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1

Collective Memories, Personal Biographies, and the New Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new millennium has inspired many social observers and trend watchers to contemplate the events that have shaped the 20th century. Looking at a century of upheaval, war, and genocide most fin de siècle images include serious concern about past events and high expectations for future renewal, both at a collective and a personal level. The empirical basis of most

Peter Ester; Henk Vinken; Isabelle Diepstraten

2

Structural violence: a barrier to achieving the millennium development goals for women.  

PubMed

In 2000, all 191 United Nations member states agreed to work toward the achievement of a set of health and development goals by 2015. The achievement of these eight goals, the Millennium Development goals (MDGs) is highly dependent on improving the status of women, who play a key role in health and education in families and communities around the world. Yet structural violence, defined as the systematic exclusion of a group from the resources needed to develop their full human potential, remains a significant barrier against women's development and threatens the achievement of the MDGs. Although sound evidence has long existed for improving women's survival, the will to address women's health concretely and holistically is only recently gaining the advocacy needed to change policy. Concrete examples of the integration of approaches to mitigate structural violence within the delivery of health services do exist and should be incorporated into global advocacy for women's health. PMID:21438698

Mukherjee, Joia S; Barry, Donna J; Satti, Hind; Raymonville, Maxi; Marsh, Sarah; Smith-Fawzi, Mary Kay

2011-04-01

3

Millennium bug  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the "millennium bug."

Showstack, Randy

4

Millennium bug  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the “millennium bug.”

Showstack, Randy

5

Structural Conduciveness, Personality Characteristics and Death Anxiety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author hypothesizes that death anxiety varies with social status and age as well as structural variables and personality traits. Results indicate structural variables predict certain types of death anxiety as well as personality factors. Personality is a somewhat better predictor of death fear and reluctance to interact. (Author)

Nelson, L. D.

1979-01-01

6

Multidimensional Structure of the Hypomanic Personality Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure of the Hypomanic Personality Scale was explored in a sample of young adults (N = 884); resulting structures were validated on subsamples with measures of personality traits, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing behaviors. Hierarchical cluster analysis and estimates of general factor saturation suggested the presence of a weak…

Schalet, Benjamin D.; Durbin, C. Emily; Revelle, William

2011-01-01

7

STING Millennium: a web-based suite of programs for comprehensive and simultaneous analysis of protein structure and sequence  

PubMed Central

STING Millennium Suite (SMS) is a new web-based suite of programs and databases providing visualization and a complex analysis of molecular sequence and structure for the data deposited at the Protein Data Bank (PDB). SMS operates with a collection of both publicly available data (PDB, HSSP, Prosite) and its own data (contacts, interface contacts, surface accessibility). Biologists find SMS useful because it provides a variety of algorithms and validated data, wrapped-up in a user friendly web interface. Using SMS it is now possible to analyze sequence to structure relationships, the quality of the structure, nature and volume of atomic contacts of intra and inter chain type, relative conservation of amino acids at the specific sequence position based on multiple sequence alignment, indications of folding essential residue (FER) based on the relationship of the residue conservation to the intra-chain contacts and C?–C? and C?–C? distance geometry. Specific emphasis in SMS is given to interface forming residues (IFR)—amino acids that define the interactive portion of the protein surfaces. SMS may simultaneously display and analyze previously superimposed structures. PDB updates trigger SMS updates in a synchronized fashion. SMS is freely accessible for public data at http://www.cbi.cnptia.embrapa.br, http://mirrors.rcsb.org/SMS and http://trantor.bioc.columbia.edu/SMS. PMID:12824333

Neshich, Goran; Togawa, Roberto C.; Mancini, Adauto L.; Kuser, Paula R.; Yamagishi, Michel E. B.; Pappas, Georgios; Torres, Wellington V.; Campos, Tharsis Fonseca e; Ferreira, Leonardo L.; Luna, Fabio M.; Oliveira, Adilton G.; Miura, Ronald T.; Inoue, Marcus K.; Horita, Luiz G.; de Souza, Dimas F.; Dominiquini, Fabiana; Álvaro, Alexandre; Lima, Cleber S.; Ogawa, Fabio O.; Gomes, Gabriel B.; Palandrani, Juliana F.; dos Santos, Gabriela F.; de Freitas, Esther M.; Mattiuz, Amanda R.; Costa, Ivan C.; de Almeida, Celso L.; Souza, Savio; Baudet, Christian; Higa, Roberto H.

2003-01-01

8

LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES AND PERSONAL SAFETY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with a number of topics related to the lightning protection of structures and personal safety, as outlined next. Lightning incidence to areas and structures is discussed. A review of lightning protective systems of structures, whose function is to intercept lightning and safely direct its current to ground, is given. Small open shelters commonly found on golf

Vladimir A. Rakov

2000-01-01

9

Personality trait structure as a human universal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of covariation among personality traits in English-speaking populations can be summarized by the five-factor model (FFM). To assess the cross-cultural generalizability of the FFM, data from studies using 6 translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) were compared with the American factor structure. German, Portuguese, He-brew, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese samples

Robert R. McCrae

1997-01-01

10

Personality Trait Structure as a Human Universal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of covariation among personality traits in English-speaking populations can be summarized by the five-factor model (FFM). To assess the cross-cultural generalizability of the FFM, data from studies using 6 translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) were compared with the American factor structure. German, Portuguese, Hebrew, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese samples

Robert R. McCrae; Paul T. Costa

1997-01-01

11

The Blue Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through much of the current millennium, the oceans connected the world and shaped the global economy. The past few decades saw a surge of progress in air travel, and outer space began to occupy the dreams of mankind. With the end of the Cold War, however, save for an expected expansion of jet transport and satellites for communication and entertainment,

Takeo Kondo; Tadashi Matsunaga; Joseph Vadus; Patrick Takahashi

1998-01-01

12

Factorial Validity of Personality Structure in Medical School Applicants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comrey Personality Scales (CPS) were administrated to 413 UCLA medical school applicants for the class of 1989. The 40 factored homogeneous item dimensions defining eight personality factors, two Validity scale scores, age, and sex were factor analyzed. It was found that all eight factors were identified, and the congruence coefficients indicated that the personality structure of the applicants is

Haikang Shen; Andrew L. Comrey

1995-01-01

13

The African Millennium Villages  

PubMed Central

We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

2007-01-01

14

Science for the Millennium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science for the Millennium, provided by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), is a Multimedia Online Expo. The Expo is a beautifully designed virtual museum of science and industry which will be of interest to students and others with an interest in science and computing. Users have access to three pavilions: Science and Industry, Collaboration, and Computation, as well as the Online Science Theatre. Exhibits include Whispers from the Cosmos, Spacetime Wrinkles and The Metacomputer. The Online Science Theatre offers MPEG and QuickTime movies on many of the same topics discussed in the pavilions. Science for the Millennium is a highly graphical site and some of the files will take a while to download, but your patience will be rewarded.

1996-01-01

15

Phenotypic and Genetic Structure of Traits Delineating Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The evidence suggests that personality traits are hierarchically organized with more specific or lower-order traits combining to form more generalized higher-order traits. Agreement exists across studies re- garding the lower-order traits that delineate personality disorder but not the higher-order traits. This study seeks to identify the higher-order structure of personality dis- order by examining the phenotypic and genetic struc-

W. John Livesley; Kerry L. Jang; Philip A. Vernon

1998-01-01

16

Frontolimbic structural changes in borderline personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveFrontolimbic dysfunction is observed in borderline personality disorder (BPD), with responses to emotional stimuli that are exaggerated in the amygdala and impaired in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). This pattern of altered function is consistent with animal models of stress responses and depression, where hypertrophic changes in the amygdala and atrophic changes in the ACC are observed. We tested the

Michael J. Minzenberg; Jin Fan; Cheuk Y. Tang; Larry J. Siever

2008-01-01

17

Critical Studies on the Ideological Structure of Personality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers about the ideological structure of personality. A proposal for a theoretical and methodological reworking of the life-historical inquiry of personality psychology is presented along with a report of some preliminary studies that employ an intensive life-history approach to a distinct topic within the context of…

Barratt, Barnaby B.; And Others

18

Identifying Psychopathy Subtypes on the Basis of Personality Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of criminal psychopaths on the basis of differences in personality structure. Participants included 96 male prisoners diagnosed as psychopathic, using the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). Personality was assessed using the brief form of the Multidimensional…

Hicks, Brian M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Krueger, Robert F.; Newman, Joseph P.

2004-01-01

19

Personality Research Form: Factor Structure and Response Style Involvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores factor structure of the Personality Research Form (PRF) and examines the inventory's relations with response styles. In general, the PRF content scales correlate moderately with each other and with measures of acquiescence, social desirability, and defensiveness response biases. (Author)

Stricker, Lawrence J.

1974-01-01

20

Structures of Personality and Their Relevance to Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trait concepts are used extensively in psychopathology research, but much of this research has failed to consider recent advances in the dimensional structure of personality. Many investigators have discounted the importance of this structural research, arguing that (a) little progress has been made in this area, (b) structural models have little direct relevance for psychopathology research, and (c) the principal

David Watson; Lee Anna Clark; Allan R. Harkness

1994-01-01

21

New Millennium Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New Millennium Observatory (NeMO) is a seafloor observatory at Axial Seamount, an active underwater volcano located about 250 miles off the coast of the northwest United States. The observatory studies the relationships between submarine volcanic activity, the chemistry of seafloor hotsprings, and the biological communities that depend on them. Materials available at the NeMO web site include updates from observatory expeditions, videos and animations, and an interactive feature that lets users pilot a simulated remotely operated vehicle to explore the seamount. The NeMO curriculum page features a unit, with activities, in which students investigate a swarm of small earthquakes and the disappearance of an instrument. A volcanic eruption occurred at Axial in January 1998, destroying some hydrothermal vent sites and creating new ones. Since then NeMO scientists have been assessing the impact of the eruption and documenting the ongoing changes in Axial's summit caldera.

2004-09-24

22

Millennium Prize Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At their May meeting in Paris, The Clay Mathematics Institute of Cambridge, Massachusetts (CMI) named seven "Millennium Prize Problems," including The Poincare Conjecture and the Navier-Stokes Existence and Smoothness problem. Each solution is worth a $1 million prize from the Board of Directors of the CMI. The strict rules of competition (for example, a proposed solution must be published in a refereed mathematics journal of worldwide repute and also have general acceptance in the mathematics community two years before being considered for the prize) as well as a statement of purpose are available at the site. The historical background given on Hibert, the German mathematician who formulated 23 classic problems that "have inspired and guided the minds of mathematicians throughout the last century," is an insightful read for scholars of mathematics.

23

The relationship between facial structure and personality characteristics.  

PubMed

A variety of findings in the fields of constitutional personality theory, person perception, emotion, and orthodontic dentistry suggest there may be a relationship between personality dimensions and facial structure. Twenty subjects with long, angular faces and 20 subjects with short, square faces were selected on the basis of a radiographic study of their facial structure. The subjects completed a biographical data sheet and took Forms A and B of the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire. Subjects with long, angular faces were found to be more responsive, assertive, and genuine than subjects with short, square faces who were more restrained, conforming, and shrewd. The results of the study were compared with findings in the somatotype literature linking body size and shape with personality traits. The role of genetic factors underlying facial structure and personality attributes, the development of behaviour patterns based on social stereotypes about facial shape, and the effect of postural sets on facial form during maturation were discussed. Suggestions were made for further research utilizing EMG recordings and developmental observations. PMID:7272664

Squier, R W; Mew, J R

1981-09-01

24

Personality Research Form: Factor Structure and Response Style Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were (1) to explore the factor structure of the Personality Research Form (PRF) and (2) to examine the inventory's relations with response styles. In general the PRF content scales correlated moderately with each other and with measures of acquiesence, social desirability, and defensiveness response Biases. Six oblique…

Stricker, Lawrence J.

25

Personality Development at Preadolescence; Explorations of Structure Formation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personality development and structure formation were studied in 60 preadolescent children (aged 9 to 13). Six major aspects of preadolescent individuality were assessed: cognitive controls, performance on the Holtzman Inkblot Test, intellectual abilities, general response to clinical testing, general response to laboratory testing, and defense…

Gardner, Riley W.; Moriarty, Alice

26

The Wellbeing of the Self's Personality: A Structural Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leaning on the formal faceted definition of wellbeing (Levy and Guttman (1975) "Social Indicators Research," 2, 361-388), a mapping sentence is provided for defining the universe of observations of the wellbeing of the self-expanding on personality aspects. The structure of the interrelationships among the variables of the expanded…

Levy, Shlomit; Sabbagh, Clara

2008-01-01

27

Unified structure and content search for personal information management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

User data stored in personal information systems is growing massively. Simultaneously, this data is increasingly distributed across multiple organizational domains such as email, music databases, and photo albums, some of which are structured automatically by applications. Powerful search tools are needed to help users locate data in these expanding yet fragmented data sets. In this paper, we present a novel

Wei Wang; Amélie Marian; Thu D. Nguyen

2011-01-01

28

Item Selection, Evaluation, and Simple Structure in Personality Data  

PubMed Central

We report an investigation of the genesis and interpretation of simple structure in personality data using two very different self-reported data sets. The first consists of a set of relatively unselected lexical descriptors, whereas the second is based on responses to a carefully constructed instrument. In both data sets, we explore the degree of simple structure by comparing factor solutions to solutions from simulated data constructed to have either strong or weak simple structure. The analysis demonstrates that there is little evidence of simple structure in the unselected items, and a moderate degree among the selected items. In both instruments, however, much of the simple structure that could be observed originated in a strong dimension of positive vs. negative evaluation. PMID:20694168

Pettersson, Erik; Turkheimer, Eric

2010-01-01

29

New Millennium EO3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The New Millennium Program (NMP) is a NASA technology program that focuses on the validation of advanced spacecraft and instrumentation technologies in space. This program specifically seeks technologies that could significantly benefit future space and Earth science missions by enabling new science capabilities and reducing life cycle costs. These technologies must also require a validation in space to mitigate risks to the first science users, and provide cross-cutting benefits to both NASA's Earth and Space Science enterprises. The NASA Office of Earth Science (OES) directed the NMP to focus the third Earth Observing mission, E03, on innovative measurement concepts that would facilitate remote sensing observations from orbits beyond conventional low-Earth orbit (LEO). These orbits include geosynchronous orbits, highly elliptical orbits, mid-Earth and high-Earth orbits, and other unique vantage points such as L1 and L2. To maximize the input from the Earth science community, a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) was released to solicit innovative measurement concepts for this NMP flight. Because the NMP is a technology validation program, rather than a conventional science program, the NRA required that these measurement concepts employ revolutionary technologies and/or measurement strategies that will enable future science missions from orbits beyond LEO. Another requirement was that a validation in space was needed to reduce real or perceived risks of this concept to future science users. The proposals submitted in response to this NRA were peer reviewed by the NASA OES. The measurement concepts selected through this process will be summarized in this presentation. The E03 measurement concept NRA did not solicit complete mission concepts or flight hardware. Instead, the selected investigators will join integrated project formulation teams to define the mission for the demonstration of the measurement technique and participate in mission design trades and implementation planning. The teams will define and document the measurement approach, the required technologies, the validation plan, the scalability of the design to future science missions, and the infusion path for the completely validated instrument. During this project formulation phase, the specific technologies required to implement each measurement concept will be solicited through an open technology solicitation, and the technology providers will be added to the integrated teams. Once a complete candidate mission concept has been formulated for each measurement concept, these concepts will be subjected to a comprehensive review. The Associate Administrator of the OES will use the results of this review to select a single concept for the E03 flight opportunity. That mission concept will enter its implementation phase, which is expected to last for less than 36 months before launch. During this phase, and after launch, the implementation team will work with the NMP to document and disseminate the information gathered during the flight qualification testing and operations of the measurement concept and its component technologies. This information will be archived and published, where appropriate, to encourage the rapid infusion of these validated technologies into future space and Earth science missions. I

Li, Fuk K.

2000-01-01

30

Public health in the new millennium.  

PubMed

In the new millennium the world has become a ¿global village¿. Urbanization, economical imbalance, changing social structures and globalization resulting in ever-increasing interpenetration and interdependence between local, national and transnational events constitute the new operational field of public health. This article discusses the challenges and constraints faced by developing countries in its efforts to improve equity in health care. It is noted that the challenges include globalization; emergence of diseases and epidemics; privatization of health care; improving the quality of care; developing Healthy Public Policy; effective decentralization; and a focus on the poor, vulnerable and marginalized groups. In terms of the constraints, most notable is the disagreement between providers of individual care and practitioners of population-based medicine, and the noncontribution of public health research to public policy. In view of such, several recommendations are cited in order to overcome these challenges and constraints and in turn, achieve the goal of improving equity in health care. In this regard, the importance of health systems development including health sector reform in shaping the system and practice of public health in the new millennium is emphasized. PMID:12349671

Rafei, U M

2000-01-01

31

The New Millennium Program power technology  

SciTech Connect

The New Millennium Program (NMP) has been established to accelerate the infusion of breakthrough technologies into NASA space science missions. The goal of this technology infusion is to fulfill the NASA vision of frequent, low-cost missions to deep space and to plant Earth. Power is one of the most important keys to cost-effective space science missions. The power subsystem comprises over 25 percent of the mass of a typical space orbiter type spacecraft. The problems of power will become even more acute in the new millennium as deep space missions are asked to go farther from the Sun and get to their destinations faster. Several power technology proposals were submitted to the NMP through its Modular and Multifunctional Systems Integrated Product Development Team (IPDT). The proposals described in this paper received the most consideration and in several cases resulted in the technology being selected for flight on one of the NMP missions. The technologies discussed here are: SCARLET array, Light Flexible array, lithium ion battery, cold temperature battery, inflatable concentrators and a related technology -- Multifunctional Structures.

Chmielewski, A.B. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States); Das, A.; Cassapakis, C. [and others

1996-12-31

32

NASA New Millennium Program Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the New Millennium Program (NMP) which was established in 1994 to revolutionize NASA's Space and Earth science programs to achieve more capable, less costly missions in th e 2lst Century by: 1. Developing and flight-validating revolutionary technologies; 2. Reducing development times and life cycle missi0n cost; 3. Enabling highly autonomous spacecraft and 4. Promoting nat ionwide teaming and coordination

Stevens, Christopher M.

2001-01-01

33

Disadvantaged persons' participation in health promotion projects: some structural dimensions.  

PubMed

A structural perspective was used in studying community participation of disadvantaged groups (poor women, street youth, and disabled persons) in health promotion projects. Five community projects in the Canadian Health Promotion Contribution Program were examined in a comparative case study utilizing in-depth interviews, documents, and secondary sources. Analysis revealed relatively low numbers and restricted range of participants, difficulties in recruiting and maintaining participants, declining rates of active participation over time, and limited target group influence and power. This paper reports on the relationship between various dimensions of structure (social-cultural, organizational, political-legal-economic) and the community participation process. Participation was influenced by structural factors such as bureaucratic rules and regulators, perceived minority group rights and relations, agency reputations and responsibilities, available resources, and organizational roles. Control of projects by target group members, rather than by service agencies, was an important overall organizational structural factor which allowed community members to achieve influence in projects. The study concludes that a conceptual model based on structural factors is useful in explaining how key factors from federal and local levels can restrict or facilitate the community participation process. PMID:11314851

Boyce, W F

2001-05-01

34

Personal Attitudes or Structural Factors? A Contextual Analysis of Breastfeeding Duration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A personal attitudes model (i.e., infant feeding choices are based on personal attitudes primarily) and a structural factors model (i.e., feeding choices are shaped by the structural contexts of women's lives, as much as personal attitudes) of women's breastfeeding behavior were tested by surveying a longitudinal sample of 548 mostly European…

McKinley, Nita Mary; Hyde, Janet Shibley

2004-01-01

35

A Neural Network Model of the Structure and Dynamics of Human Personality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a neural network model that aims to bridge the historical gap between dynamic and structural approaches to personality. The model integrates work on the structure of the trait lexicon, the neurobiology of personality, temperament, goal-based models of personality, and an evolutionary analysis of motives. It is organized in terms of two…

Read, Stephen J.; Monroe, Brian M.; Brownstein, Aaron L.; Yang, Yu; Chopra, Gurveen; Miller, Lynn C.

2010-01-01

36

Public Libraries and the Millennium Development Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public libraries can make a major contribution to the achievement of the eight United Nations Millennium Development Goals. This paper examines actual and potential uses highlighting the importance of libraries to community development, and provides some examples, such as mobile libraries in slums and reading tents, where libraries are already assisting with Millennium Development Goals being achieved.

Ellen Forsyth

2005-01-01

37

Deep Space 1: Into the New Millennium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents Deep Space 1: Into the New Millennium in viewgraph form. The topics include: 1) NASA's New Millennium Program; 2) Deep Space 1 (DS1) Project Overview; 3) Technology/Science Payload; 4) Mission Objectives and Status; 5) Extended Mission Opportunities; and 6) Summary.

Varghese, Philip; Rayman, Marc D.; Lehman, David H.; Livesay, Leslie L.; Nelson, Robert M.

1999-01-01

38

A Fairbairnian structural analysis of the narcissistic personality disorder.  

PubMed

Fairbairn's structural theory is based on the developing child's need to dissociate actual events between himself or herself and his or her objects that are excessively rejecting in order to contine an uninterrupted, pristine attachment to them. This eventuates in three selves in relation to three objects: One pair is conscious (the central ego which relates to the ideal object), while the other two pairs (the antilibidinal ego, which relates to the rejecting object, and the libidinal ego, which relates to the exciting object) are mostly held in the unconscious. Fairbairn saw the fluid relationship between the two split-off pairs of unconscious part selves and the conscious central ego as the primary dynamic of the human personality. The author proposes a specific variation in Fairbairn's structural theory to account for the development of narcissism. Specifically, this disorder is viewed as the result of a developmental history in which the child finds himself or herself in an exceedingly hostile interpersonal environment that precludes the child from using an idealized version either of his or her parental objects as the "exciting object." The child therefore substitutes a grandiose view of himself or herself as the exciting object. This defense deflects external influences and replaces relationships with external objects with a closed internal world that is comprised of an admiring part-self basking in reflected love from its relationship with an exciting part-object. PMID:24866161

Celani, David P

2014-06-01

39

Chicago Public Library: Millennium Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The transformation of the area east of Michigan Avenue from an industrial wasteland into the vibrant and heavily-used Millennium Park is truly a remarkable tale in Chicago's recent history. The apocryphal tale says that Mayor Richard M. Daley looked out from his dentist's office and envisioned a public park that would be comparable to other grand spaces in the city. The construction of Millennium Park took quite some time, but when the park was finished in 2004, most people were quite happy with it. This digital collection from the Chicago Public Library brings together over 5,100 images of the park at various phases of its construction. Visitors can view a highlights file of 154 images, and they can wander through topical areas like Cloud Gate, Crown Fountain, and Lurie Garden. Visitors interested in broad vistas of the entire setting should click on Full Park. Finally, visitors can use the tabs on the left-hand side of the page to look at architectural renderings and models of the park's various sections.

2012-03-16

40

Ethnicity and Population Structure in Personal Naming Networks  

PubMed Central

Personal naming practices exist in all human groups and are far from random. Rather, they continue to reflect social norms and ethno-cultural customs that have developed over generations. As a consequence, contemporary name frequency distributions retain distinct geographic, social and ethno-cultural patterning that can be exploited to understand population structure in human biology, public health and social science. Previous attempts to detect and delineate such structure in large populations have entailed extensive empirical analysis of naming conventions in different parts of the world without seeking any general or automated methods of population classification by ethno-cultural origin. Here we show how ‘naming networks’, constructed from forename-surname pairs of a large sample of the contemporary human population in 17 countries, provide a valuable representation of cultural, ethnic and linguistic population structure around the world. This innovative approach enriches and adds value to automated population classification through conventional national data sources such as telephone directories and electoral registers. The method identifies clear social and ethno-cultural clusters in such naming networks that extend far beyond the geographic areas in which particular names originated, and that are preserved even after international migration. Moreover, one of the most striking findings of this approach is that these clusters simply ‘emerge’ from the aggregation of millions of individual decisions on parental naming practices for their children, without any prior knowledge introduced by the researcher. Our probabilistic approach to community assignment, both at city level as well as at a global scale, helps to reveal the degree of isolation, integration or overlap between human populations in our rapidly globalising world. As such, this work has important implications for research in population genetics, public health, and social science adding new understandings of migration, identity, integration and social interaction across the world. PMID:21909399

Mateos, Pablo; Longley, Paul A.; O'Sullivan, David

2011-01-01

41

Delineating the Structure of Normal and Abnormal Personality: An Integrative Hierarchical Approach  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence indicates that normal and abnormal personality can be treated within a single structural framework. However, identification of a single integrated structure of normal and abnormal personality has remained elusive. Here, a constructive replication approach was used to delineate an integrative hierarchical account of the structure of normal and abnormal personality. This hierarchical structure, which integrates many Big Trait models proposed in the literature, replicated across a meta-analysis as well as an empirical study, and across samples of participants as well as measures. The proposed structure resembles previously suggested accounts of personality hierarchy and provides insight into the nature of personality hierarchy more generally. Potential directions for future research on personality and psychopathology are discussed. PMID:15631580

Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.; Watson, David

2008-01-01

42

Computer hacking and cyber terrorism: the real threats in the new millennium?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the new millennium approaches, we are living in a society that is increasingly dependent upon information technology. However, whilst technology can deliver a number of benefits, it also introduces new vulnerabilities that can be exploited by persons with the necessary technical skills. Hackers represent a well-known threat in this respect and are responsible for a significant degree of disruption

Steven Furnell; Matthew J. Warren

1999-01-01

43

“It is software process, stupid”: key to the next millennium software quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next millennium will be digital and obviously software has a very important role to play in our personal, national and international scenes. One who develops software better, cheaper, and faster will become the leader with enormous economic advantage. The key to success in software development will depend upon the software processes that are used to build them. “Fix the

Sowmyan Raman

1999-01-01

44

Personality Structure in Brown Capuchin Monkeys: Comparisons with Chimpanzees, Orangutans, and Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

Species comparisons of personality structure (i.e. how many personality dimensions and the characteristics of those dimensions) can facilitate questions about the adaptive function of personality in nonhuman primates. Here we investigate personality structure in the brown capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella), a New World primate species, and compare this structure to those of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Brown capuchins evolved behavioral and cognitive traits that are qualitatively similar to those of great apes, and individual differences in behavior and cognition are closely associated with differences in personality. Thus, we hypothesized that brown capuchin personality structure would overlap more with great apes than with rhesus macaques. We obtained personality ratings from seven sites on 127 brown capuchin monkeys. Principal-components analysis identified five personality dimensions (Assertiveness, Openness, Neuroticism, Sociability, and Attentiveness), which were reliable across raters and, in a subset of subjects, significantly correlated with relevant behaviors up to a year later. Comparisons between species revealed that brown capuchins and great apes overlapped in personality structure, particularly chimpanzees in the case of Neuroticism. However, in some respects (i.e. capuchin Sociability and Openness) the similarities between capuchins and great apes were not significantly greater than those between capuchins and rhesus macaques. We discuss the relevance of our results to brown capuchin behavior, and the evolution of personality structure in primates. PMID:23668695

Morton, F. Blake; Lee, Phyllis C.; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M.; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Thierry, Bernard; Paukner, Annika; de Waal, Frans B. M.; Widness, Jane; Essler, Jennifer L.; Weiss, Alexander

2013-01-01

45

Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rationale and procedures for the development of a taxonomic basis for personality research and theory construction are outlined. Some prior research efforts in this area are briefly reviewed and evaluated. Results of a series of studies are presented which employed primarily groups of university male Ss who varied in length and intimacy of previous associations. Data were obtained using

Warren T. Norman

1963-01-01

46

NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. This is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The New Millennium Program identifies the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that will help provide those capabilities.

Stevens, C. M.; Stocky, J. F.; Nelson, R. M.

2005-01-01

47

The Millennium Run Observatory: first light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of galaxy evolution aim to capture our current understanding as well as to make predictions for testing by future experiments. Simulations and observations are often compared in an indirect fashion: physical quantities are estimated from the observational data and compared to models. However, many applications can benefit from a more direct approach, where the observing process is also simulated, so that the models are seen fully from the observer's perspective. To facilitate this, we have developed the Millennium Run Observatory (MRObs), a theoretical virtual observatory which uses virtual telescopes to `observe' semi-analytic galaxy formation simulations based on the suite of Millennium Run (MR) dark matter simulations. The MRObs produces data that can be processed and analysed using the standard observational software packages developed for real observations. At present, we produce images in 40 filters covering the rest-frame ultraviolet to infrared for two stellar population synthesis models, for three different models of absorption by the intergalactic medium, and in two cosmologies (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe year 1 and 7). Galaxy distributions for a large number of mock light cones can be `observed' using models of major ground- and space-based telescopes. The data include light cone catalogues linked to structural properties of galaxies, pre-observation model images, mock telescope images and Source Extractor products that can all be traced back to the higher level dark matter, semi-analytic galaxy and light cone catalogues available in the MR data base. Here, we describe our methods and announce a first public release of simulated observations that emulate a large number of extragalactic surveys [e.g. Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHT-LS), Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), GOODS/Early Release Science (ERS), Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF)]. The MRObs browser, an online tool, further facilitates exploration of the simulated data. We demonstrate the benefits of a direct approach through a number of example applications: (1) deep galaxy number counts in the CANDELS survey; (2) observed properties of galaxy clusters; (3) structural parameters of galaxies; and (4) identification of dropout galaxies. The MRObs enhances the range of questions that can be asked of semi-analytic models, allowing observers and theorists to work towards each other with virtually complete freedom of where to meet.

Overzier, R.; Lemson, G.; Angulo, R. E.; Bertin, E.; Blaizot, J.; Henriques, B. M. B.; Marleau, G.-D.; White, S. D. M.

2013-01-01

48

Exploiting Social Network Structure for Person-to-Person Sentiment Analysis  

E-print Network

Person-to-person evaluations are prevalent in all kinds of discourse and important for establishing reputations, building social bonds, and shaping public opinion. Such evaluations can be analyzed separately using signed social networks and textual sentiment analysis, but this misses the rich interactions between language and social context. To capture such interactions, we develop a model that predicts individual A's opinion of individual B by synthesizing information from the signed social network in which A and B are embedded with sentiment analysis of the evaluative texts relating A to B. We prove that this problem is NP-hard but can be relaxed to an efficiently solvable hinge-loss Markov random field, and we show that this implementation outperforms text-only and network-only versions in two very different datasets involving community-level decision-making: the Wikipedia Requests for Adminship corpus and the Convote U.S. Congressional speech corpus.

West, Robert; Leskovec, Jure; Potts, Christopher

2014-01-01

49

Use of structured personality survey techniques to indicate operator response to stressful situations  

SciTech Connect

Under given circumstances, a person will tend to operate in one of four dominant orientations: (1) to perform tasks; (2) to achieve consensus; (3) to achieve understanding, or (4) to maintain structure. Historically, personality survey techniques, such as the Myers-Briggs type indicator, have been used to determine these tendencies. While these techniques can accurately reflect a person's orientation under normal social situations, under different sets of conditions, the same person may exhibit other tendencies, displaying a similar or entirely different orientation. While most do not exhibit extreme tendencies or changes of orientation, the shift in personality from normal to stressful conditions can be rather dramatic, depending on the individual. Structured personality survey techniques have been used to indicate operator response to stressful situations. These techniques have been extended to indicate the balance between orientations that the control room team has through the various levels of cognizance.

Waller, M.A.

1990-01-01

50

The Network Structure of Human Personality According to the NEO-PI-R: Matching Network Community Structure to Factor Structure  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human personality is described preferentially in terms of factors (dimensions) found using factor analysis. An alternative and highly related method is network analysis, which may have several advantages over factor analytic methods. Aim To directly compare the ability of network community detection (NCD) and principal component factor analysis (PCA) to examine modularity in multidimensional datasets such as the neuroticism-extraversion-openness personality inventory revised (NEO-PI-R). Methods 434 healthy subjects were tested on the NEO-PI-R. PCA was performed to extract factor structures (FS) of the current dataset using both item scores and facet scores. Correlational network graphs were constructed from univariate correlation matrices of interactions between both items and facets. These networks were pruned in a link-by-link fashion while calculating the network community structure (NCS) of each resulting network using the Wakita Tsurumi clustering algorithm. NCSs were matched against FS and networks of best matches were kept for further analysis. Results At facet level, NCS showed a best match (96.2%) with a ‘confirmatory’ 5-FS. At item level, NCS showed a best match (80%) with the standard 5-FS and involved a total of 6 network clusters. Lesser matches were found with ‘confirmatory’ 5-FS and ‘exploratory’ 6-FS of the current dataset. Network analysis did not identify facets as a separate level of organization in between items and clusters. A small-world network structure was found in both item- and facet level networks. Conclusion We present the first optimized network graph of personality traits according to the NEO-PI-R: a ‘Personality Web’. Such a web may represent the possible routes that subjects can take during personality development. NCD outperforms PCA by producing plausible modularity at item level in non-standard datasets, and can identify the key roles of individual items and clusters in the network. PMID:23284713

Goekoop, Rutger; Goekoop, Jaap G.; Scholte, H. Steven

2012-01-01

51

November/December 1999 Millennium Subscriptions Bee Toxicity Publication  

E-print Network

November/December 1999 Millennium Subscriptions Bee Toxicity Publication Private Applicator Certification Honey Bee Imports Acaracide Resistance Millennium Subscriptions This is your final opportunity "Pesticide Safety: A Reference Manual for Private Applicators." It should be available at the Farm Advisors

Ferrara, Katherine W.

52

NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s New Millennium Program validates advanced technologies in space and thus lowers the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on future missions. These technologies are: 1) the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE), a demonstration of autonomous, science-driven spacecraft command and control; and 2) the Inertial Stellar Compass (ISC). These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability (with ASE) to make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground; and (with ISC) determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing.

Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S. A.; Davies, A. G.; Shwerwood, R. L.; Wyman, W.

2005-01-01

53

Assessment of personality organization in couple relationships: factorial structure of the inventory of personality organization and incremental validity over neuroticism.  

PubMed

Drawing on a sample of 372 French-Canadian couples, this study examined the factorial structure of a 20-item abbreviated version of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO) across a sample of couples and tested if identity diffusion, primitive defenses, and reality testing explain additional variance in couple distress when controlling for neuroticism. The IPO is based on Kernberg's conceptualization of personality organization (Kernberg, 1976 ). Gender differences were also studied through an examination of the value of both self-reported and partner-reported personality in the prediction of each partner's couple satisfaction. Results of confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the tripartite model of the short version of the IPO provided an acceptable fit and proved invariant when tested on couples. Actor-Partner Interdependence Model analyses (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006 ) showed that elevated neuroticism predicted higher endorsement of primitive defenses, which in turn predict couple dissatisfaction. There was also a direct, negative path from neuroticism to dyadic adjustment. Finally, self-reported neuroticism scores predicted high utilization of primitive defenses by the partner, and low partner-reported couple satisfaction. Furthermore, high self-reported utilization of primitive defenses predicted low couple satisfaction. PMID:22906020

Verreault, Melissa; Sabourin, Stéphane; Lussier, Yvan; Normandin, Lina; Clarkin, John F

2013-01-01

54

Role, personality, and social structure in the organizational setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the interaction between the psychological factors of the individual functioning within the environmental context of an organizational structure (hospital, business, prison, school, etc.) and the resultant \\

Daniel J. Levinson

1959-01-01

55

Non-experts' Recognition of Structure in Personal Network Data  

PubMed Central

Network-based interventions are gaining prominence in the treatment of chronic illnesses; however, little is known about what aspects of network structure are easily identified by non-experts when shown network visualizations. This study examines which structural features are recognizable by non-experts. Nineteen non-experts were asked to pile-sort 68 network diagrams. Results were analyzed using multidimensional scaling, discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, and PROFIT analysis. Participants tended to sort networks along the dimensions of isolates and size of largest component, suggesting that interventions aimed at helping individuals understand and change their social environments could benefit from incorporating visualizations of social networks. PMID:21765798

Kennedy, David P.; Green, Harold D.; McCarty, Christopher; Tucker, Joan

2010-01-01

56

Analysis of United Nations Millennium Summit Speeches.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study compiles and analyzes the key points made by heads of State at the UN Millennium Summit, September 6-B, 2000. Resultant military- related themes are: A world polarized around relative wealth and poverty of nations and groups of nations Calls fo...

