the Millennium Cohort Study to examine a number of aspects of this form of fatherhood. Firstly, we consider the extent to which these fathers were involved
Fifteen per cent of British babies are now born to parents who are neither cohabiting nor married. Little is known about non-residential fatherhood that commences with the birth of a child. Here, we use the Millennium Cohort Study to examine a number of aspects of this form of fatherhood. Firstly, we consider the extent to which these fathers were involved
Congress passed the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) in 1998 in an effort to adapt copyright law to an evolving digital environment. The expansive legislation is divided into five titles, the second of which is the focus of this report. Title II of...
Discusses provisions of interest to college administrators and faculty in the 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act, focusing on two sections: limitations on infringement liability for "service providers," and prohibitions on circumvention of technological-protection measures. Definitions and legal implications are examined, and actions campuses…
Presents five educators' ideas of what the influences of media on literacy will be in the next millennium. Considers the global influence of the 21st century library. Discusses the technique of composition across the curriculum. Considers past and present patterns of literacy in relation to conceptions, materials, and methods of literacy. (SC)
Neuman, Susan B.; Smagorinsky, Peter; Enciso, Patricia E.; Baldwin, R. Scott; Hartman, Douglas K.
While the Philippines seems to be on track towards achieving some Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), subnational disparities exist indicating possible patterns of isolation or discrimination. This paper examines whether and how geographical and political economy factors help to explain these disparities, focusing specifically on the MDG targets most closely related to the Human Development Index: poverty incidence, per-capita income, infant
Solita Collas-Monsod; Toby C. Monsod; Geoffrey M. Ducanes
The Millennium Development Goals launched in 2001 provide a worldwide agenda to reduce poverty by 2015. Though the eight goals provide synergies for the rapid reduction of poverty, the MDGs have come under criticism for being too narrow and sometimes leaving out critical aspects of human development and well-being. Although the MDGs address some of the most critical areas of
At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic growth, reduced fertility, child
Here, I briefly review past history and present patterns in the interactions between parasites (defined broadly to include viruses and bacteria along with protozoan, hel- minth and arthropod parasites) and human populations in developed and developing countries. Against this background, I offer thoughts on current public health initiatives at national and international levels, with particular reference to the Millennium Development
At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic growth and reduces fertility,
This paper presents a macroeconomic approach to monitoring progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Sub-Saharan Africa. At the heart of our framework is a macro model which captures key linkages between foreign aid, public investment (disaggregated into education, infrastructure and health), the supply side and poverty. The model is then linked through cross-country regressions to indicators of
Pierre-Richard Agénor; Nihal Bayraktar; Emmanuel Pinto Moreira; Karim El Aynaoui
The authors present an integrated macroeconomic approach to monitoring progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Sub-Saharan Africa. At the heart of their approach is a macroeconomic model that captures key linkages between foreign aid, public investment (disaggregated into education, infrastructure, and health), the supply side, and poverty. The model is linked through cross-section regressions to indicators of
Pierre-Richard Agenor; Nihal Bayraktar; Emmanuel Pinto Moreira; Karim El Aynaoui
At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic growth and reduce fertility,
This paper reveals the welfare costs of traffic injuries in Cambodia at the beginning of a decade in which greater research and resources will be focused on road safety. The results quantify how road traffic injuries affect progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) using survey data from 100 Cambodian households. The median age of the police-reported casualties was 28
Although several key elements of sexual and reproductive health are included in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, a measure of women's capacity to regulate their fertility safely and effectively is missing. We consid- ered the usefulness of 3 pairs of indicators in monitoring this component of re- productive health: contraceptive prevalence and total fertility; unmet need for contraception and
The UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the latest international development strategy. The debates around the choice of MDGs, and the first steps of implementation, have threatened to push many women's health concerns off the policy map. But I argue in this article that there is space for feminist action around the remaining MDG on reducing maternal mortality. I discuss
Achieving the Millennium Development Goals is increasingly being accepted as a major development objective in Asian and Pacific countries. In this paper, it is argued that, in order to fulfill this objective, attention needs to be paid to the nexus between achieving the Goals and economic growth. Pro-growth MDGs are as important as pro-MDG growth. Appropriate macroeconomic and sectoral policies
Over 1 billion people lack access to improved water sources and 2.6 billion lack access to appropriate sanitation, greatly contributing to the global burden of disease. The international community has committed to reducing by half the proportion of the world's population lacking access to water and sanitation as a part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, the disease burden
The appropriate use of oxytocin, one of the drugs on which is the focus in the â€˜Tracing Pharmaceuticalsâ€™ project, is directly linked to Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 (relating to child mortality and maternal health). Safe Motherhood initiatives have included Active Management of Third Stage of Labour (AMTSL) as a central part of the strategy to reduce maternal and
At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic growth and reduce fertility,
At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic…
We analyze the aid portfolio of various bilateral and multilateral donors, testing whether they have prioritised aid in line with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In doing so, we combine sectorally disaggregated aid data with indicators reflecting the situation of recipient countries regarding the MDGs. Our results show that donors differ not only in terms of their overall generosity and
Reform in the area of maternal health in developing economies is necessary if the targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are to be achieved. Primary Health Care (PHC) is an option in achieving goal five of the MDG, being closer to the people. In a research carried out in 2002, deficiencies in access to health services were identified as
The current year marks the completion of two thirds of the period between the adoption of the millennium development goals (MDGs) and the target date of 2015. Although there has been some progress, it is incontestable that much more needs to be done. India contributes to 20% of births worldwide and has the highest proportion of children younger than 5
This article concerns the usefulness of postmodernity for illuminating change in higher education associated with the new millennium. Overarching is the notion that history is not a smooth, rational, progressive unfolding of events but a series of ruptures and fragmenting disjunctures. This article asserts that when viewed in epochal terms, the…
In recent years, governing through partnerships has become more and more common and is today reflected in a range of policy areas. In the following article, governing through partnerships is analysed in Swedish education policy around the turn of the millennium, where the notion of partnership has had a large impact. Using as its point of…
The Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) is the third Earth Orbiting mission (EO-3) selected in NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). The GIFTS mission will test advanced technologies for measuring atmospheric temperature, water vapor, wind, and chemical composition at high resolution in space and over time. From its geostationary orbit, GIFTS nearly continuous surveillance of the atmospheric temperature, moisture and
Sanjay S. Limaye; Rosalyn A. Pertzborn; Arlene S. Levine; Gayle Bowen; Forrest M. Mims; Dixon Butler
Cooking tests were conducted in randomly selected school kitchens in the Sauri Millennium Villages Project site, located in Siaya District of Nyanza Province in Western Kenya. The tests compared fuel consumption measurements obtained using a traditional three-stone fire with those from newly introduced institutional stoves based on the “rocket” design. The key metric used was Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC), defined
Edwin Adkins; Jiehua Chen; Jacob Winiecki; Peter Koinei; Vijay Modi
NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is a space flight technology demonstration program that will validate the technologies needed to carry out the science missions that NASA envisions for the 21(sup st)century. The NMP is employing an innovative decision making process to select the specific technologies that will be flight validated.
The contribution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the contribution of higher education institutions in achieving these have been emphasized. This study sought to find out the extent to which university-based researches on ICTs addressed and impacted the three MDGs of gender…
At its Wakehurst Place garden in West Sussex, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, has established the UK home of one of the world's largest conservation projects, the Millennium Seed Bank (MSB) partnership, a global project to conserve biodiversity by collecting and preserving seeds. This article describes what the MSB partnership does, how seeds are…
The article considers the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) concerned with poverty, education and gender (MDG 1, MDG 2 and MDG 3). Despite considerable achievements associated with the MDG approach, which entails international and national target setting and monitoring, a sharp distinction between areas of social policy is entailed. In addition…
This introduction to the collection provides our thoughts on where alcohol and drug studies in anthropology are going as we enter the new millennium. After commenting briefly on each of the papers that comprise the rest of the volume, we discuss what we see as the most important and exciting issues in the future and give our views on what
This paper is an invitation to reflect on the ethical foundations underlying the Millennium Declaration of September 2000, approved by the 189 member states of the United Nations, in which they committed themselves to improve the living conditions of humanity, with special focus on developing countries. It is noteworthy that this proposal, which…
This article examines the level of knowledge of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) among university faculty. The assessment is based on data from 197 academic unit or faculty heads randomly selected from universities in Uganda and Kenya. Frequency distributions and logistic regression were used for analysis. Slightly more than one in three…
Wamala, Robert; Nabachwa, Mary Sonko; Chamberlain, Jean; Nakalembe, Eva
The relationship between tourism and development has been explored in tourism studies and in policy-making circles for several decades. However, very little research has been carried out into the gender dimensions of this relationship. Using the third Millennium Development Goal (MDG3) – gender equality and women's empowerment – as the focus, this paper explores this theme from a critical perspective
Background. Investigations in the field of gender identity disorder (GID) have been mostly related to psychiatric comorbidity and severe psychiatric disorders, but have focused less on personality and personality disorders (PDs). Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of PDs in persons with GID as compared to cisgendered (a cisgender person is a person who is content to remain the gender they were assigned at birth) heterosexuals, as well as to biological sex. Methods. The study sample consisted of 30 persons with GID and 30 cisgendered heterosexuals from the general population. The assessment of PDs was conducted by application of the self-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PDs (SCID-II). Results. Persons with GID compared to cisgender heterosexuals have higher presence of PDs, particularly Paranoid PD, avoidant PDs, and comorbid PDs. In addition, MtF (transwomen are people assigned male at birth who identify as women) persons are characterized by a more severe psychopathological profile. Conclusions. Assessment of PDs in persons with GID is of great importance as it comprises a key part of personalized treatment plan tailoring, as well as a prognostic factor for sex-reassignment surgery (SRS) outcome.
Duisin, Dragana; Batinic, Borjanka; Barisic, Jasmina; Djordjevic, Miroslav L.; Vujovic, Svetlana; Bizic, Marta
Data from national survey of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers in rural mental health services were used to conduct sociometric analysis of person-to-person communication. Structure of person-to-person communication network in terms of its connectedness, centrality, homogeneity, and differentiation is described, and strategies for…
... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL...structures such as Butler-type storage warehouses, Quonset huts, and house...
The MicroPLB (personal locator beacon) is a search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) transmitter. When activated it emits a distress signal to a constellation of internationally operated satellites. The endangered person's identity and location anywhere on Earth is automatically forwarded to central monitoring stations around the world. It is accurate to within just a few meters. The user uses the device to download navigation data from a global positioning satellite receiver. After the download is complete, the MicroPLB functions as a self-locating beacon. Also, it is the only PLB to use a safe battery. In the past, other PLB devices have used batteries that have enough volatility to explode with extreme force. It was developed by Microwave Monolithic, Inc. through SBIR funding from Glenn Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center.
