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1

Simulations of Large-Scale Structure in the New Millennium  

E-print Network

Simulations of large-scale structure in the universe have played a vital role in observational cosmology since 1980's in particular. Their important role will definitely continue to be true in the 21st century. Rather the requirements for simulations in the precision cosmology era will become more progressively demanding; they are supposed to fill the missing link in an accurate and reliable manner between the ``initial'' condition at z=1000 revealed by WMAP and the galaxy/quasar distribution at z=0 - 6 surveyed by 2dF and SDSS. In this review, I will summarize what we have learned so far from the previous cosmological simulations, and discuss several remaining problems for the new millennium.

Yasushi Suto

2003-11-25

2

Structural engineering in the new millennium: opportunities and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Structural engineering as a part of civil engineering has over 5,000 years of distinguished history, as documented in this paper. An attempt is made in this paper to define structural engineering as it exists at present, then some historical structures are identified. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The advances of structural engineering are discussed in chronological order, encompassing the development of

Achintya Haldar; Ali Mehrabian

2008-01-01

3

Creating Information Structures That Work for the New Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the impact of globalization and new information and communication technologies on the structures and practices of higher education. The first section addresses the integration of library and information technology services, focusing on experiences at the University of the Sunshine Coast (Queensland, Australia). The second…

Gordon, Heather

4

Millennium bug  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the “millennium bug.”

Showstack, Randy

5

Millennium bug  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the "millennium bug."

Showstack, Randy

6

Lessons: Social Studies/Math. Millennium Mastery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a teaching idea to help elementary students gain a sense of the passage of 2,000 years. This time line lesson has students learn when the millennium began, create a personal time line with strips of adding machine tape (marking the tape with their major life events), create a historical time line, then create a 2,000-inch millennium time…

Rose, Mary C.

2000-01-01

7

Millennium Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Affiliated with the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, the Transportation Research Board's (TRB) "mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation by stimulating and conducting research, facilitating the dissemination of information, and encouraging the implementation of research results." Drawing on contributions from thousands of engineers and transportation researchers, these specially selected Millennium Papers are intended give an up-to-date representation of the kind of research currently conducted at the TRB (which is also responsible for the TRIS Database discussed in the January 21, 2000 Scout Report). The numerous papers supplied here (full-text, .pdf) may be selected by title, author, or committee. Examples of a few titles include "Asphalt Technology," "Engineering Geology," and "Transportation in the New Millennium." This site holds an interesting and varied collection of papers for engineers and transportation researchers.

8

Recent Structural Approaches to Personality Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document addresses itself to the broad topic of recent structural approaches to personality development and to the major research problem of structural consistency and change in young children's social behaviors. As part of a larger longitudinal study, the author assessed the classroom personal-social development of economically disadvantaged…

Emmerich, Walter

9

The Structure of Phenotypic Personality Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This personal historical article traces the development of the Big-Five factor structure, whose growing acceptance by personality researchers has profoundly influenced the scientific study of individual differences. The roots of this taxonomy lie in the lexical hypothesis and the insights of Sir Francis Galton, the prescience of L. L. Thurstone, the legacy of Raymond B. Cattell, and the seminal analyses

Lewis R. Goldberg

1993-01-01

10

Personality trait structure as a human universal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of covariation among personality traits in English-speaking populations can be summarized by the five-factor model (FFM). To assess the cross-cultural generalizability of the FFM, data from studies using 6 translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) were compared with the American factor structure. German, Portuguese, He-brew, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese samples

Robert R. McCrae

1997-01-01

11

United Nations Millennium Declaration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UN has posted the End of Millennium Summit Final Declaration signed by over 150 heads of state who attended the Millennium Summit earlier this month in New York (see the September 5, 2000 Scout Report for the Social Sciences). The document articulates 32 points, expressing the goals of the UN for peace and prosperity in the coming century. Among the more substantive statements are a commitment to "minimize the adverse effects of United Nations economic sanctions on innocent populations, subjecting such sanctions regimes to regular reviews" and a promise to give full support to the political and institutional structures of emerging democracies in Africa. Among the most ambitious goals -- and one quite possibly beyond the powers of the current UN to realize -- is the goal "to halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of the world's people whose income is less than one dollar a day and the proportion of people who suffer from hunger; and also, by the same date, to halve the proportion of people who are unable to reach, or to afford, safe drinking water."

2000-01-01

12

The Millennium Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about the Millennium Assessment. Charged with describing the current state of the environment, scientists worldwide collaborated to produce the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. In seven synthesis reports and other technical documents, the assessment summarizes the Earth's present condition and the impacts humans have on critical ecosystem services

FRED POWLEDGE (;)

2006-11-01

13

The structure of phenotypic personality traits.  

PubMed

This personal historical article traces the development of the Big-Five factor structure, whose growing acceptance by personality researchers has profoundly influenced the scientific study of individual differences. The roots of this taxonomy lie in the lexical hypothesis and the insights of Sir Francis Galton, the prescience of L. L. Thurstone, the legacy of Raymond B. Cattell, and the seminal analyses of Tupes and Christal. Paradoxically, the present popularity of this model owes much to its many critics, each of whom tried to replace it, but failed. In reaction, there have been a number of attempts to assimilate other models into the five-factor structure. Lately, some practical implications of the emerging consensus can be seen in such contexts as personnel selection and classification. PMID:8427480

Goldberg, L R

1993-01-01

14

Alemtuzumab (Millennium/ILEX).  

PubMed

Alemtuzumab, a lymphocyte-depleting humanized monoclonal antibody, is being developed by Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc and ILEX Oncology for the potential treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) [274580]. The utility of the compound for treating bone marrow (BM) stem cell transplantation-associated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) [372946] and for ex vivo purging of BM to remove malignant T-cells [244056] is also being investigated. Additional potential therapeutic areas for which clinical trials are planned or ongoing include vasculitis, multiple sclerosis [288762] and organ transplantation [338304]. A Biologics License Application (BLA) was filed with the FDA in December 1999 by ILEX and Millennium [351523], [351524], [373873]. The FDA accepted the application for filing in February 2000 [355775] and returned a complete response letter in June 2000 [372172]. Millennium and ILEX submitted a response to the FDA in August 2000 [379766]. Alemtuzumab has received Fast Track designation [304771] and orphan drug status from the FDA [288762], and the drug was reviewed by the FDA's Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee on 14 December, 2000 [387228]. The committee voted 14 to 1 to recommend accelerated approval of alemtuzumab for patients with CLL who have been treated with alkylating agents and who have failed fludarabine therapy [393778], [393894]. In March 2000, Millennium and ILEX also submitted a Marketing Authorization Application (MAA) for alemtuzumab to the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) [363595]. In October 2000, EMEA accepted the MAA for alemtuzumab under the agency's centralized approval procedure [387228]. Alemtuzumab was originally synthesized by Herman Waldmann and colleagues at Cambridge University and licensed to Burroughs Wellcome (BW) via the British Technology Group (BTG) [162622]. BW conducted phase I and II trials for a broad range of indications, but then discontinued development because of disappointing results in phase II rheumatoid arthritis trials [326848]. In April 1997, LeukoSite licensed rights to the antibody from BTG for the treatment of CLL and prolymphocytic leukemia, plus an option to develop it for other indications. BW agreed to supply LeukoSite with intellectual property [244056], [326848]. In May 1997, LeukoSite entered into a joint venture with ILEX Oncology for the further development of alemtuzumab [245986]. By the end of 1999, Millennium acquired LeukoSite with commitment to pursue development of the compound through the joint venture Millennium & ILEX Partners LP [351523], [370237]. In August 1999, Schering AG and its US affiliate Berlex Laboratories obtained exclusive worldwide marketing rights for alemtuzumab, excluding Japan and East Asia. In the US, Berlex, Millennium and ILEX will divide profits from alemtuzumab sales equally [337702], [338837]. PMID:11527007

Dumont, F J

2001-01-01

15

Why personality differences matter for social functioning and social structure.  

PubMed

We outline three main ways how personality differences can affect social functioning and social structure. By highlighting the broad and significant consequences that personality differences can have for social processes, our article might serve as a starting point for a research focus that aims at a systematic understanding of these consequences. PMID:24679987

Wolf, Max; Krause, Jens

2014-06-01

16

Critical Studies on the Ideological Structure of Personality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers about the ideological structure of personality. A proposal for a theoretical and methodological reworking of the life-historical inquiry of personality psychology is presented along with a report of some preliminary studies that employ an intensive life-history approach to a distinct topic within the context of…

Barratt, Barnaby B.; And Others

17

New Millennium Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New Millennium Observatory (NeMO) is a seafloor observatory at Axial Seamount, an active underwater volcano located about 250 miles off the coast of the northwest United States. The observatory studies the relationships between submarine volcanic activity, the chemistry of seafloor hotsprings, and the biological communities that depend on them. Materials available at the NeMO web site include updates from observatory expeditions, videos and animations, and an interactive feature that lets users pilot a simulated remotely operated vehicle to explore the seamount. The NeMO curriculum page features a unit, with activities, in which students investigate a swarm of small earthquakes and the disappearance of an instrument. A volcanic eruption occurred at Axial in January 1998, destroying some hydrothermal vent sites and creating new ones. Since then NeMO scientists have been assessing the impact of the eruption and documenting the ongoing changes in Axial's summit caldera.

2004-09-24

18

Millennium Prize Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At their May meeting in Paris, The Clay Mathematics Institute of Cambridge, Massachusetts (CMI) named seven "Millennium Prize Problems," including The Poincare Conjecture and the Navier-Stokes Existence and Smoothness problem. Each solution is worth a $1 million prize from the Board of Directors of the CMI. The strict rules of competition (for example, a proposed solution must be published in a refereed mathematics journal of worldwide repute and also have general acceptance in the mathematics community two years before being considered for the prize) as well as a statement of purpose are available at the site. The historical background given on Hibert, the German mathematician who formulated 23 classic problems that "have inspired and guided the minds of mathematicians throughout the last century," is an insightful read for scholars of mathematics.

19

Author's personal copy Precise derivatization of structurally distinct chitosans  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Precise derivatization of structurally distinct chitosans with rhodamine B to date shows that structurally distinct chitosans have reacted inefficiently and unpredictably with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in an acid­methanol solvent that maintains both chitosan and fluorophore

Buschmann, Michael

20

The Hierarchical Structure of DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits  

PubMed Central

A multidimensional trait system has been proposed for representing personality disorder (PD) features in DSM-5 to address problematic classification issues such as comorbidity. In this model, which may also assist in providing scaffolding for the underlying structure of major forms of psychopathology more generally, 25 primary traits are organized by 5 higher order dimensions: Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism. We examined a) the generalizability of the structure proposed for DSM-5 PD traits and b) the potential for an integrative hierarchy based upon DSM-5 PD traits to represent the dimensions scaffolding psychopathology more generally. A large sample of student participants (N=2,461) completed the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, which operationalizes the DSM-5 traits. Exploratory factor analysis replicated the initially reported five-factor structure as indicated by high factor congruencies. The two-, three-, and four- factor solutions estimated in the hierarchy of the DSM-5 traits bear close resemblance to existing models of common mental disorders, temperament, and personality pathology. Thus, beyond the description of individual differences in personality disorder, the trait dimensions might provide a framework for the metastructure of psychopathology in the DSM-5 and the integration of a number of ostensibly competing models of personality trait covariation. PMID:22448740

Wright, Aidan G.C.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Markon, Kristian E.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Krueger, Robert F.

2012-01-01

21

Aging and Heterogeneity: Genetics, Social Structure, and Personality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that the heterogeneity of human personality characteristics increases with age. Examines reasons for this phenomenon in terms of individual differentiation, social structure/allocation, and behavioral genetics. Develops a model synthesizing various study designs that prevent variation and covariation errors from occurring in life course…

Light, John M.; And Others

1996-01-01

22

Factorial Structure of Traits Delineating Personality Disorders in Clinical and General Population Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Categorical and dimensional models for classifying personality disorders were evaluated by comparing the structure of personality pathology in a clinical sample (n = 158) with the structure in a general population sample (n = 274). Subjects completed 100 personality scales. Separate factor analyses revealed similar structures in the 2 samples. An underlying structure in a combined sample showed limited agreement

W. John Livesley; Douglas N. Jackson; Marsha L. Schroeder

1992-01-01

23

Make your own millennium sundial.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A home-made sundial offers a unique blend of design, construction and mathematical challenge. Readers armed with no more than a calculator and toolbox may wish to celebrate the millennium by constructing a sundial for their school, college or home. The design and construction of two dials is detailed in this article.

Kibble, B.

1999-05-01

24

A Neural Network Model of the Structure and Dynamics of Human Personality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a neural network model that aims to bridge the historical gap between dynamic and structural approaches to personality. The model integrates work on the structure of the trait lexicon, the neurobiology of personality, temperament, goal-based models of personality, and an evolutionary analysis of motives. It is organized in terms of two…

Read, Stephen J.; Monroe, Brian M.; Brownstein, Aaron L.; Yang, Yu; Chopra, Gurveen; Miller, Lynn C.

2010-01-01

25

[Understanding the personality changes following craniocerebral injuries, with special reference to premorbid personality and family structure].  

PubMed

The personality changes frequently observed in the wake of craniocerebral trauma are a serious impediment to psychosocial rehabilitation of those concerned. Based on empirical research, the present contribution is intended as a pleading for adoption of a multidisciplinary and multidimensional approach to personality change post craniocerebral trauma, taking the dynamic complexities involved into consideration. The current, stereotyped characterizations of the changes of personality caused by organic brain damage have not been confirmed for the patient population investigated by us. Crucial to avoidance of a rigid, static view of the personality changes is direct inclusion of the familial and social environment in the process of diagnosis and rehabilitation of the person with craniocerebral trauma. As exemplified by a case analysis described, it is possible, above all, to trace the systemic-etiological forces active in determining the nature and contents of the personality changes, in stabilizing or reinforcing them. PMID:3175320

Kürten, H; Janzik, H H

1988-08-01

26

Audio Structuring and Personalized Retrieval Using Ontologies Latifur Khan and Dennis McLeod  

E-print Network

Audio Structuring and Personalized Retrieval Using Ontologies Latifur Khan and Dennis Mc. Specifically, the focus here is on multimedia audio databases: we are developing a Personal AudioCast system at the USC Integrated Media Systems Center which creates and delivers to an end-user personalized audio

Texas at Dallas, University of

27

Computer hacking and cyber terrorism: the real threats in the new millennium?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the new millennium approaches, we are living in a society that is increasingly dependent upon information technology. However, whilst technology can deliver a number of benefits, it also introduces new vulnerabilities that can be exploited by persons with the necessary technical skills. Hackers represent a well-known threat in this respect and are responsible for a significant degree of disruption

Steven Furnell; Matthew J. Warren

1999-01-01

28

Chicago Public Library: Millennium Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The transformation of the area east of Michigan Avenue from an industrial wasteland into the vibrant and heavily-used Millennium Park is truly a remarkable tale in Chicago's recent history. The apocryphal tale says that Mayor Richard M. Daley looked out from his dentist's office and envisioned a public park that would be comparable to other grand spaces in the city. The construction of Millennium Park took quite some time, but when the park was finished in 2004, most people were quite happy with it. This digital collection from the Chicago Public Library brings together over 5,100 images of the park at various phases of its construction. Visitors can view a highlights file of 154 images, and they can wander through topical areas like Cloud Gate, Crown Fountain, and Lurie Garden. Visitors interested in broad vistas of the entire setting should click on Full Park. Finally, visitors can use the tabs on the left-hand side of the page to look at architectural renderings and models of the park's various sections.

2012-03-16

29

Personality Structure in Brown Capuchin Monkeys: Comparisons with Chimpanzees, Orangutans, and Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

Species comparisons of personality structure (i.e. how many personality dimensions and the characteristics of those dimensions) can facilitate questions about the adaptive function of personality in nonhuman primates. Here we investigate personality structure in the brown capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella), a New World primate species, and compare this structure to those of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Brown capuchins evolved behavioral and cognitive traits that are qualitatively similar to those of great apes, and individual differences in behavior and cognition are closely associated with differences in personality. Thus, we hypothesized that brown capuchin personality structure would overlap more with great apes than with rhesus macaques. We obtained personality ratings from seven sites on 127 brown capuchin monkeys. Principal-components analysis identified five personality dimensions (Assertiveness, Openness, Neuroticism, Sociability, and Attentiveness), which were reliable across raters and, in a subset of subjects, significantly correlated with relevant behaviors up to a year later. Comparisons between species revealed that brown capuchins and great apes overlapped in personality structure, particularly chimpanzees in the case of Neuroticism. However, in some respects (i.e. capuchin Sociability and Openness) the similarities between capuchins and great apes were not significantly greater than those between capuchins and rhesus macaques. We discuss the relevance of our results to brown capuchin behavior, and the evolution of personality structure in primates. PMID:23668695

Morton, F. Blake; Lee, Phyllis C.; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M.; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Thierry, Bernard; Paukner, Annika; de Waal, Frans B. M.; Widness, Jane; Essler, Jennifer L.; Weiss, Alexander

2013-01-01

30

Ethnicity and population structure in personal naming networks.  

PubMed

Personal naming practices exist in all human groups and are far from random. Rather, they continue to reflect social norms and ethno-cultural customs that have developed over generations. As a consequence, contemporary name frequency distributions retain distinct geographic, social and ethno-cultural patterning that can be exploited to understand population structure in human biology, public health and social science. Previous attempts to detect and delineate such structure in large populations have entailed extensive empirical analysis of naming conventions in different parts of the world without seeking any general or automated methods of population classification by ethno-cultural origin. Here we show how 'naming networks', constructed from forename-surname pairs of a large sample of the contemporary human population in 17 countries, provide a valuable representation of cultural, ethnic and linguistic population structure around the world. This innovative approach enriches and adds value to automated population classification through conventional national data sources such as telephone directories and electoral registers. The method identifies clear social and ethno-cultural clusters in such naming networks that extend far beyond the geographic areas in which particular names originated, and that are preserved even after international migration. Moreover, one of the most striking findings of this approach is that these clusters simply 'emerge' from the aggregation of millions of individual decisions on parental naming practices for their children, without any prior knowledge introduced by the researcher. Our probabilistic approach to community assignment, both at city level as well as at a global scale, helps to reveal the degree of isolation, integration or overlap between human populations in our rapidly globalising world. As such, this work has important implications for research in population genetics, public health, and social science adding new understandings of migration, identity, integration and social interaction across the world. PMID:21909399

Mateos, Pablo; Longley, Paul A; O'Sullivan, David

2011-01-01

31

The African Millennium Villages Pedro Sanchez*  

E-print Network

earnings for farm families. agriculture environment hunger Millennium Development Goals poverty De- velopment Goals (MDGs), to cut extreme poverty, hunger, disease, gender inequality, environmental). Several biophysical and economic constraints impede sub-Saharan Africa's escape from extreme poverty

32

Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rationale and procedures for the development of a taxonomic basis for personality research and theory construction are outlined. Some prior research efforts in this area are briefly reviewed and evaluated. Results of a series of studies are presented which employed primarily groups of university male Ss who varied in length and intimacy of previous associations. Data were obtained using

Warren T. Norman

1963-01-01

33

Use of structured personality survey techniques to indicate operator response to stressful situations  

SciTech Connect

Under given circumstances, a person will tend to operate in one of four dominant orientations: (1) to perform tasks; (2) to achieve consensus; (3) to achieve understanding, or (4) to maintain structure. Historically, personality survey techniques, such as the Myers-Briggs type indicator, have been used to determine these tendencies. While these techniques can accurately reflect a person's orientation under normal social situations, under different sets of conditions, the same person may exhibit other tendencies, displaying a similar or entirely different orientation. While most do not exhibit extreme tendencies or changes of orientation, the shift in personality from normal to stressful conditions can be rather dramatic, depending on the individual. Structured personality survey techniques have been used to indicate operator response to stressful situations. These techniques have been extended to indicate the balance between orientations that the control room team has through the various levels of cognizance.

Waller, M.A.

1990-01-01

34

Exploiting Social Network Structure for Person-to-Person Sentiment Analysis  

E-print Network

Person-to-person evaluations are prevalent in all kinds of discourse and important for establishing reputations, building social bonds, and shaping public opinion. Such evaluations can be analyzed separately using signed social networks and textual sentiment analysis, but this misses the rich interactions between language and social context. To capture such interactions, we develop a model that predicts individual A's opinion of individual B by synthesizing information from the signed social network in which A and B are embedded with sentiment analysis of the evaluative texts relating A to B. We prove that this problem is NP-hard but can be relaxed to an efficiently solvable hinge-loss Markov random field, and we show that this implementation outperforms text-only and network-only versions in two very different datasets involving community-level decision-making: the Wikipedia Requests for Adminship corpus and the Convote U.S. Congressional speech corpus.

West, Robert; Leskovec, Jure; Potts, Christopher

2014-01-01

35

Psychometric and Structural Analysis of the MMPI2 Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Facet Subscales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) is a model of personality psychopathology assessed in adult populations with a set of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory—2 (MMPI-2) scales. The authors examine the reliability and validity of recently developed lower-order facet subscales for each of these five domains, with an emphasis on structural invariance, using both confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis

Lena C. Quilty; R. Michael Bagby

2007-01-01

36

Spinoff 2001: Special Millennium Feature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the past 43 years, NASA has devoted its facilities, labor force, and expertise to sharing the abundance of technology developments used for its missions with the nation's industries. These countless technologies have not only successfully contributed to the growth of the U.S. economy, but also to the quality of life on Earth. For the past 25 years, NASA's Spinoff publication has brought attention to thousands of technologies, products, and services that were developed as a direct result of commercial partnerships between NASA and the private business sector. Many of these exciting technologies included advances in ceramics, computer technology, fiber optics, and remote sensing. New and ongoing research at the NASA field centers covers a full spectrum of technologies that will provide numerous advantages for the future, many of which have made significant strides in the commercial market. The NASA Commercial Technology Network plays a large role in transferring this progress. By applying NASA technologies such as data communication, aircraft de-icing technologies, and innovative materials to everyday functions, American consumers and the national economy benefit. Moving forward into the new millennium, these new technologies will further advance our country's position as the world leader in scientific and technical innovation. These cutting-edge innovations represent the investment of the U.S. citizen in the Space Program. Some of these technologies are highlighted in Spinoff 2001, an example of NASA's commitment to technology transfer and commercialization assistance. This year's issue spotlights the commercial technology efforts of NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center. Kennedy's extensive network of commercial technology opportunities has enabled them to become a leader in technology transfer outreach. This kind of leadership is exemplified through Kennedy's recent partnership with the State of Florida, working toward the development of the Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory. The new laboratory is the first step toward the development of a proposed 400-acre Space Commerce Park, located at Kennedy Space Center. Spinoff, once again, successfully showcases the variety of commercial successes and benefits resulting from the transfer of NASA technology to private industry. It is with great pride and pleasure that we present Spinoff 2001 with a Special Millennium Feature. With help from U.S. industry and commercial technology programs, NASA will continue to assist in the presentation of innovative new products to our nation.

2001-01-01

37

The Millennium Project: a plan for meeting the Millennium Development Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This year marks a pivotal moment in international efforts to fight extreme poverty. During the United Nations (UN) Millennium Summit in 2000, 147 heads of state gathered and adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, panel 1) to address extreme poverty in its many dimensions—income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter, and exclusion—while promoting education, gender equality, and environmental sustainability,

J D Sachs; J W McArthur

2005-01-01

38

Radiocarbon dating and wiggle matching of wooden poles forming circular structures in the 1st Millennium BC at the Mawaki archaeological site, central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wooden circular structures, presumed archaeologically as a structure related with ritual of ancient people in the Final Jomon period, are specific to archaeological sites excavated mainly in the coastal region around Noto peninsula, central Japan. So far, only few attempts have been made at chronological studies on these wooden structures. 14C dating has been attempted to wooden poles forming the structures, which had been excavated at the Mawaki archaeological site, Ishikawa prefecture, central Japan, to examine construction period of the structures. It was revealed that these structures were constructed in the Final Jomon period, most probably within 900-400 cal BC. In addition, we have tried wiggle matching of 14C ages for several annual rings separated from three and two poles that were constituting two circular structures, the oldest and the newest ones. 14C dates of annual rings measured with AMS were wiggle-matched to IntCal04 data sets by Bayesian statistics. The results indicated that the construction period of these wooden structures can be placed within ca. 820-680 cal BC, being narrowed by about 350 calendar years successfully.

Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshio; Takada, Hideki

2010-04-01

39

Factor structure of the MCMI basic personality scales and common-item artifact.  

PubMed

The eight basic personality scales of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) were derived from Millon's theory of personality, but the adequacy of the MCMI for measuring Millon's personality constructs has never been assessed. One major problem with using factor analysis to illuminate the structure of the MCMI personality scales is that artifactual structure may result from item overlap among the scales. To analyze this, item-overlap coefficients were factored and compared to the factor structures of five subject samples. For the eight basic personality scales, three factors emerged for the overlap matrix and each of the five sample matrices: Aloof-Social, Aggressive-Submissive, and Lability-Restraint. It was concluded that these three factors are inconsistent with Millon's theory and that they will be found artifactually across a wide variety of populations due to overlapping items. PMID:3681645

Retzlaff, P D; Gibertini, M

1987-01-01

40

United Nations Millennium Development Goals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the year 2000, all of the world's countries and all the world's leading development institutions signed on to a compact sponsored by the United Nations in order to assist the needs of the world's poorest people. This compact included eight primary development goals that would be met by 2015. Some of these goals included a significant reduction of child mortality and the promotion of gender equality. This particular site offers updates on the progress towards these eight primary goals, along with links to the annual report on these goals. Visitors can visit the documents area to read the text of the previous annual reports, along with reading some of the regional reports filed for Latin American, Africa, Asia, and Europe. The "Background" area is another good place to look for summary materials, as it features the text of the millennium declaration and progress reports from 2004 and 2005. The site is rounded out by a selection of links to additional sites that may be helpful, such as those for the United Nations Population Fund and the Food and Agriculture Organization.

2005-01-01

41

The Network Structure of Human Personality According to the NEO-PI-R: Matching Network Community Structure to Factor Structure  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human personality is described preferentially in terms of factors (dimensions) found using factor analysis. An alternative and highly related method is network analysis, which may have several advantages over factor analytic methods. Aim To directly compare the ability of network community detection (NCD) and principal component factor analysis (PCA) to examine modularity in multidimensional datasets such as the neuroticism-extraversion-openness personality inventory revised (NEO-PI-R). Methods 434 healthy subjects were tested on the NEO-PI-R. PCA was performed to extract factor structures (FS) of the current dataset using both item scores and facet scores. Correlational network graphs were constructed from univariate correlation matrices of interactions between both items and facets. These networks were pruned in a link-by-link fashion while calculating the network community structure (NCS) of each resulting network using the Wakita Tsurumi clustering algorithm. NCSs were matched against FS and networks of best matches were kept for further analysis. Results At facet level, NCS showed a best match (96.2%) with a ‘confirmatory’ 5-FS. At item level, NCS showed a best match (80%) with the standard 5-FS and involved a total of 6 network clusters. Lesser matches were found with ‘confirmatory’ 5-FS and ‘exploratory’ 6-FS of the current dataset. Network analysis did not identify facets as a separate level of organization in between items and clusters. A small-world network structure was found in both item- and facet level networks. Conclusion We present the first optimized network graph of personality traits according to the NEO-PI-R: a ‘Personality Web’. Such a web may represent the possible routes that subjects can take during personality development. NCD outperforms PCA by producing plausible modularity at item level in non-standard datasets, and can identify the key roles of individual items and clusters in the network. PMID:23284713

Goekoop, Rutger; Goekoop, Jaap G.; Scholte, H. Steven

2012-01-01

42

MOLView: A program for analyzing and displaying atomic structures on the Macintosh personal computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program is described that allows the user to analyze and display atomic structures on any Macintosh personal computer. The program reads ASCII format structure files including PDB, plot files from the graphics programs O and FRODO, and Cartesian coordinates from ChemDraw 3D. The program has a graphical interface that features floating button palettes for objects and tools. The structures

Thomas James Smith

1995-01-01

43

Paranoid Personality Has a Dimensional Latent Structure: Taxometric Analyses of Community and Clinical Samples  

PubMed Central

Although paranoid personality is one of the most commonly diagnosed personality disorders and is associated with numerous negative life consequences, relatively little is known about the structural properties of this condition. This study examines whether paranoid personality traits represent a latent dimension or a discrete class (i.e., taxon). In study 1, we conducted taxometric analyses of paranoid personality disorder criteria in a sample of 731 patients participating in the Collaborative Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders (CLPS) project who had been administered a semi-structured diagnostic interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders. In study 2, we conducted parallel analyses of the Paranoia (PAR) scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), using data from the PAI community and clinical normative data bases. Analyses across both self-report and interview-based indicators offered compelling support for a dimensional structure. Additionally, analyses of external correlates in these data sets suggested that dimensional models demonstrated stronger validity coefficients with criterion measures than dichotomous models. PMID:19685951

Edens, John F.; Marcus, David K.; Morey, Leslie C.

2010-01-01

44

Item factor structure of the Personality Adjective Check List.  

PubMed

This study reports on a principal-components analysis of the Personality Adjective Check List (PACL) at the item level. Data came from a national sample of normal adults and included the responses of 1,058 men and 1,194 women (N = 2,252). Analyses were conducted separately for men and women, and for the sexes combined. The scree test was applied to decide on the number of factors to extract. Retained factors were rotated by varimax and direct oblimin procedures. Results were very similar for each analysis, with coefficients of congruence for the five orthogonal factors obtained from men and women separately being .95, .92, .94, .94, and .92. The five unipolar personality dimensions isolated were interpreted as Aggressive/Dominant, Neurotic, Conscientious, Detached/Introverted, and Surgent/Extraverted. These were compared to item factors of the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-I), MCMI-II, Adjective Check List (ACL), and to Norman's Big Five dimensions. PMID:2231262

Strack, S; Lorr, M

1990-01-01

45

Printing Method Considering Character Structures of Word-processed Sentenceswith Personal Fonts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although word-processed sentences are easy to read because of the use of standardized character fonts and their orderly arrangement, these sentences lack a writer’s individual style and thus fail to convey the writer’s true message. Recently in response to this, word-processed sentences with personal fonts are desired. On the other hand, distinguished calligraphers decide character arrangements in consideration of the character structures. In order to create word-processed sentences with personal fonts, we measure character arrangements and structures, and investigate the relationship between them by means of multiple-regression analysis. We propose based on the results a new printing method of word-processed sentences with personal fonts. When the method is used, character arrangements of word-processed sentences with personal fonts resemble handwritten sentences. Word-processed sentences made by this method give readers a better feeling than those made by the traditional one.

Saiki, Tsunemasa; Kitagawa, Yoichi; Hayashi, Akihiro

46

Professional Counseling: Transitioning into the Next Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to attempt to forecast the future of professional counseling as it transitions into the next millennium. It is designed to help professional counselors understand and prepare for future changes in the profession of counseling. Understanding the rationale and observable predictors of anticipated changes meaningfully…

Dixon, Charlotte G., Ed.; Emener, William G., Ed.

47

Voting Rights Issues in the New Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication examines ways to teach about law in the liberal arts. This issue focuses on future voting rights issues by exploring the 2000 presidential election. Articles included are: "Voting Rights in the New Millennium" (Jason F. Kirksey); "Legal and Political Lessons from 'Bush v. Gore'" (David Schultz); "The Ford-Carter Commission and…

Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

2001-01-01

48

Neural Correlates of Emotional Personality: A Structural and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Studies addressing brain correlates of emotional personality have remained sparse, despite the involvement of emotional personality in health and well-being. This study investigates structural and functional brain correlates of psychological and physiological measures related to emotional personality. Psychological measures included neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness scores, as assessed using a standard personality questionnaire. As a physiological measure we used a cardiac amplitude signature, the so-called E? value (computed from the electrocardiogram) which has previously been related to tender emotionality. Questionnaire scores and E? values were related to both functional (eigenvector centrality mapping, ECM) and structural (voxel-based morphometry, VBM) neuroimaging data. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were obtained from 22 individuals (12 females) while listening to music (joy, fear, or neutral music). ECM results showed that agreeableness scores correlated with centrality values in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens). Individuals with higher E? values (indexing higher tender emotionality) showed higher centrality values in the subiculum of the right hippocampal formation. Structural MRI data from an independent sample of 59 individuals (34 females) showed that neuroticism scores correlated with volume of the left amygdaloid complex. In addition, individuals with higher E? showed larger gray matter volume in the same portion of the subiculum in which individuals with higher E? showed higher centrality values. Our results highlight a role of the amygdala in neuroticism. Moreover, they indicate that a cardiac signature related to emotionality (E?) correlates with both function (increased network centrality) and structure (grey matter volume) of the subiculum of the hippocampal formation, suggesting a role of the hippocampal formation for emotional personality. Results are the first to show personality-related differences using eigenvector centrality mapping, and the first to show structural brain differences for a physiological measure associated with personality. PMID:24312166

Koelsch, Stefan; Skouras, Stavros; Jentschke, Sebastian

2013-01-01

49

Personality Functioning and the Cortical Midline Structures – An Exploratory fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Recent neuroscience studies explored the neuronal mechanisms underlying our sense of self. Thereby the cortical midline structures and their anterior and posterior regions have been shown to be central. What remains unclear though is how both, self and cortical midline structures, are related to the identity of the self which is of central importance in especially personality disorders. Methods Conducting an exploratory study with a dimensional approach, we here compared subjects with high and low level of personality functioning and identity integration as measured in a standardized way in fMRI during both, emotion- and reward-related tasks. Results Low levels of personality functioning and identity integration were predicted by significantly decreased degrees of deactivation in the anterior and posterior cortical midline structures. Conclusions Though exploratory our results show for the first time direct relationship between cortical midline structures and personality functioning in terms of identity integration. This does not only contribute to our understanding of the neuronal mechanism underlying self and identity but carries also major implications for the treatment of patients with personality disorders. PMID:23189175

Faber, Cornelius; Hinrichs, Jens; Bahmer, Judith; Northoff, Georg

2012-01-01

50

A comparison of the DSM-5 Section II and Section III personality disorder structures.  

PubMed

The DSM-5 Section III includes a hybrid model for the diagnosis of personality disorders, in which sets of dimensional personality trait facets are configured into personality disorder types. These PD types resemble the Section II categorical counterparts with dimensional traits descriptive of the Section II criteria to maintain continuity across the diagnostic systems. The current study sought to evaluate the continuity across the Section II and III models of personality disorders. This sample consisted of 397 undergraduate students, administered the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (Krueger et al., 2012) and the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II Disorders-Personality Questionnaire (First et al., 2013). We examined whether the DSM-5 Section III trait facets for the PDs would be associated with their respective Section II counterparts, as well as determining whether additional facets could augment the prediction of the Section II disorders. Results revealed that, generally, the DSM-5 Section II disorders were most strongly associated with their Section III traits. Results also showed evidence to support the addition of facets not included in the Section III diagnostic criteria in the prediction of most disorders. These results show general support for the Section III model of personality disorders, however, results also show that additional research is needed to replicate these findings. PMID:24656519

Anderson, Jaime; Snider, Stephen; Sellbom, Martin; Krueger, Robert; Hopwood, Christopher

2014-05-30

51

The Joint Hierarchical Structure of Adolescent Personality Pathology: Converging Evidence from Two Approaches to Measurement  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the joint hierarchical structure of two measures of adolescent personality pathology within a community sample of Canadian adolescents. Method: Self-reported data on demographic information and pathological personality traits were obtained from 144 youth (Mage = 16.08 years, SD = 1.30). Personality pathology was measured using the youth-version of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP-Y; Linde, Stringer, Simms, & Clark, in press) and the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI; De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006). Lower-order scales were subjected to structural hierarchical analyses. Results: Scales from the two measures were complementary in defining higher-order traits. Traits at the 4-factor level of the hierarchy (Need for Approval, Disagreeableness, Detachment, and Compulsivity) showed similarities and differences with previous results in adults. Conclusions: The current investigation integrated top-down and bottom-up measures for a comprehensive account of the higher-order hierarchy of adolescent personality pathology. Results are discussed in the context of convergence across approaches and in comparison with previous findings in adult samples. PMID:23970908

Kushner, Shauna C.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; De Clercq, Barbara

2013-01-01

52

Buckling of structures with uncertain imperfections - Personal perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The previous review on stochastic buckling of structures was written by Amazigo in 1976. This review summarizes some of the developments which took place in recent two decades. A brief overview is given of the effect on uncertainty in the initial geometric imperfections, elastic moduli, applied forces, and thickness variation. For the benefit of the thinking reader, the review has a critical nature. It should be noted that this manuscript has yet to be completed.

Elishakoff, Isaac

1998-01-01

53

The study of virus structure and function: a personal history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I describe my gradually evolving role as a scientist from my birth in Frankfurt (Germany) to my education in the UK, my post-doc years and my experiences as an independent investigator at Purdue University1. I discuss the significance of my post-doctoral work in Minnesota where I had my first encounter with an electronic computer and subsequently in Cambridge where I participated in the first structure determination of proteins. After six years back in England my family moved to Indiana (USA) where my home remains to this day. At Purdue University I first studied the structure of enzymes and in the process I discovered the organization and slow evolution of protein domains, each with a specific function. With this success I started what had been on my mind already for a long time, namely the structural analysis of viruses. Initially we studied plant viruses but then switched to small RNA animal viruses, discovering that some plant and animal RNA viruses have closely similar structures and therefore presumably had a common evolutionary origin. Next I became interested in somewhat larger viruses that had lipid membrane envelopes. In turn that has led to the study of very large dsDNA viruses as big as small bacteria as well as studies of bacterial viruses that require complex molecular motors for different parts of their life cycle. While developing crystallographic techniques for the study of viruses it has become progressively more apparent that electron microscopy is an important new tool that is likely to eclipse x-ray crystallography in the next decade.

Rossmann, Michael G.

2014-09-01

54

Reliability and validity of the German version of the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO)  

PubMed Central

Background The assessment of personality organization and its observable behavioral manifestations, i.e. personality functioning, has a long tradition in psychodynamic psychiatry. Recently, the DSM-5 Levels of Personality Functioning Scale has moved it into the focus of psychiatric diagnostics. Based on Kernberg’s concept of personality organization the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO) was developed for diagnosing personality functioning. The STIPO covers seven dimensions: (1) identity, (2) object relations, (3) primitive defenses, (4) coping/rigidity, (5) aggression, (6) moral values, and (7) reality testing and perceptual distortions. The English version of the STIPO has previously revealed satisfying psychometric properties. Methods Validity and reliability of the German version of the 100-item instrument have been evaluated in 122 psychiatric patients. All patients were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and were assessed by means of the STIPO. Moreover, all patients completed eight questionnaires that served as criteria for external validity of the STIPO. Results Interrater reliability varied between intraclass correlations of .89 and 1.0, Crohnbach’s ? for the seven dimensions was .69 to .93. All a priori selected questionnaire scales correlated significantly with the corresponding STIPO dimensions. Patients with personality disorder (PD) revealed significantly higher STIPO scores (i.e. worse personality functioning) than patients without PD; patients cluster B PD showed significantly higher STIPO scores than patients with cluster C PD. Conclusions Interrater reliability, Crohnbach’s ?, concurrent validity, and differential validity of the STIPO are satisfying. The STIPO represents an appropriate instrument for the assessment of personality functioning in clinical and research settings. PMID:23941404

2013-01-01

55

New Millennium Program's Earth orbiter #1 flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Mission To Planet Earth is responsible for maintaining future Landsat data continuity while the New Millennium Program is responsible for flight validating breakthrough technologies to both reduce the cost of future science missions and to enhance their scientific capabilities. These two responsibilities are combined and met in the New Millennium Program's Earth Orbiter #1 Flight (EO-1). EO-1 will flight validate a number of advanced technologies that will reduce the cost of Landsat follow-on instruments while maintaining data continuity with earlier Landsat missions. These technologies are combined in an Advanced Land Imager (ALI) which includes a multispectral capability with Landsat-like bands, a miniature hyperspectral grating spectrometer to validate a new miniature hyperspectral wedge spectrometer, and a third hyperspectral imaging system to provide continual atmospheric correction. Mass-saving technologies have been systematically incorporated into the ALI with the result that it represents a seven-fold reduction in the mass, power, and volume of its predecessor.

Cramer, Bryant; Seery, Bernard; Paules, Gran

1997-01-01

56

Millennium Bug found by CSIRO entomologists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Entomologists at Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization have announced the discovery of the "real" Millennium Bug, belonging to a new genus of the family Veliidae (small water striders). The bug was found at several mountain streams of southeast Queensland and northeast New South Wales and will be described in a publication of the Australian journal Invertebrate Taxonomy. The CSIRO news release is provided above.

57

NASA's New Millennium ST8 Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, four technologies: Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; UltraFlex-175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array; and Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science

H. Abakians; M. Bothwell; A. B. Chmielewski; R. M. Nelson; C. M. Stevens; J. Ku; M. E. McEachen; S. White; J. R. Samson; J. Zsoldos; T. McDermott

2006-01-01

58

NASA's New Millennium ST8 Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, four technologies: Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; Ultraflex 175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array; and Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard

C. M. Stevens; J. F. Stocky; R. M. Nelson

2007-01-01

59

Requirements for a reliable millennium temperature reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative temperature reconstructions are hampered by several problems. Proxy records are sparse which is witnessed by the fact that roughly half of all available high-resolution millennia-long proxy data have been published in the last five years. Moreover, proxies are inhomogeneously distributed around the globe and they often have coarse temporal resolution. The period of overlap between proxies and instrumental observations - the calibration period - is brief and dominated by a strong warming trend. Furthermore, proxies are often only weakly correlated to temperature and it is common that some form of screening procedure is applied to select only informative proxies. We study the influence of these limitations on the reliability of temperature reconstructions for the previous millennium. This influence depends on the spatial and temporal correlation structure of the surface temperature field. It also depends on the reconstruction methodology. We use gridded surface temperature data from GISTEMP and HadCRUT4 to investigate the geographical distribution of the spatial decorrelation length and of the temporal decorrelation time. The spatial decorrelation length varies with more than a factor of 5 with the largest values in the region dominated by the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The temporal decorrelation time varies less with typical values of 1-2 years over land and 2-5 years over ocean. We also investigate the correlations between proxies and local temperatures (using the 91 proxies from Christiansen and Ljungqvist 2012) and between local temperatures and the NH mean temperature. These correlations have typical values around 0.3 but cover a wide range from weakly negative to larger than 0.8. The results outlined above allow us to identify regions where the effect of the lack of proxies is most important. They also inform us on the consequences of the short calibration period and on the influence of the recent trend. Finally, we demonstrate the effect of a weak proxy/temperature relationship on three different simple reconstruction methodologies. We show that the size and strength of this effect depends strongly on the chosen methodology.

Christiansen, Bo; Ljungqvist, Fredrik

2014-05-01

60

Author's personal copy Reliability-based design and optimization of adaptive marine structures  

E-print Network

.L. Young a,*, J.W. Baker c , M.R. Motley b a Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering. Lobitz and Veers [10]). In marine and ocean engineering, investigations into methodol- ogies that utilizeAuthor's personal copy Reliability-based design and optimization of adaptive marine structures Y

Baker, Jack W.

61

The Joint Influence of Personal Achievement Goals and Classroom Goal Structures on Achievement-Relevant Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors provide an analytic framework for studying the joint influence of personal achievement goals and classroom goal structures on achievement-relevant outcomes. This framework encompasses 3 models (the direct effect model, indirect effect model, and interaction effect model), each of which addresses a different aspect of the joint…

Murayama, Kou; Elliot, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

62

Author's personal copy Structural and functional self-organization of Photosystem II  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Structural and functional self-organization of Photosystem II in grana protein arrangement of photosystem (PS)II and light harvesting complex (LHC)II in grana thylakoid of photosystem II were monitored by chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and size analysis of exoplasmatic

Roegner, Matthias

63

Personality traits and general intelligence as predictors of academic performance: A structural equation modelling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, after controlling for general intelligence, predict academic performance in different school subjects. Upper secondary school students in Sweden (N=315) completed the Wonderlic IQ test (Wonderlic, 1992) and the IPIP-NEO-PI test (Goldberg, 1999). A series of hierarchical structural equation models showed that general intelligence, Conscientiousness, Extraversion

Pia Rosander; Martin Bäckström; Georg Stenberg

2011-01-01

64

A Structural and Correlational Analysis of Two Common Measures of Personal Epistemology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scope and Method of Study: The current inquiry is a factor analytic study which utilizes first and second order factor analytic methods to examine the internal structures of two measurements of personal epistemological beliefs: the Schommer Epistemological Questionnaire (SEQ) and Epistemic Belief Inventory (EBI). The study also examines the…

Laster, Bonnie Bost

2010-01-01

65

Fear of personal death: Attribution, structure, and relation to religious belief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothesized that individuals attribute the fear of their own death to the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal consequences of human mortality. A multidimensional measure of fear of personal death was constructed and administered together with an index of Jewish belief and practice to 178 18–30 yr old males. Principal-components factor analysis of this measure uncovered a factor structure that paralleled the

Victor Florian; Shlomo Kravetz

1983-01-01

66

Repeat Purchase amid Rapid Quality Improvement: Structural Estimation of Demand for Personal Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates a structural model of demand for the personal computer (PC) by repeat purchasers. Taking advantage of a large data set on household-level PC purchases, the econometric model uses variation in PC holdings among PC owners to identify households' marginal values of quality improvements. The analysis only requires data on a cross-section of households along with observed PC

Jeffrey T. Prince

2008-01-01

67

41 CFR 102-75.160 - Should prefabricated movable structures be designated real or personal property for disposition...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...movable structures be designated real or personal property for disposition purposes? Prefabricated movable structures such as Butler-type storage warehouses, Quonset huts, and house trailers (with or without undercarriages) reported to GSA along with...