E. Florescu, J. C. Glenn, T. J. Gordon

2001-01-01

57

Voting Rights Issues in the New Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication examines ways to teach about law in the liberal arts. This issue focuses on future voting rights issues by exploring the 2000 presidential election. Articles included are: "Voting Rights in the New Millennium" (Jason F. Kirksey); "Legal and Political Lessons from 'Bush v. Gore'" (David Schultz); "The Ford-Carter Commission and…

Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

2001-01-01

58

Nuclear energy for the third millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major energy sources of today are expected to last for only a small fraction of the millennium starting three years hence. In the plans of most people, nuclear energy has been ruled out for four separate reasons: 1. The danger of radioactivity from a reactor accident or from reactor products during a long period after reactor shutdown; 2. The

1997-01-01

59

Space Science for the Third Millennium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA approaches the beginning of its fifth decade in 1998, and as the calendar approaches the beginning of its third millennium, America's civilian space agency is changing its historic ideas about conducting space science so that it will still be able to perform the desired scientific studies in an era of constrained NASA budgets.

Frewing, Kent

1996-01-01

60

Professional Counseling: Transitioning into the Next Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to attempt to forecast the future of professional counseling as it transitions into the next millennium. It is designed to help professional counselors understand and prepare for future changes in the profession of counseling. Understanding the rationale and observable predictors of anticipated changes meaningfully…

Dixon, Charlotte G., Ed.; Emener, William G., Ed.

61

Volcanoes and ENSO over the Past Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controversial claim that El Niño events might be partially caused by radiative forcing due to volcanic aerosols is reassessed. Building on the work of Mann et al., estimates of volcanic forcing over the past millennium and a climate model of intermediate complexity are used to draw a diagram of El Niño likelihood as a function of the intensity of

Julien Emile-Geay; Richard Seager; Mark A. Cane; Edward R. Cook; Gerald H. Haug

2008-01-01

62

Reduced interhemispheric structural connectivity between anterior cingulate cortices in borderline personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional and structural alterations of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a key region for emotional and cognitive processing, are associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, the interhemispheric structural connectivity between the left and right ACC and between other prefrontal regions in this condition is unknown. We acquired diffusion-tensor imaging data from 20 healthy women and 19 women with BPD

Nicolas Rüsch; Tobias Bracht; Björn W. Kreher; Susanne Schnell; Volkmar Glauche; Kamil A. Il'yasov; Dieter Ebert; Klaus Lieb; Jürgen Hennig; Dorothee Saur; Ludger Tebartz van Elst

2010-01-01

63

A study on the construction of Personal Competency Dissipative Structure Model (PCDSM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducing entropy theory and dissipative structure into competency model, this paper build the Personal Compe- tency Dissipative Structure Model (PCDSM), and discuss the rationality and advantage of the model. And then, this paper combines the professional characteristics of the railcar driver with PCDSM, and builds the management and evaluation system of railcar driver. Also, this paper put forward some reasonable

Han-bo Jin; Long Ye; Fei-cheng Wu; Fang-yu Li

2011-01-01

64

Author's personal copy A bi-functional cathode structure for alkaline-acid direct  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy A bi-functional cathode structure for alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel 19 August 2011 Keywords: Fuel cell Alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel cell Bi-functional structure associated with the use of hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant in the so-called alkaline-acid direct ethanol

Zhao, Tianshou

65

Author's personal copy In uence of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid on structure, mechanical  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy In uence of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid on structure, mechanical online 5 August 2011 Keywords: Collagen Hyaluronic acid Chondroitin sulfate Confocal microscopy Material and the glycosaminoglycans chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) are prepared and characterized. The structure

Kaufman, Laura

66

Structural Brain Abnormalities and Suicidal Behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Structural brain abnormalities have been demonstrated in subjects with BPD in prefrontal and fronto-limbic regions involved in the regulation of emotion and impulsive behavior, executive cognitive function and episodic memory. Impairment in these cognitive functions is associated with increased vulnerability to suicidal behavior. We compared BPD suicide attempters and non-attempters, high and low lethality attempters to healthy controls to identify neural circuits associated with suicidal behavior in BPD. Methods Structural MRI scans were obtained on 68 BPD subjects (16 male, 52 female), defined by IPDE and DIB/R criteria, and 52 healthy controls (HC: 28 male, 24 female). Groups were compared by diagnosis, attempt status, and attempt lethality. ROIs were defined for areas reported to have structural or metabolic abnormalities in BPD, and included: mid-inf. orbitofrontal cortex, mid-sup temporal cortex, anterior cingulate, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, fusiform, lingual and parahippocampal gyri. Data were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry implemented with DARTEL in SPM5, co-varied for age and gender, corrected for cluster extent (p<.001). Results Compared to HC, BPD attempters had significantly diminished gray matter concentrations in 8 of 9 ROIs, non-attempters in 5 of 9 ROIs. Within the BPD sample, attempters had diminished gray matter in Lt. insula compared to non-attempters. High lethality attempters had significant decreases in Rt. mid-sup. temporal gyrus, Rt. mid-inf. orbitofrontal gyrus, Rt. insular cortex, Lt. fusiform gyrus, Lt. lingual gyrus and Rt. parahippocampal gyrus compared to low lethality attempters. Conclusions Specific structural abnormalities discriminate BPD attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters. PMID:22336640

Soloff, Paul H.; Pruitt, Patrick; Sharma, Mohit; Radwan, Jacqueline; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.

2012-01-01

67

Buckling of structures with uncertain imperfections - Personal perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The previous review on stochastic buckling of structures was written by Amazigo in 1976. This review summarizes some of the developments which took place in recent two decades. A brief overview is given of the effect on uncertainty in the initial geometric imperfections, elastic moduli, applied forces, and thickness variation. For the benefit of the thinking reader, the review has a critical nature. It should be noted that this manuscript has yet to be completed.

Elishakoff, Isaac

1998-01-01

68

The Joint Hierarchical Structure of Adolescent Personality Pathology: Converging Evidence from Two Approaches to Measurement  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the joint hierarchical structure of two measures of adolescent personality pathology within a community sample of Canadian adolescents. Method: Self-reported data on demographic information and pathological personality traits were obtained from 144 youth (Mage = 16.08 years, SD = 1.30). Personality pathology was measured using the youth-version of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP-Y; Linde, Stringer, Simms, & Clark, in press) and the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI; De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006). Lower-order scales were subjected to structural hierarchical analyses. Results: Scales from the two measures were complementary in defining higher-order traits. Traits at the 4-factor level of the hierarchy (Need for Approval, Disagreeableness, Detachment, and Compulsivity) showed similarities and differences with previous results in adults. Conclusions: The current investigation integrated top-down and bottom-up measures for a comprehensive account of the higher-order hierarchy of adolescent personality pathology. Results are discussed in the context of convergence across approaches and in comparison with previous findings in adult samples. PMID:23970908

Kushner, Shauna C.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; De Clercq, Barbara

2013-01-01

69

Feminist Music Theory into the Millennium: A Personal History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retraces the professional footsteps of a female professor of music theory in order to exemplify how a woman with feminist sensibilities interested in pursuing a Ph.D. in music theory was able to successfully navigate a course through graduate school and into the profession. Attests to the burgeoning richness of feminist work in music. (SM)

Hisama, Ellie M.

2000-01-01

70

Africans and Racism in The new Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the general excitement over the New Millennium, Femi Ojo-Ade has deemed it fit to re-visit the question of race and color with regards to Africans from the continent and the Diaspora. His intention is to determine whether humanity has made enough progress to belie the late W. E. B. Du Bois’s 1903 statement on the preeminance of racism as

Femi Ojo-Ade

2001-01-01

71

The Millennium Galaxy Catalogue: Galaxy Bimodality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Millennium Galaxy Catalogue we have completed the bulge-disk decomposition of 10095 nearby (z<0.18) galaxies. The decompositions are based on a Sersic-bulge plus exponential-disk models using GIM2D followed by logical filtering. The data reveals a remarkable bimodality in the joint colour-concentration plane. This bimodality is demonstrated to be due to the two-component nature of galaxies with bulges lying in

Simon P. Driver; Jochen Liske; Alister W. Graham

2007-01-01

72

Millennium Bug found by CSIRO entomologists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Entomologists at Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization have announced the discovery of the "real" Millennium Bug, belonging to a new genus of the family Veliidae (small water striders). The bug was found at several mountain streams of southeast Queensland and northeast New South Wales and will be described in a publication of the Australian journal Invertebrate Taxonomy. The CSIRO news release is provided above.

73

Requirements for a reliable millennium temperature reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative temperature reconstructions are hampered by several problems. Proxy records are sparse which is witnessed by the fact that roughly half of all available high-resolution millennia-long proxy data have been published in the last five years. Moreover, proxies are inhomogeneously distributed around the globe and they often have coarse temporal resolution. The period of overlap between proxies and instrumental observations - the calibration period - is brief and dominated by a strong warming trend. Furthermore, proxies are often only weakly correlated to temperature and it is common that some form of screening procedure is applied to select only informative proxies. We study the influence of these limitations on the reliability of temperature reconstructions for the previous millennium. This influence depends on the spatial and temporal correlation structure of the surface temperature field. It also depends on the reconstruction methodology. We use gridded surface temperature data from GISTEMP and HadCRUT4 to investigate the geographical distribution of the spatial decorrelation length and of the temporal decorrelation time. The spatial decorrelation length varies with more than a factor of 5 with the largest values in the region dominated by the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The temporal decorrelation time varies less with typical values of 1-2 years over land and 2-5 years over ocean. We also investigate the correlations between proxies and local temperatures (using the 91 proxies from Christiansen and Ljungqvist 2012) and between local temperatures and the NH mean temperature. These correlations have typical values around 0.3 but cover a wide range from weakly negative to larger than 0.8. The results outlined above allow us to identify regions where the effect of the lack of proxies is most important. They also inform us on the consequences of the short calibration period and on the influence of the recent trend. Finally, we demonstrate the effect of a weak proxy/temperature relationship on three different simple reconstruction methodologies. We show that the size and strength of this effect depends strongly on the chosen methodology.

Christiansen, Bo; Ljungqvist, Fredrik

2014-05-01

74

Factor Structure of the Personality Research Form-E: A Maximum Likelihood Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a five-factor, structural model of the Personality Research Form-E for 140 university undergraduates. All factors demonstrated an excellent level of similarity to those previously reported for other forms of the PRF, as well as to the conceptual scheme developed by Jackson (1974). (Author/JAC)

Fowler, Patrick C.

1985-01-01

75

How Good Are Trainers' Personal Methods Compared to Two Structured Training Strategies?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Training methods naturally employed by trainers were analyzed and compared to systematic structured training procedures. Trainers were observed teaching retarded subjects how to assemble a bicycle brake, roller skate, carburetor, and lawn mower engine. Trainers first taught using their own (personal) method, which was recorded in terms of types of…

Walls, Richard T.; And Others

76

Structure of Interests in Japan: Application of the Personal Globe Inventory Occupational Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Japanese college students (N = 2,492) completed the translated Personal Globe Inventory (PGI: T. J. G. Tracey, 2002b) Occupational Title scales, and the structural validity of vocational interests was examined. Support was provided for the RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional), octant, and spherical…

Long, Lirong; Watanabe, Naotaka; Tracey, Terence J. G.

2006-01-01

77

From Personalized to Hierarchically Structured Classifiers for Retrieving Music by Mood  

E-print Network

From Personalized to Hierarchically Structured Classifiers for Retrieving Music by Mood Amanda Abstract. With the increased amount of music that is available to the average user, either online or through their own collection, there is a need to develop new ways to organize and retrieve music. We

Ras, Zbigniew W.

78

A Structural Model-Based Optimal Person-Fit Procedure for Identifying Faking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a two-stage procedure aimed at identifying faking in personality tests. The procedure, which can be considered as an extension and refinement of previous item response theory (IRT)-based proposals, combines the information provided by a structural equation model (SEM) in the first stage with that provided by an IRT-based…

Ferrando, Pere J.; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina

2013-01-01

79

Understanding Social Structure through Personal Experience: The Creative Use of Status and Role as Explanatory Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"It's all up to the individual!" Most sociology instructors have encountered this response from students who have internalized the dominant ideological perspective of "personal responsibility" and therefore resist their efforts to encourage a rigorous examination of structural forces. A number of articles in recent issues of "Teaching Sociology"…

Greenfield, Derek

2006-01-01

80

The Joint Influence of Personal Achievement Goals and Classroom Goal Structures on Achievement-Relevant Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors provide an analytic framework for studying the joint influence of personal achievement goals and classroom goal structures on achievement-relevant outcomes. This framework encompasses 3 models (the direct effect model, indirect effect model, and interaction effect model), each of which addresses a different aspect of the joint influence of the 2 goal levels. These 3 models were examined together

Kou Murayama; Andrew J. Elliot

2009-01-01

81

Millennium Simulation Dark Matter Haloes: Multi-fractal and Lacunarity Analysis with Homogeneity Transition  

E-print Network

We investigate from the fractal viewpoint the way in which the dark matter is grouped at z = 0 in the Millennium dark matter cosmological simulation. The determination of the cross to homogeneity in the Millennium Simulation data is described from the behaviour of the fractal dimension and the lacunarity. We use the sliding window technique to calculate the fractal mass-radius dimension, the pre-factor F and the lacunarity of this fractal relation. Besides, we determinate the multi-fractal dimension and the lacunarity spectrum, including their dependence with radial distance. This calculations show a radial distance dependency of all the fractal quantities, with heterogeneity clustering of dark matter haloes up to depths of 100 Mpc/h. The dark matter haloes clustering in the Millennium Simulation shows a radial distance dependency, with two regions clearly defined. The lacunarity spectrum for values of the structure parameter q >= 1 shows regions with relative maxima, revealing the formation of clusters and voids in the dark matter haloes distribution. With the use of the multi-fractal dimension and the lacunarity spectrum, the transition to homogeneity at depths between 100 Mpc/h and 120 Mpc/h for the Millennium Simulation dark matter haloes is detected.

César A. Chacón-Cardona; Rigoberto A. Casas-Miranda

2012-09-12

82

Limitations of the Millennium Development Goals: a literature review  

PubMed Central

With the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) showing uneven progress, this review identifies possible limitations arising from the MDG framework itself rather than extrinsic issues. A multidisciplinary literature review was conducted with a focus on limitations in the formulation of the MDGs, their structure, content and implementation. Of 1837 MDG-related articles, 90 met criteria for analysis. Articles describe MDGs as being created by only a few stakeholders without adequate involvement by developing countries and overlooking development objectives previously agreed upon. Others claim MDGs are unachievable and simplistic, not adapted to national needs, do not specify accountable parties and reinforce vertical interventions. While MDGs have promoted increased health and well-being in many countries by recognising and deliberating on the possible constraints of the MDG framework, the post-2015 agenda may have even greater impact. Complex problems have simple, easy to understand, wrong answers (Henry Louis Mencken) PMID:24266508

Fehling, Maya; Nelson, Brett D.; Venkatapuram, Sridhar

2013-01-01

83

Will man wish to prevail? Some fundamental choices facing humanity early in the Third Millennium  

SciTech Connect

With the subtle but occasionally vital exception of vaccination-induced immunity to many of the major infectious diseases, no human today is other than virtually identical biologically to those who greeted the dawn of the Second Millennium, nearly 1000 years ago. Culturally, however, we of the West are quite highly evolved from our ancestors of a millennium ago, primarily due to the advent of means for communicating with ever smaller latencies and ever higher bandwidths over ever greater distances in space and time: printed documents have been supplemented in succession by telephony, radio, video and, just now, the first personal communications sets. Also, within a fraction of a human lifetime from the present moment, the first prosthesis for the human brain has appeared and just very recently has become quite ubiquitous: digital computing systems. We are hardly members of the same species, culturally speaking; people of 1000 years ago would be truly and utterly lost in our communications-intensive civilization, and even a highly educated person from those times would swear that a personal computer equipped with a wireless communications module was as at least a familiar, if not a golem. Conversely, a computer-using person from our own times somehow translated back to 1000 A.D. would likely find the profound isolation and the ``informational slowness`` of life then to be acutely intolerable, certainly to a far greater extent than would a citizen of the High Middle Ages translated back to Augustus Caesar`s Rome.

Wood, L.L.

1994-10-01

84

The structure of DSM-IV-TR personality disorder diagnoses in NESARC: a reanalysis.  

PubMed

Cox, Clara, Worobec, and Grant (2012) recently presented results from a series of analyses aimed at identifying the factor structure underlying the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) personality diagnoses assessed in the large NESARC study. Cox et al. (2012) concluded that the best fitting model was one that modeled three lower-order factors (the three clusters of PDs as outlined by DSM-IV-TR), which in turn loaded on a single PD higher-order factor. Our reanalyses of the NESARC Wave 1 and Wave 2 data for personality disorder diagnoses revealed that the best fitting model was that of a general PD factor that spans each of the ten DSM-IV PD diagnoses, and our reanalyses do not support the three-cluster hierarchical structure outlined by Cox et al. (2012) and DSM-IV-TR. Finally, we note the importance of modeling the Wave 2 assessment method factor in analyses of NESARC PD data. PMID:23718818

Trull, Timothy J; Vergés, Alvaro; Wood, Phillip K; Sher, Kenneth J

2013-12-01

85

THE STRUCTURE OF DSM-IV-TR PERSONALITY DISORDER DIAGNOSES IN NESARC: A REANALYSIS  

PubMed Central

Cox, Clara, Worobec, and Grant (2012) recently presented results from a series of analyses aimed at identifying the factor structure underlying the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) personality diagnoses assessed in the large NESARC study. Cox et al. (2012) concluded that the best fitting model was one that modeled three lower-order factors (the three clusters of PDs as outlined by DSM-IV-TR), which in turn loaded on a single PD higher-order factor. Our reanalyses of the NESARC Wave 1 and Wave 2 data for personality disorder diagnoses revealed that the best fitting model was that of a general PD factor that spans each of the ten DSM-IV PD diagnoses, and our reanalyses do not support the three-cluster hierarchical structure outlined by Cox et al. (2012) and DSM-IV-TR. Finally, we note the importance of modeling the Wave 2 assessment method factor in analyses of NESARC PD data. PMID:23718818

Trull, Timothy J.; Verges, Alvaro; Wood, Phillip K.; Sher, Kenneth J.

2013-01-01

86

India's Challenge to Meet the Millennium Development Goals  

E-print Network

India's Challenge to Meet the Millennium Development Goals Nirupam Bajpai, Jeffrey D. Sachs and Sustainable Development The Earth Institute at Columbia University www.earth.columbia.edu #12;2 India Abstract On its current economic trajectory, India will achieve some of the eight Millennium Development

87

From Domination to Partnership: Meeting the UN Millennium Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The UN Millennium goals envision a more just and sustainable future. This article explains why there is a need to shift from domination model to a partnership model in meeting the UN Millennium goals. The domination model is a configuration based on top-down rankings of control, while the partnership model is a configuration that can support a…

Eisler, Riane; Corral, Thais

2005-01-01

88

Structural Relations Between Borderline Personality Disorder Features and Putative Etiological Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the structural relations between borderline personality disorder (BPD) features and purported etiological correlates. Approximately 5,000 18-year-old nonclinical young adults were screened for BPD features, and 2 cohorts of participants (total N = 421; approximately one half of whom endorsed significant borderline features) completed the laboratory phase of the study. Measures included self-report and interview-based assessments of BPD

Timothy J. Trull

2001-01-01

89

The New York Times Magazine: The Shadow Story of the Millennium: Women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part two of this special series in The New York Times Magazine devoted to the millennium focuses on the evolution of the role of women in the last thousand years and the contributions they have made to the millennium's history. Over a dozen features touch on everything from changes in the world of medicine vis-a-vis women's bodies, to the changing role of women in China, to the female mystical experience over the last thousand years. Highlights include an article by novelist Jim Harrison entitled "First Person Female," "The Truth About Sex - at Any Given Moment" by Camille Sweeney, and "The Rest of the Story" by Jill Kerr Conway and Natalie Zemon Davis, which focuses on the untold part of human history, the "shape of women's lives." There are also video and audio companions to a number of the articles, columns on gender-related issues by William Safire and Deborah Tannen, and online forums discussing such issues as Women Through the Millennium; Power, Suffering, Gender, and Communication; and Fertility.

90

Impulsivity, aggression and brain structure in high and low lethality suicide attempters with borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

Impulsivity and aggressiveness are trait dispositions associated with the vulnerability to suicidal behavior across diagnoses. They are associated with structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in regulation of mood, impulse and behavior. They are also core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder defined, in part, by recurrent suicidal behavior. We assessed the relationships between personality traits, brain structure and lethality of suicide attempts in 51 BPD attempters using multiple regression analyses on structural MRI data. BPD was diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients-revised, impulsivity by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), aggression by the Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression (LHA), and high lethality by a score of 4 or more on the Lethality Rating Scale (LRS). Sixteen High Lethality attempters were compared to 35 Low Lethality attempters, with no significant differences noted in gender, co-morbidity, childhood abuse, BIS or LHA scores. Degree of medical lethality (LRS) was negatively related to gray matter volumes across multiple fronto-temporal-limbic regions. Effects of impulsivity and aggression on gray matter volumes discriminated High from Low Lethality attempters and differed markedly within lethality groups. Lethality of suicide attempts in BPD may be related to the mediation of these personality traits by specific neural networks. PMID:24656768

Soloff, Paul; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

2014-06-30

91

Simulated analysis of summer climate on centennial time scale in eastern China during the last millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Lanczos filtered simulation results from the ECHO-G coupled ocean-atmosphere model, this study analyzes the spatiotemporal\\u000a structure of temperature and precipitation on centennial time scale to examine how climate change in eastern China responded\\u000a to external forcing during the last millennium. The conclusions are (1) eastern China experienced a warm-cold-warm climate\\u000a transition, and the transition from the warm period to

HongLi Wang; Jian Liu; ZhiYuan Wang; SuMin Wang; XueYuan Kuang

2011-01-01

92

Structure of Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Symptoms of DSM-IV Borderline Personality Disorder  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Previous studies have indicated that the psychopathological dimensions of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are influenced by a unitary liability factor. However, to our knowledge, the underlying etiological nature of the individual criteria for BPD as defined by the DSM-IV has not been explored. OBJECTIVE To determine the structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for the symptoms of BPD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Multivariate twin study with BPD criteria assessed by personal interview within a general community setting. Participants included 2794 young adults from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The 9 criteria for BPD assessed by the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality. RESULTS A common pathway model dominated by 1 highly heritable (55%) general BPD factor that strongly influenced all 9 BPD criteria (standardized path coefficients, 0.53–0.79) fit the data best. The model also included 2 additional common liability factors, mainly influencing criteria reflecting the affective and interpersonal dimensions. Both of these were mostly influenced by environmental liability factors (heritability, 29.3% and 2.2%). With 1 exception (criterion 2, unstable and intense relationships), the specific criteria were strongly influenced by environmental factors. Five of the 9 criterion-specific genetic effects were either 0 or negligible. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These results indicate that most of the genetic effects on the individual BPD criteria derive from 1 highly heritable general BPD factor, whereas the environmental influences were mostly criterion specific. PMID:24048243

Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Ystrom, Eivind; Neale, Michael C.; Aggen, Steven H.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Tambs, Kristian; Czajkowski, Nikolai O.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

2013-01-01

93

An Investigation Of Functional And Structural Criteria For The Diagnosis Of Histrionic Personality Disorder And Histrionic Personality Features In A General Psychiatric Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of this research study was to investigate the value of functional criteria (including behavioral presentation, interpersonal conduct, cognitive style, affective expression, and unconscious mechanism) and structural criteria (including self-perception, internal composition, and intrapsychic organization) in the diagnosis of Histrionic Personality Disorder and histrionic features in a general psychiatric sample. Sex as a factor in the diagnosis of

Sara Beth Bosley

1987-01-01

94

Associations between Delusion Proneness and Personality Structure in Non-Clinical Participants: Comparison between Young and Elderly Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few studies have explored the prevalence of delusions in the non-clinical, elderly population. In addition, the association between personality structure and delusions remains poorly investigated. The aims of the present study were, first, to explore the relation between age and the prevalence of delusion proneness and, second, to examine the association between personality and delusion proneness in young and

Frank Larøi; Martial Van der Linden; Filip DeFruyt; Jim van Os; André Aleman

2006-01-01

95

Malignant self-regard: a self-structure enhancing the understanding of masochistic, depressive, and vulnerably narcissistic personalities.  

PubMed

: Several personality disorders have been prominent in the clinical literature but have been inadequately recognized in the diagnostic manuals. This group includes masochistic, self-defeating, depressive, and vulnerably narcissistic personality disorders. The theoretical and empirical relationship of these disorders is reviewed. It is proposed that the construct of malignant self-regard may account for the similarities among them. The construct describes these personality types as being fundamentally related through problematic manifestations of self-structure. The article discusses the diagnostic value of such a construct and the implications of a psychodynamically informed framework for classifying personality pathology. PMID:25126762

Huprich, Steven K

2014-01-01

96

Viewing the MMPI-2-RF structure through the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) lens.  

PubMed

Ben-Porath and Tellegen (2008) recommend organizing MMPI-2-RF scale interpretive information around 3 broad topics, emotional/internalizing dysfunction, thought dysfunction, and externalizing/behavioral dysfunction, and 3 additional topics labeled somatic complaints, interpersonal functioning, and interests. That organization is based primarily on structural analyses of the Restructured Clinical (RC) scales. This study reviewed the MMPI-2-RF's scale structure when the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) scales are included. Principal axis factor analyses with oblique rotation were conducted on the Restructured Clinical, PSY-5, and Special Problem (SP) scales in 2 samples, by gender. One sample was an outpatient community health center, the other a large, metropolitan inpatient psychiatric facility. The 6-factor solution evidenced each of the PSY-5 constructs plus a general somatic concerns factor. Implications of this solution in comparison to the 3-factor organizing structure recommended by Ben-Porath and Tellegen are discussed. PMID:24111881

McNulty, John L; Overstreet, Samantha R

2014-01-01

97

The Millennium: One Thousand Years of Finance and Companies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A section of the special turn-of-the-millennium edition of the Wall Street Journal Interactive, "The Millennium: One Thousand Years of Finance and Companies" recapitulates world business and economics in the past1,000 years. A timeline chronicling "Finance and Firms" in the eleventh through the twentieth centuries is featured along with a look at taxes throughout the millennium. Five articles focus on the twentieth century, looking at the rise of Manhattan as the finance center of the US, the history of the DuPont company, and the stock market.

98

Patrick Moore's millennium yearbook : the view from AD 1001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a year that will probably be remembered almost as much for books about the millennium as for the turn of 2000 A.D itself, Patrick Moore's Millennium Yearbook celebrates.....well, the wrong millennium! This thoroughly entertaining book - which is for everyone, not just astronomers - contains articles on King Alfred's chronological work, reviews of the new Star Catalogue by the Arab Al-Sufi and the latest edition of Ptolemy's Almagast. And foreshadowing the change to metric units by 1000 years, the book uses arabic numbers instead of Roman - but there is a conversion table if you have trouble with the idea of "zero" and prefer the older system.

Moore, Patrick, Chapman, Allan

99

A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory was proposed to reconcile paradoxical findings on the invariance of personality and the variability of behavior across situations. For this purpose, individuals were assumed to differ in (a) the accessibility of cognitive-affective mediating units (such as encodings, expectancies and beliefs, affects, and goals) and (b) the organization of relationships through which these units interact with each other and

Walter Mischel; Yuichi Shoda

1995-01-01

100

Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel.

The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2007-01-01

101

New millennium frontiers of luminescence dosimetry.  

PubMed

What are the new frontiers' facing us in the new millennium with respect to luminescence dosimetry? I suggest that the first is in methodology. The fast, sensitive optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques developed recently have yielded the potential for rapid environmental monitoring, multiple measurements, dose imaging, and fast readout. New vistas of applications in medical dosimetry and remote dosimetry have opened. A second frontier is literally 'out of this world'--namely, space dosimetry. Extended stays in low Earth orbit and the potential for a 1000-day mission to Mars emphasise the challenges of dosimetry in this unique radiation environment. What role does luminescence dosimetry play in this field? This talk explores the possibilities and the challenges as we seek to penetrate these new frontiers. PMID:12382823

McKeever, S W S

2002-01-01

102

NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's New Millennium Program is intended to validate advanced technologies in space and thus lower the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on spacecraft of the future. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing to deploy resources on other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

Nelson, R. M.; Chmielewski, A.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S.; Davies, A.; Wyman, W.

2005-05-01

103

NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's New Millennium Program validates advanced technologies in space and thus lowers the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on future missions. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing re-deployment of resources to other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S. A.; Davies, A.; Sherwood, R. L.; Wyman, W.

2004-12-01

104

NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of NASA's New Millennium Program is to validate advanced technologies in space and thus lower the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on spacecraft of the future. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing to deploy resources on other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S.; Davies, A.; Wyman, W.

2004-11-01

105

How Secondary Level Teachers and Students Impose Personal Structure on Fractional Expressions and Equations--An Expert-Novice Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While an algebraic expression is typically assigned a regular structure, this article introduces the concept of personal structure ("Strukturierung"); here, the structuring of an algebraic expression is understood as the act of forming relationships between its parts. This concept is used for the analysis of interviews in which experts and novices…

Ruede, Christian

2013-01-01

106

Structured terror: further exploring the effects of mortality salience and personal need for structure on worldview defense.  

PubMed

Previous research indicates that people respond to heightened death-related cognition with increased defense of predominant cultural beliefs (cultural worldview defense). However, recent research indicates that individual differences in personal need for structure (PNS) impact responses to threatening thoughts of death such that those high, but not low, in PNS respond to death thoughts by seeking a highly structured, clear, and coherent view of the world. Research has yet to fully consider the extent to which PNS affects the cultural worldview defenses typically exhibited after death is rendered salient. The current 3 studies examine the potential for PNS to determine the extent to which people respond to mortality salience with increased worldview defense. In all three studies PNS was measured and mortality salience induced. Subsequently, university-related (Study 1) or religious (Studies 2 and 3) worldview defense was assessed. Only individuals high in PNS responded to mortality salience with increased worldview defense. PMID:20573132

Juhl, Jacob; Routledge, Clay

2010-06-01

107

Technology Selection and Validation: New Millennium Flight Projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) was created to accelerate the insertion of advanced space-related technologies into future science missions by validating these technologies on deep space and Earth-orbiting technology validation missions.

Minning, C.; Buehler, M.; Fujita, T.; Lansing, F.; Man, G.; Aljabri, A.; Stevens, C.

2000-01-01

108

The New Millennium High School: Tomorrow's School Today?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptive study a New Millennium High School in Florida, involving the restructuring of the instructional program of a low-performing school through the integration of academics with career education. (Contains 39 references.) (PKP)

Mullen, Carol A.; Sullivan, Elaine C.

2002-01-01

109

Telemedicine in the NHS for the millennium and beyond.  

PubMed Central

This article defines telemedicine, discusses evidence of its effectiveness, looks at its advantages and disadvantages (and barriers to implementation), and considers its role in the NHS for the millennium and beyond. PMID:10320886

Wallace, S.; Wyatt, J.; Taylor, P.

1998-01-01

110

Knowledge of Planets in the Third Millennium Subhash C. Kak  

E-print Network

Astronomical Society, vol. 37, 1996, pp. 709-715. Abstract Recent advances in archaeology, chronobiology in the Indian books of the third millennium BC. A brief summary of this knowledge is presented. It is argued

Koppelman, David M.

111

Analysing the relationship between traumatic biographical events and the current structural functioning of personality.  

PubMed

We present the general structure of a multi-annual research project. Our general expectancy concerns the possibilities of arts psychotherapy as a means of launching the blocked process of subjectivation with people suffering from exclusion, precarity and marginalization. The research project follows a complex research design with a sequential strategy, the first part consisting in an integrated psychosocial and clinical study using a mixed methodology. We constructed special rating scales for the analysis of the data of a semi-structured biographical interview and also for the holistic interpretation of the Rotter Blank Sentences Test, separating the associations to sentences beginning with the third and first person. The correlations between two sets of variables (biographical interview and Rotter test) were computed for the total experimental group (N=206), and for clinical subgroups. We shall analyse the matrices of correlations (Spearman's Rho) with the help of optimal scaling procedures (OVERALS). The links between traumatic biographical events and responses to the 3rd, respectively 1st person items of the Rotter test are interpreted in terms of unconscious versus conscious psychological processes and allow us analysing the expression of defence mechanisms and coping strategies. The results of the study are discussed in the light of the recent traumatogenic hypothesis of borderline functioning. PMID:18404880

Schiltz, L; Schiltz, J

2008-01-01

112

A Cross-Setting Study of Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Personality Structure and Development  

PubMed Central

This study addressed whether personality ratings using a 43 adjective questionnaire based on the Five-Factor Model generalized from a sample of 202 zoo-housed chimpanzees to a sample of 175 chimpanzees housed in Yerkes National Primate Research Center. Mean interrater reliabilities of adjectival ratings were lower for the chimpanzees housed in Yerkes. In addition, rank order of the interrater reliabilities of items differed between settings. To compare factor structure, we first examined whether we could replicate the original six factor structure found in an earlier study of 100 zoo chimpanzees using principal factors analysis in the Yerkes sample and 102 new zoo chimpanzees. The dominance, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness factors were clearly replicated in the Yerkes sample and the 102 new zoo chimpanzees. The Neuroticism and Openness factors did not replicate in the Yerkes sample, but they also did not replicate in the new zoo chimpanzees. These findings suggest the need to sample more adjectives representing neuroticism and openness in future versions of the questionnaire. We next sought to determine whether factor structure, as determined by principal components analysis, remained invariant across the two settings. This analysis revealed dominance, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness factors in both settings and a high level of congruence between the zoo and Yerkes samples for these factors. Finally, we tested whether factor scores in the two samples were similarly related to age and sex. With the exception of differences in age effects for dominance and agreeableness, age, and sex effects were consistent across samples. These findings suggest that, whereas there may be differences in the ease with which ratings are made, personality structure, and development are largely consistent across widely differing settings. PMID:17397036

WEISS, ALEXANDER; KING, JAMES E.; HOPKINS, WILLIAM D.