We use a semi-analytic galaxy catalogue constructed from the Millennium Simulation (MS) to study the satellites of isolated galaxies in the ? cold dark matter (?CDM) cosmogony. The large volume surveyed by the MS (5003h-3Mpc3), together with its unprecedented numerical resolution, enable the compilation of a large sample of ~80000 bright (Mr < -20.5) primaries, surrounded by ~178000 satellites down to the faint magnitude limit (Mr = -17) of our catalogue. This sample allows the characterization, with minimal statistical uncertainty, of the dynamical properties of satellite/primary galaxy systems in a ?CDM universe. The details of this characterization are sensitive to the details of the modelling, such as its assumptions on galaxy merging and dynamical friction time-scales, but many of its general predictions should be applicable to hierarchical formation models such as ?CDM. We find that, overall, the satellite population traces the dark matter rather well: its spatial distribution and kinematics may be approximated by a Navarro, Frenk & White profile with a mildly anisotropic velocity distribution. Their spatial distribution is also mildly anisotropic, with a well-defined `anti-Holmberg' effect that reflects the misalignment between the major axis and angular momentum of the host halo. Our analysis also highlights a number of difficulties afflicting studies that rely on satellite velocities to constrain the primary halo mass. These arise from variations in the star formation efficiency and assembly history of isolated galaxies, which result in a scatter of up to approximately two decades in halo mass at a fixed primary luminosity. Our isolation criterion (primaries may only have companions at least 2 mag fainter within 1h-1Mpc) contributes somewhat to the scatter, since it picks not only galaxies in sparse environments, but also a number of primaries at the centre of `fossil' groups. We find that the abundance and luminosity function of these unusual systems are in reasonable agreement with the few available observational constraints. Much tighter halo mass-luminosity relations are found when splitting the sample by colour: red primaries inhabit haloes more than twice as massive as those surrounding blue primaries, a difference that vanishes, however, when considering stellar mass instead of luminosity. The large scatter in the halo mass-luminosity relation hinders the interpretation of the velocity dispersion of satellites stacked according to the luminosity of the primary. We find L ~ ?3 (the natural scaling expected for ?CDM) for truly isolated primaries, that is, systems where the central galaxy contributes more than 85 per cent of the total luminosity within its virial radius. Less-strict primary selection, however, leads to substantial modification of the scaling relation: blindly stacking satellites of all primaries results in a much shallower L-? relation that is only poorly approximated by a power law.
Sales, Laura V.; Navarro, Julio F.; Lambas, Diego G.; White, Simon D. M.; Croton, Darren J.
Personality traits of 43 female public school librarians were compared to traits exhibited by 50 female public school teachers. Differences in personalitystructure were found to exist on four factors of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. (Author/BW)
Many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been shown to be biotransformed in water treatment systems. However, little research exists on the effect of initial PPCP concentration on PPCP biotransformation or on the microbial communities treating impacted water. In this study, biological PPCP removal at various concentrations was assessed using laboratory columns inoculated with wastewater treatment plant effluent. Pyrosequencing was used to examine microbial communities in the columns and in soil from a soil aquifer treatment (SAT; a method of water treatment prior to reuse) site. Laboratory columns were supplied with different concentrations (0.25, 10, 100, or 1,000 ?g liter(-1)) of each of 15 PPCPs. Five PPCPs (4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol [biosol], p-chloro-m-xylenol, gemfibrozil, ketoprofen, and phenytoin) were not removed at any tested concentrations. Two PPCPs (naproxen and triclosan) exhibited removals independent of PPCP concentration. PPCP removal efficiencies were dependent on initial concentrations for biphenylol, p-chloro-m-cresol, chlorophene, diclofenac, 5-fluorouracil, ibuprofen, and valproic acid, showing that PPCP concentration can affect biotransformation. Biofilms from sand samples collected from the 0.25- and 10-?g liter(-1) PPCP columns were pyrosequenced along with SAT soil samples collected on three consecutive days of a wetting and drying cycle to enable comparison of these two communities exposed to PPCPs. SAT communities were similar to column communities in taxonomy and phylotype composition, and both were found to contain close relatives of known PPCP degraders. The efficiency of biological removal of PPCPs was found to be dependent on the concentration at which the contamination occurs for some, but not all, PPCPs. PMID:24509919
Onesios-Barry, Kathryn M; Berry, David; Proescher, Jody B; Sivakumar, I K Ashok; Bouwer, Edward J
Models of dream analysis either assume a continuum of waking and dreaming or the existence of two dissociated realities. Both approaches rely on different methodology. Whereas continuity models are based on content analysis, discontinuity models use a structural approach. In our study, we applied both methods to test specific hypotheses about continuity or discontinuity. We contrasted dream reports of congenitally
Ursula Voss; Inka Tuin; Karin Schermelleh-Engel; Allan Hobson
This article argues that financial literacy varies across socioeconomic groups and their neighborhoods, in part because of the adult learning that occurs within a local context. The study begins by explaining that financial literacy needs vary across socioeconomic groups and that there are important structural factors affecting the financial…
Objective: To evaluate the measurement structure of the Trait Hope Scale (THS) among individuals with spinal cord injury. Design: Confirmatory factor analysis and reliability and validity analyses were performed. Participants: 242 individuals with spinal cord injury. Results: Results support the two-factor measurement model for the THS with agency…
The dimensions and limits of the concept of schizotypy are examined using an exploratory factor analysis of the 36 signs and symptoms in the Cluster A DSM-III-R personality disorders as well as those in Borderline Personality Disorder and Avoidant Personality Disorder in the 307 first-degree relatives and half-siblings of 123 probands with schizophrenia\\/schizoaffective disorder. The personality disorders examined were assessed
David L. Fogelson; Keith H. Nuechterlein; Robert F. Asarnow; Diana L. Payne; Kenneth L. Subotnik; Carol A. Giannini
Decades of technological developments have populated the field of neuroprosthetics with myriad replacement strategies, neuromodulation therapies, and rehabilitation procedures to improve the quality of life for individuals with neuromotor disorders. Despite the few but impressive clinical successes, and multiple breakthroughs in animal models, neuroprosthetic technologies remain mainly confined to sophisticated laboratory environments. We summarize the core principles and latest achievements in neuroprosthetics, but also address the challenges that lie along the path toward clinical fruition. We propose a pragmatic framework to personalize neurotechnologies and rehabilitation for patient-specific impairments to achieve the timely dissemination of neuroprosthetic medicine. PMID:24197737
Borton, David; Micera, Silvestro; Millán, José del R; Courtine, Grégoire
Estimates of natural climate variability during the past millennium provide a frame of reference in which to assess the significance of recent changes. This thesis investigates new methods of reconstructing low-latitude sea surface temperature (SST) and h...
...Millennium, LLC, Amargosa Farm Road Solar Energy Project, Nye County, NV AGENCY...EIS) for the Amargosa Farm Road Solar Energy Project, located on public lands...sun's path throughout the day. The solar energy would heat a transfer fluid...
The treatment of patients with intrinsic brain tumors is radically changing. This change is currently not (yet) signified by the use of targeted therapy in clinical practice but more by the definition of molecular markers as predictors for response to therapy which have been used for a long time. While in the past the choice of treatment has been based solely on the tumor entity and its degree of malignancy derived from histological analyses, large randomized trials have now provided a solid basis for personalized molecular-guided treatment decisions. For instance, in the German NOA-08 trial a benefit of chemotherapy with temozolomide alone was only demonstrated in a subgroup of elderly patients with malignant gliomas displaying promoter hypermethylation of the DNA repair enzyme MGMT. This is only one of several examples where molecular analysis of tumor tissue becomes clinically relevant as these analyses can and should be taken into account for treatment decisions and not, as previously, just as an additional parameter for estimating prognosis. This article illustrates the current developments in the area of personalized neurooncology and critically reviews the impact on clinical decision-making in daily practice. PMID:23775285
Significant changes are proposed in the personality disorders section of the 5th. edition of the DSM. The article summarizes the historical background of the personality disorder classification, including personality-types theory, trait-theory, and clinical concepts based upon psychiatric and psychoanalytical traditions. After briefly summarizing concerns on current approach to diagnosing personality disorders in DSM-IV, we summarise the most important features of the newly developed personality disorders classification, including concepts have been modified during long years of investigation. The new system will have modified less than was originally intended, and will be a hybrid model of dimensional categorical approach to diagnosing personality disorders. The ten personality disorder types are reduced to six, and they will have new criteria based on maladaptive trait dimensions. The trait structure model was derived from existing personality and personality disorder trait models, and includes five broad higher-order trait domains, which are negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism. A new set of general criteria are developed for defining personality disorder. Self and interpersonal functioning represent the core impairment in personality functioning central to personality disorder, and the presence of maladaptive personality traits is also required. Severity continuum of personality pathology can be rated on the Levels of Personality Functioning Scale. PMID:23180732
Many of the Millennium Development Goals are not being achieved in the world's poorest countries, yet only five years remain until the target date. The financing of these Goals is not merely insufficient; current evidence indicates that the temporary nature of the financing, as well as challenges to coordinating its delivery and directing it to the most needy recipients, hinder achievement of the Goals in countries that may benefit most. Traditional approaches to providing development assistance for health have not been able to address both prevalent and emergent public health challenges captured in the Goals; these challenges demand sustained forms of financial redistribution through a coordinated mechanism. A global social health protection fund is proposed to address recurring failures in the modern aid distribution mechanism. Such a Fund could use established and effective strategies for aid delivery to mitigate many financial problems currently undermining the Millennium Development Goals initiative.
Background Achieving sustainable economic and social growth through advances in health is crucial in Latin America within the framework of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Discussion Health-related Millennium Development Goals need to incorporate a multidimensional approach addressing the specific epidemiologic profile for each region of the globe. In this regard, addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease of American trypanosomiasis, will play a key role to enable the most impoverished populations in Latin America the opportunity to achieve their full potential. Most cases of Chagas disease occur among forgotten populations because these diseases persist exclusively in the poorest and the most marginalized communities in Latin America. Summary Addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with T. cruzi infection will contribute to improve the health of the most impoverished populations in Latin America and will ultimately grant them with the opportunity to achieve their full economic potential.
Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Von, Anna; Hidron, Alicia; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Tellez, Ildefonso; Barragan, Maribel; Jones, Danielle; Naquira, Cesar G; Mendez, Jorge
The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are international development targets for the year 2015 that aim to achieve\\u000a relative improvements in the standards of health, socioeconomic status and education in the world’s poorest countries. Many\\u000a of the challenges addressed by the MDGs reflect the direct or indirect consequences of subsistence agriculture in the developing\\u000a world, and hence, plant biotechnology has
Dawei YuanLudovic; Ludovic Bassie; Maite Sabalza; Bruna Miralpeix; Svetlana Dashevskaya; Gemma Farre; Sol M. Rivera; Raviraj Banakar; Chao Bai; Georgina Sanahuja; Gemma Arjó; Eva Avilla; Uxue Zorrilla-López; Nerea Ugidos-Damboriena; Alberto López; David Almacellas; Changfu Zhu; Teresa Capell; Gunther Hahne; Richard M. Twyman; Paul Christou
The Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) calls for the reduction in under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Only 16 of the 68 countries with 97% of the world's child deaths are on track to achieve this. This paper reviews the current evidence regarding proven interventions for reducing child mortality in high-mortality, resource-poor settings. All of these interventions require
BackgroundThere are substantial disparities in mortality between rich and poor children in developing countries. As a result, there is a call for explicitly pro-poor health programming in efforts to reach the child health Millennium Development Goals.AimTo estimate the contribution made by pro-poor health policy to reduction in wealth disparities in under-5 mortality.MethodsAn ecological, cross-sectional analysis was performed using Demographic and
Margaret E Kruk; Marta R Prescott; Helen de Pinho; Sandro Galea
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), ratified by most nations in 2000, set specific targets for poverty reduction, eradication of hunger, education, gender equality, health and environmental sustainability. MDG 4 aims to reduce child mortality with a target of reducing under-five mortality rates by two thirds over the period 1990–2015. Over the last year, Live Aid, Make Poverty History, the G8
Joy E Lawn; Anthony Costello; Charles Mwansambo; David Osrin
Provides a sketch of Bangladesh’s socio-economic performance in the light of the UN’s Millennium Development Goals. After providing some background on these goals and on Bangladesh, this article considers trends in the incidence of poverty and hunger in Bangladesh, access to education and gender equality in Bangladesh, child mortality and maternal health, the incidence of important diseases in Bangladesh and
The Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) calls for the reduction in under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Only 16 of the 68 countries with 97% of the world's child deaths are on track to achieve this. This paper reviews the current evidence regarding proven interventions for reducing child mortality in high-mortality, resource-poor settings. All of these interventions require
Tree-ring widths from millennium-old Huon pine (Lagarostrobos franklinii) trees have been used to reconstruct warm season (November-April) temperatures back to AD 900 for Tasmania. The reconstruction indicates that the most recent 100 years of climate have been highly unusual, with the coldest and warmest 25-year periods occurring from 1890 to 1914 and 1965 to 1989, respectively. Although the most recent
Er Cook; T. Bird; M. Peterson; M. Barbetti; B. Buckley; R. DArrigo; R. Francey
Bioelectrical (EEG) and hemodynamic (fMRI-response) cerebral reactions to performance and imaginary motor tasks by right or left hand were analyzed in 15 right-handed healthy persons (21-39 years old). During actual movement the main fMRI-response was registered in the area of central gyrus of the hemisphere contralateral to the working hand. Areas of activation were also revealed in the supplemental motor area and the ipsilateral hemisphere of the cerebellum. EEG data showed coherence increase in high frequency alpha- and beta-bands in the activated hemisphere. In imaginary motor tasks the intensity and topography of fMRI-response became the more variable; response was decreased in the motor area and in cerebellum, they increased in the subcortical structures and in the parietal association zones. EEG changes were very variable in this situation also; it was observe an increase of EEG coherence in the right hemisphere for higher frequency of alpha and beta spectral bands. Changes of power spectrum parameters were similar to performance and imaginary motor tasks. Spectrum power and middle frequency of beta band were increased. Topographically these changes did not correspond to activated hemisphere and it was more in the left hemisphere. These changes were reflected nonspecific component of reaction. PMID:24450163
Boldyreva, G N; Sharova, E V; Zhavoronkova, L A; Cheliapina, M V; Dubrovskaia, L P; Simonova, O A; Fadeeva, L M; Pronin, I N; Kornienko, V N
This qualitative study investigated written discourse in the form of personal letters written by ten people with aphasia following stroke and ten people with cognitive-language disorder as a consequence of traumatic brain injury, and compared their performance with 15 non brain-damaged writers. Personal letters perform the dual function of…
From 1973 to 1983 the number and proportion of mentally retarded persons in the total population of Sweden has not changed, but there are fewer children and young persons and more adults. The changes are hypothetically attributed to prenatal diagnosis, improved obstetrical techniques, and the introduction of antibiotics in 1948. (Author/VW)
Investigated relationship between identity status and structural features of individual's personal construct system. Elicited personal constructs relevant to 10 contemporaneous roles from 75 college students who also completed identity-status measure. Correlational analyses between identity-status scores and structural features of the self-system…
The hypothesis that a General Factor of Personality (GFP) occupies the apex of the hierarchical structure of personality was examined in the validation sample of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire. A maximum likelihood estimation model that went from the 11 primary traits to five higher-order traits resembling the Big Five, and from there to the Big Two (Plasticity, Stability), and from
The present study demonstrates that (1) computer personalities can be easily created using a minimal set of cues, and (2) that people will respond to these personalities in the same way they would respond to similar human personalities. The present study focuses on the “simikirityattraction hypothesis,” which predicts that people will prefer to interact with others who are similar in
Clifford Nass; Youngme Moon; B. J. Fogg; Byron Reeves; Chris Dryer
In this study, we propose a new last millennium reconstruction of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic. For this purpose, we use a selection of 60 annually to decadally resolved proxy records from different archives (ice cores, tree rings, speleothems, and lake and ocean sediments), which are distributed around the Atlantic Ocean and continental boundaries. These records are selected for showing a significant correlation with the longest instrumental NAO time series. The reconstruction is based on a Principal Component Regression (PCR) technique using a subset of the initial predictors. Two pseudo-proxy studies based on the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) and the last millennium PMIP3 simulations are performed to validate the choice of proxies and therefore produce a model and reanalysis-consistent NAO. This is a novel approach in which proxy and model worlds are combined with the aim of improving the reliability of the reconstruction. An ensemble of reconstructions is additionally generated to explore the potential uncertainties inherent to the reconstruction method (i.e. calibration period, number of PCs retained, level of significance imposed, and data smoothing). Thus, we provide a robust benchmark that enables us to test recent hypotheses. For example, no persistent positive NAO phase is observed during medieval times, in clear contrast with the bi-proxy NAO reconstruction by Trouet et al (2009). Furthermore, no significant link between the winter NAO and the external forcings is identified, thus opposed to previous results with climate models. Finally, our millennial reconstruction depicts a remarkable shift around 1450 AD, characterised by a fast negative-to-positive NAO transition lying within the range of recent winter NAO excursions. This result supports that 20th century NAO variability is not unprecedent in the context of the last millennium, in line with the IPCC AR5.
Global changes in precipitation patterns are potentially one of the most important impacts in a warming climate. Understanding the changes in spatial and temporal patterns of natural hydrologic variability over the past millennium is imperative to making accurate predictions of future changes in hydroclimate. In this study we present a decadal-resolution proxy reconstruction of rainfall variability over the past millennium from a marine lake in Palau. Palau is located in the Western Pacific Warm Pool, which is a primary source of heat and moisture to the extratropics. Multidecadal to Centennial-scale changes in Palau's hydroclimate may indicate fundamental changes in Walker circulation or fluctuations in the mean position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. We use the proxy technique of compound-specific hydrogen isotope analysis to reconstruct rainfall in this study. This approach is based on the fact that the hydrogen isotopic ratio (?D) of membrane lipids of aquatic algae reflects the ?D of lake surface water. The ?D of the lake surface water, in turn, varies as a function of the amount of rainfall. We observe several large (ca. 40‰) centennial-scale shifts in the ?D of dinosterol in Palau over the course of the past millennium. There is a shift to dryer conditions in Palau ca. 1600-1800 A.D., which is consistent with a southward shift in the mean position of the ITCZ observed in other records spanning the tropical Pacific Ocean during this period. Another shift to dry conditions occurs ca. 1350-1500 A.D. Both of these dry periods correspond to archeological evidence of abandonment of settlements and/or increased fortifications in Palau. Positive correlation with two additional records of hydroclimatic variability from the Indonesia indicate that the Palau ?Ddinosterol record reflects broad scale regional shifts in precipitation.
Objective: Millennium Development Goal 5A, to decrease the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between from 1990 to 2015, is proving difficult to achieve in many developing countries, including those in Mesoamerica. In this preliminary report from Belize we describe the major steps taken recently to improve maternal outcomes, leading to the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 5A in 2011, confounding all predictions. Methods: In mid-2007, Belize deployed the world's first integrated countrywide health information system (BHIS), with eight embedded prevention/management domains. These included one centred on maternal health and covering best practices in prenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum care. The Ministry of Health and local maternal health care leaders used ongoing BHIS maternal data aggressively to detect health care system problems and to intervene to change outcomes. The maternal mortality ratios per 100 000 live births for 2005 to 2011 (i.e., from two years before BHIS deployment to four years after) were calculated from death and live birth data using Belize vital statistics. Results: The maternal mortality ratio fell from 134.1 in 2005 to zero in 2011, with the major sustained drop occurring from 2008 onwards, coincident with implementation of the BHIS. The annual number of live births did not change over this time. Conclusion: Exceeding all expectations, Belize achieved Millennium Development Goal 5A in 2011, with a reduction in the maternal mortality ratio of well over three quarters. The drop in maternal mortality ratio was temporally associated with the introduction of the BHIS and its embedded maternal health domain. BHIS data were used aggressively to monitor and continuously improve maternal health care. PMID:23067946
Graven, Michael; Allen, Peter; Allen, Victoria M; Smith, Ian; Macdonald, Noni E
OBJECTIVE. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a risk factor for violence and is associated with poor treatment response when it is a co-morbid condition with substance abuse. It is an under-recognised clinical entity in the local Hong Kong setting, for which there are only a few available Chinese-language diagnostic instruments. None has been tested for its psychometric properties in the Cantonese-speaking population in Hong Kong. This study therefore aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the ASPD subscale of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) in Hong Kong Chinese. METHODS. This assessment tool was modified according to dialectal differences between Mainland China and Hong Kong. Inpatients in Castle Peak Hospital, Hong Kong, who were designated for priority follow-up based on their assessed propensity for violence and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the study, were recruited. To assess the level of agreement, best-estimate diagnosis made by a multidisciplinary team was compared with diagnostic status determined by the SCID-II ASPD subscale. The internal consistency, sensitivity, and specificity of the subscale were also calculated. RESULTS. The internal consistency of the subscale was acceptable at 0.79, whereas the test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability showed an excellent and good agreement of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. Best-estimate clinical diagnosis-SCID diagnosis agreement was acceptable at 0.76. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 0.91, 0.86, 0.83, and 0.93, respectively. CONCLUSION. The Chinese version of the SCID-II ASPD subscale is reliable and valid for diagnosing ASPD in a Cantonese-speaking clinical population. PMID:23807628
With the impending approach of the year 2000, the author considers the evolution of health benefits over the last few decades and the forces that are bound to affect health benefits for the small employer in the next millennium. This article suggests that it will be necessary to spread the cost of health care as well as other reform initiatives in order to make it possible for small businesses to have a greater voice as well as an equal share in health benefits, particularly considering that the majority of Americans work for small employers. PMID:10166971
The millennium promises a dramatic politicisation of the food question. In addition to the prominent issues of food security, hunger and nutrition, bioengineering, food safety and quality, there are related issues of environmental sustainability, power, sovereignty and rights. All these issues are deeply implicated in the current corporate form of globalisation, which is transforming historic global arrangements by subordinating public institutions and the question of food security to private solutions. The present paper questions the self-evident association between globalisation and nutritional improvement. PMID:11681637
The purpose of NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is to validate advanced technologies in space and thus lower the risk for the first mission user. The focus of NMP is only on those technologies which need space environment for proper validation. The ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on spacecraft of the future. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve spacecraft's ability to: make decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground, determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing.