2010-07-01

68

Will man wish to prevail? Some fundamental choices facing humanity early in the Third Millennium  

SciTech Connect

With the subtle but occasionally vital exception of vaccination-induced immunity to many of the major infectious diseases, no human today is other than virtually identical biologically to those who greeted the dawn of the Second Millennium, nearly 1000 years ago. Culturally, however, we of the West are quite highly evolved from our ancestors of a millennium ago, primarily due to the advent of means for communicating with ever smaller latencies and ever higher bandwidths over ever greater distances in space and time: printed documents have been supplemented in succession by telephony, radio, video and, just now, the first personal communications sets. Also, within a fraction of a human lifetime from the present moment, the first prosthesis for the human brain has appeared and just very recently has become quite ubiquitous: digital computing systems. We are hardly members of the same species, culturally speaking; people of 1000 years ago would be truly and utterly lost in our communications-intensive civilization, and even a highly educated person from those times would swear that a personal computer equipped with a wireless communications module was as at least a familiar, if not a golem. Conversely, a computer-using person from our own times somehow translated back to 1000 A.D. would likely find the profound isolation and the ``informational slowness`` of life then to be acutely intolerable, certainly to a far greater extent than would a citizen of the High Middle Ages translated back to Augustus Caesar`s Rome.

Wood, L.L.

1994-10-01

69

The effects of Web site structure: the role of personal difference.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of Web site structures in terms of advertising effectiveness- memory, attitude, and behavioral intentions. The primary research question for this study is, What type of Web site (Web ad) structure is most effective? In the pilot study, we tested the difference between two Web site structures, linear and interactive, in terms of traditional advertising effectiveness. Results from the pilot study did not support our research expectations. However, differences in terms of memory were noted between the two structures. After re-creating the Web site based on subjects' comments, in the final experiment, we examined the differences between the two structures and the moderating role of personality difference on the effects of Web site structure. The results confirm that participants' attitude, memory, and behavioral intentions were affected differently by the different Web site structures. However, some research hypotheses were not supported by the current data. PMID:18085961

Chung, Hwiman; Ahn, Euijin

2007-12-01

70

Limitations of the Millennium Development Goals: a literature review  

PubMed Central

With the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) showing uneven progress, this review identifies possible limitations arising from the MDG framework itself rather than extrinsic issues. A multidisciplinary literature review was conducted with a focus on limitations in the formulation of the MDGs, their structure, content and implementation. Of 1837 MDG-related articles, 90 met criteria for analysis. Articles describe MDGs as being created by only a few stakeholders without adequate involvement by developing countries and overlooking development objectives previously agreed upon. Others claim MDGs are unachievable and simplistic, not adapted to national needs, do not specify accountable parties and reinforce vertical interventions. While MDGs have promoted increased health and well-being in many countries by recognising and deliberating on the possible constraints of the MDG framework, the post-2015 agenda may have even greater impact. Complex problems have simple, easy to understand, wrong answers (Henry Louis Mencken) PMID:24266508

Fehling, Maya; Nelson, Brett D.; Venkatapuram, Sridhar

2013-01-01

71

Nuclear energy for the third millennium  

SciTech Connect

The major energy sources of today are expected to last for only a small fraction of the millennium starting three years hence. In the plans of most people, nuclear energy has been ruled out for four separate reasons: 1. The danger of radioactivity from a reactor accident or from reactor products during a long period after reactor shutdown; 2. The proposed fuels, U-235 and also Pu-239, as obtained by presently available procedures will serve only for a limited duration; 3. Energy from nuclear reactors will be more expensive than costs of present alternatives; 4. The possibility of misusing the products for military purposes is an unacceptable danger. The development described below 1 attempts to meet all four objections. Specifically, we propose a structure as an example of future reactors that is deployed two hundred meters underground in loose and dry earth. The reactor is designed to function for thirty years, delivering electrical power on demand up to a level of thousand electrical megawatts. From the time that the reactor is started to the time of its shutdown thirty years later, the functioning is to be completely automatic. This is an obviously difficult condition to fulfill. The most important factor in making it possible is to design and operate the reactor without moving mechanical parts. At the start, the reactor functions on thermal neutrons within a structure containing uranium enriched in U-235 or having an addition of plutonium. That part of the reactor is to deliver energy for approximately one year after which a neighboring portion of the reactor containing thorium has been converted into Th-233 which rather rapidly decays into fissile U-233. This part of the assembly works on fission by fast neutrons. It will heat-up if insufficient thermal energy is withdrawn from the reactor`s core, under the negative feedback action of engineered-in thermostats. Indeed, these specifically designed thermostatic units absorb neutrons if excessive reactor core heating occurs in order to decrease heat generation and to act like automatic control rods. These units will be described below. After the thorium in a given volume of the reactor`s fuel charge is depleted, an adjacent thorium-containing portion of the fuel charge will have been converted bred into fissile material and is ready to continue the reaction. A schematic representation of this concept is shown in Figure 1. Actually, the thorium `reactors` in this Figure will be merged together into a single reactor system with the nuclear fuel-burning reactions propagating down to the ultimate `reactor` U. (In practice, we consider placing the fuel-igniting charge in the middle of the reactor system`s `fuel stick` and arrange breeding regions on both sides, shown in Figure 3.) After all the thorium in the reactor`s fuel charge has been used up, the reactor is shut down by the first positive action of the operators in thirty years. The residual radioactivity will be sealed within the reactor`s core and thereafter allowed to decay in place. The initially intense radioactivity will leave the reactor products inaccessible and unusable for military purposes except if complicated, expensive and easily observed large-scale operations are performed. Having thereby avoided transportation of fission products and reprocessing significantly reduces cost and hazards.

Teller, E.

1997-10-01

72

NeMO: New Millennium Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOAA's New Millennium Observatory (NeMO) "studies the dynamic interactions between submarine volcanic activity and seafloor hotsprings at an observatory, Axial seamount." The website presents a host of information on the participants, tools, and cruise plans for past, present, and scheduled expeditions. Researchers can learn about the Remote Access Sampler (RAS) and a Bottom Access Pressure Recorder (BPR) which transmits the latest data from the seafloor to the website. Through NeMO explorer, users can explore the seafloor with panorama, fly-throughs, and video clips. The education section offers stimulating curriculum materials where students can learn about mid-ocean ridges, hydrothermal vents, axial volcanoes, and much more.

73

Millennium Modem/Channelizer Special Test Equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A broadband modem/channelizer test set developed by NASA Lewis Research Center is discussed. The test set is a fully programmable, bit-error-rate (BER) test set designed for broadband modem-only and multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator characterization. It is currently configured for testing a multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator and was developed for the Advanced Research and Projects Agency under a Technology Reinvestment Program Cooperative Agreement entitled 'Millennium: 21st Century Broadband Digital Telecommunications Technology.' The test set can easily be modified to provide testing of other modems and multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator systems and is available to industry for such testing.

Ivancic, William D.

1995-01-01

74

Inguinal hernia in the new millennium.  

PubMed

Since 1884, when Edoardo Bassini started the modern era of surgical correction of inguinal hernia (today the most common procedure performed by the general surgeon), many techniques have been introduced, some short-lived, others with proven long-term results. At the start of the new millennium, the surgeon has three clear alternatives: tension repairs, tension-free repairs, and laparoscopic procedures. This paper analyzes these three options and offers an update regarding the pros and cons of the most commonly performed operations in surgical centers around the world. PMID:15022018

Cervantes, Jorge

2004-04-01

75

Critical Issues around the Millennium Development Goals and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the UN Millennium Assembly in 2000 global leaders committed themselves to eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Seven of these goals were set for achievement in 2015, including the achievement of universal primary education. Only one goal was set for 2005: the achievement of gender parity in primary and secondary education. There was good…

Archer, David

2005-01-01

76

1,000 Ways To Share the Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author of "1,000 Years Ago on Planet Earth" shares his reasons for taking a backward glance at civilizations all over the globe at the start of the last millennium. He also considers several other new books in various genres and the context such books offer children in approaching both history and the future. Includes books for the millennium

Collard , Sneed B. III

1999-01-01

77

Access to agricultural information and millennium development goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The millennium development goals (MDGs) emerged from the Millennium Declaration adopted by all Member States of the United Nations. The MDGs are international objectives on poverty reduction adopted by the world community in 2000. This paper examines provision of agricultural information to rural dwellers\\/farmers in meeting the MDG 1: eradicating poverty and hunger in the world. Design\\/methodology\\/approach –

Adebambo Adewale Oduwole; Chichi Nancy Okorie

2010-01-01

78

Professor Jeffrey D. Sachs Director, The Millennium Project  

E-print Network

poverty in its key dimensions ­ income, hunger, disease, environmental degradation, and lack of access a global compact to reduce extreme poverty in the Millennium Declaration. The Millennium Development Goals, with 2015 as the main deadline for halving poverty. They also specify that rich and poor countries

79

Structural Relations Between Borderline Personality Disorder Features and Putative Etiological Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the structural relations between borderline personality disorder (BPD) features and purported etiological correlates. Approximately 5,000 18-year-old nonclinical young adults were screened for BPD features, and 2 cohorts of participants (total N = 421; approximately one half of whom endorsed significant borderline features) completed the laboratory phase of the study. Measures included self-report and interview-based assessments of BPD

Timothy J. Trull

2001-01-01

80

Impulsivity, aggression and brain structure in high and low lethality suicide attempters with borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

Impulsivity and aggressiveness are trait dispositions associated with the vulnerability to suicidal behavior across diagnoses. They are associated with structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in regulation of mood, impulse and behavior. They are also core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder defined, in part, by recurrent suicidal behavior. We assessed the relationships between personality traits, brain structure and lethality of suicide attempts in 51 BPD attempters using multiple regression analyses on structural MRI data. BPD was diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients-revised, impulsivity by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), aggression by the Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression (LHA), and high lethality by a score of 4 or more on the Lethality Rating Scale (LRS). Sixteen High Lethality attempters were compared to 35 Low Lethality attempters, with no significant differences noted in gender, co-morbidity, childhood abuse, BIS or LHA scores. Degree of medical lethality (LRS) was negatively related to gray matter volumes across multiple fronto-temporal-limbic regions. Effects of impulsivity and aggression on gray matter volumes discriminated High from Low Lethality attempters and differed markedly within lethality groups. Lethality of suicide attempts in BPD may be related to the mediation of these personality traits by specific neural networks. PMID:24656768

Soloff, Paul; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

2014-06-30

81

[Psychodynamic approach to the addictive personality structure specific for alcohol and hard drugs].  

PubMed

The overconsumption of psychotropic substances is a major problem for contemporary societies. In the USA, 14.1% of the population between the age 15 and 54 have experienced addiction problems to alcohol during their lives while as 7.5% are addicted for life to other drugs (cannabis, cocaine, stimulants, etc). Many studies report that excessive consumption of alcohol, with or without illegal drug use, is associated to social conditions favoring the development of psychological distress and isolation. Although there are many studies on the differences between personality traits of alcoholics and drug users, few authors have examined the possibility to bring to the fore a specificity between the personality structures of the alcoholic and the drug user from a psychodynamic approach. This exploratory review of literature, first presents studies already conducted in order to identify common or distinct personality features for these types of addition. This article then reviews psychodynamic writings examining the possibility of a structural organization that is specific to addiction. Finally, the authors propose a few thoughts allowing to postulate on the existence of a structural organization specific to these two types of addiction. PMID:9775962

Laforce, R; Tracy, S

1998-01-01

82

Structural and Dialectal Characteristics of the Fictional and Personal Narratives of School-Age African American Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural and dialectal characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method: Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, generated a fictional narrative and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a…

Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.

2013-01-01

83

The Validity and Structure of Culture-Level Personality Scores: Data From Ratings of Young Adolescents  

PubMed Central

We examined properties of culture-level personality traits in ratings of targets (N = 5,109) aged 12 to 17 in 24 cultures. Aggregate scores were generalizable across gender, age, and relationship groups and showed convergence with culture-level scores from previous studies of self-reports and observer ratings of adults, but they were unrelated to national character stereotypes. Trait profiles also showed cross-study agreement within most cultures, eight of which had not previously been studied. Multidimensional scaling showed that Western and non-Western cultures clustered along a dimension related to Extraversion. A culture-level factor analysis replicated earlier findings of a broad Extraversion factor, but generally resembled the factor structure found in individuals. Continued analysis of aggregate personality scores is warranted. PMID:20573127

McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; Gelfand, Michele J.; Costa, Paul T.; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Blatný, Marek; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R.; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T.; de Lima, Margarida P.; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gülgöz, Sami; H?ebí?ková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Kneževi?, Goran; de Figueroa, Nora Leibovich; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Martin, Thomas A.; Maruši?, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Puri?, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle

2010-01-01

84

Factorial Structure and Age-Related Psychometrics of the MIDUS Personality Adjective Items across the Lifespan  

PubMed Central

The present study addresses issues of measurement invariance and comparability of factor parameters of Big Five personality adjective items across age. Data from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) survey were used to investigate age-related developmental psychometrics of the MIDUS personality adjective items in two large cross-sectional samples (exploratory sample: N = 862; analysis sample: N = 3,000). After having established and replicated a comprehensive five-factor structure of the measure, increasing levels of measurement invariance were tested across ten age groups. Results indicate that the measure demonstrates strict measurement invariance in terms of number of factors and factor loadings. Also, we found that factor variances and covariances were equal across age groups. By contrast, a number of age-related factor mean differences emerged. The practical implications of these results are discussed and future research is suggested. PMID:21910548

Zimprich, Daniel; Allemand, Mathias; Lachman, Margie E.

2014-01-01

85

The Structure of Personality Disorders in Individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

PubMed Central

Research on the structure of personality disorders (PDs) has relied primarily on exploratory analyses to evaluate trait-based models of the factors underlying the covariation of these disorders. This study used confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate whether a model that included both PD traits and a general personality dysfunction factor would account for the comorbidity of the PDs better than a trait-only model. It also examined if the internalizing/externalizing model of psychopathology, developed previously through research on the structure of Axis I disorders, might similarly account for the covariation of the Axis II disorders in a sample of 245 veterans and non-veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Results indicated that the best fitting model was a modified bifactor structure composed of nine lower-order common factors. These factors indexed pathology ranging from aggression to dependency, with the correlations among them accounted for by higher-order Internalizing and Externalizing factors. Further, a general factor, reflecting a construct that we termed boundary disturbance, accounted for additional variance and covariance across nearly all the indicators. The Internalizing, Externalizing, and Boundary Disturbance factors evidenced differential associations with trauma-related covariates. These findings suggest continuity in the underlying structure of psychopathology across DSM-IV Axes I & II and provide empirical evidence of a pervasive, core disturbance in the boundary between self and other across the PDs. PMID:22448802

Wolf, Erika J.; Miller, Mark W.; Brown, Timothy A.

2015-01-01

86

Patrick Moore's millennium yearbook : the view from AD 1001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a year that will probably be remembered almost as much for books about the millennium as for the turn of 2000 A.D itself, Patrick Moore's Millennium Yearbook celebrates.....well, the wrong millennium! This thoroughly entertaining book - which is for everyone, not just astronomers - contains articles on King Alfred's chronological work, reviews of the new Star Catalogue by the Arab Al-Sufi and the latest edition of Ptolemy's Almagast. And foreshadowing the change to metric units by 1000 years, the book uses arabic numbers instead of Roman - but there is a conversion table if you have trouble with the idea of "zero" and prefer the older system.

Moore, Patrick, Chapman, Allan

87

The Millennium: One Thousand Years of Finance and Companies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A section of the special turn-of-the-millennium edition of the Wall Street Journal Interactive, "The Millennium: One Thousand Years of Finance and Companies" recapitulates world business and economics in the past1,000 years. A timeline chronicling "Finance and Firms" in the eleventh through the twentieth centuries is featured along with a look at taxes throughout the millennium. Five articles focus on the twentieth century, looking at the rise of Manhattan as the finance center of the US, the history of the DuPont company, and the stock market.

88

Basic mechanisms for the new millennium  

SciTech Connect

This part of the Short Course will review the basic mechanisms for radiation effects in semiconductor devices. All three areas of radiation damage will be considered -- total dose, displacement effects, and single event effects. Each of these areas will be discussed in turn. First an overview and background will be provided on the historical understanding of the damage mechanism. Then there will be a discussion of recent enhancements to the understanding of those mechanisms and an up-to-date picture provided of the current state of knowledge. Next the potential impact of each of these damage mechanisms on devices in emerging technologies and how the mechanisms may be used to understand device performance will be described, with an emphasis on those likely to be of importance in the new millennium. Finally some additional thoughts will be presented on how device scaling expected into the next century may impact radiation hardness.

Dressendorfer, P.V.

1998-09-01

89

Malaria and the millennium development goals.  

PubMed

Malaria, as a key disease of poverty, was singled out for special attention in the Millennium Project of 2000. Recent data suggest that malaria incidence and mortality are now declining all over the world. While these figures are cause for celebration, they must be interpreted carefully and with caution, particularly in relation to Africa. There are daunting challenges ahead for those working to achieve malaria eradication, not least of which is the poor quality of the data on which the work is based. In the absence of an affordable and fully effective vaccine, international funding for malaria control needs to be escalated still further. The money is essential to pay for universal access to a set of simple and proven interventions which would save the lives of millions of children over the next 15?years. PMID:25613970

Owens, Stephen

2015-02-01

90

How Secondary Level Teachers and Students Impose Personal Structure on Fractional Expressions and Equations--An Expert-Novice Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While an algebraic expression is typically assigned a regular structure, this article introduces the concept of personal structure ("Strukturierung"); here, the structuring of an algebraic expression is understood as the act of forming relationships between its parts. This concept is used for the analysis of interviews in which experts and novices…

Ruede, Christian

2013-01-01

91

Health, development and the Millennium Development Goals.  

PubMed

The Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which emerged from the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000, are increasingly recognized as the over-arching development framework. As such, the MDG are increasingly guiding the policies of poor countries and aid agencies alike. This article reviews the challenges and opportunities for health presented by the MDG. The opportunities include that three of the eight MDG relate to health--a recognition that health is central to global agenda of reducing poverty, as well as an important measure of human well-being in its own right. A related point is that the MDG help to focus attention on those health conditions that disproportionally affect the poor (communicable disease, child health and maternal health), which should, in turn, help to strengthen the equity focus of health policies in low-income countries. Further, because the MDG are concrete, it is possible to calculate the cost of achieving them, which in turn strengthens the long-standing calls for higher levels of aid for health. The challenges include that, while the MDG focus on specific diseases and conditions, they cannot be achieved without strengthening health systems. Similarly, progress towards the MDG will require health to be prioritized within overall development and economic policies. In practice, this means applying a health 'lens' to processes such as civil-service reform, decentralization and the drawing-up of frameworks of national expenditure. Finally, the MDG cannot be met with the resources available in low-income countries. While the MDG framework has created pressure for donors to commit to higher levels of aid, the challenge remains to turn these commitments into action. Data are presented to show that, at current rates of progress, the health-related MDG will not be achieved. This disappointing trend could be reversed, however, if the various challenges outlined are met. PMID:16899143

Dodd, R; Cassels, A

2006-01-01

92

Volcanoes and ENSO over the past millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reassess the controversial claim that (El Niño) events might be partially caused by radiative forcing due to volcanic aerosols. Building on the work of Mann et al. (2005), we use estimates of volcanic forcing over the past millennium (Crowley 2000) and a climate model of intermediate complexity (Zebiak and Cane 1987), to draw a diagram of El Niño likelihood as a function of the intensity of volcanic forcing. We show that in the context of this model, only eruptions larger than that of Mt Pinatubo (1991, peak dimming of about 4 W/m2) can shift the likelihood and amplitude of an El Niño event above the level of the model's internal variability. This reconciles, on one hand, the demonstration by Adams et al. (2003) of a relationship between explosive volcanism and El Niño; and, on the other hand, the ability to predict El Niño events of the last 148 years without knowledge of volcanic forcing (Chen et al. 2004). We then focus on the strongest eruption of the millennium (1258 A.D.), and show that it is likely to have triggered a moderate-to-strong El Niño event in the midst of prevailing La Niña conditions induced by increased solar activity during the well-documented Medieval Climate Anomaly. Compiling paleoclimate data from a wide array of sources, we document a number of important hydroclimatic consequences for neighboring areas. We propose, in particular, that the event briefly interrupted a solar-induced megadrought in the Southwestern US. Most of the time, however, volcanic eruptions are too small to significantly affect ENSO statistics.

Emile-Geay, J.; Seager, R.; Cane, M.; Cook, E.; Haug, G.

2007-05-01

93

Personality disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... personality disorder Histrionic personality disorder Narcissistic personality disorder Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder Paranoid personality disorder Schizoid personality disorder Schizotypal personality disorder

94

A Cross-Setting Study of Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Personality Structure and Development  

PubMed Central

This study addressed whether personality ratings using a 43 adjective questionnaire based on the Five-Factor Model generalized from a sample of 202 zoo-housed chimpanzees to a sample of 175 chimpanzees housed in Yerkes National Primate Research Center. Mean interrater reliabilities of adjectival ratings were lower for the chimpanzees housed in Yerkes. In addition, rank order of the interrater reliabilities of items differed between settings. To compare factor structure, we first examined whether we could replicate the original six factor structure found in an earlier study of 100 zoo chimpanzees using principal factors analysis in the Yerkes sample and 102 new zoo chimpanzees. The dominance, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness factors were clearly replicated in the Yerkes sample and the 102 new zoo chimpanzees. The Neuroticism and Openness factors did not replicate in the Yerkes sample, but they also did not replicate in the new zoo chimpanzees. These findings suggest the need to sample more adjectives representing neuroticism and openness in future versions of the questionnaire. We next sought to determine whether factor structure, as determined by principal components analysis, remained invariant across the two settings. This analysis revealed dominance, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness factors in both settings and a high level of congruence between the zoo and Yerkes samples for these factors. Finally, we tested whether factor scores in the two samples were similarly related to age and sex. With the exception of differences in age effects for dominance and agreeableness, age, and sex effects were consistent across samples. These findings suggest that, whereas there may be differences in the ease with which ratings are made, personality structure, and development are largely consistent across widely differing settings. PMID:17397036

WEISS, ALEXANDER; KING, JAMES E.; HOPKINS, WILLIAM D.

2009-01-01

95

Structured terror: further exploring the effects of mortality salience and personal need for structure on worldview defense.  

PubMed

Previous research indicates that people respond to heightened death-related cognition with increased defense of predominant cultural beliefs (cultural worldview defense). However, recent research indicates that individual differences in personal need for structure (PNS) impact responses to threatening thoughts of death such that those high, but not low, in PNS respond to death thoughts by seeking a highly structured, clear, and coherent view of the world. Research has yet to fully consider the extent to which PNS affects the cultural worldview defenses typically exhibited after death is rendered salient. The current 3 studies examine the potential for PNS to determine the extent to which people respond to mortality salience with increased worldview defense. In all three studies PNS was measured and mortality salience induced. Subsequently, university-related (Study 1) or religious (Studies 2 and 3) worldview defense was assessed. Only individuals high in PNS responded to mortality salience with increased worldview defense. PMID:20573132

Juhl, Jacob; Routledge, Clay

2010-06-01

96

Examination of the Factor Structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire among British and Trinidadian Adults  

PubMed Central

Much debate in schizotypal research has centred on the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), with research variously showing higher-order dimensionality consisting of two to seven dimensions. In addition, cross-cultural support for the stability of those factors remains limited. Here, we examined the factor structure of the SPQ among British and Trinidadian adults. Participants from a White British subsample (n = 351) resident in the UK and from an African Caribbean subsample (n = 284) resident in Trinidad completed the SPQ. The higher-order factor structure of the SPQ was analysed through confirmatory factor analysis, followed by multiple-group analysis for the model of best fit. Between-group differences for sex and ethnicity were investigated using multivariate analysis of variance in relation to the higher-order domains. The model of best-fit was the four-factor structure, which demonstrated measurement invariance across groups. Additionally, these data had an adequate fit for two alternative models: (a) 3-factor and (b) modified 4-factor model. The British subsample had significantly higher scores across all domains than the Trinidadian group, and men scored significantly higher on the disorganised domain than women. The four-factor structure received confirmatory support and, importantly, support for use with populations varying in ethnicity and culture.

Barron, David; Swami, Viren; Hutchinson, Gerard

2015-01-01

97

The composite first person narrative: Texture, structure, and meaning in writing phenomenological descriptions  

PubMed Central

This paper illustrates the use of composite first person narrative interpretive methods, as described by Todres, across a range of phenomena. This methodology introduces texture into the presently understood structures of phenomena and thereby creates new understandings of the phenomenon, bringing about a form of understanding that is relationally alive that contributes to improved caring practices. The method is influenced by the work of Gendlin, Heidegger, van Manen, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty. The method's applicability to different research topics is demonstrated through the composite narratives of nursing students learning nursing practice in an accelerated and condensed program, obese female adolescents attempting weight control, chronically ill male parolees, and midlife women experiencing distress during menopause. Within current research, these four phenomena have been predominantly described and understood through quantified articulations that give the reader a structural understanding of the phenomena, but the more embodied or “contextual” human qualities of the phenomena are often not visible. The “what is it like” or the “unsaid” aspects of such human phenomena are not clear to the reader when proxies are used to “account for” a variety of situated conditions. This novel method is employed to re-present narrative data and findings from research through first person accounts that blend the voices of the participants with those of the researcher, emphasizing the connectedness, the “we” among all participants, researchers, and listeners. These re-presentations allow readers to develop more embodied understandings of both the texture and structure of each of the phenomena and illustrate the use of the composite account as a way for researchers to better understand and convey the wholeness of the experience of any phenomenon under inquiry. PMID:21499448

Wertz, Marcia Stanley; Nosek, Marcianna; McNiesh, Susan; Marlow, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

98

MASSIVE HALOS IN MILLENNIUM GAS SIMULATIONS: MULTIVARIATE SCALING RELATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The joint likelihood of observable cluster signals reflects the astrophysical evolution of the coupled baryonic and dark matter components in massive halos, and its knowledge will enhance cosmological parameter constraints in the coming era of large, multiwavelength cluster surveys. We present a computational study of intrinsic covariance in cluster properties using halo populations derived from Millennium Gas Simulations (MGS). The MGS are re-simulations of the original 500 h {sup -1} Mpc Millennium Simulation performed with gas dynamics under two different physical treatments: shock heating driven by gravity only (GO) and a second treatment with cooling and preheating (PH). We examine relationships among structural properties and observable X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signals for samples of thousands of halos with M {sub 200} {>=} 5 x 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M {sub sun} and z < 2. While the X-ray scaling behavior of PH model halos at low redshift offers a good match to local clusters, the model exhibits non-standard features testable with larger surveys, including weakly running slopes in hot gas observable-mass relations and {approx}10% departures from self-similar redshift evolution for 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M {sub sun} halos at redshift z {approx} 1. We find that the form of the joint likelihood of signal pairs is generally well described by a multivariate, log-normal distribution, especially in the PH case which exhibits less halo substructure than the GO model. At fixed mass and epoch, joint deviations of signal pairs display mainly positive correlations, especially the thermal SZ effect paired with either hot gas fraction (r = 0.88/0.69 for PH/GO at z = 0) or X-ray temperature (r = 0.62/0.83). The levels of variance in X-ray luminosity, temperature, and gas mass fraction are sensitive to the physical treatment, but offsetting shifts in the latter two measures maintain a fixed 12% scatter in the integrated SZ signal under both gas treatments. We discuss halo mass selection by signal pairs, and find a minimum mass scatter of 4% in the PH model by combining thermal SZ and gas fraction measurements.

Stanek, R. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Rasia, E. [Department of Astronomy and Michigan Society of Fellows, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Evrard, A. E. [Departments of Physics and Astronomy and Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Pearce, F.; Gazzola, L., E-mail: rstanek@umich.ed [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

2010-06-01

99

Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium" project tackles the issue of reengineering and extension of validated physics-based modeling capabilities ("legacy" computer codes) to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. While the design and architecture layouts are in terms of general particle distributions involved in scattering, impact, and reactive interactions, initial Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT) implementations are aimed at construction and evaluation of photochemical transport models with rapid execution for use in remote sensing data analysis activities in distributed systems. Current focus is on the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data acquired during the CASSINI flyby of Jupiter. Overall, the project has stayed on the development track outlined in the Year 1 annual report and most Year 2 goals have been met. The issues that have required the most attention are: implementation of the core photochemistry algorithms; implementation of a functional Java Graphical User Interface; completion of a functional CORBA Component Model framework; and assessment of performance issues. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Work to be carried out in the next year center on: completion of testing of the initial operational implementation; its application to analysis of the CASSINI/CIRS Jovian flyby data; extension of the PPMT to incorporate additional phenomenology algorithms; and delivery of a mature operational implementation.

Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott

2001-01-01

100

Morphometric differences in central stress-regulating structures between women with and without borderline personality disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Experiences of early life stress, increased psychological arousal and the body’s physiologic stress response seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis and maintenance of borderline personality disorder (BPD). In the present study, we investigated alterations in grey matter of central stress-regulating structures in female patients with BPD. Methods We examined T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of unmedicated, right-handed female patients with BPD (according to DSM-IV criteria) and healthy controls matched for age, intelligence and education using fully automated DARTEL voxel-based morphometry. Our regions of interest analyses included the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and hypothalamus. Results We enrolled 30 patients and 33 controls in our study. The grey matter of patients with BPD was reduced in the hippocampus, but increased in the hypothalamus compared with healthy participants. Hypothalamic volume correlated positively with the history of traumatization in patients with BPD. No significant alterations were found in the amygdala and ACC. Limitations This study is limited by the lack of measures of corticotropin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels. Furthermore, moderate sample size and comorbid disorders need to be considered. Conclusion Our findings provide new evidence for grey matter alterations in the hypothalamus and replicate previously reported decrements in hippocampal volume in patients with BPD. Understanding the role of the hypothalamus and other central stress-regulating structures could help us to further understand the neurobiological underpinnings of this complex disorder. PMID:22909445

Kuhlmann, Andrea; Bertsch, Katja; Schmidinger, Ilinca; Thomann, Philipp A.; Herpertz, Sabine C.

2013-01-01

101

Psychometric and Structural Analysis of the MMPI-2 Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Facet Subscales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) is a model of personality psychopathology assessed in adult populations with a set of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scales. The authors examine the reliability and validity of recently developed lower-order facet subscales for each of these five domains, with an emphasis on…

Quilty, Lena C.; Bagby, R. Michael

2007-01-01

102

Effects of Personality on Conflict Resolution in Student Teams: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports results of a study of the effects of five personality dimensions on conflict resolution preferences in student teams. Two hundred and sixteen students provided self-reports of personality dimensions and conflict styles using the Neo-FFI and ROCI-II scales. Simultaneous effects of five personality dimensions on five conflict…

Forrester, William R; Tashchian, Armen

2013-01-01

103

Factor Structure of the Primary Scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization in a Nonclinical Sample Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using exploratory structural equation modeling and multiple regression, we examined the factor structure and criterion relations of the primary scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO; Kernberg & Clarkin, 1995) in a nonclinical sample. Participants (N = 1,260) completed the IPO and measures of self-concept clarity, defenses,…

Ellison, William D.; Levy, Kenneth N.

2012-01-01

104

HIV and the Millennium Development Goals.  

PubMed

Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6 has two HIV/AIDS commitments: to have halted and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015 and to ensure access to treatment among all those in need by 2010. Given the almost universal lack of access to HIV testing, prevention and treatment for children in high prevalence countries in 2000, the achievements of the past 15?years have been extraordinary, fuelled by massive donor investment, strong political commitment and ambitious global targets; however, MDG 6 is some way from being attained. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services have expanded enormously, with new infections among children falling by 58% between 2002 and 2013. There has been a shift towards initiation of lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for pregnant and breastfeeding women, although low HIV testing rates in pregnancy, suboptimal PMTCT coverage and poor retention in care remain barriers to achieving HIV elimination among children. Early infant diagnosis has expanded substantially but, in 2013, only 44% of all HIV-exposed infants were tested before 2?months of age. Diagnosis of HIV, therefore, frequently occurs late, leading to delays in ART initiation. By the end of 2013, approximately 760?000 children were receiving ART, leading to 40% decline in AIDS-related mortality. However, only 24% of HIV-infected children were receiving ART, compared with 36% of adults, leading to a 'treatment gap'. In this review, we summarise progress and remaining challenges in reaching MDG 6 and discuss future strategies to achieve the ambitious goals of paediatric HIV elimination and universal access to treatment. PMID:25613968

Prendergast, Andrew J; Essajee, Shaffiq; Penazzato, Martina

2015-02-01

105

Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smith College has recently established the Louise B. and Edmund J. Kahn Liberal Arts Institute to foster interdisciplinary scholarship among the faculty. In the 1999-2000 academic year, the Kahn Institute is sponsoring a project entitled "Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium." The project will explore the impact of the astronomical discoveries of Galileo and his contemporaries on the Renaissance world-view and also use Galileo's experience as a lens for examining scientific and cultural developments at the symbolic juncture represented by the year 2000. Seven faculty fellows and 10-12 student fellows will participate in a year-long colloquium pursuing these themes, aided by the participation of some five Visiting Fellows. The inaugural public event will be a symposium on the historical Galileo, with presentation by three noted scholars, each of whom will return to campus for a second meeting with the Kahn colloquium. Additional events will include an exhibit of prints, artifacts, and rare books related to Galileo and his time, an early music concert featuring music composed by Galileo's father, and a series of other events sponsored by diverse departments and programs, all related to the broad themes of the Galileo project. The culminating events will be the premiere of a new music theater work, which will encapsulate the insights of the colloquium about human reactions to novel insights about the world, and a symposium presenting the research results of faculty and student fellows. The symposium will feature a capstone lecture by an visionary scholar projecting the implication of historical and contemporary trends into the future.

White, R. E.

1999-05-01

106

Millennium development goals and child undernutrition.  

PubMed

Reduction in prevalence of underweight children (under five years of age) has been included as an indicator for one of the targets to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (Goal 1) of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The most recent MDG report of 2012 indicates that the target of reducing extreme poverty by half has been reached five years ahead of the 2015 deadline but close to one third of children in Southern Asia were underweight. In India, at the historical rate of decline the proportion of underweight children below 3 years, required to be reduced to 26% by 2015, is expected to come down only to about 33%. With barely 3 years left for achieving MDGs, the level of commitment to reduce child undernutrition needs to be gauged and effectiveness of current strategies and programmes ought to be reviewed. Undernutrition in children is not affected by food intake alone; it is also influenced by access to health services, quality of care for the child and pregnant mother as well as good hygiene practices. Would the scenario be different if child undernutrition was a part of Goal 4 of MDGs? What difference it would have made in terms of strategies and programmes if reduction in undernutrition in children underfive was a target instead of an indicator? It is time for nutrition to be placed higher on the development agenda. A number of simple, cost-effective measures to reduce undernutrition in the critical period from conception to two years after birth are available. There is a need for choosing nutrition strategies relevant in Indian context. Experiences from other countries should lead India toward innovative nutritional strategies to reduce underfive undernutrition in the country- that too on a fast track. PMID:23778725

Patwari, A K

2013-05-01

107

New Space Industries for the Next Millennium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New Space Industries For the Next Millennium is a final report of the findings from the New Space Industries Workshop held in Washington, DC, in February 1998. The primary purpose of this workshop was to identify what must be done to develop new markets, and to generate plans, milestones and new organizational relationships designed to facilitate the goal of space development. This document provides a summary report on the results of that workshop and is not intended as a statement of NASA or government policy. Previous studies had shown great potential for the development of new markets in space (e.g., travel and entertainment, space solar power, satellite and space transfer services, research and development in space, space manufacturing, and space resources), and a great need for coordination and formation of infrastructures (e.g., space transportation, space business parks, and space utilities), to facilitate the growth of new space businesses. The New Space Industries Workshop brought together government, academia, and industry participants from several previous studies and other professionals interested in the development of space for commercial purposes. Their participation provided input into the role of government and industry in space development as well as the technology needs that will enable space development. The opening of the frontier of space, not just to government missions but to private individuals and commercial business, is a challenge of overarching importance. It is our hope that the workshop and this final report continue in earnest the process of identifying and overcoming the barriers to large-scale public access and development of space in the early years of the next century.

Smitherman, D. V., Jr. (Compiler)

1998-01-01

108

Identifying with fictive characters: structural brain correlates of the personality trait 'fantasy'.  

PubMed

The perception of oneself as absorbed in the thoughts, feelings and happenings of a fictive character (e.g. in a novel or film) as if the character's experiences were one's own is referred to as identification. We investigated whether individual variation in the personality trait of identification is associated with individual variation in the structure of specific brain regions, using surface and volume-based morphometry. The hypothesized regions of interest were selected on the basis of their functional role in subserving the cognitive processing domains considered important for identification (i.e. mental imagery, empathy, theory of mind and merging) and for the immersive experience called 'presence'. Controlling for age, sex, whole-brain volume and other traits, identification covaried significantly with the left hippocampal volume, cortical thickness in the right anterior insula and the left dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and with gray matter volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings show that trait identification is associated with structural variation in specific brain regions. The findings are discussed in relation to the potential functional contribution of these regions to identification. PMID:24464847

Cheetham, Marcus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jancke, Lutz

2014-11-01

109

Factor Structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI): Findings from a Large Incarcerated Sample  

PubMed Central

Recent exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld, 1990) with a community sample suggested that the PPI subscales may be comprised of two higher-order factors (Benning et al., 2003). However, little research has examined the PPI structure in offenders. The current study attempted to replicate the Benning et al. two-factor solution using a large (N=1224) incarcerated male sample. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of this model with the full sample resulted in poor model fit. Next, to identify a factor solution that would summarize the offender data, EFA was conducted using a split-half of the total sample, followed by an attempt to replicate the EFA solution via CFA with the other split-half sample. Using the recommendations of Prooijen and van der Kloot (2001) for recovering EFA solutions, model fit results provided some evidence that the EFA solution could be recovered via CFA. However, this model involved extensive cross-loadings of the subscales across three factors, suggesting item overlap across PPI subscales. In sum, the two-factor solution reported by Benning et al. (2003) was not a viable model for the current sample of offenders, and additional research is needed to elucidate the latent structure of the PPI. PMID:18557694

Neumann, Craig S.; Malterer, Melanie B.; Newman, Joseph P.

2010-01-01

110

Personality structure in brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella): comparisons with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).  

PubMed

Species comparisons of personality structure (i.e., how many personality dimensions and the characteristics of those dimensions) can facilitate questions about the adaptive function of personality in nonhuman primates. Here we investigate personality structure in the brown capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella), a New World primate species, and compare this structure to those of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Brown capuchins evolved behavioral and cognitive traits that are qualitatively similar to those of great apes, and individual differences in behavior and cognition often reflect differences in personality. Thus, we hypothesized that brown capuchin personality structure would overlap more with great apes than with rhesus macaques. We obtained personality ratings from seven sites, including 127 brown capuchin monkeys. Principal-components analysis identified five personality dimensions (Assertiveness, Openness, Neuroticism, Sociability, and Attentiveness), which were reliable across raters and, in a subset of subjects, significantly correlated with relevant behaviors up to a year later. Comparisons between species revealed that brown capuchins and great apes overlapped in personality structure, particularly chimpanzees in the case of Neuroticism. However, in some respects (i.e., capuchin Sociability and Openness) the similarities between capuchins and great apes were not significantly greater than those between capuchins and rhesus macaques. We discuss the relevance of our results to brown capuchin behavior and the evolution of personality structure in primates. PMID:23668695

Morton, F Blake; Lee, Phyllis C; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Brosnan, Sarah F; Thierry, Bernard; Paukner, Annika; de Waal, Frans B M; Widness, Jane; Essler, Jennifer L; Weiss, Alexander

2013-08-01

111

Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for Ukraine.…

Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

2012-01-01

112

NASA's New Millennium ST-8 Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Space Technology 8 project (ST-8) is subsystem demonstration which will validate four technologies that have been identified as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. NASA's New Millennium Program, with input from the science community, identified the following four technologies: Miniature Loop Heat Pipe with Multiple Evaporators Thermal Management System (MLHP), Scalable Architecture for the Investigation of the Load Managing Attributes of a Slender Truss (SAILMAST), Next Generation UltraFlex (NGU), and Environmentally Adaptive Fault Tolerant Computing (EAFTC). Once validated on a deep space mission, these technologies will be available for use on future science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The MLHP, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The NGU will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The EAFTC will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform. It is expected that this experiment will enable more capable, high performance, fault-tolerant, processing to handle, in a variety of planetary and deep space environments, the large science and autonomy data processing loads expected in the future. This work performed at JPL/Caltech under contract with NASA.

Bothwell, M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Fujita, T.; Minning, C.; Nelson, R. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; Sampson, J. R.

2005-12-01

113

NASA's New Millennium ST8 Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, four technologies: Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; Ultraflex 175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array; and Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science computing. These technologies have been identified by NMP, with input from the space science community, as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The Thermal Loop, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The Ultraflex 175 will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultracompact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The Dependable Multiprocessor will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform. It is expected that this experiment will enable more capable, high performance, fault-tolerant, processing to handle, in a variety of planetary and deep space environments, the large science and autonomy data processing loads expected in the future. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

Abakians, H.; Kim, Y.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; White, S.; Samson, J. R., Jr.; Zsoldos, J.; McDermott, T.

2007-08-01

114

NASA's New Millennium ST8 Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft, four technologies These are : 1. Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; 2. SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; 3. UltraFlex-175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array 3. Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science computing. These technologies have been identified, with input from the space science community, as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The Thermal Loop, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The UltraFlex-175 will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fanfolded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3 ), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. 1 The Dependable Multiprocessor will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform. It is expected that this experiment will enable more capable, high performance, fault-tolerant, processing to handle, in a variety of planetary and deep space environments, the large science and autonomy data processing loads expected in the future. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA. 2

Abakians, H.; Botwell, M.; Chmielski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; White, S.; Samson, J. R.; Zsoldos, J.

115

NASA's New Millennium ST-8 Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, four technologies: Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; UltraFlex-175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array; and Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science computing. These technologies have been identified by NMP, with input from the space science community, as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The Thermal Loop, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The UltraFlex-175 will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The Dependable Multiprocessor will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform. It is expected that this experiment will enable more capable, high performance, fault-tolerant, processing to handle, in a variety of planetary and deep space environments, the large science and autonomy data processing loads expected in the future. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA.

Abakians, H.; Bothwell, M.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; White, S.; Samson, J. R.; Zsoldos, J.; McDermott, T.

2006-12-01

116

NASA's New Millennium ST8 Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, four technologies: Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; Ultraflex 175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array; and Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science computing. These technologies have been identified by NMP, with input from the space science community, as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The Thermal Loop, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The Ultraflex 175 will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The Dependable Multiprocessor will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform. It is expected that this experiment will enable more capable, high performance, fault-tolerant, processing to handle, in a variety of planetary and deep space environments, the large science and autonomy data processing loads expected in the future. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

Stevens, C. M.; Stocky, J. F.; Nelson, R. M.

2007-12-01

117

The Structure of Personality in Australian as Compared with English Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 336 male and 318 female Australian adults was administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (E.P.Q.), and the items were intercorrelated and factor analyzed. Results were compared with the results obtained from an English sample of 2312 males and 3262 females, using indices of factor comparison. Identical factors corresponding to the major personality dimensions of Psychoticism (P), Extraversion (E),

S. B. G. Eysenck; N. Humphery; H. J. Eysenck

1980-01-01

118

Spintronics: a new paradigm for electronics for the new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

SPIN TRansport electrONICS or SPINTRONICS, in which the spin degree of freedom of the electron will play an important role in addition to or in place of the charge degree of freedom in mainstream electronics will be important as we start the new millennium. The prospects for this new electronics in nonvolatile radiation hard magnetic memory for the Department of

Stuart A. Wolf; Daryl Treger

2000-01-01

119

New Millennium AI and the Convergence of History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has recently become a real form al science: the new millennium brought the first mathematically sound, asymptotically optimal, unive rsal problem solvers, providing a new, rigorous foundation for the previously largely heuristic field of Gen eral AI and embedded agents. At the same time there has been rapid progress in practical methods for learning true sequence-processing programs,

Juergen Schmidhuber

2006-01-01

120

A Millennium of Metallurgy Recorded by Lake Sediments from  

E-print Network

A Millennium of Metallurgy Recorded by Lake Sediments from Morococha, Peruvian Andes C O L I N, Pennsylvania 16802 To date, information concerning pre-Colonial metallurgy in South America has largely been the Morococha mining region in the central Peruvian Andes. The earliest evidence for metallurgy occurs ca. 1000

Wolfe, Alexander P.

121

Relativistic Heavy Ion Physics in the New Millennium  

E-print Network

The field of relativistic heavy ion physics has seen significant advancement in the new millennium toward a greater understanding of QCD at high temperatures with the commissioning and operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Here we review progress in the field as presented in a set of lectures at the Lake Louise Winter Institute on Fundamental Interactions in February 2004.