2009-01-01

113

Effect of work stressors, personal strain, and coping resources on burnout in Chinese medical professionals: a structural equation model.  

PubMed

The present study analyzes the effect of work stressors, personal strain and coping resources on burnout among Chinese medical professionals. A total of 2,721 medical professionals were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. A Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was used to measure burnout, whereas the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition was used to evaluate work stressors, personal strain, and coping resources. The structural equation model (SEM) was established to test the effect of work stressors, personal strain, and coping resources on burnout. Among the predictive factors for burnout, work stressors and personal strain were the primary risk factors, whereas coping resources make up the important protective factor. The result from SEM indicated that work stressors had both direct and indirect effects on burnout, with the indirect effect mediated by both personal strain and coping resources. Coping resources only affected burnout indirectly, as mediated by personal strain, whereas personal strain affected burnout independently. The results suggest that work stressors, personal strain, and coping resources play important roles in burnout among medical professionals. To prevent burnout, such countermeasures as controlling the work stressors, reducing personal strain, and strengthening coping resources are recommended. PMID:22673361

Wu, Siying; Li, Huangyuan; Zhu, Wei; Lin, Shaowei; Chai, Wenli; Wang, Xiaorong

2012-01-01

114

The composite first person narrative: Texture, structure, and meaning in writing phenomenological descriptions  

PubMed Central

This paper illustrates the use of composite first person narrative interpretive methods, as described by Todres, across a range of phenomena. This methodology introduces texture into the presently understood structures of phenomena and thereby creates new understandings of the phenomenon, bringing about a form of understanding that is relationally alive that contributes to improved caring practices. The method is influenced by the work of Gendlin, Heidegger, van Manen, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty. The method's applicability to different research topics is demonstrated through the composite narratives of nursing students learning nursing practice in an accelerated and condensed program, obese female adolescents attempting weight control, chronically ill male parolees, and midlife women experiencing distress during menopause. Within current research, these four phenomena have been predominantly described and understood through quantified articulations that give the reader a structural understanding of the phenomena, but the more embodied or “contextual” human qualities of the phenomena are often not visible. The “what is it like” or the “unsaid” aspects of such human phenomena are not clear to the reader when proxies are used to “account for” a variety of situated conditions. This novel method is employed to re-present narrative data and findings from research through first person accounts that blend the voices of the participants with those of the researcher, emphasizing the connectedness, the “we” among all participants, researchers, and listeners. These re-presentations allow readers to develop more embodied understandings of both the texture and structure of each of the phenomena and illustrate the use of the composite account as a way for researchers to better understand and convey the wholeness of the experience of any phenomenon under inquiry. PMID:21499448

Wertz, Marcia Stanley; Nosek, Marcianna; McNiesh, Susan; Marlow, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

115

The Search for Dimensional Structure Differences Between Normality and Abnormality: A Statistical Review of Published Data on Personality and Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical review of published data for 37 personality and psychopathology inventories was conducted to determine whether there are dimensional structure differences between clinical and nonclinical respondents. Correlation and factor-loading matrices from multiscale inventories and from specialized measures were tested for structural invariance across populations. There was relatively consistent evidence for high levels of similarity between normal and abnormal populations

Brian P. OConnor

2002-01-01

116

[Personal identity and multiple personality].  

PubMed

The present study analyses the internal organization of self concepts in a woman who meets the DSM III criteria of multiple personality disorder. The aim of this single case study, was to assess the personal identity of this patient, the degree of internal coherence and the hierarchical structure of the descriptions of self and others in the frame of cognitive theories of personality. After the clinical observation, the experimental procedure is presented. It consists in asking the patient to describe her different roles or alternated personalities (N = 12), as well as the target persons of her familial and social environment (N = 8) on the basis of a preestablished list of adjectives (extracted from the 16 P.F. Cattell sphere of personality). The factorial analysis of the contingency table: traits attributed x persons described shows a Guttman like hierarchical structure. Similarities and differences between the descriptions can be ordered on a unidimensional order, the multiple roles or personalities being no more complex nor simple than the target persons. The present results have been discussed in reference to cognitive theories of personality and their utility in studying personal identity and multiple personality. PMID:3223683

de Bonis, M; Charlot, V; Hardy, P; Féline, A

1988-01-01

117

Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and Narcissism in the Five-Factor Model and the HEXACO model of personality structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relations of the “Dark Triad” personality traits—Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and Narcissism—with the variables of the Five-Factor Model and the HEXACO model of personality structure. Results (N=164) indicated that all three Dark Triad traits were strongly negatively correlated (rs=?0.72, ?0.57, and ?0.53, respectively) with the HEXACO Honesty–Humility factor. Psychopathy and Machiavellianism showed moderate negative correlations with Big Five Agreeableness

Kibeom Lee; Michael C. Ashton

2005-01-01

118

The Millennium Galaxy Catalogue: Galaxy Bimodality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the Millennium Galaxy Catalogue we have completed the bulge-disk decomposition of 10095 nearby (z<0.18) galaxies. The decompositions are based on a Sersic-bulge plus exponential-disk models using GIM2D followed by logical filtering. The data reveals a remarkable bimodality in the joint colour-concentration plane. This bimodality is demonstrated to be due to the two-component nature of galaxies with bulges lying in one peak, disks in the second peak and with no obvious bridging population. This provides strong evidence that the bulge and disk components arise via independent evolutionary mechanisms on distinct timescales. We argue that these two timescales are coincident with the main phase of AGN activity at z > 2.0 (corresponding to bulge formation/assembly) and the star-formation rate (tracing disk formation). The conclusions of this empirical work are mirrored in recent developments in semi-analytical galaxy formation leading towards a unified picture of galaxy formation. Along the way we have identified a local population of blue elliptical galaxies, pseudo-bulges and quantified the nearby mass function of super-massive black holes. The luminosity functions and stellar mass content of bulges, pseudo-bulges, blue spheroids and disks will also be shown. DVDs containing the MGC data and catalogues will be available during the IAU.

Driver, Simon P.; Liske, Jochen; Graham, Alister W.

2007-05-01

119

Immobile Robots: AI in the New Millennium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new generation of sensor rich, massively distributed, autonomous systems are being developed that have the potential for profound social, environmental, and economic change. These include networked building energy systems, autonomous space probes, chemical plant control systems, satellite constellations for remote ecosystem monitoring, power grids, biosphere-like life support systems, and reconfigurable traffic systems, to highlight but a few. To achieve high performance, these immobile robots (or immobots) will need to develop sophisticated regulatory and immune systems that accurately and robustly control their complex internal functions. To accomplish this, immobots will exploit a vast nervous system of sensors to model themselves and their environment on a grand scale. They will use these models to dramatically reconfigure themselves in order to survive decades of autonomous operations. Achieving these large scale modeling and configuration tasks will require a tight coupling between the higher level coordination function provided by symbolic reasoning, and the lower level autonomic processes of adaptive estimation and control. To be economically viable they will need to be programmable purely through high level compositional models. Self modeling and self configuration, coordinating autonomic functions through symbolic reasoning, and compositional, model-based programming are the three key elements of a model-based autonomous systems architecture that is taking us into the New Millennium.

Williams, Brian C.; Nayak, P. Pandurang

1996-01-01

120

A structural model of goal orientation in sports: personal and contextual variables.  

PubMed

The following paper first introduces, and then goes on to test a structural model for goal orientation in sports that involves both personal and contextual variables. 511 subjects participated in this study, male and female athletes who play a variety of sports (352 men and 159 women). They ranged in age from 16 to 45-years old and completed the TEOSQ (Balaguer, Tomás & Castillo's version, 1995), the POSQ (Treasure & Roberts, 1994), the PMCSQ-II (Newton & Duda, 1993), the Beliefs about the Causes of Success in Sports Questionnaire, and the Participation Motivation Inventory (Gill, Goss & Huddleston, 1983). The results of this sample show that success attribution and motivational climate are involved in determining goal orientation in sports. However, the model does present certain differences according to the type of sport practiced (individual versus team sport). PMID:20480694

Holgado Tello, Francisco Pablo; Navas Martínez, Leandro; López Núñez, Manuela; García Calvo, Tomás

2010-05-01

121

Between order and disorder in protein structures - analysis of "dual personality" fragments in proteins  

PubMed Central

Summary In their natural environment, three-dimensional structures of proteins undergo significant fluctuations and are often partially or completely disordered. This phenomenon recently became the focus of much attention, as many proteins, especially from higher organisms, were shown to contain large intrinsically disordered regions. Such disordered regions may become ordered only under very specific circumstances, if at all, and can be recognized by specific amino acid composition and sequence signatures. Here, we suggest that the balance between order and disorder is much more subtle in that many regions are very close to the order/disorder boundary. Specifically, analysis of redundant sets of experimental models of protein structures, where emphasis is put on comparison of structures of identical proteins solved in different conditions and functional states, shows hundreds of fragments captured in two states: ordered and disordered. We show that such fragments, which we call here “dual-personality” (DP) fragments, have distinctive features that differentiate them from both regularly folded and intrinsically disordered fragments. We hypothesize, and show on several examples, that such fragments are often targets of regulation, either by allostery or post-translational modifications. PMID:17850753

Zhang, Ying; Stec, Boguslaw; Godzik, Adam

2007-01-01

122

Large Scale Structure of the Universe  

E-print Network

7/1/2009 1 Large Scale Structure of the Universe Fossils of the Cosmic Structure Formation process;7/1/2009 9 Cosmic Fossils ? Wanted: - Structures in youthful evolutionary phase - Direct link peculiar velocity v(x,t) Cosmic Structure Formation Millennium Simulation Millennium Simulation: LCDM

Weijgaert, Rien van de

123

Effects of Personality on Conflict Resolution in Student Teams: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports results of a study of the effects of five personality dimensions on conflict resolution preferences in student teams. Two hundred and sixteen students provided self-reports of personality dimensions and conflict styles using the Neo-FFI and ROCI-II scales. Simultaneous effects of five personality dimensions on five conflict…

Forrester, William R; Tashchian, Armen

2013-01-01

124

Psychometric and Structural Analysis of the MMPI-2 Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Facet Subscales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) is a model of personality psychopathology assessed in adult populations with a set of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scales. The authors examine the reliability and validity of recently developed lower-order facet subscales for each of these five domains, with an emphasis on…

Quilty, Lena C.; Bagby, R. Michael

2007-01-01

125

Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smith College has recently established the Louise B. and Edmund J. Kahn Liberal Arts Institute to foster interdisciplinary scholarship among the faculty. In the 1999-2000 academic year, the Kahn Institute is sponsoring a project entitled "Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium." The project will explore the impact of the astronomical discoveries of Galileo and his contemporaries on the Renaissance world-view and also use Galileo's experience as a lens for examining scientific and cultural developments at the symbolic juncture represented by the year 2000. Seven faculty fellows and 10-12 student fellows will participate in a year-long colloquium pursuing these themes, aided by the participation of some five Visiting Fellows. The inaugural public event will be a symposium on the historical Galileo, with presentation by three noted scholars, each of whom will return to campus for a second meeting with the Kahn colloquium. Additional events will include an exhibit of prints, artifacts, and rare books related to Galileo and his time, an early music concert featuring music composed by Galileo's father, and a series of other events sponsored by diverse departments and programs, all related to the broad themes of the Galileo project. The culminating events will be the premiere of a new music theater work, which will encapsulate the insights of the colloquium about human reactions to novel insights about the world, and a symposium presenting the research results of faculty and student fellows. The symposium will feature a capstone lecture by an visionary scholar projecting the implication of historical and contemporary trends into the future.

White, R. E.

1999-05-01

126

New Space Industries for the Next Millennium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New Space Industries For the Next Millennium is a final report of the findings from the New Space Industries Workshop held in Washington, DC, in February 1998. The primary purpose of this workshop was to identify what must be done to develop new markets, and to generate plans, milestones and new organizational relationships designed to facilitate the goal of space development. This document provides a summary report on the results of that workshop and is not intended as a statement of NASA or government policy. Previous studies had shown great potential for the development of new markets in space (e.g., travel and entertainment, space solar power, satellite and space transfer services, research and development in space, space manufacturing, and space resources), and a great need for coordination and formation of infrastructures (e.g., space transportation, space business parks, and space utilities), to facilitate the growth of new space businesses. The New Space Industries Workshop brought together government, academia, and industry participants from several previous studies and other professionals interested in the development of space for commercial purposes. Their participation provided input into the role of government and industry in space development as well as the technology needs that will enable space development. The opening of the frontier of space, not just to government missions but to private individuals and commercial business, is a challenge of overarching importance. It is our hope that the workshop and this final report continue in earnest the process of identifying and overcoming the barriers to large-scale public access and development of space in the early years of the next century.

Smitherman, D. V., Jr. (Compiler)

1998-01-01

127

Identifying with fictive characters: structural brain correlates of the personality trait 'fantasy'.  

PubMed

The perception of oneself as absorbed in the thoughts, feelings and happenings of a fictive character (e.g. in a novel or film) as if the character's experiences were one's own is referred to as identification. We investigated whether individual variation in the personality trait of identification is associated with individual variation in the structure of specific brain regions, using surface and volume-based morphometry. The hypothesized regions of interest were selected on the basis of their functional role in subserving the cognitive processing domains considered important for identification (i.e. mental imagery, empathy, theory of mind and merging) and for the immersive experience called 'presence'. Controlling for age, sex, whole-brain volume and other traits, identification covaried significantly with the left hippocampal volume, cortical thickness in the right anterior insula and the left dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and with gray matter volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings show that trait identification is associated with structural variation in specific brain regions. The findings are discussed in relation to the potential functional contribution of these regions to identification. PMID:24464847

Cheetham, Marcus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jancke, Lutz

2014-11-01

128

Towards Structural Systems Pharmacology to Study Complex Diseases and Personalized Medicine  

PubMed Central

Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS), whole genome sequencing, and high-throughput omics techniques have generated vast amounts of genotypic and molecular phenotypic data. However, these data have not yet been fully explored to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of drug discovery, which continues along a one-drug-one-target-one-disease paradigm. As a partial consequence, both the cost to launch a new drug and the attrition rate are increasing. Systems pharmacology and pharmacogenomics are emerging to exploit the available data and potentially reverse this trend, but, as we argue here, more is needed. To understand the impact of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors on drug action, we must study the structural energetics and dynamics of molecular interactions in the context of the whole human genome and interactome. Such an approach requires an integrative modeling framework for drug action that leverages advances in data-driven statistical modeling and mechanism-based multiscale modeling and transforms heterogeneous data from GWAS, high-throughput sequencing, structural genomics, functional genomics, and chemical genomics into unified knowledge. This is not a small task, but, as reviewed here, progress is being made towards the final goal of personalized medicines for the treatment of complex diseases. PMID:24830652

Xie, Lei; Ge, Xiaoxia; Tan, Hepan; Xie, Li; Zhang, Yinliang; Hart, Thomas; Yang, Xiaowei; Bourne, Philip E.

2014-01-01

129

Comparing the factor structure of the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire.  

PubMed

Schizotypy is a multidimensional construct that captures the expression of schizophrenic symptoms and impairment from subclinical levels to full-blown psychosis. The present study examined the comparability of the factor structure of 2 leading psychometric measures of schizotypy: the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales (WSS) and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Both the SPQ and WSS purportedly capture the multidimensional structure of schizotypy; however, whether they are measuring comparable factors has not been empirically demonstrated. This study provided support for a 2-factor model with positive and negative factors underlying the WSS; however, contrary to previous findings, the best fit for the SPQ was for a 4-factor model using confirmatory factor analysis, and a 2-factor model using exploratory factor analysis. The WSS factors were relatively distinct, whereas those underlying the SPQ showed high overlap. The WSS positive and SPQ cognitive-perceptual factors appeared to tap comparable constructs. However, the WSS negative and SPQ interpersonal factors appeared to tap somewhat different constructs based on their correlation and their patterns of associations with other schizotypy dimensions and the Five-Factor Model-suggesting that the SPQ interpersonal factor may not adequately tap negative or deficit schizotypy. Although the SPQ offers the advantage over the WSS of having a disorganization factor, it is not clear that this SPQ factor is actually distinct from positive schizotypy. Existing measures should be used with caution and new measures based on a priori theories are necessary to further understand the factor structure of schizotypy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25314229

Gross, Georgina M; Mellin, Juliann; Silvia, Paul J; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Kwapil, Thomas R

2014-10-01

130

A First Look at the Structured Clinical Interview for "DSM-IV" Personality Disorders Screening Questionnaire: More Than Just a Screener?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the psychometrics of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders Personality Questionnaire (SCID-IIP) self-report personality questionnaire. The responses to the instrument were found reliable and evidenced good self-other convergence. Correlations with external criteria showed the SCID-IIP to contain…

Piedmont, Ralph L.; Sherman, Martin F.; Sherman, Nancy C.; Williams, Joseph E. G.

2003-01-01

131

Structural brain abnormalities in borderline personality disorder: a voxel-based morphometry study.  

PubMed

Imaging studies using region-of-interest morphometry and positron emission tomography have contributed to our understanding of structural and functional abnormalities in borderline personality disorder (BPD); however, both methods have practical limitations to their usefulness for exploratory studies of brain-behavior relationships. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 34 subjects with BPD and 30 healthy control (HC) subjects to study effects of diagnosis, gender, childhood sexual abuse, depressed mood, impulsivity and aggression on group differences. VBM is a computer-based method for whole brain analysis that combines the advantages of a functional study with a structural method. The BPD subjects, diagnosed with the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients and the International Personality Disorders Examination, were compared with 30 HC subjects, with age and gender covaried. Analyses were repeated separately by gender and, in women, by histories of childhood sexual abuse. Depressed mood, impulsivity, and aggression were covaried in separate analyses. Compared with HC, BPD subjects had significant bilateral reductions in gray matter concentrations in ventral cingulate gyrus and several regions of the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, and uncus. BPD women (and abused BPD women), but not BPD men, had significant reductions in medial temporal lobe, including the amygdala. BPD men, but not BPD women, showed diminished gray matter concentrations in the anterior cingulate gyrus compared with findings in HC subjects. Covarying for depressed mood rendered group differences non-significant in the ventral cingulate but had little effect on differences in medial temporal cortex. Covarying for aggression (LHA) had relatively little effect on group differences, while covarying for impulsivity, as determined by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, rendered all previously noted voxel-level group differences non-significant. Diminished gray matter in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal cortex may mediate the dysregulation of impulse and affect in BPD. Group differences varied greatly by gender, levels of depression, and impulsivity. VBM is an efficient method for exploratory study of brain-behavior relationships. PMID:19019636

Soloff, Paul; Nutche, Jeffrey; Goradia, Dhruman; Diwadkar, Vaibhav

2008-12-30

132

Structural Relations of Personal and Collective Self-Esteem to Subjective Well-Being: Attachment as Moderator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model indicating that the relationship between collective self-esteem and indicators of subjective well-being, happiness and life satisfaction, was mediated by personal self-esteem was tested by structural equation modeling. The model, including all participants, fitted well to the data. The results suggested that the relationship of collective…

Simsek, Omer Faruk

2013-01-01

133

Circumplex Structure and Personality Disorder Correlates of the Interpersonal Problems Model (IIP-C): Construct Validity and Clinical Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the construct validity of the circumplex model of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-C) in Norwegian clinical and nonclinical samples. Structure was examined by evaluating the fit of the circumplex model to data obtained by the IIP-C. Observer-rated personality disorder criteria (DSM-IV, Axis II) were used as external…

Monsen, Jon T.; Hagtvet, Knut A.; Havik, Odd E.; Eilertsen, Dag E.

2006-01-01

134

The Structure of Maladaptive Personality Traits in Childhood: A Step Toward an Integrative Developmental Perspective for DSM–V  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes the construction of a taxonomy of trait-related symptoms in childhood, the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI), and examines the replicability of the taxonomy's higher order structure across maternal ratings of referred (N = 205) and nonreferred (N = 242) children and self-ratings of adolescents (N = 453). The DIPSI's 4 higher order factors—that is, Emotional

Barbara De Clercq; Filip De Fruyt; Karla Van Leeuwen; Ivan Mervielde

2006-01-01

135

The Personal and Academic Self-Concept Inventory: Factor Structure and Gender Differences in High School and College Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Personal and Academic Self-Concept Inventory (PASCI) measures global, social, physical, and academic components of self-concept, as well as social anxiety. Several competing structural models were tested by confirmatory factor analysis for a sample of high school (N = 222) and college (N = 338) students. Seven oblique factors which included two social factors (Social Acceptance and Social Anxiety) fit

James S. Fleming; D. Joel Whalen

1990-01-01

136

Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for Ukraine.…

Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

2012-01-01

137

Radiology system evolution in the new millennium.  

PubMed

For many decades the practice of radiology grew slowly in America and was largely a secondary function under the control of hospitals. In more recent times it has vastly expanded its array of diagnostic, interventional, and therapeutic abilities. There is increasing consumer logic for direct access. Motivations have grown to create large independent entities with broadly diverse capabilities in order to succeed in the new millennium. Most regional markets are evolving rapidly in terms of managed care penetration, health system formation, physician practice consolidation and aggressive purchaser behavior by employers and consumers. To understand the enormity of healthcare evolution, it is useful to look at the industry's paradigm shifts in recent decades. Virtually every aspect of organizational infrastructure, delivery approaches, and the business environment has evolved markedly during the past fifty years. These changes will accelerate. To succeed financially, radiology groups must strengthen their market positions, technical capabilities, continuums of care and geographic dominance. Equally important is the wisdom of diversifying incomes into related services and businesses that provide additional related revenues. Key factors for successful development include facility market growth, full coverage of managed care contracts, high efficiency and aggressive diversification. A fully evolved system generates significant revenues and profitability by protecting and strengthening its financial position in this environment. That is accomplished through the development of strategically located radiology groups, aggressive alliances with medical practices in allied disciplines, and managed radiology departments and facilities for partner health systems. Organizational success ultimately depends on the ability to accept capitated payments under risk-bearing arrangements. The strategic business plan should be organized with the appropriate levels of detail needed to establish executive focus and priorities. These should be woven into operational and capital budgets to reflect expectations of the revenues, expenses and investments tied to the plan. While formidable, all of these objectives are realistic and can be accomplished if the right decisions are made. Initially, the entity's principle business objective is to formulate and begin implementation of methodical yet aggressive strategies for growth that are sensitive to sustaining high levels of quality patient care. The next phase features mergers with large, independent radiology practices in key geographic areas and successful acquisition of smaller practices. The objective of the final phase is to aggressively expand into select metropolitan areas with regional coverage and full teleradiology capabilities. High levels of market strength and financial performance are necessary to succeed. Passive limitations to small geographic areas and narrow practices will undermine their market position and dissolve financial strength with no hope of recovery. Only the dominant systems will survive and prosper. PMID:11499080

Nauert, R C

2001-01-01

138

Roe v. Wade. Into the next millennium.  

PubMed

In order to take the fight for reproductive rights into the next millennium, women in the US must be reminded of what life was like for women when contraception and abortion were illegal, and the silent majority of women who accept that abortion is a private decision must be marshalled to express their views politically. In the US, abortion was allowed until the mid- to late-1800s when Protestant leaders feared that Protestant births were being outnumbered by births to Irish Roman Catholic immigrants. There was only minimal organized opposition to abortion during the period when it was illegal and millions of women were dying as a result. An estimated 30,000 women died each year of illegal abortion in the US, and by the 1960s, illegal abortion was the greatest killer of women of reproductive age. Organized medicine, which witnessed these tragedies, never rallied to assure women quality reproductive health care. In fact, one of the first projects of the American Medical Association (AMA) was an anti-abortion campaign designed to put competitors out of business. The AMA waited until 1937 to endorse contraception and until the late 1960s to make efforts to legalize abortion. In 1997, the AMA again abandoned women by supporting the ban on late-term abortions. Pro-choice forces should prioritize the promotion of technological advances that will allow women to control conception and abortion. The means of achieving medical abortion and emergency contraception should be available in every physician's office and should be covered by every health insurance scheme. Reproductive health advocates must also work to inspire honesty about sex and sexuality in our sexually-obsessed, sexually-repressed society. Sex education in Denmark has nearly obliterated adolescent pregnancy and led to an 80% decline in the abortion rate over 30 years. In the US, nearly half of women have an abortion, and anti-abortion advocates should face the reality that their wives, daughters, mothers, and sisters have been affected by the right to choose. It is time to claim the moral high ground in the effort to secure safe, quality reproductive health care for all women. PMID:12178889

Sanger, A C

1998-01-01

139

Personality structure in brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella): comparisons with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).  

PubMed

Species comparisons of personality structure (i.e., how many personality dimensions and the characteristics of those dimensions) can facilitate questions about the adaptive function of personality in nonhuman primates. Here we investigate personality structure in the brown capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella), a New World primate species, and compare this structure to those of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Brown capuchins evolved behavioral and cognitive traits that are qualitatively similar to those of great apes, and individual differences in behavior and cognition often reflect differences in personality. Thus, we hypothesized that brown capuchin personality structure would overlap more with great apes than with rhesus macaques. We obtained personality ratings from seven sites, including 127 brown capuchin monkeys. Principal-components analysis identified five personality dimensions (Assertiveness, Openness, Neuroticism, Sociability, and Attentiveness), which were reliable across raters and, in a subset of subjects, significantly correlated with relevant behaviors up to a year later. Comparisons between species revealed that brown capuchins and great apes overlapped in personality structure, particularly chimpanzees in the case of Neuroticism. However, in some respects (i.e., capuchin Sociability and Openness) the similarities between capuchins and great apes were not significantly greater than those between capuchins and rhesus macaques. We discuss the relevance of our results to brown capuchin behavior and the evolution of personality structure in primates. PMID:23668695

Morton, F Blake; Lee, Phyllis C; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Brosnan, Sarah F; Thierry, Bernard; Paukner, Annika; de Waal, Frans B M; Widness, Jane; Essler, Jennifer L; Weiss, Alexander

2013-08-01

140

Factor structure and construct validity of the psychopathic personality inventory in a forensic sample.  

PubMed

A wealth of research has underscored the strong relationship between PCL-R scores and recidivism. However, mounting criticism cites the PCL-R's cumbersome administration procedures and failure to adequately measure core features associated with the construct of psychopathy (Skeem, Polaschek, Patrick, & Lilienfeld, 2011). In light of these concerns, this study examined the PPI and the PPI-R, which were designed to measure core personality features associated with psychopathy (Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). Study one examined the PPI relative to the PCL-R and examined its factor structure. The instruments shared few significant correlations and neither the PCL-R nor the PPI significantly predicted recidivism. Study two examined the PPI-R relative to the PCL-R, the PPI, both history of violence and future criminal activity and measure of related constructs. The PPI-R was significantly correlated with measures of empathy and criminal thinking and the factors were related to a history of violence and predicted future violent criminal behavior. PMID:23399313

Gonsalves, Valerie M; McLawsen, Julia E; Huss, Matthew T; Scalora, Mario J

2013-01-01

141

The validity and clinical utility of structured diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder with forensic patients.  

PubMed

Current DSM-based instruments for personality disorders (PDs) limit the investigation of the course and outcome of treatment of these disorders. This study examined the validity of the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200 (SWAP-200) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PD (SCID-II) in a sample of forensic PD patients. Results based on 66 participants indicated that the SWAP-200 Q-factors reduced the frequency of diagnostic comorbidity of PD categories by half compared with the SCID-II. Only the SWAP-200's Antisocial PD category showed good convergent and discriminant validity with respect to other instruments describing aspects of PD. The validity of the cutoff score for severe antisocial PD was confirmed, and this category predicted severe incidents in the hospital at 1 year of follow-up. A violence risk scale was constructed, which differentiated violent and nonviolent offenders. The results support the validity of the SWAP-200 and its potential clinical utility with forensic PD patients. PMID:24511901

Marin-Avellan, Luisa E; McGauley, Gillian A; Campbell, Colin D; Fonagy, Peter

2014-08-01

142

Exploring the underlying structure of personal Web usage in the workplace.  

PubMed

Personal Web usage (PWU) represents a tension between employers and employees as employers generally regard employees' PWU as negative and employees see many PWU behaviors as acceptable. Employers attempt to limit PWU primarily through electronic monitoring and Internet usage policies. Employees, however, find PWU not only permissible, but also useful and rationalize these workplace behaviors. While researchers identified many PWU behaviors, the underlying structure of the phenomenon is not clearly understood. In this article, we offer a comprehensive new definition of PWU, and develop an empirically grounded classification of PWU framed by psychological contract theory and based on two studies. Using multidimensional scaling techniques and cluster analysis, we identified four clusters of PWU behaviors-work/family, hedonic, self-development, and citizenship. The results provide information as to what constitutes the domain of PWU, and how various usages are related to one another via the dimensions of individual and organizational benefits. We offer directions for future work and suggest how our work might be useful to practitioners. PMID:21728817

Anandarajan, Murugan; Simmers, Claire A; D'Ovidio, Rob

2011-10-01

143

``Thermal'' and ``superthermal'' two-class structure of the personal income distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Ref. [1] we proposed an analogy between the thermal Boltzmann-Gibbs probability distribution of energy in physics and the probability distribution of money in economics in statistical equilibrium. In Ref. [2] we find that the probability distribution of personal income in the USA has a well-defined two-class structure. The majority of population (97-99%) belongs to the lower class characterized by the exponential Boltzmann-Gibbs (``thermal'') distribution, whereas the upper class (1-3% of population) has a Pareto power-law (``superthermal'') distribution. By analyzing the income data for 1983--2001 from IRS, we show that the ``thermal'' part is stationary in time, save for a gradual increase of the effective temperature, whereas the nonequilibrium ``superthermal'' tail swells and shrinks following the stock market. We discuss the concept of equilibrium inequality in a society, based on the principle of maximal entropy, and quantitatively show that it applies to the majority of the US population. [] [1] A. Dragulescu and V. M. Yakovenko, ``Statistical mechanics of money'', Eur. Phys. J. B 17, 723--729 (2000). [cond-mat/0001432] [] [2] A. C. Silva and V. M. Yakovenko, ``Temporal evolution of the `thermal' and `superthermal' income classes in the USA during 1983--2001'', accepted to Europhysics Letters. [cond- mat/0406385

Yakovenko, Victor

2005-03-01

144

Personality Assessment Inventory internalizing and externalizing structure in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: Associations with aggression.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n?=?433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n?=?165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n's?=?299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges. Aggr. Behav. 40:582-592, 2014. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:25131806

Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Paul A; Elbogen, Eric B; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S

2014-11-01

145

Categorized level management agent with forest-based data structures for accessing personal health records  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the wide usage of personal health records, privacy concerns are inevitable, such as the disclosure degree for personal information and health records and browsing privileges for related information. We do not have an effective categorizing system to control user privilege, so employees who have multiple identities must switch between different accounts, which are both inconvenient and ineffective, and

Ssu-Wei Wu; Po-Hsun Cheng; Wen-Cheng Chiang; Jia-Kuan Lin; Jin-Shin Lai

2011-01-01

146

Effects of a change in reference person on the multidimensional structure and evaluations of trait adjectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asked 10 male undergraduates to judge each of the 120 possible pairs of 16 trait descriptive adjectives according to the likelihood that both traits might occur simultaneously in 1 person. Unidimensional judgments of both likeableness as a person and favorableness for profession of each of the traits were obtained. These 3 types of judgments were requested in reference to 2

Mildred S. Hanno; Lawrence E. Jones

1973-01-01

147

Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118): Development, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a series of studies involving 2,730 participants on the development and validity testing of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP), a self-report questionnaire covering important core components of (mal)adaptive personality functioning. Results show that the 16 facets constituted homogeneous item clusters (i.e.,…

Verheul, Roel; Andrea, Helene; Berghout, Caspar C.; Dolan, Conor; Busschbach, Jan J. V.; van der Kroft, Petra J. A.; Bateman, Anthony W.; Fonagy, Peter

2008-01-01

148

At the Threshold of the Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume of essays was written as a tribute to the ideals of Phi Delta Kappa and to the fraternity's retiring executive director, Lowell C. Rose, who led the international professional fraternity in education from 1971 to 1995. Each contributor was invited to reflect on his or her personal experiences in education and life and to speculate on…

Walling, Donovan R., Ed.

149

A Millennium of Metallurgy Recorded by Lake Sediments from  

E-print Network

of metallurgy. Here, we combine a lake sediment record of pre-historic metal pollution from the Morococha regionA Millennium of Metallurgy Recorded by Lake Sediments from Morococha, Peruvian Andes C O L I N activity in the Peruvian Andes using the lake- sediment stratigraphy of atmospherically derived metals (Pb

Wolfe, Alexander P.

150

Developing an Educational Performance Indicator for New Millennium Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational performance based on the learning outcomes of formal schooling in a future knowledge society could be significantly different from that of today. This study investigates the possibilities of developing an educational performance indicator for new-millennium learners (NMLs). The researchers conducted literature reviews, a meeting of…

Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Jo, Il-Hyun; Shin, Jongho; Seo, Jeonghee

2011-01-01

151

The new millennium: An ecology and an economy of hope  

Microsoft Academic Search

AS we stand on the cusp of a new millennium, the human enterprise is marked by a profound recognition of both ecological and economic types. We are more critically d e- pendent than ever on the environmental resource base - the water, topsoil, vegetation, biodiversity, climate, etc. - that ultimately underpins all our economic activities. Yet we are depleting and

Norman Myers

152

Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 1: Early Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

2007-01-01

153

The Climate of the Last Millennium R.S. Bradley  

E-print Network

shorelines and glacier moraines) and macrofossils that indicate the range of plant or animal species variations, so regardless of how anthropogenic effects develop it is essential to understand the underlying millennium include: historical documentary records, tree rings (width, density); ice cores (isotopes, melt

Bradley, Raymond S.

154

Thoughts on the Eve of the New Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers reflections on how people share their cultures as they enter the new millennium, based on the author's two trips to Asia where she lectured and led drama workshops on drama education and theater for youth. Outlines seven steps to take toward reaching goals in the field of theater for young audiences and drama/theater education. (SR)

McCaslin, Nellie

2000-01-01

155

A Guide for Education in the Third Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the philosophical approaches to knowledge that have governed education and concludes that a new paradigm is needed for the new millennium. Education is subdivided into a three-level hierarchy, including: (1) the accumulation of factoids as knowledge; (2) the development of knowledge into theories and models for the purpose of…

Whiddon, Tom; Wirth, Rex; Pool, Harbison

156

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act and Other Egregious Laws.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act, providing increased protection against unauthorized access to copyrighted electronic media, and the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, extending the term of most copyrighted books, unduly burden users of electronic media and books. Discusses the negative impact of recent federal laws to…

Van Horn, Royal

2002-01-01

157

Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter features innovations in resource management and information technology to support New York State government. The newsletter contains the following six sections: (1) "Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium" -- examining the need for government involvement in electronic commerce policy and partnership; (2)…

Maxwell, Terrence A., Ed.