Chmielewski, Arthur B.; Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert; Wyman, William; Brady, T.; Buckley, S.; Tillier, C.
This paper provides a brief review of genetically informative studies of personality disorders. Findings from twin and adoption studies suggest that personality disorders are moderately to strongly heritable (heritability estimates between 30% and 80%) and that environmental factors that increase the risk of personality disorder are individual specific (non-shared environment estimates between 25% and 70%). Molecular genetic studies of personality
NINDS Stiff-Person Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Stiff-Person Syndrome? Is there ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Stiff-Person Syndrome? Stiff-person syndrome (SPS) is a rare ...
Working from normalization theory, uses a graphical metaphor to illustrate the liberation of the "hidden self." Explains the layers of the metaphor, the "false person," the "intelligent, rational person," and the "hidden person," and offers several ways educators can work to uncover the layers surrounding the hidden person. (EV)
Even a cursory survey of this article suggests that the pharmaceutical sciences are being rapidly transformed under the influence of both the new technologies and sciences and the economic imperatives. Of particular importance are scientific and technological advances that may greatly accelerate the critical process of discovery. The possibility of a drug discovery process built around the principles of directed diversity, self-reproduction, evolution, and self-targeting suggests a new paradigm of lead discovery, one based quite directly on the paradigms of molecular biology. Coupled with the principles of nanotechnology, we may contemplate miniature molecular machines containing directed drug factories, circulating the body and capable of self-targeting against defective cells and pathways -- the ultimate "drug delivery machine." However, science and technology are not the only factors that will transform the pharmaceutical sciences in the next century. The necessary reductions in the costs of drug discovery brought about by the rapidly increasing costs of the current drug discovery paradigms means that efforts to decrease the discovery phase and to make drug development part of drug discovery will become increasingly important. This is likely to involve increasing numbers of "alliances," as well as the creation of pharmaceutical research cells -- highly mobile and entrepreneurial groups within or outside of a pharmaceutical company that are formed to carry out specific discovery processes. Some of these will be in the biotechnology industry, but an increasing number will be in universities. The linear process from basic science to applied technology that has been the Western model since Vannevar Bush's Science: The Endless Frontier has probably never been particularly linear and, in any event, is likely to be rapidly supplanted by models where science, scientific development, and technology are more intimately linked. The pharmaceutical sciences have always been an example of use-directed basic research, but the relationships between the pharmaceutical industry, small and large, and the universities seems likely to become increasingly developed in the next century. This may serve as a significant catalyst for the continued transformation of universities into the "knowledge factories" of the 21st century. Regardless, we may expect to see major changes in the research organizational structure in the pharmaceutical sciences even as pharmaceutical companies enjoy record prosperity. And this is in anticipation of tough times to come. PMID:10084422
The large-scale infall of galaxies around massive clusters provides a potentially powerful diagnostic of structure growth, dark energy and cosmological deviations from General Relativity. We develop and test a method to recover galaxy infall kinematics (GIK) from measurements of the redshift-space cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function ? s_cg(r_p,r_? ). Using galaxy and halo samples from the Millennium simulation, we calibrate an analytic model of the galaxy kinematic profiles comprising a virialized component with an isotropic Gaussian velocity distribution and an infall component described by a skewed 2D t-distribution with a characteristic infall velocity vr, c and separate radial and tangential dispersions. We show that convolving the real-space cross-correlation function with this velocity distribution accurately predicts the redshift-space ? s_cg, and we show that measurements of ? s_cg can be inverted to recover the four distinct elements of the GIK profiles. These in turn provide diagnostics of cluster mass profiles, and we expect the characteristic infall velocity vr, c(r) in particular to be insensitive to galaxy formation physics that can affect velocity dispersions within haloes. As a proof of concept we measure ? s_cg for rich galaxy groups in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and recover GIK profiles for groups in two bins of central galaxy stellar mass. The higher mass bin has a vr, c(r) curve very similar to that of 1014 h-1 M? haloes in the Millennium simulation, and the recovered kinematics follow the expected trends with mass. GIK modelling of cluster-galaxy cross-correlations can be a valuable complement to stacked weak lensing analyses, allowing novel tests of modified gravity theories that seek to explain cosmic acceleration.
Biomedical interventions promise achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals provided social-, capacity- and knowledge-based constraints to scaling up and reaching marginalized people at risk, are addressed, and balance between prevention and treatment is struck. We argue for a new approach: multi-stakeholder capacity building and learning for empowerment: MuSCLE. MuSCLE is used as a way to frame three systemic weaknesses in traditional health science and policy approaches: 1) a lack of engagement with people at risk to build a collective understanding of the contexts of health problems; 2) a lack of multi-criteria evaluation of alternative interventions; and 3) a lack of attention paid to integrated capacity building. The MuSCLE framework responds in three ways: 1) Participatory assessment of the ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political contexts of health, identifying priorities using risk and vulnerability science, and modeling drivers; 2) Selection among intervention alternatives that makes ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political tradeoffs transparent; and 3) Integrated capacity building for sustainable and adaptive interventions. Literature and field lessons support the argument, and guidelines are set down. A MuSCLE approach argues for a transformation in health science and policy in order to achieve Millennium Development Goals for health.
We report the first millennium-long reconstruction of mean summer (May-June-July-August) temperature extending back to AD 940 derived from tree-ring width data of Himalayan pencil juniper ( Juniperus polycarpos C. Koch) from the monsoon-shadow zone in the western Himalaya, India. Centennial-scale variations in the reconstruction reveal periods of protracted warmth encompassing the 11-15th centuries. A decreasing trend in mean summer temperature occurred since the 15th century with the 18-19th centuries being the coldest interval of the last millennium, coinciding with the expansion of glaciers in the western Himalaya. Since the late 19th century summer temperatures increased again. However, current warming may be underestimated due to a weakening in tree growth-temperature relationship noticeable in the latter part of the 20th century. Mean summer temperature over the western Himalaya shows a positive correlation with summer monsoon intensity over north central India. Low-frequency variations in mean summer temperature anomalies over northwestern India are consistent with tree-ring inferred aridity in western North America. These far-distance linkages reported here for the first time underscore the utility of long-term temperature records from the western Himalayan region in understanding global-scale climatic patterns.
The evolution of present-day fossil galaxy groups is studied in the Millennium simulation. Using the corresponding Millennium gas simulation and semi-analytic galaxy catalogues, we select fossil groups at redshift zero according to the conventional observational criteria, and trace the haloes corresponding to these groups backwards in time, extracting the associated dark matter, gas and galaxy properties. The space density of the fossils from this study is remarkably close to the observed estimates and various possibilities for the remaining discrepancy are discussed. The fraction of X-ray bright systems which are fossils appears to be in reasonable agreement with observations, and the simulations predict that fossil systems will be found in significant numbers (3-4 per cent of the population) even in quite rich clusters. We find that fossils assemble a higher fraction of their mass at high redshifts, compared to non-fossil groups, with the ratio of the currently assembled halo mass to final mass, at any epoch, being about 10-20 per cent higher for fossils. This supports the paradigm whereby fossils represent undisturbed, early-forming systems in which large galaxies have merged to form a single dominant elliptical.
Beryllium-10 in ice provides a valuable proxy of solar activity. However, complex production pathways, atmospheric transport, and deposition processes impede its quantitative interpretation. Here, we examine the influence of deposition processes on two Be-10 ice core records from Central Antarctica (South Pole and Dome Fuji stations), covering the last millennium. We try to quantify how Be-10 variations in ice relate to variations in Be-10 production, and the bias associated to this relationship. An independent bias estimation is provided by comparing atmospheric radiocarbon variations reconstructed from tree rings and deduced from Be-10 variations. Both techniques suggest an uncertainty of the order of 10% in Be-10 production. This uncertainty estimate does not account for the geographical origin of Be-10, which remains a major issue. Because both Be-10 records are so similar, we propose to average them as a means to decrease the unshared (non solar) variability. This average record provides a new reconstruction of solar modulation parameter ? and total solar irradiance over the last ~1,300 years. The lowest solar activity is found during the so-called Spörer Minimum (around AD 1450). The highest activities are found during the 8th century and over the last decades: as shown in previous studies, our results suggest that the recent solar activity is not exceptionally high for the last millennium.
Understanding precipitation variation, drought and flood history, and their associated forcing mechanisms are important to human society. In this study, five moisture-sensitive tree-ring width chronologies are used to represent variations in precipitation over the past millennium on the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP). We find a strong coherency between chronologies in the NETP, indicating a common response to regional climate during the last millennium. The first principal component of the five chronologies (PC1) correlates significantly with regional precipitation and can thus be used as an indicator of regional precipitation variations. Dry spells, even more severe than the 1920s drought, occurred during AD 1139-1152, 1294-1309, 1446-1503 and 1708-1726. Previous studies in this area using other proxies also identified these droughts. Multi-Taper spectral analysis demonstrates significant periodicities at 205 yr and 73 yr, plus a range of ~ 2 yr cycles, suggesting possible linkage with solar variation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). PC1 also shows coherent patterns with solar irradiance variation: the precipitation tends to reach low values during the well-known solar minimum.