J. L. Nagle

2004-05-18

122

Skills for the New Millennium. Paper Presentations: Session G.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 14 papers from the skills for the new millennium section of an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Research on Vocational Education and Training as a Field for Knowledge Development--Starting Points for the…

2000

123

Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter (part)  

E-print Network

Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter (part) Project of the ABIM and responsibilities of medical professionalism must be clearly understood by both the profession and society physicians and the whole profession. At present, the medical profession is confronted by an explosion

Gilbert, Matthew

124

Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter (part)  

E-print Network

1 Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter (part) Project of the ABIM and responsibilities of medical professionalism must be clearly understood by both the profession and society physicians and the whole profession. At present, the medical profession is confronted by an explosion

Gilbert, Matthew

125

Marketing research in the new millennium: emerging issues and trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the focus of the special issue, the present paper combines both the academic and the practitioner perspectives to highlight several issues and emerging trends that will shape the role of marketing research in the new millennium. These include a redefinition of the marketing researcher, the on-going nature of marketing research, qualitative research, quantitative research, international marketing research, Internet marketing

Naresh K. Malhotra; Mark Peterson

2001-01-01

126

Cloud scalability: building the Millennium Falcon 1. CLOUD SCALABILITY PROBLEM  

E-print Network

are at today in cloud computing; the pre-construction and initial phases are completed, much experience hasEDITORIAL Cloud scalability: building the Millennium Falcon 1. CLOUD SCALABILITY PROBLEM Warship been accumulated, but some inherent cloud features are still causing some trouble. And providers stress

Melbourne, University of

127

Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 1: Early Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

2007-01-01

128

UN Millennium Development Goal 1 Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger  

E-print Network

UN Millennium Development Goal 1 Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger QUICK FACTS The World Bank estimates that 1.4 bill people in developing countries were living in extreme poverty in 2005. Recent into absolute poverty. About 25% of children under

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

129

The Neo Personality Inventory-Revised: Factor Structure and Gender Invariance from Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in a High-Stakes Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents new analyses of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) responses collected from a large British sample in a high-stakes setting. The authors show the appropriateness of the five-factor model underpinning these responses in a variety of new ways. Using the recently developed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM)…

Furnham, Adrian; Guenole, Nigel; Levine, Stephen Z.; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

2013-01-01

130

The Lagoon at Caroline/Millennium Atoll, Republic of Kiribati: Natural History of a Nearly Pristine Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

A series of surveys were carried out to characterize the physical and biological parameters of the Millennium Atoll lagoon during a research expedition in April of 2009. Millennium is a remote coral atoll in the Central Pacific belonging to the Republic of Kiribati, and a member of the Southern Line Islands chain. The atoll is among the few remaining coral reef ecosystems that are relatively pristine. The lagoon is highly enclosed, and was characterized by reticulate patch and line reefs throughout the center of the lagoon as well as perimeter reefs around the rim of the atoll. The depth reached a maximum of 33.3 m in the central region of the lagoon, and averaged between 8.8 and 13.7 m in most of the pools. The deepest areas were found to harbor large platforms of Favia matthaii, which presumably provided a base upon which the dominant corals (Acropora spp.) grew to form the reticulate reef structure. The benthic algal communities consisted mainly of crustose coralline algae (CCA), microfilamentous turf algae and isolated patches of Halimeda spp. and Caulerpa spp. Fish species richness in the lagoon was half of that observed on the adjacent fore reef. The lagoon is likely an important nursery habitat for a number of important fisheries species including the blacktip reef shark and Napoleon wrasse, which are heavily exploited elsewhere around the world but were common in the lagoon at Millennium. The lagoon also supports an abundance of giant clams (Tridacna maxima). Millennium lagoon provides an excellent reference of a relatively undisturbed coral atoll. As with most coral reefs around the world, the lagoon communities of Millennium may be threatened by climate change and associated warming, acidification and sea level rise, as well as sporadic local resource exploitation which is difficult to monitor and enforce because of the atoll's remote location. While the remote nature of Millennium has allowed it to remain one of the few nearly pristine coral reef ecosystems in the world, it is imperative that this ecosystem receives protection so that it may survive for future generations. PMID:20539746

Barott, Katie L.; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Maragos, James E.; Obura, David; Rohwer, Forest L.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Zgliczynski, Brian

2010-01-01

131

Adolf Hitler's Parkinson's disease and an attempt to analyse his personality structure.  

PubMed

It has been proved that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic Parkinson's disease. No indication for postencephalitic parkinsonism was found in the clinical symptoms or the case history. Professor Max de Crinis established his diagnosis of Parkinson's disease in Hitler early in 1945 and informed the SS leadership, who decided to initiate treatment with a specially prepared 'antiparkinsonian mixture' to be administered by a physician. However, Hitler never received the mixture, this implies that the SS intended to remove the severely diseased 'Leader'. Two different character traits can be analysed in Hitler's personality: on the one hand the typical premorbid personality of parkinsonian patients with uncorrectable mental rigidity, extreme inflexibility and insupportable pedantry. On the other an antisocial personality disorder with lack of ethical and social values, a deeply rooted tendency to betray others and to deceive himself and uncontrollable emotional reactions. This special combination in Hitler's personality resulted in the uncritical conviction of his mission and an enormous driving for recognition. The neuropsychiatric analysis of Hitler's personality could lead to a better explanation of the pathological traits of one of the most conspicuous historical personalities. PMID:10053222

Gerstenbrand, F; Karamat, E

1999-03-01

132

The convergent structure of DSM-5 personality trait facets and five-factor model trait domains.  

PubMed

The DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorder Work Group have proposed diagnosing personality disorder based in part on 25 pathological traits. Initial research suggests that five factors explain the covariance among these traits and that these factors reflect the domains of the well-validated Five-Factor Model (FFM) of normative personality. This finding is important because it signifies the potential to apply normative trait research to personality disorder classification in the DSM-5. In this study, trait scale scores on the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and domain scores from the FFM Rating Form (FFMRF) were subjected to a conjoint exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to test the higher-order convergence of the DSM-5 pathological trait model and the FFM in a nonclinical sample (N = 808). Results indicate that the five higher-order factors of the conjoint EFA reflect the domains of the FFM. The authors briefly discuss implications of this correspondence between the normative FFM and the pathological PID-5. PMID:22946103

Thomas, Katherine M; Yalch, Matthew M; Krueger, Robert F; Wright, Aidan G C; Markon, Kristian E; Hopwood, Christopher J

2013-06-01

133

Personality-dependent dispersal: characterization, ontogeny and consequences for spatially structured populations  

PubMed Central

Dispersal is one of the most fundamental components of ecology, and affects processes as diverse as population growth, metapopulation dynamics, gene flow and adaptation. Although the act of moving from one habitat to another entails major costs to the disperser, empirical and theoretical studies suggest that these costs can be reduced by having morphological, physiological or behavioural specializations for dispersal. A few recent studies on different systems showed that individuals exhibit personality-dependent dispersal, meaning that dispersal tendency is associated with boldness, sociability or aggressiveness. Indeed, in several species, dispersers not only develop behavioural differences at the onset of dispersal, but display these behavioural characteristics through their life cycle. While personality-dependent dispersal has been demonstrated in only a few species, we believe that it is a widespread phenomenon with important ecological consequences. Here, we review the evidence for behavioural differences between dispersers and residents, to what extent they constitute personalities. We also examine how a link between personality traits and dispersal behaviours can be produced and how personality-dependent dispersal affects the dynamics of metapopulations and biological invasions. Finally, we suggest future research directions for population biologists, behavioural ecologists and conservation biologists such as how the direction and the strength of the relationship between personality traits and dispersal vary with ecological contexts. PMID:21078658

Cote, J.; Clobert, J.; Brodin, T.; Fogarty, S.; Sih, A.

2010-01-01

134

Structured Decision-Making: Using Personalized Medicine to Improve the Value of Cancer Care  

PubMed Central

Cancer care is often inconsistently delivered with inadequate incorporation of patient values and objective evidence into decision-making. Utilization of time limited trials of care with predefined decision points that are based on iteratively updated best evidence, tools that inform providers about a patient’s experience and values, and known information about a patient’s disease will allow superior matched care to be delivered. Personalized medicine does not merely refer to the incorporation of genetic information into clinical care, it involves utilization of the wide array of data points relevant to care, many of which are readily available at the bedside today. By pushing uptake of personalized matching available today, clinicians can better address the triple aim of improved health, lowers costs, and enhanced patient experience, and we can prepare the health care landscape for the iterative inclusion of progressively more sophisticated information as newer tests and information become available to support the personalized medicine paradigm.

Hirsch, Bradford R.; Abernethy, Amy P.

2012-01-01

135

Millennium Report of the Secretary General of the United Nations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on April 3, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan's detailed report sets the agenda for the UN Millennium Summit, an extraordinary meeting of Heads of State and Government around the world to be held September 6-8, 2000, on the eve of the first UN General Assembly of the new millennium. Entitled, "We the Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century," the report "is the most comprehensive presentation of the UN's mission in its fifty-five year history, containing numerous specific goals and programme initiatives." Users can read the full text of the report in .pdf or HTML format, as well as a summary, fact sheet, press release, key proposals, and the Secretary General's statement to the General Assembly at the UN site. Additional resources include Annan's statement from the press conference, photos, and an archived webcast of his speech before the General Assembly.

136

The Genesis and Collapse of Third Millennium North Mesopotamian Civilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeological and soil-stratigraphic data define the origin, growth, and collapse of Subir, the third millennium rain-fed agriculture civilization of northern Mesopotamia on the Habur Plains of Syria. At 2200 B.C., a marked increase in aridity and wind circulation, subsequent to a volcanic eruption, induced a considerable degradation of land-use conditions. After four centuries of urban life, this abrupt climatic change

H. Weiss; M.-A. Courty; W. Wetterstrom; F. Guichard; L. Senior; R. Meadow; A. Curnow

1993-01-01

137

Assessing the Universal Structure of Personality in Early Adolescence: The NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years from 24 cultures. Replacement…

De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

2009-01-01

138

Investigating the structure of semantic networks in low and high creative persons  

PubMed Central

According to Mednick's (1962) theory of individual differences in creativity, creative individuals appear to have a richer and more flexible associative network than less creative individuals. Thus, creative individuals are characterized by “flat” (broader associations) instead of “steep” (few, common associations) associational hierarchies. To study these differences, we implement a novel computational approach to the study of semantic networks, through the analysis of free associations. The core notion of our method is that concepts in the network are related to each other by their association correlations—overlap of similar associative responses (“association clouds”). We began by collecting a large sample of participants who underwent several creativity measurements and used a decision tree approach to divide the sample into low and high creative groups. Next, each group underwent a free association generation paradigm which allowed us to construct and analyze the semantic networks of both groups. Comparison of the semantic memory networks of persons with low creative ability and persons with high creative ability revealed differences between the two networks. The semantic memory network of persons with low creative ability seems to be more rigid, compared to the network of persons with high creative ability, in the sense that it is more spread out and breaks apart into more sub-parts. We discuss how our findings are in accord and extend Mednick's (1962) theory and the feasibility of using network science paradigms to investigate high level cognition. PMID:24959129

Kenett, Yoed N.; Anaki, David; Faust, Miriam

2014-01-01

139

Support structures for facilitators of student personal development planning: lessons from two departmental case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the UK, following guidelines set out by the Quality Assurance Agency, personal development planning (PDP) is now operational across all higher education (HE) awards. Like many policy initiatives, PDP requires change, and vital to its implementation are those who facilitate PDP at the grassroots level. Staff given the task of implementing PDP are instrumental to its success or failure.

Claire Hulme; Bernard Lisewski

2010-01-01

140

The genetic structure of personality—II. Genetic item analysis of the EPQ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary-Most studies of the inheritance of personality have performed genetic analysis of scale scores, which will sometimes give a misleading impression of what is inherited. Item genetic analysis, where this is focused on differences in genetic architecture rather than merely differences in item heritability, should guide the development of genetically homogeneous scales. Item genetic analyses of the EPQ were performed,

A. C. HEATH; R JARDINE; L EAVES; N MARTIN

1989-01-01

141

Brief Report: Structure of Personal Narratives of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adults with High Functioning Autism and a matched comparison group told personal narratives using a standard conversational procedure. Longest narratives were determined (i.e., number of propositions included) and scored using an analysis that looks at the organization of a narrative around a highpoint. The group with Autism Spectrum…

McCabe, Allyssa; Hillier, Ashleigh; Shapiro, Claudia

2013-01-01

142

[Personal identification by complex study of characteristics of the teeth and dentition structures].  

PubMed

A multimodality dental examination was made and anatomomorphological features of teeth and tooth sequences were studied in 200 policemen using clinical examination, morphological investigation of plaster jaw models, analysis of x-rays and statistics, intraoral videocamera pictures, computer processing. The scheme of creation of dental data bank applicable in personal identification is offered. PMID:16279496

Pashinian, G A; Lukinykh, L M; Karpova, G N; Fuad, Aiub

2005-01-01

143

Brain structure in narcissistic personality disorder: A VBM and DTI pilot study.  

PubMed

We analysed T1-weighted MRI scans using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBBS) on diffusion tensor images (DTI) in narcissistic personality disorder (NaPD) patients and healthy controls. Grey matter deficits include right prefrontal and bilateral medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortices, and decreased fractional anisotropy in right frontal lobe white matter. PMID:25492857

Nenadic, Igor; Güllmar, Daniel; Dietzek, Maren; Langbein, Kerstin; Steinke, Johanna; Gaser, Christian

2015-02-28

144

An Alternative "Description of Personality": The Big-Five Factor Structure Lewis R. Goldberg  

E-print Network

with others and have remained largely unnoticed. Sir Francis Galton may have been among the first scientists's languages. Indeed, Galton (1884) attempted to tap "the more conspicuous aspects of the charac- ter meaning with some of the rest" (p. 181). Galton's (I884) estimate of the number of personality

Napp, Nils

145

Telepathology: a diagnostic tool for the millennium?  

PubMed

Many developments in science have their origins in science fiction and telepathology is no exception. The concept was first illustrated in 1924 in the magazine 'Radio News'. It was not until 1980, however, that the first working telepathology system was demonstrated. Although the system was shown to work, it required special hardware, dedicated software and special microwave transmission links to be installed. Little interest was shown worldwide because of the very high cost and the inability of many people to replicate such a system. Ten years later, the personal computer (PC) was able to provide more than adequate performance at low cost for both image display quality and speed, and the development of video technology had resulted in high quality images being produced by television cameras that were now easily affordable. Microscopes were also relatively cheaper. Thus, by 1993 or 1994, all the hardware necessary to produce a telepathology system was available at reasonable cost. Telepathology can now be used for remote primary diagnosis, remote referral to a specialist pathologist, remote teaching, remote presentation of post-mortem or microscopic findings, quality assurance image circulation and feedback, and consensus diagnosis for pathological review in clinical trials. There are two residual problems. The first concerns the speed of data transmission, commonly referred to as the bandwidth. The second is that the software provided by most of the manufacturers and suppliers of these systems is not entirely suitable to the task and the systems are not interoperable. It is clear that the approach of the manufacturers is at present unlikely to produce telepathology systems which pathologists feel comfortable in using. A somewhat different approach is illustrated by the accompanying article in this issue from the Berlin group, where a relatively simple Java-based applet and the Internet are used to allow single or multiple users to view slides on a robotic microscope. This could form the basis for a truly useful system, but still needs modification for some applications. PMID:10767711

Wells, C A; Sowter, C

2000-05-01

146

A Thousand Shadows of Andromeda: Rotating Planes of Satellites in the Millennium-II Cosmological Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent contribution, Bahl & Baumgardt investigated the incidence of planar alignments of satellite galaxies in the Millennium-II simulation and concluded that vast, thin planes of dwarf galaxies, similar to that observed in the Andromeda galaxy (M31), occur frequently by chance in ?-cold dark matter cosmology. However, their analysis did not capture the essential fact that the observed alignment is simultaneously radially extended, yet thin, and kinematically unusual. With the caveat that the Millennium-II simulation may not have sufficient mass resolution to identify confidently simulacra of low-luminosity dwarf galaxies, we re-examine that simulation for planar structures, using the same method as employed by Ibata et al. on the real M31 satellites. We find that 0.04% of host galaxies display satellite alignments that are at least as extreme as the observations, when we consider their extent, thickness, and number of members rotating in the same sense. We further investigate the angular momentum properties of the co-planar satellites, and find that the median of the specific angular momentum derived from the line-of-sight velocities in the real M31 structure (1.3 × 104 km s-1 kpc) is very high compared to systems drawn from the simulations. This analysis confirms that it is highly unlikely that the observed structure around the Andromeda galaxy is due to a chance occurrence. Interestingly, the few extreme systems that are similar to M31 arise from the accretion of a massive sub-halo with its own spatially concentrated entourage of orphan satellites.

Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Ibata, Neil G.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Conn, Anthony; Elahi, Pascal; Arias, Veronica; Fernando, Nuwanthika

2014-03-01

147

Structural and Dialectal Characteristics of the Fictional and Personal Narratives of School-age African American Children  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method Forty-three children, grades two through five, generated a fictional and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a story-prompt task, respectively. Narratives produced in these two contexts were characterized for macrostructure, microstructure, and dialect density. Differences across narrative type and grade level were examined. Results Statistically significant differences between the two types of narratives were found for both macrostructure and microstructure but not for dialect density. There were no grade-related differences in macrostructure, microstructure, or dialect density. Conclusion The results demonstrate the complementary role of fictional and personal narratives for describing young children's narrative skills. Use of both types of narrative tasks and descriptions of both macrostructure and macrostructure may be particularly useful for characterizing the narrative abilities of young school-age African American children, for whom culture-fair methods are scarce. Further study of additional dialect groups is warranted. PMID:23633645

Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.

2014-01-01

148

Methods of Studying Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conventional research strategies typically emphasize behavior-determining tendencies so strongly that the person as a whole is ignored. Research strategies for studying whole persons focus on symbolic structures, formulate specific questions in advance, study persons one at a time, use individualized measures, and regard participants as expert…

Heinemann, Allen W.; Shontz, Franklin C.

149

Neuroimaging of structural pathology and connectomics in traumatic brain injury: Toward personalized outcome prediction  

E-print Network

Neuroimaging of structural pathology and connectomics in traumatic brain injury: Toward of knowledge on traumatic brain injury (TBI) favor the view that multimodal neu- roimaging using structural Park, NY 12065, USA d Brain Injury Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, University

Prastawa, Marcel

150

Examining the Impact of Gender on the Factor Structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory--Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the factor structure of psychopathy has yielded mixed results, supporting anywhere from one to three factors. Additionally, most of this research has used all-male samples, and the possibility of structural invariance across gender has not been examined. Using a mixed-gender sample of 360 undergraduates, the factor structure of the…

Anestis, Joye C.; Caron, Kelly M.; Carbonell, Joyce L.

2011-01-01

151

Social Structure-Personality: What is the Relationship Between Social Class and Child-Rearing Values  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sociologist, Melvin Kohn, argued that people's locations in social structures, particularly the occupational structure, influenced the values they would stress for their children because variations in structural locations exposed them to different experiences. His research, however, was done some time ago. Much has changed in our social world since then. Does the original relationship still hold?

Lashbrook, Jeffrey

152

Worker personality and its association with spatially structured division of labor.  

PubMed

Division of labor is a defining characteristic of social insects and fundamental to their ecological success. Many of the numerous tasks essential for the survival of the colony must be performed at a specific location. Consequently, spatial organization is an integral aspect of division of labor. The mechanisms organizing the spatial distribution of workers, separating inside and outside workers without central control, is an essential, but so far neglected aspect of division of labor. In this study, we investigate the behavioral mechanisms governing the spatial distribution of individual workers and its physiological underpinning in the ant Myrmica rubra. By investigating worker personalities we uncover position-associated behavioral syndromes. This context-independent and temporally stable set of correlated behaviors (positive association between movements and attraction towards light) could promote the basic separation between inside (brood tenders) and outside workers (foragers). These position-associated behavior syndromes are coupled with a high probability to perform tasks, located at the defined position, and a characteristic cuticular hydrocarbon profile. We discuss the potentially physiological causes for the observed behavioral syndromes and highlight how the study of animal personalities can provide new insights for the study of division of labor and self-organized processes in general. PMID:24497911

Pamminger, Tobias; Foitzik, Susanne; Kaufmann, Katharina C; Schützler, Natalie; Menzel, Florian

2014-01-01

153

Vision-21: Space Travel for the Next Millennium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The papers from this symposium, that was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on April 3-4, 1990, are presented. The theme selected for the symposium was space travel for the next millennium. It was hoped that the participants would allow their focus to consider possible advances in technologies for space travel not just for currently envisioned projects, but for possibilities beyond the next generation and the next thousand years. About half of the contributed papers focussed on propulsion and the other half on other issues related to space travel.

Landis, Geoffrey A. (editor)

1990-01-01

154

Solar system exploration and Earth observation in the new millennium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA New Millennium Program for the demonstration and flight qualification of new technologies is considered. Such new technologies are related to microprocessor ability, solid state memory and lightweight thermally stable materials. The aim is to improve the architecture and capability of the space segment, while reducing cost. The missions currently under consideration within the framework of this program include a lightweight spacecraft to flyby multiple small bodies using electric propulsion, a Mars microlander, a three-spacecraft interferometer, a global positioning system receiver constellation and a land multispectral imaging system.

Elachi, Charles

1996-01-01

155

EO-1: NASA's first new millennium earth orbiting mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key charges to NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is to ensure the continuity of future Landsat data. The New Millennium Program's (NMP) first Earth orbiting flight will validate technologies contributing to the reduction in cost of Landsat follow-on missions. The centerpiece is an advanced land imager (ALI) instrument. The EO-1 imaging system will also incorporate alternative and innovative approaches to future land imaging, including two different hyperspectral imaging techniques. One of these is a hyperspectral wedge spectrometer and the other is a miniature hyperspectral grating spectrometer.

Seery, Bernard D.; Cramer, D. Bryant; Stevens, Christopher M.; Lencioni, Donald E.

1996-10-01

156

1New Jersey Office of the State Auditor Auditing in the New Millennium  

E-print Network

1New Jersey Office of the State Auditor Auditing in the New Millennium: Information Technology, CPA, CISA, CEH Principal Auditor #12;2New Jersey Office of the State Auditor When you think of IT auditing, is this what you think of? Auditing in the New Millennium #12;3New Jersey Office of the State

Lin, Xiaodong

157

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): A Short History of the World’s Biggest Promise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a chronological account of the evolution of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It examines their historical antecedents; the UN conferences and summits that provided their content; the role of OECD’s Development Assistance Committee (DAC) in formulating the International Development Goals (IDGs); the influence of the UN’s Secretariat in drafting the Millennium Declaration; and the final negotiations between

David Hulme

2009-01-01

158

M-E Policies and MDGS At the Millennium Assembly in September 2000, the  

E-print Network

poverty in its key dimensions ­ income, hunger, disease, environmental degradation, and lack of access a global compact to reduce extreme poverty in the Millennium Declaration. The Millennium Development Goals, with 2015 as the main deadline for halving poverty.They also specify that rich and poor countries

159

Innovative Approaches to Funding the Millennium Development Goals. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief, No. 24  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which set targets for reducing poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women by 20151. The need for additional development funding, if the MDGs are to be achieved by 2015, is…

Reisen, Helmut

2004-01-01

160

The Heterogeneous Structure of Schizotypal Personality Disorder: Item-Level Factors of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and Their Associations With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms, Dissociative Tendencies, and Normal Personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A. Raine et al.'s (1994) 3-factor scheme is currently the most widely accepted model of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). Factor analytic studies of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ; A. Raine, 1991) subscales, which represent the 9 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria for SPD, have provided the model's primary support. The use of only 9 modeled variables,

Michael Chmielewski; David Watson

2008-01-01

161

Author's personal copy Lowest-energy structures of 13-atom binary clusters: Do  

E-print Network

- sequent computer simulations [7], and experiments by neutron scattering [8], X-ray scattering [9] and X-ray scattering [12] or X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) [13] as well as the theoretical evidence from or HCP structures, the icosahedral cluster is considered as a basic building block of amorphous

162

Hierarchical structure of maladaptive personality traits in older adults: joint factor analysis of the PID-5 and the DAPP-BQ.  

PubMed

In DSM-5, the categorical model and criteria for the 10 personality disorders included in DSM-IV will be reprinted in Section II. Moreover, an alternative dimensional classification model will appear in Section III. This alternative DSM-5 proposal for the diagnosis of a personality disorder is based on two fundamental criteria: impairments in personality functioning (Criterion A) and the presence of pathological personality traits (Criterion B). In the maladaptive trait model that has been developed to operationalize Criterion B, 25 pathological traits are organized according to five higher order dimensions. The current study focuses on the convergence of the proposed DSM-5 trait model (as measured by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 [PID-5]) with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP) model (as measured by the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire [DAPP-BQ]) in a sample of older people. A joint hierarchical factor analysis showed clear convergence between four PID-5 dimensions (Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition) and conceptually similar DAPP-BQ components. Moreover, the PID-5 and the DAPP-BQ showed meaningful associations on different levels of their joint hierarchical factor structure. Methodological and theoretical implications of these initial results for the conceptualization of personality pathology are discussed. PMID:23786271

Van den Broeck, Joke; Bastiaansen, Leen; Rossi, Gina; Dierckx, Eva; De Clercq, Barbara; Hofmans, Joeri

2014-04-01

163

Unforced variability in summer storm track position over the past millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gridded past millennium climate reconstructions, encompassing the European continent (e.g. Luterbacher et al 2004), based on proxy records, have previously been generated assuming that spatial temperature covariance across the region behaves in the past in the same way as it does in the observational period. This strategy bears the risk of artificially identifying the same patterns of variability as presently observed and overlooking periodically occurring modes of internal climate variability, that are not uniformly spatio-temporally expressed. Here, we construct regional proxy composites for Europe which are not constrained by the modes of variability expressed in the 20th century, and should thus broadly represent coherent regional summer temperatures back through time, independent from present modes of variability. The proxy data set analysed was provided by the efforts of the EU 6th Framework Millennium project. Proxy data are dominated by tree ring width, density and annual height increment. Four composites are used describing summer temperatures in the Arctic, Central, Pyrenean and Alpine zones of Europe. The proxy data sets cover the period AD 1260-1996. We jointly analyse an ensemble of simulations with global climate models participating in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) included in the 5th Assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) covering the period AD 850-2005, with the above aims in mind. The climate models were driven by estimations of the main external forcings. The implementations of these forcings may vary among simulations, depending on the different estimates used and on the structure of the models themselves. We analyse three simulations (CCSM4, IPSL, MPI-ESM) that, at the time of writing, provide daily data over the period AD 850-2005 obtained with the very same model version through the whole period. The analysis of both proxy and model data allowed us to more precisely identify the behaviour of the internal climate mode identified.

Gagen, Mary; Zorita, Eduardo; McCarroll, Danny; Loader, Neil; Young, Giles; Robertson, Iain

2014-05-01

164

Simulation of Drought in Central Asia during the Last Millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the Central Asian Climate Dynamics project (CADY), we aim to apply multiproxy reconstructions and climate models to analyse and (semi)quantify the Last Millennium climate variability and regional hydrology in Central Asia. In this context, we have used simulations of the uncoupled atmosphere version of global COSMOS Model (ECHAM5) in T31L19 spatial resolution within the Last Millennium; Medieval Warm Period (MWP; 900-1100 AD), the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1515-1715 AD) and after industrialization (REC; 1800-2000 AD) to drive the COSMO-CLM regional climate model at its lateral boundaries for 30 year time-slices based on the definition of extreme spells in the past climate. The Palmer Drought Severity Index over Central Asia has been calculated for both global and regional simulations. The simulated PDSI from COSMO-CLM driven by ERA-INTERIM data shows very good agreements compared to observations (PDSI from Dai et al., 2004) in space-time-frequency. Based on the EOF analysis, the simulated drought patterns are well captured compared to the reconstructed PDSI from Cook et al., 2010 ( pattern correlation = 0.68 (0.83) for LIA(REC) at a 99% significance level). Further, historical droughts can be identified by the simulated PDSI (e.g. Ming Dynasty Drought and The Great Drought). The Principal Components of simulated PDSI also show significant correlations with SST anomalies for the period from 1856 to 2000.

Fallah, Bijan; Polanski, Stefan; Prasad, Sushma; Cubasch, Ulrich

2013-04-01

165

Millennium Development Goal 5 and adolescents: looking back, moving forward.  

PubMed

Since the Millennium Declaration in 2000, unprecedented progress has been made in the reduction of global maternal mortality. Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG 5; improving maternal health) includes two primary targets, 5A and 5B. Target 5A aimed for a 75% reduction in the global maternal mortality ratio (MMR), and 5B aimed to achieve universal access to reproductive health. Globally, maternal mortality since 1990 has nearly halved and access to reproductive health services in developing countries has substantially improved. In setting goals and targets for the post-MDG era, the global maternal health community has recognised that ultimate goal of ending preventable maternal mortality is now within reach. The new target of a global MMR of <70 deaths per 100?000 live births by 2030 is ambitious, yet achievable and to reach this target a significantly increased effort to promote and ensure universal, equitable access to reproductive, maternal and newborn services for all women and adolescents will be required. In this article, as we reflect on patterns, trends and determinants of maternal mortality, morbidity and other key MDG5 indicators among adolescents, we aim to highlight the importance of promoting and protecting the sexual and reproductive health and rights of adolescents as part of renewed global efforts to end preventable maternal mortality. PMID:25613967

Vogel, Joshua P; Pileggi-Castro, Cynthia; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Pileggi, Vicky Nogueira; Souza, João Paulo; Chou, Doris; Say, Lale

2015-02-01

166

Millennium Development Goal 5 and adolescents: looking back, moving forward  

PubMed Central

Since the Millennium Declaration in 2000, unprecedented progress has been made in the reduction of global maternal mortality. Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG 5; improving maternal health) includes two primary targets, 5A and 5B. Target 5A aimed for a 75% reduction in the global maternal mortality ratio (MMR), and 5B aimed to achieve universal access to reproductive health. Globally, maternal mortality since 1990 has nearly halved and access to reproductive health services in developing countries has substantially improved. In setting goals and targets for the post-MDG era, the global maternal health community has recognised that ultimate goal of ending preventable maternal mortality is now within reach. The new target of a global MMR of <70 deaths per 100?000 live births by 2030 is ambitious, yet achievable and to reach this target a significantly increased effort to promote and ensure universal, equitable access to reproductive, maternal and newborn services for all women and adolescents will be required. In this article, as we reflect on patterns, trends and determinants of maternal mortality, morbidity and other key MDG5 indicators among adolescents, we aim to highlight the importance of promoting and protecting the sexual and reproductive health and rights of adolescents as part of renewed global efforts to end preventable maternal mortality. PMID:25613967

Vogel, Joshua P; Pileggi-Castro, Cynthia; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Pileggi, Vicky Nogueira; Souza, João Paulo; Chou, Doris; Say, Lale

2015-01-01

167

Origins and structure of social and political attitudes: insights from personality system theory and behavioural genetics   

E-print Network

People differ, often strikingly, in their views on desired social structures and processes. For example, while some value ethnic diversity in their society, others believe non-indigenous individuals (whatever that might ...

Lewis, Gary J.

2012-06-27

168

A new generalized mechanism of secure internetworked information service creation for future personal communications networks. VI  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the next millennium, to globally provide versatile resource-rich multimedia-based internetworked broadband personal communications services (PCS) with and for everyone, at any time, on any place, and in any format, is the expected ultimate goal of telecommunications networks. The main purpose of this paper is to initially discuss a new generalized mechanism of secure internetworked information service creation using the

Geng-Sheng Kuo

1998-01-01

169

Psychometric Properties of the HEXACO Personality Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We introduce a personality inventory designed to measure six major dimensions of personality derived from lexical studies of personality structure. The HEXACO Personality Inventory (HEXACO-PI) consists of 24 facet-level personality trait scales that define the six personality factors named Honesty-Humility (H), Emotionality (E), Extraversion (X),…

Lee, Kibeom; Ashton, Michael C.

2004-01-01

170

Interactive 3D visualization of structural changes in the brain of a person with corticobasal syndrome  

PubMed Central

The visualization of the progression of brain tissue loss in neurodegenerative diseases like corticobasal syndrome (CBS) can provide not only information about the localization and distribution of the volume loss, but also helps to understand the course and the causes of this neurodegenerative disorder. The visualization of such medical imaging data is often based on 2D sections, because they show both internal and external structures in one image. Spatial information, however, is lost. 3D visualization of imaging data is capable to solve this problem, but it faces the difficulty that more internally located structures may be occluded by structures near the surface. Here, we present an application with two designs for the 3D visualization of the human brain to address these challenges. In the first design, brain anatomy is displayed semi-transparently; it is supplemented by an anatomical section and cortical areas for spatial orientation, and the volumetric data of volume loss. The second design is guided by the principle of importance-driven volume rendering: A direct line-of-sight to the relevant structures in the deeper parts of the brain is provided by cutting out a frustum-like piece of brain tissue. The application was developed to run in both, standard desktop environments and in immersive virtual reality environments with stereoscopic viewing for improving the depth perception. We conclude, that the presented application facilitates the perception of the extent of brain degeneration with respect to its localization and affected regions. PMID:24847243

Hänel, Claudia; Pieperhoff, Peter; Hentschel, Bernd; Amunts, Katrin; Kuhlen, Torsten

2014-01-01

171

Optimal design of structures with multiple design variables per group and multiple loading conditions on the personal computer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite element based programming system for minimum weight design of a truss-type structure subjected to displacement, stress, and lower and upper bounds on design variables is presented. The programming system consists of a number of independent processors, each performing a specific task. These processors, however, are interfaced through a well-organized data base, thus making the tasks of modifying, updating, or expanding the programming system much easier in a friendly environment provided by many inexpensive personal computers. The proposed software can be viewed as an important step in achieving a 'dummy' finite element for optimization. The programming system has been implemented on both large and small computers (such as VAX, CYBER, IBM-PC, and APPLE) although the focus is on the latter. Examples are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the code. The present programming system can be used stand-alone or as part of the multilevel decomposition procedure to obtain optimum design for very large scale structural systems. Furthermore, other related research areas such as developing optimization algorithms (or in the larger level: a structural synthesis program) for future trends in using parallel computers may also benefit from this study.

Nguyen, D. T.; Rogers, J. L., Jr.

1986-01-01

172

The Dynamics of Death and Meaning: The Effects of Death-Relevant Cognitions and Personal Need for Structure on Perceptions of Meaning in Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do reminders of mortality increase or decrease perceptions of life’s meaning? The authors propose that death-relevant thought has divergent effects on meaning perceptions depending on individuals’ personal need for structure (PNS) or dispositional desire for structured knowledge. In prior research, high-PNS individuals primed with mortality-related stimuli were found to employ clearly structured conceptions of reality. Consequently, these individuals were expected

Matthew Vess; Clay Routledge; Mark J. Landau; Jamie Arndt

2009-01-01

173

Personal Genomics, Personalized Medicine,  

E-print Network

/Science Translational Medicine panel discussion; MLA 2012 #12;Timeline: Human Genome Sequence HSLS, U.Pitt 1995 2014 2000 2003 2007 2007 2010 Human Genome Draft Sequence Complete Human Reference Genome Individual Human of a free living organism: Haemophilus Influenzae #12;Personal Genome Project HSLS, U.Pitt #12;Why get

Napp, Nils

174

The New Millennium Program Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Project is part of NASA's New Millennium Program. ST-5 will consist of a constellation of three 25kg microsatellites. The mission goals are to demonstrate the research-quality science capability of the ST-5 spacecraft; to operate the three spacecraft as a constellation; and to design, develop and flight-validate three capable microsatellites with new technologies. ST-5 will be launched by a Pegasus XL into an elliptical polar (sun-synchronous) orbit. The three-month flight demonstration phase, beginning in March 2006, will validate the ability to perform science measurements, as well as the technologies and constellation operations. ST-5's technologies and concepts will enable future microsatellite science missions.

Webb, Evan H.; Carlisle, Candace C.; Slavin, James A.

2005-01-01

175

World Bank eAtlas of the Millennium Development Goals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank established a set of Millennium Development Goals as both a challenge to poor countries to demonstrate "good governance" and to wealthy nations as a spur that would hopefully encourage them to support economic and social development. Recently, the World Bank created this visually engaging and sophisticated interactive atlas to track those eight goals, which include the promotion of gender equality, combating disease, and reducing child mortality. Visitors can click on any of these eight goals and they will be able to view maps of the world that document the progress that has been made in each nation. Clicking on each nation individually brings up clear and easy-to-read tables that chart additional changes within each separate goal. Visitors can export the data for their own use, and they can also resize the map to demonstrate the changes made over the past few years.

176

Revisiting Public Health Challenges in the New Millennium  

PubMed Central

Positive Health of the communities could only be brought out through the interrelationship between conventional health sector and other development sectors. It was a dream that came true when World Health Organization (WHO) accepted Primary Health Care (PHC) as the major tool to achieve its proposed goal of Health For All (HFA) by 2000 A.D., but we could not succeed as expected. Now we have the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which place health at the heart of development but the achievements in health is still challenging. The literature search in this article has been conducted in Pub Med and Google scholar, with the aim to draw references to discuss the major health issues and ways to tackle them. The current article briefly narrates the burden and complexities of challenges faced by the present global health. Revisiting the concept of PHC and reaffirming our solidarity to this philosophy is the need of this hour. PMID:24116303

Anish, TS; Sreelakshmi, PR

2013-01-01

177

Scaling relations for galaxy clusters in the Millennium-XXL simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a very large high-resolution cosmological N-body simulation, the Millennium-XXL or MXXL, which uses 303 billion particles to represent the formation of dark matter structures throughout a 4.1 Gpc box in a ? cold dark matter cosmology. We create sky maps and identify large samples of galaxy clusters using surrogates for four different observables: richness estimated from galaxy surveys, X-ray luminosity, integrated Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) signal and lensing mass. The unprecedented combination of volume and resolution allows us to explore in detail how these observables scale with each other and with cluster mass. The scatter correlates between different mass-observable relations because of common sensitivities to the internal structure, orientation and environment of clusters, as well as to line-of-sight superposition of uncorrelated structure. We show that this can account for the apparent discrepancies uncovered recently between the mean thermal SZ signals measured for optically and X-ray selected clusters by stacking data from the Planck satellite. Related systematics can also affect inferences from extreme clusters detected at high redshift. Our results illustrate that cosmological conclusions from galaxy cluster surveys depend critically on proper modelling, not only of the relevant physics, but also of the full distribution of the observables and of the selection biases induced by cluster identification procedures.

Angulo, R. E.; Springel, V.; White, S. D. M.; Jenkins, A.; Baugh, C. M.; Frenk, C. S.

2012-11-01

178

The Vanuatu medical supply system – documenting opportunities and challenges to meet the Millennium Development Goals  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Limited human resources are widely recognised as a barrier to achieve health-related Millennium Development Goals. Availability of medical supplies and suitably trained health personnel are crucial to ensuring a well-functioning medical supply system. The objective of this paper is to identify the factors which influence the availability of medical supplies within the health facilities of Vanuatu. Methods: A qualitative triangulated strategy using semi-structured interviews, observational workplace surveys and semi-structured focus groups was developed. This research was approved by the Human Ethics Committee of the University of Canberra and was funded through a direct grant from the United Nations Population Fund Suva, Pacific sub regional office. Results: During two weeks of data collection, 21 interviews were conducted, observational workplace surveys were completed in 19 facilities and 22 personnel participated in three focus groups across three provinces. The interviewees had a wide range of primary professional groupings and were representative of the Vanuatu health workforce. A complex array of medical supply issues are described from within the three tiered structure of the medical supply system. Conclusion: The results of this research have further informed our understanding of the competencies required by healthcare personnel to conduct medical supply management activities effectively in Pacific Island countries. As a result of this research, a platform is provided for the government of Vanuatu to engage development partners to work toward a sustainable medical supply system. PMID:23093895

Brown, Andrew; Gilbert, Ben

2012-01-01

179

Personal evaluation structure of environmental sounds: experiments of subjective evaluation using subjects' own terms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we conducted an experiment to investigate the evaluation structure that lies at the basis of peoples' psychological evaluation of environmental sounds. In the experiment, subjects were given cards on each of which a name of one of the environmental sounds in the specified context is written. Then they did the following three tasks: (1) to sort the cards into groups by the similarity of their impressions of the imagined sounds; (2) to name each group with the word that best represented their overall impression of the group; and (3) to evaluate all sounds on the cards using the words obtained in the previous task. These tasks were done twice: once assuming they heard the sounds at ease inside their homes and once while walking outside in a resort theme park. We analysed the similarity of imagined impression between the sounds with a cluster analysis and clusters of sounds were produced, namely, sounds labelled "natural," "transportation," and so on. A principal component analysis revealed the three major factors of the evaluation structure for both contexts and they were interpreted as preference, activity and sense of daily life.

Kawai, Keiji; Kojima, Takaya; Hirate, Kotaroh; Yasuoka, Masahito

2004-10-01

180

For personal use. Only reproduce with permission from Elsevier Ltd Millennium Project  

E-print Network

, panel 1) to address extreme poverty in its many dimensions--income poverty, hunger, disease, lack effect is true in other dimensions of poverty including hunger, lack of access to safe drinking water marks a pivotal moment in international efforts to fight extreme poverty. During the United Nations (UN

181

Cross-cultural invariance of the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire across Spanish and American college students.  

PubMed

The main goal of this study was to examine the cross-cultural invariance of the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) (Raine, 1991) in two large samples of Spanish and American young adults. The final sample was made up of 2313 college students (508 men, 22%). Their mean age was 20.5 years (S.D.=3.2). The results indicated that the Stefanis et al. (2004) four-factor model yielded the best goodness-of-fit indices compared to alternative models. Moreover, the results support configural, metric, and partial measurement invariance of the covariances of the SPQ across the two samples. The finding of measurement equivalence across cultures provides essential evidence of construct validity for the schizotypy dimensions and of the cross-cultural validity of SPQ scores. The finding of comparable dimensional structures in cross-cultural samples lends further support to the continuum model of schizotypy and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Future studies should continue to examine the validity of scores on the SPQ and other schizotypy measures and their variation or consistency across cultures. PMID:25412981

Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Compton, Michael T; Tone, Erin B; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Fumero, Ascensión; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín

2014-08-13

182

Climate and hydrographic variability in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool during the last millennium  

E-print Network

millennium. The warmest temperatures and highest salinities occurred during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP to the end of the nineteenth century [Mann et al., 1999]. Ice cores from both Greenland and Antarctica show

Stott, Lowell

183

The College of William and Mary W&M Report to Millennium Challenge Corporation  

E-print Network

1 The College of William and Mary W&M Report to Millennium Challenge Corporation December 2008 El into force on September of 2007 and is now entering its second year of the five-year strategic plan. William

Lewis, Robert Michael

184

77 FR 14010 - Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Millennium's proposed Minisink Compressor Project consists of two...130-horsepower gas-fired compressor units that would be housed...which would connect the compressor station to the existing mainline. A new mainline valve assembly would also...

2012-03-08

185

Divergent Reactions to the Terror of Terrorism: Personal Need for Structure Moderates the Effects of Terrorism Salience on Worldview-Related Attitudinal Rigidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current studies explore how individual differences in personal need for structure (PNS) influence the extent to which people respond to terrorism threats with cultural worldview-related attitudinal rigidity. PNS was measured, terrorism salience manipulated, and British participants' attitudes toward an essay arguing against the British adoption of the Euro (Study 1) or American participants' attitudes toward an essay arguing for

Clay Routledge; Jacob Juhl; Matthew Vess

2010-01-01

186

On the structure of personality disorder traits: conjoint analyses of the CAT-PD, PID-5, and NEO-PI-3 trait models.  

PubMed

The current study examines the relations among contemporary models of pathological and normal range personality traits. Specifically, we report on (a) conjoint exploratory factor analyses of the Computerized Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder static form (CAT-PD-SF) with the Personality Inventory for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition and NEO Personality Inventory-3 First Half, and (b) unfolding hierarchical analyses of the three measures in a large general psychiatric outpatient sample (n = 628; 64% Female). A five-factor solution provided conceptually coherent alignment among the CAT-PD-SF, PID-5, and NEO-PI-3FH scales. Hierarchical solutions suggested that higher-order factors bear strong resemblance to dimensions that emerge from structural models of psychopathology (e.g., Internalizing and Externalizing spectra). These results demonstrate that the CAT-PD-SF adheres to the consensual structure of broad trait domains at the five-factor level. Additionally, patterns of scale loadings further inform questions of structure and bipolarity of facet and domain level constructs. Finally, hierarchical analyses strengthen the argument for using broad dimensions that span normative and pathological functioning to scaffold a quantitatively derived phenotypic structure of psychopathology to orient future research on explanatory, etiological, and maintenance mechanisms. PMID:24588061

Wright, Aidan G C; Simms, Leonard J

2014-01-01

187

On the Structure of Personality Disorder Traits: Conjoint Analyses of the CAT-PD, PID-5, and NEO-PI-3 Trait Models  

PubMed Central

The current study examines the relations among contemporary models of pathological and normal range personality traits. Specifically, we report on (a) conjoint exploratory factor analyses of the Computerized Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder static form (CAT-PD-SF) with the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012) and NEO Personality Inventory-3 First Half (NEI-PI-3FH; McCrae & Costa, 2007), and (b) unfolding hierarchical analyses of the three measures in a large general psychiatric outpatient sample (N = 628; 64% Female). A five-factor solution provided conceptually coherent alignment among the CAT-PD-SF, PID-5, and NEO-PI-3FH scales. Hierarchical solutions suggested that higher-order factors bear strong resemblance to dimensions that emerge from structural models of psychopathology (e.g., Internalizing and Externalizing spectra). These results demonstrate that the CAT-PD-SF adheres to the consensual structure of broad trait domains at the five-factor level. Additionally, patterns of scale loadings further inform questions of structure and bipolarity of facet and domain level constructs. Finally, hierarchical analyses strengthen the argument for using broad dimensions that span normative and pathological functioning to scaffold a quantitatively derived phenotypic structure of psychopathology to orient future research on explanatory, etiological, and maintenance mechanisms. PMID:24588061

Wright, Aidan G.C.; Simms, Leonard J.