1998-01-01

158

Last Millennium Climate Change in CMIP5 Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Little Ice Age (LIA) is broadly defined as a time of cool Northern Hemisphere temperatures ~ 1350 - 1850 AD. Paleoclimate data suggest that changes in tropical rainfall patterns, including a southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), also occurred during this time. We investigate LIA climate change in the latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) General Circulation Models (GCMs). By comparing last millennium simulations, which are driven by the paleo record of natural and anthropogenic forcing, to unforced control runs of eight GCMs, we investigate whether LIA conditions occur in the CMIP5 last millennium runs and whether they can be attributed to external forcing. While the models generally simulate anomalous Northern Hemisphere cooling and expanded Arctic sea ice beginning ~ 1250 AD and progressing to 1850 AD, there is little agreement on the interhemispheric temperature gradient and on the behavior of the ITCZ during the last millennium. As tropical precipitation shifts are strongly anti-correlated with cross equatorial atmospheric energy transport in observations and in GCM simulations of global warming, we perform an energy budget analysis to evaluate the relationship between the position of the ITCZ and cross equatorial atmospheric energy transport in the last millennium simulations. Analysis of the energy budget also enables the changes in surface temperature, cross equatorial atmospheric energy transport, and position of the ITCZ to be attributed to the individual components of radiative forcing and climate feedbacks. This attribution analysis is used to investigate the range of temperature and ITCZ responses across models.

Atwood, A.; Wu, E.; Frierson, D. M.; Sachs, J. P.; Battisti, D. S.

2013-12-01

159

Racial Disparities in New Millennium Schools: Implications for School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the role of race in new millennium schools and its impact on students. Multicultural, psycho-social, and academic issues are addressed, and interventions for school counselors are discussed. Racially correlated disparities in K-12 education are apparent in: test scores, grades, retention and drop-out rates, identification for…

LeBeauf, Ireon

2008-01-01

160

Technology readiness levels for the new millennium program  

Microsoft Academic Search

National Aeronautic and Space Administration's (NASA) New Millennium Program (NMP) seeks to advance space exploration by providing an in-space validating mechanism to verify the maturity of promising advanced technologies that cannot be adequately validated with Earth-based testing alone. In meeting this objective, NMP uses NASA Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) as key indicators of technology advancement and assesses development progress against

C. P. Minning; P. I. Moynihan; J. F. Stocky

2003-01-01

161

Copyright Dot Com: The Digital Millennium in Copyright.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines copyright issues vital to education. It explores copyright in terms of both statutory and case law, and in particular in relation to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), which is a complex set of rules and regulations that affects anyone involved in copyright. Among the new issues are the impact of technology and the…

Diotalevi, Robert N.

162

NASA's New Millennium Space Technology 5 (ST5) project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 1999, NASA selected Nanosat Constellation Trailblazer (NCT) as the New Millennium ST5 project. NCT will validate technologies needed for future NASA science missions. NCT will reduce the technology risk of producing and operating constellations of small (~10 kg, 10 W total power) satellites. This technology mission will develop, deploy and operate 3 full function 20-Kg class spacecraft. NCT

R. L. Ticker; D. McLennan

2000-01-01

163

UN Millennium Development Goal 1 Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger  

E-print Network

UN Millennium Development Goal 1 Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger QUICK FACTS The World Bank in Vietnam has helped cut the prevalence of hunger from 28% to 13% in just two years. · Interest free loan, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. Measures: 1.8 Number of underweight children

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

164

Developing an Educational Performance Indicator for New Millennium Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational performance based on the learning outcomes of formal schooling in a future knowledge society could be significantly different from that of today. This study investigates the possibilities of developing an educational performance indicator for new-millennium learners (NMLs). The researchers conducted literature reviews, a meeting of…

Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Jo, Il-Hyun; Shin, Jongho; Seo, Jeonghee

2012-01-01

165

The Neo Personality Inventory-Revised: Factor Structure and Gender Invariance from Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in a High-Stakes Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents new analyses of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) responses collected from a large British sample in a high-stakes setting. The authors show the appropriateness of the five-factor model underpinning these responses in a variety of new ways. Using the recently developed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM)…

Furnham, Adrian; Guenole, Nigel; Levine, Stephen Z.; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

2013-01-01

166

LARYNGEAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN MALE-TO-FEMALE TRANSSEXUAL PERSONS: ENDOSCOPIC AND STROBOSCOPIC PRESENTATION  

E-print Network

Data are lacking regarding the physical correlates that accompany the methods used by male-to-female transsexual (MFT) persons to feminize their voices. Visual study of these alterations is needed to better understand the ...

Palmer, Derek

2009-07-22

167

Exploring the hierarchical structure of the MMPI-2-RF Personality Psychopathology Five in psychiatric patient and university student samples.  

PubMed

In this study our goal was to examine the hierarchical structure of personality pathology as conceptualized by Harkness and McNulty's (1994) Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) model, as recently operationalized by the MMPI-2-RF (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2011) PSY-5r scales. We used Goldberg's (2006) "bass-ackwards" method to obtain factor structure using PSY-5r item data, successively extracting from 1 to 5 factors in a sample of psychiatric patients (n = 1,000) and a sample of university undergraduate students (n = 1,331). Participants from these samples had completed either the MMPI-2 or the MMPI-2-RF. The results were mostly consistent across the 2 samples, with some differences at the 3-factor level. In the patient sample a factor structure representing 3 broad psychopathology domains (internalizing, externalizing, and psychoticism) emerged; in the student sample the 3-factor level represented what is more commonly observed in "normal-range" personality models (negative emotionality, introversion, and disconstraint). At the 5-factor level the basic structure was similar across the 2 samples and represented well the PSY-5r domains. PMID:24004403

Bagby, R Michael; Sellbom, Martin; Ayearst, Lindsay E; Chmielewski, Michael S; Anderson, Jaime L; Quilty, Lena C

2014-01-01

168

The Lagoon at Caroline/Millennium Atoll, Republic of Kiribati: Natural History of a Nearly Pristine Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

A series of surveys were carried out to characterize the physical and biological parameters of the Millennium Atoll lagoon during a research expedition in April of 2009. Millennium is a remote coral atoll in the Central Pacific belonging to the Republic of Kiribati, and a member of the Southern Line Islands chain. The atoll is among the few remaining coral reef ecosystems that are relatively pristine. The lagoon is highly enclosed, and was characterized by reticulate patch and line reefs throughout the center of the lagoon as well as perimeter reefs around the rim of the atoll. The depth reached a maximum of 33.3 m in the central region of the lagoon, and averaged between 8.8 and 13.7 m in most of the pools. The deepest areas were found to harbor large platforms of Favia matthaii, which presumably provided a base upon which the dominant corals (Acropora spp.) grew to form the reticulate reef structure. The benthic algal communities consisted mainly of crustose coralline algae (CCA), microfilamentous turf algae and isolated patches of Halimeda spp. and Caulerpa spp. Fish species richness in the lagoon was half of that observed on the adjacent fore reef. The lagoon is likely an important nursery habitat for a number of important fisheries species including the blacktip reef shark and Napoleon wrasse, which are heavily exploited elsewhere around the world but were common in the lagoon at Millennium. The lagoon also supports an abundance of giant clams (Tridacna maxima). Millennium lagoon provides an excellent reference of a relatively undisturbed coral atoll. As with most coral reefs around the world, the lagoon communities of Millennium may be threatened by climate change and associated warming, acidification and sea level rise, as well as sporadic local resource exploitation which is difficult to monitor and enforce because of the atoll's remote location. While the remote nature of Millennium has allowed it to remain one of the few nearly pristine coral reef ecosystems in the world, it is imperative that this ecosystem receives protection so that it may survive for future generations. PMID:20539746

Barott, Katie L.; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Maragos, James E.; Obura, David; Rohwer, Forest L.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Zgliczynski, Brian

2010-01-01

169

The effect of task structure leadership style and jungian personality characteristics on job satisfaction: a field study  

E-print Network

of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1980 Major Subject: Psychology THE EFFECT OF TASK STRUCTURE LEADERSHIP STYLE AND JUNGIAN PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS ON JOB SATISFACTION: A FIELD STUDY A Thesis by JENNIFER RHINE Approved... characteristics were derived from Carl Jung's theory of psychological types. Hypotheses concerning relationsh1ps between task var1ab1lity and leadersh1p style were based on House's Path-Goal theory. Derivations from the Path- Goal theory were hypothesized due...

Rhine, Jennifer

2012-06-07

170

The impact of structured risk assessments followed by management recommendations on aggression in patients with personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the proposition that structured risk assessments followed immediately by the risk assessment results and recommendations for management can reduce the frequency of aggression in high-risk personality-disordered patients. The study included three phases during which aggressive behaviour was recorded: (a) baseline, (b) daily risk assessment using the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression (DASA) and HCR-20 Clinical Scale, and

Michael Daffern; Kevin Howells; Laura Hamilton; Aisling Mannion; Richard Howard; Mary Lilly

2009-01-01

171

Impact of structured personal on-site patient education on low posaconazole plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancies.  

PubMed

Low posaconazole plasma concentrations (PPCs) are associated with breakthrough invasive mould infections among patients with haematological malignancies. This study evaluated the influence of structured personal on-site patient education on low PPCs. The study was conducted from July 2012 to May 2013 at the Division of Hematology, Medical University Hospital of Graz (Graz, Austria). PPCs were measured in all patients with haematological malignancies receiving the drug prophylactically. Concentrations above the target of 0.5 mg/L were defined as satisfactory and those below this concentration as low. In patients with low PPCs, structured personal on-site education regarding the intake of posaconazole (e.g. intake with fatty/acid food, prevention of nausea and vomiting) was performed. In total, 258 steady-state PPCs were measured in 65 patients [median PPC 0.59 mg/L, interquartile range 0.25-0.92 mg/L; 141/258 (54.7%) satisfactory]. Diarrhoea was the strongest predictor of low PPCs in the multivariate analysis. Initial steady-state PPCs were sufficient in 29 patients and low in 36 patients. Of the 36 patients with low initial steady-state PPCs, 8 were either discharged or antifungal therapy was modified before a follow-up PPC was obtained; in the remaining 28 patients, personal on-site education was performed. In 12/28 patients (43%) the personal on-site education led to sufficient levels, whilst in 16 (57%) PPCs stayed below the target, although increasing from <0.2 mg/L to >0.3 mg/L in 6 of these patients. In conclusion, personal education appears to be a promising tool to increase low PPCs. PMID:25059446

Hoenigl, Martin; Duettmann, Wiebke; Raggam, Reinhard B; Huber-Krassnitzer, Bianca; Theiler, Georg; Seeber, Katharina; Prueller, Florian; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Prattes, Jürgen; Wagner, Jasmin; Wölfler, Albert; Krause, Robert

2014-08-01

172

Personality and Personality Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mental disorders that most clearly relate to personality are the personality disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the support for the hypothesis that the personality disorders of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) represent variants of normal personality traits. We focus in particular on the efforts to

Thomas A. Widiger; Paul T. Costa

1994-01-01

173

Solar activity and climate during the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sunspot number is the longest running direct index of solar activity, with direct measurements starting in 1610. For many purposes, e.g., for comparisons with climate indices, it is still too short. We present a reconstruction of the cycle-averaged sunspot number over the last millennium based on 10Be concentrations in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. As intermediate steps of the method, we also reconstruct the cosmic ray flux at Earth and the Sun's open magnetic flux. The reconstructions are validated by comparison with direct measurements or independent reconstructions. We also compare with records of global climate, in particular with the global temperature ("hockey stick") curve of Mann et al (1998). A reasonable agreement is found for the entire millennium, excluding only the last decades, when the two curves start diverging from each other.

Solanki, S. K.; Usoskin, I.; Schüssler, M.

174

Successful behavioral health business development for the millennium.  

PubMed

The business development framework for provider positioning, market share, and competition has significantly shifted in the late 1990s as providers prepare for the millennium. The use of the Marketing Four Ps is a helpful tool for providers to thoroughly evaluate their product/service viability, pricing objectives, promotional mix, and place accessibility, and will allow organizations to reposition in their marketplace, maximize market share, and develop new partnerships with previous competitors. PMID:10182149

Pyrce, J M

1998-08-01

175

MULTIMEDIA PEDAGOGY AND MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION FOR THE NEW MILLENNIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technologies provide tools to reconstruct education as we begin a new millennium. In particular, multimedia technologies, like CD?ROMs and Web sites, produce new resources and material for expanding education. In examining the Shoah Project—which documents the experiences of survivors of the Holocaust—we demonstrate how it provides important tools for historical and religious education, as well as making the reality

Rhonda Hammer; Douglas Kellner

2000-01-01

176

Health in the developing world: achieving the Millennium Development Goals.  

PubMed

The Millennium Development Goals depend critically on scaling up public health investments in developing countries. As a matter of urgency, developing-country governments must present detailed investment plans that are sufficiently ambitious to meet the goals, and the plans must be inserted into existing donor processes. Donor countries must keep the promises they have often reiterated of increased assistance, which they can easily afford, to help improve health in the developing countries and ensure stability for the whole world. PMID:15654410

Sachs, Jeffrey D

2004-12-01

177

Celebrating the Millennium: Historical Highlights of Photosynthesis Research, Part 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the third and final part of the 'millennium celebrations of historical highlights of photosynthesis\\u000a research.' Part 1 (308 pages) was published in October 2002 as Vol. 73 of the journal Photosynthesis Research, and Part 2 (458 pages) was published in July 2003 as Vol. 76. Here, we recognize particularly the work of three major contributors\\u000a to our

Govindjee; John F. Allen; J. Thomas Beatty

2004-01-01

178

Millennium development goals and global women's and infants' health.  

PubMed

This article presents a brief history and description of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as a framework for addressing the world's health needs. They focus on decreasing poverty, decreasing child and maternal mortality, and ensuring gender equality in terms of education, work opportunities, and health and health care. Progress on attainment of MDGs is reported, and links between social determinants of health and the well-being of women and newborns are presented. Implications for maternal newborn nurses are discussed. PMID:20673315

Mattson, Susan

2010-01-01

179

Investigating the structure of semantic networks in low and high creative persons  

PubMed Central

According to Mednick's (1962) theory of individual differences in creativity, creative individuals appear to have a richer and more flexible associative network than less creative individuals. Thus, creative individuals are characterized by “flat” (broader associations) instead of “steep” (few, common associations) associational hierarchies. To study these differences, we implement a novel computational approach to the study of semantic networks, through the analysis of free associations. The core notion of our method is that concepts in the network are related to each other by their association correlations—overlap of similar associative responses (“association clouds”). We began by collecting a large sample of participants who underwent several creativity measurements and used a decision tree approach to divide the sample into low and high creative groups. Next, each group underwent a free association generation paradigm which allowed us to construct and analyze the semantic networks of both groups. Comparison of the semantic memory networks of persons with low creative ability and persons with high creative ability revealed differences between the two networks. The semantic memory network of persons with low creative ability seems to be more rigid, compared to the network of persons with high creative ability, in the sense that it is more spread out and breaks apart into more sub-parts. We discuss how our findings are in accord and extend Mednick's (1962) theory and the feasibility of using network science paradigms to investigate high level cognition. PMID:24959129

Kenett, Yoed N.; Anaki, David; Faust, Miriam

2014-01-01

180

Structural coherence and temporal stability of psychopathic personality features during emerging adulthood.  

PubMed

Psychopathy is a complex personality disorder characterized by affective, interpersonal, and behavioral dimensions. Although features of psychopathy have been extended downwardly to earlier developmental periods, there is a discerning lack of studies that have focused on critically important issues such as longitudinal invariance and stability/change in these features across time. The current study examines these issues using a large sample of male adolescent offenders (N = 1,170) assessed across 7 annual time points during the transition into emerging adulthood (ages ?17 to 24 years). Findings demonstrated that features of psychopathy remained longitudinally invariant across this developmental period, and showed temporally consistent and theoretically coherent associations with other measures of personality, psychopathology, and criminal behaviors. Results also demonstrated that mean levels of psychopathic personality features tended to decrease into emerging adulthood and showed relatively modest rank-order stability across assessments with 7-year lags. These findings suggest that reductions in maladaptive personality features seem to parallel the well-documented decreases in offending that occur during the early 20s. PMID:24978692

Hawes, Samuel W; Mulvey, Edward P; Schubert, Carol A; Pardini, Dustin A

2014-08-01

181

Investigating the structure of semantic networks in low and high creative persons.  

PubMed

According to Mednick's (1962) theory of individual differences in creativity, creative individuals appear to have a richer and more flexible associative network than less creative individuals. Thus, creative individuals are characterized by "flat" (broader associations) instead of "steep" (few, common associations) associational hierarchies. To study these differences, we implement a novel computational approach to the study of semantic networks, through the analysis of free associations. The core notion of our method is that concepts in the network are related to each other by their association correlations-overlap of similar associative responses ("association clouds"). We began by collecting a large sample of participants who underwent several creativity measurements and used a decision tree approach to divide the sample into low and high creative groups. Next, each group underwent a free association generation paradigm which allowed us to construct and analyze the semantic networks of both groups. Comparison of the semantic memory networks of persons with low creative ability and persons with high creative ability revealed differences between the two networks. The semantic memory network of persons with low creative ability seems to be more rigid, compared to the network of persons with high creative ability, in the sense that it is more spread out and breaks apart into more sub-parts. We discuss how our findings are in accord and extend Mednick's (1962) theory and the feasibility of using network science paradigms to investigate high level cognition. PMID:24959129

Kenett, Yoed N; Anaki, David; Faust, Miriam

2014-01-01

182

Personality Traits and General Intelligence as Predictors of Academic Performance: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, after controlling for general intelligence, predict academic performance in different school subjects. Upper secondary school students in Sweden (N=315) completed the Wonderlic IQ test (Wonderlic, 1992) and the IPIP-NEO-PI test (Goldberg, 1999). A series of…

Rosander, Pia; Backstrom, Martin; Stenberg, Georg

2011-01-01

183

Internal Consistency and Factor Structure of Personality Disorders in a Forensic Intellectual Disability Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The publication of the DSM-III (American Psychiatric Association (APA), 1980) prompted a significant increase in interest and research on personality disorder (PD), and the concept has subsequently been incorporated into mental health legislation in the developed world. Despite this, such research on people with intellectual disability…

Lindsay, William R.; Steptoe, Lesley; Hogue, Todd E.; Taylor, John L.; Mooney, Paul; Haut, Fabian; Johnston, Susan; O'Brien, Gregory

2007-01-01

184

Adolescent Participation in Structured and Unstructured Activities: A Person-Oriented Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study used a person-oriented approach to examine the participation of adolescents in both constructive, organized activities as well as relaxed leisure activities. The goal of this research was to identify different profiles of involvement in activities and the relations to psychosocial indicators for these differing groups. Activity profiles were created using cluster analytic techniques for 918 adolescents' responses

W. Todd Bartko; Jacquelynne S. Eccles

2003-01-01

185

Last Millennium Climate and Its Variability in CCSM4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Last Millennium simulation of the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) reproduces many large-scaled climate patterns suggested by historical and proxy-data records including cooling from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age, a "hockey-stick" pattern of surface temperature changes from 850-2005, and a broad cooling with a delayed La Niña-type of pattern in the tropical Pacific response to large volcanic events. Atmospheric modes, one oceanic mode (the Pacific Decadal Oscillation), and one ocean-atmosphere coupled mode (the El Niño-Southern Oscillation) of variability show little or no change in their variances, teleconnection patterns and spectra between the Last Millennium simulation and the 1850 non-transient control run. Two oceanic modes, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation have higher variances and increased power at low frequencies in the Last Millennium simulation compared with the control run, suggesting long-term oceanic response to natural solar and volcanic forcings.

Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Landrum, L.; Conley, A.; Lawrence, P.; Rosenbloom, N. A.; Teng, H.

2011-12-01

186

Factor structure of the primary scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization in a nonclinical sample using exploratory structural equation modeling.  

PubMed

Using exploratory structural equation modeling and multiple regression, we examined the factor structure and criterion relations of the primary scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO; Kernberg & Clarkin, 1995) in a nonclinical sample. Participants (N = 1,260) completed the IPO and measures of self-concept clarity, defenses, affect and emotion regulation, and risky and self-injurious behavior. In contrast to that of Lenzenweger, Clarkin, Kernberg, and Foelsch (2001), a 4-factor measurement model was derived with factors representing instability of sense of self and other, instability of goals, instability of behaviors, and psychosis. The 1st of these factors related most strongly to external measures of self-concept clarity, defenses, and affect, whereas the 3rd factor related most strongly to measures of risky behavior and self-injury. These results suggest that the IPO's factor structure does not conform to the hypothesized 3-factor model, although it does capture important elements of Kernberg's (1996) theory of personality organization, especially the central construct of representations of self and others. The results point to several areas in which the IPO might be refined to provide a more comprehensive and theoretically appropriate measure of the borderline personality organization construct. PMID:22103552

Ellison, William D; Levy, Kenneth N

2012-06-01

187

Assessing the Universal Structure of Personality in Early Adolescence: The NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years from 24 cultures. Replacement…

De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

2009-01-01

188

The Psychopathic Personality Inventory: Construct validity of the two-factor structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996), consists of two factors, Fearless-Dominance (PPI-I) and Antisocial-Impulsivity (PPI-II). The present study investigated the construct validity of the PPI in 165 inmates, and 431 undergraduates. Inmates and students filled in the PPI and the Behavioural Inhibition (BIS) and Behavioural Activation Scales (BAS) (BIS\\/BAS; Carver & White, 1994). A

Katarzyna Uzieblo; Bruno Verschuere; Geert Crombez

2007-01-01

189

Telepathology: a diagnostic tool for the millennium?  

PubMed

Many developments in science have their origins in science fiction and telepathology is no exception. The concept was first illustrated in 1924 in the magazine 'Radio News'. It was not until 1980, however, that the first working telepathology system was demonstrated. Although the system was shown to work, it required special hardware, dedicated software and special microwave transmission links to be installed. Little interest was shown worldwide because of the very high cost and the inability of many people to replicate such a system. Ten years later, the personal computer (PC) was able to provide more than adequate performance at low cost for both image display quality and speed, and the development of video technology had resulted in high quality images being produced by television cameras that were now easily affordable. Microscopes were also relatively cheaper. Thus, by 1993 or 1994, all the hardware necessary to produce a telepathology system was available at reasonable cost. Telepathology can now be used for remote primary diagnosis, remote referral to a specialist pathologist, remote teaching, remote presentation of post-mortem or microscopic findings, quality assurance image circulation and feedback, and consensus diagnosis for pathological review in clinical trials. There are two residual problems. The first concerns the speed of data transmission, commonly referred to as the bandwidth. The second is that the software provided by most of the manufacturers and suppliers of these systems is not entirely suitable to the task and the systems are not interoperable. It is clear that the approach of the manufacturers is at present unlikely to produce telepathology systems which pathologists feel comfortable in using. A somewhat different approach is illustrated by the accompanying article in this issue from the Berlin group, where a relatively simple Java-based applet and the Internet are used to allow single or multiple users to view slides on a robotic microscope. This could form the basis for a truly useful system, but still needs modification for some applications. PMID:10767711

Wells, C A; Sowter, C

2000-05-01

190

Social Structure-Personality: What is the Relationship Between Social Class and Child-Rearing Values  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sociologist, Melvin Kohn, argued that people's locations in social structures, particularly the occupational structure, influenced the values they would stress for their children because variations in structural locations exposed them to different experiences. His research, however, was done some time ago. Much has changed in our social world since then. Does the original relationship still hold?

Lashbrook, Jeffrey

2009-04-21

191

Right person, right skills, right job: the contribution of objective structured clinical examinations in advancing staff nurse experts.  

PubMed

Recruitment processes need to discriminate among candidates to ensure that the right person with the right skills is selected for advancement opportunities. An innovative recruitment process using an objective structured clinical examination grounded in best practice guidelines resulted in improved recruitment practices for senior nursing clinical expert roles. Candidates' skills, knowledge, and attitudes in the areas of patient focus, clinical expertise, teamwork, and leadership were assessed using a clinical simulation. Candidates achieving advancement were assessed at 6 months to validate the efficacy of the process. PMID:24061588

Mitchell, Marion; Strube, Petra; Vaux, Amanda; West, Nicky; Auditore, Anthony

2013-10-01

192

75 FR 71144 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Solar Millennium, LLC, Amargosa Farm Road...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Millennium, LLC, Amargosa Farm Road Solar Energy Project AGENCY: Bureau of Land...Millennium, LLC, Amargosa Farm Road Solar Energy Project Environmental Impact Statement...construct the Amargosa Farm Road Solar Energy Project on approximately...

2010-11-22

193

Inter-hemispheric temperature variability over the past millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's climate system is driven by a complex interplay of internal chaotic dynamics and natural and anthropogenic external forcing. Recent instrumental data have shown a remarkable degree of asynchronicity between Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere temperature fluctuations, thereby questioning the relative importance of internal versus external drivers of past as well as future climate variability. However, large-scale temperature reconstructions for the past millennium have focused on the Northern Hemisphere, limiting empirical assessments of inter-hemispheric variability on multi-decadal to centennial timescales. Here, we introduce a new millennial ensemble reconstruction of annually resolved temperature variations for the Southern Hemisphere based on an unprecedented network of terrestrial and oceanic palaeoclimate proxy records. In conjunction with an independent Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstruction ensemble, this record reveals an extended cold period (1594-1677) in both hemispheres but no globally coherent warm phase during the pre-industrial (1000-1850) era. The current (post-1974) warm phase is the only period of the past millennium where both hemispheres are likely to have experienced contemporaneous warm extremes. Our analysis of inter-hemispheric temperature variability in an ensemble of climate model simulations for the past millennium suggests that models tend to overemphasize Northern Hemisphere-Southern Hemisphere synchronicity by underestimating the role of internal ocean-atmosphere dynamics, particularly in the ocean-dominated Southern Hemisphere. Our results imply that climate system predictability on decadal to century timescales may be lower than expected based on assessments of external climate forcing and Northern Hemisphere temperature variations alone.

Neukom, Raphael; Gergis, Joëlle; Karoly, David J.; Wanner, Heinz; Curran, Mark; Elbert, Julie; González-Rouco, Fidel; Linsley, Braddock K.; Moy, Andrew D.; Mundo, Ignacio; Raible, Christoph C.; Steig, Eric J.; van Ommen, Tas; Vance, Tessa; Villalba, Ricardo; Zinke, Jens; Frank, David

2014-05-01

194

Vision-21: Space Travel for the Next Millennium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The papers from this symposium, that was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on April 3-4, 1990, are presented. The theme selected for the symposium was space travel for the next millennium. It was hoped that the participants would allow their focus to consider possible advances in technologies for space travel not just for currently envisioned projects, but for possibilities beyond the next generation and the next thousand years. About half of the contributed papers focussed on propulsion and the other half on other issues related to space travel.

Landis, Geoffrey A. (editor)

1990-01-01

195

Halo Pairs in the Millennium Simulation: Love and Deception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work I investigate the statistical properties of a huge catalog of closely interacting pairs of dark matter haloes, extracted from the Millennium Simulation database. Only haloes that reach a minimum mass ? 8.6 × 1010 M? h-1 (corresponding to 100 particles) are considered. Close pairs are selected if they come within a critical distance dcrit. I explore the effects of replacing dcrit = 1 Mpc h-1 ? 200 kpc h-1 on the evolution of separations, lifetimes, total masses and mass ratios of these pairs.

Moreno, J.

2013-10-01

196

Achieving the Millennium Development Goals: What’s wrong with existing analytical models?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study critically evaluates analytical models presently used to estimate the cost of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) from sources including the UN Millennium Project, the UN Development Programme, the World Bank and the Zedillo Commission. Effective strategic choices for achieving the MDGs must be based on sound assessments of the costs and benefits of alternative policies. However, the

Sanjay G. Reddy; Antoine Heuty

2006-01-01

197

A Millennium Learning Goal for Education Post-2015: A Question of Outcomes or Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the target year for the current Millennium Development Goal of universal completion of primary education approaches, three World Bank economists have proposed its replacement with a Millennium Learning Goal. This is part of a trend of increased privileging of learning outcomes. The proposal is assessed from the perspective of human rights-based…

Barrett, Angeline M.

2011-01-01

198

Innovative Approaches to Funding the Millennium Development Goals. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief, No. 24  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which set targets for reducing poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women by 20151. The need for additional development funding, if the MDGs are to be achieved by 2015, is…

Reisen, Helmut

2004-01-01

199

Stagnation and generativity: structure, validity, and differential relationships with adaptive and maladaptive personality.  

PubMed

Erikson's concepts of stagnation and generativity were investigated in two studies. Study 1 (N=457) yields two important results. First, it revealed that a model in which stagnation and generativity load on a separate dimension showed a significantly better fit to the data than a one-dimensional model. Second, the stagnation and generativity measures were valid predictors of parental behavior. In Study 2 (N=191), the relationships between stagnation and generativity and the dimensions underlying comprehensive measures of personality were investigated. It was found that stagnation was strongly related to Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience, whereas generativity bore strong relationships with Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience. In the discussion, stagnation is distinguished from several related variables and a profile of the stagnant individual is constructed and compared with the generative individual. Finally, the interaction between stagnation and generativity in producing specific outcomes is discussed. PMID:16529586

Van Hiel, Alain; Mervielde, Ivan; De Fruyt, Filip

2006-04-01

200

Towards Personal Service Robots for the Elderly Nicholas Roy, Gregory Baltus, Dieter Fox, Francine Gemperle, Jennifer Goetz, Tad Hirsch  

E-print Network

Towards Personal Service Robots for the Elderly Nicholas Roy, Gregory Baltus, Dieter Fox, Francine of personal service robots for the elderly population. Taking care of elderly and chronically ill people for the elderly. 1 The Problem At the turn of the millennium, the number of elderly in need of care is increasing

Pineau, Joelle

201

Neuroimaging of structural pathology and connectomics in traumatic brain injury: Toward personalized outcome prediction?  

PubMed Central

Recent contributions to the body of knowledge on traumatic brain injury (TBI) favor the view that multimodal neuroimaging using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and fMRI, respectively) as well as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has excellent potential to identify novel biomarkers and predictors of TBI outcome. This is particularly the case when such methods are appropriately combined with volumetric/morphometric analysis of brain structures and with the exploration of TBI-related changes in brain network properties at the level of the connectome. In this context, our present review summarizes recent developments on the roles of these two techniques in the search for novel structural neuroimaging biomarkers that have TBI outcome prognostication value. The themes being explored cover notable trends in this area of research, including (1) the role of advanced MRI processing methods in the analysis of structural pathology, (2) the use of brain connectomics and network analysis to identify outcome biomarkers, and (3) the application of multivariate statistics to predict outcome using neuroimaging metrics. The goal of the review is to draw the community's attention to these recent advances on TBI outcome prediction methods and to encourage the development of new methodologies whereby structural neuroimaging can be used to identify biomarkers of TBI outcome. PMID:24179732

Irimia, Andrei; Wang, Bo; Aylward, Stephen R.; Prastawa, Marcel W.; Pace, Danielle F.; Gerig, Guido; Hovda, David A.; Kikinis, Ron; Vespa, Paul M.; Van Horn, John D.

2012-01-01

202

Personal Genomics, Personalized Medicine,  

E-print Network

Personal Genomics, Personalized Medicine, & YOU Carrie Iwema, PhD, MLS 21st May 2012 AAAS/Science Translational Medicine panel discussion; MLA 2012 #12;Timeline: Human Genome Sequence HSLS, U.Pitt 1995 2014 2000 2003 2007 2007 2010 Human Genome Draft Sequence Complete Human Reference Genome Individual Human

Napp, Nils

203

Interactive 3D visualization of structural changes in the brain of a person with corticobasal syndrome.  

PubMed

The visualization of the progression of brain tissue loss in neurodegenerative diseases like corticobasal syndrome (CBS) can provide not only information about the localization and distribution of the volume loss, but also helps to understand the course and the causes of this neurodegenerative disorder. The visualization of such medical imaging data is often based on 2D sections, because they show both internal and external structures in one image. Spatial information, however, is lost. 3D visualization of imaging data is capable to solve this problem, but it faces the difficulty that more internally located structures may be occluded by structures near the surface. Here, we present an application with two designs for the 3D visualization of the human brain to address these challenges. In the first design, brain anatomy is displayed semi-transparently; it is supplemented by an anatomical section and cortical areas for spatial orientation, and the volumetric data of volume loss. The second design is guided by the principle of importance-driven volume rendering: A direct line-of-sight to the relevant structures in the deeper parts of the brain is provided by cutting out a frustum-like piece of brain tissue. The application was developed to run in both, standard desktop environments and in immersive virtual reality environments with stereoscopic viewing for improving the depth perception. We conclude, that the presented application facilitates the perception of the extent of brain degeneration with respect to its localization and affected regions. PMID:24847243

Hänel, Claudia; Pieperhoff, Peter; Hentschel, Bernd; Amunts, Katrin; Kuhlen, Torsten

2014-01-01

204

Seeing things clearly: social structure, personality, and accuracy in social network perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

People differ in their ability to perceive accurately the informal patterns of interpersonal relationships in their social groups, i.e., the group's network structure. Existing research leaves us largely unable to explain the variation in accuracy in social network perception. This paper argues that the study of accuracy in social network perception should consider the effect of both situational factors and

Tiziana Casciaro

1998-01-01

205

Learning about Persons: The Effects of Text Structure and Executive Capacity on Conceptual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the supportive effects of conceptual change texts documented in science education (1) can also be demonstrated in the domain of social cognition and (2) are moderated by the structure of the text and the learner's central executive capacity. In two experiments, participants were presented…

Baadte, Christiane; Dutke, Stephan

2013-01-01

206

Family Structure and Functions Identified by Persons Living with HIV/AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study looked at the structural and functional aspects of family from the perspective of six people living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Results showing how HIV/AIDS affects all members of the sufferer's family have implications for family practitioners. (Author/JOW)

Wong-Wylie, Gina; Doherty-Poirier, Maryanne; Kieren, Dianne

1999-01-01

207

The person in the mirror: using the enfacement illusion to investigate the experiential structure of self-identification  

PubMed Central

How do we acquire a mental representation of our own face? Recently, synchronous, but not asynchronous, interpersonal multisensory stimulation (IMS) between one’s own and another person’s face was used to evoke changes in self-identification (enfacement illusion). We investigated the conscious experience of these changes with principal component analyses (PCA) that revealed that while the conscious experience during synchronous IMS focused on resemblance and similarity with the other’s face, during asynchronous IMS it focused on multisensory stimulation. Analyses on the identified common factor structure revealed significant quantitative differences between synchronous and asynchronous IMS on self-identification and perceived similarity with the other’s face. Experiment 2 revealed that participants with lower interoceptive sensitivity experienced stronger enfacement illusion. Overall, self-identification and body-ownership rely on similar basic mechanisms of multisensory integration, but the effects of multisensory input on their experience are qualitatively different, possibly underlying the face’s unique role as a marker of selfhood. PMID:23123685

Tajadura-Jimenez, Ana; Longo, Matthew R.; Coleman, Rosie; Tsakiris, Manos

2013-01-01

208

Family structure, personality, drinking, smoking and illicit drug use: a study of UK teenagers.  

PubMed

Data from a survey of 7722 15-16 year old school students in the United Kingdom were used to examine relationships between family structure and using alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs. Respondents living with both parents were significantly less likely to participate in all of these, with girls more affected, particularly as regards cigarette smoking and illicit drugs. For other families, it made little further difference whether the mother, the father or both were absent. The effects were reduced on controlling four other variables. The latter were: psychological symptoms, social support, involvement in hobbies and reading, and engagement in behaviours such as riding mopeds, going out with friends, aggression and delinquency. It is suggested that these variables may mediate the effects of family structure. PMID:9179514

Miller, P

1997-04-14

209

The Architecture of Personality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a theoretical framework for analyzing psychological systems that contribute to the variability, consistency, and cross-situational coherence of personality functioning. In the proposed knowledge-and-appraisal personality architecture (KAPA), personality structures and processes are delineated by combining 2 principles:…

Cervone, Daniel

2004-01-01

210

Personality in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta): Investigating factor structure, and relationships with stress, grooming, and dominance.  