Tropical rainfall patterns directly influence the subsistence lifestyle of more than a billion people and indirectly influence climate globally. Their seasonal changes are associated with the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) where deep convection causes heavy rainfall near 10°N in boreal summer and 3°N in winter. Dynamic controls on the ITCZ position are debated but paleoclimate evidence on and near continental Asia, Africa and the Americas suggests it has shifted substantially during the last millennium, reaching its southern-most position some time during the Little Ice Age (LIA, 1400-1850 AD). However, without records from the meteorological core of the ITCZ in the Pacific Ocean quantitative constraints on its position are lacking. We demonstrate with microbiological, molecular and hydrogen isotope evidence from lake, lagoon and bog sediments from islands across the tropical Pacific Ocean that the Pacific ITCZ was south of its modern position for most of the last millennium, by as much as 500 km during the LIA. A colder Northern Hemisphere at that time, possibly resulting from lower solar irradiance, may have driven the ITCZ south, implying small changes in Earth’s radiation budget can profoundly impact tropical rainfall.
Sachs, J. P.; Sachse, D.; Zhang, Z.; Smittenberg, R.; Carre, M.; Mügler, I.; Nelson, D. B.; Atwood, A.; Ladd, N.
There have been a number of studies dedicated to identification of fossil galaxy groups, arguably groups with a relatively old formation epoch. Most of such studies identify fossil groups, primarily based on a large luminosity gap, which is the magnitude gap between the two most luminous galaxies in the group. Studies of these types of groups in the millennium cosmological simulations show that, although they have accumulated a significant fraction of their mass, relatively earlier than groups with a small luminosity gap, this parameter alone is not highly efficient in fully discriminating between the `old' and `young' galaxy groups, a label assigned based on halo mass accumulation history. We study galaxies drawn from the semi-analytic models of Guo et al., based on the Millennium Simulation. We establish a set of four observationally measurable parameters which can be used in combination, to identify a subset of galaxy groups which are old, with a very high probability. We thus argue that a sample of fossil groups selected based on luminosity gap will result in a contaminated sample of old galaxy groups. By adding constraints on the luminosity of the brightest galaxy, and its offset from the group luminosity centroid, we can considerably improve the age dating.
Atmospheric circulation influences the seasonal sea ice duration in Antarctic Peninsula and plays a significant role on the heat budget in Antarctica. However, little is know about past regional variations of this important component of the earth climate system . In this study, we present two marine sediment core records covering the last millennium from key located in the eastern and the western sides of Antarctic Peninsula. We combined diatom assemblages and specific sea-ice biomarkers to document changes in sea ice, hydrology and primary productivity over the last ~700 years. Diatom assemblage and biomarker variations were coincident with Na+ concentration record in Siple Dome ice core suggesting that oceanic conditions variations, upper circumpolar deep water upwelling and Weddell Gyre intensity in west and east Antarctic Peninsula areas respectively, responded to the atmospheric circulation variability during the last millennium. For both regions, we identified a period of shorter seasonal sea ice cover and reduced primary productivity related to a strengthening of the Westerlies during the so-called Little Ice Age (LIA) period. Acooler interval, characterized by an increase of the sea ice seasonal duration, a stronger water column stratification and a higher productivity extending of the last two centuries as a response to a weakening of wind intensity has also been indentifed. We propose that the globally mild environmental conditions in both sides of the Antarctic Peninsula during the LIA resulted from a common atmospheric forcing such as the greater occurrence of positive SAM anomalies during that period.
Relationships between personality organization, reflective functioning (RF), and the number of Axis I and Axis II disorders were examined. Ninety-two female patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM–IV–TR) borderline personality disorder (BPD) were administered the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO), the Adult Attachment Interview for assessment of RF, and the Structured Clinical Interview for
Melitta Fischer-Kern; Anna Buchheim; Susanne Hörz; Peter Schuster; Stephan Doering; Nestor D. Kapusta; Svenja Taubner; Anna Tmej; Michael Rentrop; Peter Buchheim; Peter Fonagy
This article describes the identification of a 10-item set of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) items, which proved to be effective as a self-report assessment instrument in screening personality disorders. The item selection was based on the retrospective analyses of 495 SCID-II interviews. The psychometric properties were studied in a prospective validation study in a random sample of Dutch adult psychiatric outpatients, using the SCID-II interview as the gold standard. First, all patients completed the short questionnaire. One week later, they were interviewed with the full SCID-II. After another week, the short questionnaire was readministered. According to the scores obtained with the full SCID-II, 97 patients (50%) had a personality disorder. The set of 10 SCID-II items correctly classified 78% of all participants. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative power were 0.78, 0.78, 0.78, and 0.78, respectively. The results based on the retrospectively obtained data were rather similar to those obtained in the prospective validation study. Therefore, it is concluded that the set of 10 SCID-II items can be useful as a quick self-report personality disorder screen in a population of psychiatric outpatients. PMID:21038969
Germans, Sara; Van Heck, Guus L; Masthoff, Erik D; Trompenaars, Fons J W M; Hodiamont, Paul P G
Objectives: We aimed to review how personality characteristics contribute to the onset, maintenance or modulation of fibromyalgia. Method: The databases Medline and PsychINFO were examined from 1967 to 2012 to identify studies that investigated associations between fibromyalgia and personality. Search terms included fibromyalgia and personality, trait psychology, characteristics and individual differences. Results: Numerous studies indicate that patients with fibromyalgia experience psychological distress. Various instruments have been used to evaluate distress and related psychological domains, such as anxiety or depression, in fibromyalgia. In many cases, these same instruments have been used to study personality characteristics in fibromyalgia with a subsequent blurring of cause and effect between personality and psychological distress. In addition, the symptoms of fibromyalgia may change pre-illness personality characteristics themselves. These issues make it difficult to identify specific personality characteristics that might influence the fibromyalgia process. Despite this inherent problem with the methodologies used in the studies that make up this literature review, or perhaps because of it, we found no defined personality profile specific to fibromyalgia. However, many patients with fibromyalgia do show personality characteristics that facilitate psychological responses to stressful situations, such as catastrophising or poor coping techniques, and these in turn associate with mechanisms contributing to fibromyalgia. Conclusion: No specific fibromyalgia personality is defined but it is proposed that personality is an important filter that modulates a person’s response to psychological stressors. Certain personalities may facilitate translation of these stressors to physiological responses driving the fibromyalgia mechanism.
The concept of multiple personality ia critically examined in the light of its historical development. Various conceptions of multiple personality are considered: aa a diagnostic fashion; aa a product of shaping in therapy; as a product of hypnotic suggestion; as simulation; and aa an extension of characteristica found in “normal” personslitiea. These considerations lead to the conclusion that the significant
This guide was developed to assist the nation's elementary and secondary schools and school districts address their Year 2000 (Y2K) problem. The guide is divided into three sections: Squashing the Millennium Bug Step-by-Step; Remediating Specific Types of Systems; and Appendix. The first chapter presents the following steps for tackling the Year…
The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) announces the availability of the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Solar Millennium, LLC, Amargosa Farm Road Solar Energy Project Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The Secretary of the Interior approved the ROD on November 15, 2010, which constitutes the final decision of the...
Objective To determine the cost effectiveness of selected malaria control interventions in the context of reaching the millennium development goals for malaria. Design Generalised cost effectiveness analysis. Data sources Efficacy data came from the literature and authors' calculations supported by expert opinion. Quantities for resource inputs came from the literature and from expert opinion; prices came from the WHO-CHOICE database.
This collection of 17 essays focuses on the major changes that higher education needs to make so that it can effectively pursue teaching and research and significantly contribute public service in a rapidly changing world. The essays include: (1) "Survey of the Main Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium" (Luc E. Weber); (2) "Meeting…
Using secondary data of Government Schools and literacy department for 10 years that is 2000-2010, this paper assesses the progress on the issue of gender equality within the framework of education related Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in district Quetta. The assessment is based on the selected indicators of goals by applying descriptive…
Describes the development of an online learning program being developed by the University of the Highlands and Islands Millennium Institute, a consortium of colleges and research institutes in Scotland. Highlights include staff development; theories of learning and teaching; principles of course design; conversation theory; and paradigm shifts in…
VA spent an estimated $418 million on Millennium Act emergency care claims in fiscal year 2012 and projects spending will increase to $580 million by fiscal year 2015. GAO was asked to review VA's administration of the emergency care benefit under the act...
This paper discusses the progress that Vietnam has made toward meeting a core set of development goals that the government recently adopted as part of its Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy (CPRGS). These goals are strongly related to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), but are adapted and expanded to reflect Vietnam?s national challenges and the government?s ambitious development plans.
Targets and interventions for the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) related to reducing hunger (MDG 1) and child mortality (MDG 4) have ignored the role of intergenerational influences on health. In this study, the comparative importance of intergenerational and contemporaneous factors for achieving MDGs 1 and 4 targets was evaluated. A database of 735970 children from 109 Demographic and Health Surveys
The latest statistics of WHO show that approxi- mately 500,000 women die worldwide every year - the majority of them residing in developing countries - due to pregnancy related complications. The situation is so grave that UN has set a target of reducing Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) by 75% till the year 2015 in its millennium development goals (MDGs). Therefore,
This paper uses a health literacy “lens” to look at key global health challenges, including the achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the reduction of disease burden due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Available global evidence is summarized related to: assessment of the impact of health literacy on health and development; identification of measures for reporting progress; exploring ways
The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) progress targets have not been met. Nevertheless, the United Nations (UN) has not yet undertaken in-depth review in order to discover the reasons behind this lack of progress in achieving the MDG. From a political epidemiology perspective, the intention here is to identify the political elements affecting the social factors impeding MDG fulfilment and, at
D Gil-González; M T Ruiz-Cantero; C Álvarez-Dardet
Most of the developing countries are becoming more aid dependent with the passage of time. This bleak reality provokes debate on aid effectiveness. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of aid on the health sector of Pakistan over the period 1973-2008. The study focuses on the health sector in the light of Millennium Development Goal; reducing child mortality. We estimate an
Purpose – There is growing awareness that global public health problems are so complex, and require such major resources, that neither states nor other stakeholders can tackle them and achieve the millennium development goals (MDGs) on their own. This paper aims to examine the relevance of the MDGs to the pharmaceutical sector and summarizes the industry's contributions to helping achieve
An analysis of the characteristics of education and educational institutions of the third millennium shows that predominant features are flexibility, inclusiveness, collaboration, authenticity, relevance and extended institutional boundaries. Roles of both students and teachers have changed significantly as educational goals have broadened to…
Background: To model and compare contextual (area and family) effects on the psychopathology of children nested in families nested in areas. Method: Data from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study were used. The final study sample was 9,630 children clustered in 6,052 families clustered in 1,681 Lower-layer Super Output Areas.…
In the most basic terms, the skills and attributes that produced success for the first two generations of community college leaders will be the skills and attributes required of those leading community colleges into the new millennium. The issues and the goals to be attained, however, will be somewhat different. This paper looks at the leadership…
The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of two psychosocial features of the classroom environment (teacher support and personal relevance) on college students' academic self-efficacy and enjoyment of mathematics lessons. Data collected from 352 mathematics students attending three higher education institutions in the United Arab…
Aldridge, Jill M.; Afari, Ernest; Fraser, Barry J.