2014-01-01

188

Theoretical studies of structure, function and reactivity of molecules— A personal account  

PubMed Central

Last few decades theoretical/computational studies of structure, function and reactivity of molecules have been contributing significantly in chemistry by explanation of experimental results, better understanding of underlying principles and prediction of the unknown experimental outcome. Accuracy needed in chemistry has long been established, but due to high power dependency of such accurate methods on the molecular size, it has been a major challenge to apply theoretical methods to large molecular systems. In the present article we will review some examples of such applications. One is theoretical study of growth/formation of carbon nanostructures such as fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, using quantum mechanical molecular dynamics method. For growth of single walled carbon nanotube from transition metal cluster, we have demonstrated continued growth of attached nanotube, cap formation and growth from small carbon fragments. For homogeneous catalysis we presented results of studies on N2 activation by Zr complexes. For biomolecular reactions we use active site and protein models and show that in some catalyses the protein environment is involved in reactions and changes the preferred pathway, and in some other case the effect is modest. The review is concluded with a perspective. PMID:19444009

Morokuma, Keiji

2009-01-01

189

Global connectivity of hub residues in Oncoprotein structures encodes genetic factors dictating personalized drug response to targeted Cancer therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficacy and mechanisms of therapeutic action are largely described by atomic bonds and interactions local to drug binding sites. Here we introduce global connectivity analysis as a high-throughput computational assay of therapeutic action - inspired by the Google page rank algorithm that unearths most ``globally connected'' websites from the information-dense world wide web (WWW). We execute short timescale (30 ps) molecular dynamics simulations with high sampling frequency (0.01 ps), to identify amino acid residue hubs whose global connectivity dynamics are characteristic of the ligand or mutation associated with the target protein. We find that unexpected allosteric hubs - up to 20Å from the ATP binding site, but within 5Å of the phosphorylation site - encode the Gibbs free energy of inhibition (?Ginhibition) for select protein kinase-targeted cancer therapeutics. We further find that clinically relevant somatic cancer mutations implicated in both drug resistance and personalized drug sensitivity can be predicted in a high-throughput fashion. Our results establish global connectivity analysis as a potent assay of protein functional modulation. This sets the stage for unearthing disease-causal exome mutations and motivates forecast of clinical drug response on a patient-by-patient basis. We suggest incorporation of structure-guided genetic inference assays into pharmaceutical and healthcare Oncology workflows.

Soundararajan, Venky; Aravamudan, Murali

2014-12-01

190

Microbial community structure and pharmaceuticals and personal care products removal in a membrane bioreactor seeded with aerobic granular sludge.  

PubMed

A process involving the use of membrane bioreactor seeded with aerobic granular sludge (GMBR) was applied to the treatment of sewage containing pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). The removal effects of five kinds of medicines in the reactor were investigated, and the microbial communities were constructed by polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. We also determined the effects of different sludge retention and hydraulic retention times (SRT and HRT, respectively) and influent organic loading on GMBR's efficiency in processing sewage containing PPCPs. The removal effects of the GMBR on five PPCPs varied. Using the GMBR, the removal rates of prednisolone, naproxen and norfloxacin were 98.56, 84.02 and 87.85 %, respectively. The removal rates of sulfamethoxazole and ibuprofen were 77.83 and 63.32 %, respectively. In the system, PPCP drugs had relatively less effect on microbial diversity. A certain succession was observed in the structural variation of microbial species in the GMBR. Microorganisms that can degrade PPCPs gradually accumulated, and antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, such as Firmicutes sp., Aeromonas sp. and Nitrospira sp., served a key function in the treatment of sewage containing antibiotics. Long SRT and HRT during the GMBR process can facilitate the removal of most PPCPs. The system efficiently removed PPCPs at high influent organic loading. PMID:25099174

Xia, Zhao; Xiao-Chun, Wang; Zhong-Lin, Chen; Hao, Xu; Qing-Fang, Zhang

2015-01-01

191

Variability of the Indian Ocean Dipole during the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) climate mode interacts with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Asian monsoon systems to drive climatic extremes around the Indian Ocean region. Coral reconstructions of the interannual variability of the IOD since the 1850s show an intensification in the frequency and strength of the positive phase of the IOD in recent decades, as well as strengthening of the interconnection between the IOD and Asian monsoon systems. Reconstructions of the mean climate state across the tropical Indian Ocean since the mid-Holocene also demonstrate the dynamic nature of the mean configuration of tropical Indian Ocean climate, suggesting that the IOD variability and interactions observed on interannual time scales may also persist over century to millennial scales. Here we present new oxygen isotope (?18O) records from modern Porites corals collected on a transect along Java-Sumatra coasts. These corals, located within the IOD upwelling zone, are used to identify the location where optimum information about the occurrence and magnitude of positive IOD events can be gained from single corals. Precisely-dated fossil corals from this location of optimum IOD variability are then used to reconstruct highly resolved windows of IOD variability during the last millennium, including intervals corresponding to the northern hemisphere Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period.

Abram, N.; Gagan, M. K.; Dixon, B.; Hantoro, W. S.; Shen, C.; WU, C.; Suwargadi, B. W.

2013-12-01

192

Satellite Galaxies and Fossil Groups in the Millennium Simulation  

E-print Network

We use a semianalytic galaxy catalogue constructed from the Millennium Simulation to study the satellites of isolated galaxies in the LCDM cosmogony. This sample (~80,000$ bright primaries, surrounded by ~178,000 satellites) allows the characterization, with minimal statistical uncertainty, of the dynamical properties of satellite/primary galaxy systems in a LCDM universe. We find that, overall, the satellite population traces the dark matter rather well: its spatial distribution and kinematics may be approximated by an NFW profile with a mildly anisotropic velocity distribution. Their spatial distribution is also mildly anisotropic, with a well-defined ``anti-Holmberg'' effect that reflects the misalignment between the major axis and angular momentum of the host halo. The isolation criteria for our primaries picks not only galaxies in sparse environments, but also a number of primaries at the centre of ''fossil'' groups. We find that the abundance and luminosity function of these unusual systems are in reasonable agreement with the few available observational constraints. We recover the expected L_{host} \\sigma_{sat}^3 relation for LCDM models for truly-isolated primaries. Less strict primary selection, however, leads to substantial modification of the scaling relation. Our analysis also highlights a number of difficulties afflicting studies that rely on blind stacking of satellite systems to constrain the mean halo mass of the primary galaxies.

L. V. Sales; J. F. Navarro; D. G. Lambas; S. D. M. White; D. J. Croton

2007-09-27

193

Millennium regional PACS management: strategies for successful implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of the new Millennium, Picture Archive and Communications System (PACS) technology has matured to levels sufficient to support open systems based, regional implementations. This shifts the site-centric PACS paradigm into broader scale, impacting facilities, workflow, business plans and ultimately patient care on a regional basis. Prudent and effective management of a regional implementation is critical to overall project success based upon a number of competing influences fundamental to the PACS including network infrastructure, clinical workflow, acquisition modalities, planning documentation, site preparation, acceptance testing, project communication, interface integration issues, etc. Risk mitigation is possible by understanding and managing the interrelationships of these influences through a phased approach with embedded management controls. The overall phases of regional implementation are not unlike site-centric implementations, consisting of Discovery, Planning, Preparation, Installation; Acceptance and Warranty/Maintenance; however, details which manifest over time are what provide significant management challenges. When balanced using a culturally reinforced policy of open, frequent and hands-on communication, regional PACS projects can be successfully implemented maintaining budget, schedule and scope thresholds.

Levin, Brad; Romlein, John R.; Gac, Robert J., Jr.; Chacko, Anna K.; Radvany, Martin

2000-05-01

194

Cyber disorders: the mental health concern for the new millennium.  

PubMed

Anecdotal evidence has suggested that mental health practitioners' report increased caseloads of clients whose primary complaint involves the Internet. However, little is known about the incidence, associated behaviors, attitudes of practitioners, and interventions involved related to this relatively new phenomenon. Therefore, this study surveyed therapists who have treated clients suffering from cyber-related problems to gather such outcome information. Respondents reported an average caseload of nine clients who they classified as Internet-addicted, with a range between 2 and 50 clients treated within the past year. Five general subtypes of Internet addiction were categorized based on the most problematic types of online applications, and they include addictions to Cybersex, Cyber-relationships, online stock trading or gambling, information surfing, and computer games. Treatment strategies included cognitive-behavioral approaches, sexual offender therapy, marital and family therapy, social skills training, and pharmacological interventions. Based on their client encounters, efforts to initiate support groups and recovery programs specializing in the treatment of Internet addiction were being considered. Finally, based upon the findings, this article examines the impact of cyberdisorders on future research, treatment, and public policy issues for the new millennium. PMID:19178220

Young, K; Pistner, M; O'Mara, J; Buchanan, J

1999-01-01

195

Science for managing ecosystem services: Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment  

PubMed Central

The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) introduced a new framework for analyzing social–ecological systems that has had wide influence in the policy and scientific communities. Studies after the MA are taking up new challenges in the basic science needed to assess, project, and manage flows of ecosystem services and effects on human well-being. Yet, our ability to draw general conclusions remains limited by focus on discipline-bound sectors of the full social–ecological system. At the same time, some polices and practices intended to improve ecosystem services and human well-being are based on untested assumptions and sparse information. The people who are affected and those who provide resources are increasingly asking for evidence that interventions improve ecosystem services and human well-being. New research is needed that considers the full ensemble of processes and feedbacks, for a range of biophysical and social systems, to better understand and manage the dynamics of the relationship between humans and the ecosystems on which they rely. Such research will expand the capacity to address fundamental questions about complex social–ecological systems while evaluating assumptions of policies and practices intended to advance human well-being through improved ecosystem services. PMID:19179280

Carpenter, Stephen R.; Mooney, Harold A.; Agard, John; Capistrano, Doris; DeFries, Ruth S.; Díaz, Sandra; Dietz, Thomas; Duraiappah, Anantha K.; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred; Pereira, Henrique Miguel; Perrings, Charles; Reid, Walter V.; Sarukhan, José; Scholes, Robert J.; Whyte, Anne

2009-01-01

196

The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next  

PubMed Central

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

2014-01-01

197

UN Millennium Development Goals E-Learning Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations continues to work on its Millennium Development Goals, which are meant to address human suffering throughout the world. While various media outlets have offered some coverage of these goals over the past ten years, some people may have not heard much about them. The unique learning materials offered on this site provide a bit of background about the goals and an increased understanding of the data that the United Nations collects in order to measure progress in these areas. Along the top of the site, visitors can look through the "Glossary" of terms and click on a link to get further help with using the site. The primary educational materials are contained within four separate sections that help users learn about the Economic and Social Data Services (ESDS) database, which is the primary data source for these types of international databases. Finally visitors can look through the "Activities" section to take in some hands-on activities that use various data sets from the ESDS database.

198

The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next.  

PubMed

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

2014-01-01

199

Max Millennium/Whole Sun Month Observations of a Sigmoid Region (AR 8668)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on observations of a sigmoidal region AR 8668 obtained during the Whole Sun Month #3 campaign and Max Millennium Coordinated Observing Program #2. The observations pertain to the period 1999 August 16-17 during which several GOES B and C class flares occurred in AR 8668. Near simultaneous observations were obtained by SOHO (EIT 195 Angstroms/ and MDI full-disk magnetograms), TRACE 171 Angstroms/, Yohkoh SXT, Big Bear (H? ), and Mees (IVM vector magnetograms). The multi-wavelength nature of these data, combined with their overlapping spatial and temporal coverages, provide a unique opportunity to study the magnetic topology and flaring evolution of twisted flux structures associated with sigmoids. An objective of this study is to co-align images and magnetograms obtained before and during the observed flares, and compare the results with inferences from the topological model of Titov and Demoulin, A&A 351, 707 (1999). We will present examples of these coalignments and identify sites of magnetic energy release that are associated with topological features (e.g. separatrices) predicted by this model.

Zarro, D. M.; Canfield, R. C.; Nitta, N.; Myers, D. C.; Gregory, S. E.; Qiu, J.; Alexander, D.; Hudson, H. S.; Thompson, B. J.; LaBonte, B. J.

2000-05-01

200

The role of ethics and product personality in the intention to purchase organic food products: a structural equation modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study is to examine the role of ethical dimensions and product personality in the purchasing intention\\u000a of organic food products. The Prospect method (Caprara et al. in Test Psicomet Metodol 7(3–4):113–128, 2000), which integrates the Five factors model of personality (cf. Digman in Annu Rev Psychol 41(1):417–440, 1990) and the Theory of planned behavior (Ajzen

Gianluigi Guido; M. Irene Prete; Alessandro M. Peluso; R. Christian Maloumby-Baka; Carolina Buffa

2010-01-01

201

Psychometric characteristics of two semi-structured scales for the functional evaluation of hemi-inattention in extrapersonal and personal space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychometric characteristics of two semi-structured scales for evaluation of the extrapersonal and personal hemi-inattentive disorder in situations similar to those of everyday life are analysed. The scales were administered to 73 RBD patients (55 resulted hemi-inattentive on standard diagnostic tests) and to 26 control subjects. Results showed a high level of interjudge and internal consistency for both instruments. Asymmetrical

P. Zoccolotti; G. Antonucci; A. Judica

1992-01-01

202

Pancreas transplantation: The Wake Forest experience in the new millennium  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the Wake Forest experience with pancreas transplantation in the new millennium with attention to surgical techniques and immunosuppression. METHODS: A monocentric, retrospective review of outcomes in simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplant (SKPT) and solitary pancreas transplant (SPT) recipients was performed. All patients underwent pancreas transplantation as intent-to-treat with portal venous and enteric exocrine drainage and received depleting antibody induction; maintenance therapy included tapered steroids or early steroid elimination with mycophenolate and tacrolimus. Recipient selection was based on clinical judgment whether or not the patient exhibited measureable levels of C-peptide. RESULTS: Over an 11.25 year period, 202 pancreas transplants were performed in 192 patients including 162 SKPTs and 40 SPTs. A total of 186 (92%) were primary and 16 (8%) pancreas retransplants; portal-enteric drainage was performed in 179 cases. A total of 39 pancreas transplants were performed in African American (AA) patients; of the 162 SKPTs, 30 were performed in patients with pretransplant C-peptide levels > 2.0 ng/mL. In addition, from 2005-2008, 46 SKPT patients were enrolled in a prospective study of single dose alemtuzumab vs 3-5 doses of rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin induction therapy. With a mean follow-up of 5.7 in SKPT vs 7.7 years in SPT recipients, overall patient (86% SKPT vs 87% SPT) and kidney (74% SKPT vs 80% SPT) graft survival rates as well as insulin-free rates (both 65%) were similar (P = NS). Although mortality rates were nearly identical in SKPT compared to SPT recipients, patterns and timing of death were different as no early mortality occurred in SPT recipients whereas the rates of mortality following SKPT were 4%, 9% and 12%, at 1-, 3- and 5-years follow-up, respectively (P < 0.05). The primary cause of graft loss in SKPT recipients was death with a functioning graft whereas the major cause of graft loss following SPT was acute and chronic rejection. The overall incidence of acute rejection was 29% in SKPT and 27.5% in SPT recipients (P = NS). Lower rates of acute rejection and major infection were evidenced in SKPT patients receiving alemtuzumab induction therapy. Comparable kidney and pancreas graft survival rates were observed in AA and non-AA recipients despite a higher prevalence of a “type 2 diabetes” phenotype in AA. Results comparable to those achieved in insulinopenic diabetics were found in the transplantation of type 2 diabetics with detectable C-peptide levels. CONCLUSION: In the new millennium, acceptable medium-term outcomes can be achieved in SKPT and SPTs as nearly 2/3rds of patients are insulin independent following pancreas transplantation. PMID:25512802

Rogers, Jeffrey; Farney, Alan C; Orlando, Giuseppe; Iskandar, Samy S; Doares, William; Gautreaux, Michael D; Kaczmorski, Scott; Reeves-Daniel, Amber; Palanisamy, Amudha; Stratta, Robert J

2014-01-01

203

Personality Trait Development in Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the middle part of the 20th century, a healthy dialogue existed between sociology and personality psychology. Leading scholars\\u000a in sociology actively discussed the relationship between social structure and personality (Neugarten, 1968; Parsons, 1942), and between organizations and personality (Inkeles & Levinson, 1963). In turn, many personality psychologists studied similar phenomena (e.g., Sanford, 1956; Sarbin, 1964). However, over the past

Brent W. Roberts; Richard W. Robins; Kali H. Trzesniewski; Avshalom Caspi

204

Assessment of DSM-IV personality disorders in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Comparison of clinical diagnosis, self-report questionnaire and semi-structured interview. [IF 1.7  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, personality disorders are not many times assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. The purpose of the present study is to examine the prevalence of personality disorders diagnosed according to the DSM-IV in a severely disordered OCD popula- tion (n = 65) with three different methods of assessing personality disor- ders (structured interview, questionnaire, and clinical diagnoses).

N. H. Tenneij; Chris K. W. Schotte; Damiaan A. J. P. Denys; Megen van H. J. G. M; Herman G. M. Westenberg

2003-01-01

205

Millennium Sort: A Cluster-Based Application for Windows NT using DCOM, River Primitives and the Virtual Interface Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and results of Millennium Sort, a distributed sorting application built using three layers of technology: extensible River System primitives, the Virtual Interface Architecture (VIA) and the Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM). The Millennium Sort application is a vehicle for exploring the issues of commercial cluster technologies and distributed development on commodity node clusters. We discuss the

Philip Buonadonna; Joshua Coates; Spencer Low; David E. Culler

1999-01-01

206

Forestry in achieving millennium goals Novi Sad, Serbie November 13-15, 2008 Light sharing among different forest strata for sustainable management of  

E-print Network

Forestry in achieving millennium goals ­ Novi Sad, Serbie ­ November 13-15, 2008 Light sharing Author manuscript, published in "Forestry in achieving millennium goals, Novi Sad : France (2008)" #12;Forestry in achieving millennium goals ­ Novi Sad, Serbie ­ November 13-15, 2008 objectives for the forest

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

207

A closer look at the lower-order structure of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5: comparison with the Five-Factor Model.  

PubMed

The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) was developed as a measure of the maladaptive personality trait model included within Section III of the DSM-5. Although preliminary findings have suggested the PID-5 has a five-factor structure that overlaps considerably with the Five-Factor Model (FFM) at the higher order level, there has been much less attention on the specific locations of the 25 lower-order traits. Joint exploratory factor analysis of the PID-5 traits and the 30 facets of the NEO-PI-R were used to determine the lower-order structure of the PID-5. Results indicated the PID-5's domain-level structure closely resembled the FFM. We also explored the placement of several lower-order facets that have not loaded consistently in previous studies. Overall, these results indicate that the PID-5 shares a common structure with the FFM and clarify the placement of some interstitial facets. More research investigating the lower-order facets is needed to determine how they fit into the hierarchical structure and explicate their relationships to existing measures of pathological traits. PMID:24886053

Griffin, Sarah A; Samuel, Douglas B

2014-10-01

208

"Taking Control of Their Lives?" First Findings from a Comparative Study of Personal Agency and Social Structures in Young Adult Transitions in England and the New Germany. Revised Version.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study explored how young adults experience control and exercise personal agency (self-determination) as they pass through periods of transition in education and training, work, unemployment, and in their personal lives. Data were gathered through structured questionnaires administered to at least 100 young adults from universities and companies,…

Evans, Karen; Rudd, Peter; Behrens, Martina; Kaluza, Jens; Woolley, Claire

209

Social-Cognitive Theory of Personality Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a social-cognitive theory of personality assessment. We articulate the implications of social-cognitive theories of personality for the question of what constitutes an assessment of personality structure and behavioral dispositions. The theory consists of 5 social-cognitive principles of assessment. Personality assessments should (a) distin - guish the task of assessing internal personality structures and dynamics from that of

Daniel Cervone; William G. Shadel; Simon Jencius

2001-01-01

210

A Structural Model of Parental Alcoholism, Family Functioning, and Psychological Health: The Mediating Effects of Hardiness and Personal Growth Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to: (a) determine whether personal-growth orientation and hardiness mediated the relations of parental alcoholism and family functioning to psychological well-being and distress; (b) determine whether this model was invariant across men and women; and (c) examine the role of parental alcoholism in a model that included family…

Robitschek, Christine; Kashubeck, Susan

1999-01-01

211

Reviewing the Differences in Size, Composition and Structure between the Personal Networks of High-and Low-Performing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interesting aspect in the current literature about learning networks is the shift of focus from the understanding of the "whole network" of a course to the examination of the "personal networks" of individual students. This line of research is relatively new, based on small-scale studies and diverse analysis techniques,…

Casquero, Oskar; Ovelar, Ramón; Romo, Jesús; Benito, Manuel

2015-01-01

212

North Atlantic sea-level variability during the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate modelling studies have demonstrated that spatial and temporal sea-level variability observed in North Atlantic tide-gauge records is controlled by a complex array of processes, including ice-ocean mass exchange, freshwater forcing, steric changes, changes in wind fields, and variations in the speed of the Gulf Stream. Longer records of sea-level change, also covering the pre-industrial period, are important as a 'natural' and long-term baseline against which to test model performance and to place recent and future sea-level changes and ice-sheet change into a long-term context. Such records can only be reliably and continuously reconstructed from proxy methods. Salt marshes are capable of recording decimetre-scale sea-level variations with high precision and accuracy. In this paper we present four new high-resolution proxy records of (sub-) decadal sea-level variability reconstructed from salt-marsh sediments in Iceland, Nova Scotia, Maine and Connecticut that span the past 400 to 900 years. Our records, based on more than 100 new radiocarbon analyses, Pb-210 and Cs-137 measurements as well as other biological and geochemical age markers, together with hundreds of new microfossil observations from contemporary and fossil salt marshes, capture not only the rapid 20th century sea-level rise, but also small-scale (decimetre, multi-decadal) sea-level fluctuations during preceding centuries. We show that in Iceland three periods of rapid sea-level rise are synchronous with the three largest positive shifts of the reconstructed North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Along the North American east coast we compare our data with salt-marsh records from New Jersey, North Carolina and Florida and observe a trend of increased pre-industrial sea-level variability from south to north (Florida to Nova Scotia). Mass changes and freshwater forcing cannot explain this pattern. Based on comparisons with instrumental sea-level data and modelling studies we hypothesise that multi-decadal to centennial changes in wind and air pressure are more important than mass flux from land-based ice as drivers of North Atlantic sea-level variability during the last millennium.

Gehrels, Roland; Long, Antony; Saher, Margot; Barlow, Natasha; Blaauw, Maarten; Haigh, Ivan; Woodworth, Philip

2014-05-01

213

Comet and Asteroid Missions in NASA's New Millennium Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is designed to develop, test, and flight validate new, advanced technologies for planetary and Earth exploration missions, using a series of low cost spacecraft. Two of NMP's current missions include encounters with comets and asteroids. The Deep Space 1 mission was launched on October 24, 1998 and will fly by asteroid 1992 KD on July 29, 1999, and possibly Comet Wilson-Harrington and/or Comet Borrelly in 2001. The Space Technology 4/Champollion mission will be launched in April, 2003 and will rendezvous with, orbit and land on periodic Comet Tempel 1 in 2006. ST-4/Champollion is a joint project with CNES, the French space agency. The DS-1 mission is going well since launch and has already validated several major technologies, including solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar concentrator arrays, a small deep space transponder, and autonomous navigation. The spacecraft carries two scientific instruments: MICAS, a combined visible camera and UV and IR spectrometers, and PEPE, an ion and electron spectrometer. Testing of the science instruments is ongoing. Following the asteroid encounter in July, 1999, DS-1 will go on to encounters with one or both comets if NASA approves funding for an extended mission. The ST-4/Champollion mission will use an advanced, multi-engine SEP system to effect a rendezvous with Comet P/Tempel 1 in February, 2006, after a flight time of 2.8 years. After orbiting the comet for several months in order to map its surface and determine its gravity field, ST-4/Chainpollion will descend to the comet's surface and will anchor itself with a 3-meter long harpoon. Scientific experiments include narrow and wide angle cameras for orbital mapping, panoramic and near-field cameras for landing site mapping, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, a combined microscope and infrared spectrometer, and physical properties probes. Cometary samples will be obtained from depths up to 1.4 meters. The spacecraft is solar powered with rechargeable batteries, thus allowing a long duration mission on the nucleus surface. At the time of this writing, the ST-4/Champollion spacecraft was undergoing a major redesign to fit within NASA cost constraints, and approval of the mission is pending.

Weissman, Paul R.

2000-01-01

214

Cybercounseling and Cyberlearning: Strategies and Resources for the Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to assist counselors in becoming better informed about cybercounseling so that they can decide for themselves what their personal opinion is on its worth and use. It describes current practices that will give a glimpse as to the behavioral health professions in the future. The book contains the following chapters: (1)…

Bloom, John W.; Walz, Garry R.

215

The NASA New Millennium Program: Space Flight Validation of Advanced Technologies for Future Science Missions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A broad range of advanced technologies are needed to support NASA's ambitious plans for planetary exploration during the next decade. To address these needs, the NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) identifies breakthrough spacecraft and instrument technologies and validates them in space to reduce their cost and risk. The first NMP Deep Space mission, DS1, was launched on October 24, 1998. Since then, it has successfully validated a solar-powered ion propulsion system, a miniaturized deep space transponder, autonomous operations and navigation software, multifunctional structures, low-power microelectronics and 2 instruments: the Miniature Integrated Camera and Spectrometer (MICAS), and the Plasma Experiment for Planetary Exploration (PEPE). To validate these technologies in a realistic environment, DS1's trajectory includes a close (<10km) flyby of asteroid 1992KD. An extended mission will allow encounters with comets Wilson-Harrington and Borrelly. The second NMP mission, DS2, consists of a pair of micro penetrators that are targeted near the Martian South Pole (71 to 76 S). DS2 was launched on January 3, 1999 as a piggyback payload on the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander cruise stage. After crashing into the Martian surface at greater than 200 m/s on December 3, 1999, these probes will validate technologies that will enable future Mars penetrator networks. These technologies include a single-stage, passive atmospheric entry system and a high-impact landing system designed to deliver a payload up to 1 meter below the Martian surface. This mission will also validate a miniaturized telecom system, low-temperature batteries, a suite of miniaturized in-situ scientific instruments, and other innovative packaging technologies. The next 2 NMP space science missions are currently being planned. If approved, Space Technology 3 (ST3) will validate technologies for separated spacecraft optical interferometry, to enable the ambitious Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission. The ST5 mission will validate advanced technologies needed by the space physics and astrophysics communities.

Crisp, D.; Raymond, C.

1999-09-01

216

Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa’s children and women of childbearing age live?  

PubMed Central

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments. Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation. Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the distribution of key vulnerable groups, and that doing so has substantial impacts on derived metrics through accounting for spatial demographic heterogeneities that exist within nations across Africa. PMID:23875684

2013-01-01

217

Current Evaluation of the Millennium Phytomedicine- Ginseng (I): Etymology, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Market and Regulations  

PubMed Central

The dawning of this millennium broke new ground in life science and technology, presented us genomic and proteomic revolution, nanotechnology innovation, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) used for separating and identifying new chemical entities at pico-, or even femto-concentrations. Applications of these high technologies to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) opened a new chapter in the ancient medicine, and prompted us to re-evaluate the thousand-year-old phytomedicine–ginseng from current perspectives. We, therefore, collected the latest information (mostly within 10 years) on ginseng, and condensed the information into two parts of this review serial. The present part covers etymology of ginseng, its pharmacognosy (natural origin, physical appearance, chemical properties, and specie identification), its cultivation and processing-related metabolic changes in active ingredients, standardized analytical methods used for quality control of various ginseng products, modern analytical methods used to identify and classify more than 100 chemical entities (many were recently unfolded) derived from ginseng species and their metabolites. The global markets and production of ginseng and relevant government regulations are herein updated to exchange information and understandings about current people’s uses and cultivation of ginseng. The second part of the review serial will classify all these 100 chemical entities separated from various ginseng species into different groups based on their structural similarities, and summarize bioactivities of these entities. The second part of the review serial will also focus on recent findings of ginseng pharmacology and its clinical trials for various diseases, and brief side effects of ginseng. PMID:19601793

Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing

2009-01-01

218

Women at the Millennium, Accomplishments and Challenges Ahead. Facts on Working Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To benefit from new millennium opportunities, women should take advantage of the burgeoning information technology revolution and growth in other mathematics- and science-based occupations. Among occupations, professional jobs will increase the fastest and add the most employment. Among industries, the computer and data processing services…

Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

219

Community psychology, millennium volunteers and UK higher education: a disruptive triptych?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I critically explore the ideological underpinnings of pedagogical and political practices in UK Higher Education (HE). I first map out the political and pedagogical features of community psychology and then describe the Millennium Volunteers project at the University of Northumbria— a scheme that integrates voluntary placements into undergraduate degree programmes, reflecting on the political and pedagogical premises

Paul S. Duckett

2002-01-01

220

Nothing but the Truth? The United Nations and the Millennium Development Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United Nations established eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, with the target for achievement set at 2015. On the UN website a special section is devoted to the MDGs. In this article the website as it was presented in late 2013 is examined. Although the website was easy to negotiate, it was difficult to ascertain any…

Porter, Shirley

2014-01-01

221

The Impact of ICT Use on New Millennium Learners' Educational Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) use on the educational performance of new millennium learners (NMLs). Even though many factors might influence individual performance besides ICT use itself, the research focus was on the relationship between the behavioral patterns of…

Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Kim, Minjeong

2011-01-01

222

A multi-proxy perspective on millennium-long climate variability in the Southern Pyrenees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of selected, well-dated, multiproxy paleoclimatic records (lacustrine, dendrochronological, geomorphological) characterizes the main environmental changes occurred in the Southern Pyrenees during the last millennium. Warmer and relatively arid conditions prevailed during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, <1300 AD), with a significant development of xerophytes and Mediterranean vegetation and limited deciduous tree formations (mesophytes). The Little Ice Age (LIA, 1300-1800

M. Morellón; A. Pérez-Sanz; J. P. Corella; U. Büntgen; J. Catalán; P. González-Sampériz; J. J. González-Trueba; J. A. López-Sáez; A. Moreno; S. Pla; M. Á. Saz-Sánchez; P. Scussolini; E. Serrano; F. Steinhilber; V. Stefanova; T. Vegas-Vilarrúbia; B. Valero-Garcés

2011-01-01

223

School Environmental Health Programs and the Challenges of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United Nations (UN) mandate of achieving healthful living for all by the year 2015 through the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is facing several challenges. In the school environment, and particularly in less developed countries (LDCs), the situation is further strained by both relatively weak infrastructure and competing governmental…

Ana, Godson R. E. E.; Shendell, Derek G.

2011-01-01

224

Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 3: Adolescent Literacy. Praeger Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

2007-01-01

225

Testing institutional biomass cookstoves in rural Kenyan schools for the Millennium Villages Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooking tests were conducted in randomly selected school kitchens in the Sauri Millennium Villages Project site, located in Siaya District of Nyanza Province in Western Kenya. The tests compared fuel consumption measurements obtained using a traditional three-stone fire with those from newly introduced institutional stoves based on the “rocket” design. The key metric used was Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC), defined

Edwin Adkins; Jiehua Chen; Jacob Winiecki; Peter Koinei; Vijay Modi

2010-01-01

226

Abrupt climate changes for Iceland during the last millennium: evidence from high resolution sea ice reconstructions  

E-print Network

ice and/or climate conditions around Iceland during the Little Ice Age. Author for correspondence ice reconstructions Guillaume Massé1 , Steven J. Rowland1 , Marie-Alexandrine Sicre2 , Jeremy Jacob3, Norway Abstract A high resolution account of Icelandic sea ice over the last millennium has been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

227

Forensic anthropology: developments of a classical discipline in the new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present brief review is a survey of the role of forensic anthropology (FA) in the new millennium. After an introduction which deals with the expanding definition of the discipline and the issue of professionality and training, the author approaches the role and novel developments of the field, with particular reference to the past 5 years. Such developments are discussed

Cristina Cattaneo

2007-01-01

228

Northern Hemisphere Temperatures During the Past Millennium: Inferences, Uncertainties, and Limitations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geophysical Data Center provides the paper "Northern Hemisphere Temperatures During the Past Millennium: Inferences, Uncertainties, and Limitations" online. The article suggests, at moderately high levels of confidence, that 1998 was the warmest year and the 1990s were the warmest decade. The abstract may be viewed in HTML format, and the full-text article is available in .pdf format.

Mann, Michael E.

1999-01-01

229

Solar influence on climate during the past millennium: Results from transient simulations  

E-print Network

Solar influence on climate during the past millennium: Results from transient simulations University, Stanford, CA, June 28, 2006 (received for review February 27, 2006) The potential role of solar that solar forcing may be less than previously believed. Because solar variability before the satellite

Lachniet, Matthew S.

230

The Impact of Streaming on Attainment at Age Seven: Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the relationship between stream placement and the academic progress made by children in England in Year 2 of primary school, drawing on data from the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). The MCS is a sample of 19,000 children born across the UK around the turn of the century and their families. Academic progress was…

Parsons, Samantha; Hallam, Sue

2014-01-01

231

Solar activity, cosmic rays, and Earth's temperature: A millennium-scale comparison  

E-print Network

Solar activity, cosmic rays, and Earth's temperature: A millennium-scale comparison I. G. Usoskin. We use two recently reconstructed series of the sunspot number and the cosmic ray flux to study coefficients for the cosmic rays. The significance levels reach up to 99% but vary strongly for the different

Usoskin, Ilya G.

232

Attitude determination and control for the new millennium EO1 spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) mission is the first in a series of smaller, faster, cheaper Earth observing spacecraft that will be developed through Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). In a broad sense, the mission objectives focus on the development and flight testing of new remote sensing spacecraft and operations technologies that could be

Dave Speer; P. Sanneman

1998-01-01

233

The Use of ICT in Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contribution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the contribution of higher education institutions in achieving these have been emphasized. This study sought to find out the extent to which university-based researches on ICTs addressed and impacted the three MDGs of gender…

Kaino, L. M.

2012-01-01

234

Poverty, Education, Gender and the Millennium Development Goals: Reflections on Boundaries and Intersectionality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article considers the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) concerned with poverty, education and gender (MDG 1, MDG 2 and MDG 3). Despite considerable achievements associated with the MDG approach, which entails international and national target setting and monitoring, a sharp distinction between areas of social policy is entailed. In addition…

Unterhalter, Elaine

2012-01-01

235

Is the Millennium Goal on Education Tackling the Ethical Requirements of a Diverse and Multicultural World?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is an invitation to reflect on the ethical foundations underlying the Millennium Declaration of September 2000, approved by the 189 member states of the United Nations, in which they committed themselves to improve the living conditions of humanity, with special focus on developing countries. It is noteworthy that this proposal, which…

Mosquera, Katia Ximena Mosquera; Mosquera, Maura Nasly Mosquera

2005-01-01

236

Meeting the needs of the new millennium: passenger space travel and world economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without doubt, humans’ most urgent need at the start of the new millennium is the continuation of economic growth, which is the only means by which the great majority of the world population can lift themselves out of the poverty in which they live. A sine qua non for continuing economic growth is for the rich countries to continue to

Patrick Collins

2002-01-01

237

Next generation ultraflex solar array for NASA's New Millennium Program Space Technology 8  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABLE Engineering, Inc. (ABLE), in collaboration with the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and EMCORE photovoltaics (EPV), has been selected for the NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) Space Technology 8 (ST8) project to develop and flight validate a state-of-the-art solar array system. The \\

B. Spence; S. White; N. Wilder; T. Gregory; M. Douglas; R. Takeda; N. Mardesich; T. Peterson; B. Hillard; P. Sharps; N. Fatemi

2005-01-01

238

Accelerating the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Ghana: Literacy, the Missing Link  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Millennium Development Goals launched in 2001 provide a worldwide agenda to reduce poverty by 2015. Though the eight goals provide synergies for the rapid reduction of poverty, the MDGs have come under criticism for being too narrow and sometimes leaving out critical aspects of human development and well-being. Although the MDGs address some…

Tagoe, Michael Ayitey

2011-01-01

239

Learning for Development: The Commonwealth of Learning and the Millennium Development Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

World leaders, meeting at the United Nations in 2000, set eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that aim to transform the condition of humankind in the 21st century. These Goals now guide the policies of governments and the priorities of development agencies. These eight goals are: (1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2) Achieve…

Commonwealth of Learning, 2011

2011-01-01

240

Efficiency in Reaching the Millennium Development Goals. World Bank Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide clear targets and areas of focus for international organizations such as the World Bank. At a conceptual level, to reduce poverty and hunger, to improve education and health indicators, and to promote gender equality and sustainable development, countries can either increase the resources they…

Jayasuriya, Ruwan, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

241

The effect of task structure leadership style and jungian personality characteristics on job satisfaction: a field study  

E-print Network

Consideration on the Job Satisfaction Item Measuring Supervision- Technical. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 17. Summary of Significant Results for each Jungian Type (ST, NF, SF, NT). 80 INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE To understand... to the moderat1ng effects of the Jungian personality types (ST, SF, NT, NF). It was hypothesized that the ST individual will experience higher job satisfaction 1f the task has low variability and the leader be- havior is highly instrumental and low...

Rhine, Jennifer

2012-06-07

242

A Structural Analysis of Glycosaminoglycans from Lethal and Nonlethal Breast Cancer Tissues: Toward a Novel Class of Theragnostics for Personalized Medicine in Oncology?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Cancer is one of the leading noncommunicable diseases that vastly impacts both developed and developing countries. Truly innovative diagnostics that inform disease susceptibility, prognosis, and/or response to treatment (theragnostics) are seriously needed for global public health and personalized medicine for patients with cancer. This study examined the structure and content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in lethal and nonlethal breast cancer tissues from six patients. The glycosaminoglycan content isolated from tissue containing lethal cancer tumors was approximately twice that of other tissues. Molecular weight analysis showed that glycosaminoglycans from cancerous tissue had a longer weight average chain length by an average of five disaccharide units, an increase of approximately 15%. Dissacharide analysis found differences in sulfation patterns between cancerous and normal tissues, as well as sulfation differences in GAG chains isolated from patients with lethal and nonlethal cancer. Specifically, cancerous tissue showed an increase in sulfation at the “6S” position of CS chains and an increase in the levels of the HS disaccharide NSCS. Patients with lethal cancer showed a decrease in HS sulfation, with lower levels of “6S” and higher levels of the unsulfated “0S” disaccharide. Although these findings come from a limited sample size, they indicate that structural changes in GAGs exist between cancerous and noncancerous tissues and between tissues from patients with highly metastatic cancer and cancer that was successfully treated by chemotherapy. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that (1) there are putative changes in the body's construction of GAGs as tissue becomes cancerous; (2) there may be innate structural person-to-person variations in GAG composition that facilitate the metastasis of tumors in some patients when they develop cancer. PMID:22401653

Weyers, Amanda; Yang, Bo; Yoon, Dae Sung; Park, Jong-Hwan; Zhang, Fuming

2012-01-01

243

The food choice kaleidoscope. A framework for structured description of product, place and person as sources of variation in food choices.  

PubMed

Despite a wide range of research approaches already being used to study eating and drinking, this complex aspect of human activity lacks conceptualisation and methodology for structured description of food choices. This paper introduces a metaphoric framework--the food choice kaleidoscope--as an approach to such inquiry. It conceptualises individual food choice events (or eating occasions) as being shaped by three main factors--product, person and place--and provides a descriptive approach through which patterns and variability in food choice events can be observed. The factors can be studied separately or in combination to reveal the joint influence of product, place and/or person factors. The approach is 'data hungry' and requires information about large numbers of eating occasions obtained for a variety of foods/beverage in a variety of situations. Using information about ?5800 eating occasions obtained from 25 New Zealand women who self-completed 24-h recall diaries, the kaleidoscopic approach is illustrated. The data are analysed in relation to 30 food/beverage categories and 37 contextual (or 'place') variables, and at the level of individual participants. Results are presented that document: product-to-product variability in who eats/drinks what and where/how it is consumed; place-to-place variation in what is consumed and by whom; and person-to-person variability in what is consumed and where/how it is consumed. The most significant insight to emerge is the considerable heterogeneity that is hidden beneath the average patterns, and that average values may be inappropriate/irrelevant for this type of data. PMID:21238523

Jaeger, Sara R; Bava, Christina M; Worch, Thierry; Dawson, John; Marshall, David W

2011-04-01

244

Personal Computers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the hardware, software, applications, and current proliferation of personal computers (microcomputers). Includes discussions of microprocessors, memory, output (including printers), application programs, the microcomputer industry, and major microcomputer manufacturers (Apple, Radio Shack, Commodore, and IBM). (JN)

Toong, Hoo-min D.; Gupta, Amar

1982-01-01

245

Personalized ophthalmology  

PubMed Central

Porter L.F., Black G.C.M. Personalized ophthalmology. Clin Genet 2014: 86: 1–11. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2014 Ophthalmology has been an early adopter of personalized medicine. Drawing on genomic advances to improve molecular diagnosis, such as next-generation sequencing, and basic and translational research to develop novel therapies, application of genetic technologies in ophthalmology now heralds development of gene replacement therapies for some inherited monogenic eye diseases. It also promises to alter prediction, diagnosis and management of the complex disease age-related macular degeneration. Personalized ophthalmology is underpinned by an understanding of the molecular basis of eye disease. Two important areas of focus are required for adoption of personalized approaches: disease stratification and individualization. Disease stratification relies on phenotypic and genetic assessment leading to molecular diagnosis; individualization encompasses all aspects of patient management from optimized genetic counseling and conventional therapies to trials of novel DNA-based therapies. This review discusses the clinical implications of these twin strategies. Advantages and implications of genetic testing for patients with inherited eye diseases, choice of molecular diagnostic modality, drivers for adoption of personalized ophthalmology, service planning implications, ethical considerations and future challenges are considered. Indeed, whilst many difficulties remain, personalized ophthalmology truly has the potential to revolutionize the specialty. PMID:24665880

Porter, LF; Black, GCM

2014-01-01

246

Assessing the Universal Structure of Personality in Early Adolescence: The NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 Cultures  

PubMed Central

The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO-PI-3, a more readable version of the NEO-PI-R, are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 from 24 cultures. Replacement items in the PI-3 showed on average stronger item/total correlations and slightly improved facet reliabilities compared with the NEO-PI-R in both English- and non-English-speaking samples. NEO-PI-3 replacement items did not substantially affect scale means compared with the original scales. Analyses across and within cultures confirmed the intended factor structure of both versions when used to describe young adolescents. We discuss implications of these cross-cultural findings for the advancement of studies in adolescence and personality development across the lifespan. PMID:19419953

De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T.

2010-01-01

247

Personality in frontal lobe disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality changes in frontal lobe disorders are easy to recognize, but their evolution can be hard to predict. Both focal\\u000a lesions and diffuse neurodegenerative processes may produce personality change based on interruption of prefrontal cortex\\u000a or subcortical structures that comprise the frontal-subcortical circuits. Observed changes in personality have been classified\\u000a by behavioral neurologists into three frontal-subcortical circuit syndromes, yet a

Tiffany W. Chow

2000-01-01

248

PERSONS WITH MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, Internal Self 1lelpers (ISM) of persons with multiple personality rlisorrler OWPI)) have been deseriberl by rr )7mill Humber of therapists. ii is .studV Iwo\\/ens the base ala I inaton relating to ISHs. Forty respondents who collectively had been therapists fur-rr totrtl of 690 i11P1) patients participated in the snarly. 77re findings of this study suti g ges

M. Ann Adams; Ann Adams; M. N. Sc

1989-01-01

249

76 FR 57765 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice of the September 28, 2011, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Directors (the ``Board'') of the Millennium Challenge Corporation (``MCC'') will hold a meeting to discuss update on Tunisia, discussion of the Indonesia compact and the Selection Criteria & Methodology report. The agenda items are expected to...

2011-09-16

250

78 FR 14787 - Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Assessment for the Proposed Hancock Compressor Project The staff of the Federal Energy...environmental assessment (EA) on the Hancock Compressor Project proposed by Millennium Pipeline...to construct and operate its Hancock Compressor Project in Delaware County, New...

2013-03-07

251

Author's personal copy COMMUNICATION  

E-print Network

is weak and of poor quality indicating that these regions are disordered and/or assume multiple positionsAuthor's personal copy COMMUNICATION Structure of the Full-length Human RPA14/32 Complex Gives, have been determined for the full-length protein in multiple crystal forms. In all crystals

Borgstahl, Gloria

252

Understanding maltreating mothers: a synthesis of relational trauma, attachment disorganization, structural dissociation of the personality, and experiential avoidance.  

PubMed

Treatment options are limited for families in which the child has severe and intractable disturbances of emotion and behavior, in which there is suspected or confirmed maltreatment by the mother, and in which the mother has her own history of childhood neglect and abuse. This paper proposes a model for understanding maltreatment in mother-child dyads, drawing upon the developmental psychopathology, behavior, and trauma literatures. At the core of this model is the hypothesis that a mother's maltreating behavior arises from unconscious attempts to experientially avoid the reemergence of an attachment-related dissociative part of the personality that contains the distress arising from her own early experiences of attachment relationships. The implications of this model for therapy are considered. PMID:21967177

Amos, Jackie; Furber, Gareth; Segal, Leonie

2011-01-01

253

Personal Revelation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Activity: You are going to develop a scripture chain that teaches us how we can receive Personal Revelation. Remember, when we talk to Heavenly Father we call it prayer. When Heavenly Father responds to us by the Holy Ghost we call it Personal Revelation. Teaching Emphasis (Core) I cannot use any language that describes to you what a revelation is. Somebody said, How can I tell if I have a revelation? I have had a feeling that such and such is true. How can I be sure? ...Revelation is something you experience, and the way that ...

Vasas, Brother

2008-10-15

254

The Creative Personality: A Synthesis and Development of the Creative Person Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several constructs from the research literature on the creative personality were reoperationalized to gain further understanding of the structure of the creative personality and to develop a broad measure of relevant traits (CPP—the Creative Person Profile). From an initial pool of 38 creativity relevant personality constructs, 7 factors were identified and labeled (emotional instability, ambition, associative orientation, motivation, need for

Øyvind L. Martinsen

2011-01-01

255

Financing the Millennium Development Goals for health and beyond: sustaining the 'Big Push'  

PubMed Central

Many of the Millennium Development Goals are not being achieved in the world's poorest countries, yet only five years remain until the target date. The financing of these Goals is not merely insufficient; current evidence indicates that the temporary nature of the financing, as well as challenges to coordinating its delivery and directing it to the most needy recipients, hinder achievement of the Goals in countries that may benefit most. Traditional approaches to providing development assistance for health have not been able to address both prevalent and emergent public health challenges captured in the Goals; these challenges demand sustained forms of financial redistribution through a coordinated mechanism. A global social health protection fund is proposed to address recurring failures in the modern aid distribution mechanism. Such a Fund could use established and effective strategies for aid delivery to mitigate many financial problems currently undermining the Millennium Development Goals initiative. PMID:20932274

2010-01-01

256

[Personal responsibility and solidarity].  