E-print Network

??Examining personality in non-human primates provides a useful tool for understanding evolutionary bases. The following research focused on exploring the personality of captive ring-tailed lemurs,… (more)

Mitchell, Clare

2008-01-01

211

Mass identification of persons missing from the break-up of the former Yugoslavia: structure, function, and role of the International Commission on Missing Persons.  

PubMed

The staff of the International Commission on Missing Persons (ICMP) is attempting to undertake the largest mass human identification effort in history. Through the generosity of numerous governmental and private corporations the ICMP has established or is currently establishing a strong network of political allies, family outreach centers, and DNA laboratories throughout the former Yugoslavia. Furthermore, the ICMP is currently working to streamline current technology as well as employ new technology in its efforts to assist in identifying missing individuals. ICMP will continue to act as a link between the family associations in the region and will synchronize the work of the DNA identification process in the countries affected by the war in the regions of the former Yugoslavia. In the longer term, ICMP seeks to contribute to the closure of the missing persons issue, to raise awareness of the human dimension of the missing persons tragedy, and to preserve a shared and common memory of the missing in the former Yugoslavia. PMID:11387637

Huffine, E; Crews, J; Kennedy, B; Bomberger, K; Zinbo, A

2001-06-01

212

Personality and support for universal human rights: a review and test of a structural model.  

PubMed

All individual differences that predict support for international human rights are first reviewed: support for human rights is linked most positively to "globalism" (other international and environmental concerns), "identification with all humanity," principled moral reasoning, benevolence, and dispositional empathy. It is related most negatively to ethnocentrism and its root dispositions, the social dominance orientation, and authoritarianism. Other correlates are also noted. Secondly, a structural model of the effects of authoritarianism, social dominance, ethnocentrism and identification with all humanity upon commitment to human rights is presented and tested. Across 2 studies (Study 1, N=218 nonstudent adults; Study 2, N=102 university students), ethnocentrism and identification with all humanity directly predicted human rights commitment. The effects of authoritarianism upon this commitment were fully mediated through enhanced ethnocentrism and reduced identification with all humanity. The effects of social dominance were similar, but its direct effect upon human rights commitment remained significant and was not, in the second study, mediated by reduced dispositional empathy. PMID:21039530

McFarland, Sam

2010-12-01

213

The last total solar eclipse of the millennium in Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last total solar eclipse of the millennium will be observed from Turkey which bridges two continents and has been the cradle of so many past civilizations. Wouldn't you like to witness this magnificent event in the mystic ambiance of central Anatolia which offers its guests Turkish hospitality and a lot of historical examples of paganism, Christianity and Islam. Among the countries from which the eclipse will be visible, Turkey seems to be one of the most suitable countries in terms of its climate and observational facilities. Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute has arranged fieldwork on the eclipse path to determine the suitable points for the observations. The shadow of the moon will be first seen from the Black Sea coast at 14:20 L.T. It will then pass through central Anatolia and will leave Turkey from south-east at 14:42 L.T.

Ozguc, A.; Atac, T.; Altas, L.

1999-03-01

214

Red Sequence Cluster Finding in the Millennium Simulation  

E-print Network

We investigate halo mass selection properties of red-sequence cluster finders using galaxy populations of the Millennium Simulation (MS). A clear red sequence exists for MS galaxies in massive halos at redshifts z red sequence and confusion from a larger number of intermediate mass halos hosting bright red galaxies of magnitude similar to those in higher mass halos. Our method produces catalogs of cluster candidates whose halo mass selection function, p(M|\\Ngal,z), is characterized by a bimodal log-normal model with a dominant component that reproduces well the real-space distribution, and a redshift-dependent tail that is broader and displaced by a factor ~2 lower in mass. We discuss implications for X-ray properties of optically selected clusters and offer ideas for improving both mock catalogs and cluster-finding in future surveys.

J. D. Cohn; A. E. Evrard; M. White; D. Croton; E. Ellingson

2007-06-01

215

World Bank eAtlas of the Millennium Development Goals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank established a set of Millennium Development Goals as both a challenge to poor countries to demonstrate "good governance" and to wealthy nations as a spur that would hopefully encourage them to support economic and social development. Recently, the World Bank created this visually engaging and sophisticated interactive atlas to track those eight goals, which include the promotion of gender equality, combating disease, and reducing child mortality. Visitors can click on any of these eight goals and they will be able to view maps of the world that document the progress that has been made in each nation. Clicking on each nation individually brings up clear and easy-to-read tables that chart additional changes within each separate goal. Visitors can export the data for their own use, and they can also resize the map to demonstrate the changes made over the past few years.

2008-06-10

216

World population: a major issue for the millennium.  

PubMed

The continuous increase in population poses a major problem in the coming millennium. Despite efforts exerted in contraceptive information dissemination, there are still some facts that cannot be denied. Although some couples in developing countries want to limit their family size, there are others who have refused to use family planning because of tradition and cultural factors. To address this problem, demographers are finding ways to limit the population explosion to "replacement level fertility". Most of the population growth occurs in developing countries, where family size exceeds the minimum replacement level requirement. A future zero population growth level is the only hope. This seems a distant dream, but a possible one, depending on whether simple replacement level is achieved. Failure to achieve this level will mean that the population will continue to grow. PMID:12322267

Haub, C

1998-09-01

217

Herblock's History: Political Cartoons from the Crash to the Millennium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Caricaturing twelve American presidents from Herbert Hoover to Bill Clinton, editorial cartoonist Herbert Block has chronicled the nation's political history from the stock market crash in 1929 through the new millennium. Some of his many achievements include three Pulitzer Prizes for editorial cartooning (1942, 1954, and 1979) and a fourth with Washington colleagues for public service during the Watergate investigation (1973). Herblock's History celebrates Block's gift to the Library of Congress of more than one hundred works, spanning seventy years of world history. His cartoons are not only humorous but also enlightening and inspiring. For political cartoon enthusiasts and users with a funny bone waiting for a tickle, this site is definitely one to explore.

2001-01-01

218

Changes in the Asian Summer Monsoon over the Past Millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the variability of the Asian summer monsoon over the past millennium through analysis of a long-term simulation of the NCAR CSM 1.4 coupled model driven with estimated natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing over the period AD 850-1999. Certain potential mechanisms, such as warmer large-scale temperatures favoring a stronger Monsoon through their impact on Eurasian snowcover, are inconsistent with the responses in the simulation. The simulation results suggest that the influence of long-term solar forcing on the Monsoon is not discernible from noise, while volcanic radiative forcing leads to a clearly detectable short-term reduction in the strength of the Asian summer monsoon. Comparisons are made with long-term proxy and historical records.

Fan, F.; Mann, M.; Ammann, C.

2007-12-01

219

Technology readiness levels for the new millennium program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) seeks to advance space exploration by providing an in-space validating mechanism to verify the maturity of promising advanced technologies that cannot be adequately validated with Earth-based testing alone. In meeting this objective, NMP uses NASA Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) as key indicators of technology advancement and assesses development progress against this generalized metric. By providing an opportunity for in-space validation, NMP can mature a suitable advanced technology from TRL 4 (component and/or breadboard validation in laboratory environment) to a TRL 7 (system prototype demonstrated in an Earth-based space environment). Spaceflight technology comprises a myriad of categories, types, and functions, and as each individual technology emerges, a consistent interpretation of its specific state of technological advancement relative to other technologies is problematic.

Moynihan, P. I.; Minning, C. P.; Stocky, J. F.

2003-01-01

220

Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5: progress and challenges.  

PubMed

The Millennium Development Goals have galvanized efforts to improve child survival (MDG-4) and maternal health (MDG-5). There has been important progress on both MDGs at global level, although it now appears that few countries will reach them by the target date of 2015. There are known and efficacious interventions to address most of the major causes of these deaths, but important gaps remain. The biggest challenge is to ensure that all women and children have access to life-saving interventions. Current levels of intervention coverage are too low, representing missed opportunities. Providing services at the community level is an important emerging priority, but preventing maternal and neonatal deaths also requires access to health facilities. Readers of the Medicine for Global Health collection in BMC Medicine are urged to make maternal and child health one of their key concerns, even if they work on other topics. PMID:24228742

Bryce, Jennifer; Black, Robert E; Victora, Cesar G

2013-01-01

221

Questions of identity in the millennium round of Commonwealth censuses.  

PubMed

All Commonwealth census authorities have posed questions about identity in the millennium round of enumerations. The most controversial issue has been ethnicity. No universal definition or classification system has been devised and each of the 71 states and dependencies has tended to pursue the enquiry in virtual isolation from its neighbours. The attempt to describe the population in terms of race and ethnicity has been inherited from the colonial era. More recently the requirements of monitoring affirmative-action programmes in multicultural populations have resulted in the introduction or refinement of questions on these categories. A few states-a small minority of Commonwealth countries-remain hostile to such enquiries. Where the issues of race and identity are not pursued, questions of nationality, language, and religion often fill the gaps left, adding further refinements to the definition of identity. An examination of current questioning about identity in Commonwealth censuses reveals a highly complex picture. PMID:17060057

Christopher, A J

2006-11-01

222

Theoretical studies of structure, function and reactivity of molecules-- A personal account  

PubMed Central

Last few decades theoretical/computational studies of structure, function and reactivity of molecules have been contributing significantly in chemistry by explanation of experimental results, better understanding of underlying principles and prediction of the unknown experimental outcome. Accuracy needed in chemistry has long been established, but due to high power dependency of such accurate methods on the molecular size, it has been a major challenge to apply theoretical methods to large molecular systems. In the present article we will review some examples of such applications. One is theoretical study of growth/formation of carbon nanostructures such as fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, using quantum mechanical molecular dynamics method. For growth of single walled carbon nanotube from transition metal cluster, we have demonstrated continued growth of attached nanotube, cap formation and growth from small carbon fragments. For homogeneous catalysis we presented results of studies on N2 activation by Zr complexes. For biomolecular reactions we use active site and protein models and show that in some catalyses the protein environment is involved in reactions and changes the preferred pathway, and in some other case the effect is modest. The review is concluded with a perspective. PMID:19444009

Morokuma, Keiji

2009-01-01

223

The Vanuatu medical supply system - documenting opportunities and challenges to meet the Millennium Development Goals  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Limited human resources are widely recognised as a barrier to achieve health-related Millennium Development Goals. Availability of medical supplies and suitably trained health personnel are crucial to ensuring a well-functioning medical supply system. The objective of this paper is to identify the factors which influence the availability of medical supplies within the health facilities of Vanuatu. Methods: A qualitative triangulated strategy using semi-structured interviews, observational workplace surveys and semi-structured focus groups was developed. This research was approved by the Human Ethics Committee of the University of Canberra and was funded through a direct grant from the United Nations Population Fund Suva, Pacific sub regional office. Results: During two weeks of data collection, 21 interviews were conducted, observational workplace surveys were completed in 19 facilities and 22 personnel participated in three focus groups across three provinces. The interviewees had a wide range of primary professional groupings and were representative of the Vanuatu health workforce. A complex array of medical supply issues are described from within the three tiered structure of the medical supply system. Conclusion: The results of this research have further informed our understanding of the competencies required by healthcare personnel to conduct medical supply management activities effectively in Pacific Island countries. As a result of this research, a platform is provided for the government of Vanuatu to engage development partners to work toward a sustainable medical supply system. PMID:23093895

Brown, Andrew; Gilbert, Ben

2012-01-01

224

For personal use. Only reproduce with permission from Elsevier Ltd Millennium Project  

E-print Network

marks a pivotal moment in international efforts to fight extreme poverty. During the United Nations (UN, panel 1) to address extreme poverty in its many dimensions--income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter, and exclusion--while promoting education, gender equality, and environmental

225

75 FR 13301 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Solar Millennium...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Solar Millennium Amargosa Farm Road Solar Power Project, Nye County, NV AGENCY: Bureau...Impact Statement (EIS) for the Amargosa Farm Road Solar Power Project, Nye County, Nevada, and by...

2010-03-19

226

A Guatemalan Speleothem Record Of Climate Of The Past Millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 32-cm active stalagmite collected in 2007 in eastern Guatemala near the Belize border began growing in ~1000 AD, and provides a near continuous record of the past 1000 years. The cave was at 350 m asl, and 23C. 15 U/Th MC ICPMS dates were used to establish the growth model, and almost 1000 ?18O stable isotope samples have been analyzed at sub-annual resolution. The GUXI-1 speleothem grew at a rate of 0.35mm/y from ~1000 to ~1450, when it tilted 25 mm/ 11 degrees from its original axis, possibly related to seismic events of the Motagua River plate margin to the south. Growth continued on the angled upside as a transparent calcite, but with restricted deposition rates from ~1460 to 1650: this reduction was likely due to the time to re-create a more suitable site for deposition, but also to environmental conditions on the surface. After 1660 to the present, GUXI-1 grew steadily along a new axis, much faster at 0.58mm/yr than its pre-tilt rate. The ?18 oxygen isotopes of the deposited calcite are construed as a rainfall proxy, influenced by the amount effect of the tropics. The values range from -4 ‰ to -2.75‰, showing four major regimes over the millennium, and indicating several periods of drought [less-negative ?18O]. Prior to tilting, the Guatemala stalagmite displayed a trend of increasing precipitation following its inception, until it was tilted. Average ?18O was -3.4‰. The record during the ~1450-1660 tilt suggests a period of aridity, but from 1700-1800 precipitation was increasing again as ?18O reached its most negative mean values of ~ -3.6‰, and growth rate was also at its highest. A very abrupt drop in ?18O [0.2 ‰] occurred in 1816 (the year of a major nearby earthquake and a year after the Tambora mega-eruption), and continued as a long-term drying trend to the present, though with a sharp central peak and 2 troughs. This drying trend was also accompanied by a 1/3 decrease in growth rate. A new ?18O mean of -3.1‰ is higher than that during the tilt interval. Other nearby climate records include stalagmites from Belize. The closest (Macal Chasm) speleothem record 30 km to the north reported a coarse ?18O resolution of 50 years, and suggest a long arid period ending about 1150 AD, and another centered about 1500 [mean ?18O -4‰]. The luminescence record [organic acid concentration indicating greater rainfall] of this speleothem supports the presence of the first long arid period, but not that of about 1500; a long modern drying began about 1800. A second stalagmite [Yok Balum] a similar distance to the south also recorded its "most pronounced dry period" between 1000-1100 AD, with elevated rainfall in about half of the subsequent millennium. The final years from 1840 to the present have been drier. A wider Caribbean comparison is possible with speleothem from the northern Yucatan and one as far east as Puerto Rico. Like that of GUXI-1, the period from 1100-1550 appears relatively wetter than preceding centuries, declining to a minimum about 1600, recovering by 1750, then dropping rapidly after 1800. Each of the three also experienced a brief wet interval about 1900. In summary, Central America and the Caribbean appeared to be recovering from dry conditions in the first centuries of the past millennium, encountered a deep rainfall decline in the middle followed by wetter conditions until ~1800, and since then have been experiencing increasing dryness.

Miller, T.; Winter, A.; Burnett, A.; Haug, G. H.; Kelly, M. J.; Edwards, R.

2012-12-01

227

Personality disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Personality disorders are a group of mental health conditions in which a person has a long-term pattern ... Causes of personality disorders are unknown. Genetic and ... a role. Mental health professionals categorize these disorders ...

228

[Primary health care and the millennium development goals].  

PubMed

Member countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) met in Alma Ata (8-12 September 1978) to define and advocate the implementation of primary health care (PHC) worldwide, above all, in developing countries, which had a real need to review their strategies for meeting the health needs of their populations. They did not suspect that 20 years later the vision they displayed would remain undeniably relevant. Here we examine the similarities and points of convergence of their declaration about PHC with the Millennium Development Goals that seek today to reduce poverty across the world. An exhaustive and analytic literature review was conducted to collect those similarities. Further analysis of the definitions, objectives, principles and recommendations of the Alma Ata Declaration and the Millennium Declaration reveals multiple dependencies and fundamental points of similarity between these two representations. Almost all states have pledged to achieve the eight MDG by 2015: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as essential health care, based on practical methods and techniques that are both scientifically sound and socially acceptable, universally accessible to all individuals and all families of the community, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and countries can afford at all stages of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It is an integral part of economic and social development. The following principles are involved in the achievement of both primary health care and the MDG: social equity, community participation, and intersectorality. Public health is an essential condition of poverty eradication and MDG achievement. Public health issues are central to the problem of sustainable development and must therefore remain the focus of attention. It is increasingly urgent to break the vicious circle created by the close correlation between environmental degradation, poor health, and poverty. PMID:22868717

Faye, A; Bob, M; Fall, A; Fall, C

2012-01-01

229

Parental perceptions of weight status in children: the Gateshead Millennium Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate parents’ perceptions of weight status in children and to explore parental understanding of and attitudes to childhood overweight. Design Questionnaires and focus groups within a longitudinal study. Subjects 536 parents of Gateshead Millennium Study children, of which 27 attended 6 focus groups. Main outcome measures Parents’ perception of their child’s weight status according to actual weight status as defined by International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) cut-offs. Focus group outcomes included parental awareness of childhood overweight nationally and parental approaches to identifying overweight children. Results The sensitivity of parents recognising if their child was overweight was 0.31. Prevalence of child overweight was underestimated: 7.3% of children were perceived as ‘overweight’ or ‘very overweight’ by their parents, 23.7% were identified as overweight or obese using IOTF criteria. 69.3% of parents of overweight or obese children identified their child as being of ‘normal’ weight. During focus groups parents demonstrated an awareness of childhood overweight being a problem nationally but their understanding of how it is defined was limited. Parents used alternative approaches to objective measures when identifying overweight in children such as visual assessments and comparisons with other children. Such approaches relied heavily on extreme and exceptional cases as a reference point. The apparent lack of relevance of childhood overweight to their child’s school or own community along with scepticism towards both media messages and clinical measures commonly emerged as grounds for failing to engage with the issue at a personal level. Conclusion Parents’ ability to identify when their child was overweight according to standard criteria was limited. Parents did not understand, use or trust clinical measures and used alternative approaches primarily reliant on extreme cases. Such approaches underpinned their reasoning for remaining detached from the issue. This study highlights the need to identify methods of improving parental recognition of and engagement with the problem of childhood overweight. PMID:21673651

Jones, Angela R; Parkinson, Kathryn N; Drewett, Robert F; Hyland, Robert M; Pearce, Mark S; Adamson, Ashley J

2011-01-01

230

Science for managing ecosystem services: Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment  

PubMed Central

The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) introduced a new framework for analyzing social–ecological systems that has had wide influence in the policy and scientific communities. Studies after the MA are taking up new challenges in the basic science needed to assess, project, and manage flows of ecosystem services and effects on human well-being. Yet, our ability to draw general conclusions remains limited by focus on discipline-bound sectors of the full social–ecological system. At the same time, some polices and practices intended to improve ecosystem services and human well-being are based on untested assumptions and sparse information. The people who are affected and those who provide resources are increasingly asking for evidence that interventions improve ecosystem services and human well-being. New research is needed that considers the full ensemble of processes and feedbacks, for a range of biophysical and social systems, to better understand and manage the dynamics of the relationship between humans and the ecosystems on which they rely. Such research will expand the capacity to address fundamental questions about complex social–ecological systems while evaluating assumptions of policies and practices intended to advance human well-being through improved ecosystem services. PMID:19179280

Carpenter, Stephen R.; Mooney, Harold A.; Agard, John; Capistrano, Doris; DeFries, Ruth S.; Diaz, Sandra; Dietz, Thomas; Duraiappah, Anantha K.; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred; Pereira, Henrique Miguel; Perrings, Charles; Reid, Walter V.; Sarukhan, Jose; Scholes, Robert J.; Whyte, Anne

2009-01-01

231

The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next  

PubMed Central

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

2014-01-01

232

The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next.  

PubMed

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

2014-01-01

233

Millennium regional PACS management: strategies for successful implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of the new Millennium, Picture Archive and Communications System (PACS) technology has matured to levels sufficient to support open systems based, regional implementations. This shifts the site-centric PACS paradigm into broader scale, impacting facilities, workflow, business plans and ultimately patient care on a regional basis. Prudent and effective management of a regional implementation is critical to overall project success based upon a number of competing influences fundamental to the PACS including network infrastructure, clinical workflow, acquisition modalities, planning documentation, site preparation, acceptance testing, project communication, interface integration issues, etc. Risk mitigation is possible by understanding and managing the interrelationships of these influences through a phased approach with embedded management controls. The overall phases of regional implementation are not unlike site-centric implementations, consisting of Discovery, Planning, Preparation, Installation; Acceptance and Warranty/Maintenance; however, details which manifest over time are what provide significant management challenges. When balanced using a culturally reinforced policy of open, frequent and hands-on communication, regional PACS projects can be successfully implemented maintaining budget, schedule and scope thresholds.

Levin, Brad; Romlein, John R.; Gac, Robert J., Jr.; Chacko, Anna K.; Radvany, Martin

2000-05-01

234

UN Millennium Development Goals E-Learning Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations continues to work on its Millennium Development Goals, which are meant to address human suffering throughout the world. While various media outlets have offered some coverage of these goals over the past ten years, some people may have not heard much about them. The unique learning materials offered on this site provide a bit of background about the goals and an increased understanding of the data that the United Nations collects in order to measure progress in these areas. Along the top of the site, visitors can look through the "Glossary" of terms and click on a link to get further help with using the site. The primary educational materials are contained within four separate sections that help users learn about the Economic and Social Data Services (ESDS) database, which is the primary data source for these types of international databases. Finally visitors can look through the "Activities" section to take in some hands-on activities that use various data sets from the ESDS database.

235

Liberalism in the New Millennium: Ian McEwan's Saturday  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on Ian McEwan's recent novel, Saturday (2005), in which he explores a number of the dilemmas facing the contemporary liberal, such as how to accept one's involvement in the world without compromising one's individual autonomy; how to balance personal freedom and personal responsibility; and how to manage one's private life in the context of urgent global issues.

Andrew Foley

2010-01-01

236

Reconstruction of temperature of the last millennium in Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reconstruct the temperature in Greenland the data on 18O/16O concentration in Greenland ice cores over the last millennium (GISP2, Quaternary Isotope Laboratory, University of Washington, 1997) were analyzed. Original year- by-year data were averaged over 10-year intervals. For the purpose of calibration the temperature data and amount of precipitation in Greenland during 1873-2000 years (Danish Meteorological institute, Technical report 01-11, Ilulissat station)were used. The temperature data of Ilulissat station were averaged also over 10-year intervals with weight, deduced from the amount of precipitation. As a result of calibration the months, making the basic contribution to generation of fluctuations of 18O/16O concentration were identified. The greatest contribution to this variability is made by the February temperature. The correlation factor of weighted night temperature of February and 18O/16O concentration account for 0.85+/-0.01. For the reconstruction of the February temperature of preceded decade autoregressive model was used. The coefficient of this model were defined by concentration of isotopes and temperature in a period of a few decades. The main results of reconstruction are: 1. There is a long-time component of duration of a cycle ~1000 years and amplitude of ~0.3 degrees. 2. On the average cold winters were with 1335 to 1865 years. 3. On the average warm winters were with 890 to1335 years and since 1865 till the present time. 4. Reconstructed temperature of February fluctuated with the basis period of about 30 years. 5. The amplitude of ~30-year fluctuations varies in time. The greatest amplitude was in the 13 century and in 20 century. From the beginning of the 14 century till middle of the 19 century the amplitude was minimal. The nature of ~30-year temperature oscillations is discussed. This work was supported by INTAS, Grant 97-31008 and Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) - project 047.009.005.

Vasiliev, S. S.; Dergachev, V. A.; Raspopov, O. M.; Nevanlinna, H.

2003-04-01

237

"Mayday mayday mayday", the millennium ark is sinking!  

PubMed

Despite exceptional advances in ensuring the health and well-being of animals in human care, zoos of the twenty-first century are ill-prepared and overwhelmed by the sheer number of species requiring conservation support. Furthermore, small population management paradigms have failed to achieve the demographic and genetic targets required to sustain most endangered species in human care. Predictions made in the 1980s regarding the potential of a "millennium ark"-aided by the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs)-for saving species have proven to be wildly over-optimistic. ARTs continue to be touted as a panacea for saving endangered species and even for resurrecting extinct ones. And yet, while the first successful interspecies embryo transfer in a wildlife species occurred 30 years ago, there still is not a single example of embryo-based technologies being used to consistently manage a conservation-reliant species. The limited contribution of ARTs to species conservation to date principally stems from the lack of knowledge of species biology, as well as inadequate facilities, space, expertise, and funding needed for their successful application. ARTs could and should be an important tool in our conservation toolbox, but we cannot fall into the trap of believing that we can "assist" or clone our way out of the present biodiversity crisis. Reproductive technologists overstate the potential of ARTs for saving endangered species, zoos overestimate their ability to sustain genetically and demographically viable captive populations with existing resources, and conservationists underestimate their need for zoos in the face of failing efforts to sustain species in nature. Unless all parties concerned-reproductive technologists, zoo biologists and conservationists-adopt parallel efforts to sustain wild populations and places, zoos risk becoming living museums exhibiting relic species that no longer exist in nature. PMID:25091904

Monfort, Steven L

2014-01-01

238

Recent unprecedented warming and oligotrophy of the eastern Mediterranean Sea within the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean region is a climatic transitional zone between the subtropical/monsoon regime and the temperate westerlies and is subject to forces acting upon the global climate system. Much knowledge about its climate over the last millennium is derived from terrestrial records, whereas changes in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and in the dissolved inorganic carbon pool (DIC) are poorly known. We present continuous high-resolution reconstructions of SST and ?13CDIC in the eastern Mediterranean (EM) Sea, as inferred from oxygen and carbon isotope records from the skeletons of the reef builder gastropod Dendropoma sp. Spanning the past millennium, the SST reconstruction reveals a 250 year persistent warming trend during which the twentieth century was the warmest on record. Coupled with a distinct trend of 13CDIC depletion and superimposed upon decreased primary production, this climate reconstruction reflects a new state of the EM over the Anthropocene era that exceeds the natural variability of the last millennium.

Sisma-Ventura, Guy; Yam, Ruth; Shemesh, Aldo

2014-07-01

239

A closer look at the lower-order structure of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5: Comparison with the Five-Factor Model.  

PubMed

The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) was developed as a measure of the maladaptive personality trait model included within Section III of the DSM-5. Although preliminary findings have suggested the PID-5 has a five-factor structure that overlaps considerably with the Five-Factor Model (FFM) at the higher order level, there has been much less attention on the specific locations of the 25 lower-order traits. Joint exploratory factor analysis of the PID-5 traits and the 30 facets of the NEO-PI-R were used to determine the lower-order structure of the PID-5. Results indicated the PID-5's domain-level structure closely resembled the FFM. We also explored the placement of several lower-order facets that have not loaded consistently in previous studies. Overall, these results indicate that the PID-5 shares a common structure with the FFM and clarify the placement of some interstitial facets. More research investigating the lower-order facets is needed to determine how they fit into the hierarchical structure and explicate their relationships to existing measures of pathological traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24886053

Griffin, Sarah A; Samuel, Douglas B

2014-10-01

240

Personality Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

241

Forestry in achieving millennium goals Novi Sad, Serbie November 13-15, 2008 Light sharing among different forest strata for sustainable management of  

E-print Network

Forestry in achieving millennium goals ­ Novi Sad, Serbie ­ November 13-15, 2008 Light sharing Author manuscript, published in "Forestry in achieving millennium goals, Novi Sad : France (2008)" #12;Forestry in achieving millennium goals ­ Novi Sad, Serbie ­ November 13-15, 2008 objectives for the forest

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

242

Personal space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews major findings of personal-space research in clinical psychology, personality, demographic studies (including sex, age, cross-cultural studies), and studies of the effects of familiarity and affinity. The substantial lack of consistent findings in the literature is attributed to the lack of experimental controls in most of the personal-space research. It is suggested that researchers explore personal space using multivariate techniques.

Gary W. Evans; Roger B. Howard

1973-01-01

243

The "Interaction with Disabled Persons" Scale: Revisiting Its Internal Consistency and Factor Structure, and Examining Item-Level Properties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Interaction with Disabled Persons" scale (IDP) has been used in research into baseline attitudes and to evaluate whether a shift in attitudes towards people with developmental disabilities has occurred following some form of intervention. This research has been conducted on the assumption that the IDP measures attitudes as a multidimensional…

Iacono, Teresa; Tracy, Jane; Keating, Jenny; Brown, Ted

2009-01-01

244

A Structural Model of Parental Alcoholism, Family Functioning, and Psychological Health: The Mediating Effects of Hardiness and Personal Growth Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to: (a) determine whether personal-growth orientation and hardiness mediated the relations of parental alcoholism and family functioning to psychological well-being and distress; (b) determine whether this model was invariant across men and women; and (c) examine the role of parental alcoholism in a model that included family…

Robitschek, Christine; Kashubeck, Susan

1999-01-01

245

Many views, many modes, many tools ... one structure: Towards a Non-disruptive Integration of Personal Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

People yearn for more integration of their information. But tools meant to help often do the opposite-pulling people and their information in different directions. Fragmentation is potentially worsened as personal information moves onto the Web and into a myriad of special-purpose, mobile-enabled applications. How can tool developers innovate \\

William Jones; Kenneth M. Anderson

2011-01-01

246

The Interaction with Disabled Persons scale: Revisiting its internal consistency and factor structure, and examining item-level properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Interaction with Disabled Persons scale (IDP) has been used in research into baseline attitudes and to evaluate whether a shift in attitudes towards people with developmental disabilities has occurred following some form of intervention. This research has been conducted on the assumption that the IDP measures attitudes as a multidimensional construct and has good internal consistency. Such assumptions about

Teresa Iacono; Jane Tracy; Jenny Keating; Ted Brown

2009-01-01

247

North Atlantic sea-level variability during the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate modelling studies have demonstrated that spatial and temporal sea-level variability observed in North Atlantic tide-gauge records is controlled by a complex array of processes, including ice-ocean mass exchange, freshwater forcing, steric changes, changes in wind fields, and variations in the speed of the Gulf Stream. Longer records of sea-level change, also covering the pre-industrial period, are important as a 'natural' and long-term baseline against which to test model performance and to place recent and future sea-level changes and ice-sheet change into a long-term context. Such records can only be reliably and continuously reconstructed from proxy methods. Salt marshes are capable of recording decimetre-scale sea-level variations with high precision and accuracy. In this paper we present four new high-resolution proxy records of (sub-) decadal sea-level variability reconstructed from salt-marsh sediments in Iceland, Nova Scotia, Maine and Connecticut that span the past 400 to 900 years. Our records, based on more than 100 new radiocarbon analyses, Pb-210 and Cs-137 measurements as well as other biological and geochemical age markers, together with hundreds of new microfossil observations from contemporary and fossil salt marshes, capture not only the rapid 20th century sea-level rise, but also small-scale (decimetre, multi-decadal) sea-level fluctuations during preceding centuries. We show that in Iceland three periods of rapid sea-level rise are synchronous with the three largest positive shifts of the reconstructed North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Along the North American east coast we compare our data with salt-marsh records from New Jersey, North Carolina and Florida and observe a trend of increased pre-industrial sea-level variability from south to north (Florida to Nova Scotia). Mass changes and freshwater forcing cannot explain this pattern. Based on comparisons with instrumental sea-level data and modelling studies we hypothesise that multi-decadal to centennial changes in wind and air pressure are more important than mass flux from land-based ice as drivers of North Atlantic sea-level variability during the last millennium.

Gehrels, Roland; Long, Antony; Saher, Margot; Barlow, Natasha; Blaauw, Maarten; Haigh, Ivan; Woodworth, Philip

2014-05-01

248

Comet and Asteroid Missions in NASA's New Millennium Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is designed to develop, test, and flight validate new, advanced technologies for planetary and Earth exploration missions, using a series of low cost spacecraft. Two of NMP's current missions include encounters with comets and asteroids. The Deep Space 1 mission was launched on October 24, 1998 and will fly by asteroid 1992 KD on July 29, 1999, and possibly Comet Wilson-Harrington and/or Comet Borrelly in 2001. The Space Technology 4/Champollion mission will be launched in April, 2003 and will rendezvous with, orbit and land on periodic Comet Tempel 1 in 2006. ST-4/Champollion is a joint project with CNES, the French space agency. The DS-1 mission is going well since launch and has already validated several major technologies, including solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar concentrator arrays, a small deep space transponder, and autonomous navigation. The spacecraft carries two scientific instruments: MICAS, a combined visible camera and UV and IR spectrometers, and PEPE, an ion and electron spectrometer. Testing of the science instruments is ongoing. Following the asteroid encounter in July, 1999, DS-1 will go on to encounters with one or both comets if NASA approves funding for an extended mission. The ST-4/Champollion mission will use an advanced, multi-engine SEP system to effect a rendezvous with Comet P/Tempel 1 in February, 2006, after a flight time of 2.8 years. After orbiting the comet for several months in order to map its surface and determine its gravity field, ST-4/Chainpollion will descend to the comet's surface and will anchor itself with a 3-meter long harpoon. Scientific experiments include narrow and wide angle cameras for orbital mapping, panoramic and near-field cameras for landing site mapping, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, a combined microscope and infrared spectrometer, and physical properties probes. Cometary samples will be obtained from depths up to 1.4 meters. The spacecraft is solar powered with rechargeable batteries, thus allowing a long duration mission on the nucleus surface. At the time of this writing, the ST-4/Champollion spacecraft was undergoing a major redesign to fit within NASA cost constraints, and approval of the mission is pending.

Weissman, Paul R.

2000-01-01

249

Short-interval test-retest interrater reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R personality disorders (SCID-II) in outpatients.  

PubMed

The short-interval test-retest interrater reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R personality disorders (SCID-II) was studied in a psychotherapy outpatient group whose main complaint was mostly an Axis I anxiety disorder. Using a test-retest approach to assess interrater reliability, three sources of variance were taken into account (rater variance in the elicitation and interpretation of information and patient variance across interviews). Base rate requirements were established before calculating reliability coefficients. On the whole, interrater agreement on the SCID-II was found to be satisfactory, except for the histrionic personality traits. This is the first study that has estimated short-interval test-retest interrater reliability of the SCID-II in outpatients, and also the first that has studied single SCID-II traits and dimensional diagnoses. The results found support the use of the SCID-II as a diagnostic instrument for clinical and research purposes. PMID:9661100

Dreessen, L; Arntz, A

1998-01-01

250

Diagnostic Efficiency among Psychiatric Outpatients of a Self-Report Version of a Subset of Screen Items of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders (SCID-II)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the identification of a 10-item set of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) items, which proved to be effective as a self-report assessment instrument in screening personality disorders. The item selection was based on the retrospective analyses of 495 SCID-II interviews. The…

Germans, Sara; Van Heck, Guus L.; Masthoff, Erik D.; Trompenaars, Fons J. W. M.; Hodiamont, Paul P. G.