Few studies have examined the role of managerial support in the adaptation of entrants to healthcare. The purpose of this study was to identify the job characteristic and role-related variables that mediate the effects of managerial support and personality on the mental and physical health and sickness absence in two independent groups of new recruits to a healthcare organization. Entrants
Students will discover the importance of scientific replication by performing an investigation requiring them to write, and then follow, step-by-step instructions. The scenario will be based on the show Survivor and will involve making peanut butter and jelly sandwiches.
Using a compilation of the most recent, high-resolution proxy data from the tropics, and a state-of-the-art climate reconstruction technique (RegEM iTTLS; Emile-Geay et al, submitted), we reconstruct sea-surface temperature (SST) in the central equatorial Pacific (NINO3.4 region) over the past millennium. Using frozen network experiments and pseudoproxy validation, the reconstruction is found skillful back to 1150 C.E., with inevitable amplitude reduction before 1500 C.E. due to the paucity of proxy predictors. Despite this caveat, wavelet coherency analysis reveals a marked anticorrelation between solar forcing (as estimated from cosmogenic isotope concentrations; Bard et al., 2007; Steinhilber et al., 2009) and the reconstructed NINO3.4 in the ~sim205-year spectral range (DeVries cycle). The phase angle between both signals is 156 ± 33o in this range, indicating that periods of high solar irradiance coincide with cool conditions in the NINO3.4 region, with time lag of 14 ± 19 years. We find this result robust to the reconstruction method, estimate of solar forcing, or analysis method used to estimate the phasing. We then discuss the implication of this result for the response of tropical Pacific climate to radiative forcing. While the anti-phasing seems to favor the ``ocean dynamical thermostat'' hypothesis of Clement et al , this feedback appears subdued in most IPCC-class coupled general circulation models (CGCMs), where it is almost completely compensated by changes in the Pacific trade winds, linked to changes in the vertical structures of atmospheric moisture and temperature (Knutson & Manabe 1995; Held & Soden 2006; Vecchi et al. 2006). If the reconstruction is correct that past NINO3.4 SSTs have varied out of phase with solar irradiance on bicentennial scales, this would pose a new challenge both for CGCM simulations and for our understanding of the equatorial Pacific response to radiative forcing Clement, A. C., Seager, R., Cane, M. A., and Zebiak, S. E. (1996). An ocean dynamical thermostat. J. Clim., 9(9):2190-2196. Emile-Geay, J., K. Cobb, M. Mann, and A. T. Wittenberg, Estimating Tropical Pacific SST variability over the Past Millennium. Part 1: Methodology and Validation. J. Clim., submitted. available at: http://college.usc.edu/labs/jeg/publications/. Held, Isaac M., Brian J. Soden, 2006: Robust Responses of the Hydrological Cycle to Global Warming. J. Climate, 19, 5686-5699. doi: 10.1175/JCLI3990.1 Steinhilber, F., Beer, J., and Fröhlich, C. (2009). Total solar irradiance during the Holocene. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36:L19704. Vecchi, G. A., Soden, B. J., Wittenberg, A. T., Held, I. M., Leetmaa, A., and Harrison, M. J. (2006). Weakening of tropical Pacific atmospheric circulation due to anthropogenic forcing. Nature, 441:73-76.
Emile-Geay, J.; Cobb, K.; Mann, M. E.; Wittenberg, A. T.
Though numerous syntheses of high-resolution paleoclimate data have documented temperature changes associated with the Medieval Period, the Little Ice Age, and the Industrial era in north temperate regions, few records of temperature variability exist for the Southern Hemisphere (Mann and Jones, 2003, GRL doi: 10.1029/2003GL017814). Here, we present a new, high-resolution record of terrestrial temperature and rainfall from southeast tropical Africa, based upon organic geochemical analyses of annually laminated sediment cores from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa, providing the first millennium-long, high-resolution record of temperature from the East African tropics. Extending to 700CE with decadal resolution, the record uses the TEX86 paleothermometer and hydrogen stable isotope ratios (dD) of leaf waxes, which have been shown to reflect temperature and hydrologic conditions in Tanganyika, respectively (Tierney 2008, Science). The TEX86-based temperature reconstruction shows that Tanganyika temperatures were relatively warm at 700CE, cooler from 800-1000CE, and then warmer again between approximately 1050-1300CE. The latter warm interval is coincident with periods of warmer temperatures documented in the Northern Hemisphere. Yet temperatures are highly variable within the Little Ice Age (~1450-1800CE) and do not cool substantially relative to older time periods, in contrast to north temperate regions. Pronounced warming from approximately 1850 to the present is unprecedented in comparison to patterns of temperature variability during the previous centuries. The temperature variability documented here does not seem to correspond strongly to lake level fluctuations in Tanganyika over the past millennium (Cohen et al., 2005, JoPL, doi 10.1007/s10933-005- 2422-4), suggesting that Southeast African climate variability is more complex than alternating cycles of warm/wet and cool/dry conditions. dD analyses document considerable hydrologic variability over the past millennium, with temporal patterns that may be consistent with previous precipitation reconstructions from central East Africa. Overall, our records show that climate, particularly temperature, has changed abruptly during the past thousand years in southeast tropical Africa.
The reconstructed temperature anomalies in the eastern China were compared with the output from a 1000- year model simulation in an attempt to evaluate the model's regional simulation skills and to understand the causes of climate change in China over the last millennium. The reconstructed data are the winter half-year temperature anomalies in the central region of eastern China (25°-40'N, east of 105°E) for the last 1000 years with a 30-year resolution. The model used is the global atmosphere-ocean coupled climate model, ECHO-G, which was driven by time-varying external forcings including solar radiation, volcanic eruptions, and greenhouse gas concentrations (CO2 and CH4) for the same period. The correlation coefficient between the simulated and reconstructed time series is 0.37, which is statistically significant at a confidence level of 97.5%. The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) during 1000£1300 A.D., the Little Ice Age (LIA) during 1300£1850 A.D. and the modern warming period after 1900 A.D. are all recognizable from both the simulated and reconstructed temperatures. The anomalies associated with the LIA and the modern warming simulated by the model is in good consistency with the reconstructed counterpart. In particular during the Maunder sun-spot minimum (1670£1710 A.D.), both the simulated and reconstructed temperature anomalies reach their minima without any phase difference. But in the earlier MWP, significant discrepancies exist between the simulation and the reconstruction, which might reflect the degrading quality of the reconstruction data. The range of the simulated anomalies (1.62 K) is comparable with that of reconstructed (2.0 K). Diagnosis of the model results indicates that, during the last millennium, variations in solar radiation and volcanic activity are the main controlling factors on regional temperature change, while in the recent 100 years, the change of the concentration of greenhouse gases plays most important role in explaining the rapid temperature rising. Keywords: last millennium climate, paleoclimate simulation, reconstruction, eastern China.
The diagnosis of a personality disorder is defined by the fact that personality traits are formed by early childhood, but German clinicians very rarely diagnose children and adolescents with personality disorders. Opponents of diagnosing personality disorders in childhood want to avoid labeling and refer to the developmental aspect of the personality. Supporters argue that children and adolescents already possess a describable personality and the developmental process continues into adulthood. By recognizing the pathological personality tendencies early enough allows an early therapy which can prevent an acute progression. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) is applicable for use with adolescents. This empirical study indicated that one-third of the adolescents investigated were still diagnosed with a personality disorder 1 year after the primary assessment. However, the present categorizing diagnosis system proved to be insensible for childhood and adolescence. This supports the notion that dimensional systems are needed to diagnose personality traits in childhood in adolescence. PMID:19768448
This paper examines authoritariansim and prejudice from the perspective of contemporary personality theory and literature. Historical theories are reviewed, concluding with current views on right-wing authoritariansim. Factor- based models of personality ...
... results from the borderline personality disorder study of cognitive therapy (BOSCOT) trial. J Personal Disord . 2006 Oct;20( ... McCormick B, Allen J, Arndt S, Black DW. Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) for ...
The Personal Software Process (PSP) provides engineers with a disciplined personal framework for doing software work. The PSP process consists of a set of methods, forms. and scripts that show software engineers how to plan, measure, and manage their work...
... have depression. A second personality disorder, such as paranoid personality disorder, is also common. Common signs of ... of risk, such as a family history of schizophrenia, may allow early diagnosis.
Criteria to differentiate personality disorder from extremes of normal personality variations are important given growing interest in dimensional classification because an extreme level of a personality dimension does not necessarily indicate disorder. The DSM-5 proposed classification of personality disorder offers a definition of general personality disorder based on chronic interpersonal and self/identity pathology. The ability of this approach to differentiate personality disorder from other mental disorders was evaluated using a self-report questionnaire, the General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD). This measure was administered to a sample of psychiatric patients (N?=?149) from different clinical sub-sites. Patients were divided into personality disordered and non-personality disordered groups on the basis of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II). The results showed a hit rate of 82% correct identified patients and a good accuracy of the predicted model. There was a substantial agreement between SCID-II interview and GAPD personality disorder diagnoses. The GAPD appears to predict personality disorder in general, which provides support of the DSM-5 general diagnostic criteria of personality disorder. PMID:24343939
In this essay I consider the future of personality development in light of the past effects of Personality and Assessment on the field of personality in general and personality development in particular. The essay is organized around 1) the effect of Mischel's book on the foundational theories informing personality development; 2) definitions of personality traits; 3) an alternative model of personality traits, described as the sociogenomic model of personality traits, that can bridge the divide that still characterizes the field of personality development; 4) the application of the sociogenomic model of personality traits to issues of personality trait development, and 5) a “Newtonian” vision for the future of personality psychology.