PubMed

One of the most fundamental characteristics of a liberal order is that both the state and the law follow the principle of personal responsibility and assign to the citizens the responsibility for the consequences of their voluntary decisions. But to rely primarily on the principle of personal responsibility in the health care system holds the danger of attributing the cause of their health problems to the already disadvantaged ("blaming the victim") and of releasing the welfare state from its responsibility to foster social structures that support health-conscious decisions. PMID:22682415

Huster, Stefan

2012-01-01

257

The potential impact of plant biotechnology on the Millennium Development Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are international development targets for the year 2015 that aim to achieve\\u000a relative improvements in the standards of health, socioeconomic status and education in the world’s poorest countries. Many\\u000a of the challenges addressed by the MDGs reflect the direct or indirect consequences of subsistence agriculture in the developing\\u000a world, and hence, plant biotechnology has

Dawei YuanLudovic; Ludovic Bassie; Maite Sabalza; Bruna Miralpeix; Svetlana Dashevskaya; Gemma Farre; Sol M. Rivera; Raviraj Banakar; Chao Bai; Georgina Sanahuja; Gemma Arjó; Eva Avilla; Uxue Zorrilla-López; Nerea Ugidos-Damboriena; Alberto López; David Almacellas; Changfu Zhu; Teresa Capell; Gunther Hahne; Richard M. Twyman; Paul Christou

2011-01-01

258

Countdown to 2015: will the Millennium Development Goal for child survival be met?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), ratified by most nations in 2000, set specific targets for poverty reduction, eradication of hunger, education, gender equality, health and environmental sustainability. MDG 4 aims to reduce child mortality with a target of reducing under-five mortality rates by two thirds over the period 1990–2015. Over the last year, Live Aid, Make Poverty History, the G8

Joy E Lawn; Anthony Costello; Charles Mwansambo; David Osrin

2007-01-01

259

High-resolution reconstruction of Polar Ural glacier mass balance for the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our ultimate objective is to study the mass-balance variations of Polar Ural glaciers during the last millennium. We use mass-balance data for two glaciers between 1957 and 1981, climate data obtained by instrumental observations during the 20th century, and tree-ring data compiled for the last 1000 years. Because there is a high correlation between measured glacier mass-balance and climate variables, we reconstruct glacier mass balance for the 20th century using regression equations. Similarly, we use regression equations relating measured climatic variables to tree-ring widths to reconstruct glacier mass balance for the last millennium. According to our reconstructions, the most extensive period of negative mass balance occurred in the late 10th/early 11th century AD, which corresponds to the Medieval Warm Period. A prolonged period of positive glacier mass balance began after the mid-11th century, a time commonly accepted as the onset of the Little Ice Age. This cooling period has three maxima, the last from the early 17th to mid-19th century. Until the beginning of the 20th century, cumulative mass balance over the last millennium varied between ±8 m w.e. However, glacier mass balance in the second half of the 20th century is lower than it has been for the past millennium, and cumulative mass balance is now -10 m w.e. Polar Ural glaciers are important indicators of regional climate change and should be incorporated into a worldwide glacier-monitoring programme.

Kononov, Yuriy M.; Ananicheva, Maria D.; Willis, Ian C.

260

Risk factors for childhood obesity at age 5: Analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Weight at age 5 is a predictor for future health of the individual. This study examines risk factors for childhood obesity with a focus on ethnicity. METHODS: Data from the Millennium Cohort study were used. 17,561 singleton children of White\\/European (n = 15,062), Asian (n = 1,845) or African (n = 654) background were selected. Logistic regression and likelihood

Sinead Brophy; Roxanne Cooksey; Michael B Gravenor; Rupal Mistry; Non Thomas; Ronan A Lyons; Rhys Williams

2009-01-01

261

Natural forcing of climate during the last millennium: fingerprint of solar variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability of the climate during the last millennium is partly forced by changes in total solar irradiance (TSI). Nevertheless,\\u000a the amplitude of these TSI changes is very small so that recent reconstruction data suggest that low frequency variations\\u000a in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and in the thermohaline circulation may have amplified, in the North Atlantic sector\\u000a and mostly

D. Swingedouw; L. Terray; C. Cassou; A. Voldoire; D. Salas-Mélia; J. Servonnat

2011-01-01

262

Personal memory for personal computer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper considers the information technology allowing personal computer users to create personal databases that are sufficiently full and can be quickly renewed through the TV communication channels. The advantage of this information technology over that used in the computer networks is its absolute protection from unauthorized access. Suggested is an architecture of the computer external memory comprising the subsystems of subscriber and archive memories and providing a considerable reduction of the mean access time over the entire volume of the information stored in the personal databases. The cylindrical optical information carries are shown to be most promising in the mass storage systems, since it is possible to realize in them the multilayer recording with a great number of registering layers.

Antonov, Alexander A.

1996-01-01

263

For personal use. Only reproduce with permission from The Lancet Publishing Group. Neuroanatomical structures may be profoundly or subtly  

E-print Network

, and tissue characteristics of brain structures affected by neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroanatomical's disease. By contrast, focal atrophy of the temporal lobe, frontal lobe, or both, makes Alzheimer's disease are preferentially affected by a given disease or disorder. Quantitative tools such as volumetric measures based

Thompson, Paul

264

Are Low-Income Canadians Financially Literate? Placing Financial Literacy in the Context of Personal and Structural Constraints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that financial literacy varies across socioeconomic groups and their neighborhoods, in part because of the adult learning that occurs within a local context. The study begins by explaining that financial literacy needs vary across socioeconomic groups and that there are important structural factors affecting the financial…

Buckland, Jerry

2010-01-01

265

Removal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products during Water Recycling: Microbial Community Structure and Effects of Substrate Concentration  

PubMed Central

Many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been shown to be biotransformed in water treatment systems. However, little research exists on the effect of initial PPCP concentration on PPCP biotransformation or on the microbial communities treating impacted water. In this study, biological PPCP removal at various concentrations was assessed using laboratory columns inoculated with wastewater treatment plant effluent. Pyrosequencing was used to examine microbial communities in the columns and in soil from a soil aquifer treatment (SAT; a method of water treatment prior to reuse) site. Laboratory columns were supplied with different concentrations (0.25, 10, 100, or 1,000 ?g liter?1) of each of 15 PPCPs. Five PPCPs (4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol [biosol], p-chloro-m-xylenol, gemfibrozil, ketoprofen, and phenytoin) were not removed at any tested concentrations. Two PPCPs (naproxen and triclosan) exhibited removals independent of PPCP concentration. PPCP removal efficiencies were dependent on initial concentrations for biphenylol, p-chloro-m-cresol, chlorophene, diclofenac, 5-fluorouracil, ibuprofen, and valproic acid, showing that PPCP concentration can affect biotransformation. Biofilms from sand samples collected from the 0.25- and 10-?g liter?1 PPCP columns were pyrosequenced along with SAT soil samples collected on three consecutive days of a wetting and drying cycle to enable comparison of these two communities exposed to PPCPs. SAT communities were similar to column communities in taxonomy and phylotype composition, and both were found to contain close relatives of known PPCP degraders. The efficiency of biological removal of PPCPs was found to be dependent on the concentration at which the contamination occurs for some, but not all, PPCPs. PMID:24509919

Onesios-Barry, Kathryn M.; Berry, David; Proescher, Jody B.; Sivakumar, I. K. Ashok

2014-01-01

266

Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products during water recycling: microbial community structure and effects of substrate concentration.  

PubMed

Many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been shown to be biotransformed in water treatment systems. However, little research exists on the effect of initial PPCP concentration on PPCP biotransformation or on the microbial communities treating impacted water. In this study, biological PPCP removal at various concentrations was assessed using laboratory columns inoculated with wastewater treatment plant effluent. Pyrosequencing was used to examine microbial communities in the columns and in soil from a soil aquifer treatment (SAT; a method of water treatment prior to reuse) site. Laboratory columns were supplied with different concentrations (0.25, 10, 100, or 1,000 ?g liter(-1)) of each of 15 PPCPs. Five PPCPs (4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol [biosol], p-chloro-m-xylenol, gemfibrozil, ketoprofen, and phenytoin) were not removed at any tested concentrations. Two PPCPs (naproxen and triclosan) exhibited removals independent of PPCP concentration. PPCP removal efficiencies were dependent on initial concentrations for biphenylol, p-chloro-m-cresol, chlorophene, diclofenac, 5-fluorouracil, ibuprofen, and valproic acid, showing that PPCP concentration can affect biotransformation. Biofilms from sand samples collected from the 0.25- and 10-?g liter(-1) PPCP columns were pyrosequenced along with SAT soil samples collected on three consecutive days of a wetting and drying cycle to enable comparison of these two communities exposed to PPCPs. SAT communities were similar to column communities in taxonomy and phylotype composition, and both were found to contain close relatives of known PPCP degraders. The efficiency of biological removal of PPCPs was found to be dependent on the concentration at which the contamination occurs for some, but not all, PPCPs. PMID:24509919

Onesios-Barry, Kathryn M; Berry, David; Proescher, Jody B; Sivakumar, I K Ashok; Bouwer, Edward J

2014-04-01

267

Can computer personalities be human personalities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The claim that computer personalities can be human personalities was tested by demonstrating that (1) computer personalities can be easily created using a minimal set of cues, and (2) that people will respond to these personalities in the same way they would respond to similar human personalities. The present study focused on the \\

Clifford Nass; Youngme Moon; B. J. Fogg; Byron Reeves; D. Christopher Dryer

1995-01-01

268

Personal Beacon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MicroPLB (personal locator beacon) is a search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) transmitter. When activated it emits a distress signal to a constellation of internationally operated satellites. The endangered person's identity and location anywhere on Earth is automatically forwarded to central monitoring stations around the world. It is accurate to within just a few meters. The user uses the device to download navigation data from a global positioning satellite receiver. After the download is complete, the MicroPLB functions as a self-locating beacon. Also, it is the only PLB to use a safe battery. In the past, other PLB devices have used batteries that have enough volatility to explode with extreme force. It was developed by Microwave Monolithic, Inc. through SBIR funding from Glenn Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center.

2000-01-01

269

New millennium long oak tree-ring width chronology and its potential for climate reconstruction for the Czech Lands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution provides basic information about a newly created oak (Quercus sp) tree ring width (TRW) chronology spatially covering the territory of the Czech Republic (CR) in the 761-2012 period. The series was completed from more than 3000 oak TRW samples of living, historical and sub-fossil material. At first variability in age structure, number of replications and common signal strength through time are discussed. Then we introduce a methodology how positive and negative extremes may be defined from high-pass filtered TRW oak series. Based on an assumption that positive/negative extremes indicate an occurrence of extremely wet/dry seasons in a moisture sensitive oak TRW chronology we verify this hypothesis against extremely wet/dry seasons that are known from various types of documentary evidence for the territory of CR. Degree of agreement in extremes found in both oak TRW series and documentary based precipitation index series is discussed. Finally mean CR precipitation series completed from 14 long homogenized station measurements and starting at 1803 is used to test a potential of the newly created oak TRW series for quantitative reconstruction of precipitation and drought characteristics of millennium lengths.

Dobrovolný, Petr; Brázdil, Rudolf; ?ezní?ková, Ladislava; Rybní?ek, Michal; Kolá?, Tomáš; Büntgen, Ulf

2014-05-01

270

Multidimensional Dichotomous Thinking Characterizes Borderline Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether dichotomous thinking is characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Patients with BPD (N = 16), control patients with Cluster-C personality disorder (PD; N = 12), and normal controls (N = 15) evaluated personalities from film clips in a structured response format. Film clips were presented with emotional themes, which were hypothesized to be either specific or

Gerthe Veen; Arnoud Arntz

2000-01-01

271

Personality disorders in cocaine dependence.  

PubMed

To assess the relationship between cocaine dependence and personality disorders, we administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II) to 50 patients who were hospitalized for cocaine dependence. We modified the SCID-II so that patients were asked to indicate whether personality traits (if present) occurred during periods of drug use, abstinence, or both. Thirty-seven patients (74%) received at least one axis II diagnosis; 69% of these diagnoses were present both during periods of drug use and abstinence. Only one patient received a diagnosis during periods of drug use alone. These findings suggest that personality disorder diagnoses in cocaine-dependent patients remain relatively stable regardless of current drug use patterns. These data support clinicians' addressing these maladaptive personality traits as part of treatment for cocaine dependence. PMID:8339531

Weiss, R D; Mirin, S M; Griffin, M L; Gunderson, J G; Hufford, C

1993-01-01

272

A multi-proxy model-tested NAO reconstruction for the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we propose a new last millennium reconstruction of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic. For this purpose, we use a selection of 60 annually to decadally resolved proxy records from different archives (ice cores, tree rings, speleothems, and lake and ocean sediments), which are distributed around the Atlantic Ocean and continental boundaries. These records are selected for showing a significant correlation with the longest instrumental NAO time series. The reconstruction is based on a Principal Component Regression (PCR) technique using a subset of the initial predictors. Two pseudo-proxy studies based on the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) and the last millennium PMIP3 simulations are performed to validate the choice of proxies and therefore produce a model and reanalysis-consistent NAO. This is a novel approach in which proxy and model worlds are combined with the aim of improving the reliability of the reconstruction. An ensemble of reconstructions is additionally generated to explore the potential uncertainties inherent to the reconstruction method (i.e. calibration period, number of PCs retained, level of significance imposed, and data smoothing). Thus, we provide a robust benchmark that enables us to test recent hypotheses. For example, no persistent positive NAO phase is observed during medieval times, in clear contrast with the bi-proxy NAO reconstruction by Trouet et al (2009). Furthermore, no significant link between the winter NAO and the external forcings is identified, thus opposed to previous results with climate models. Finally, our millennial reconstruction depicts a remarkable shift around 1450 AD, characterised by a fast negative-to-positive NAO transition lying within the range of recent winter NAO excursions. This result supports that 20th century NAO variability is not unprecedent in the context of the last millennium, in line with the IPCC AR5.

Ortega, Pablo; Lehner, Flavio; Casado, Mathieu; Swingedouw, Didier; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Yiou, Pascal; Raible, Christoph

2014-05-01

273

Personal Information Request Request for Personal Information  

E-print Network

Personal Information Request Request for Personal Information Request for Correction of Personal Information Personal information on this form is collected under Newfoundland and Labrador's Access to Information and Protection of Privacy (ATIPP) Act and will be used to respond to a request for, or correction

deYoung, Brad

274

Coupled North Atlantic slope water forcing on Gulf of Maine temperatures over the past millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate ocean variability during the last millennium in the Western Gulf of Maine (GOM), we collected a 142-year-old\\u000a living bivalve (Arctica islandica L.) in 2004, and three fossil A. islandica shells (calibrated 14CAMS = 1030 ± 78 ad; 1320 ± 45 ad; 1357 ± 40 ad) for stable isotope and growth increment analysis. A statistically significant relationship exists between modern GOM temperature\\u000a records [shell isotope-derived (30 m) (r = ?0.79;

Alan D. Wanamaker; Karl J. Kreutz; Bernd R. Schöne; Neal Pettigrew; Harold W. Borns; Douglas S. Introne; Daniel Belknap; Kirk A. Maasch; Scott Feindel

2008-01-01

275

Climate Forcing Reconstructions for Use in PMIP Simulations of the Last Millennium (v1.0)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulations of climate over the Last Millennium (850-1850 CE) have been incorporated into the third phase of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3). The drivers of climate over this period are chiefly orbital, solar, volcanic, changes in land use/land cover and some variation in greenhouse gas levels. While some of these effects can be easily defined, the reconstructions of solar, volcanic and land use-related forcing are more uncertain. We describe here the approach taken in defining the scenarios used in PMIP3, document the forcing reconstructions and discuss likely implications.

Schmidt, Gavin A.; Jungclaus, J.H.; Steinhilber, F.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Ammann, C. M.; Bard, E.; Braconnot, P.; Crowley, T. J.; Delayque, G.; Joos, F.; Krivova, N. A.; Muscheler, R.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Pongratz, J.; Shindell, D. T.; Solanki, S. K.

2011-01-01

276

Quantitative ENT endoscopy: the future in the new millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Otorhinolaryngology the endoscopic appraisal of luminal dimensions of the nose, the throat, the larynx and the trachea is a daily problem. Those concerned with endoscopy know, that endoscopes distort dimensions of examined anatomical structures. To draw conclusions on luminal dimensions from the endoscopic pictures additional measuring devices are required. We developed a new method of measuring luminal dimensions in rigid or flexible endoscopy. For this a laser beam directed radially marks the anatomical lumen of interest in the videoendoscopic vision. The laser ring becomes deformed according to the form of the cavity explored. By keeping the distance defined between the laser ring and the top of the endoscope, the endoscopic video image can be measured. A piece of software developed by us calculates from the pictures the cross sectional area as well as the extension of benign or malign stenosis of the cavity explored. The result of the endoscopic measuring procedure can be visualized 3D on a PC-monitor. We are going to demonstrate the result of our clinical experience in different otorhinolaryngological diseases with the new endoscopic measuring kit in comparison to standard endoscopy. A further perspective is the endoscopic measuring kit in comparison to standard endoscopy. A further perspective is the endoscopic assisted manufacturing (EAM) of anatomical adapted stents, tubes and cannules.

Mueller, Andreas; Schubert, Mario

1999-06-01

277

[Telecommunications, health and radiology: potential synergies for the new millennium].  

PubMed

Healthcare telematics, or telemedicine, is a new methodology that applies the potentialities of telecommunications technologies to the needs of medicine, thereby greatly contributing to improving the management of clinical data and medical information for the benefit of the individual patient and the community at large. The fields of application of Telemedicine are becoming increasingly vast, and this gives rise to technical problems (interconnections) as well as professional, ethical, medico-legal and legal problems. The dissemination of Telemedicine will require changes to be made to the organisation and delivery of the medical/administrative services connected to the management of patient data, the remote provision of care, and the impact of Telemedicine itself (e.g. need to standardise the nomenclature for telemedicine services). In addition, it will also call for a careful analysis of costs and benefits for both healthcare providers and patients. One of the most interesting experiences in terms of impact is Teleradiology. This is neither a new discipline nor a (sub)specialty: the practice of Teleradiology must comply with the rules regulating any radiological medical act, the primary aim of which is to contribute to establishing - rapidly and accurately - a diagnosis that will affect treatment strategies. It may be anticipated that in some situations Teleradiology will significantly change the working practices of Radiology Specialists and Radiology Technicians. Because it is better to anticipate problems rather than wait for them to arise, our Scientific Society, which is always sensitive to emerging issues, intends to propose the following recommendations/guidelines for the use of Teleradiology in the common interest of the community and healthcare workers. The invitation to take part in the initiative proposed by the Italian Society of Medical Radiology (SIRM), the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) and the Italian Association of Neuroradiology (AINR) was received with great satisfaction and is proof that we are working towards common goals. As on other occasions, this was reflected in the excellent collaboration between the National Radiologists' Union (SNR), the Italian Association of Medical Physics (AIFM) and the National Federation of Radiology Technicians (F.N.C.TSRM) in drafting the document. The document aims to highlight the potentialities and limitations in the use of Teleradiology and to provide a set of recommendations/guidelines, which are not, however, to be intended as strict, absolute rules. Because this field is continually evolving both in structural and regulatory terms, and because it is very difficult to establish universal criteria to rigidly define behavioural models for implementing and managing Teleradiology-related activities (which in any case fall into the category of radiological medical acts), the recommendations/guidelines proposed necessarily have an informative rather than prescriptive nature. The document starts by defining the meaning of the following currently used terms: Teleconsultation; Telediagnosis; Teledidactics. It then goes on to analyse the following aspects of Teleradiology: Technological requirements; Qualifications and training of Medical Personnel; Qualifications, training and competences of Radiology Technicians. Based on the regulations in force in Italy, these recommendations are structured in terms of rationale and possible professional issues arising from the use of Teleradiology. A section is devoted to data security and confidentiality, including legal implications, an area which is currently evolving and being studied in Italy and abroad. Finally, the professional liabilities of all the healthcare providers involved in Teleradiology (imprudence, incompetence, negligence) are outlined, as well as the responsibilities related to the necessary maintenance of equipment. The aim of the document is to propose recommendations/guidelines for the correct use and validation of Teleradiology. The Scientific Societies SIRM-AIMN-AINR and the Academic Institu

Lagalla, R

2001-01-01

278

The Number of Mentally Retarded--A Result of Steps Taken by Society? Changes in the Age Structure among Mentally Retarded Persons in Sweden 1973-1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From 1973 to 1983 the number and proportion of mentally retarded persons in the total population of Sweden has not changed, but there are fewer children and young persons and more adults. The changes are hypothetically attributed to prenatal diagnosis, improved obstetrical techniques, and the introduction of antibiotics in 1948. (Author/VW)

Wallner, Teut

1988-01-01

279

Millennium tree-ring reconstruction of drought variability in the eastern Qilian Mountains, northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of natural long-term drought variability is essential for water resource management and planning, especially in arid and sub-arid regions of the world. In the eastern Qilian Mountains of China, long-term drought variability based on high-resolution proxy records such as tree-ring data are still scarce to date. Here we present a new tree-ring chronology from the eastern Qilian Mountains which provides a valuable 1,002-year record (1009-2010 CE) of drought variability. The new reconstruction of June-July 5-month scale standardized precipitation and evapotranspiration index is the first millennium tree-ring estimate of past climate developed in the eastern Qilian Mountains. The record shows that this region has experienced several persistent droughts and pluvials over the past millennium, with significantly drier climate during the fifteenth century and dramatic wetting since the nineteenth century. The low frequency generally agrees with other nearby studies based on both tree-ring data and other proxy data.

Gou, Xiaohua; Deng, Yang; Gao, Linlin; Chen, Fahu; Cook, Edward; Yang, Meixue; Zhang, Fen

2014-12-01

280

The Mass Assembly of Fossil Groups of Galaxies in the Millennium Simulation  

E-print Network

The evolution of present-day fossil galaxy groups is studied in the Millennium Simulation. Using the corresponding Millennium gas simulation and semi-analytic galaxy catalogues, we select fossil groups at redshift zero according to the conventional observational criteria, and trace the haloes corresponding to these groups backwards in time, extracting the associated dark matter, gas and galaxy properties. The space density of the fossils from this study is remarkably close to the observed estimates and various possibilities for the remaining discrepancy are discussed. The fraction of X-ray bright systems which are fossils appears to be in reasonable agreement with observation, and the simulations predict that fossil systems will be found in significant numbers (3-4% of the population) even in quite rich clusters. We find that fossils assemble a higher fraction of their mass at high redshift, compared to non-fossil groups, with the ratio of the currently assembled halo mass to final mass, at any epoch, being about 10 to 20% higher for fossils. This supports the paradigm whereby fossils represent undisturbed, early-forming systems in which large galaxies have merged to form a single dominant elliptical.

Ali Dariush; Habib G. Khosroshahi; Trevor J. Ponman; Frazer Pearce; Somak Raychaudhury; Will Hartley

2008-05-22

281

ENSO-driven flooding events in East Java, Indonesia during the past Millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent severe El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have highlighted the importance of understanding the mechanisms driving ENSO variability and how ENSO relates to extreme precipitation anomalies. Expanding the record of ENSO-driven precipitation anomalies over the last millennium through paleoclimate reconstructions illuminates how ENSO has varied in the past through periods of relatively enhanced and reduced radiative forcing, namely the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). Modern precipitation anomalies in East Java, Indonesia are strongly correlated to variations in ENSO, where La Niña events correspond to positive precipitation anomalies (Hendon, 2003, Journal of Climate). We present the first record of runoff events from lake sediment deposits in East Java, Indonesia spanning the last millennium, which historically occur during strong La Niña events. Our record reveals significant variations in East Java flooding frequency, with more frequent floods occurring from 850 to 1350 CE and after 1800 CE. This pattern is also observed in surface runoff records from the eastern tropical Pacific (Moy et al., 2002, Nature; Conroy et al., 2008, Quaternary Science Reviews), which lie in a region where modern positive precipitation anomalies are closely tied to El Niño events. Extreme rainfall events occurring on both sides of the tropical Pacific on centennial timescales may indicate that both El Niño and La Niña activity were higher during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the most recent two centuries, when radiative forcing was high, and that ENSO activity was reduced during the Little Ice Age, when radiative forcing was weak.

Rodysill, J. R.; Russell, J. M.; Vuille, M. F.; Lunghino, B.; Bijaksana, S.

2013-12-01

282

A tree-ring reconstruction of the South Asian summer monsoon index over the past millennium  

PubMed Central

The South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) is a major atmospheric synoptic climate system affecting nearly a quarter of the human population. Climate proxy data derived from tree rings, ice cores, speleothems, and other sources can all contribute to an understanding of SASM variability prior to instrumental period. Here, we develop an optimal information extraction (OIE) method, which we use to reconstruct the SASM index (SASMI) over the last millennium using 15 tree-ring chronologies. The record generated is significantly correlated (r = 0.7, p < 0.01) with the instrumental SASMI record on annual timescales; this correlation is higher than that obtained in any previous study. The reconstructed SASMI captures 18 of 26 (69%) reordered historical famine events in India over the last millennium; notably, 11 of 16 short events with durations of 1–3 years are accurately depicted in our reconstruction. Moreover, the reconstructed SASMI is positively correlated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on multi-decadal timescales implying that variations in solar activity may influence the SASM. Based on the response of SASM to 34 significant volcanic events using the superposed epoch analysis, the volcanic forcing may drive a weak SASM in the second year of an eruption. PMID:25338702

Shi, Feng; Li, Jianping; Wilson, Rob J. S.

2014-01-01

283

A tree-ring reconstruction of the South Asian summer monsoon index over the past millennium.  

PubMed

The South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) is a major atmospheric synoptic climate system affecting nearly a quarter of the human population. Climate proxy data derived from tree rings, ice cores, speleothems, and other sources can all contribute to an understanding of SASM variability prior to instrumental period. Here, we develop an optimal information extraction (OIE) method, which we use to reconstruct the SASM index (SASMI) over the last millennium using 15 tree-ring chronologies. The record generated is significantly correlated (r = 0.7, p < 0.01) with the instrumental SASMI record on annual timescales; this correlation is higher than that obtained in any previous study. The reconstructed SASMI captures 18 of 26 (69%) reordered historical famine events in India over the last millennium; notably, 11 of 16 short events with durations of 1-3 years are accurately depicted in our reconstruction. Moreover, the reconstructed SASMI is positively correlated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on multi-decadal timescales implying that variations in solar activity may influence the SASM. Based on the response of SASM to 34 significant volcanic events using the superposed epoch analysis, the volcanic forcing may drive a weak SASM in the second year of an eruption. PMID:25338702

Shi, Feng; Li, Jianping; Wilson, Rob J S

2014-01-01

284

Personality Processes: Mechanisms by which Personality Traits “Get Outside the Skin”  

PubMed Central

It is time to better understand why personality traits predict consequential outcomes, which calls for a closer look at personality processes. Personality processes are mechanisms that unfold over time to produce the effects of personality traits. They include reactive and instrumental processes that moderate or mediate the association between traits and outcomes. These mechanisms are illustrated here by a selection of studies of traits representing the three broad domains of personality and temperament: negative emotionality, positive emotionality, and constraint. Personality processes are studied over the short-term, as in event-sampling studies, and over the long-term, as in lifespan research. Implications of findings from the study of processes are considered for resolving issues in models of personality structure, improving and extending methods of personality assessment, and identifying targets for personality interventions. PMID:21740225

Hampson, Sarah E.

2011-01-01

285

Personality and gambling involvement: A person-centered approach.  

PubMed

Individual differences in personality are likely to play an important role in explaining the propensity to gamble. One of the potential roadblocks to elucidating the relation between personality and gambling may be inadequately accounting for the diversity of gambling activities. The goal of the present study was to provide a comprehensive and nuanced portrait of the relation between personality and gambling by taking a multivariate approach to the co-use of multiple gambling activities and employing a broad inventory of potentially relevant personality dimensions. Participants were 4,669 individuals from a national Australian twin registry. Structured interviews including an extensive assessment of gambling behaviors were conducted, and personality questionnaires that included the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Sensation Seeking Scale, and the Magical Ideation Scale were completed. A latent class analysis of past-year involvement in 10 different gambling activities was performed to classify the participants into 5 groups. Unique personality configurations characterized the 3 more gambling-involved latent classes: (a) low behavioral control in the context of high negative emotionality and magical thinking typified extensive, versatile gamblers at high risk of gambling problems; (b) average behavioral control in the context of high negative emotionality and magical thinking typified those who primarily gambled on non-strategic games of chance; (c) low behavioral control in the context of high positive emotionality and low magical ideation typified those who primarily gambled on strategic games of skill. This study illustrates the value of using a multivariate person-centered approach for characterizing the personality correlates of the multifaceted phenomenon that is gambling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25134059

Savage, Jeanne E; Slutske, Wendy S; Martin, Nicholas G

2014-12-01

286

Emerging economic sectors in the third millennium: leisure time era begins to dominate US economy by 2015  

Microsoft Academic Search

This second article in a series of six focuses on leisure as one of the impending waves of economic activity projected to dominate the advanced economies over the course of the new millennium. Leisure will begin to dominate jobs and economic activity in the USA around 2015, the date when “free time” will occupy over half of total individual lifetime

Grahm T. T. Molitor

2000-01-01

287

Subjective Well-Being Approach to the Valuation of International Development: Evidence for the Millennium Development Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The subjective well-being approach to the valuation of international development is applied to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Results indicate that the rich countries have particular preference for education, healthcare, and housing; they are willing to accept compensation for a failure to meet the three targets by 2015. The poor…

Beja, Edsel L., Jr.

2013-01-01

288

Prevalence of Parent-Reported ASD and ADHD in the UK: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The UK prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were estimated from the Millennium Cohort Study. Case definition was if a doctor or health care professional had ever told parents that their child had ASD and/or ADHD. Data were collected in 2008/2009 for 14,043 children. 1.7%…

Russell, Ginny; Rodgers, Lauren R.; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Ford, Tamsin

2014-01-01

289

Health and Millennium Development Goal 1: Reducing Out-of-pocket Expenditures to Reduce Income Poverty - Evidence from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first of the eight Millennium Development Goals is to halve extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. In India, thirty two and a half million people fall below the national poverty line by making out-of- pocket payments for health care in a single year. This paper shows how in a country with large out of pocket payments, targeting a few

Charu C. Garg; Anup Karan

2008-01-01

290

History of bioavailable lead and iron in the Greater North Sea and Iceland during the last millennium A bivalve  

E-print Network

) and inorganic contaminants (heavy metals, radionuclides, REEs) include rivers, coastal industries, dumping, 1990; Irion, 1993). Results clearly indicate rising heavy metal loads toward more recently deposited millennium ­ A bivalve sclerochronological reconstruction Hilmar A. Holland a, , Bernd R. Schöne a , Soraya

Schöne, Bernd R.

291

Private Schools and the Millennium Development Goal of Universal Primary Education: A Census and Comparative Survey in Hyderabad, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development literature suggests that private schools serving the poor are not part of the solution to meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of universal primary education. The study conducted a census and survey of schools in notified slums of Hyderabad, India, to contribute to the sparse literature on the nature and extent of private…

Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Gomathi, S. V.

2007-01-01

292

Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium. American Council on Education/Oryx Press Series on Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 17 essays focuses on the major changes that higher education needs to make so that it can effectively pursue teaching and research and significantly contribute public service in a rapidly changing world. The essays include: (1) "Survey of the Main Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium" (Luc E. Weber); (2) "Meeting…

Hirsch, Werner Z., Ed.; Weber, Luc E., Ed.

293

Contingency and Contradiction: The Place(s) of the Library at the Dawn of the New Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to suggest answers to two questions: What should be the primary purpose of information services in general and libraries in particular as we enter the new millennium? Assuming such a purpose, what array of services should the library be prepared to provide? These questions are approached mainly from the academic library…

Atkinson, Ross

2001-01-01

294

Next generation UltraFlex (NGU) technology maturation for NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) Space Technology 8 (ST8)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABLE Engineering, Inc. (ABLE), in collaboration with the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and EMCORE Photovoltaics (EPV), has been selected for the NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) Space Technology 8 (ST8) Study Phase project to develop and potentially flight validate a state-of-the-art solar array system called: \\

B. Spence; S. White; N. Wilder; T. Gregory; M. Douglas; R. Takeda; N. Mardesich; T. Peterson; B. Hillard; P. Sharps; N. Fatermi

2005-01-01

295

Dendroarchaeology of the mid-first millennium AD in Constantinople Charlotte L. Pearson a,d,*, Carol B. Griggs a  

E-print Network

a a The Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronology, B48 Goldwin Smith Hall Keywords: Dendrochronology Constantinople Istanbul Yenikapi Hagia Sophia First millennium AD a b s t r a c in time by dendrochronology and supported by radiocarbon analysis and historical documentation

Manning, Sturt

296

Nutrition And the Millennium Development Goals A Kenyan Perspective on the Eradication of Extreme Poverty and Hunger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poverty and food insecurity are the twin challenges of the 21st century, alongside issues such as HIV\\/ AIDS, conflicts, and natural disasters. Although many countries have had different strategies to tackle these challenges, the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide a united front where eight universal goals must be achieved by the year 2015. The first part of this

Susan J Keino

2004-01-01

297

Assessing the Progress of Gender Parity in Education through Achieving Millennium Development Goals: A Case Study of Quetta District Balochistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using secondary data of Government Schools and literacy department for 10 years that is 2000-2010, this paper assesses the progress on the issue of gender equality within the framework of education related Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in district Quetta. The assessment is based on the selected indicators of goals by applying descriptive…

Rashid, Abdul; Bibi, Zainab; Din, Siraj ud

2012-01-01

298

Survivor Millennium!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will discover the importance of scientific replication by performing an investigation requiring them to write, and then follow, step-by-step instructions. The scenario will be based on the show Survivor and will involve making peanut butter and jelly sandwiches.

Jasmine SeeramOwens

2012-08-02

299

[Dis-social personality disorder].  

PubMed

Deviant behavior is gaining in clinical importance if it is founded on stable, characteristic, and enduring patterns of psychopathologically relevant personality traits which have their onset in childhood or adolescence. The classification of these traits shows variations, so that a distinction between the ICD-10 diagnosis of dis-social personality disorder, DSM-IV diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and the concept "psychopathy" is necessary. Our knowledge about the biological basis of antisocial behavior includes neurophysiologic, psychophysiologic, and genetic findings. Also relevant are results of neurotransmitter studies and structural resp. functional neuroimaging findings. Psychosocial risk factors include parental deficits, rejection, disregard, unstable relations, and abuse. Efficient psychotherapeutic treatment is cognitive-behavioral. Pharmacologic treatment is largely "off-label". The diagnosis of antisocial and dis-social personality disorders allows no conclusions on criminal responsibility. In addition to psychiatric diagnostics, considerations on the severity of the disorder and its effects on the ability to inhibit actions are necessary. PMID:16609871

Habermeyer, E; Herpertz, S C

2006-05-01

300

Can computer personalities be human personalities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study demonstrates that (1) computer personalities can be easily created using a minimal set of cues, and (2) that people will respond to these personalities in the same way they would respond to similar human personalities. The present study focuses on the “simikirityattraction hypothesis,” which predicts that people will prefer to interact with others who are similar in

Clifford Nass; Youngme Moon; B. J. Fogg; Byron Reeves; Chris Dryer

1995-01-01

301

Diagnostic Validity of ICD10 Personality Dimensions: A Multitrait-Multimethod Analysis of Two Self-Report Questionnaires and a Structured Interview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: There is growing evidence that the validity of diagnostic methods for personality disorders (PD) may be insufficient. Although the ICD-10 classification system is widely used, there is little data concerning its validity for diagnosing PD. Methods: To examine convergent and discriminant validity of ICD-10 PD, corresponding dimensions were calculated using the Inventory of Clinical Personality Accentuations (self-rating) and the

Katrin Schroeder; Burghard Andresen; Dieter Naber; Christian G. Huber

2010-01-01

302

Coherent anti-phasing between solar forcing and tropical Pacific climate over the past millennium: derivation and implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a compilation of the most recent, high-resolution proxy data from the tropics, and a state-of-the-art climate reconstruction technique (RegEM iTTLS; Emile-Geay et al, submitted), we reconstruct sea-surface temperature (SST) in the central equatorial Pacific (NINO3.4 region) over the past millennium. Using frozen network experiments and pseudoproxy validation, the reconstruction is found skillful back to 1150 C.E., with inevitable amplitude reduction before 1500 C.E. due to the paucity of proxy predictors. Despite this caveat, wavelet coherency analysis reveals a marked anticorrelation between solar forcing (as estimated from cosmogenic isotope concentrations; Bard et al., 2007; Steinhilber et al., 2009) and the reconstructed NINO3.4 in the ~sim205-year spectral range (DeVries cycle). The phase angle between both signals is 156 ± 33o in this range, indicating that periods of high solar irradiance coincide with cool conditions in the NINO3.4 region, with time lag of 14 ± 19 years. We find this result robust to the reconstruction method, estimate of solar forcing, or analysis method used to estimate the phasing. We then discuss the implication of this result for the response of tropical Pacific climate to radiative forcing. While the anti-phasing seems to favor the ``ocean dynamical thermostat'' hypothesis of Clement et al [1996], this feedback appears subdued in most IPCC-class coupled general circulation models (CGCMs), where it is almost completely compensated by changes in the Pacific trade winds, linked to changes in the vertical structures of atmospheric moisture and temperature (Knutson & Manabe 1995; Held & Soden 2006; Vecchi et al. 2006). If the reconstruction is correct that past NINO3.4 SSTs have varied out of phase with solar irradiance on bicentennial scales, this would pose a new challenge both for CGCM simulations and for our understanding of the equatorial Pacific response to radiative forcing Clement, A. C., Seager, R., Cane, M. A., and Zebiak, S. E. (1996). An ocean dynamical thermostat. J. Clim., 9(9):2190-2196. Emile-Geay, J., K. Cobb, M. Mann, and A. T. Wittenberg, Estimating Tropical Pacific SST variability over the Past Millennium. Part 1: Methodology and Validation. J. Clim., submitted. available at: http://college.usc.edu/labs/jeg/publications/. Held, Isaac M., Brian J. Soden, 2006: Robust Responses of the Hydrological Cycle to Global Warming. J. Climate, 19, 5686-5699. doi: 10.1175/JCLI3990.1 Steinhilber, F., Beer, J., and Fröhlich, C. (2009). Total solar irradiance during the Holocene. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36:L19704. Vecchi, G. A., Soden, B. J., Wittenberg, A. T., Held, I. M., Leetmaa, A., and Harrison, M. J. (2006). Weakening of tropical Pacific atmospheric circulation due to anthropogenic forcing. Nature, 441:73-76.

Emile-Geay, J.; Cobb, K.; Mann, M. E.; Wittenberg, A. T.

2011-12-01

303

High-Resolution Reconstructions of Temperature and Precipitation During the Last Millennium from Lake Tanganyika, Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though numerous syntheses of high-resolution paleoclimate data have documented temperature changes associated with the Medieval Period, the Little Ice Age, and the Industrial era in north temperate regions, few records of temperature variability exist for the Southern Hemisphere (Mann and Jones, 2003, GRL doi: 10.1029/2003GL017814). Here, we present a new, high-resolution record of terrestrial temperature and rainfall from southeast tropical Africa, based upon organic geochemical analyses of annually laminated sediment cores from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa, providing the first millennium-long, high-resolution record of temperature from the East African tropics. Extending to 700CE with decadal resolution, the record uses the TEX86 paleothermometer and hydrogen stable isotope ratios (dD) of leaf waxes, which have been shown to reflect temperature and hydrologic conditions in Tanganyika, respectively (Tierney 2008, Science). The TEX86-based temperature reconstruction shows that Tanganyika temperatures were relatively warm at 700CE, cooler from 800-1000CE, and then warmer again between approximately 1050-1300CE. The latter warm interval is coincident with periods of warmer temperatures documented in the Northern Hemisphere. Yet temperatures are highly variable within the Little Ice Age (~1450-1800CE) and do not cool substantially relative to older time periods, in contrast to north temperate regions. Pronounced warming from approximately 1850 to the present is unprecedented in comparison to patterns of temperature variability during the previous centuries. The temperature variability documented here does not seem to correspond strongly to lake level fluctuations in Tanganyika over the past millennium (Cohen et al., 2005, JoPL, doi 10.1007/s10933-005- 2422-4), suggesting that Southeast African climate variability is more complex than alternating cycles of warm/wet and cool/dry conditions. dD analyses document considerable hydrologic variability over the past millennium, with temporal patterns that may be consistent with previous precipitation reconstructions from central East Africa. Overall, our records show that climate, particularly temperature, has changed abruptly during the past thousand years in southeast tropical Africa.

Mayes, M.; Tierney, J.; Huang, Y.; Russell, J.

2008-12-01

304

THE HALO MERGER RATE IN THE MILLENNIUM SIMULATION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OBSERVED GALAXY MERGER FRACTIONS  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a new method to extract halo merger rates from the Millennium Simulation. First, by removing superfluous mergers that are artifacts of the standard friends-of-friends (FOF) halo identification algorithm, we find a lower merger rate compared to previous work. The reductions are more significant at lower redshifts and lower halo masses, and especially for minor mergers. Our new approach results in a better agreement with predictions from the extended Press-Schechter model. Second, we find that the FOF halo finder overestimates the halo mass by up to 50% for halos that are about to merge, which leads to an additional {approx}20% overestimate of the merger rate. Therefore, we define halo masses by including only particles that are gravitationally bound to their FOF groups. We provide new best-fitting parameters for a global formula to account for these improvements. In addition, we extract the merger rate per progenitor halo, as well as per descendant halo. The merger rate per progenitor halo is the quantity that should be related to observed galaxy merger fractions when they are measured via pair counting. At low-mass/redshift, the merger rate increases moderately with mass and steeply with redshift. At high enough mass/redshift (for the rarest halos with masses a few times the 'knee' of the mass function), these trends break down, and the merger rate per progenitor halo decreases with mass and increases only moderately with redshift. Defining the merger rate per progenitor halo also allows us to quantify the rate at which halos are being accreted onto larger halos, in addition to the minor and major merger rates. We provide an analytic formula that converts any given merger rate per descendant halo into a merger rate per progenitor halo. Finally, we perform a direct comparison between observed merger fractions and the fraction of halos in the Millennium Simulation that have undergone a major merger during the recent dynamical friction time, and find a fair agreement, within the large uncertainties of the observations. Our new halo merger trees are available at http://www.mpe.mpg.de/ir/MillenniumMergerTrees/.

Genel, Shy; Genzel, Reinhard; Bouche, Nicolas [Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching, Germany. (Germany); Naab, Thorsten [Universitaets-Sternwarte Muenchen, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen, Germany. (Germany); Sternberg, Amiel [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel. (Israel)], E-mail: shy@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: nbouche@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: naab@usm.uni-muenchen.de, E-mail: amiel@wise.tau.ac.il

2009-08-20

305

The potential impact of plant biotechnology on the Millennium Development Goals.  

PubMed

The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are international development targets for the year 2015 that aim to achieve relative improvements in the standards of health, socioeconomic status and education in the world's poorest countries. Many of the challenges addressed by the MDGs reflect the direct or indirect consequences of subsistence agriculture in the developing world, and hence, plant biotechnology has an important role to play in helping to achieve MDG targets. In this opinion article, we discuss each of the MDGs in turn, provide examples to show how plant biotechnology may be able to accelerate progress towards the stated MDG objectives, and offer our opinion on the likelihood of such technology being implemented. In combination with other strategies, plant biotechnology can make a contribution towards sustainable development in the future although the extent to which progress can be made in today's political climate depends on how we deal with current barriers to adoption. PMID:21249369

Yuan, Dawei; Bassie, Ludovic; Sabalza, Maite; Miralpeix, Bruna; Dashevskaya, Svetlana; Farre, Gemma; Rivera, Sol M; Banakar, Raviraj; Bai, Chao; Sanahuja, Georgina; Arjó, Gemma; Avilla, Eva; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Ugidos-Damboriena, Nerea; López, Alberto; Almacellas, David; Zhu, Changfu; Capell, Teresa; Hahne, Gunther; Twyman, Richard M; Christou, Paul

2011-03-01

306

Surface changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last millennium  

PubMed Central

Despite numerous investigations, the dynamical origins of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age remain uncertain. A major unresolved issue relating to internal climate dynamics is the mode and tempo of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability, and the significance of decadal-to-centennial scale changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation strength in regulating the climate of the last millennium. Here we use the time-constrained high-resolution local radiocarbon reservoir age offset derived from an absolutely dated annually resolved shell chronology spanning the past 1,350 years, to reconstruct changes in surface ocean circulation and climate. The water mass tracer data presented here from the North Icelandic shelf, combined with previously published data from the Arctic and subtropical Atlantic, show that surface Atlantic meridional overturning circulation dynamics likely amplified the relatively warm conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the relatively cool conditions during the Little Ice Age within the North Atlantic sector. PMID:22692542

Wanamaker, Alan D.; Butler, Paul G.; Scourse, James D.; Heinemeier, Jan; Eiríksson, Jón; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Richardson, Christopher A.

2012-01-01

307

Millennium Development Goals progress: a perspective from sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Sub-Saharan Africa is a highly diverse geo-political region. Any brief discussion of the progress made over the last 15?years towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will therefore not do justice to the true complexity of context and events. Our focus will be MDG4—to reduce child mortality by 66% from 1990 levels. We will touch briefly on MDG1, to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, MDG2, to achieve universal primary education, and MDG5, to improve maternal health, which are inextricably linked with child well-being. We will also draw on an eclectic mix of additional global indicators. Acknowledging the limitations of this approach, we first offer a summary of expected progress and then point to debates on future goals. PMID:25613971

English, Mike; English, Rex; English, Atti

2015-01-01

308

Millennium Development Goals progress: a perspective from sub-Saharan Africa.  