2010-01-01

251

"Taking Control of Their Lives?" First Findings from a Comparative Study of Personal Agency and Social Structures in Young Adult Transitions in England and the New Germany. Revised Version.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study explored how young adults experience control and exercise personal agency (self-determination) as they pass through periods of transition in education and training, work, unemployment, and in their personal lives. Data were gathered through structured questionnaires administered to at least 100 young adults from universities and companies,…

Evans, Karen; Rudd, Peter; Behrens, Martina; Kaluza, Jens; Woolley, Claire

252

Personality, gender and brain oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between personality structure and brain activity of individuals while resting with eyes closed. In the experiment 110 individuals participated (55 males and 55 females). They were clustered into 5 personality types according to the dimensions of general and emotional intelligence, and the five-factor personality model (FFM) — extraversion (E), neuroticism

Norbert Jaušovec; Ksenija Jaušovec

2007-01-01

253

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: a treatment review. What have we learned since the beginning of the millennium?  

PubMed

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) can significantly affect an individual's quality of life, the health care system, and even society. The first decade of the new millennium has seen renewed interest in this condition, but etiological understanding and evidence-based treatment availability remain limited. After the diagnosis of PNES is established, the first therapeutic step includes a presentation of the diagnosis that facilitates engagement in treatment. The purpose of this review is to present the current evidence of treatments for PNES published since the year 2000 and to discuss further needs for clinical treatment implementation and research. This article reviews clinical trials that have evaluated the efficacy of structured, standardized psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological interventions. The primary outcome measure in clinical trials for PNES is event frequency, although it is questionable whether this is the most accurate indicator of functional recovery. Cognitive behavioral therapy has evidence of efficacy, including one pilot randomized, controlled trial where cognitive behavioral therapy was compared with standard medical care. The antidepressant sertraline did not show a significant difference in event frequency change when compared to placebo in a pilot randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, but it did show a significant pre- versus posttreatment decrease in the active arm. Other interventions that have shown efficacy in uncontrolled trials include augmented psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy, group psychodynamic psychotherapy, group psychoeducation, and the antidepressant venlafaxine. Larger clinical trials of these promising treatments are necessary, while other psychotherapeutic interventions such as hypnotherapy, mindfulness-based therapies, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing may deserve exploration. Flexible delivery of treatment that considers the heterogeneous backgrounds of patients is emphasized as necessary for successful outcomes in clinical practice. PMID:23251092

Baslet, Gaston

2012-01-01

254

Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa's children and women of childbearing age live?  

PubMed

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments.Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation.Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the distribution of key vulnerable groups, and that doing so has substantial impacts on derived metrics through accounting for spatial demographic heterogeneities that exist within nations across Africa. PMID:23875684

Tatem, Andrew J; Garcia, Andres J; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Gaughan, Andrea E; Gilbert, Marius; Linard, Catherine

2013-01-01

255

Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa's children and women of childbearing age live?  

PubMed Central

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments. Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation. Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the distribution of key vulnerable groups, and that doing so has substantial impacts on derived metrics through accounting for spatial demographic heterogeneities that exist within nations across Africa. PMID:23875684

2013-01-01

256

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: a treatment review. What have we learned since the beginning of the millennium?  

PubMed Central

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) can significantly affect an individual’s quality of life, the health care system, and even society. The first decade of the new millennium has seen renewed interest in this condition, but etiological understanding and evidence-based treatment availability remain limited. After the diagnosis of PNES is established, the first therapeutic step includes a presentation of the diagnosis that facilitates engagement in treatment. The purpose of this review is to present the current evidence of treatments for PNES published since the year 2000 and to discuss further needs for clinical treatment implementation and research. This article reviews clinical trials that have evaluated the efficacy of structured, standardized psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological interventions. The primary outcome measure in clinical trials for PNES is event frequency, although it is questionable whether this is the most accurate indicator of functional recovery. Cognitive behavioral therapy has evidence of efficacy, including one pilot randomized, controlled trial where cognitive behavioral therapy was compared with standard medical care. The antidepressant sertraline did not show a significant difference in event frequency change when compared to placebo in a pilot randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, but it did show a significant pre- versus posttreatment decrease in the active arm. Other interventions that have shown efficacy in uncontrolled trials include augmented psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy, group psychodynamic psychotherapy, group psychoeducation, and the antidepressant venlafaxine. Larger clinical trials of these promising treatments are necessary, while other psychotherapeutic interventions such as hypnotherapy, mindfulness-based therapies, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing may deserve exploration. Flexible delivery of treatment that considers the heterogeneous backgrounds of patients is emphasized as necessary for successful outcomes in clinical practice. PMID:23251092

Baslet, Gaston

2012-01-01

257

Exploration of the Factorial Structure of the Revised Personal Functions of the Volunteerism Scale for Chinese Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participation in volunteer services can be regarded as an indicator of quality of life among adolescents. The Volunteer Functions\\u000a Inventory (VFI) has long been used to assess the underlying motives of volunteers. Owing to conceptual, methodological and\\u000a empirical limitations, the VFI could not be fully endorsed to understand Chinese adolescent volunteerism. Another scale was\\u000a devised, called the Revised Personal Functions

Ben M. F. LawDaniel; Daniel T. L. Shek; Cecilia M. S. Ma

2011-01-01

258

Emotional memory function, personality structure and psychopathology: A neural system approach to the identification of vulnerability markers?  

PubMed Central

It is well established that emotional events are ingrained stronger into memory relative to neutral events. Facilitated emotional memory is highly variable between individuals within the normal population and is particularly exacerbated in those diagnosed with mood and anxiety disorders. In order to elucidate how variation of enhanced emotional memory within the normal population may manifest into psychopathological states, we explored the convergence between studies investigating the neural systems engaged in emotional memory facilitation and studies investigating how these systems differ from person to person. Converging evidence highlights the roles of three neural systems (1. Amygdala function and attention, 2. Neuroendocrine function, 3. Interactive effects with mood) that all govern emotional memory facilitation and are highly variable between individuals as a function of personality. We applied this neural system approach to models of vulnerability of three forms of psychopathology that are particularly characterized by atypical emotional memory function (depression, generalized anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder). This application suggests that the incorporation of known vulnerability markers across psychological, neuroimaging and neuroendocrinological domains is cardinal to how susceptibility is conceptualized and assessed in these disorders. PMID:18359090

Haas, Brian W.; Canli, Turhan

2009-01-01

259

Educational Leadership in the New Millennium: A Vision for 2020.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In assessing educational leadership dimensions for 2020, one must consider the effects of technology and automation in education, important influences of changes in society, and progress in developing and understanding administrators' personal/professional needs. Conscience, creative imagination, and interpersonal skill development are essential…

Miller, Thomas W.; Miller, Jean M.

2001-01-01

260

Cybercounseling and Cyberlearning: Strategies and Resources for the Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to assist counselors in becoming better informed about cybercounseling so that they can decide for themselves what their personal opinion is on its worth and use. It describes current practices that will give a glimpse as to the behavioral health professions in the future. The book contains the following chapters: (1)…

Bloom, John W.; Walz, Garry R.

261

Forensic anthropology: developments of a classical discipline in the new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present brief review is a survey of the role of forensic anthropology (FA) in the new millennium. After an introduction which deals with the expanding definition of the discipline and the issue of professionality and training, the author approaches the role and novel developments of the field, with particular reference to the past 5 years. Such developments are discussed

Cristina Cattaneo

2007-01-01

262

Meeting the needs of the new millennium: passenger space travel and world economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without doubt, humans’ most urgent need at the start of the new millennium is the continuation of economic growth, which is the only means by which the great majority of the world population can lift themselves out of the poverty in which they live. A sine qua non for continuing economic growth is for the rich countries to continue to

Patrick Collins

2002-01-01

263

Global inequality, capabilities, social justice: The millennium development goal for gender equality in education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for gender equality in education by 2005 has been criticised for its grandiose ambition, its failure to adequately conceptualise the nature of gender inequality or the diverse forms this takes, the inadequate policies developed to put the goal into practice and the limited measurements used for monitoring. The paper argues for a strategic defence of

Elaine Unterhalter

2005-01-01

264

Financing the Millennium Development Goals for health and beyond: sustaining the 'Big Push'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the Millennium Development Goals are not being achieved in the world's poorest countries, yet only five years remain until the target date. The financing of these Goals is not merely insufficient; current evidence indicates that the temporary nature of the financing, as well as challenges to coordinating its delivery and directing it to the most needy recipients, hinder

Gorik Ooms; David Stuckler; Sanjay Basu; Martin McKee

2010-01-01

265

Mathematics brought to life by the Millennium Mathematics Project (Workshop Summary)  

E-print Network

The Millennium Mathematics Project is a mathematics education initiative for ages 5 to 19 and the general public, based at the University of Cambridge, UK. The aim of the MMP is to support mathematics education presented the project with the Queen's Anniversary Prize for Higher and Further Education (the counterpart

Spagnolo, Filippo

266

Abrupt climate changes for Iceland during the last millennium: evidence from high resolution sea ice reconstructions  

E-print Network

, Norway Abstract A high resolution account of Icelandic sea ice over the last millennium has been constructed using a novel proxy based on the presence in sediments of a biomarker (IP25) produced by sea ice algae. Comparison with historical sea ice records demonstrates a strong correlation between documented

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

267

Global Inequality, Capabilities, Social Justice: The Millennium Development Goal for Gender Equality in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for gender equality in education by 2005 has been criticised for its grandiose ambition, its failure to adequately conceptualise the nature of gender inequality or the diverse forms this takes, the inadequate policies developed to put the goal into practice and the limited measurements used for monitoring. The…

Unterhalter, E.

2005-01-01

268

Gender equality and women's empowerment: A critical analysis of the third millennium development goal 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the third Millennium Development Goal (MDG), on gender equality and women's empowerment. It explores the concept of women's empowerment and highlights ways in which the indicators associated with this Goal – on education, employment, and political participation – can contribute to it.

Naila Kabeer

2005-01-01

269

Beyond the Millennium Development Goals: Public health challenges in water and sanitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 1 billion people lack access to improved water sources and 2.6 billion lack access to appropriate sanitation, greatly contributing to the global burden of disease. The international community has committed to reducing by half the proportion of the world's population lacking access to water and sanitation as a part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, the disease burden

R. Rheingans; R. Dreibelbis; M. C. Freeman

2006-01-01

270

Contribution of Universities towards Knowledge of Millennium Development Goals (MDGS): A Study of Uganda and Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the contribution of universities towards students' awareness of issues related to Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The assessment is based on data of 1,920 students randomly selected from universities in Uganda and Kenya. Frequency distributions, the Chi-square test, and complementary log-log regression were used for…

Wamala, Robert; Chamberlain, Jean; Nabachwa, Mary Sonko

2012-01-01

271

The New Millennium and an Education That Captures the Basic Spirit of Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses reflections of the old and new millennium on education that capture the basic spirit of science. The explanation includes basic scientific ideas in physical sciences, earth systems, solar system and space; living systems; basic scientific thinking; the basic distinction between science and technology; basic connections…

Bybee, Rodger W.

272

Implications for Art Education in the Third Millennium: Art Technology Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most would agree that today's art education is far more complex than art activities such as making pumpkin paintings in October. For one, art education continually evolves in response to arts technology integration. What exactly are the implications for art education in the new millennium? In this article, the author presents and shows some of the…

Mayo, Sherry

2007-01-01

273

Maternal deaths in Sagamu in the new millennium: a facility-based retrospective analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Health institutions need to contribute their quota towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) with respect to maternal health. In order to do so, current data on maternal mortality is essential for careproviders and policy makers to appreciate the burden of the problem and understand how best to distribute resources. This study presents the magnitude and distribution

Olufemi T Oladapo; Mustafa A Lamina; Tuminu A Fakoya

2006-01-01

274

Whatever Happened to Postmodernism in Higher Education? No Requiem in the New Millennium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article concerns the usefulness of postmodernity for illuminating change in higher education associated with the new millennium. Overarching is the notion that history is not a smooth, rational, progressive unfolding of events but a series of ruptures and fragmenting disjunctures. This article asserts that when viewed in epochal terms, the…

Bloland, Harland G.

2005-01-01

275

Florida Current surface temperature and salinity variability during the last millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salinity and temperature of the Florida Current are key parameters affecting the transport of heat into the North Atlantic, yet little is known about their variability on centennial timescales. Here we report replicated, high-resolution foraminiferal records of Florida Current surface hydrography for the last millennium from two coring sites, Dry Tortugas and the Great Bahama Bank. The oxygen isotopic

David C. Lund; William Curry

2006-01-01

276

Post-Compulsory Education and the New Millennium. Higher Education Policy Series 54.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributors to this collection deal with many of the most important issues facing further education in the United Kingdom and present a graphic picture of the kinds of problems facing colleges as they move into the new millennium. The chapters are: (1) "The Changing Framework of Post-16 Education - The Rhetoric of Reform" (Colin Griffin and David…

Gray, David E., Ed.; Griffin, Colin, Ed.

277

Accelerating the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Ghana: Literacy, the Missing Link  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Millennium Development Goals launched in 2001 provide a worldwide agenda to reduce poverty by 2015. Though the eight goals provide synergies for the rapid reduction of poverty, the MDGs have come under criticism for being too narrow and sometimes leaving out critical aspects of human development and well-being. Although the MDGs address some…

Tagoe, Michael Ayitey

2011-01-01

278

Governing by Partnerships: Dilemmas in Swedish Education Policy at the Turn of the Millennium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, governing through partnerships has become more and more common and is today reflected in a range of policy areas. In the following article, governing through partnerships is analysed in Swedish education policy around the turn of the millennium, where the notion of partnership has had a large impact. Using as its point of…

Dahlstedt, Magnus

2009-01-01

279

What Will Be the Demands of Literacy in the Workplace in the Next Millennium?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents five educators' ideas about what the demands of literacy in the workplace in the next millennium will be. Notes increased expansion of multiple literacies and considers electronic performance support systems and expert systems. Considers how future workplace literacy is dependent on adult literacy skills. (SC)

Smith, M Cecil; Mikulecky, Larry; Kibby, Michael W.; Dreher, Mariam Jean; Dole, Janice A.

2000-01-01

280

Testing institutional biomass cookstoves in rural Kenyan schools for the Millennium Villages Project  

E-print Network

Testing institutional biomass cookstoves in rural Kenyan schools for the Millennium Villages Revised 7 July 2010 Accepted 7 July 2010 Available online xxxx Keywords: Biomass Cookstove Institutional fuels such as coal and biomass for their energy needs, burning 2 million ton of biomass each day

Modi, Vijay

281

Is the Millennium Goal on Education Tackling the Ethical Requirements of a Diverse and Multicultural World?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is an invitation to reflect on the ethical foundations underlying the Millennium Declaration of September 2000, approved by the 189 member states of the United Nations, in which they committed themselves to improve the living conditions of humanity, with special focus on developing countries. It is noteworthy that this proposal, which…

Mosquera, Katia Ximena Mosquera; Mosquera, Maura Nasly Mosquera

2005-01-01

282

Modelling uncertainties in the climate of the last millennium: the ASTER project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LOVECLIM model (Driesschaert et al., 2007; Goosse et al., 2007) is used to simulate the climate of the last millennium with several `climate' parameter sets yielding different sensitivities of the climate and the carbon cycle model. The purpose of these simulations is twofold. We intend to assess first the role of the carbon cycle on the climate, and second,

M. F. Loutre; A. Mouchet; T. Fichefet; H. Goosse; H. Goelzer; P. Huybrechts

2009-01-01

283

The New Millennium Program: Technology for the 21(sup st) Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is a space flight technology demonstration program that will validate the technologies needed to carry out the science missions that NASA envisions for the 21(sup st)century. The NMP is employing an innovative decision making process to select the specific technologies that will be flight validated.

Casani, E. Kane; Wilson, Barbara

1996-01-01

284

Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 3: Adolescent Literacy. Praeger Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

2007-01-01

285

Women at the Millennium, Accomplishments and Challenges Ahead. Facts on Working Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To benefit from new millennium opportunities, women should take advantage of the burgeoning information technology revolution and growth in other mathematics- and science-based occupations. Among occupations, professional jobs will increase the fastest and add the most employment. Among industries, the computer and data processing services…

Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

286

The Use of ICT in Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contribution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the contribution of higher education institutions in achieving these have been emphasized. This study sought to find out the extent to which university-based researches on ICTs addressed and impacted the three MDGs of gender…

Kaino, L. M.

2012-01-01

287

Education Finance in the New Millennium. Yearbook of the American Education Finance Association, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This yearbook reaffirms the connections between the field of education finance and the wider education community. Among the topics it examines are curricula reform, outcome assessment, accountability, community control, and privatization. Twelve chapters include: (1) "Education Finance in the New Millennium: Overview and Summary" (Stephen Chaikind…

Chaikind, Stephen, Ed.; Fowler, William J., Ed.

288

Century-scale solar variability and Alaskan temperature change over the past millennium  

E-print Network

. Wiles,1 Rosanne D. D'Arrigo,2 Ricardo Villalba,3 Parker E. Calkin,4 and David J. Barclay5 Received 22. Barclay (2004), Century-scale solar variability and Alaskan temperature change over the past millennium to be primarily a record of summer temperature change [Barclay et al., 1999; Davi et al., 2003]. Well

Barclay, David J.

289

Behind the Public Face of Kew: Education and Conservation in the Millennium Seed Bank  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At its Wakehurst Place garden in West Sussex, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, has established the UK home of one of the world's largest conservation projects, the Millennium Seed Bank (MSB) partnership, a global project to conserve biodiversity by collecting and preserving seeds. This article describes what the MSB partnership does, how seeds are…

McFarlane, Angela

2010-01-01

290

The Challenges of Attaining Millennium Development Goals in Education in Africa by 2015  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Millennium Development Goals were established by the United Nations to help underdeveloped countries to overcome problems of illiteracy, poverty, low health status and quality of life. Much emphasis was placed on the attainment of MDG targets in education because of its pivotal role in national development. The targets include education for all…

Ojogwu, C. N.

2009-01-01

291

Combatting cancer in the third millennium – The contribution of medical physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this invited opening Plenary Lecture at the 1st European Conference on Medical Physics, I indicated some of the roles of medical physics, and specifically medical radiation therapy physics, in the development of improved cancer care for the third millennium. It is said that you are only asked to predict the future if you are seriously old and\\/or will not

Steve Webb

2008-01-01

292

The Future of Written Culture Envisioning Language in the New Millennium  

E-print Network

culture, popular media (and those whose activities it covers) are often good places to begin. OurThe Future of Written Culture Envisioning Language in the New Millennium Naomi S. Baron Professor. Portions of the paper appeared in 2004 under the title "Rethinking Written Culture" in Language Sciences 26

Lansky, Joshua

293

A multi-proxy perspective on millennium-long climate variability in the Southern Pyrenees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of selected, well-dated, multiproxy paleoclimatic records (lacustrine, dendrochronological, geomorphological) characterizes the main environmental changes occurred in the Southern Pyrenees during the last millennium. Warmer and relatively arid conditions prevailed during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, <1300 AD), with a significant development of xerophytes and Mediterranean vegetation and limited deciduous tree formations (mesophytes). The Little Ice Age (LIA, 1300-1800

M. Morellón; A. Pérez-Sanz; J. P. Corella; U. Büntgen; J. Catalán; P. González-Sampériz; J. J. González-Trueba; J. A. López-Sáez; A. Moreno; S. Pla; M. Á. Saz-Sánchez; P. Scussolini; E. Serrano; F. Steinhilber; V. Stefanova; T. Vegas-Vilarrúbia; B. Valero-Garcés

2011-01-01

294

Rural Livelihoods, Poverty, and the Millennium Development Goals: Evidence from Ethiopian Survey Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an in-depth look at some of the key development issues facing households in Ethiopia, in the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Using household survey data from 2000, 2002, and 2005, we found that Ethiopia is making progress toward some vital MDG goals, but household incomes are shockingly low and hugely varied. Assets could potentially help

Randall Bluffstone; Mahmud Yesuf; Bilisuma Bushie; Demessie Damite

2008-01-01

295

Can we say whether the Canada Millennium Scholarship bursaries have affected post-secondary enrolments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Canada Millennium Scholarship Program was established with a $2.5 billion endowment in 1999, with the goal of distributing all its capital for the purposes of student financial aid between 2000 and 2010. The goals of the program were to increase access to post-secondary education, especially among students facing economic and social barriers, and to reduce student debt. This

Christine Neill

296

Attitude determination and control for the new millennium EO1 spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) mission is the first in a series of smaller, faster, cheaper Earth observing spacecraft that will be developed through Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). In a broad sense, the mission objectives focus on the development and flight testing of new remote sensing spacecraft and operations technologies that could be

Dave Speer; P. Sanneman

1998-01-01

297

Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 4: Adult Literacy. Praeger Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

2007-01-01

298

Poverty, Education, Gender and the Millennium Development Goals: Reflections on Boundaries and Intersectionality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article considers the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) concerned with poverty, education and gender (MDG 1, MDG 2 and MDG 3). Despite considerable achievements associated with the MDG approach, which entails international and national target setting and monitoring, a sharp distinction between areas of social policy is entailed. In addition…

Unterhalter, Elaine

2012-01-01

299

New Technologies\\/New Literacies: Reconstructing Education for the New Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we enter a new millennium, most people are by now aware that we are in the midst of one of the most dramatic technological revolutions in history that is changing everything from the ways that we work, to the ways that we communicate with each other, to how we spend our leisure time. The technological revolution centers on computer,

Douglas Kellner

2001-01-01

300

Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Impact of the Gates Millennium Scholars Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation began an innovative scholarship program that provides full financial support to low-income minority students across the United States. The Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) program has already awarded more than 10,000 scholarships to exceptional students, with the ultimate goal of funding at least 20,000…

Ramsey, Jennifer

2010-01-01

301

Community psychology, millennium volunteers and UK higher education: a disruptive triptych?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I critically explore the ideological underpinnings of pedagogical and political practices in UK Higher Education (HE). I first map out the political and pedagogical features of community psychology and then describe the Millennium Volunteers project at the University of Northumbria— a scheme that integrates voluntary placements into undergraduate degree programmes, reflecting on the political and pedagogical premises

Paul S. Duckett

2002-01-01

302

Solar influence on climate during the past millennium: Results from transient simulations  

E-print Network

Solar influence on climate during the past millennium: Results from transient simulations University, Stanford, CA, June 28, 2006 (received for review February 27, 2006) The potential role of solar that solar forcing may be less than previously believed. Because solar variability before the satellite

Lachniet, Matthew S.

303

Personality Trait Development in Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the middle part of the 20th century, a healthy dialogue existed between sociology and personality psychology. Leading scholars\\u000a in sociology actively discussed the relationship between social structure and personality (Neugarten, 1968; Parsons, 1942), and between organizations and personality (Inkeles & Levinson, 1963). In turn, many personality psychologists studied similar phenomena (e.g., Sanford, 1956; Sarbin, 1964). However, over the past

Brent W. Roberts; Richard W. Robins; Kali H. Trzesniewski; Avshalom Caspi

304

By the numbers: Structure-seeking individuals prefer quantitative over qualitative representations of personal value to compensate for the threat of unclear performance contingencies.  

PubMed

What combination of dispositional and situational factors leads people to represent their personal value in quantitative terms (e.g., salary) rather than qualitative terms (e.g., virtue)? Integrating research on quantitative information seeking, dispositional epistemic motivation, and learned helplessness, the current article hypothesized that individuals high, but not low, in uncertainty avoidance (measured with the Personal Need for Structure Scale [PNS]) would prefer quantitative (over qualitative) value representations to compensate for the diminished self-esteem certainty caused by exposure to unclear performance contingencies. Accordingly, in Study 1 high-PNS participants exposed to unclear (vs. clear) performance contingencies in one domain (visual intelligence) preferred a quantitative value representation in another domain (verbal intelligence). Study 2 showed that this effect is mediated by self-esteem certainty, not self-esteem level. Study 3 included a failure feedback condition to further isolate the role of epistemic motivation, as distinct from self-enhancement motivation, in driving the tendency to quantify personal value. PMID:21778467

Rothschild, Zachary K; Landau, Mark J; Sullivan, Daniel

2011-11-01

305

School media specialists: Changes and challenges for the next millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been recognized that media programs and media centers contribute to the successful schooling of students. Studies\\u000a over the past ten years have linked the presence of school media centers with students’ academic achievements (Bowie, 1984).\\u000a Persons providing media services, therefore, play key roles in the overall success of instructional programs. Some of these\\u000a roles have remained fairly

Melvin M. Bowie

1988-01-01

306

Sociology of Aging in Canada: Issues for the Millennium. [and] Commentary: Sociological Issues for the Millennium. [and] Commentary: Asian Perspectives on Sociological Issues for the Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews sociological gerontology in Canada in four areas: (1) inequality, population aging, and the social construction of aging; (2) retirement and income security; (3) health, health care services, and health policy; and (4) family relations and caregiving. Identifies the importance of social structures for individual experience of aging.…

Chappell, Neena L.; Penning, Margaret J.

2001-01-01

307

Personal Pronouns Personal Pronouns [viwakilishi nafsi  

E-print Network

Lesson 4: Personal Pronouns Personal Pronouns [viwakilishi nafsi] There are three personal pronouns in Swahili: A). First person pronoun B). Second person pronoun C). Third person pronoun Each personal pronoun has a singular and a plural form. A). First Person Pronoun Umoja [singular

308

Mystery Person  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this coordination.…

O'Brien, Tom

2011-01-01

309

Personal Finance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter presents four articles designed to help business educators educate learners in grades K-12 about personal finance. "Now More Than Ever: The Need for Financial Literacy" examines the following topics: evidence that the United States is becoming a nation of debtors; the plummeting personal savings rate; the increasing complexity of…

Wagner, June G.

2003-01-01

310

Twelve month test-retest reliability of a Japanese version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine the long-interval test-retest reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn; DSM-IV) Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II) Japanese version. One hundred and twenty outpatients with anxiety disorders completed the self-report SCID-II personality questionnaire (SCID-II-PQ) and structured interviews, and then again 12 months later. In the SCID-II-PQ, 70.8% and 71.7% of the patients had a personality disorder (PD) at the first evaluation and second evaluation 12 months later, respectively, and Cohen's kappas ranged from 0.29 for paranoid PD to 0.83 for histrionic PD, and overall kappa was 0.56. In the SCID-II interviews, 47.5% and 41.7% of the patients fulfilled the criteria for PD at the first and the second evaluations, respectively. At least one PD was identified in 49 subjects (40.8%), of whom 65.3% had one PD, 30.6% had two PD, 2% had three PD, and 2% had four PD; the most frequently diagnosed PD were from cluster C (60.9%). The overall base rate of 12 PD was 7%, and overall kappa was 0.87. Cohen's kappas ranged from 0.86 for obsessive-compulsive PD to 0.93 for avoidant PD and schizoid PD, and were comparable with those in the previous interrater studies. The test-retest reliability of the SCID-II-PQ was moderately good, and after the SCID-II interview the test-retest reliability of the SCID-II appeared to be of almost perfect reliability. This first long-interval, large-sample, non-Western-language research on the test-retest reliability of the SCID-II for DSM-IV indicated its usefulness and excellent reliability. PMID:12950709

Osone, Akira; Takahashi, Saburo

2003-10-01

311

Personal Information Request Request for Personal Information  

E-print Network

Personal Information Request Request for Personal Information Request for Correction of Personal Information Personal information on this form is collected under Newfoundland and Labrador's Access to, your personal information. (See attached instructions) 1. To Which Public Body Are You Making

deYoung, Brad

312

Low-latitude Western North Atlantic climate variability during the past millennium : insights from proxies and models  

E-print Network

Estimates of natural climate variability during the past millennium provide a frame of reference in which to assess the significance of recent changes. This thesis investigates new methods of reconstructing low-latitude ...

Saenger, Casey Pearce

2009-01-01

313

Person-centred Care "A patient  

E-print Network

Person-centred Care #12;"A patient is a person who is more than their disease" #12;GPCC The University of Gothenburg Centre for Person-centred care (GPCC) was established in 2010 with support from. Uniquely GPCC has evaluated the effects of person-centred care carried out in a structured manner. Among

Johannesson, Henrik

314

Personal Computers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the hardware, software, applications, and current proliferation of personal computers (microcomputers). Includes discussions of microprocessors, memory, output (including printers), application programs, the microcomputer industry, and major microcomputer manufacturers (Apple, Radio Shack, Commodore, and IBM). (JN)

Toong, Hoo-min D.; Gupta, Amar

1982-01-01

315

Are Low-Income Canadians Financially Literate? Placing Financial Literacy in the Context of Personal and Structural Constraints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that financial literacy varies across socioeconomic groups and their neighborhoods, in part because of the adult learning that occurs within a local context. The study begins by explaining that financial literacy needs vary across socioeconomic groups and that there are important structural factors affecting the financial…

Buckland, Jerry

2010-01-01

316

The Impact of Religion on Women Empowerment as a Millennium Development Goal in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the impact of religion on women empowerment. Three religions, indigenous African, Islam and Christianity,\\u000a comprising Africa’s triple heritage, are considered. The hypothesized relationships are confirmed. Christianity correlates\\u000a with each of the four Development Targets specified for women empowerment under the third of the Millennium Development Goals\\u000a (MDGs), including raising the: (1) percentage of school-aged girls in school,

Ambe J. NjohFenda; Fenda A. Akiwumi

2012-01-01

317

Times of Plenty, Times of Less: Last-Millennium Societal Disruption in the Pacific Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last millennium in the Pacific Basin (islands and continental rim) there was a marked contrast between ‘times of\\u000a plenty’ and ‘times of less’ for its human societies. This contrast is attributable to climate and sea-level variations, notably\\u000a the Medieval Warm Period (a.d. 700–1250) and the Little Ice Age (a.d. 1350–1800) separated by a time of rapid cooling and

Patrick D. Nunn; Rosalind Hunter-Anderson; Mike T. Carson; Frank Thomas; Sean Ulm; Michael J. Rowland

2007-01-01

318

South China Sea hydrological changes and Pacific Walker Circulation variations over the last millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative importance of north-south migrations of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) versus El Niño-Southern Oscillation and its associated Pacific Walker Circulation (PWC) variability for past hydrological change in the western tropical Pacific is unclear. Here we show that north-south ITCZ migration was not the only mechanism of tropical Pacific hydrologic variability during the last millennium, and that PWC variability

Hong Yan; Liguang Sun; Delia W. Oppo; Yuhong Wang; Zhonghui Liu; Zhouqing Xie; Xiaodong Liu; Wenhan Cheng

2011-01-01

319

Climatic change over the last millennium in Tasmania reconstructed from tree-rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree-ring widths from millennium-old Huon pine (Lagarostrobos franklinii) trees have been used to reconstruct warm season (November-April) temperatures back to AD 900 for Tasmania. The reconstruction indicates that the most recent 100 years of climate have been highly unusual, with the coldest and warmest 25-year periods occurring from 1890 to 1914 and 1965 to 1989, respectively. Although the most recent

Er Cook; T. Bird; M. Peterson; M. Barbetti; B. Buckley; R. DArrigo; R. Francey

1992-01-01

320

Data assimilation over the last millennium using a large ensemble of simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simulation is performed over the past millennium using a three-dimensional climate model of intermediate complexity that is forced to follow temperature histories obtained from a recent compilation of well-calibrated surface temperature proxies. This is achieved using a simple data assimilation technique that could be briefly described as follows. For each year, a large ensemble of simulation is performed (96 here). The member of the ensemble that is the closest to observations is then selected as representative for this particular year and used as the initial condition for the subsequent year. The distance between the model results and the proxy record is measured by a cost function using reconstructed and simulated temperatures at the locations where the proxies are available. The best simulation retained is the one that minimizes this cost function. The simulation obtained by this technique provides a continuous record over the past millennium that is compatible with model physics, with the forcing applied and with the available proxy-records. In a first step, the simulated temperatures over the last 150 years are compared to estimates obtained using only information from thermometers in order to demonstrate the validity of the techniques as well as to provide estimates of the errors bars on this new reconstruction. In a second step, the simulated temperatures over the whole millennium are compared at quasi- hemispheric-scales with the reconstructions based on statistical techniques. The simulated pattern of anomalies are then analyzed as well as the mechanisms responsible for the regional changes, with a particular focus over Europe and North America. The results are then compared to the ones of other data assimilation techniques used to study the climate of the last millennium.

Goosse, H.; Mann, M. E.; Renssen, H.; Timmermann, A.

2007-12-01

321

Risk factors for childhood obesity at age 5: Analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Weight at age 5 is a predictor for future health of the individual. This study examines risk factors for childhood obesity with a focus on ethnicity. METHODS: Data from the Millennium Cohort study were used. 17,561 singleton children of White\\/European (n = 15,062), Asian (n = 1,845) or African (n = 654) background were selected. Logistic regression and likelihood

Sinead Brophy; Roxanne Cooksey; Michael B Gravenor; Rupal Mistry; Non Thomas; Ronan A Lyons; Rhys Williams

2009-01-01

322

Classical Archaeology and Anthropological Archaeology in North America: A Meeting of Minds at the Millennium?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the only Mediterranean archaeologist to contribute to this volume, I was given a particularly difficult assignment: to\\u000a discuss the state of classical archaeology in the United States at the turn of the millennium.1 I was initially perplexed\\u000a by the invitation. Why had other authors been asked to discuss current research as it pertains to a specific problem in anthropological

Jack L. Davis

323

Climate changes over eastern China during the last millennium in simulations and reconstructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change during the last millennium is simulated using fully coupled three-dimensional model CCSM 2.0.1. The model is driven by the natural and anthropogenic forcings. Simulated temperatures over the whole of China and over the Eastern part of China, from combined forcing correlate to some extend with the proxy data, while simulated precipitation in East China (East of 105°E, 25–40°N)

Youbing Peng; Ying Xu; Liya Jin

2009-01-01

324

Countdown to 2015: will the Millennium Development Goal for child survival be met?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), ratified by most nations in 2000, set specific targets for poverty reduction, eradication of hunger, education, gender equality, health and environmental sustainability. MDG 4 aims to reduce child mortality with a target of reducing under-five mortality rates by two thirds over the period 1990–2015. Over the last year, Live Aid, Make Poverty History, the G8

Joy E Lawn; Anthony Costello; Charles Mwansambo; David Osrin

2007-01-01

325

An approach to classifying human resources constraints to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: For any wide-ranging effort to scale up health-related priority interventions, human resources for health (HRH) are likely to be a key to success. This study explores constraints related to human resources in the health sector for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in low-income countries. METHODS AND FRAMEWORK: The analysis drew on information from a variety of publicly-available sources

Kaspar Wyss

2004-01-01

326

Climatic Variations in the East European Plain During the Last Millennium: State of the Art  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a High resolution last millennium reconstructions of annual, summer, winter temperature and sum of annual precipitation for\\u000a the East European Plain based on the historical data, palynology, tree-ring analyses, borehole temperature measurements and\\u000a lake sediments are discussed. The first multiproxy quantitative reconstruction of these parameters takes into account mostly\\u000a historical and palynological records of suffice length and quality. It shows the

Vladimir Klimenko; Olga Solomina

327

Variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in the last millennium and two IPCC scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is investigated in several climate simulations with\\u000a the ECHO-G atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, including two forced integrations of the last millennium, one millennial-long\\u000a control run, and two future scenario simulations of the twenty-first century. This constitutes a new framework in which the\\u000a AMOC response to future climate change conditions is addressed

Pablo Ortega; Marisa Montoya; Fidel González-Rouco; Juliette Mignot; Stephanie Legutke

2008-01-01

328

Mastering the value chain. An interview with Mark Levin of Millennium Pharmaceuticals. Interview by David Champion.  