The current description of personalized medicine by the National Institutes of Health is “the science of individualized prevention and therapy.” Although physicians are just beginning to see the promise of genetic medicine coming to fruition, the rapid pace of sequencing technology, informatics, and computer science predict a true revolution in the ability to care for patients in the near future. The enthusiasm expressed by researchers is well founded, but the expectations voiced by the public do not center on advancing technology. Rather, patients are asking for personalized care: a holistic approach that considers an individual’s physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. This perspective considers psychological, religious, and ethical challenges that may arise as the precision of preventive medicine improves. Psychological studies already highlight the barriers to single gene testing and suggest significant barriers to the predictive testing envisioned by personalized medicine. Certain religious groups will likely mount opposition if they believe personalized medicine encourages embryo selection. If the technology prompts cost-containment discussions, those concerned about the sanctity of life may raise ethical objections. Consequently, the availability of new scientific developments does not guarantee advances in treatment because patients may prove unwilling to receive and act upon personalized genetic information. This perspective highlights current efforts to incorporate personalized medicine and personalized care into the medical curriculum, genetic counseling, and other aspects of clinical practice. As these efforts are generally independent, the authors offer recommendations for physicians and educators so that personalized medicine can be implemented in a manner that meets patient expectations for personalized care.
15 years after liberation from apartheid, South Africans are facing new challenges for which the highest calibre of leadership, vision, and commitment is needed. The effect of the unprecedented HIV/AIDS epidemic has been immense. Substantial increases in mortality and morbidity are threatening to overwhelm the health system and undermine the potential of South Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However The Lancet's Series on South Africa has identified several examples of leadership and innovation that point towards a different future scenario. We discuss the type of vision, leadership, and priority actions needed to achieve such a change. We still have time to change the health trajectory of the country, and even meet the MDGs. The South African Government, installed in April, 2009, has the mandate and potential to address the public health emergencies facing the country--will they do so or will another opportunity and many more lives be lost? PMID:19709737
Chopra, Mickey; Lawn, Joy E; Sanders, David; Barron, Peter; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Bradshaw, Debbie; Jewkes, Rachel; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Flisher, Alan J; Mayosi, Bongani M; Tollman, Stephen M; Churchyard, Gavin J; Coovadia, Hoosen
The last Millennium is the best documented climate period affected by variations in external forcing and internal dynamics in a highly nonlinear climate system. According to that the Indian Monsoon and its high variability on different time scales plays an important role, studied in the interdisciplinary HIMPAC project (Himalaya - Modern and Past Climates). In order to understand the driving mechanisms, feedbacks and amplifiers regarding the monsoon variability of the last 1.200 years, the five ensemble members of the full forced simulation of the Millennium experiment (Jungclaus et al., 2010), using the coupled COSMOS Earth System Model (ECHAM5/JSBACH-MPIOM/HAMOCC) in a T31L19 spatial resolution, have been statistically analysed to detect strong wet and dry periods of monsoon rainfall within the All India Monsoon Rainfall Region. Later the selected periods of extreme rainfall events have been simulated in a higher spatial resolution with the atmosphere-only model ECHAM5 in a T63L31 spatial resolution. The focus is on the monsoon variability of the selected 200-years long time slices within the Medieval Climate Optimum (MWP; 900-1100 AD), the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1515-1715 AD) and the Preindustrial (PI; 1800-2000 AD). The relative annual rainfall anomalies simulated by ECHAM5 model show drier (wetter) conditions over India during the MWP (LIA) compared to the PI. The spatial EOF variance patterns of the summer monsoon rainfall in the MWP are more pronounced in the lower resolved T31L19 Millennium simulation according to the higher amount of simulated rainfall whereas the differentiation of the patterns is better in the T63L31 ECHAM5 simulation especially in the Himalayas due to the better representation of the mountains. Furthermore the simulations have been also compared with paleoclimatic reconstructions based on proxy data from different archives (Bhattacharya et al., 2007, Chauhan et al., 2000, Denniston et al., 2000, Ely et al., 1999, Kar et al., 2002, Ponton et al., 2012, Prasad et al. (unpublished) and Sinha et al., 2011). The reconstructions help to verify the model results and the model has been also used to check the consistency of the proxy data. A good agreement between the reconstructed relative moisture signal based on the different sites and the ECHAM5 simulated relative annual rainfall anomalies is shown for "MWP minus PI" whereas the other periods demonstrate more opposite signals between both. Due to the less spatial density of proxy data over India and their relative low temporal resolution more proxy data with a higher temporal resolution for that region are needed for a) to get a more realistic verification of the rainfall changes between the different climatic periods within the last Millennium and b) to achieve a more detailed study of extreme events on very short time scales and a high spatial resolution especially in comparison with results of regional climate simulations, which will be done in the next step of the analysis with the COSMO-CLM Regional Climate Model.
Polanski, S.; Fallah, B.; Leckebusch, G. C.; Cubasch, U.
Despite numerous investigations, the dynamical origins of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age remain uncertain. A major unresolved issue relating to internal climate dynamics is the mode and tempo of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability, and the significance of decadal-to-centennial scale changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation strength in regulating the climate of the last millennium. Here we use the time-constrained high-resolution local radiocarbon reservoir age offset derived from an absolutely dated annually resolved shell chronology spanning the past 1,350 years, to reconstruct changes in surface ocean circulation and climate. The water mass tracer data presented here from the North Icelandic shelf, combined with previously published data from the Arctic and subtropical Atlantic, show that surface Atlantic meridional overturning circulation dynamics likely amplified the relatively warm conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the relatively cool conditions during the Little Ice Age within the North Atlantic sector.
Wanamaker, Alan D.; Butler, Paul G.; Scourse, James D.; Heinemeier, Jan; Eiriksson, Jon; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Richardson, Christopher A.
The World Bank established a set of Millennium Development Goals as both a challenge to poor countries to demonstrate "good governance" and to wealthy nations as a spur that would hopefully encourage them to support economic and social development. Recently, the World Bank created this visually engaging and sophisticated interactive atlas to track those eight goals, which include the promotion of gender equality, combating disease, and reducing child mortality. Visitors can click on any of these eight goals and they will be able to view maps of the world that document the progress that has been made in each nation. Clicking on each nation individually brings up clear and easy-to-read tables that chart additional changes within each separate goal. Visitors can export the data for their own use, and they can also resize the map to demonstrate the changes made over the past few years.
Radiation protection and management of radioactive waste streams and products are certain to be important areas of public policy, worker education, and technology development in the new millennium. Overriding values of freedom, sustainability, transparency, and public participation in decision making about technology's benefits and risks will shape the public policy agenda. Early engagement of stakeholders in the identification and assessment of risks and in communications about risk management will be beneficial in most cases. Putting specific environmental problems into broader public health and ecologic context will be helpful to all parties and will improve decisions about how best to utilize precious resources and enhance public confidence in the process and the outcomes. PMID:11281199
Stomatal frequency analysis of leaves of land plants preserved in peat and lake deposits can provide a proxy record of pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration complementary to measurements in Antarctic ice cores. Stomatal frequency based CO2 trends from the USA and NW European support the presence of significant CO2 variability during the first half of the last millennium (Kouwenberg et al., 2005; Wagner et al., 2004; van Hoof et al., 2008). The timing of the most significant perturbation in the stomata records (1200 AD) is in agreement with an observed CO2 fluctuation in the D47 Antarctic ice-core record (Barnola et al., 1995; van Hoof et al., 2005). The amplitude of the stomatal frequency based CO2 changes (> 34ppmv) exceeds the maximum amplitude of CO2 variability in the D47 ice core (< 10 ppmv). A modelling experiment taking into account firn-densification based smoothing processes in the D47 ice core proved, however, that the amplitude difference between the stomata record and the D47 ice-core can be explained by natural smoothing processes in the ice (van Hoof et al., 2005). This observation gives credence to the existence of high-amplitude CO2 fluctuations during the last millennium and suggests that high resolution ice core CO2 records should be regarded as a smoothed representation of the atmospheric CO2 signal. In the present study, potential marine and terrestrial sources and sinks associated with the observed atmospheric CO2 perturbation will be discussed. The magnitude of the observed CO2 variability implies that inferred changes in CO2 radiative forcing are of a similar magnitude as variations ascribed to other forcing mechanisms (e.g. solar forcing and volcanism), therefore challenging the IPCC concept of CO2 as an insignificant preindustrial climate forcing factor. References Barnola J.M., M. Anklin, J. Porcheron, D. Raynaud, J. Schwander and B. Stauffer 1995. CO2 evolution during the last millennium as recorded by Antarctic and Greenland ice. Tellus, v 47B, p. 264-272 Kouwenberg L.L.R., F. Wagner, W.M. Kürschner and H. Visscher 2005. Atmospheric CO2 fluctuations during the last Millennium reconstructed by stomatal frequency analysis of Tsuga heterophylla needles. Geology, v. 33, no.1, pp. 33-36 van Hoof T.B., K.A. Kaspers, F. Wagner, R.S.W. van de Wal, W.M. Kürschner and H. Visscher 2005. Atmospheric CO2 during the 13th century AD: reconciliation of data from ice core measurements and stomatal frequency analysis. Tellus B, v. 57, pp. 351-355 van Hoof T.B., F. Wagner-Cremer, W.M. K Kürschner and H. Visscher 2008. A role for atmospheric CO2 in preindustrial climate forcing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, v. 105, no. 41, pp. 15815-15818 Wagner F., L.L.R. Kouwenberg, T.B. van Hoof and H. Visscher 2004. Reproducibility of Holocene atmospheric CO2 records based on stomatal frequency. Quartenary Science Reviews. V. 23, pp. 1947-1954
van Hoof, Thomas; Kouwenberg, Lenny; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Visscher, Henk
National professional associations of obstetrics and gynecology characteristically begin as learned societies holding regular conferences for the presentation and discussion of new research results, and progress to regulating the activities of their members in the public interest (e.g. admission examinations, setting standards). However, they can offer much more to their nation's health by contributing directly to improvements in health care and influencing governmental decisions in favor of the health of women and babies. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), through the Leadership in Obstetrics and Gynecology for Impact and Change (LOGIC) initiative, is developing the capacity of national professional associations in Africa and Asia, so that they can contribute to improving clinical practice and influence national health policy toward achieving Millennium Development Goal 5. PMID:22884822