PubMed

Sub-Saharan Africa is a highly diverse geo-political region. Any brief discussion of the progress made over the last 15?years towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will therefore not do justice to the true complexity of context and events. Our focus will be MDG4-to reduce child mortality by 66% from 1990 levels. We will touch briefly on MDG1, to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, MDG2, to achieve universal primary education, and MDG5, to improve maternal health, which are inextricably linked with child well-being. We will also draw on an eclectic mix of additional global indicators. Acknowledging the limitations of this approach, we first offer a summary of expected progress and then point to debates on future goals. PMID:25613971

English, Mike; English, Rex; English, Atti

2015-02-01

309

Implications of high amplitude atmospheric CO2 fluctuations on past millennium climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stomatal frequency analysis of leaves of land plants preserved in peat and lake deposits can provide a proxy record of pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration complementary to measurements in Antarctic ice cores. Stomatal frequency based CO2 trends from the USA and NW European support the presence of significant CO2 variability during the first half of the last millennium (Kouwenberg et al., 2005; Wagner et al., 2004; van Hoof et al., 2008). The timing of the most significant perturbation in the stomata records (1200 AD) is in agreement with an observed CO2 fluctuation in the D47 Antarctic ice-core record (Barnola et al., 1995; van Hoof et al., 2005). The amplitude of the stomatal frequency based CO2 changes (> 34ppmv) exceeds the maximum amplitude of CO2 variability in the D47 ice core (< 10 ppmv). A modelling experiment taking into account firn-densification based smoothing processes in the D47 ice core proved, however, that the amplitude difference between the stomata record and the D47 ice-core can be explained by natural smoothing processes in the ice (van Hoof et al., 2005). This observation gives credence to the existence of high-amplitude CO2 fluctuations during the last millennium and suggests that high resolution ice core CO2 records should be regarded as a smoothed representation of the atmospheric CO2 signal. In the present study, potential marine and terrestrial sources and sinks associated with the observed atmospheric CO2 perturbation will be discussed. The magnitude of the observed CO2 variability implies that inferred changes in CO2 radiative forcing are of a similar magnitude as variations ascribed to other forcing mechanisms (e.g. solar forcing and volcanism), therefore challenging the IPCC concept of CO2 as an insignificant preindustrial climate forcing factor. References Barnola J.M., M. Anklin, J. Porcheron, D. Raynaud, J. Schwander and B. Stauffer 1995. CO2 evolution during the last millennium as recorded by Antarctic and Greenland ice. Tellus, v 47B, p. 264-272 Kouwenberg L.L.R., F. Wagner, W.M. Kürschner and H. Visscher 2005. Atmospheric CO2 fluctuations during the last Millennium reconstructed by stomatal frequency analysis of Tsuga heterophylla needles. Geology, v. 33, no.1, pp. 33-36 van Hoof T.B., K.A. Kaspers, F. Wagner, R.S.W. van de Wal, W.M. Kürschner and H. Visscher 2005. Atmospheric CO2 during the 13th century AD: reconciliation of data from ice core measurements and stomatal frequency analysis. Tellus B, v. 57, pp. 351-355 van Hoof T.B., F. Wagner-Cremer, W.M. K Kürschner and H. Visscher 2008. A role for atmospheric CO2 in preindustrial climate forcing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, v. 105, no. 41, pp. 15815-15818 Wagner F., L.L.R. Kouwenberg, T.B. van Hoof and H. Visscher 2004. Reproducibility of Holocene atmospheric CO2 records based on stomatal frequency. Quartenary Science Reviews. V. 23, pp. 1947-1954

van Hoof, Thomas; Kouwenberg, Lenny; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Visscher, Henk

2010-05-01

310

Five Millennium Catalog of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This catalog is a supplement to the "FiveMillenniumCanonofLunarEclipses." It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Solar Eclipse parameter, gamma, penumbral and umbral eclipse magnitudes, durations of penumbral, partial and total eclipse phases, and geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse (latitude and longitude). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

2009-01-01

311

Climate variability in China during the last millennium based on reconstructions and simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-decadal to centennial climate variability in China during the last millennium is analysed. We compare the low frequency temperature and precipitation variations from proxy-based reconstructions and palaeo-simulations from climate models. Focusing on the regional responses to the global climate evolution is of high relevance due to the complexity of the interactions between physical mechanisms at different spatio-temporal scales and the potential severity of the derived multiple socio-economic impacts. China stands out as a particularly interesting region, not only due to its complex climatic features, ranging from the semiarid northwestern Tibetan Plateau to the tropical monsoon southeastern climates, but also because of its wealth of proxy data. However, comprehensive assessments of proxy- and model-based information about palaeo-climatic variations in China are, to our knowledge, still lacking. In addition, existing studies depict a general lack of agreement between reconstructions and model simulations with respect to the amplitude and/or occurrence of warmer/colder and wetter/drier periods during the last millennium and the magnitude of the 20th century warming trend. Furthermore, these works are mainly focused on eastern China regions that show a denser proxy data coverage. We investigate how last millennium palaeo-runs compare to independent evidences from an unusual large number of proxy reconstructions over the study area by employing state-of-the-art palaeo-simulations with multi-member ensembles from the CMIP5/PMIP3 project. This shapes an ideal frame for the evaluation of the uncertainties associated to internal and intermodel model variability. Preliminary results indicate that despite the strong regional and seasonal dependencies, temperature reconstructions in China evidence coherent variations among all regions at centennial scale, especially during the last 500 years. The spatial consistency of low frequency temperature changes is an interesting aspect and of relevance for the assessment of forced climatic responses in China. The comparison between reconstructions and simulations from climate models show that, apart from the 20th century warming trend, the variance of the reconstructed mean China temperature lies in the envelope (uncertainty range) spanned by the temperature simulations. The uncertainty arises from the internal (multi-member ensembles) and the inter-model variability. Centennial variations tend to be broadly synchronous in the reconstructions and the simulations. However, the simulations show a delay of the warm period 1000-1300 AD. This warm medieval period both in the simulations and the reconstructions is followed by cooling till 1800 AD. Based on the simulations, the recent warming is not unprecedented and is comparable to the medieval warming. Further steps of this study will address the individual contribution of anthropogenic and natural forcings on climate variability and change during the last millennium in China. We will make use of of models that provide runs including single forcings (fingerprints) for the attribution of climate variations from decadal to multi-centennial time scales. With this aim, we will implement statistical techniques for the detection of optimal signal-to-noise-ratio between external forcings and internal variability of reconstructed temperatures and precipitation. To apply these approaches the uncertainties associated with both reconstructions and simulations will be estimated. The latter will shed some light into the mechanisms behind current climate evolution and will help to constrain uncertainties in the sensitivity of model simulations to increasing CO2 scenarios of future climate change. This work will also contribute to the overall aims of the PAGES 2k initiative in Asia (http://www.pages.unibe.ch/workinggroups/2k-network)

García-Bustamante, E.; Luterbacher, J.; Xoplaki, E.; Werner, J. P.; Jungclaus, J.; Zorita, E.; González-Rouco, J. F.; Fernández-Donado, L.; Hegerl, G.; Ge, Q.; Hao, Z.; Wagner, S.

2012-04-01

312

Development of an Ion Thruster and Power Processor for New Millennium's Deep Space 1 Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness Program (NSTAR) will provide a single-string primary propulsion system to NASA's New Millennium Deep Space 1 Mission which will perform comet and asteroid flybys in the years 1999 and 2000. The propulsion system includes a 30-cm diameter ion thruster, a xenon feed system, a power processing unit, and a digital control and interface unit. A total of four engineering model ion thrusters, three breadboard power processors, and a controller have been built, integrated, and tested. An extensive set of development tests has been completed along with thruster design verification tests of 2000 h and 1000 h. An 8000 h Life Demonstration Test is ongoing and has successfully demonstrated more than 6000 h of operation. In situ measurements of accelerator grid wear are consistent with grid lifetimes well in excess of the 12,000 h qualification test requirement. Flight hardware is now being assembled in preparation for integration, functional, and acceptance tests.

Sovey, James S.; Hamley, John A.; Haag, Thomas W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pencil, Eric J.; Peterson, Todd T.; Pinero, Luis R.; Power, John L.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Anderson, John R.; Bond, Thomas A.; Cardwell, G. I.; Christensen, Jon A.

1997-01-01

313

The worst North American drought year of the last millennium: 1934  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer of 1934, over 70% of western North America experienced extreme drought, placing this summer far outside the normal range of drought variability and making 1934 the single worst drought year of the last millennium. Strong atmospheric ridging along the West Coast suppressed cold season precipitation across the Northwest, Southwest, and California, a circulation pattern similar to the winters of 1976-1977 and 2013-2014. In the spring and summer, the drying spread to the Midwest and Central Plains, driven by severe precipitation deficits downwind from regions of major dust storm activity, consistent with previous work linking drying during the Dust Bowl to anthropogenic dust aerosol forcing. Despite a moderate La Niña, contributions from sea surface temperature forcing were small, suggesting that the anomalous 1934 drought was primarily a consequence of atmospheric variability, possibly amplified by dust forcing that intensified and spread the drought across nearly all of western North America.

Cook, Benjamin I.; Seager, Richard; Smerdon, Jason E.

2014-10-01

314

The World Bank: An Online Atlas of the Millennium Development Goals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank established a set of Millennium Development Goals as both a challenge to poor countries to demonstrate "good governance" and to wealthy nations as a spur that would hopefully encourage them to support economic and social development. Recently, the World Bank created this visually engaging and sophisticated interactive atlas to track those eight goals, which include the promotion of gender equality, combating disease, and reducing child mortality. Visitors can click on any of these eight goals and they will be able to view maps of the world that document the progress that has been made in each nation. Clicking on each nation individually brings up clear and easy-to-read tables that chart additional changes within each separate goal. Visitors can export the data for their own use, and they can also resize the map to demonstrate the changes made over the past few years.

315

Abrupt climate changes for Iceland during the last millennium: Evidence from high resolution sea ice reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high resolution account of Icelandic sea ice over the last millennium has been constructed using a novel proxy based on the presence in sediments of a biomarker (IP 25) produced by sea ice algae. Comparison with historical sea ice records demonstrates a strong correlation between documented sea ice occurrences and the IP 25 proxy. An excellent agreement is also observed between the IP 25 record and a diatom-based sea surface temperature reconstruction obtained from the same core and the Crowley and Lowery Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstruction. Using this approach, we provide new historical sea ice data for periods where records are scarce or absent and evidence for abrupt changes to sea ice and/or climate conditions around Iceland during the Little Ice Age.

Massé, Guillaume; Rowland, Steven J.; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Jacob, Jeremy; Jansen, Eystein; Belt, Simon T.

2008-05-01

316

Chronic urticaria in adults: state-of-the-art in the new millennium*  

PubMed Central

Chronic urticaria has been explored in several investigative aspects in the new millennium, either as to its pathogenesis, its stand as an autoimmune or auto-reactive disease, the correlation with HLA-linked genetic factors, especially with class II or its interrelation with the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. New second-generation antihistamines, which act as good symptomatic drugs, emerged and were commercialized over the last decade. Old and new drugs that may interfere with the pathophysiology of the disease, such as cyclosporine and omalizumab have been developed and used as treatments. The purpose of this article is to describe the current state of knowledge on aspects of chronic urticaria such as, pathophysiology, diagnosis and the current therapeutic approach proposed in the literature. PMID:25672302

Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Criado, Roberta Facchini Jardim; Maruta, Celina Wakisaka; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva

2015-01-01

317

Issues of maternal health in Pakistan: trends towards millennium development goal 5.  

PubMed

Pakistan has third highest burden of maternal and children mortality across the globe. This grim situation is further intensified by flaws of planning and implementation set forth in health sector. Natural calamities (earth quakes, floods), disease outbreaks and lack of awareness in different regions of country also further aggravate this situation. Despite of all these limitations, under the banner of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) a special focus and progress in addressing maternal health issue (set as goal 5) has been made over the last decade. In this review, improvement and short falls pertaining to Goal 5 Improve maternal health have been analyzed in relation to earlier years. A decline in maternal mortality ratio (MMR) (490 maternal deaths in 1990 to 260 maternal deaths per 100,000 women in 2010) is observed. Reduction in MMR by three quarters was not achieved but a decline from very high mortality to high mortality index was observed. Increase usage of contraceptives (with contraceptive prevalence rate of 11.8 in 1990 to 37 in 2013) also shed light on women awareness about their health and social issues. Based on progress level assessment (WHO guidelines),access of Pakistani women to universal reproductive health unit falls in moderate category in 2010 as compared to earlier low access in 1990. From the data it looks that still a lot of effort is required for achieving the said targets. However, keeping in view all challenges, Pakistan suffered in the said duration, like volatile peace, regional political instability, policy implementation constrains, population growth, this slow but progressive trend highlight a national resilience to address the havoc challenge of maternal health. These understandings and sustained efforts will significantly contribute a best possible accomplishment in Millennium Development Goal 5 by 2015. PMID:25252492

Malik, Muhammd Faraz Arshad; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar

2014-06-01

318

Enhanced Formation Flying for the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) New Millennium Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With scientific objectives for Earth observation programs becoming more ambitious and spacecraft becoming more autonomous, the need for new technical approaches on the feasibility of achieving and maintaining formations of spacecraft has come to the forefront. The trend to develop small low cost spacecraft has led many scientists to recognize the advantage of flying several spacecraft in formation, an example of which is shown in the figure below, to achieve the correlated instrument measurements formerly possible only by flying many instruments on a single large platform. Yet, formation flying imposes additional complications on orbit maintenance, especially when each spacecraft has its own orbit requirements. However, advances in automation proposed by GSFC Codes 550 and 712 allow more of the burden in maneuver planning and execution to be placed onboard the spacecraft, mitigating some of the associated operational concerns. The purpose of this analysis is to develop the fundamentals of formation flying mechanics, concepts for understanding the relative motion of free flying spacecraft, and an operational control theory for formation maintenance of the Earth Observing-1 (EO-l) spacecraft that is part of the New Millennium. Results of this development can be used to determine the appropriateness of formation flying for a particular case as well as the operational impacts. Applications to the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) Earth Observing System (EOS) and New Millennium (NM) were highly considered in analysis and applications. This paper presents the proposed methods for the guidance and control of the EO-1 spacecraft to formation fly with the Landsat-7 spacecraft using an autonomous closed loop three axis navigation control, GPS, and Cross link navigation support. Simulation results using various fidelity levels of modeling, algorithms developed and implemented in MATLAB, and autonomous 'fuzzy logic' control using AutoCon will be presented. The results of these analysis on the ability to meet mission and formation flying requirements will be presented.

Folta, David; Quinn, David

1997-01-01

319

The climate in the Baltic Sea region during the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variability and long-term climate change in the Baltic Sea region is investigated for the pre-industrial period of the last millennium. For the first time dynamical downscaling covering the complete millennium is conducted with a regional climate model in this area. As a result of changing external forcing conditions the model simulation shows warm conditions in the first centuries followed by a gradual cooling until c. 1700 before temperature increases in the last centuries. This long-term evolution, with a Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and a Little Ice Age (LIA), is in broad agreement with proxy-based reconstructions. However, the timing of warm and cold events is not captured at all times. We show that the regional response to the global climate anomalies is to a strong degree modified by the large-scale circulation in the model. In particular, we find that a positive NAO-phase simulated during MCA contributes to enhancing winter temperatures and precipitation in the region while a negative NAO-anomaly in the LIA reduces them. In a second step, the regional ocean model RCO is used to investigate the impact of atmospheric changes onto the Baltic Sea for two 100 yr time slices representing the MCA and the LIA. Besides the warming of the Baltic Sea the water becomes fresher at all levels during the MCA. This is induced by increased runoff and stronger westerly winds. Moreover, the oxygen concentrations in the deep layers are slightly reduced during the MCA. Additional sensitivity studies are conducted to investigate the impact of even higher temperatures and increased nutrient loads. The presented experiments suggest that changing nutrient loads may be more important determining oxygen depletion than changes in temperature or dynamic feedbacks.

Schimanke, S.; Meier, H. E. M.; Kjellström, E.; Strandberg, G.; Hordoir, R.

2012-04-01

320

Acid sulfate soils and human health--a Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.  

PubMed

Acid sulfate soils have been described as the "nastiest soils on earth" because of their strong acidity, increased mobility of potentially toxic elements and limited bioavailability of nutrients. They only cover a small area of the world's total problem soils, but often have significant adverse effects on agriculture, aquaculture and the environment on a local scale. Their location often coincides with high population density areas along the coasts of many developing countries. As a result, their negative impacts on ecosystems can have serious implications to those least equipped for coping with the low crop yields and reduced water quality that can result from acid sulfate soil disturbance. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment called on by the United Nations in 2000 emphasised the importance of ecosystems for human health and well-being. These include the service they provide as sources of food and water, through the control of pollution and disease, as well as for the cultural services ecosystems provide. While the problems related to agriculture, aquaculture and the environment have been the focus of many acid sulfate soil management efforts, the connection to human health has largely been ignored. This paper presents the potential health issues of acid sulfate soils, in relation to the ecosystem services identified in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. It is recognised that significant implications on food security and livelihood can result, as well as on community cohesiveness and the spread of vector-borne disease. However, the connection between these outcomes and acid sulfate soils is often not obvious and it is therefore argued that the impact of such soils on human well-being needs to be recognised in order to raise awareness among the public and decision makers, to in turn facilitate proper management and avoid potential human ill-health. PMID:19647876

Ljung, Karin; Maley, Fiona; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

2009-11-01

321

Web mining for web personalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web personalization is the process of customizing a Web site to the needs of specific users, taking advantage of the knowledge acquired from the analysis of the user's navigational behavior (usage data) in correlation with other information collected in the Web context, namely, structure, content, and user profile data. Due to the explosive growth of the Web, the domain of

Magdalini Eirinaki; Michalis Vazirgiannis

2003-01-01

322

An Accounting Scheme for Personality Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Realizing the importance of human personality variables in comprehensive educational assessment structures, Operation PEP sought to develop a tool to assess specific human personality characteristics. The resulting accounting scheme is divided into three chapters: (1) an outline and definition of relevant terminology, (2) a scheme to account for…

Dillon, James J.; Feldman, S. Shirley

323

Balancing personalized medicine and personalized care.  

PubMed

The current description of personalized medicine by the National Institutes of Health is "the science of individualized prevention and therapy." Although physicians are beginning to see the promise of genetic medicine coming to fruition, the rapid pace of sequencing technology, informatics, and computer science predict a revolution in the ability to care for patients in the near future. The enthusiasm expressed by researchers is well founded, but the expectations voiced by the public do not center on advancing technology. Rather, patients are asking for personalized care: a holistic approach that considers physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. This perspective considers psychological, religious, and ethical challenges that may arise as the precision of preventive medicine improves. Psychological studies already highlight the barriers to single gene testing and suggest significant barriers to the predictive testing envisioned by personalized medicine. Certain religious groups will likely mount opposition if they believe personalized medicine encourages embryo selection. If the technology prompts cost-containment discussions, those concerned about the sanctity of life may raise ethical objections. Consequently, the availability of new scientific developments does not guarantee advances in treatment because patients may prove unwilling to receive and act on personalized genetic information. This perspective highlights current efforts to incorporate personalized medicine and personalized care into the medical curriculum, genetic counseling, and other aspects of clinical practice. Because these efforts are generally independent, the authors offer recommendations for physicians and educators so that personalized medicine can be implemented in a manner that meets patient expectations for personalized care. PMID:23348082

Cornetta, Kenneth; Brown, Candy Gunther

2013-03-01

324

Early childhood nutritional status in CARICOM countries: an overview with respect to five nutrition related millennium development goals.  

PubMed

Previous reviews of nutritional status in children under 5 years describe the Caribbean grouped with Latin America. This paper focuses specifically on the Caribbean and the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration that have bearing on childhood development. The results indicate that CARICOM countries have made progress in terms of child health as assessed by gross health indicators. Yet, the millennium generation experiences coexistence of undernutrition and overweight in early childhood. The associations of GNI with markers such as poverty indices are somewhat inconsistent with traditional findings and highlight a need to reassess the causes of infant mortality and low birth weight. However, a lack of systematic local data has hampered progress on an individual country basis. Interventions that deal more pointedly with country specific needs are required including those targeting obesity if the MDGs are to be attained by all member states. PMID:24899905

Gaskin, Pamela S; Nielsen, Anders L; Willie, Douladel; Durant, Tara C

2014-01-01

325

Early Childhood Nutritional Status in CARICOM Countries: An Overview with respect to Five Nutrition Related Millennium Development Goals  

PubMed Central

Previous reviews of nutritional status in children under 5 years describe the Caribbean grouped with Latin America. This paper focuses specifically on the Caribbean and the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration that have bearing on childhood development. The results indicate that CARICOM countries have made progress in terms of child health as assessed by gross health indicators. Yet, the millennium generation experiences coexistence of undernutrition and overweight in early childhood. The associations of GNI with markers such as poverty indices are somewhat inconsistent with traditional findings and highlight a need to reassess the causes of infant mortality and low birth weight. However, a lack of systematic local data has hampered progress on an individual country basis. Interventions that deal more pointedly with country specific needs are required including those targeting obesity if the MDGs are to be attained by all member states. PMID:24899905

Gaskin, Pamela S.; Nielsen, Anders L.; Willie, Douladel; Durant, Tara C.

2014-01-01

326

Personal identity, multiple personality, and hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of multiple personality ia critically examined in the light of its historical development. Various conceptions of multiple personality are considered: aa a diagnostic fashion; aa a product of shaping in therapy; as a product of hypnotic suggestion; as simulation; and aa an extension of characteristica found in “normal” personslitiea. These considerations lead to the conclusion that the significant

J. P. Sutcliffe; Jean Jones

1962-01-01

327

An ecological systems approach to examining risk factors for early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Objective: To use an ecological systems approach to examine individual-, family-, community-, and area-level risk factors for overweight (including obesity) in 3-year-old children. Design: Prospective nationally representative cohort study Setting: England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland Participants: 13 188 singleton children age three in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between 2000 and 2002, who had complete height\\/weight data Main outcome

Summer Sherburne Hawkins

328

Atmospheric CO2 fluctuations during the last millennium reconstructed by stomatal frequency analysis of Tsuga heterophylla needles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stomatal frequency record based on buried Tsuga heterophylla needles reveals significant centennial-scale atmospheric CO2 fluctuations during the last millennium. The record includes four CO2 minima of 260 275 ppmv (ca. A.D. 860 and A.D. 1150, and less prominently, ca. A.D. 1600 and 1800). Alternating CO2 maxima of 300 320 ppmv are present at A.D. 1000, A.D. 1300, and ca.

Lenny Kouwenberg; Rike Wagner; Wolfram Kürschner; Henk Visscher

2005-01-01

329

The Dispersion of Radon Above Deeply Buried Uranium Ore: Millennium Deposit, Athabasca Basin, SK , K Hattori1  

E-print Network

The Dispersion of Radon Above Deeply Buried Uranium Ore: Millennium Deposit, Athabasca Basin, SK M., & Herczeg, A. (2006). A rapid field extraction method for determination of radon-222 in natural waters. !""#$%& %'(#%)& %((#'(& !%!#"*& !%'#)+& *& %*& !*& )*& +*& ,*& %,*& !**& !,*& )**& !"#$%&'()& *+,-& Radon Depth Profile ­ CX-40 -./01&20304&5&'6& 7.5 7.5 7 6.9 6.9 0 10 20 30 40 50 6.8 7 7.2 7.4 7.6 Depth

330

UltraFlex-175 Solar Array Technology Maturation Achievements for NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) Space Technology 8 (ST8)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATK space systems (ATK) in collaboration with the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and EMCORE Photovoltaics (EPV), is executing NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) Space Technology 8 (ST8) Project Formulation Refinement Phase to develop and validate through spaceflight a state-of-the-art solar array system called UltraFlex-175. UltraFlex-175 is a highly evolved and scaled version of the

B. Spence; S. White; A. Jones; J. Wachholz; N. Wilder; P. Cronin; T. Gregory; P. Barker; T. Allmandinger; N. Mardesich; M. Piszczor; P. Sharps; N. Fatemi

2006-01-01

331

Fossil coral records of tropical Pacific climate over the last millennium: relationship to external forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant uncertainty surrounds the tropical Pacific's response to continued greenhouse forcing, contributing to poor constraints on future hydroclimate trends in areas that are directly or indirectly affected by tropical Pacific climate. General circulation models isolate several key mechanisms that may be involved in the response of the tropical Pacific ocean-atmosphere coupled system to greenhouse forcing (Vecchi et al., 2006; Held & Soden, 2006; Meehl et al., 2007; DeNezio et al., 2009), but the real-world importance of such mechanisms is best tested using paleoclimate data spanning previous intervals of anomalous radiative forcing. Here we present a compilation of monthly-resolved, overlapping fossil coral-based reconstructions of NINO3.4 sea-surface temperature (SST) from the Line Islands (2-6N, 157-162W) spanning key intervals of the last millennium. Coral oxygen isotopes (?18O) are used to reconstruct changes in SST and/or hydrology, recognizing that on interannual timescales warm SSTs and positive precipitation anomalies combine to generate negative coral ?18O excursions that reliably track variability associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Coral Sr/Ca ratios are used to reconstruct changes in SST across select intervals of the last millennium, which enables us to derive the hydrological component of coral ?18O variability through time (e.g. Nurhati et al., 2009, 2011). The longest coral sequence spans from 1146-1464AD, and is comprised of eight U/Th-dated coral ?18O records that are spliced together using a technique common in dendroclimatology. Additional intervals are available from the 10th, 16th, 17th, and 20th centuries. Taken together, the coral records are poorly correlated to available reconstructions of solar forcing (Bard et al., 2007; Steinhilber et al., 2009), even across some large-amplitude irradiance excursions that occur during the 12th-14th centuries, when we have high confidence in our long 8-coral reconstruction. These results imply that internal variability may overwhelm any naturally-forced signals in NINO3.4 SST over the last millennium. Relatively large positive anomalies in coral ?18O (indicating cool and/or dry conditions) occur during the 10th and late 16th centuries, in line with evidence of severe drought in the western Americas (e.g. Graham et al., 2007) during those times. A large negative excursion in coral ?18O (warm and/or wet conditions) during the late-13th century may be related to a decades-long shift in the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Indeed, the 13th century shift in coral ?18O is of the same magnitude as the late 20th century coral ?18O trend that has been linked to a significant shift in central tropical Pacific hydrology (Nurhati et al., 2011). These observations imply an important role for hydrological shifts in explaining fossil coral ?18O variability and highlight the importance of acquiring additional fossil coral Sr/Ca records from this site.

Cobb, K.; Charles, C. D.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.

2011-12-01

332

Personality Correlates of Parental Teaching Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents' teaching behavior was observed in a structured interaction task designed both to explore a different method for observing parental behavior, and to investigate the relationship between parental behavior and personality. (Authors)

Osofsky, Joy D.; Hunt, David E.

1972-01-01

333

Stigma and mental disorder: conceptions of illness, public attitudes, personal disclosure, and social policy.  

PubMed

The end of the last millennium witnessed an unprecedented degree of public awareness regarding mental disorder as well as motivation for policy change. Like Sartorius, we contend that the continued stigmatization of mental illness may well be the central issue facing the field, as nearly all attendant issues (e.g., standards of care, funding for basic and applied research efforts) emanate from professional, societal, and personal attitudes towards persons with aberrant behavior. We discuss empirical and narrative evidence for stigmatization as well as historical trends regarding conceptualizations of mental illness, including the field's increasing focus on genetic and neurobiological causes and determinants of mental disorder. We next define stigma explicitly, noting both the multiple levels (community, societal, familial, individual) through which stigma operates to dehumanize and delegitimize individuals with mental disorders and the impact of stigma across development. Key developmental psychopathology principles are salient in this regard. We express concern over the recent oversimplification of mental illness as "brain disorder," supporting instead transactional models which account for the dynamic interplay of genes, neurobiology, environment, and self across development and which are consistent with both compassion and societal responsibility. Finally, we consider educational and policy-related initiatives regarding the destigmatization of mental disorder. We conclude that attitudes and policy regarding mental disorder reflect, in microcosmic form, two crucial issues for the next century and millennium: (a) tolerance for diversity (vs. pressure for conformity) and (b) intentional direction of our species' evolution, given fast-breaking genetic advances. PMID:11202034

Hinshaw, S P; Cicchetti, D

2000-01-01

334

Enhanced 20th century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanic heat transport variations, carried by the northward flowing Atlantic Water, strongly influence Arctic sea-ice distribution, ocean-atmosphere exchanges, and pan-Arctic temperatures. Paleoceanographic reconstructions from marine sediments near Fram Strait have documented a dramatic increase in Atlantic Water temperatures over the 20th century, unprecedented in the last millennium. Here we present results from Earth system model simulations over the last millennium that reproduce and explain reconstructed integrated quantities such as pan-Arctic temperature evolution during the pre-industrial millennium as well as the exceptional Atlantic Water warming in Fram Strait in the 20th century. The associated increase in ocean heat transfer to the Arctic can be traced back to changes in the ocean circulation in the sub-polar North Atlantic. An interplay between a weakening overturning circulation and a strengthening sub-polar gyre as a consequence of 20th century global warming is identified as driving mechanism for the pronounced warming along the Atlantic Water path toward the Arctic. Simulations covering the late Holocene provide a reference frame that allows us to conclude that the changes during the last century are unprecedented in the last 1150 years and that they cannot be explained by internal variability or natural forcing alone.

Jungclaus, J. H.; Lohmann, K.; Zanchettin, D.

2014-07-01

335

Simulated cold events in the northern North Atlantic during the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoceanographic data show large inter-decadal cold excursions in sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the western subpolar gyre region and north of Iceland throughout the last millennium. A series of such events could have contributed to demise the Norse settlements over Greenland during the 13th to the 15th century due to associated deteriorating environmental conditions in the region. However, spatial extent, attribution and mechanism(s) of these cold events are not known. In this contribution, we use climate model simulations to clarify the role of the ocean and of coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics in triggering these cold events, and to assess whether they can be explained by internal climate variability alone. Specifically, we investigate the North Atlantic-Arctic climate variability in a 1000-year control run describing an unperturbed pre-industrial climate, and in a 3-member ensemble of full-forcing transient simulations of the last millennium. Simulations are performed with the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model for paleo-applications. In the control and transient simulations, we identified cold events of similar amplitude and duration to the reconstructed data. Spatial patterns and temporal evolutions of simulated cold events are similar in both simulation types. In the transient runs, furthermore, they do not robustly coincide with periods of strong external forcing (e.g. of major volcanic eruptions). We therefore conclude that such events can emerge because of internally-generated regional climate variability alone. Local ocean-atmosphere coupled processes in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region appear as key part of the mechanism of simulated cold events. In particular, they are typically associated with the onset of prolonged positive sea-level pressure anomalies over the North Atlantic and associated weaker and south-eastward displaced subpolar gyre. The salt transport reduction by the Irminger Current together with an intensification of the southward fresh water transport through the Denmark Strait reduce the sea-surface salinity and trigger reduced deep ocean mixing in the Labrador Sea. The consequent weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation peaks well after the minimum of SST anomalies, allowing us to exclude, in contrast to former suggestions, the overturning circulation as a major triggering factor of such cold events. Cold SSTs and the weakened atmospheric circulation over the Labrador Sea force reduced ocean heat losses in the ocean basin, being the main cause of the cold anomalies over Greenland. The simulated climatic anomaly further entails sea-ice expansion along the eastern coast of Greenland. This would have reduced the trade and fishery in the region, thus increasing the stress on the Norse society during the time of its settlement demise over Greenland.

Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo; Zanchettin, Davide; Lohmann, Katja; Jungclaus, Johann

2014-05-01

336

A climate simulation of the first millennium AD using a comprehensive Earth System Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of past climate using fully coupled comprehensive Earth System Models are restricted by the large computational costs of these simulations. Here we present first results from an on-going simulation with the MPI-ESM-P starting in year 100 BC. The simulation is forced with changes in orbital forcing and long-term solar variations augmented by a synthetic 11-year cycle including an interactive ozone cycle. For the first time also changes in volcanic activity are implemented based on the reconstruction method by Crowley and Unterman (2012). The basis of the extended volcanic forcing in terms of aerosol optical depth and effective radius are new sulfate estimations from ice cores from Greenland (NEEM) and Antarctica (WAIS) presented by Sigl et al. (2013). Because the NEEM record only reaches back as far as 79 AD, the time until 100 BC was filled by earlier information contained in the Dye 3 and GRIP record (Clausen et al., 1997). Compared to the 2nd millennium AD, the first millennium does however show a considerably reduced amount of large explosive tropical eruptions. On hemispheric and global scale the large outbreaks around the years 530 and 740 AD are well reflected as negative temperature anomalies. The 79 AD Vesuvius eruption does not however produce a pronounced hemispheric signal. The amount of sulphate ejected into the stratosphere may have been too low for a sustained hemispheric-scale cooling. The large eruption of 530 AD (so called 'mystic cloud') is however well reflected within the temperature evolution and is more pronounced over the northern hemisphere during summertime. On longer, multi-centennial, time scales, global temperatures show a slight decrease. This decrease is more pronounced over the NH hemisphere during JJA and is caused by the decline in the TOA short wave incoming radiation. Over the extratropical SH changes in orbital forcing are not reflected in temperature trends as clearly as over the NH due to the larger oceanic and ice-covered areas. Future investigations will concentrate on the analyses of additional modes of variability, such as the AO and AAO, and ENSO as well as changes in ocean circulation, for instance related to the variability of the North Atlantic.

Wagner, Sebastian; Zorita, Eduardo

2014-05-01

337

The Future of Small Telescopes In The New Millennium. Volume II - The Telescopes We Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An invaluable reference for any student, scientist or administrator, using small telescopes for research. An essential collection of data and opinions for those charged with setting scientific and funding priorities. This three-volume set, The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium details the essential roles that small telescopes should play in 21st century science and how their future productivity can be maximized. Over 70 experts from all corners of the international astronomical community have created a definitive reference on the present and future of "big science with small telescopes." Despite highly publicized closures of telescopes smaller than 4-m in aperture at national facilities and their omission from national science priority studies, the oft-lamented demise of the small telescope has been greatly exaggerated. In fact, the future of these workhorses of astronomy will be brighter than ever if creative steps are taken now. This three-volume set defines the essential roles that small telescopes should play in 21st century science and the ways in which a productive future for them can be realized. A wide cross-section of the astronomical community has contributed to a definitive assessment of the present and a vision for the future. Volume 2: The Telescopes We Use Small cost-effective optical-, radio- and space-based facilities face similar problems in scientific prioritization and funding. Volume 2 highlights how current small facilities are evolving to meet the scientific priorities and economical realities of the 21st century through standardization of instrumentation, use of off-the-shelf technology, specialization, optical improvements, new modes of scheduling, automation, and internet access. The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium is a fundamental resource for those looking to undertake new projects with small telescopes, for those that are responsible for their operation, and for those called upon to help set scientific priorities for the coming decade. It will be useful for the practicing researcher, mountain facility manager, science policy maker, and beginning graduate student. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0951-8

Oswalt, T. D.

2003-06-01

338

The Future of Small Telescopes In The New Millennium. Volume I - Perceptions, Productivities, and Policies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An invaluable reference for any student, scientist or administrator, using small telescopes for research. An essential collection of data and opinions for those charged with setting scientific and funding priorities. This three-volume set, The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium details the essential roles that small telescopes should play in 21st century science and how their future productivity can be maximized. Over 70 experts from all corners of the international astronomical community have created a definitive reference on the present and future of "big science with small telescopes." Despite highly publicized closures of telescopes smaller than 4-m in aperture at national facilities and their omission from national science priority studies, the oft-lamented demise of the small telescope has been greatly exaggerated. In fact, the future of these workhorses of astronomy will be brighter than ever if creative steps are taken now. This three-volume set defines the essential roles that small telescopes should play in 21st century science and the ways in which a productive future for them can be realized. A wide cross-section of the astronomical community has contributed to a definitive assessment of the present and a vision for the future. Volume 1: Perceptions, Productivities, and Policies Beginning with a summary of recent national scientific priority-setting efforts, Volume 1 examines the public's and the astronomical community's own perceptions of and misconceptions about small telescope productivity. These shape the future scientific research that will be done with telescopes smaller than 4-m in aperture, and the number of astronomers that will have access to them. The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium is a fundamental resource for those looking to undertake new projects with small telescopes, for those that are responsible for their operation, and for those called upon to help set scientific priorities for the coming decade. It will be useful for the practicing researcher, mountain facility manager, science policy maker, and beginning graduate student. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0951-8

Oswalt, T. D.

2003-06-01

339

Back to the Future: Personality and Assessment and Personality Development  

PubMed Central

In this essay I consider the future of personality development in light of the past effects of Personality and Assessment on the field of personality in general and personality development in particular. The essay is organized around 1) the effect of Mischel's book on the foundational theories informing personality development; 2) definitions of personality traits; 3) an alternative model of personality traits, described as the sociogenomic model of personality traits, that can bridge the divide that still characterizes the field of personality development; 4) the application of the sociogenomic model of personality traits to issues of personality trait development, and 5) a “Newtonian” vision for the future of personality psychology. PMID:20161194

Roberts, Brent W.

2009-01-01

340

Methods of Studying Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method that permits answering research questions of general importance by examining individuals in a comprehensive, whole-person manner. Discusses their use in two studies of persons with spinal cord injuries. (LLL)

Heinemann, Allen W.; Shontz, Franklin C.

1985-01-01

341

Personalized Proactive Information Retrieval  

E-print Network

Personalized Proactive Information Retrieval Yi Zhang Assistant Professor Information Retrieval Proactive Information Retrieval has Many Potential Markets n You need to know new products related to yours Personalized Proactive Information Retrieval Statistics, optimization Artificial Intelligence Natural language

Lee, Herbie

342

Schizotypal personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... have depression. A second personality disorder, such as paranoid personality disorder, is also common. Common signs of ... of risk, such as a family history of schizophrenia, may allow early diagnosis.

343

Unlocking Personality Type.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines some of the intricacies of personality types and their effect on career choices. Proposes that knowing students' Myers-Briggs personality types can help school counselors guide them down the right career path. (GCP)

Tieger, Paul D.

2002-01-01

344

Perspective: Balancing Personalized Medicine and Personalized Care  

PubMed Central

The current description of personalized medicine by the National Institutes of Health is “the science of individualized prevention and therapy.” Although physicians are just beginning to see the promise of genetic medicine coming to fruition, the rapid pace of sequencing technology, informatics, and computer science predict a true revolution in the ability to care for patients in the near future. The enthusiasm expressed by researchers is well founded, but the expectations voiced by the public do not center on advancing technology. Rather, patients are asking for personalized care: a holistic approach that considers an individual’s physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. This perspective considers psychological, religious, and ethical challenges that may arise as the precision of preventive medicine improves. Psychological studies already highlight the barriers to single gene testing and suggest significant barriers to the predictive testing envisioned by personalized medicine. Certain religious groups will likely mount opposition if they believe personalized medicine encourages embryo selection. If the technology prompts cost-containment discussions, those concerned about the sanctity of life may raise ethical objections. Consequently, the availability of new scientific developments does not guarantee advances in treatment because patients may prove unwilling to receive and act upon personalized genetic information. This perspective highlights current efforts to incorporate personalized medicine and personalized care into the medical curriculum, genetic counseling, and other aspects of clinical practice. As these efforts are generally independent, the authors offer recommendations for physicians and educators so that personalized medicine can be implemented in a manner that meets patient expectations for personalized care. PMID:23348082

Cornetta, Kenneth; Brown, Candy Gunther

2013-01-01

345

Assessing Household Solid Fuel Use: Multiple Implications for the Millennium Development Goals  

PubMed Central

Objective The World Health Organization is the agency responsible for reporting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) indicator “percentage of population using solid fuels.” In this article, we present the results of a comprehensive assessment of solid fuel use, conducted in 2005, and discuss the implications of our findings in the context of achieving the MDGs. Methods For 93 countries, solid fuel use data were compiled from recent national censuses or household surveys. For the 36 countries where no data were available, the indicator was modeled. For 52 upper-middle or high-income countries, the indicator was assumed to be < 5%. Results According to our assessment, 52% of the world’s population uses solid fuels. This percentage varies widely between countries and regions, ranging from 77%, 74%, and 74% in Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific Region, respectively, to 36% in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 16% in Latin America and the Caribbean and in Central and Eastern Europe. In most industrialized countries, solid fuel use falls to the < 5% mark. Discussion Although the “percentage of population using solid fuels” is classified as an indicator to measure progress towards MDG 7, reliance on traditional household energy practices has distinct implications for most of the MDGs, notably MDGs 4 and 5. There is an urgent need for development agendas to recognize the fundamental role that household energy plays in improving child and maternal health and fostering economic and social development. PMID:16507460

Rehfuess, Eva; Mehta, Sumi; Prüss-Üstün, Annette

2006-01-01

346

The critical loads concept: milestone or millstone for the new millennium?  

PubMed

The significance of the introduction of the critical loads concept in the closing decades of the 20th century is considered critically, both in the context of its potential in planning pollution abatement strategies over a range of regional spatial and temporal scales and in terms of its more general impact upon atmospheric pollution effects research. Based upon perceived strengths and shortcomings of the concept and of the ways in which it has thus far been applied, a brief assessment is made also of its possible role in the opening decade of the new millennium. It is concluded that the validity of some of the fundamental underpinning concepts and of the data being used for their application could, and should, be questioned. Nevertheless, environmental pollution management and abatement policy planning will continue to require application of the critical loads concept or something very similar, both in existing and novel areas of application, for the sustainable management of soil and water resources in the long term. PMID:10813446

Cresser, M S

2000-04-17

347

Going Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: An Index System of Human Well-Being  

PubMed Central

Understanding the linkages between ecosystem services (ES) and human well-being (HWB) is crucial to sustain the flow of ES for HWB. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) provided a state-of-the-art synthesis of such knowledge. However, due to the complexity of the linkages between ES and HWB, there are still many knowledge gaps, and in particular a lack of quantitative indicators and integrated models based on the MA framework. To fill some of these research needs, we developed a quantitative index system to measure HWB, and assessed the impacts of an external driver – the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake – on HWB. Our results suggest that our proposed index system of HWB is well-designed, valid and could be useful for better understanding the linkages between ES and HWB. The earthquake significantly affected households' well-being in our demonstration sites. Such impacts differed across space and across the five dimensions of the sub-index (i.e., the basic material for good life, security, health, good social relations, and freedom of choice and action). Since the conceptual framework is based on the generalizable MA framework, our methods should also be applicable to other study areas. PMID:23717635

Yang, Wu; Dietz, Thomas; Kramer, Daniel Boyd; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianguo

2013-01-01

348

Driving forces of global wildfires over the past millennium and the forthcoming century  

PubMed Central

Recent bursts in the incidence of large wildfires worldwide have raised concerns about the influence climate change and humans might have on future fire activity. Comparatively little is known, however, about the relative importance of these factors in shaping global fire history. Here we use fire and climate modeling, combined with land cover and population estimates, to gain a better understanding of the forces driving global fire trends. Our model successfully reproduces global fire activity record over the last millennium and reveals distinct regimes in global fire behavior. We find that during the preindustrial period, the global fire regime was strongly driven by precipitation (rather than temperature), shifting to an anthropogenic-driven regime with the Industrial Revolution. Our future projections indicate an impending shift to a temperature-driven global fire regime in the 21st century, creating an unprecedentedly fire-prone environment. These results suggest a possibility that in the future climate will play a considerably stronger role in driving global fire trends, outweighing direct human influence on fire (both ignition and suppression), a reversal from the situation during the last two centuries. PMID:20974914

Pechony, O.; Shindell, D. T.

2010-01-01

349

Century/millennium internal climate oscillations in an ocean-atmosphere-continental ice sheet model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We demonstrate in a simple climate model that there exist nonlinear feedbacks between the atmosphere, ocean, and ice sheets capable of producing century/millennium timescale internal oscillations resembling those seen in the paleoclimate record. Feedbacks involve meridional heat and salt transports in the North Atlantic, surface ocean freshwater fluxes associated with melting and growing continental ice sheets in the northen hemisphere and with Atlantic to Pacific water vapor transport. The positive feedback between the production of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and the meridional salt transport by the Atlantic thermohaline circulation tends to destabilize the climate system, while the negative feedback between the freshwater flux, either to or from the continental ice sheets, and meridional heat flux to the high-latitude North Atlantic, accomplished by the thermohaline circulation, stabilizes the system. The thermohaline circulation plays a central role in both positive and negative feedbacks because of its transport of both heat and salt. Because of asymmetries between the growth and melt phases the oscillations are, in general, accompanied by a growing or decreasing ice volume over each cycle, which in the model is reflected by increasing or decreasing mean salinity.

Birchfield, Edward G.; Wang, Huaxiao; Rich, Jonathan J.

1994-01-01

350

Gram-positive bacterial resistance. A challenge for the next millennium.  

PubMed

Penicillin G was first used in 1941. Since then, the trend in bacterial infections has changed. New antibiotics have been developed and bacterial resistance has spread as a consequence. The spread of Gram positive resistant bacteria is related to an inappropriate use of antibiotics. Antibacterial agents are abused or overused in various fields: medicine itself, veterinary science and zootechnics. Now, at the beginning of the third millennium we have been forced to limit our therapeutic options in order to combat these insidious enemies. Selective antibiotic pressure on the microbial population, notably on enterococci and staphylococci, made these two pathogens recalcitrant to traditional chemotherapy. It is a matter of concern that today, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (VRE) and vancomycin-intermediate and resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VISA and VRSA) are now being observed worldwide among emerging pathogens. Most pharmaceutical companies are today developing antimicrobial drugs that are active against Gram-positive bacteria. Quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid are the most promising drugs and are available only for serious infections; future agents being developed for multi-resistant Gram-positive infections include daptomycin and the glycyclines, although these are still in the development phase. Nevertheless, our group has had the opportunity to treat some serious infections with these drugs and the good results achieved are reported in this review. PMID:12094131

Bassetti, M; Melica, G; Cenderello, G; Rosso, R; Di Biagio, A; Bassetti, D

2002-09-01

351

Tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals: reaching consensus on child mortality levels and trends.  