PubMed

As today's business leaders are all too aware, a new scientific or technological break-through can quickly transform an industry's competitive landscape. The upheaval is often traumatic for the companies involved, forcing them to rethink their strategies and redefine their boundaries. But an industry in flux also creates vast opportunities. To seize them, companies must see how the current upheavals will affect the future distribution of profits--and then reinvent themselves to capitalize on the new sources of value. In this interview with HBR senior editor David Champion, Mark Levin, the founder and CEO of Millennium Pharmaceuticals, describes his vision of the future of the pharmaceutical industry in the wake of the genetics revolution and new technologies that have altered the economics of drug development. No company, he argues, will create serious long-term value by staying in just one or two stages of the value of chain. That's why Millennium, which started out doing basis research into genes and proteins and selling its findings to pharmaceutical giants, has moved downstream - toward the patients who actually use and pay for the drugs. He explains why the research end has become less lucrative than the more mechanical tasks of identifying, testing, and manufacturing molecules. Levin talks about the changes Millennium has undergone since its inception in 1993-from 30 workers to more than 1,000, and from one end of the value chain to the other. He discusses the company's cultural transformations as well as the partnerships and acquisitions that have helped millennium become involved in every stage of the chain-from gene to patient. Levin's vigorous approach to balancing long-term strategy with short-term tactics offers important lessons to any executive facing an industry upheaval. PMID:11408971

Levin, M

2001-06-01

329

Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products during water recycling: microbial community structure and effects of substrate concentration.  

PubMed

Many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been shown to be biotransformed in water treatment systems. However, little research exists on the effect of initial PPCP concentration on PPCP biotransformation or on the microbial communities treating impacted water. In this study, biological PPCP removal at various concentrations was assessed using laboratory columns inoculated with wastewater treatment plant effluent. Pyrosequencing was used to examine microbial communities in the columns and in soil from a soil aquifer treatment (SAT; a method of water treatment prior to reuse) site. Laboratory columns were supplied with different concentrations (0.25, 10, 100, or 1,000 ?g liter(-1)) of each of 15 PPCPs. Five PPCPs (4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol [biosol], p-chloro-m-xylenol, gemfibrozil, ketoprofen, and phenytoin) were not removed at any tested concentrations. Two PPCPs (naproxen and triclosan) exhibited removals independent of PPCP concentration. PPCP removal efficiencies were dependent on initial concentrations for biphenylol, p-chloro-m-cresol, chlorophene, diclofenac, 5-fluorouracil, ibuprofen, and valproic acid, showing that PPCP concentration can affect biotransformation. Biofilms from sand samples collected from the 0.25- and 10-?g liter(-1) PPCP columns were pyrosequenced along with SAT soil samples collected on three consecutive days of a wetting and drying cycle to enable comparison of these two communities exposed to PPCPs. SAT communities were similar to column communities in taxonomy and phylotype composition, and both were found to contain close relatives of known PPCP degraders. The efficiency of biological removal of PPCPs was found to be dependent on the concentration at which the contamination occurs for some, but not all, PPCPs. PMID:24509919

Onesios-Barry, Kathryn M; Berry, David; Proescher, Jody B; Sivakumar, I K Ashok; Bouwer, Edward J

2014-04-01

330

Removal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products during Water Recycling: Microbial Community Structure and Effects of Substrate Concentration  

PubMed Central

Many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been shown to be biotransformed in water treatment systems. However, little research exists on the effect of initial PPCP concentration on PPCP biotransformation or on the microbial communities treating impacted water. In this study, biological PPCP removal at various concentrations was assessed using laboratory columns inoculated with wastewater treatment plant effluent. Pyrosequencing was used to examine microbial communities in the columns and in soil from a soil aquifer treatment (SAT; a method of water treatment prior to reuse) site. Laboratory columns were supplied with different concentrations (0.25, 10, 100, or 1,000 ?g liter?1) of each of 15 PPCPs. Five PPCPs (4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol [biosol], p-chloro-m-xylenol, gemfibrozil, ketoprofen, and phenytoin) were not removed at any tested concentrations. Two PPCPs (naproxen and triclosan) exhibited removals independent of PPCP concentration. PPCP removal efficiencies were dependent on initial concentrations for biphenylol, p-chloro-m-cresol, chlorophene, diclofenac, 5-fluorouracil, ibuprofen, and valproic acid, showing that PPCP concentration can affect biotransformation. Biofilms from sand samples collected from the 0.25- and 10-?g liter?1 PPCP columns were pyrosequenced along with SAT soil samples collected on three consecutive days of a wetting and drying cycle to enable comparison of these two communities exposed to PPCPs. SAT communities were similar to column communities in taxonomy and phylotype composition, and both were found to contain close relatives of known PPCP degraders. The efficiency of biological removal of PPCPs was found to be dependent on the concentration at which the contamination occurs for some, but not all, PPCPs. PMID:24509919

Onesios-Barry, Kathryn M.; Berry, David; Proescher, Jody B.; Sivakumar, I. K. Ashok

2014-01-01

331

Secular variation in Western Europe during the first millennium BC New full vector data and comparison with geomagnetic models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archaeological structures in Western Europe are the most-used material to estimate the secular variation of the geomagnetic field during the last millennia. However there is still a lack of data especially for archaeointensities beyond the transition BC/AD, whereas already published data suggest very strong secular variation during the first millennium BC. This study presents 37 new archaeodirections and 18 new archaeointensities from France for the last 1500 years BC. Studied materials are kilns, hearths and two sets of pottery collections. Usual rock magnetism methods have been carried out to characterize magnetic grains. Archaeodirections were obtained by thermal and alternating fields demagnetization and they were corrected for thermal remanent magnetization anisotropy effects. Archaeointensities were determined with the classical Thellier-Thellier protocol with pTRM checks and take account of anisotropy and cooling rate effects. New Bayesian Western Europe secular variation curves for archaeodirection and archaeointensity were built with this new dataset and previously published data selected following reliability criteria. New curves present small variations of inclination during the last 1500 years BC. However for declination a very sharp maximum is observed around 800-750BC. Our new high-quality data set reveals also a regular decrease of archaeointensity between 800BC and the end of the first millennium BC. Our secular variation curves for France are very coherent with predicted directions computed with ARCH3K_cst.1 constrained model (Korte et al., 2009), but we note some discrepancies for archaeointensity between data and predicted values. ARCH3K_cst.1 constrained model built with archaeomagnetic and volcanic data seems more efficient than CALS3k.4 model (Korte & Constable, 2011), which includes archaeomagnetic, volcanic and sedimentary records. This study demonstrates consequently the central part of high-quality archaeomagnetic and volcanic data in the geomagnetic modelling. Moreover, thanks to the strong variation of declination and archaeointensity, archaeomagnetism is now a very useful archaeological dating tool in Western Europe for the last 1500 years. Korte, M., Donadini, F., Constable, C.G., 2009. Geomagnetic field for 0-3 ka: 2. A new series of time-varying global models, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 10, 6, Q06008, doi:10.1029/2008GC002297 Korte, M., Constable, C., 2011. Improving geomagnetic field reconstructions for 0-3ka, Phys. Earth planet. Int., doi:10.1016/j.pepi.2011.06.017, in press

Hervé, G.; Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.

2011-12-01

332

Personality in Captive Ring-tailed Lemurs (Lemur Catta): Trait Structure and the Interaction with Dominance Hierarchy and Zoo Visitor Effects.  

E-print Network

??Personality ratings for a captive group of ring-tailed lemurs were obtained and factor analysis revealed four personality factors labelled Dominance, High Neuroticism/Low Conscientiousness, Extraversion and… (more)

Fleming, Camille

2008-01-01

333

Personal Revelation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Activity: You are going to develop a scripture chain that teaches us how we can receive Personal Revelation. Remember, when we talk to Heavenly Father we call it prayer. When Heavenly Father responds to us by the Holy Ghost we call it Personal Revelation. Teaching Emphasis (Core) I cannot use any language that describes to you what a revelation is. Somebody said, How can I tell if I have a revelation? I have had a feeling that such and such is true. How can I be sure? ...Revelation is something you experience, and the way that ...

Vasas, Brother

2008-10-15

334

New millennium long oak tree-ring width chronology and its potential for climate reconstruction for the Czech Lands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution provides basic information about a newly created oak (Quercus sp) tree ring width (TRW) chronology spatially covering the territory of the Czech Republic (CR) in the 761-2012 period. The series was completed from more than 3000 oak TRW samples of living, historical and sub-fossil material. At first variability in age structure, number of replications and common signal strength through time are discussed. Then we introduce a methodology how positive and negative extremes may be defined from high-pass filtered TRW oak series. Based on an assumption that positive/negative extremes indicate an occurrence of extremely wet/dry seasons in a moisture sensitive oak TRW chronology we verify this hypothesis against extremely wet/dry seasons that are known from various types of documentary evidence for the territory of CR. Degree of agreement in extremes found in both oak TRW series and documentary based precipitation index series is discussed. Finally mean CR precipitation series completed from 14 long homogenized station measurements and starting at 1803 is used to test a potential of the newly created oak TRW series for quantitative reconstruction of precipitation and drought characteristics of millennium lengths.

Dobrovolný, Petr; Brázdil, Rudolf; ?ezní?ková, Ladislava; Rybní?ek, Michal; Kolá?, Tomáš; Büntgen, Ulf

2014-05-01

335

Adult Personality Development: Dynamics and Processes  

PubMed Central

The focus of this special issue of Research in Human Development is on adult personality and how personality may contribute to and be involved in adult development. Specifically, the contributions in this issue focus on the links between personality structures (e.g., traits) and personality processes (e.g., goal pursuit, self--regulation) and emphasize the contributions that intensive repeated measurement approaches can make to the understanding of personality and development across the adult life span. PMID:24068889

Diehl, Manfred; Hooker, Karen

2013-01-01

336

Personal Finance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on personal finance is designed to provide all Marines with the ability to manage their financial affairs successfully. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students, a course introduction, and a study guide (guidelines to…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

337

Person Perception and Personality Pathology  

PubMed Central

Studies of person perception (people's impressions and beliefs about others) have developed important concepts and methods that can be used to help improve the assessment of personality disorders. They may also inspire advances in our knowledge of the nature and origins of these conditions. Information collected from peers and other types of informants is reliable and provides a perspective that often differs substantially from that obtained using questionnaires and interviews. For some purposes, this information is quite useful. Much remains to be learned about the incremental validity (and potential biases) associated with data from various kinds of informants. PMID:20539833

Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Turkheimer, Eric

2010-01-01

338

Personality structure in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus), Scottish wildcat (Felis silvestris grampia), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), snow leopard (Panthera uncia), and African lion (Panthera leo): A comparative study.  

PubMed

Although the study of nonhuman personality has increased in the last decade, there are still few studies on felid species, and the majority focus on domestic cats. We assessed the structure of personality and its reliability in five felids-domestic cats, clouded leopards, snow leopards, African lions, and previous data on Scottish wildcats-and compared the results. In addition to the benefits of understanding more about this taxon, comparative studies of personality structure have the potential to provide information on evolutionary relationships among closely related species. Each of the species studied was found to have three factors of personality. Scottish wildcats' factors were labeled Dominance, Agreeableness, and Self Control; domestic cats' factors were Dominance, Impulsiveness, and Neuroticism; clouded leopards' factors were Dominance/Impulsiveness, Agreeableness/Openness, and Neuroticism; snow leopards' factors were Dominance, Impulsiveness/Openness, and Neuroticism; and African lions' factors were Dominance, Impulsiveness, and Neuroticism. The Neuroticism and Impulsiveness factors were similar, as were two of the Dominance factors. A taxon-level personality structure also showed three similar factors. Age and sex effects are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25111629

Gartner, Marieke Cassia; Powell, David M; Weiss, Alexander

2014-11-01

339

Personality Disorders in Persons with Gender Identity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background. Investigations in the field of gender identity disorder (GID) have been mostly related to psychiatric comorbidity and severe psychiatric disorders, but have focused less on personality and personality disorders (PDs). Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of PDs in persons with GID as compared to cisgendered (a cisgender person is a person who is content to remain the gender they were assigned at birth) heterosexuals, as well as to biological sex. Methods. The study sample consisted of 30 persons with GID and 30 cisgendered heterosexuals from the general population. The assessment of PDs was conducted by application of the self-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PDs (SCID-II). Results. Persons with GID compared to cisgender heterosexuals have higher presence of PDs, particularly Paranoid PD, avoidant PDs, and comorbid PDs. In addition, MtF (transwomen are people assigned male at birth who identify as women) persons are characterized by a more severe psychopathological profile. Conclusions. Assessment of PDs in persons with GID is of great importance as it comprises a key part of personalized treatment plan tailoring, as well as a prognostic factor for sex-reassignment surgery (SRS) outcome. PMID:24959629

Duisin, Dragana; Batinic, Borjanka; Barisic, Jasmina; Djordjevic, Miroslav L.; Vujovic, Svetlana; Bizic, Marta

2014-01-01

340

Personality Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality disorders (PDs) represent some of the most insidious and challenging psychiatric conditions that clinicians encounter,\\u000a and often create unwarranted and unwanted conflicts in clinical settings. The reasons for these conflicts lie at the core\\u000a of the PD pathology, namely, a fundamental impairment in interpersonal relationships that leads to a variety of maladaptive,\\u000a inappropriate, or outrageous behaviors that the affected

Marc E. Agronin

341

A multi-proxy model-tested NAO reconstruction for the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we propose a new last millennium reconstruction of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic. For this purpose, we use a selection of 60 annually to decadally resolved proxy records from different archives (ice cores, tree rings, speleothems, and lake and ocean sediments), which are distributed around the Atlantic Ocean and continental boundaries. These records are selected for showing a significant correlation with the longest instrumental NAO time series. The reconstruction is based on a Principal Component Regression (PCR) technique using a subset of the initial predictors. Two pseudo-proxy studies based on the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) and the last millennium PMIP3 simulations are performed to validate the choice of proxies and therefore produce a model and reanalysis-consistent NAO. This is a novel approach in which proxy and model worlds are combined with the aim of improving the reliability of the reconstruction. An ensemble of reconstructions is additionally generated to explore the potential uncertainties inherent to the reconstruction method (i.e. calibration period, number of PCs retained, level of significance imposed, and data smoothing). Thus, we provide a robust benchmark that enables us to test recent hypotheses. For example, no persistent positive NAO phase is observed during medieval times, in clear contrast with the bi-proxy NAO reconstruction by Trouet et al (2009). Furthermore, no significant link between the winter NAO and the external forcings is identified, thus opposed to previous results with climate models. Finally, our millennial reconstruction depicts a remarkable shift around 1450 AD, characterised by a fast negative-to-positive NAO transition lying within the range of recent winter NAO excursions. This result supports that 20th century NAO variability is not unprecedent in the context of the last millennium, in line with the IPCC AR5.

Ortega, Pablo; Lehner, Flavio; Casado, Mathieu; Swingedouw, Didier; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Yiou, Pascal; Raible, Christoph

2014-05-01

342

Meeting the 2015 Millennium Development Goals with new interventions for abused women.  

PubMed

In a developing country such as Pakistan, where illiteracy, poverty, gender differences, and health issues are prevalent, violence against women is a commonly observed phenomenon. The rising incidences of abuse among women indicate a need to introduce evidence-based community-derived interventions for meeting Millennium Developmental Goals by 2015. This article discusses the application of counseling, economic skills building, and microcredit programs as practical and effective interventions to improve the health outcomes of abused women and, therefore, improving maternal and child health in the Pakistani society. PMID:22055907

Karmaliani, Rozina; Shehzad, Shireen; Hirani, Saima Shams; Asad, Nargis; Akbar Ali Hirani, Shela; McFarlane, Judith

2011-12-01

343

The Importance of Dynamical Responses to Forcing in Understanding Climate Changes Over the Past Millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe analyses of the dynamical response of the climate to different agents of radiative forcing over the past millennium that are likely in many regions to overwhelm global mean responses. Considered in particular are the responses of the Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation, the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Asian summer Monsoon to natural solar and volcanic radiative forcing. Our findings indicate varying importance of natural volcanic and solar radiative forcing depending on the temporal and regional scales considered. Comparisons against available historical and proxy data are made with respect to several different climate variables (surface temperature, sea level pressure, and precipitation/drought).

Mann, M. E.; Fan, F.; Zhang, Z.; Ammann, C.; Shindell, D.; Schmidt, G.

2007-12-01

344

New millennium program ST6: autonomous technologies for future NASA spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is to validate advanced technologies in space and thus lower the risk for the first mission user. The focus of NMP is only on those technologies which need space environment for proper validation. The ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on spacecraft of the future. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve spacecraft's ability to: make decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground, determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing.

Chmielewski, Arthur B.; Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert; Wyman, William; Brady, T.; Buckley, S.; Tillier, C.

2005-01-01

345

First Gates Millennium Scholar for UNC Charlotte Roshonda Barner has planted herself at UNC Charlotte and is growing in her research at  

E-print Network

from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The goal of the program is to help minorities becomeFirst Gates Millennium Scholar for UNC Charlotte Roshonda Barner has planted herself at UNC Gates Millennium Scholar, Barner is in her first year of study in the Bioinformatics and Computational

Chen, Keh-Hsun

346

[Telecommunications, health and radiology: potential synergies for the new millennium].  

PubMed

Healthcare telematics, or telemedicine, is a new methodology that applies the potentialities of telecommunications technologies to the needs of medicine, thereby greatly contributing to improving the management of clinical data and medical information for the benefit of the individual patient and the community at large. The fields of application of Telemedicine are becoming increasingly vast, and this gives rise to technical problems (interconnections) as well as professional, ethical, medico-legal and legal problems. The dissemination of Telemedicine will require changes to be made to the organisation and delivery of the medical/administrative services connected to the management of patient data, the remote provision of care, and the impact of Telemedicine itself (e.g. need to standardise the nomenclature for telemedicine services). In addition, it will also call for a careful analysis of costs and benefits for both healthcare providers and patients. One of the most interesting experiences in terms of impact is Teleradiology. This is neither a new discipline nor a (sub)specialty: the practice of Teleradiology must comply with the rules regulating any radiological medical act, the primary aim of which is to contribute to establishing - rapidly and accurately - a diagnosis that will affect treatment strategies. It may be anticipated that in some situations Teleradiology will significantly change the working practices of Radiology Specialists and Radiology Technicians. Because it is better to anticipate problems rather than wait for them to arise, our Scientific Society, which is always sensitive to emerging issues, intends to propose the following recommendations/guidelines for the use of Teleradiology in the common interest of the community and healthcare workers. The invitation to take part in the initiative proposed by the Italian Society of Medical Radiology (SIRM), the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) and the Italian Association of Neuroradiology (AINR) was received with great satisfaction and is proof that we are working towards common goals. As on other occasions, this was reflected in the excellent collaboration between the National Radiologists' Union (SNR), the Italian Association of Medical Physics (AIFM) and the National Federation of Radiology Technicians (F.N.C.TSRM) in drafting the document. The document aims to highlight the potentialities and limitations in the use of Teleradiology and to provide a set of recommendations/guidelines, which are not, however, to be intended as strict, absolute rules. Because this field is continually evolving both in structural and regulatory terms, and because it is very difficult to establish universal criteria to rigidly define behavioural models for implementing and managing Teleradiology-related activities (which in any case fall into the category of radiological medical acts), the recommendations/guidelines proposed necessarily have an informative rather than prescriptive nature. The document starts by defining the meaning of the following currently used terms: Teleconsultation; Telediagnosis; Teledidactics. It then goes on to analyse the following aspects of Teleradiology: Technological requirements; Qualifications and training of Medical Personnel; Qualifications, training and competences of Radiology Technicians. Based on the regulations in force in Italy, these recommendations are structured in terms of rationale and possible professional issues arising from the use of Teleradiology. A section is devoted to data security and confidentiality, including legal implications, an area which is currently evolving and being studied in Italy and abroad. Finally, the professional liabilities of all the healthcare providers involved in Teleradiology (imprudence, incompetence, negligence) are outlined, as well as the responsibilities related to the necessary maintenance of equipment. The aim of the document is to propose recommendations/guidelines for the correct use and validation of Teleradiology. The Scientific Societies SIRM-AIMN-AINR and the Academic Institu

Lagalla, R

2001-01-01

347

Short-interval test-retest interrater reliability of the Dutch version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV personality disorders (SCID-II).  

PubMed

This study examined the short-interval test-retest reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-II: First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1995) for DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs). The SCID-II was administered to 69 in- and outpatients on two occasions separated by 1 to 6 weeks. The interviews were conducted at three sites by ten raters. Each rater acted as first and as second rater and equal number of times. The test-retest interrater reliability for the presence or absence of any PD was fair to good (kappa = .63) and was higher than values found in previous short-interval test-retest studies with the SCID-II for DSM-III-R. Test-retest reliability coefficients for trait and sumscores were sufficient, except for dependent PD. Values for single criteria were variable, ranging from poor to good agreement. Further large-scale test-retest research is needed to test the interrater reliability of more categorical diagnoses and single traits. PMID:14744081

Weertman, Anoek; Arntz, Arnoud; Dreessen, Laura; van Velzen, Carol; Vertommen, Stefaan

2003-12-01

348

The Number of Mentally Retarded--A Result of Steps Taken by Society? Changes in the Age Structure among Mentally Retarded Persons in Sweden 1973-1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From 1973 to 1983 the number and proportion of mentally retarded persons in the total population of Sweden has not changed, but there are fewer children and young persons and more adults. The changes are hypothetically attributed to prenatal diagnosis, improved obstetrical techniques, and the introduction of antibiotics in 1948. (Author/VW)

Wallner, Teut

1988-01-01

349

Teaching a Course in Personal Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide, one of a series on personal economics, is a refinement of a course of study in personal economics prepared for the Fairfield School, Lancaster, Ohio. An introduction describes the structure of personal economics by offering a definition, discussing the ideas and concepts involved, and setting out a process for analyzing…

Canfield, James

350

Multi-millennium changes of the geomagnetic field and solar activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term solar activity has been recently reconstructed on the multi-millennium time scale Solanki et al Nature 431 384 2004 from the measured concentration of radiocarbon 14 C in tree rings The exact level of the reconstructed solar activity depends however on independently evaluated data of the geomagnetic dipole strength variations Recently a new series of the palaeomagnetic dipole moment reconstruction for the last 7000 years has been presented by Korte and Constable Earth Plan Sci Lett 236 348 2005 on the basis of a thorough complex analysis of global samples The new palaeomagnetic series yields systematically lower dipole moment in the past compared to the earlier geomagnetic reconstructions We have revised the earlier sunspot activity reconstruction since 5000 BC using the new geomagnetic data and found that it is consistent with the previous results during most of the period although it yields a slightly higher level of the reconstructed sunspot activity The earlier finding on the very unusual level of the contemporary solar activity over the last millennia is confirmed with the new palaeomagnetic series The Sun spent only 2-3 of the time in a high activity state similar to the modern episode implying that the modern high activity level is very unusual during the last 7000 years On the other hand grand minima occupy about 12 of the time in the recent history of the Sun The new reconstruction allows for a comparative study of solar-terrestrial relations in the multi-millennium time scale

Usoskin, I. G.; Solanki, S.; Korte, M.

351

Relationship between sea ice variability and atmospheric circulation during the last millennium in Antarctic Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric circulation influences the seasonal sea ice duration in Antarctic Peninsula and plays a significant role on the heat budget in Antarctica. However, little is know about past regional variations of this important component of the earth climate system . In this study, we present two marine sediment core records covering the last millennium from key located in the eastern and the western sides of Antarctic Peninsula. We combined diatom assemblages and specific sea-ice biomarkers to document changes in sea ice, hydrology and primary productivity over the last ~700 years. Diatom assemblage and biomarker variations were coincident with Na+ concentration record in Siple Dome ice core suggesting that oceanic conditions variations, upper circumpolar deep water upwelling and Weddell Gyre intensity in west and east Antarctic Peninsula areas respectively, responded to the atmospheric circulation variability during the last millennium. For both regions, we identified a period of shorter seasonal sea ice cover and reduced primary productivity related to a strengthening of the Westerlies during the so-called Little Ice Age (LIA) period. Acooler interval, characterized by an increase of the sea ice seasonal duration, a stronger water column stratification and a higher productivity extending of the last two centuries as a response to a weakening of wind intensity has also been indentifed. We propose that the globally mild environmental conditions in both sides of the Antarctic Peninsula during the LIA resulted from a common atmospheric forcing such as the greater occurrence of positive SAM anomalies during that period.

Barbara, L.; Crosta, X.; Schmidt, S.; Massé, G.

2013-05-01

352

A tree-ring reconstruction of the South Asian summer monsoon index over the past millennium  

PubMed Central

The South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) is a major atmospheric synoptic climate system affecting nearly a quarter of the human population. Climate proxy data derived from tree rings, ice cores, speleothems, and other sources can all contribute to an understanding of SASM variability prior to instrumental period. Here, we develop an optimal information extraction (OIE) method, which we use to reconstruct the SASM index (SASMI) over the last millennium using 15 tree-ring chronologies. The record generated is significantly correlated (r = 0.7, p < 0.01) with the instrumental SASMI record on annual timescales; this correlation is higher than that obtained in any previous study. The reconstructed SASMI captures 18 of 26 (69%) reordered historical famine events in India over the last millennium; notably, 11 of 16 short events with durations of 1–3 years are accurately depicted in our reconstruction. Moreover, the reconstructed SASMI is positively correlated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on multi-decadal timescales implying that variations in solar activity may influence the SASM. Based on the response of SASM to 34 significant volcanic events using the superposed epoch analysis, the volcanic forcing may drive a weak SASM in the second year of an eruption. PMID:25338702

Shi, Feng; Li, Jianping; Wilson, Rob J. S.

2014-01-01

353

SCARLET Photovoltaic Concentrator Array Selected for Flight Under NASA's New Millennium Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center continues to demonstrate its expertise in the development and implementation of advanced space power systems. For example, during the past year, the NASA New Millennium Program selected the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) photovoltaic array as the power system for its Deep Space-1 (DS-1) mission. This Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) managed DS-1 mission, which represents the first operational flight of a photovoltaic concentrator array, will provide a baseline for the use of this technology in a variety of future government and commercial applications. SCARLET is a joint NASA Lewis/Ballistic Missile Defense Organization program to develop advanced photovoltaic array technology that uses a unique refractive concentrator design to focus sunlight onto a line of photovoltaic cells located below the optical element. The general concept is based on previous work conducted at Lewis under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with AEC-Able Engineering, Inc., for the Multiple Experiments to Earth Orbit and Return (METEOR) spacecraft. The SCARLET II design selected by the New Millennium Program is a direct adaptation of the smaller SCARLET I array built for METEOR. Even though SCARLET I was lost during a launch failure in October 1995, the hardware (designed, built, and flight qualified within 6 months) provided invaluable information and experience that led to the selection of this technology as the primary power source for DS-1.

Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

1997-01-01

354

Climate model simulation of South American Monsoon Variability over the Last Millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well established that Monsoon systems respond to orbital forcings. In recent years similar variability has also been observed for shorter timescales, in particular between the 2 most prominent climate anomalies over the last millennium, namely the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, ca. 950-1250 CE) and the Little Ice Age (LIA, ca. 1450-1850CE). Various high resolution records from the area of The South American Monsoon System (SAMS) have shown good correlation with northern Hemisphere temperature and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) reconstructions. The precipitation reconstructions show a weaker SAMS during the MCA period and a relatively stronger SAMS during the LIA period, indicating an anti-correlation with reconstructions of the Southeast Asian Monsoon for those periods. We explore if the CMIP5/PMIP3 Last Millennium simulation capture this variability. Models tend to represent poorly the precipitation in this region, especially over the Amazon basin. However the Atlantic ITZC is generally better represented, and indeed some models indicate shifts in the ITZC, that is consistent with the MCA versus LIA SAMS variability. Tropical circulation is evaluated in the models.

Rojas, M.; Seth, A.

2013-12-01

355

A tree-ring reconstruction of the South Asian summer monsoon index over the past millennium.  

PubMed

The South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) is a major atmospheric synoptic climate system affecting nearly a quarter of the human population. Climate proxy data derived from tree rings, ice cores, speleothems, and other sources can all contribute to an understanding of SASM variability prior to instrumental period. Here, we develop an optimal information extraction (OIE) method, which we use to reconstruct the SASM index (SASMI) over the last millennium using 15 tree-ring chronologies. The record generated is significantly correlated (r = 0.7, p < 0.01) with the instrumental SASMI record on annual timescales; this correlation is higher than that obtained in any previous study. The reconstructed SASMI captures 18 of 26 (69%) reordered historical famine events in India over the last millennium; notably, 11 of 16 short events with durations of 1-3 years are accurately depicted in our reconstruction. Moreover, the reconstructed SASMI is positively correlated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on multi-decadal timescales implying that variations in solar activity may influence the SASM. Based on the response of SASM to 34 significant volcanic events using the superposed epoch analysis, the volcanic forcing may drive a weak SASM in the second year of an eruption. PMID:25338702

Shi, Feng; Li, Jianping; Wilson, Rob J S

2014-01-01

356

Ultimate age-dating method for galaxy groups; clues from the Millennium Simulations  

E-print Network

There have been a number of studies dedicated to identification of fossil galaxy groups, arguably groups with a relatively old formation epoch. Most of such studies identify fossil groups, primarily based on a large luminosity gap, which is the magnitude gap between the two most luminous galaxies in the group. Studies of these types of groups in the millennium cosmological simulations show that, although they have accumulated a significant fraction of their mass, relatively earlier than groups with a small luminosity gap, this parameter alone is not highly efficient in fully discriminating between the "old" and "young" galaxy groups, a label assigned based on halo mass accumulation history. We study galaxies drawn from the semi-analytic models of Guo et al. (2011), based on the Millennium Simulation. We establish a set of four observationally measurable parameters which can be used in combination, to identify a subset of galaxy groups which are old, with a very high probability. We thus argue that a sample of...

Raouf, Mojtaba; Ponman, Trevor J; Dariush, Ali A; Molaeinezhad, Alireza; Tavasoli, Saeed

2014-01-01

357

Emerging diseases and implications for Millennium Development Goals in Africa by 2015 - an overview.  

PubMed

Emerging zoonotic diseases have assumed increasing fundamental importance in both public and animal health, as the last few years have seen a steady increase of new cases, each emerging from an unsuspected geographic area and causing serious problems, often leading to mortalities among animals and humans. The reasons for disease emergence or re-emergence are multiple and include certain major factors, such as expansion of the human population, climate change and globalisation of trade. Further contributing issues, such as the increased movement of animal species, microbial evolution, ecological disruption, changes in human behaviour, all imply that emerging diseases will not only continue to occur, but the rate of their emergence will also increase. These will constitute constraints for the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals by African Governments by 2015. There is no doubt that the current trend calls for more and stronger partnerships between national and international organisations, veterinary and medical communities, environmentalists, academics and policy-makers of various governments on the continent within the context of the global 'One Health' movement. This article attempts to analyse the impact of emerging diseases and the implications for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Africa by the year 2015. PMID:20560123

Aluwong, Tagang; Bello, Mohammed

2010-01-01

358

Achieving Millennium Development Goals for Health: Building Understanding, Trust and Capacity to Respond  

PubMed Central

Biomedical interventions promise achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals provided social-, capacity- and knowledge-based constraints to scaling up and reaching marginalized people at risk, are addressed, and balance between prevention and treatment is struck. We argue for a new approach: multi-stakeholder capacity building and learning for empowerment: MuSCLE. MuSCLE is used as a way to frame three systemic weaknesses in traditional health science and policy approaches: 1) a lack of engagement with people at risk to build a collective understanding of the contexts of health problems; 2) a lack of multi-criteria evaluation of alternative interventions; and 3) a lack of attention paid to integrated capacity building. The MuSCLE framework responds in three ways: 1) Participatory assessment of the ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political contexts of health, identifying priorities using risk and vulnerability science, and modeling drivers; 2) Selection among intervention alternatives that makes ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political tradeoffs transparent; and 3) Integrated capacity building for sustainable and adaptive interventions. Literature and field lessons support the argument, and guidelines are set down. A MuSCLE approach argues for a transformation in health science and policy in order to achieve Millennium Development Goals for health. PMID:17399849

Larson, Heidi J.

2007-01-01

359

The Mass Assembly of Fossil Groups of Galaxies in the Millennium Simulation  

E-print Network

The evolution of present-day fossil galaxy groups is studied in the Millennium Simulation. Using the corresponding Millennium gas simulation and semi-analytic galaxy catalogues, we select fossil groups at redshift zero according to the conventional observational criteria, and trace the haloes corresponding to these groups backwards in time, extracting the associated dark matter, gas and galaxy properties. The space density of the fossils from this study is remarkably close to the observed estimates and various possibilities for the remaining discrepancy are discussed. The fraction of X-ray bright systems which are fossils appears to be in reasonable agreement with observation, and the simulations predict that fossil systems will be found in significant numbers (3-4% of the population) even in quite rich clusters. We find that fossils assemble a higher fraction of their mass at high redshift, compared to non-fossil groups, with the ratio of the currently assembled halo mass to final mass, at any epoch, being about 10 to 20% higher for fossils. This supports the paradigm whereby fossils represent undisturbed, early-forming systems in which large galaxies have merged to form a single dominant elliptical.

Ali Dariush; Habib G. Khosroshahi; Trevor J. Ponman; Frazer Pearce; Somak Raychaudhury; Will Hartley

2007-08-20

360

A tree-ring reconstruction of the South Asian summer monsoon index over the past millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) is a major atmospheric synoptic climate system affecting nearly a quarter of the human population. Climate proxy data derived from tree rings, ice cores, speleothems, and other sources can all contribute to an understanding of SASM variability prior to instrumental period. Here, we develop an optimal information extraction (OIE) method, which we use to reconstruct the SASM index (SASMI) over the last millennium using 15 tree-ring chronologies. The record generated is significantly correlated (r = 0.7, p < 0.01) with the instrumental SASMI record on annual timescales; this correlation is higher than that obtained in any previous study. The reconstructed SASMI captures 18 of 26 (69%) reordered historical famine events in India over the last millennium; notably, 11 of 16 short events with durations of 1-3 years are accurately depicted in our reconstruction. Moreover, the reconstructed SASMI is positively correlated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on multi-decadal timescales implying that variations in solar activity may influence the SASM. Based on the response of SASM to 34 significant volcanic events using the superposed epoch analysis, the volcanic forcing may drive a weak SASM in the second year of an eruption.

Shi, Feng; Li, Jianping; Wilson, Rob J. S.

2014-10-01

361

Personal Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For this homework assignment, students have to draw two scaled timelines. The first is a personal timeline. They need to come up with the events themselves, an easy task that will build confidence for student who are intimidated by science and math. Following guidelines, they decide on a scale, and draw a linear timeline on which they plot their chosen events. Most students will primarily include recent events. They are asked to identify and explain any patterns in their timeline. Students should note the clustering at the present, and describe the emphasis on the present as resulting from memory, relevance to future hopes and worries, etc. The second timeline is more traditional. The students are given 16 Earth history events with dates and asked to draw another timeline, using the procedure from the personal timeline, but the line is already drawn for them. They will probably recognize most of the events on the list, and will be keeping them in order and spacing them out on the timeline. They are once again asked to identify and explain patterns and should recognize the emphasis on the present. This time, availability of fossils/rocks and relevance to current conditions and problems are good answers.