Catenanes - molecules consisting of interlocked macrocyclic rings - have been prepared by templation strategies for some thirty years. The utilization of Cu(I) cation, aromatic donor-acceptor interactions and hydrogen bonding assisted self-assembly strategies has led to the construction of numerous examples of these aesthetically pleasing species. This review seeks to discuss key developments in the synthesis and functional application of catenanes that have occurred since the Millennium. The much expanded range of metal cation templates; the genesis and growth of anion templation, as well as the use of alternative supramolecular interactions (halogen bonding and radical templation) and thermodynamically controlled reactions to synthesize catenanes are detailed. The class of catenanes that may be described as "molecular machines" are then highlighted and to conclude, attempts to fabricate catenanes onto surfaces and into metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are discussed. PMID:24676138
The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are international development targets for the year 2015 that aim to achieve relative improvements in the standards of health, socioeconomic status and education in the world's poorest countries. Many of the challenges addressed by the MDGs reflect the direct or indirect consequences of subsistence agriculture in the developing world, and hence, plant biotechnology has an important role to play in helping to achieve MDG targets. In this opinion article, we discuss each of the MDGs in turn, provide examples to show how plant biotechnology may be able to accelerate progress towards the stated MDG objectives, and offer our opinion on the likelihood of such technology being implemented. In combination with other strategies, plant biotechnology can make a contribution towards sustainable development in the future although the extent to which progress can be made in today's political climate depends on how we deal with current barriers to adoption. PMID:21249369
Yuan, Dawei; Bassie, Ludovic; Sabalza, Maite; Miralpeix, Bruna; Dashevskaya, Svetlana; Farre, Gemma; Rivera, Sol M; Banakar, Raviraj; Bai, Chao; Sanahuja, Georgina; Arjó, Gemma; Avilla, Eva; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Ugidos-Damboriena, Nerea; López, Alberto; Almacellas, David; Zhu, Changfu; Capell, Teresa; Hahne, Gunther; Twyman, Richard M; Christou, Paul
Despite numerous investigations, the dynamical origins of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age remain uncertain. A major unresolved issue relating to internal climate dynamics is the mode and tempo of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability, and the significance of decadal-to-centennial scale changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation strength in regulating the climate of the last millennium. Here we use the time-constrained high-resolution local radiocarbon reservoir age offset derived from an absolutely dated annually resolved shell chronology spanning the past 1,350 years, to reconstruct changes in surface ocean circulation and climate. The water mass tracer data presented here from the North Icelandic shelf, combined with previously published data from the Arctic and subtropical Atlantic, show that surface Atlantic meridional overturning circulation dynamics likely amplified the relatively warm conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the relatively cool conditions during the Little Ice Age within the North Atlantic sector. PMID:22692542
Wanamaker, Alan D; Butler, Paul G; Scourse, James D; Heinemeier, Jan; Eiríksson, Jón; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Richardson, Christopher A
The 2015 target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is fast approaching, but there is very little discussion of the validity of the indicators used to measure progress. In particular, there has been little attention given to the problems that arise when assessments of progress are based on household surveys. These are inappropriate for obtaining information about the poorest of the poor. Typically, they omit by design those not in households because they are homeless; those who are in institutions; and mobile, nomadic or pastoralist populations; and, in practice, household surveys will typically under-represent those in fragile, disjointed or multiple occupancy households; and those in urban slums and insecure areas of a country. Those six subgroups constitute a pretty comprehensive ostensive definition of the "poorest of the poor." Between 300 and 500 million people--mainly in developing countries--will be missed worldwide from the sampling frames of household surveys. PMID:23713207
The relative importance of north–south migrations of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) versus El Niño-Southern Oscillation and its associated Pacific Walker Circulation (PWC) variability for past hydrological change in the western tropical Pacific is unclear. Here we show that north–south ITCZ migration was not the only mechanism of tropical Pacific hydrologic variability during the last millennium, and that PWC variability profoundly influenced tropical Pacific hydrology. We present hydrological reconstructions from Cattle Pond, Dongdao Island of the South China Sea, where multi-decadal rainfall and downcore grain size variations are correlated to the Southern Oscillation Index during the instrumental era. Our downcore grain size reconstructions indicate that this site received less precipitation during relatively warm periods, AD 1000–1400 and AD 1850–2000, compared with the cool period (AD 1400–1850). Including our new reconstructions in a synthesis of tropical Pacific records results in a spatial pattern of hydrologic variability that implicates the PWC.
This study examined the short-interval test-retest reliability of the Struc- tured Clinical Interview (SCID-II: First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1995) for DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs). The SCID-II was adminis- tered to 69 in- and outpatients on two occasions separated by 1 to 6 weeks. The interviews were conducted at three sites by ten raters. Each rater acted as first and
Anoek Weertman; Arnoud ArntZ; Laura Dreessen; Carol van Velzen; Stefaan Vertommen
We present the first millennial-length gridded field reconstruction of annual temperature for China, and analyze the reconstruction for spatiotemporal changes and associated uncertainties, based on a network of 415 well-distributed and accurately dated climatic proxy series. The new reconstruction method is a modified form of the point-by-point regression (PPR) approach. The main difference is the incorporation of the "composite plus scale" (CPS) and "Regularized errors-in-variables" (EIV) algorithms to allow for the assimilation of various types of the proxy data. Furthermore, the search radius is restricted to a grid size; this restriction helps effectively exclude proxy data possibly correlated with temperature but belonging to a different climate region. The results indicate that: 1) the past temperature record in China is spatially heterogenic, with variable correlations between cells in time; 2) the late 20th century warming in China probably exceeds mean temperature levels at any period of the past 1000 years, but the temperature anomalies of some grids in eastern China during the Medieval climate anomaly period are warmer than during the modern warming; 3) the climatic variability in the eastern and western regions of China was not synchronous during much of the last millennium, probably due to the influence of the Tibetan Plateau. Our temperature reconstruction may serve as a reference to test simulation results over the past millennium, and help to finely analyze the spatial characteristics and the driving mechanism of the past temperature variability. However, the lower reconstruction skill scores for some grid points underline that the present set of available proxy data series is not yet sufficient to accurately reconstruct the heterogeneous climate of China in all regions, and that there is the need for more highly resolved temperature proxies, particularly in the Tibetan Plateau.
We use proxy data and modeled data from 1000 yr model simulations with a variety of climate forcings to examine the occurrence of severe events of persistent drought over eastern China during the last millennium and to diagnose the mechanisms. Results show that the model was able to simulate many aspects of the low-frequency (periods greater than 10 yr) variations of precipitation over eastern China during the last millennium, including most of the severe persistent droughts such as those in the 1130s, 1200s, 1350s, 1430s, 1480s, and the late 1630s-mid-1640s. These six droughts are identified both in the proxy data and in the modeled data and are consistent with each other in terms of drought intensity, duration, and spatial coverage. Our analyses suggest that monsoon circulation can lock into a drought-prone mode that may last for years to decades and supports the suggestion that generally reduced monsoon in eastern Asia were associated with the land-sea thermal contrast. Study on the wavelet transform and spectral analysis reveals six well-captured events occurred all at the drought stages of statistically significant 15-35 yr timescale. A modeled data intercomparison suggests that solar activity is the primary driver in the occurrence of the 1130s, 1350s, 1480s, and late 1630s-mid-1640s droughts. Although the El-Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) plays an important role in monsoon variability, a temporally consistent relationship between the droughts and SST pattern in the Pacific Ocean could not be found in the model. Our analyses also indicate that large volcanic eruptions play a role as an amplifier in the drought of 1635-1645 and caused the model to overestimate the decreasing trends in summer precipitation over eastern China during the mid-1830s and the mid-1960s.
The last Millennium is the best documented climate period affected by variations in external forcing and an internal variability in the highly nonlinear climate system. According to that the Indian Summer Monsoon and its high variability on different time scales plays an important role, studied in the interdisciplinary HIMPAC project (Himalaya - Modern and Past Climates). In order to understand the forcing mechanisms, feedbacks and amplifiers concerning monsoon variability of the last 1000 years, the five ensemble members of the full forced simulation of the Millennium experiment (Jungclaus, J. et al., 2010), using the coupled COSMOS Earth System Model (ECHAM5/JSBACH-MPIOM/HAMOCC) in a T31L19 spatial resolution, have been statistically analyzed to detect strong wet and dry periods of monsoonal rainfall due to interannual rainfall anomalies and special monsoon indices within the South Asian Monsoon region. Later the selected periods of extreme rainfall events have been simulated in a higher spatial resolution with the uncoupled atmosphere version of COSMOS Earth System Model (ECHAM5) in a T63L31 resolution. The focus is on the monsoon variability of 200-years-long time slices within the Medieval Climate Optimum (900-1100 AD), the Little Ice Age (1500-1700 AD) and the Preindustrial (1800-2000). A comparison with paleoclimatic reconstructions from Dandak and Jhumar cave record (Sinha, A. et al., 2011) helps to verify the model results, and the model has been used to check the consistency of the proxy data. I addition high resolution regional climate model simulations with COSMO-CLM will be carried out for the selected time slices driven by the ECHAM5 simulation results.
Polanski, S.; Hanf, F.; Befort, D.; Menzel, F.; Cubasch, U.; Leckebusch, G. C.
This paper refers to a machine-mediated person-to-person multilingual communication system. Stress is put on robustness, that is the ability of the system to preserve communication even in presence of the variability and errors typical of spoken language systems. The statistical approach is adopted not only at the acoustic level, but also for the linguistic processing. Therefore, while an overview of
B. Angelini; M. Cettolo; A. Corazza; D. Falavigna; G. Lazzari
I discuss open problems in nucleon structure studies using electromagnetic probes. The focus is on the regime of strong interaction QCD. Significant progress in our understanding of the nucleon structure in the region of strong QCD may be expected in the first decade of the new millennium due to major experimental and theoretical efforts currently underway in this field.
Objectives To evaluate the frequency of personality disorders in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients and in a group of healthy controls. Methods Patients affected by PD diagnosed according to the United Kingdom Parkinson’s disease Society Brain Bank diagnostic criteria and a group of healthy controls were enrolled in the study. PD patients with cognitive impairment were excluded from the study. Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders-II (SCID-II) has been performed to evaluate the presence of personality disorders. Presence of personality disorders, diagnosed according to the DSM-IV, was confirmed by a psychiatric interview. Clinical and pharmacological data were also recorded using a standardized questionnaire. Results 100 PD patients (57 men; mean age 59.0±10.2 years) and 100 healthy subjects (52 men; mean age 58.1±11.4 years) were enrolled in the study. The most common personality disorder was the obsessive-compulsive personality disorder diagnosed in 40 PD patients and in 10 controls subjects (p-value<0.0001) followed by the depressive personality disorder recorded in 14 PD patients and 4 control subjects (p-value 0.02). Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was also found in 8 out of 16 de novo PD patients with a short disease duration. Conclusion PD patients presented a high frequency of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder that does not seem to be related with both disease duration and dopaminergic therapy.