PubMed Central

The increased attention to tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including Goal 4 of reducing child mortality, has drawn attention to a number of interrelated technical, operational and political challenges and to the underlying weaknesses of country health information systems upon which reliable monitoring depends. Assessments of child mortality published in 2005, for almost all low-income countries, are based on an extrapolation of the trends observed during the 1990s, rather than on the empirical data for more recent years. The validity of the extrapolation depends on the quality and quantity of the data used, and many countries lack suitable data. In the long run, it is hoped that vital registration or sample registration systems will be established to monitor vital events in a sustainable way. However, in the short run, tracking child mortality in high-mortality countries will continue to rely on household surveys and extrapolations of historical trends. This will require more collaborative efforts both to collect data through initiatives to strengthen health information systems at the country level, and to harmonize the estimation process. The latter objective requires the continued activity of a coordinating group of international agencies and academics that aims to produce transparent estimates -- through the consistent application of an agreed-upon methodology --for monitoring at the international level. PMID:16583082

2006-01-01

352

Remote Sensing in Geography in the New Millennium: Prospects, Challenges, and Opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing science contributes greatly to our understanding of the Earth's ecosystems and cultural landscapes. Almost all the natural and social sciences, including geography, rely heavily on remote sensing to provide quantitative, and indispensable spatial information. Many geographers have made significant contributions to remote sensing science since the 1970s, including the specification of advanced remote sensing systems, improvements in analog and digital image analysis, biophysical modeling, and terrain analysis. In fact, the Remote Sensing Specialty Group (RSSG) is one of the largest specialty groups within the AAG with over 500 members. Remote sensing in concert with a geographic information systems, offers much value to geography as both an incisive spatial-analytical tool and as a scholarly pursuit that adds to the body of geographic knowledge on the whole. The "power" of remote sensing as a research endeavor in geography lies in its capabilities for obtaining synoptic, near-real time data at many spatial and temporal scales, and in many regions of the electromagnetic spectrum - from microwave, to RADAR, to visible, and reflective and thermal infrared. In turn, these data present a vast compendium of information for assessing Earth attributes and characte6stics that are at the very core of geography. Here we revisit how remote sensing has become a fundamental and important tool for geographical research, and how with the advent of new and improved sensing systems to be launched in the near future, remote sensing will further advance geographical analysis in the approaching New Millennium.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Jensen, John R.; Morain, Stanley A.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Ridd, Merrill K.

1999-01-01

353

Multidecadal to multicentury scale collapses of Northern Hemisphere monsoons over the past millennium.  

PubMed

Late Holocene climate in western North America was punctuated by periods of extended aridity called megadroughts. These droughts have been linked to cool eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Here, we show both short-term and long-term climate variability over the last 1,500 y from annual band thickness and stable isotope speleothem data. Several megadroughts are evident, including a multicentury one, AD 1350-1650, herein referred to as Super Drought, which corresponds to the coldest period of the Little Ice Age. Synchronicity between southwestern North American, Chinese, and West African monsoon precipitation suggests the megadroughts were hemispheric in scale. Northern Hemisphere monsoon strength over the last millennium is positively correlated with Northern Hemisphere temperature and North Atlantic SST. The megadroughts are associated with cooler than average SST and Northern Hemisphere temperatures. Furthermore, the megadroughts, including the Super Drought, coincide with solar insolation minima, suggesting that solar forcing of sea surface and atmospheric temperatures may generate variations in the strength of Northern Hemisphere monsoons. Our findings seem to suggest stronger (wetter) Northern Hemisphere monsoons with increased warming. PMID:23716648

Asmerom, Yemane; Polyak, Victor J; Rasmussen, Jessica B T; Burns, Stephen J; Lachniet, Matthew

2013-06-11

354

Multidecadal to multicentury scale collapses of Northern Hemisphere monsoons over the past millennium  

PubMed Central

Late Holocene climate in western North America was punctuated by periods of extended aridity called megadroughts. These droughts have been linked to cool eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Here, we show both short-term and long-term climate variability over the last 1,500 y from annual band thickness and stable isotope speleothem data. Several megadroughts are evident, including a multicentury one, AD 1350–1650, herein referred to as Super Drought, which corresponds to the coldest period of the Little Ice Age. Synchronicity between southwestern North American, Chinese, and West African monsoon precipitation suggests the megadroughts were hemispheric in scale. Northern Hemisphere monsoon strength over the last millennium is positively correlated with Northern Hemisphere temperature and North Atlantic SST. The megadroughts are associated with cooler than average SST and Northern Hemisphere temperatures. Furthermore, the megadroughts, including the Super Drought, coincide with solar insolation minima, suggesting that solar forcing of sea surface and atmospheric temperatures may generate variations in the strength of Northern Hemisphere monsoons. Our findings seem to suggest stronger (wetter) Northern Hemisphere monsoons with increased warming. PMID:23716648

Asmerom, Yemane; Polyak, Victor J.; Rasmussen, Jessica B. T.; Burns, Stephen J.; Lachniet, Matthew

2013-01-01

355

The Internet and the menopause consultation: menopause management in the third millennium.  

PubMed

The Internet was born in 1969; it was originally developed so that computers could share information on research and development in the scientific and military fields. The original Internet consisted of four university computers networked in the United States. Email became available two years later. The infant Internet initially required complex computing knowledge to be used. However, this was all to change with the development of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s, which made the Internet much more widely accessible. The Internet has since grown at a phenomenal rate and has evolved into a global communications tool. It is by nature anarchic, in that it is an unrestricted broadcast medium. Although this lack of censorship is a strength, it is also a weakness. The quality of information available on the Web is variable and discernment is required. With the growth of e-health, medicine and its allied specialties are faced with the challenges of providing their services in a novel way while maintaining the first principle of medicine, primum non nocere (first, do no harm). This provision of e-health care is in its infancy and this review explores issues arising from the use of the Internet as a medium for organizing menopausal health care in the third millennium. PMID:16157001

Cumming, Grant P; Currie, Heather

2005-09-01

356

Millennium Development Goals: how public health professionals perceive the achievement of MDGs  

PubMed Central

Background There have been various consultations on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by different groups. However, even if it is clear that the health sector has led the development success of the MDGs, only a few MDG reports consider public health experts’ points of view and these are mainly government driven. Designs The World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA) has executed a global survey to consult public health professionals worldwide concerning the implementation and achievements of the MDGs. The survey was conceived by WFPHA health professionals and promulgated online. Public health professionals and organisations dealing with MDGs responded to the survey. Content analysis was conducted to analyse the data. Results Survey participants attributed the highest importance worldwide to MDGs dealing with women, poverty and hunger reduction, and disease prevention and management. Moreover, they underlined the role of education, referring both to school children and professionals. In high and upper-middle income countries, environmental challenges also received considerable attention. Notably, respondents underlined that weak governance and unstable political situations, as well as the gap between professionals and politicians, were among the main causes that detracted from MDG achievements. Conclusion The public health workforce felt it would be imperative to be included from the outset in the design and implementation of further goals. This implies that those professionals have to take an active part in the political process leading to a new and accountable framework. PMID:25249060

Lomazzi, Marta; Laaser, Ulrich; Theisling, Mareike; Tapia, Leticia; Borisch, Bettina

2014-01-01

357

E-health in the new millennium: a research and practice agenda.  

PubMed

Advances in telecommunications, automated processes, web technologies and wireless computing are already forcing dramatic changes in a variety of sectors, ranging from business and industry to education and health. Yet, the electronic business space, in a broader sense, is still in a relatively early state of evolution, and it is only recently that policy makers have started looking at the potential of applying the tools and techniques of e-commerce to the tasks of other sectors. The use of the internet as a source of health information and connectivity between healthcare providers and consumers has increased interest in e-health. E-health offers the rich potential of supplementing traditional delivery of services and channels of communication in ways that extend the healthcare organisation's ability to meet the needs of its patients. To date, some e-health applications have improved the quality of healthcare, and later they will lead to substantial cost savings. However, e-health is not simply a technology but a complex technological and relational process. In this sense, practitioners and researchers who want to successfully exploit e-health need to pay attention to various pending issues that have to be addressed. The aim of this paper is to propose a novel taxonomy for e-health research in the new millennium by instantaneously presenting the current status with some major themes of e-health research. PMID:18048218

Metaxiotis, Kostas; Ptochos, Dimitrios; Psarras, John

2004-01-01

358

Child malnutrition and the Millennium Development Goals: much haste but less speed?  

PubMed

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide a framework for measuring the progress of nations. Several of these goals relate to child malnutrition, which remains an important contributor to child morbidity and mortality, accounting for approximately 45% of child deaths globally. A high proportion of undernourished children still live in Africa and parts of Asia, and the uneven rate of reduction in the prevalence of various types of child malnutrition among different income groups worldwide is worrying. Attempts to reduce child malnutrition should therefore begin from the grassroots by improving primary healthcare services in developing countries with particular focus on basic requirements. Adequate nutrition should be provided from birth, through infancy, preschool and early childhood to adolescence. The overall strategy should be one of careful and meticulous planning involving all development sectors with an emphasis on a bottom-up approach within a stable and disciplined polity; the MDGs will be only be useful if they are seen not as narrow objectives with unidirectional interventions but as multifaceted and co-ordinated. The setting of deadlines, whether 2015 or 2035, should not be emphasised so as to avoid hasty decision making. The top priority should be the implementation of the essential social services of basic education, primary healthcare, nutrition, reproductive health care, water and sanitation in partnership with the developed economies. PMID:25613961

Oruamabo, Raphael S

2015-02-01

359

Past Temperature Variability Inferred from Tree-Ring Records for the Past Millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree rings are an important proxy for inferring past temperature variability as they are precisely dated to the year and, especially for higher latitude and alpine treeline regions of the world, can be very sensitive to past changes in temperature on interannual to much lower frequency (centennial) time scales. Temperatures can be reconstructed from both ring widths and maximum latewood density time series, which are complementary parameters with different strengths and weaknesses. Hemispheric-scale temperature reconstructions based on such data are highly useful records for inferring temperature changes over the past millennium, as well as the past sensitivity of the Earth's climate system. One hundred years of tree-ring science have identified no real evidence that adverse climatic events can cause such severely cold conditions that no rings might form at any of the trees at a given site, resulting in misdating of the final chronology. Rather, based on both tree-ring observations and modeling analyses, there is clear evidence of precise dating and laying down of rings in at least some trees at each site even under extremely adverse cold conditions.

D'Arrigo, R.; Wilson, R.

2012-12-01

360

A utility perspective on the deployment of CCTs into the next millennium  

SciTech Connect

The successful Clean Coal Technology projects which are being discussed in this conference are all a testament to the positive advancements that can be made with environmentally superior technologies when the government and industry cooperate in the context of a properly funded and a well thought-out program. Many of the technologies developed in the Clean Coal Technology Program have taken a competitive position in the marketplace, and many others are on the verge of being competitive in the marketplace. Based on the success of the Clean Coal Technology Program, one would expect that they would be ready for full deployment in the marketplace with the approach of the next millennium. This is not happening. There are several hurdles that impede their deployment. Some of those hurdles, such as the higher first-of-a-kind cost and technology risk factors that accompany not-yet mature technologies, have existed since the initiation of the Clean Coal Technology Program. However, several new hurdles are impeding the market penetration of Clean Coal Technologies. Those hurdles include the radically different marketplace due to the restructuring of the electric utility industry, a soft market, the difficulty in financing new power plants, low natural gas prices, and lower-cost and higher-efficiency natural gas combined cycle technology.

Mudd, M.J. [AEP Energy Services, Columbus, OH (United States)

1997-12-31

361

Distribution, geochemistry and age of the Millennium eruptives of Changbaishan volcano, Northeast China — A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large explosive volcanic eruptions generate extensive regional tephra deposits that provide favorable conditions for identifying the source of volcanoes, comparing the sedimentary strata of a region and determining their ages. The tephra layer, referred to as B-Tm, generated by the Millennium eruption of Changbaishan volcano, is widely distributed in Northeast China, Japan, D.P.R. Korea, and the nearby coastal area of Russia. It forms part of the widespread northeast Asian strata and is significant for establishing an isochronal stratigraphic framework. However, research on the temporal characterization and stratigraphic correlation of associated strata using this tephra layer is mainly concentrated in and near Japan. In northeastern China, this tephra layer is seldom seen and its application in stratigraphic correlations is even rarer. More importantly, the determination of accurate ages for both distal and proximal tephras has been debated, leading to controversy in discussions of its environmental impacts. Stratigraphic records from both distal and proximal Changbaishan ash show that this eruption generally occurred between 1,012 and 1,004 cal yr BP. Geochemical comparison between Changbaishan ash and the Quaternary widespread ash around Japan illustrates that Changbaishan ash is a continuous composition from rhyolitic to trachytic and its ratio of FeOT to CaO is usually greater than 4, which can be used as a distinguishing identifier among worldwide contemporary eruptions.

Sun, Chunqing; You, Haitao; Liu, Jiaqi; Li, Xin; Gao, Jinliang; Chen, Shuangshuang

2014-06-01

362

SATELLITES AROUND MASSIVE GALAXIES SINCE z {approx} 2: CONFRONTING THE MILLENNIUM SIMULATION WITH OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Minor merging has been postulated as the most likely evolutionary path to produce the increase in size and mass observed in the massive galaxies since z {approx} 2. In this Letter, we directly test this hypothesis, comparing the population of satellites around massive galaxies in cosmological simulations versus the observations. We use state-of-the-art, publically available, Millennium I and II simulations, and the associated semi-analytical galaxy catalogs to explore the time evolution of the fraction of massive galaxies that have satellites, the number of satellites per galaxy, the projected distance at which the satellites locate from the host galaxy, and the mass ratio between the host galaxies and their satellites. The three virtual galaxy catalogs considered here overproduce the fraction of galaxies with satellites by a factor ranging between 1.5 and 6 depending on the epoch, whereas the mean projected distance and ratio of the satellite mass over host mass are in closer agreement with data. The larger pull of satellites in the semi-analytical samples could suggest that the size evolution found in previous hydrodynamical simulations is an artifact due to the larger number of infalling satellites compared to the real universe. These results advise us to revise the physical ingredients implemented in the semi-analytical models in order to reconcile the observed and computed fraction of galaxies with satellites, and eventually, it would leave some room for other mechanisms explaining the galaxy size growth not related to the minor merging.

Quilis, Vicent [Departament d'Astronomia i Astrofisica, Universitat de Valencia, 46100-Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Trujillo, Ignacio, E-mail: vicent.quilis@uv.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, c/ Via Lactea s/n, E38205-La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

2012-06-20

363

On the subjectivity of personality theory.  

PubMed

Every theorist of personality views the human condition from the unique perspective of his own individuality. As a consequence, personality theories are strongly influenced by personal and subjective factors. These influences are partially responsible for the present day lack of consensus in psychology as to basic conceptual frameworks for the study of man. The science of human personality can achieve a greater degree of consensus and generality only if it begins to turn back on itself and question its own psychological foundations. The role of subjective and personal factors in this field can be studied and made more explicit by means of a psychobiographical method which interprets the major ideas of personality theories in the light of the formative experiences in the respective theorists' lives. This method is briefly illustrated by an examination of the influence of personal experiences on theoretical concepts in the work of Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, Wilhelm Reich, and Gordon Allport. The subjective factors disclosed by psychobiographical analysis can bee seen to interact with influences stemming from the intellectual and historical context within which the theorist work. The psychobiographical study of personality theory is only one part of a larger discipline, the psychology of knowledge, which would study the role of subjective and personal factors in the structure of man's knowledge in general. PMID:1029746

Atwood, G E; Tomkins, S S

1976-04-01

364

Sociogenomic Personality Psychology  

PubMed Central

In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657

Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.

2009-01-01

365

About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)  

MedlinePLUS

... FDA's Role in Regulating PPE About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) On this page: What is personal protective ... with other users? Q. What is personal protective equipment? A. Personal protective equipment is any type of ...

366

Predecessors of Scientific Indexing Structures in the Domain of Religion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many scientific indexing structures thought to have been devel- oped in the computer era were invented about a millennium earlier, in the domain of religion. Hans Wellisch traced the ori- gins of alphabetical indexing to a fourth-century index to a com- pilation of sayings of the Greek Church fathers. The Masoretes standardized the text of the Hebrew Bible and in

Bella Hass Weinberg

2004-01-01

367

Personalized pharmacotherapy in psychiatry.  

PubMed

The hypothesis of each individual being special and different leading to heterogenity of diseases sets the ground for the concept of personalized medicine. Personalized psychiatry follows the principles of personalized medicine. A constituent part of an individually adapted approach towards the psychiatric patient presents itself thorough personalized psychiatry. The development of pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics as well as the nanotechnology based on them ensures implementation of personalized medicine principles in psychiatry to a greater extent than other medical disciplines. In the field of pharmacogenomics, the greatest advance was achieved by the study of genetic variability in drug metabolism. All the predispositions are now present for the implementation of pharmacogenetic tests in routine practice. Pharmacogenetic testing for medications which are metabolised thorough two polymorph cytochromes P 450: CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 is of special significance due to their involvement in most adverse and ultrafast metabolism of psychopharmacs. The potential application of personalized medicine in psychiatry, supported by pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics, are: personalized medication choice, personalized dosage, anticipation of possible side-effects individually and personalized follow-up treatment with rehabilitation. The authors conclude how the development of pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics as well as the nanotechnology based on them, presents a step forward in creating a personalized therapeutic approach in psychiatry. However, the burden of applying the most appropriate therapeutic agent and medication tapering remains based on clinician decision. Pharmacogenetics can only help by making therapeutic decisions with one less unknown element. PMID:19794353

Filakovi?, Pavo; Petek, Anamarija

2009-09-01

368

The Future of Written Culture Envisioning Language in the New Millennium  

E-print Network

journalistic venues. The first instance is drawn from a televised religious revival held by the Reverend Billy to "visit us on the Web" rather than placing a phone call or showing up in person. Libraries are building

Lansky, Joshua

369

Global Emissions of Terpenoid VOCs from Terrestrial Vegetation in the Last Millennium  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the millennial variability of global BVOC emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene and Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ8 GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends of global isoprene emissions to be mostly affected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have signicant short term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr-1 (13% and 19% less than during during 1750-1850 and 1000- 15 1200, respectively) and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr-1 (15% and 20% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr-1 (10% and 6% higher than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr-1 (2% higher and 5% 19 20 less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr-1 (10% and 4% higher than during1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar We investigated the millennial variability of global BVOC emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene and Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ8GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends ofglobal isoprene emissions to be mostly a*ected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have signifcant short term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr-1 (13% and 19% less than during during 1750-1850 and 1000- 1200, respectively) and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr-1 (15% and 16 17 20% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr-1 (10% and 6% higher than during 1750-1850 and 18 1000-1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr-1 (2% higher and 5% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr-1 (10% and 4% higher than during1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation.emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation.

Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Smolander, S.; Struthers, H.; Zorita, E.; Ekman, A. M.; Kaplan, J. O.; Guenther, Alex B.; Arneth, A.; Riipinen, I.

2014-06-16

370

Monsoon dynamics over the past millennium on the southern-central Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tibetan Plateau has experienced abrupt climate change superimposed by a gradual weakening of the summer monsoon systems during the Holocene. Although lake sediment records from the Tibetan Plateau are considered to be particularly sensitive to climate variations a holistic picture of the spatial and temporal monsoon evolution is still lacking due to the interplay of different moisture-transporting wind systems (Indian summer monsoon, East Asian summer monsoon, Westerlies). Closing this data gap is important since the Tibetan Plateau is a key area for understanding the climate evolution and its impact on the availability of current and future water resources in Central Asia. Hence, well-dated and high-resolution records are essential to improve the understanding of the spatial and temporal monsoonal evolution. To investigate the hydrological cycle indicating past monsoon variability on the southern-central Tibetan Plateau, records of several lakes were studied along an E-W-transect including Nam Co, Tangra Yumco, Taro Co and a small lake named TT Lake. In this study, a high-resolution sediment record from TT Lake (31.10° N, 86.57° E; 4,745 m asl) was investigated to reveal monsoonal dynamics and northern hemispheric climate oscillations over the past millennium. The 9 m deep TT Lake has a surface area of ~14,500 sqm and is located ~1,500 m west and 205 m above the recent western shoreline of Tangra Yumco. Terraces of former lake level highstands indicate that the TT Lake was part of the Tangra Yumco, but the timing remains unknown. Three sediment gravity cores, obtained in 2011 and 2012, were investigated with geochemical and sedimentological methods. By now a sedimentological core description, magnetic susceptibility data, radiocarbon age determinations, XRF scanning data, and grain size data are available. Further bio-geochemical as well as magnetostratigraphic analyses are in progress. The sedimentological description of the 50 to 89 cm long cores revealed predominantly stratified, silty to fine sandy sediments with gray, grayish-brown to black color. Several sand layers with a fining-upwards trend are distinguishable, whereas the topmost one has a thickness of 18 cm and occurs in all three cores. This layer might be caused by a mudflow which occurred between 2004 and 2009 as indicated by the analysis of satellite images. The trigger of this mudflow remains unclear, but might be associated with a meteorological event or seismic activity. Radiocarbon age determinations revealed that the record, below the sand layer, covers a timespan from AD ~1050 to AD ~1620. Grain sizes are getting coarser towards the top pointing to a falling lake level. Ti, K, Rb, and Fe quantities, indicators for minerogenic input into the lake, show higher values before AD ~1200 and low values thereafter. This sequence might correspond to the northern hemispheric climate oscillations of the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age as also documented in Nam Co (Frenzel et al., 2010, QI 218, 157-165; Günther et al., 2011, QI 236, 82-90.). These coinciding climatic variations in Nam Co and TT Lake might suggest a synchronous climatic pattern on the southern-central Tibetan Plateau during the past millennium.

Ahlborn, Marieke; Haberzettl, Torsten; Kasper, Thomas; Henkel, Karoline; Doberschütz, Stefan; Daut, Gerhard; Reinwarth, Bastian; Ju, Jianting; Wang, Junbo; Zhu, Liping; Mäusbacher, Roland

2013-04-01

371

Combined dendro-documentary evidence of Central European hydroclimatic springtime extremes over the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A predicted rise in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and associated effects on the Earth's climate system likely imply more frequent and severe weather extremes with alternations in hydroclimatic parameters expected to be most critical for ecosystem functioning, agricultural yield, and human health. Evaluating the return period and amplitude of modern climatic extremes in light of pre-industrial natural changes is, however, limited by generally too short instrumental meteorological observations. Here we introduce and analyze 11,873 annually resolved and absolutely dated ring width measurement series from living and historical fir ( Abies alba Mill.) trees sampled across France, Switzerland, Germany, and the Czech Republic, which continuously span the AD 962-2007 period. Even though a dominant climatic driver of European fir growth was not found, ring width extremes were evidently triggered by anomalous variations in Central European April-June precipitation. Wet conditions were associated with dynamic low-pressure cells, whereas continental-scale droughts coincided with persistent high-pressure between 35 and 55°N. Documentary evidence independently confirms many of the dendro signals over the past millennium, and further provides insight on causes and consequences of ambient weather conditions related to the reconstructed extremes. A fairly uniform distribution of hydroclimatic extremes throughout the Medieval Climate Anomaly, Little Ice Age and Recent Global Warming may question the common believe that frequency and severity of such events closely relates to climate mean stages. This joint dendro-documentary approach not only allows extreme climate conditions of the industrial era to be placed against the backdrop of natural variations, but also probably helps to constrain climate model simulations over exceptional long timescales.

Büntgen, Ulf; Brázdil, Rudolf; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Hofmann, Jutta; Kontic, Raymond; Kyncl, Tomáš; Pfister, Christian; Chromá, Kate?ina; Tegel, Willy

2011-12-01

372

Capacity building in water demand management as a key component for attaining millennium development goals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful water demand management (WDM) implementation as a component of integrated water resource management (IWRM) can play a significant role in the alleviation of poverty through more efficient use of available water resources. The urban population in Southern African cities is characterised by so-called ‘water poor’ communities who typically expend a high percentage of their household income on poor quality water. Usually they have no access to an affordable alternative source. Although WDM as a component of IWRM is not a panacea for poverty, it can help alleviate poverty by facilitating water services management by municipal water supply agencies (MWSAs) in the region. WDM is a key strategy for achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, as such, should be given due attention in the preparation of national IWRM and water efficiency plans. Various studies in the Southern African region have indicated that capacity building is necessary for nations to develop IWRM and water-use efficiency plans to meet the targets set out in the MDGs. WDM education and training of water professionals and end-users is particularly important in developing countries, which are resource and information-access poor. In response to these findings, The World Conservation Union (IUCN) and its consulting partners, the Training and Instructional Design Academy of South Africa (TIDASA), and Centre for Applied Research (CAR) designed, developed and presented a pilot WDM Guideline Training Module for MWSAs as part of Phase II of IUCN’s Southern Africa regional WDM project. Pilot training was conducted in July 2004 in Lusaka, Zambia for a group of 36 participants involved in municipal water supply from nine Southern African countries. This paper looks at the links between building the capacity of professionals, operational staff and other role-players in the municipal water supply chain to implement WDM as part of broader IWRM strategies, and the subsequent potential for poverty relief resulting from more effective, efficient and equitable use and allocation of municipal water supplies.

Gumbo, Bekithemba; Forster, Laura; Arntzen, Jaap

373

Fossil Groups in the Millennium Simulation. Evolution of the Brightest Galaxies  

E-print Network

We create a catalogue of simulated fossil groups and study their properties, in particular the merging histories of their first-ranked galaxies. We compare the simulated fossil group properties with those of both simulated non-fossil and observed fossil groups. Using simulations and a mock galaxy catalogue, we searched for massive ($>$ 5 $\\times$ 10$^{13} h^{-1} {\\cal M}_\\odot$) fossil groups in the Millennium Simulation Galaxy Catalogue. In addition, attempted to identify observed fossil groups in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 using identical selection criteria. Our predictions on the basis of the simulation data are:(a) fossil groups comprise about 5.5% of the total population of groups/clusters with masses larger than 5 x 10$^{13} h^{-1} {\\cal M}_\\odot$. This fraction is consistent with the fraction of fossil groups identified in the SDSS, after all observational biases have been taken into account; (b) about 88% of the dominant central objects in fossil groups are elliptical galaxies that have a median R-band absolute magnitude of $\\sim -23.5-5 log h$, which is typical of the observed fossil groups known in the literature; (c)first-ranked galaxies of systems with $ {\\cal M} >$ 5 x 10$^{13} h^{-1} {\\cal M}_\\odot$, regardless of whether they are either fossil or non-fossil, are mainly formed by gas-poor mergers; (d) although fossil groups, in general, assembled most of their virial masses at higher redshifts in comparison with non-fossil groups, first-ranked galaxies in fossil groups merged later, i.e. at lower redshifts, compared with their non-fossil-group counterparts. We therefore expect to observe a number of luminous galaxies in the centres of fossil groups that show signs of a recent major merger.

Eugenia Diaz-Gimenez; Hernan Muriel; Claudia Mendes de Oliveira

2008-09-12

374

Tree ring effects and ice core acidities clarify the volcanic record of the first millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2012 Plummer et al., in presenting the volcanic chronology of the Antarctic Law Dome ice core, chose to list connections to acid layers in other ice cores and also possible chronological coincidences between ice acid dates and the precise dates of frost damage, and/or reduced growth in North American bristlecone pines. We disagree with the chronological links indicated by Plummer et al. for the period before AD 700, and in this paper we show that a case can be made that better linkages between ice acid and tree ring effects occur for this period if the ice chronologies are systematically moved forward by around 7 years, consistent with a hypothesis published by Baillie in 2008. In the paper we seek to explore the proposition that frost damage rings in North American bristlecone pines are a very useful indicator of the dates of certain large explosive volcanic eruptions; the dating of major eruptions being critical for any clear understanding of volcanic forcing. This paper cannot prove that there is an error in the Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05), and in equivalent ice chronologies from the Antarctic, however, it does provide a coherent argument for an apparent ice dating offset. If the suggested offset were to prove correct it would be necessary to locate where the error occurs in the ice chronologies and in this regard the dating of the increasingly controversial Icelandic Eldgjá eruption in the AD 930s, and the China/Korean Millennium eruption which occurs some 7 years after Eldgjá, may well be critical. In addition, if the offset were to be substantiated it would have implications for the alleged identification of tephra at 429.3 m in the Greenland GRIP core, currently attributed to the Italian volcano Vesuvius and used as a critical zero error point in the GICC05 chronology.

Baillie, M. G. L.; McAneney, J.

2015-01-01

375

Global emissions of terpenoid VOCs from terrestrial vegetation in the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the millennial variability (1000 A.D.-2000 A.D.) of global biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene, and sesquiterpene, and Lund-Potsdam-Jena-General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends of global isoprene emissions to be mostly affected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission trends were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have significant short-term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr-1 (13% and 19% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively), and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr-1(15% and 20% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr-1(10% and 6% higher than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr-1 (2% higher and 5% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr-1(10% and 4% higher than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation.

Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Smolander, S.; Struthers, H.; Zorita, E.; Ekman, A. M. L.; Kaplan, J. O.; Guenther, A.; Arneth, A.; Riipinen, I.

2014-06-01

376

Family employment and child socioemotional behaviour: longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Levels of paid employment in two parent and lone parent families have increased in the UK but evidence of its impact on child socioemotional behaviour is limited and inconsistent. Methods We conducted a longitudinal analysis using the first four sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (9?months, 3 years, 5 years and 7?years) to investigate the influence of family employment trajectories in the early years on socioemotional behaviour at 7?years, unadjusted and adjusted for covariates. In addition, mothers’ employment was investigated separately. Results Children from families where no parent was employed for one or more sweeps were at a greater risk of socioemotional problem behaviour compared with those where a parent was continuously employed, even after adjustment for covariates. Children of mothers who were non-employed for one or more sweeps were at greater risk of problem behaviour compared with mothers who were employed at all sweeps. Adjustment for covariates fully attenuated the excess risk for children whose mothers had moved into employment by the time they were 7?years. In contrast, the elevated risk associated with continuous non-employment and a single transition out of employment was attenuated after adjustment for early covariates, fathers’ employment, household income and mothers’ psychological distress at 7?years, but remained significant. Conclusions Family and mothers’ employment were associated with a lower risk of problem behaviour for children in middle childhood, in part explained by sociodemographic characteristics of families and the apparent psychological and socioeconomic benefits of employment. Results for mothers’ transitions in or out of the labour market suggest that child problem behaviour is influenced by current status, over and above diverse earlier experiences of employment and non-employment. PMID:24889054

Hope, Steven; Pearce, Anna; Whitehead, Margaret; Law, Catherine

2014-01-01

377

Monsoon extremes and society over the past millennium on mainland Southeast Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early 21st century has seen vigorous scientific interest in the Asian monsoon and significant development of paleo-proxies of monsoon strength. These include the Monsoon Asian Drought Atlas - a 700-year, gridded reconstruction of hydroclimate derived from 327 tree ring records - and several long speleothem records from China and India. Similar progress has been made on the study of monsoon climate dynamics through re-analysis data products and General Circulation Model diagnostics. The story has emerged of a variable monsoon over the latter Holocene, with extended droughts and anomalously wet episodes that occasionally and profoundly influenced the course of human history. We focus on Southeast Asia where an anomalous period of unstable climate coincided with the demise of the capital of the Khmer Empire at Angkor between the 14th and the 16th centuries, and we suggest that protracted periods of drought and deluge rain events, the latter of which damaged Angkor's extensive water management systems, may have been a significant factor in the subsequent transfer of the political capital away from Angkor. The late 16th and early 17th century experienced climate instability and the collapse of the Ming Dynasty in China under a period of drought, while Tonkin experienced floods and droughts throughout the 17th century. The 18th century was a period of great turmoil across Southeast Asia, when all of the region's polities saw great unrest and rapid realignment during one of the most extended periods of drought of the past millennium. New paleo-proxy records and the incorporation of historical documentation will improve future analyses of the interaction between climate extremes, social behavior and the collapse or disruption of regional societies, a subject of increasing concern given the uncertainties surrounding projections for future climate.

Buckley, Brendan M.; Fletcher, Roland; Wang, Shi-Yu Simon; Zottoli, Brian; Pottier, Christophe

2014-07-01

378

Going Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: An Index System of Human Dependence on Ecosystem Services  

PubMed Central

The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) estimated that two thirds of ecosystem services on the earth have degraded or are in decline due to the unprecedented scale of human activities during recent decades. These changes will have tremendous consequences for human well-being, and offer both risks and opportunities for a wide range of stakeholders. Yet these risks and opportunities have not been well managed due in part to the lack of quantitative understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. Here, we propose an index of dependence on ecosystem services (IDES) system to quantify human dependence on ecosystem services. We demonstrate the construction of the IDES system using household survey data. We show that the overall index and sub-indices can reflect the general pattern of households' dependences on ecosystem services, and their variations across time, space, and different forms of capital (i.e., natural, human, financial, manufactured, and social capitals). We support the proposition that the poor are more dependent on ecosystem services and further generalize this proposition by arguing that those disadvantaged groups who possess low levels of any form of capital except for natural capital are more dependent on ecosystem services than those with greater control of capital. The higher value of the overall IDES or sub-index represents the higher dependence on the corresponding ecosystem services, and thus the higher vulnerability to the degradation or decline of corresponding ecosystem services. The IDES system improves our understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. It also provides insights into strategies for alleviating poverty, for targeting priority groups of conservation programs, and for managing risks and opportunities due to changes of ecosystem services at multiple scales. PMID:23717634

Yang, Wu; Dietz, Thomas; Liu, Wei; Luo, Junyan; Liu, Jianguo

2013-01-01

379

Global irrigated area map (GIAM), derived from remote sensing, for the end of the last millennium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A Global Irrigated Area Map (GIAM) has been produced for the end of the last millennium using multiple satellite sensor, secondary, Google Earth and groundtruth data. The data included: (a) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 3-band and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 10 km monthly time-series for 1997-1999, (b) Syste me pour l'Observation de la Terre Vegetation (SPOT VGT) NDVI 1 km monthly time series for 1999, (c) East Anglia University Climate Research Unit (CRU) rainfall 50km monthly time series for 1961-2000, (d) Global 30 Arc-Second Elevation Data Set (GTOPO30) 1 km digital elevation data of the World, (e) Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (JERS-1 SAR) data for the rain forests during two seasons in 1996 and (f) University of Maryland Global Tree Cover 1 km data for 1992-1993. A single mega-file data-cube (MFDC) of the World with 159 layers, akin to hyperspectral data, was composed by re-sampling different data types into a common 1 km resolution. The MFDC was segmented based on elevation, temperature and precipitation zones. Classification was performed on the segments. Quantitative spectral matching techniques (SMTs) used in hyperspectral data analysis were adopted to group class spectra derived from unsupervised classification and match them with ideal or target spectra. A rigorous class identification and labelling process involved the use of: (a) space-time spiral curve (ST-SC) plots, (b) brightness-greenness-wetness (BGW) plots, (c) time series NDVI plots, (d) Google Earth very-high-resolution imagery (VHRI) 'zoom-in views' in over 11 000 locations, (e) groundtruth data broadly sourced from the degree confluence project (3 864 sample locations) and from the GIAM project (1 790 sample locations), (f) high-resolution Landsat-ETM+ Geocover 150m mosaic of the World and (g) secondary data (e.g. national and global land use and land cover data). Mixed classes were resolved based on decision tree algorithms and spatial modelling, and when that did not work, the problem class was used to mask and re-classify the MDFC, and the class identification and labelling protocol repeated. The sub-pixel area (SPA) calculations were performed by multiplying full-pixel areas (FPAs) with irrigated area fractions (IAFs) for every class. A 28 class GIAM was produced and the area statistics reported as: (a) annualized irrigated areas (AIAs), which consider intensity of irrigation (i.e. sum of irrigated areas from different seasons in a year plus continuous year-round irrigation or gross irrigated areas), and (b) total area available for irrigation (TAAI), which does not consider intensity of irrigation (i.e. irrigated areas at any given point of time plus the areas left fallow but 'equipped for irrigation' at the same point of time or net irrigated areas). The AIA of the World at the end of the last millennium was 467 million hectares (Mha), which is sum of the non-overlapping areas of: (a) 252 Mha from season one, (b) 174 Mha from season two and (c) 41 Mha from continuous year-round crops. The TAAI at the end of the last millennium was 399 Mha. The distribution of irrigated areas is highly skewed amongst continents and countries. Asia accounts for 79% (370 Mha) of all AIAs, followed by Europe (7%) and North America (7%). Three continents, South America (4%), Africa (2%) and Australia (1%), have a very low proportion of the global irrigation. The GIAM had an accuracy of 79-91%, with errors of omission not exceeding 21%, and the errors of commission not exceeding 23%. The GIAM statistics were also compared with: (a) the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and University of Frankfurt (UF) derived irrigated areas and (b) national census data for India. The relationships and causes of differences are discussed in detail. The GIAM products are made available through a web portal (http://www.iwmigiam.org). ?? 2009 Taylor & Francis.

Thenkabail, P.S.; Biradar, C.M.; Noojipady, P.; Dheeravath, V.; Li, Y.; Velpuri, M.; Gumma, M.; Gangalakunta, O.R.P.; Turral, H.; Cai, X.; Vithanage, J.; Schull, M.A.; Dutta, R.

2009-01-01

380

Segmentation and millennium recurrence interval of morphogenic earthquakes of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt, central China (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude (Mw) 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake occurred on 12 May 2008 in the Longmen Shan region of China, the transition zone between the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin, rupturing ~285-300 km segment along the active fault zone of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt (LSTB), which resulted in widespread damage throughout central and western China. Although many studies undertaken since the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake have made substantial progress in terms of understanding the co-seismic ground deformation features along the major active faults of the southwestern and central segments of the LSTB, and the current activity, only a few studies have examined northeast- and southwest-most segments and the paleoseismicity along the 500-km-long LSTB. The structural features, therefore, including its slip sense and paleoseismicity, are still unclear due to a lack of geologic data. In this study, based on the geological structures, tectonic landforms, slip sense and paleoseismic data, co-seismic surface deformation features of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the active fault zone of the LSTB can be divided into four segments: Qingchuan, (the northeast-most), Beichuan (northeast-central), Dujiangyan (southwest-central) and Lingguan (the southwest-most). The northeast-most Qingchuan segment is dominated by right-lateral strike-slip with a little thrust component. The slip rate of this segment is estimated to be ca.4-8 mm/yr with an average rate of 6 mm/yr. In contrast, the central Beichuan and Dujiangyan segments are dominated by folding and thrusting with a little right-lateral and left-lateral displacement component, respectively. The vertical slip rate of these two segments is estimated to be ca.1-3 mm/yr with an average amount of 2 mm/yr. While the southwest-most Lingguan segment is dominated by folding and thrusting with a distinct left-lateral displacement component. Recently, the Mw 6.6 Ya-An earthquake occurred on 20 April 2013, which ruptured ~60 km along this segment. Field investigation, paleoseismic and archaeological evidence, and radiocarbon dating results reveal that at least four large morphogenic earthquakes including the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquakes occurred in the Sichuan region during the late Tang-Song (AD 800-1000), Han (206 BC to AD 220), and late Shang-Chunqiu (1200-800 BC) dynasties, comparable with the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in its seismic intensity, suggesting an average millennium recurrence interval for Wenchuan-magnitude (M = ˜8) earthquakes in the late Holocene within the LSTB. This finding is in contrast with previous estimates of 2,000-10,000 years for the recurrence interval of morphogenic earthquakes within the LSTB, as obtained from long-term slip rates based on the Global Positioning System and geological data, thereby necessitating substantial modifications to existing seismic-hazard models for the densely populated region at the eastern marginal zone of the Tibetan Plateau. Our results confirm that the present-day shortening strain upon the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is mostly released by seismic thrusting and folding with strike-slip partitioning along the active faults within the LSTB. References Lin et al., 2009, Tectonophysics, 471, 203-215; 2) Lin et al., 2010, J. Seismol., 14, 615-628; 3) Lin et al., 2010, Tectonophysics, 491, 21-34; 4) Lin, A., 2011, Geology, 39, 547-550; 5) Lin et al., 2012. Tectonophysics, 522-523, 243-252; 6) Lin et al., 2013, Tectonophysics, submitted.

Lin, A.

2013-12-01

381

Personality and anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality traits and most anxiety disorders are strongly related. In this article, we review existing evidence for ways\\u000a in which personality traits may relate to anxiety disorders: 1) as predisposing factors, 2) as consequences, 3) as results\\u000a of common etiologies, and 4) as pathoplastic factors. Based on current information, we conclude the following: 1) Personality\\u000a traits such as high neuroticism,

Mina Brandes; O. Joseph Bienvenu

2006-01-01

382

Solar forcing and climate variability in the North Atlantic during the last millennium: comparison between models and reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying the climate of the last millennium allows replacing the present climate change in a long term context. Since it is a relatively well-documented period, it provides an interesting base to assess the secular variability of the climate, free of anthropogenic greenhouse gas influence. Considering this, the climate of the last millennium is likely to have been driven by natural forcings, such as major volcanic eruptions or solar variability. We present here the results of the simulations performed with the IPSLCM4v2 climate model for the French ANR ESCARSEL project (reconstruction of the climate of the last millennium). In order to understand the role of the solar variability during this period, we have forced the model with a reconstruction of the Total Solar Irradiance since 1000AD (Crowley et al., 2000). The results are compared with various reconstructions based on proxy data, from the hemispheric to the continental scale. A new reconstruction of the temperature in Europe since 600AD (annual April to September mean, based on tree rings data) has been achieved within the ESCARSEL project. This dataset provides the possibility to compare the spatial response of the model to the solar forcing with the corresponding temperature patterns recorded in the proxys. As a first step we present the results on the long term variability, before focusing on selected periods to assess the spatial behaviour of the model to different value of the total solar irradiance. Crowley et al. 2000, Causes of climate change over the past 1000yrs, Science 289, 270

Servonnat, J.; Khodri, M.; Yiou, P.; Guiot, J.; Denvil, S.

2009-04-01

383

The disguise of sobriety: unveiled by alcohol in persons with an aggressive personality.  

PubMed

This investigation examined the factor structure of 8 well-validated self-report measures that assess traits that fall under the rubric of an "aggressive personality" and then determined how those factor(s) moderated the association between alcohol intoxication and aggression. Participants were 518 (252 men and 266 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. Following the consumption of an alcoholic or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a laboratory aggression paradigm in which electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent. Aggression was operationalized as the shock intensities and durations administered to the opponent. Results demonstrated a unidimensional factor structure for the aggressive personality traits, which were then combined into a latent variable. The aggressive personality variable moderated the alcohol-aggression relation. Specifically, alcohol was significantly more likely to increase aggression in persons with higher, compared with lower, aggressive personality scores. PMID:21299560

Giancola, Peter R; Parrott, Dominic J; Silvia, Paul J; Dewall, C Nathan; Bègue, Laurent; Subra, Baptiste; Duke, Aaron A; Bushman, Brad J

2012-02-01

384

Cohesive Design of Personalized Web Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good software engineering practices, such as separating concerns and identifying patterns, simplify the critical design decisions in building personalized Web applications. The authors use the object-oriented hypermedia design method (OOHDM) for constructing customized Web applications. Incorporating well-known object-oriented design structures and techniques, OOHDM produces flexible Web application models. Designers can add personalized behavior to these models with minimal code manipulation,

Daniel Schwabe; Robson Mattos Guimarães; Gustavo Rossi

2002-01-01

385

The Social Construction of Personal Narratives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mothers' ways of structuring conversations about past events are related to children's abilities to structure personal narratives. When mothers provided temporally complex and informationally dense narratives about the past to their 2 1/2-year olds, the children recounted similar accounts a year later. (Author/BB)

Fivush, Robyn

1991-01-01

386

Personal Growth Laboratory a Personal Philosophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the evolution and transformation of what is known as Laboratory Training or Personal growth Labs or PG Labs. The experience of the participants in the lab is for the self to explore the inner world of feelings and meanings around relationships and quest for purpose and meaning of existence. A lab needs to be anchored in

Parikh Indira J

387

Poetry Therapy in the Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the dichotomous nature of poetry may lend itself well to the complementary structural deficits of well-defined borderline personality disordered patients. Suggests that the emotive aspects of the poem may permit the patient to engage in the work, whereas the more rational, structured aspects of the poem facilitate personality

Pies, Ronald

1987-01-01

388

Understanding Last Millennium Climate Change: Reconstructions, Testing climate model response to volcanic forcing, and Evaluating efficacy of reconstruction methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reconstruction of summer temperature from pollen records in central North America is presented covering approximately the last 1000 years. A relatively warm Medieval period (~1100-1500) and cool Little Ice Age (~1500-1900, coolest during the early 19th century) are reconstructed using a generalized linear model employing Bayesian inference. Plausible modern circulation analogs are considered, showing pressure composites that may have been more prevalent during the earlier compared to the later period. These analog patterns are consistent with independent reconstructions of positive NAO/AMO-like conditions during Medieval times, both of which are similar to circulation patterns simulated by GCMs using generalized sea surface temperatures consistent with La Niña-like conditions in the tropical Indo-Pacific region. The climatic patterns that generally lead to warmer summers in the study region are additionally associated with anomalous high-pressure ridging and large-scale drought, which is also consistent with drought reconstructions for North America during Medieval times. New tree ring-based reconstructions of the surface temperature field over the past 500 years in western North America and the adjacent Pacific Ocean are also presented. A key feature of these reconstructions occurs in the early 19th century, which is the coldest period across the region during this time, similar to the center-continent pollen-based record. The spatially-explicit field reconstructions are used to drive analysis of regional responses to volcanic forcing, providing a basis for examining agreement between the reconstructed response patterns and the corresponding responses in GCM simulations. The ultimate goal of comparison is to identify regionally best-performing GCM output to use as forcing input in regional impacts models. Initial application of the regional post-volcanic fingerprint to parallel analyses done with members of the NCAR CCSM suite of models suggests that significant improvement in regional fidelity has resulted from continued model development. Additional examination using a new millennium-length CCSM integration and adding European post-volcanic field reconstructions yields a more mixed picture. Finally, a rigorous experimental evaluation of the efficacy of climate field reconstruction (CFR) methods is presented, derived from the western North American temperature reconstructions. This evaluation compares the fidelity of CFRs based on real proxy predictors to those obtained by using non-informative predictors. The non-informative proxies are designed to have the same autocorrelation structure as the real proxy data, but contain no climatic information. Large ensembles of reconstructions are generated in both cases, providing estimated Monte Carlo distributions of reconstruction skill. The skill metric distributions of the real proxy-based CFRs indicate good reconstruction quality and clearly (and almost entirely) separate from the poor skill distributions generated using the non-informative proxies, in contrast to a recent similar study that suggests proxy-based reconstructions have little efficacy, but which did not evaluate CFR methods.

Wahl, E. R.

2011-12-01

389

Designing personalized web applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to argue the need to approach the personalization issues in Web applications from the very beginning in the application's development cycle. Since personalization is a critical aspect in many popular domains such as e-commerce, it important enough that it should be dealt with through a design view, rather than only an implementation view (which

Gustavo Rossi; Daniel Schwabe; Robson Guimarães

2001-01-01

390

Strategies for Successful Personalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of important studies have pointed to the significance of active participation in learning as a determinant of student performance on tests and of grades. As these studies showed, student engagement can result from development of personalized learning. Each of the Breakthrough High Schools (BTHS) has taken various paths to personalization

DiMartino, Joseph; Miles, Sherri

2006-01-01

391

Personalized Electronic Banking Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personalization is without a doubt a promising area that might be able to answer some of the burning questions that Internet banking must deal with today and even more in the days to come. The possibilities of personalization are not yet fully utilized, nor is there sufficient hands-on experience or research-based knowledge about the most advanced ideas of how to

Mika Hiltunen; Leo Heng; Linda Helgesen

392

Web Personalization Magdalini Eirinaki  

E-print Network

Web Mining for Web Personalization Magdalini Eirinaki Michalis Vazirgiannis Athens University of Economics and Business Department of Informatics #12;M.Eirinaki, M. Vazirgiannis Web Mining for Web Personalization 2PKDD 2005 Introduction Continuous growth in the size and the use of WWW Large and complicated web

Eirinaki, Magdalini

393

Familiarity impacts person perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of familiarity on person perception. We predicted that familiarity would increase non-analytic processing, reducing attention to and the impact of individuating information, and increasing the impact of category labels on judgments about a target person. In two studies participants read either incriminating orexculpatory individuating information about a defendant in a criminal case and made judgments of

Teresa Garcia-Marques; Diane M. Mackie

2007-01-01

394

Evaluating Personalized Risk Messages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment with 766 homeowners compared 3 strategies for delivering radon test results to homeowners. Small improvements in consumer satisfaction were found for personalized messages (a telephone call or personal letter) over a form letter. No detectable improvement was found in recall of advice or compliance for any strategy. (SLD)

Weinstein, Neil D.; And Others

1992-01-01

395

Person and consciousness.  

PubMed

My interlocuter is Locke with his reduction of person to personal consciousness. This reduction is a main reason preventing people from acknowledging the personhood of the earliest human embryo, which lacks all personal consciousness. I show that Catholic Christians who live the sacramental life of the Church have reason to think that they are, as persons, vastly more than what they experience themselves to be, for they believe that the sacraments work effects in them as persons that can only be believed but that cannot be experienced within themselves in this life. I also show that Christians and non-Christians alike have an experience of moral good and evil in themselves that implies that they are, as moral persons, far more than they find in their conscious self-presence. It is, therefore, natural to think that if my being a person so far exceeds my consciousness, I may well have once existed as person even before the awakening of consciousness. PMID:12166490

Crosby, J F

2000-04-01

396

Borderline Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this chapter is to elucidate the role of therapy homework in the context of an empirically supported treatment for borderline personality disorder— Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993a). Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a disorder of emotion dysregulation, and patients who meet criteria for BPD often present with myriad life difficulties and comorbid disorders. According to

Noam Lindenboim; Alex L. Chapman; Marsha M. Linehan

397

Personal Services Agreements Policy  

E-print Network

, purchase orders, purchase requisitions and invoices. In the past, reviews and approvals for Personal: Services acquired for the state's direct benefit in its operations. 1.1.3. Purchased services to provide such services. 1.1.4. Services: The furnishing of labor, time, or effort. #12;Personal Services

398

Personal Food System Mapping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food…

Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally

2014-01-01

399

Learning Gets Personal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At education conferences, as well as in professional association reports, as a target area of funding for nonprofit foundations and in the literature of industry vendors, the term, "personalized learning" has taken center stage in an arena already crowded with complex and long-standing issues and concerns. While personalized learning is making…

McLester, Susan

2011-01-01

400

Some personal and historical notes on the utility of "deep-etch" electron microscopy for making cell structure/function correlations.  

PubMed

This brief essay talks up the advantages of metal replicas for electron microscopy and explains why they are still the best way to image frozen cells in the electron microscope. Then it explains our approach to freezing, namely the Van Harreveld trick of "slamming" living cells onto a supercold block of metal sprayed with liquid helium at -269ºC, and further talks up this slamming over the alternative of high-pressure freezing, which is much trickier but enjoys greater favor at the moment. This leads me to bemoan the fact that there are not more young investigators today who want to get their hands on electron microscopes and use our approach to get the most "true to life" views of cells out of them with a minimum of hassle. Finally, it ends with a few perspectives on my own career and concludes that, personally, I'm permanently stuck with the view of the "founding fathers" that cell ultrastructure will ultimately display and explain all of cell function, or as Palade said in his Nobel lecture,electron micrographs are "irresistible and half transparent … their meaning buried under only a few years of work," and "reasonable working hypotheses are already suggested by the ultrastructural organization itself." PMID:25360049

Heuser, John E

2014-11-01

401

Some personal and historical notes on the utility of “deep-etch” electron microscopy for making cell structure/function correlations  

PubMed Central

This brief essay talks up the advantages of metal replicas for electron microscopy and explains why they are still the best way to image frozen cells in the electron microscope. Then it explains our approach to freezing, namely the Van Harreveld trick of “slamming” living cells onto a supercold block of metal sprayed with liquid helium at ?269ºC, and further talks up this slamming over the alternative of high-pressure freezing, which is much trickier but enjoys greater favor at the moment. This leads me to bemoan the fact that there are not more young investigators today who want to get their hands on electron microscopes and use our approach to get the most “true to life” views of cells out of them with a minimum of hassle. Finally, it ends with a few perspectives on my own career and concludes that, personally, I'm permanently stuck with the view of the “founding fathers” that cell ultrastructure will ultimately display and explain all of cell function, or as Palade said in his Nobel lecture,electron micrographs are “irresistible and half transparent … their meaning buried under only a few years of work,” and “reasonable working hypotheses are already suggested by the ultrastructural organization itself.” PMID:25360049

Heuser, John E.

2014-01-01

402

The Millennium Galaxy Catalogue: morphological classification and bimodality in the colour-concentration plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using 10095 galaxies (B < 20mag) from the Millennium Galaxy Catalogue, we derive B-band luminosity distributions and selected bivariate brightness distributions for the galaxy population subdivided by eyeball morphology; Sérsic index (n); two-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) ? parameter; rest-(u-r) colour (global and core); MGC continuum shape; half-light radius; (extrapolated) central surface brightness; and inferred stellar mass-to-light ratio. All subdivisions extract highly correlated subsets of the galaxy population which consistently point towards two overlapping distributions: an old, red, inert, predominantly luminous, high central-surface brightness subset; and a young, blue, star forming, intermediate surface brightness subset. A clear bimodality in the observed distribution is seen in both the rest-(u-r)colour and log (n) distributions. Whilst the former bimodality was well established from Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, we show here that the rest-(u-r) colour bimodality becomes more pronounced when using the core colour as opposed to global colour. The two populations are extremely well separated in the colour-log(n) plane. Using our sample of 3314 (B < 19mag) eyeball classified galaxies, we show that the bulge-dominated, early-type galaxies populate one peak and the bulge-less, late-type galaxies occupy the second. The early- and mid-type spirals sprawl across and between the peaks. This constitutes extremely strong evidence that the fundamental way to divide the luminous galaxy population (MBMGC- 5 logh < -16 mag, i.e. dwarfs not included) is into bulges (old red, inert, high concentration) and discs (young, blue, star forming, low concentration) and that the galaxy bimodality reflects the two-component nature of galaxies and not two distinct galaxy classes. We argue that these two components require two independent formation mechanisms/processes and advocate early bulge formation through initial collapse and ongoing disc formation through splashback, infall and merging/accretion. We calculate the B-band luminosity densities and stellar mass densities within each subdivision and estimate that the z~ 0 stellar mass content in spheroids, bulges and discs is 35 +/- 2, 18 +/- 7 and 47 +/- 7 per cent, respectively.

Driver, S. P.; Allen, P. D.; Graham, Alister. W.; Cameron, E.; Liske, J.; Ellis, S. C.; Cross, N. J. G.; De Propris, R.; Phillipps, S.; Couch, W. J.

2006-05-01

403

Atlantic and Pacific Influences on Mesoamerican Climate Over the Past Millennium (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Montezuma baldcypress (Taxodium mucronatum) trees in Queretaro have been used to develop the first exactly dated millennium-long tree-ring chronology in central Mexico. The chronology is sensitive to both precipitation and temperature, and has been used to reconstruct the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for June from AD 771-2008 for a large sector of Mesoamerica (most of central and southern Mexico). Fourier-transform spectral analyses of the 1,238-year long reconstruction indicate strong concentrations of variance at frequencies associated with the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO; representing over 14% of the total reconstructed variance between periods of 4.5 and 5.5 years), and at multi-decadal frequencies potentially associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO; representing over 10% of the total variance between periods of 50 and 75 years). Weaker but statistically significant concentrations of variance are also detected with the Multi-Taper Method of spectral analysis at subdecadal timescales potentially linked with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO; 7.5 years) and at timescales possibly associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (~33 years). The reconstruction is significantly correlated with sea surface temperatures (SST) in the ENSO cold tongue region from 1871-2008 (during the boreal cool season, DJFM), and this SST correlation strengthens in the 20th Century (1931-2008). Summer drought tends to develop over central Mexico during El Nino events, and the record warm events observed in 1983 and 1998 were associated with the two most extremely dry June PDSI conditions in the past 1,238 years (reconstructed ranks 1 and 2 for 1983 and 1998, respectively). The reconstruction is also significantly correlated with SSTs over the tropical North Atlantic, and is coherent with long instrument-based indices of the NAO at periods near 7.5 years, but only during the 20th century. The June PDSI reconstruction is coherent (P<0.05) with a 600-year long tree-ring reconstruction of the NAO at multidecadal timescales (50 to 70-years) during a 200-year episode in the 16th and 17th centuries. The reconstruction indicates more severe and sustained droughts over Mesoamerica before AD 1600, as has been reconstructed previously for western North America. The existence and timing of the Terminal Classic Drought at AD 900 is confirmed with the new reconstruction, which also documents megadroughts during the decline of the Toltec state at Tula and during the rise and fall of the Aztec imperial state in the Valley of Mexico. The long June PDSI reconstruction provides an interesting new paleoclimate framework for the analysis of Mesoamerican climate dynamics and cultural change.

Stahle, D. W.; Burnette, D. J.; Villanueva, J.; Cleaveland, M. K.

2010-12-01

404

Pre-college Students Contribute to the Cassini-Jupiter Millennium Flyby  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

December 30, 2000 marks the close approach of the Cassini-Jupiter Millennium Flyby when the Cassini spacecraft swings past the planet Jupiter on the way to Saturn. While instruments on the spacecraft conduct new observations of Jupiter from relatively close range, middle-school and high-school students from classrooms across the nation will be observing Jupiter using ground-based 34-meter-diameter radio telescopes at Goldstone. The students and their teachers are participants in the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) science education project, which is a partnership involving NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Lewis Center for Educational Research (LCER) in Apple Valley, CA. GAVRT students and their teachers are joining a collaboration of professionals to carry out the Cassini-Jupiter Microwave Observing Campaign (Cassini-JMOC) from November 2000 through February 2001. Cassini-JMOC is a scientific investigation of Jupiter designed to take advantage of the in-situ microwave observing capability of the Cassini radar receiver to carry out a coordinated set of space-based and ground-based observations. The ground-based data will be used to calibrate and interpret the spacecraft observations of Jupiter, which have two objectives: (1) produce in-flight calibration of the Cassini radar receiver and thereby enhance the Cassini science at Saturn and Titan; (2) use the Cassini radar receiver to map Jupiter's synchrotron emission at a frequency above 10 GHz and thereby derive the spatial distribution of very high energy electrons (> 20 Mev) for the first time. The goals of the Cassini-JMOC effort are to enhance the science return from the Cassini experiment and simultaneously provide new and unique opportunities for students to participate in an exciting scientific event. The data products from the GAVRT observations will be ``real." Student results will be reviewed by the Cassini-JMOC team, but they will ultimately be reported to the Cassini Project for use by the project science teams. This paper describes the GAVRT project, reports the observations of Jupiter which GAVRT students have conducted from 1997 to 2000, and describes the scientific and educational approach to the Cassini-JMOC observations that will be made in the next few months. The JPL contribution to this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Klein, M. J.; Bolton, S. J.; Janssen, M. A.; Roller, J. P.; McLeod, R. K.

2000-10-01

405

North Pacific atmosphere-ocean variability over the past millennium inferred from coastal glaciers and tree rings  

SciTech Connect

Ocean-atmosphere system fluctuations from annual to centennial time scales in the North Pacific are recorded in histories of coastal glacier advances and in temperature records inferred from coastal tree-ring series. Calendar dates obtained by dating glacially overrun forests with tree rings, show two major intervals of ice expansion over the last millennium. The first occurred between AD 1250 and 1300 and the second between AD 1650 and 1750. This glacial record indicates the onset of the Little Ice Age by AD 1250 and the most widespread advance of the past millennium from the mid 17th to the mid 18th century. Moreover, temperature variations inferred from tree-ring records since AD 1600 show multiple decade-long changes in the climate system, suggesting that lower frequency variation can be derived from these records. Decade-long cool intervals are most frequent between AD 1650 and 1750, a time of general glacier expansion. The warmest decades occur in the 20th century, a time of glacier retreat. 16 refs., 4 figs.

Wiles, G. [Macalester College, St. Paul, MN (United States)

1997-11-01

406

The impact of GMOs on poor countries: a threat to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals?  

PubMed

The first of the Millennium Development Goals - halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger by 2015 - is essential for eradicating poverty, as most of the poor live in rural areas. The role of agriculture is, therefore, key to the fight against poverty.Nevertheless, over the last years rich countries diminished their official development assistance for agricultural development and some of them proposed and pushed for a new model of agriculture based on biotechnology. Such a new model of agriculture is presented by its supporters as a means to contribute to the elimination of poverty, as it intends to maximise the crop production.However, it does not take into consideration that policies fighting hunger: need a more comprehensive approach; must take into consideration socio-economic and environmental peculiarities, especially local needs and traditional knowledge and practices. Genetically modified technology goes against these basic requirements, as it is designed to suit multinational enterprises in the North. When drafting development policies, rich and poor countries must bear in mind that the framework of the Millennium Development Goals, to which 189 Nations committed, requires a coherent approach to empower the poor, especially women, and promote traditional knowledge of indigenous people and local communities, as well as ensuring environmental sustainability. The fight to poverty and hunger will not be won and people will still go hungry if the fundamental causes of hunger and food insecurity are not tackled, whereas genetically modified technology is not based on this assumption. PMID:17299696

Francescon, Silvia

2006-01-01

407

A comparison of model simulations of Asian mega-droughts during the past millennium with proxy reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two PMIP3/CMIP5 climate model ensemble simulations of the past millennium have been analyzed to identify the occurrence of Asian mega-droughts. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is used as the key metric for the data comparison of hydro-climatological conditions. The model results are compared with the proxy data of the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA). Our study shows that Global Circulation Models (GCMs) are capable to capture the majority of historically recorded Asian monsoon failures at the right time and with a comparable spatial distribution. The simulations indicate that ENSO-like events lead in most cases to these droughts. Both, model simulations and proxy reconstructions, point to less monsoon failures during the Little Ice Age. During historic mega-droughts of the past millennium, the monsoon convection tends to assume a preferred regime described as "break" event in Asian monsoon. This particular regime is coincident with a notable weakening in Pacific Trade winds and Somali Jet.

Fallah, B.; Cubasch, U.

2014-06-01

408

Widespread locally-absent rings in tree-ring records across the Northern Hemisphere during the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under environmental stress, boreal and temperate trees will occasionally form an discontinuous layer of wood about their stem, a condition known as a locally-absent (or 'missing') growth ring. Here we present a synthesis of locally-absent rings across the Northern Hemisphere during the last millennium based on more than 2,300 tree ring-width records. Over the entire dataset, the ratio of absent rings to visible rings is 1:240, and more than half of all records do not contain a single absent ring. Absent rings form frequently in Pinus and Psuedotsuga, occasionally in Larix, and very rarely in Quercus and Picea. They are extremely uncommon in high-latitude records (poleward of 50°N), where the absent:visible ratio is 1:2,500. Missing rings were not either intensive (present within a majority of specimens from a single record) or widespread (cases where a large fraction of available tree-ring records included one or more specimens without a ring) during the growing seasons that followed major volcanic eruptions, including AD 1259 and 1816. During the last millennium, widespread absent rings have been observed only in the southwestern United States and were associated with severe drought rather than low growing-season temperatures or other stressors.;

St George, S.; Ault, T.; Torbenson, M.

2012-12-01

409

Brief report: self-reported psychopathic-like features among Finnish community youth: investigation of the factor structure of the antisocial personality screening device.  

PubMed

The Antisocial Process Screening Device- Self-Report (APSD-SR) is a self-report measure for assessment of psychopathic traits in adolescents. The present study aimed to investigate the factor structure and internal consistency of the APSD-SR in a sample of 4855 Finnish community adolescents. A three-factor structure with factors representing impulsivity (IMP), narcissism (NAR) and callous-unemotional (CU) features was found. Internal consistency indices ranged from moderate to good. The findings provide promising data on applicability of the APSD-SR instrument to Scandinavian youth. Results have implications for researchers and clinicians interested in measuring adolescent psychopathy. PMID:25190497

Laajasalo, Taina; Saukkonen, Suvi; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Lipsanen, Jari; Aronen, Eeva T

2014-10-01

410

Structural and connectomic neuroimaging for the personalized study of longitudinal alterations in cortical shape, thickness and connectivity after traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

The integration of longitudinal brain structure analysis with neurointensive care strategies continues to be a substantial difficulty facing the traumatic brain injury (TBI) research community. For patient-tailored case analysis, it remains challenging to establish how lesion profile modulates longitudinal changes in cortical structure and connectivity, as well as how these changes lead to behavioral, cognitive and neural dysfunction. Additionally, despite the clinical potential of morphometric and connectomic studies, few analytic tools are available for their study in TBI. Here we review the state of the art in structural and connectomic neuroimaging for the study of TBI and illustrate a set of recently-developed, patient-tailored approaches for the study of TBI-related brain atrophy and alterations in morphometry as well as inter-regional connectivity. The ability of such techniques to quantify how injury modulates longitudinal changes in cortical shape, structure and circuitry is highlighted. Quantitative approaches such as these can be used to assess and monitor the clinical condition and evolution of TBI victims, and can have substantial translational impact, especially when used in conjunction with measures of neuropsychological function. PMID:24844173

Irimia, A; Goh, S Y; Torgerson, C M; Vespa, P; Van Horn, J D

2014-09-01

411

A Web-Based Survey of AAASP Members' Ethical Beliefs and Behaviors in the New Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (AAASP) members (N = 1121) were contacted via a series of five broadcast e-mail messages and asked to complete a web-based survey about their personal ethical beliefs and practices germane to the practice of applied sport psychology. The survey inquired about professional beliefs and behaviors of AAASP members using a survey similar

EDWARD F. ETZEL; JACK C. WATSON; SAMUEL ZIZZI

2004-01-01

412

Back to the future: what would the post-2015 global development goals look like if we replicated methods used to construct the Millennium Development Goals?  

PubMed Central

Background The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were ‘top-down’ goals formulated by policy elites drawing from targets within United Nations (UN) summits and conferences in the 1990s. Contemporary processes shaping the new post-2015 development agenda are more collaborative and participatory, markedly different to the pre-MDG era. This study examines what would the outcome be if a methodology similar to that used for the MDGs were applied to the formulation of the post-2015 development goals (Post-2015DGs), identifying those targets arising from UN summits and conferences since the declaration of the MDGs, and aggregating them into goals. Methods The UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) list of major UN summits and conferences from 2001 to 2012 was utilised to examine targets. The DESA list was chosen due to the agency’s core mission to promote development for all. Targets meeting MDG criteria of clarity, conciseness and measurability were selected and clustered into broad goals based on processes outlined by Hulme and Vandemoortele. The Post-2015DGs that were identified were formatted into language congruent with the MDGs to assist in the comparative analysis, and then further compared to the 12 illustrative goals offered by the UN High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development (High-Level Panel) Agenda’s May 2013 report. Results Ten Post-2015DGs were identified. Six goals expressly overlapped with the current MDGs and four new goals were identified. Health featured prominently in the MDG agenda, and continues to feature strongly in four of the 10 Post-2015DGs. However the Post-2015DGs reposition health within umbrella agendas relating to women, children and the ageing. Six of the 10 Post-2015DGs incorporate the right to health agenda, emphasising both the standing and interconnection of the health agenda in DESA’s summits and conferences under review. Two Post-2015DGs have been extended into six separate goals by the High-Level Panel, and it is these goals that are clearly linked to sustainable development diaspora. Conclusions This study exposes the evolving political agendas underplaying the current post-2015 process, as targets from DESA’s 22 major UN summits and conferences from 2001 to 2012 are not wholly mirrored in the HLP’s 12 goals. PMID:24708796

2014-01-01

413

Mobile phones and social structures: an exploration of a closed user group in rural Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background In the Millennium Villages Project site of Bonsaaso, Ghana, the Health Team is using a mobile phone closed user group to place calls amongst one another at no cost. Methods In order to determine the utilization and acceptability of the closed user group amongst users, social network analysis and qualitative methods were used. Key informants were identified and interviewed. The key informants also kept prospective call journals. Billing statements and de-identified call data from the closed user group were used to generate data for analyzing the social structure revealed by the network traffic. Results The majority of communication within the closed user group was personal and not for professional purposes. The members of the CUG felt that the group improved their efficiency at work. Conclusions The methods used present an interesting way to investigate the social structure surrounding communication via mobile phones. In addition, the benefits identified from the exploration of this closed user group make a case for supporting mobile phone closed user groups amongst professional groups. PMID:24007331

2013-01-01

414

PERSONAL COMPUTERS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING  

EPA Science Inventory

This article discusses how personal computers can be applied to environmental engineering. fter explaining some of the differences between mainframe and Personal computers, we will review the development of personal computers and describe the areas of data management, interactive...

415

Health impact of US military service in a large population-based military cohort: findings of the Millennium Cohort Study, 2001-2008  

PubMed Central

Background Combat-intense, lengthy, and multiple deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan have characterized the new millennium. The US military's all-volunteer force has never been better trained and technologically equipped to engage enemy combatants in multiple theaters of operations. Nonetheless, concerns over potential lasting effects of deployment on long-term health continue to mount and are yet to be elucidated. This report outlines how findings from the first 7 years of the Millennium Cohort Study have helped to address health concerns related to military service including deployments. Methods The Millennium Cohort Study was designed in the late 1990s to address veteran and public concerns for the first time using prospectively collected health and behavioral data. Results Over 150 000 active-duty, reserve, and National Guard personnel from all service branches have enrolled, and more than 70% of the first 2 enrollment panels submitted at least 1 follow-up survey. Approximately half of the Cohort has deployed in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Conclusion The Millennium Cohort Study is providing prospective data that will guide public health policymakers for years to come by exploring associations between military exposures and important health outcomes. Strategic studies aim to identify, reduce, and prevent adverse health outcomes that may be associated with military service, including those related to deployment. PMID:21281496

2011-01-01

416

An archaeological approach to regional environmental pollution in the south-western Iberian Peninsula related to Third millennium BC mining and metallurgy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the first inter-settlement hierarchical framework in the South of the Iberian Peninsula in the Third millennium BC lead to a territorial division of labour, in which intensification of mining activities caused the first significant environmental impact on local and regional scales. To evaluate this impact we have selected the prime mining district in south-western Europe, the Iberian

F. Nocete; E. Álex; J. M. Nieto; R. Sáez; M. R. Bayona

2005-01-01

417

t the beginning of the second millennium BCE, inhabi-tants from the city-state of Aur, on the Tigris River,  

E-print Network

A t the beginning of the second millennium BCE, inhabi- tants from the city-state of Aur position on the main roads from southern Mesopotamia and Iran to Syria and Turkey. People from Aur exported of complete private archives allow us to present an up-to-date view of the Old Assyrian trade. 1. Aur and Kani

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

418

Digital Millennium Copyright Act Do you download music, movies or books online? If so, make sure you're doing it legally or there  

E-print Network

Digital Millennium Copyright Act Do you download music, movies or books online? If so, make sure of intellectual works such as books, TV shows, movies, and music. Some people think that you may copy and share network, the University is your registered Online Service Provider (OSP), the DMCA requires OSPs to take

Missouri-Rolla, University of

419

Climate variability in the Siberian Arctic over the past millennium: midge-based inferences from lakes of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study aims at reconstructing climatic variability and climate impact on lakes over the past millennium in the Siberian Arctic, the coldest region of Eurasia. Here we present climate inferences based on the stratigraphic analysis of fossil chironomid assemblages (non-biting midges) from sediments of three arctic lakes (one millennial and two centennial records) located in the northeastern part of the

Boris Ilyashuk; Maarten van Hardenbroek; Oliver Heiri; André F. Lotter

2010-01-01

420

The Unbureaucratic Personality  

E-print Network

, the bureaucratic personality can be considered something of public administration?s Sasquatch: a scary fleeting image to which our collective scholarly imaginations remain captive. This article turns attention to an equally intriguing and arguably more...

DeHart-Davis, Leisha

2007-06-11

421

Vensim Personal Learning Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vensim PLE is fully functional system dynamics software that is free for personal and educational use, is shareware for commercial use, and comes complete with sample models, help engine, and Adobe Acrobat format PLE User's Guide.

422

Personalized diabetes management  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we present a system to make personalized lifestyle and health decisions for diabetes management, as well as for general health and diet management. In particular, we address the following components of the ...

O'Hair, Allison Kelly

2013-01-01

423

Personalized building comfort control  

E-print Network

Creating an appropriate indoor climate is essential to worker productivity and personal happiness. It is also an area of large expenditure for building owners. And, with rising fuel costs, finding ways of reducing energy ...

Feldmeier, Mark Christopher, 1974-

2009-01-01

424

Putting Personalizing into Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The personalizing of the Language Arts instructional program at the Concord High School in Wilmington, Delaware is discussed in terms of a) department organization, b) classroom organization, c) instructional materials, and d) special considerations related to individualizing instruction. (HMD)

Galloway, Mary Anne

1974-01-01

425

Personalizing Secondary Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To facilitate "personalizing" and individualizing secondary school curriculum, the author presents eight conceptual aspects of individualization and discusses the relationship of these concepts to program design and implementation of an individual learning program. (HMD)

Bailey, William J.

1974-01-01

426

The Personal Health Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Personal Health Survey (PHS) is a 200-item inventory designed to sample symptomatology as subjective experiences from the 12 principal domains of organ system and psychophysiological functioning. This study investigates the factorial validity of the empirically constructed scales. (Author)

Thorne, Frederick C.

1978-01-01

427

Curriculum Vitae PERSONAL INFORMATION  

E-print Network

Curriculum Vitae PERSONAL INFORMATION Name: Hayato ISSHIKI Date of Birth: 7 April, 1980 Place of Birth: Yamagata, JAPAN Professional address: Laboratory for Proteolytic Neuroscience RIKEN Brain Science 2012-present Research Scientist, in Laboratory for Proteolytic Neuroscience, RIKEN BSI, Saitama, JAPAN

Kazama, Hokto

428

Personal Care Attendant  

MedlinePLUS

... people often learn of jobs through word of mouth, so let people know you are searching for a PCA. Spinal Cord Injury InfoSheet 6 Level - All Audiences Personal Care Attendant INTERVIEWINGFORA PCA When you get calls from ...

429

Personal Health Records  

MedlinePLUS

... chart there, too. These charts are your medical records. They may be on paper or electronic. To ... good idea to keep your own personal health record. What kind of information would you put in ...

430

Personal Wellness Tools  

MedlinePLUS

... people who have mood disorders. The Power of Peers DBSA envisions wellness for people who live with ... always informed by the personal, lived experience of peers. ABOUT DBSA FOR THE MEDIA PARTNERING WITH DBSA ...

431

Schizoid personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... is unknown. This disorder may be related to schizophrenia and shares many of the same risk factors. ... personality disorder is generally not as disabling as schizophrenia. It does not cause the disconnection from reality ( ...

432

Borderline Personality Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... temperament and specific personality traits, particularly impulsiveness and aggression. Scientists are studying genes that help regulate emotions ... help reduce symptoms such as anxiety, depression, or aggression. Often, people are treated with several medications at ...

433

Clothing and personal hygiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The biomedical maintenance of astronauts is discussed in terms of personal hygiene. Principal characteristics and general requirements are described which must be followed in perfecting a system of hygienic practices and in devising means to maintain personal hygiene, flight clothing, underwear, bedding, and medical-domestic equipment for manned space flights of varying durations. Factors discussed include: disposable clothing, thermal protection, oral hygiene, cleansing of the skin, and grooming of the hair.

Finogenov, A. M.; Azhayev, A. N.; Kaliberdin, G. V.

1975-01-01

434

First Person History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will choose an event in history to research, and use pictures to provide evidence. 1. Using \\"Hyper History Online\\", \\"American Studies Links\\" and \\"History Matters\\", select an event or person in history (for example, the sinking of the Lusitania or Andrew Jackson). History Matters American Studies Links Recommended by Richard P. Horowitz Hyper History Online 2. Research this person or event using the above resources. 3. Search \\"Images of American Political History\\" for pictures that relate to your ...

Mrs. Merkley

2007-11-30

435

Personality and Temperament  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The assessment of personality and temperament in the context of eating disorders (EDs) poses unique challenges because of\\u000a the physiological symptoms and sequelae of these illnesses. Four models of the relationship between personality and EDs are\\u000a presented, along with a discussion of the different methodological designs which can evaluate these models. Current data support\\u000a the likelihood that neuroticism and perfectionism

Lisa Rachelle Riso Lilenfeld; Riso Lilenfeld

436

Personality Correlates of Privacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality correlates of privacy preferences for 70 undergraduates were obtained through use of a semantic differential measure of self-esteem and other-esteem and an inventory which assessed cycloid disposition, rhathymia, thinking introversion, and cooperativeness. Pearson product moment correlations indicated that privacy choices tended to be associated with personality characteristics. Subjects low in self-esteem were more likely to be reserved and to

Darhl M. Pedersen

1982-01-01

437

Personal Health Records  

Microsoft Academic Search

A personal health record (PHR, also known as a personally controlled health record or PCHR) is “an electronic application\\u000a through which individuals can access, manage and share their health information, and that of others for whom they are authorized,\\u000a in a private, secure, and confidential environment.”1 PHRs are lifelong summaries of key information from all providers and include data gathered

Alan E. Zuckerman; George R. Kim

438

Random intercept EFA of personality scales.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that simple structure CFAs of Big Five personality measures fail to accurately reflect the scale's complex factorial structure, whereas EFAs generally perform better. Another strand of research suggests that acquiescence or uniform response bias masks the scale's "true" factorial structure. Random Intercept EFA (RI-EFA) captures acquiescence as well as the complex item-factor structure typical for personality measures. It is applied to the NEO-FFI and the BFI scale to test whether an accurate model-to-data fit can be achieved and whether the "clarity" of the factorial structure improves. The results lend confidence in the general effectiveness of RI-EFA whenever acquiescence bias is an issue. Example Mplus code is provided for replication. PMID:25484472

Aichholzer, Julian

2014-12-01

439

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence-Based Research for the Third Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stress that results from traumatic events precipitates a spectrum of psycho-emotional and physiopathological outcomes. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that results from the experience or witnessing of traumatic or life-threatening events. PTSD has profound psycho- biological correlates, which can impair the person's daily life and be life threatening. In light of current events (e.g. extended combat,

Javier Iribarren; Paolo Prolo; Negoita Neagos; Francesco Chiappelli

2005-01-01

440

A Multi-Proxy Perspective on Climate Variability in the Tropical Pacific over the Last Millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southwest Pacific is a major source of tropical climate variability through heat and moisture exchanges associated with the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) and the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). These variations are especially significant at the annual, ENSO, and multi-decadal timescales. Climate proxy records from the tropical Pacific must be used to extend records of SST, SSS, and rainfall variations into the pre-instrumental period. We highlight our recent efforts to quantitatively understand tropical climate variability over the last millennium using numerical simulations and climate proxy records (corals and stalagmites), the latter of which overlap with, and extend beyond the instrumental period. We investigate the use of individual foraminiferal analyses (IFA) in assessing past ENSO variability using numerical simulations. The simulation quantifies the sensitivity of IFA to ENSO amplitude and seasonal cycle amplitude (or a combination of both) at different locations in the tropical Pacific. Results indicate that IFA sensitivity towards ENSO is highest at the central equatorial Pacific surface ocean and the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) thermocline, whereas sensitivity towards the seasonal cycle is highest at the EEP surface ocean. We investigate tropical surface ocean variability using two recent coral-based climate reconstructions: a 233 yr record from Misima Island, Papua New Guinea (10.6° S, 152.8° E) and a 293 yr record from Olasana Island, Western Province, Solomon Islands (8.2° S, 157.2° E). The PNG coral record of monthly resolved ?18O and Sr/Ca variations spans the interval ~1414-1645. This record indicates that the surface ocean in this region experienced a small change in hydrologic balance with no change in temperature, extended periods of quiescence in El Niño activity, and no change in average amplitudes of El Niño events relative to signals captured in regional modern records. The Solomon coral ?18O record (1716-2009) documents early 19th century El Niño events that rival and exceed the largest instrumentally documented ENSO events at this site. In addition, the Solomon record contains evidence of decadal and longer period hydroclimate variability. Both of these coral proxy records from the WPWP suggest that internal variability is responsible for the observed wide range of ENSO event magnitudes. We investigate tropical Pacific rainfall variability using two recent stalagmite-based rainfall reconstructions: a 445 yr ?18O record from Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu (15.5° S, 167° E) and a 595 yr ?18O record from Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands (9.4° S, 160° E). The Vanuatu proxy rainfall record (1557-2003) is dominated by changes in stalagmite ?18O that are large (~1o, quasi-periodic (~50 yr period), and generally abrupt (within 5-10 yr), which are not correlated with solar forcing. The Solomon proxy rainfall record (1416-2011) displays similar patterns of variability: stalagmite ?18O changes are large (~1.5o, quasi-periodic (~12-60 yr period), and generally abrupt (

Quinn, Terrence; Partin, Jud; Thirumalai, Kaustubh; Hereid, Kelly; Maupin, Chris; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Taylor, Fred

2014-05-01

441

Insights from the past millennium climate simulations into the recent temperature hiatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trend in the global temperature over the last two decades is only marginally compatible with the ensemble of climate simulations participating in the CMIP3 and CMIP5 projects. The causes for the lower-than-predicted global temperature rise may be external with either misspecified external forcings or overestimated climate sensitivity. They can be internal, with internal variability at decadal and multidecadal time scales being larger than the one generated by climate models. A possible way to disentangle these two possibilities is to identify the large-scale spatial patterns where the ratio between external to total temperature variability (SNR) is largest. If the marginal disagreement between observations and models over the last two decades is caused by external causes, the temperature trends averaged only over those regions with high signal-to-noise ratio. The spatial pattern of SNR in the global mean temperature can be identified from ensemble of simulations over the past millennium conducted with the same model and with (nearly) the same external forcing. Their length - 1200 years - and the fact that they have been driven my a mixture of different external forcings, make this estimation more robust than by using RCP future scenario simulations that are essentially driven by greenhouse gas forcing. Within the CMIP5 project and previous simulations, two models provide an ensemble of at least two simulations: the ECHAM5-OM model of the Manx-Planck-Institute for Meteorology and the GISS-E2-R model of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Both models yield similar global patterns of high SNR in the annual mean temperature, focused on the tropical regions and the Arctic, with a band of low SNR along mid-latitudes in both hemispheres. The corporation of internal variability is lower in the ECHAM5-OM model than in the GISS-E2-R model, even though the amplitude of solar forcing was larger in the former. Antarctica appears essentially disconnected from the external forcing in both models, which agrees with the recent temperature reconstructions provided by the Pages 2k consortium. The observed annual mean temperature trend over the last 15 and 20 years are compared against the backdrop of the distribution of trends in 15-year and 20-year segments in the annual mean temperature simulated in 55 CMIP5 simulations in the RCP4.5 scenario simulations until the year 2060. Two cases are considered: the spatially unfiltered trends and the trends calculated after filtering the spatial temperature fields by the patterns of high SNR. In the first case, the observed temperatures are marginally consistent with the model ensemble, a result already known from previous studies. In the second case, the filtered temperature trends are more clearly outside the range spanned by the model ensemble These results suggest that the recent temperature hiatus is more strongly due to external causes: either to a misspecification of the external forcing or to an overestimation of the climate sensitivity by the model ensemble.

Zorita, Eduardo; Wagner, Sebastian

2014-05-01

442

Mountains in the third millennium - a decade of droughts and water scarcity?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Droughts and water scarcity have touched the Alps, Mediterranean and East African mountain chains more intensively since the beginning of the third millennium and pose a major challenge for water management. The year 2011 has been no exception, with the lowest river levels on record over the past 50 years even for alpine rivers. Although considerable climate fluctuations and persistent droughts have occurred in the past, it is quite remarkable that the five hottest summers over the past 500 years in Europe and the Alps have all been concentrated after 2002, falling far outside their normal historical distribution. In most mountain chains drought phenomena are persistent over large areas and over a variety of scales. The hydrological consequences, such as decreased rain- and snowfall, drying of springs, decreased river and groundwater discharge, lowering of lake levels and excessive evaporation etc. are considerable. Seasonality has been considerably affected, with the summer extending well into the spring and autumn. Mountain-fed rivers have experienced unusually low discharge over the last 10 years, with a decreasing trend both in summer and winter discharge. These hydrological changes have multiple impacts on availability of drinking water and the energy sector, decreasing hydroelectric production and availability of cooling water for the nuclear industry and negatively effecting river navigation, irrigation agriculture as well as winter tourism in mountains. Despite these naturally-induced shortcomings, adaptation has not always been rational. In some cases, maladaptation has led to overexploitation of water resources during drought conditions, exasperating water scarcity. For example, for the tourism sector in the Alps, water demand for drinking water and artificial snow making lies far above the available resources during the winter season for numerous resorts. This has long term environmental and socio-economic impacts such as destruction of wetlands, desiccation of streams and drinking water conflicts. However, Environmental Impact Assessments still lack consideration of climate change. Data availability and measurements are so sparse in these environments that proper interdisciplinary modelling has still to be developed and most predictions are based on conceptual model approaches. Nevertheless, there is increasing necessity to adapt swiftly and rationally to droughts and increased climate irregularities in mountains. Some countries and regions have already adopted adaptation plans and strategies at the national level but they rarely consider mountain regions. Others have left it up to spontaneous adaptation at the local level. Even at the European level, there are few activities and policies yet dealing with adaptation to climate change under consideration of a combination of droughts, water scarcity or energy issues apart from the EU Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation planned for 2013. Under such conditions, it is essential to carry out scientific observations and modelling as well as develop innovative indicators, for example via climate change witnesses identified amongst the local stakeholders as well as local and regional think tanks.

de Jong, C.; Shaban, A.; Belete, T.

2012-04-01

443

What do I want to be with my PhD? The roles of personal values and structural dynamics in shaping the career interests of recent biomedical science PhD graduates.  

PubMed

Interest in faculty careers decreases as graduate training progresses; however, the process underlying career-interest formation remains poorly defined. To better understand this process and whether/how it differs across social identity (i.e., race/ethnicity, gender), we conducted focus groups with 38 biomedical scientists who received PhDs between 2006 and 2011, including 23 women and 18 individuals from underrepresented minority (URM) backgrounds. Objective performance and quality of advisor relationships were not significantly different between scientists with high versus low interest in faculty careers. Career interests were fluid and formed in environments that generally lacked structured career development. Vicarious learning shaped similar outcome expectations about academic careers for all scientists; however, women and URMs recounted additional, distinct experiences and expectations. Scientists pursuing faculty careers described personal values, which differed by social identity, as their primary driver. For scientists with low interest in faculty careers, a combination of values, shared across social identity, and structural dynamics of the biomedical workforce (e.g., job market, grant funding, postdoc pay, etc.) played determinative roles. These findings illuminate the complexity of career choice and suggest attracting the best, most diverse academic workforce requires institutional leaders and policy makers go beyond developing individual skill, attending to individuals' values and promoting institutional and systemic reforms. PMID:24297297

Gibbs, Kenneth D; Griffin, Kimberly A

2013-01-01

444

What Do I Want to Be with My PhD? The Roles of Personal Values and Structural Dynamics in Shaping the Career Interests of Recent Biomedical Science PhD Graduates  

PubMed Central

Interest in faculty careers decreases as graduate training progresses; however, the process underlying career-interest formation remains poorly defined. To better understand this process and whether/how it differs across social identity (i.e., race/ethnicity, gender), we conducted focus groups with 38 biomedical scientists who received PhDs between 2006 and 2011, including 23 women and 18 individuals from underrepresented minority (URM) backgrounds. Objective performance and quality of advisor relationships were not significantly different between scientists with high versus low interest in faculty careers. Career interests were fluid and formed in environments that generally lacked structured career development. Vicarious learning shaped similar outcome expectations about academic careers for all scientists; however, women and URMs recounted additional, distinct experiences and expectations. Scientists pursuing faculty careers described personal values, which differed by social identity, as their primary driver. For scientists with low interest in faculty careers, a combination of values, shared across social identity, and structural dynamics of the biomedical workforce (e.g., job market, grant funding, postdoc pay, etc.) played determinative roles. These findings illuminate the complexity of career choice and suggest attracting the best, most diverse academic workforce requires institutional leaders and policy makers go beyond developing individual skill, attending to individuals’ values and promoting institutional and systemic reforms. PMID:24297297

Gibbs, Kenneth D.; Griffin, Kimberly A.

2013-01-01

445

Elby Defining personal epistemology p. 1 Defining personal epistemology  

E-print Network

Elby Defining personal epistemology p. 1 Defining personal epistemology: A response to Hofer of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 elby@umd.edu #12;Elby Defining personal epistemology p. 2 Abstract Some researchers, including Hofer & Pintrich (1997) and Sandoval (2005), argue for defining personal epistemology

Elby, Andy

446

Comorbidity of personality disorders with bipolar mood disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of personality disorders in a group of outpatients with bipolar I disorder. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II) was administered to 90 bipolar outpatients who met the DSM-III-R criteria and 58 control subjects. Of the patients and controls, 47.7% and 15.5%, respectively, had at least one personality

Alp Üçok; Deniz Karaveli; Turgut Kundakçi; Olcay Yazici

1998-01-01

447

Atmospheric CO2 fluctuations during the last millennium reconstructed by stomatal frequency analysis of Tsuga heterophylla needles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stomatal frequency record based on buried Tsuga heterophylla needles reveals significant centennial-scale atmospheric CO2 fluctuations during the last millennium. The record includes four CO2 minima of 260 275 ppmv (ca. A.D. 860 and A.D. 1150, and less prominently, ca. A.D. 1600 and 1800). Alternating CO2 maxima of 300 320 ppmv are present at A.D. 1000, A.D. 1300, and ca. A.D. 1700. These CO2 fluctuations parallel global terrestrial air temperature changes, as well as oceanic surface temperature fluctuations in the North Atlantic. The results obtained in this study corroborate the notion of a continuous coupling of the preindustrial atmospheric CO2 regime and climate.

Kouwenberg, Lenny; Wagner, Rike; Kürschner, Wolfram; Visscher, Henk

2005-01-01

448

Dating stratified settlement sites at Kom K and Kom W: Fifth millennium BCE radiocarbon ages for the Fayum Neolithic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest evidence of the use of domesticated plants, a traditional hallmark of Neolithic societies in the ancient Near East, first appears in Egypt in archaeological sites in the Fayum depression. Due to wind erosion often resulting in deflation of sediments in this region, stratified sites containing organic materials are rare and the depositional contexts of some earlier 14C measurements on Fayum Neolithic materials are not precisely documented. We report the results of 29 AMS-based 14C determinations on charcoal recovered from stratified contexts in two Fayum Neolithic village sites, Kom K and Kom W. These data assign a mid-5th millennium BCE age to these sites and permit an estimate of the length of their occupation to be approximately three centuries.

Wendrich, W.; Taylor, R. E.; Southon, J.

2010-04-01