Teed, Rebecca

362

Borderline Personality  

PubMed Central

BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER (BPD) IS A COMPLEX AXIS II Phenomenon that is typically described in a psychological or psychiatric context. In this article, we translate the various aspects of BPD to the primary care setting. Previous work in this area has explored specific relationships between BPD and individual medical disorders or between BPD and general somatic symptoms, but the synthesis of these findings and their augmentation with cogent psychological theory is new to the field. Specifically, we highlight the prevalence rate of BPD in the primary care setting, the effects on healthcare utilization, the themes of somatic preoccupation and somatization disorder, several medical syndromes that illustrate the dynamics of the disorder in the medical setting, and the relationship of BPD to disability. We believe that the BPD concept needs to extend beyond its traditional psychological/psychiatric borders to include the subset of BPD patients with somatic symptoms who are seen in primary care settings. PMID:21197375

Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

2004-01-01

363

Survivor Millennium!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will discover the importance of scientific replication by performing an investigation requiring them to write, and then follow, step-by-step instructions. The scenario will be based on the show Survivor and will involve making peanut butter and jelly sandwiches.

Seeramowens, Jasmine

2012-08-02

364

Subjective Well-Being Approach to the Valuation of International Development: Evidence for the Millennium Development Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The subjective well-being approach to the valuation of international development is applied to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Results indicate that the rich countries have particular preference for education, healthcare, and housing; they are willing to accept compensation for a failure to meet the three targets by 2015. The poor…

Beja, Edsel L., Jr.

2013-01-01

365

Assessing the Progress of Gender Parity in Education through Achieving Millennium Development Goals: A Case Study of Quetta District Balochistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using secondary data of Government Schools and literacy department for 10 years that is 2000-2010, this paper assesses the progress on the issue of gender equality within the framework of education related Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in district Quetta. The assessment is based on the selected indicators of goals by applying descriptive…

Rashid, Abdul; Bibi, Zainab; Din, Siraj ud

2012-01-01

366

Squashing the Millennium Bug: A Year 2000 Compliance Guide for Elementary/Secondary Schools and School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was developed to assist the nation's elementary and secondary schools and school districts address their Year 2000 (Y2K) problem. The guide is divided into three sections: Squashing the Millennium Bug Step-by-Step; Remediating Specific Types of Systems; and Appendix. The first chapter presents the following steps for tackling the Year…

Root, Mark; Carlson, Robert; Dexter, David; Karinch, Samantha; Kaplan, Heather

367

ICG 2000 Amsterdam Glass in the new Millennium Absorption Spectra of Iron and Water in Silicate Glasses  

E-print Network

ICG 2000 Amsterdam ­ Glass in the new Millennium Absorption Spectra of Iron and Water in Silicate Glasses L. Glebov1 , E. Boulos2 1 Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers (CREOL), University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA 2 Visteon Glass Systems, Dearborn, MI, USA 1. Introduction

Glebov, Leon

368

Area and Family Effects on the Psychopathology of the Millennium Cohort Study Children and Their Older Siblings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To model and compare contextual (area and family) effects on the psychopathology of children nested in families nested in areas. Method: Data from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study were used. The final study sample was 9,630 children clustered in 6,052 families clustered in 1,681 Lower-layer Super Output Areas.…

Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos

2010-01-01

369

Does Curriculum Matter?: Revisiting Women's Access and Rights to Education in the Context of the UN Millennium Development Targets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the relevance of curriculum to current UN Millennium targets to extend access to education and equality in education for women. It argues, firstly, that it is contradictory to be concerned about women's access to education but leave curriculum out of the discussion; secondly, that curriculum is not adequately seen as a…

Yates, Lyn

2006-01-01

370

This article to appear in AI Magazine, Fall 1996. 1 Immobile Robots: AI in the New Millennium  

E-print Network

This article to appear in AI Magazine, Fall 1996. 1 Immobile Robots: AI in the New Millennium Brian but a few. To achieve high per- formance, these immobile robots or immobots will need to develop & Se- gal 1992; Dent et al. 1992; Maes & Kozierok 1993; Kautz et al. 1994; Etzioni & Weld 1994

Williams, Brian C.

371

This article to appear in AI Magazine, Fall 1996. 1 Immobile Robots: AI in the New Millennium \\Lambda  

E-print Network

This article to appear in AI Magazine, Fall 1996. 1 Immobile Robots: AI in the New Millennium, to highlight but a few. To achieve high per­ formance, these immobile robots (or immobots) will need to develop years from an AI tradition of developing mobile robots, to that of software agents (aka softbots

Williams, Brian C.

372

Prevalence of Parent-Reported ASD and ADHD in the UK: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The UK prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were estimated from the Millennium Cohort Study. Case definition was if a doctor or health care professional had ever told parents that their child had ASD and/or ADHD. Data were collected in 2008/2009 for 14,043 children. 1.7%…

Russell, Ginny; Rodgers, Lauren R.; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Ford, Tamsin

2014-01-01

373

Health Literacy and the Millennium Development Goals: United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) Regional Meeting Background Paper (Abstracted)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a health literacy “lens” to look at key global health challenges, including the achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the reduction of disease burden due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Available global evidence is summarized related to: assessment of the impact of health literacy on health and development; identification of measures for reporting progress; exploring ways

2010-01-01

374

Man?made famines: Some geographical insights from an exploratory study of a millennium of Russian famines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Famines were a regular but unexpected calamity in Russia and in the Soviet Union from A.D. 971 to 1970. An analysis of seventy?seven famines revealed that famines were not confined to specific natural regions, certain cultural areas, or select racial groups. Famines appeared throughout this millennium in the nation's best agricultural regions. Five famine zones were delimited and mapped for

W. A. Dando

1976-01-01

375

The occupational role of women in military service: Validation of occupation and prevalence of exposures in the Millennium Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the US military's global peacekeeping and combat operations, which may expose a growing population of American servicewomen to challenging occupations and environments. Concordance between self-reported and electronic occupation codes for female participants in the Millennium Cohort was measured using kappa statistics. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to assess the odds of five self-reported potentially toxic environmental

Tyler C. Smith; Isabel G. Jacobson; Besa Smith; Tomoko I. Hooper; Margaret A. K. Ryan

2007-01-01

376

A severe drought during the last millennium in East Java, Indonesia Jessica R. Rodysill a, *, James M. Russell a  

E-print Network

A severe drought during the last millennium in East Java, Indonesia Jessica R. Rodysill a, *, James Available online Keywords: Drought Indonesia Indo-Pacific Warm Pool El Niño-Southern Oscillation Little Ice indicate that the most severe drought of the last 1200 years struck East Java at the end of the LIA. We use

Vuille, Mathias

377

The future in criminal justice: What technology could bring to the field of law enforcement in the new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we get ready to move into the next millennium, new technology will be used to aid police officers and the criminal justice system in the detecting, securing and the conviction of criminals. At the present time, rape cases can be proved by DNA testing (Gray, Hensly, & Brennan, 1997). Many states are in the process of setting up DNA

Arthur H. Garrison

1998-01-01

378

Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium. American Council on Education/Oryx Press Series on Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 17 essays focuses on the major changes that higher education needs to make so that it can effectively pursue teaching and research and significantly contribute public service in a rapidly changing world. The essays include: (1) "Survey of the Main Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium" (Luc E. Weber); (2) "Meeting…

Hirsch, Werner Z., Ed.; Weber, Luc E., Ed.

379

Shed some light on darkness: will Tanzania reach the millennium development goals?  

PubMed Central

The overall picture of health in sub-Saharan Africa can easily be painted in dark colours. The aim of this viewpoint is to discuss epidemiological data from Tanzania on overall health indicators and the burden of malaria and HIV. Is the situation in Tanzania improving or deteriorating? Are the health-related millennium development goals (MDG) on reducing under-five mortality, reducing maternal mortality and halting HIV and malaria within reach? Conclusion: Child mortality and infant mortality rates are decreasing quite dramatically. Malaria prevention strategies and new effective treatment are being launched. The MDG 4 on child mortality is clearly within reach, and the same optimism may apply to MDG 6 on combating malaria. PMID:17465983

Janson, Annika

2007-01-01

380

Sexually harassing behavior against adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh: implications for achieving millennium development goals.  

PubMed

This study examines the extent and type of sexually harassing behavior or intimidations unmarried adolescent girls experienced on their way to school, college or social visits and type of perpetrators in victims' view in rural Bangladesh using data of the 2004 National Nutrition Programme baseline survey. The survey collected self-reported data on sexual harassments of 5,106 girls aged 13-19 years selected randomly. Results reveal that gendered harassments were experienced by 35% of the girls, unwanted sexual attentions by 34%, and sexual intimidations by 14%, yielding prevalence of sexual harassments of any type 43%. Higher girls' education and household economic status heightened their risks of being harassed. Perpetrators were male young spoilt bullies (64%), neighborhood youths (30%), students (22%) and hoodlums (6%). High prevalence of sexual harassments mirrors vulnerability of adolescent girls in the community and deserves to be tackled to achieve millennium development goals (MDGs) in gender equality in health and social development. PMID:19458081

Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan K; Ahmed, Tahmeed

2010-03-01

381

Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)-Revised  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This catalog is a supplement to the "Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses. "It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Solar Eclipse parameter, gamma, penumbral and umbral eclipse magnitudes, durations of penumbral, partial and total eclipse phases, and geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse(latitude and longitude). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

2009-01-01

382

Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This catalog is a supplement to the "Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses." It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original 648-page publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Lunar Eclipse parameter, gamma, eclipse magnitude, geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse (latitude and longitude), and the circumstances at greatest eclipse (i.e., Sun altitude and azimuth, path width, and central line duration). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

2008-01-01

383

Five Millennium Catalog of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This catalog is a supplement to the "FiveMillenniumCanonofLunarEclipses." It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Solar Eclipse parameter, gamma, penumbral and umbral eclipse magnitudes, durations of penumbral, partial and total eclipse phases, and geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse (latitude and longitude). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

2009-01-01

384

The Indian Ocean Zonal Mode over the past millennium in observed and modeled precipitation isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian Ocean Zonal Mode (IOZM) has gained considerable attention in the past decade due to its role in causing widespread flooding and droughts in the continents and islands surrounding the Indian Ocean. The IOZM has also been observed to vary on a low-frequency (multi-decadal) basis, making its behavior important to understand both for mid-range 21st century climate prediction and for paleoclimate studies. Despite efforts to reconstruct the IOZM using corals and other high-resolution proxies, nonstationarities in the response of paleoclimate proxies to the IOZM have also been noted, raising the possibility that the IOZM may be difficult to reconstruct or to predict in the long-term. It is therefore critical to assess the low-frequency component of the IOZM in observed, modeled, and paleoclimate data from the Indian Ocean region in order to identify nonstationary behavior and to assess its role in low-frequency climate variations. We present an analysis of low-frequency and nonstationary behavior in the IOZM on multi-decadal to centennial timescales using a combination of modeled, observed, and proxy reconstructions of ?18O/?Dprecip. In order to assess multiple timescales of low-frequency variability, we focus on two key time periods: the historical period (1870-2003), and the past millennium (1000 C.E.-present). We find significant nonstationarities in the relationships between the IOZM, precipitation amount, and ?18Oprecip/?Dprecip during the historical period. These relationships vary on a multi-decadal basis in our model and in observed/reanalysis datasets. Air-sea interactions in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool and teleconnections to the Pacific Ocean, as well as the phase of the IOZM itself, may contribute to this nonstationary behavior. We examine the potential ramifications of nonstationary IOZM behavior using a synthesis of spatially distributed proxy archives of ?18Oprecip/?Dprecip from both sides of the IOZM region spanning the past millennium. Our findings indicate that during the past millennium, a strong IOZM-like connection exists in the proxy data network, with anti-correlation between East Africa and Indonesia. However, the links are spatially limited and in some cases timescale-dependent. Nonlinear behaviors in these links suggest that the IOZM may be difficult to detect on a consistent basis in proxy records from the past millennium. Based on our modeling results, the inconsistent links in the IOZM proxy network may arise from temporally and spatially variable relationships between the IOZM, precipitation, and ?18Oprecip/?Dprecip. We conclude that the IOZM's potential to influence the climate of the Indian Ocean region is inconsistently reflected in proxy data, and that due to the changing strength of the IOZM/?18Oprecip/?Dprecip relationship, its spatial “footprint” may be restricted on multi-decadal to multi-centennial timescales.

Konecky, Bronwen; Russell, James; Vuille, Mathias; Rehfeld, Kira

2014-11-01

385

Development of an Ion Thruster and Power Processor for New Millennium's Deep Space 1 Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness Program (NSTAR) will provide a single-string primary propulsion system to NASA's New Millennium Deep Space 1 Mission which will perform comet and asteroid flybys in the years 1999 and 2000. The propulsion system includes a 30-cm diameter ion thruster, a xenon feed system, a power processing unit, and a digital control and interface unit. A total of four engineering model ion thrusters, three breadboard power processors, and a controller have been built, integrated, and tested. An extensive set of development tests has been completed along with thruster design verification tests of 2000 h and 1000 h. An 8000 h Life Demonstration Test is ongoing and has successfully demonstrated more than 6000 h of operation. In situ measurements of accelerator grid wear are consistent with grid lifetimes well in excess of the 12,000 h qualification test requirement. Flight hardware is now being assembled in preparation for integration, functional, and acceptance tests.

Sovey, James S.; Hamley, John A.; Haag, Thomas W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pencil, Eric J.; Peterson, Todd T.; Pinero, Luis R.; Power, John L.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Anderson, John R.; Bond, Thomas A.; Cardwell, G. I.; Christensen, Jon A.

1997-01-01

386

Climate variability in China during the last millennium based on reconstructions and simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-decadal to centennial climate variability in China during the last millennium is analysed. We compare the low frequency temperature and precipitation variations from proxy-based reconstructions and palaeo-simulations from climate models. Focusing on the regional responses to the global climate evolution is of high relevance due to the complexity of the interactions between physical mechanisms at different spatio-temporal scales and the potential severity of the derived multiple socio-economic impacts. China stands out as a particularly interesting region, not only due to its complex climatic features, ranging from the semiarid northwestern Tibetan Plateau to the tropical monsoon southeastern climates, but also because of its wealth of proxy data. However, comprehensive assessments of proxy- and model-based information about palaeo-climatic variations in China are, to our knowledge, still lacking. In addition, existing studies depict a general lack of agreement between reconstructions and model simulations with respect to the amplitude and/or occurrence of warmer/colder and wetter/drier periods during the last millennium and the magnitude of the 20th century warming trend. Furthermore, these works are mainly focused on eastern China regions that show a denser proxy data coverage. We investigate how last millennium palaeo-runs compare to independent evidences from an unusual large number of proxy reconstructions over the study area by employing state-of-the-art palaeo-simulations with multi-member ensembles from the CMIP5/PMIP3 project. This shapes an ideal frame for the evaluation of the uncertainties associated to internal and intermodel model variability. Preliminary results indicate that despite the strong regional and seasonal dependencies, temperature reconstructions in China evidence coherent variations among all regions at centennial scale, especially during the last 500 years. The spatial consistency of low frequency temperature changes is an interesting aspect and of relevance for the assessment of forced climatic responses in China. The comparison between reconstructions and simulations from climate models show that, apart from the 20th century warming trend, the variance of the reconstructed mean China temperature lies in the envelope (uncertainty range) spanned by the temperature simulations. The uncertainty arises from the internal (multi-member ensembles) and the inter-model variability. Centennial variations tend to be broadly synchronous in the reconstructions and the simulations. However, the simulations show a delay of the warm period 1000-1300 AD. This warm medieval period both in the simulations and the reconstructions is followed by cooling till 1800 AD. Based on the simulations, the recent warming is not unprecedented and is comparable to the medieval warming. Further steps of this study will address the individual contribution of anthropogenic and natural forcings on climate variability and change during the last millennium in China. We will make use of of models that provide runs including single forcings (fingerprints) for the attribution of climate variations from decadal to multi-centennial time scales. With this aim, we will implement statistical techniques for the detection of optimal signal-to-noise-ratio between external forcings and internal variability of reconstructed temperatures and precipitation. To apply these approaches the uncertainties associated with both reconstructions and simulations will be estimated. The latter will shed some light into the mechanisms behind current climate evolution and will help to constrain uncertainties in the sensitivity of model simulations to increasing CO2 scenarios of future climate change. This work will also contribute to the overall aims of the PAGES 2k initiative in Asia (http://www.pages.unibe.ch/workinggroups/2k-network)

García-Bustamante, E.; Luterbacher, J.; Xoplaki, E.; Werner, J. P.; Jungclaus, J.; Zorita, E.; González-Rouco, J. F.; Fernández-Donado, L.; Hegerl, G.; Ge, Q.; Hao, Z.; Wagner, S.

2012-04-01

387

The World Bank: An Online Atlas of the Millennium Development Goals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank established a set of Millennium Development Goals as both a challenge to poor countries to demonstrate "good governance" and to wealthy nations as a spur that would hopefully encourage them to support economic and social development. Recently, the World Bank created this visually engaging and sophisticated interactive atlas to track those eight goals, which include the promotion of gender equality, combating disease, and reducing child mortality. Visitors can click on any of these eight goals and they will be able to view maps of the world that document the progress that has been made in each nation. Clicking on each nation individually brings up clear and easy-to-read tables that chart additional changes within each separate goal. Visitors can export the data for their own use, and they can also resize the map to demonstrate the changes made over the past few years.

388

The worst North American drought year of the last millennium: 1934  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer of 1934, over 70% of western North America experienced extreme drought, placing this summer far outside the normal range of drought variability and making 1934 the single worst drought year of the last millennium. Strong atmospheric ridging along the West Coast suppressed cold season precipitation across the Northwest, Southwest, and California, a circulation pattern similar to the winters of 1976-1977 and 2013-2014. In the spring and summer, the drying spread to the Midwest and Central Plains, driven by severe precipitation deficits downwind from regions of major dust storm activity, consistent with previous work linking drying during the Dust Bowl to anthropogenic dust aerosol forcing. Despite a moderate La Niña, contributions from sea surface temperature forcing were small, suggesting that the anomalous 1934 drought was primarily a consequence of atmospheric variability, possibly amplified by dust forcing that intensified and spread the drought across nearly all of western North America.

Cook, Benjamin I.; Seager, Richard; Smerdon, Jason E.

2014-10-01

389

Surface changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last millennium  

PubMed Central

Despite numerous investigations, the dynamical origins of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age remain uncertain. A major unresolved issue relating to internal climate dynamics is the mode and tempo of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability, and the significance of decadal-to-centennial scale changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation strength in regulating the climate of the last millennium. Here we use the time-constrained high-resolution local radiocarbon reservoir age offset derived from an absolutely dated annually resolved shell chronology spanning the past 1,350 years, to reconstruct changes in surface ocean circulation and climate. The water mass tracer data presented here from the North Icelandic shelf, combined with previously published data from the Arctic and subtropical Atlantic, show that surface Atlantic meridional overturning circulation dynamics likely amplified the relatively warm conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the relatively cool conditions during the Little Ice Age within the North Atlantic sector. PMID:22692542

Wanamaker, Alan D.; Butler, Paul G.; Scourse, James D.; Heinemeier, Jan; Eiriksson, Jon; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Richardson, Christopher A.

2012-01-01

390

Implications of high amplitude atmospheric CO2 fluctuations on past millennium climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stomatal frequency analysis of leaves of land plants preserved in peat and lake deposits can provide a proxy record of pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration complementary to measurements in Antarctic ice cores. Stomatal frequency based CO2 trends from the USA and NW European support the presence of significant CO2 variability during the first half of the last millennium (Kouwenberg et al., 2005; Wagner et al., 2004; van Hoof et al., 2008). The timing of the most significant perturbation in the stomata records (1200 AD) is in agreement with an observed CO2 fluctuation in the D47 Antarctic ice-core record (Barnola et al., 1995; van Hoof et al., 2005). The amplitude of the stomatal frequency based CO2 changes (> 34ppmv) exceeds the maximum amplitude of CO2 variability in the D47 ice core (< 10 ppmv). A modelling experiment taking into account firn-densification based smoothing processes in the D47 ice core proved, however, that the amplitude difference between the stomata record and the D47 ice-core can be explained by natural smoothing processes in the ice (van Hoof et al., 2005). This observation gives credence to the existence of high-amplitude CO2 fluctuations during the last millennium and suggests that high resolution ice core CO2 records should be regarded as a smoothed representation of the atmospheric CO2 signal. In the present study, potential marine and terrestrial sources and sinks associated with the observed atmospheric CO2 perturbation will be discussed. The magnitude of the observed CO2 variability implies that inferred changes in CO2 radiative forcing are of a similar magnitude as variations ascribed to other forcing mechanisms (e.g. solar forcing and volcanism), therefore challenging the IPCC concept of CO2 as an insignificant preindustrial climate forcing factor. References Barnola J.M., M. Anklin, J. Porcheron, D. Raynaud, J. Schwander and B. Stauffer 1995. CO2 evolution during the last millennium as recorded by Antarctic and Greenland ice. Tellus, v 47B, p. 264-272 Kouwenberg L.L.R., F. Wagner, W.M. Kürschner and H. Visscher 2005. Atmospheric CO2 fluctuations during the last Millennium reconstructed by stomatal frequency analysis of Tsuga heterophylla needles. Geology, v. 33, no.1, pp. 33-36 van Hoof T.B., K.A. Kaspers, F. Wagner, R.S.W. van de Wal, W.M. Kürschner and H. Visscher 2005. Atmospheric CO2 during the 13th century AD: reconciliation of data from ice core measurements and stomatal frequency analysis. Tellus B, v. 57, pp. 351-355 van Hoof T.B., F. Wagner-Cremer, W.M. K Kürschner and H. Visscher 2008. A role for atmospheric CO2 in preindustrial climate forcing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, v. 105, no. 41, pp. 15815-15818 Wagner F., L.L.R. Kouwenberg, T.B. van Hoof and H. Visscher 2004. Reproducibility of Holocene atmospheric CO2 records based on stomatal frequency. Quartenary Science Reviews. V. 23, pp. 1947-1954

van Hoof, Thomas; Kouwenberg, Lenny; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Visscher, Henk

2010-05-01

391

The role of “dark personalities” (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy), Big Five personality factors, and ideology in explaining prejudice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The so-called Dark Triad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy) represent correlated subclinical personality traits capturing “dark personalities”. How might darker personalities contribute to prejudice? In the present study (n=197), these dark personality variables correlated positively with outgroup threat perceptions and anti-immigrant prejudice. A proposed two-stage structural equation model, assuming indirect personality effects (Dark Personality, Big Five) on prejudice through ideology and group

Gordon Hodson; Sarah M. Hogg; Cara C. MacInnis

2009-01-01

392

Florida Current surface temperature and salinity variability during the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salinity and temperature of the Florida Current are key parameters affecting the transport of heat into the North Atlantic, yet little is known about their variability on centennial timescales. Here we report replicated, high-resolution foraminiferal records of Florida Current surface hydrography for the last millennium from two coring sites, Dry Tortugas and the Great Bahama Bank. The oxygen isotopic composition of Florida Current surface water (?18Ow) near Dry Tortugas increased 0.4‰ during the course of the Little Ice Age (LIA) (˜1200-1850 A.D.), equivalent to a salinity increase of 0.8-1.5. On the Great Bahama Bank, where surface waters are influenced by the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, ?18Ow increased by 0.3‰ during the last 200 years. Although a portion (˜0.1‰) of this shift may be an artifact of anthropogenically driven changes in surface water ?CO2, the remaining ?18Ow signal implies a 0.4-1 increase in salinity after 200 years B.P. The simplest explanation of the ?18Ow data is southward migration of the Atlantic Hadley circulation during the LIA. Scaling of the ?18Ow records to salinity using the modern low-latitude ?18Ow-S slope produces an unrealistic reversal in the salinity gradient between the two sites. Only if ?18Ow is scaled to salinity using a high-latitude ?18Ow-S slope can the records be reconciled. Variable atmospheric 14C paralleled Dry Tortugas ?18Ow, suggesting that solar irradiance paced centennial-scale migration of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone and changes in Florida Current salinity during the last millennium.

Lund, David C.; Curry, William

2006-06-01

393

Pacific and Atlantic influences on Mesoamerican climate over the past millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new tree-ring reconstruction of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for Mesoamerica from AD 771 to 2008 identifies megadroughts more severe and sustained than any witnessed during the twentieth century. Correlation analyses indicate strong forcing of instrumental and reconstructed June PDSI over Mesoamerica from the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Spectral analyses of the 1,238-year reconstruction indicate significant concentrations of variance at ENSO, sub-decadal, bi-decadal, and multidecadal timescales. Instrumental and model-based analyses indicate that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation is important to warm season climate variability over Mexico. Ocean-atmospheric variability in the Atlantic is not strongly correlated with the June PDSI reconstruction during the instrumental era, but may be responsible for the strong multidecadal variance detected in the reconstruction episodically over the past millennium. June drought indices in Mesoamerica are negatively correlated with gridded June PDSI over the United States from 1950 to 2005, based on both instrumental and reconstructed data. Interannual variability in this latitudinal moisture gradient is due in part to ENSO forcing, where warm events favor wet June PDSI conditions over the southern US and northern Mexico, but dryness over central and southern Mexico (Mesoamerica). Strong anti-phasing between multidecadal regimes of tree-ring reconstructed June PDSI over Mesoamerica and reconstructed summer (JJA) PDSI over the Southwest has also been detected episodically over the past millennium, including the 1950-1960s when La Niña and warm Atlantic SSTs prevailed, and the 1980-1990s when El Niño and cold Atlantic SSTs prevailed. Several Mesoamerican megadroughts are reconstructed when wetness prevailed over the Southwest, including the early tenth century Terminal Classic Drought, implicating El Niño and Atlantic SSTs in this intense and widespread drought that may have contributed to social changes in ancient Mexico.

Stahle, D. W.; Burnette, D. J.; Diaz, J. Villanueva; Heim, R. R.; Fye, F. K.; Paredes, J. Cerano; Soto, R. Acuna; Cleaveland, M. K.

2012-09-01

394

Preliminary multiproxy surface air temperature field reconstruction for China over the past millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first millennial-length gridded field reconstruction of annual temperature for China, and analyze the reconstruction for spatiotemporal changes and associated uncertainties, based on a network of 415 well-distributed and accurately dated climatic proxy series. The new reconstruction method is a modified form of the point-by-point regression (PPR) approach. The main difference is the incorporation of the "composite plus scale" (CPS) and "Regularized errors-in-variables" (EIV) algorithms to allow for the assimilation of various types of the proxy data. Furthermore, the search radius is restricted to a grid size; this restriction helps effectively exclude proxy data possibly correlated with temperature but belonging to a different climate region. The results indicate that: 1) the past temperature record in China is spatially heterogenic, with variable correlations between cells in time; 2) the late 20th century warming in China probably exceeds mean temperature levels at any period of the past 1000 years, but the temperature anomalies of some grids in eastern China during the Medieval climate anomaly period are warmer than during the modern warming; 3) the climatic variability in the eastern and western regions of China was not synchronous during much of the last millennium, probably due to the influence of the Tibetan Plateau. Our temperature reconstruction may serve as a reference to test simulation results over the past millennium, and help to finely analyze the spatial characteristics and the driving mechanism of the past temperature variability. However, the lower reconstruction skill scores for some grid points underline that the present set of available proxy data series is not yet sufficient to accurately reconstruct the heterogeneous climate of China in all regions, and that there is the need for more highly resolved temperature proxies, particularly in the Tibetan Plateau.

Shi, Feng; Yang, Bao; Von Gunten, Lucien

2013-04-01

395

Personality and eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives of review. This chapter reviews research findings from 2005 and 2006 regarding dimensional personality traits, categorical personality disorders and dimensional personality pathology, and categorical person- ality subtypes in eating disorders. Summary of recent findings. Approaches linking specific personality traits to eating pathology have demonstrated the predictive validity of perfec- tionism and impulsiveness. Impulsive behaviors are associated with com- pulsivity

Kristin M von Ranson

396

PersonalProgramme PERSONAL PROGRAMME  

E-print Network

-003; ROOM: Lecture Room 5 (I) Medvedev, S.; Braeck, S.; Fusseis, F.; Podladchikov, Y. ORAL Development: Lecture Room 29 Mair, K.; Abe, S. ORAL Strain partitioning and structural development in evolving fault.; Podladchikov, Y. ORAL Growth of complex carbonate surfaces A0240; EGU06-A-07327; MPRG12-1MO3P-0240; AREA: Hall

Mair, Karen

397

Personality Processes: Mechanisms by which Personality Traits "Get Outside the Skin"  

PubMed Central

It is time to better understand why personality traits predict consequential outcomes, which calls for a closer look at personality processes. Personality processes are mechanisms that unfold over time to produce the effects of personality traits. They include reactive and instrumental processes that moderate or mediate the association between traits and outcomes. These mechanisms are illustrated here by a selection of studies of traits representing the three broad domains of personality and temperament: negative emotionality, positive emotionality, and constraint. Personality processes are studied over the short-term, as in event-sampling studies, and over the long-term, as in lifespan research. Implications of findings from the study of processes are considered for resolving issues in models of personality structure, improving and extending methods of personality assessment, and identifying targets for personality interventions. PMID:21740225

Hampson, Sarah E.

2011-01-01

398

Can computer personalities be human personalities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study demonstrates that (1) computer personalities can be easily created using a minimal set of cues, and (2) that people will respond to these personalities in the same way they would respond to similar human personalities. The present study focuses on the “simikirityattraction hypothesis,” which predicts that people will prefer to interact with others who are similar in

Clifford Nass; Youngme Moon; B. J. Fogg; Byron Reeves; Chris Dryer

1995-01-01

399

European Journal of Personality Eur. J. Pers. 15: 327353 (2001)  

E-print Network

European Journal of Personality Eur. J. Pers. 15: 327±353 (2001) DOI: 10.1002/per.417 A Theoretical Basis for the Major Dimensions of Personality MICHAEL C. ASHTON*1 and KIBEOM LEE2 1 Brock University, St that lexical studies of personality structure suggest the existence of six major dimensions of personality: (I

Napp, Nils

400

Antisocial personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Antisocial personality disorder is a mental health condition in which a person has a long-term pattern of manipulating, ... Cause of antisocial personality disorder is unknown. Genetic ... as child abuse, are believed to contribute to the development ...

401

Personality and Alzheimer's Risk  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Related MedlinePlus Pages Alzheimer's Disease Mental Health Women's Health Transcript Can personality influence a person’s risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease? That’s a question researchers ...

402

Dependent personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Dependent personality disorder is a mental health condition in which people depend too much on others to meet their emotional ... Cause of dependent personality disorder is unknown. The disorder usually ... is one of the most common personality disorders and is ...

403

Exploring the Michigan model: The relationship of personality, managerial support and organizational structure with health outcomes in entrants to the healthcare environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have examined the role of managerial support in the adaptation of entrants to healthcare. The purpose of this study was to identify the job characteristic and role-related variables that mediate the effects of managerial support and personality on the mental and physical health and sickness absence in two independent groups of new recruits to a healthcare organization. Entrants

Martyn C Jones; Karen Smith; Derek W Johnston

2005-01-01

404

Paranoid personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Personality disorder - paranoid ... Cause of paranoid personality disorder is unknown. The disorder appears to be more common in families with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and delusional ...

405

Culture, universals, and the personal.  

PubMed

This chapter summarizes a part of the case that can be made that the individual construction of a personal domain of choice and privacy generalizes across cultures and is not restricted to persons who live within Western or so-called modern societies. The research findings reported here are consistent with the view that persons seek to establish such areas of control in order to maintain a differentiated personal identity and a sense of personal agency. Children, adolescents, and adults from the United States and traditional cultures have been found to identify a class of behaviors and issues as being outside the legitimate sphere of social or moral regulation. Mothers from Western and traditional cultural settings recognize and foster their children's claims to areas of personal choice and privacy. Across cultures, as children mature and move toward adulthood, they lay claim to a broader range of issues and actions as personal matters. Research on adolescent-parent conflict with U.S. and Chinese samples has indicated that these shifts associated with adolescent claims to freedom are the source of most family conflicts. Anthropological accounts of adolescent-parent conflicts in 160 cultures have provided evidence that such conflicts are widespread (Schlegel and Barry, 1991). Finally, we are beginning to obtain evidence that parental overcontrol of personal issues is associated with symptoms of psychological problems in their adolescent children. These research findings are consistent with the proposal (Nucci, 1996) that establishment of a personal domain is an intrinsic feature of normal human development, resulting from the inevitable attempt by individuals to account for and differentiate between their own motives, values, and experiences and those of others. The evidence also points to the fact that such personal issues are coexistent with concerns for interpersonal harmony and social integration. Thus, it is not surprising that the work summarized here also suggests considerable social-class and cultural variation in how the personal is expressed. Such variation is consistent with the assumption that the personal is constructed out of social interactions (Nucci, 1996) that entail reciprocal interchange between individual and societal structures (Turiel, 1996). In Spiro's analysis (1984), the results of such reciprocal structural interaction cannot be accounted for by reducing the analysis of psychological structures in terms of cultural structures and vice versa. Thus, any accurate interpretation of the impact of culture on psychological development must be constrained by features that are peculiar to psychological systems. Extending this to the cross-cultural study of the personal domain, a case can be made for the need to explore such issues at the level of the individual, rather than at the level of the cultural shared-symbol system. On the other hand, this nonreductionist approach and the available evidence rule out the reification of the personal as a culturally empty set of psychological issues. As illustrated in studies of the distribution of rights in relation to gender and social hierarchy among Druze Arabs (Wainryb and Turiel, 1994), the interplay between the personal and the cultural system of roles and obligations provides a rich and contradictory portrait that can be understood only by shifting perspective from the social to the individual and back again without favor. PMID:9348764

Nucci, L

1997-01-01

406

Teacher Leadership and Organizational Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional models of school organization favor peaked hierarchies that concentrate power and leadership responsibility on\\u000a the office of the principal. As these models struggle to effectively meet the needs of education in the new millennium, leadership\\u000a structures that distribute leadership influence and empower teachers to play a greater role in the leadership of the school,\\u000a are slowly being implemented. This

Camille Rutherford

2006-01-01

407

Impact of climate and CO 2 on a millennium-long tree-ring carbon isotope record  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present one millennium-long (1171-year), and three 100 year long annually resolved ?13C tree-ring chronologies from ecologically varying Juniperus stands in the Karakorum Mountains (northern Pakistan), and evaluate their response to climatic and atmospheric CO2 changes. All ?13C records show a gradual decrease since the beginning of the 19th century, which is commonly associated with a depletion of atmospheric ?13C

Kerstin S. Treydte; David C. Frank; Matthias Saurer; Gerhard Helle; Gerhard H. Schleser; Jan Esper

2009-01-01

408

Forced response of the East Asian summer rainfall over the past millennium: results from a coupled model simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The centennial–millennial variation of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) precipitation over the past 1000 years was investigated\\u000a through the analysis of a millennium simulation of the coupled ECHO-G model. The model results indicate that the centennial–millennial\\u000a variation of the EASM is essentially a forced response to the external radiative forcing (insolation, volcanic aerosol, and\\u000a green house gases). The strength of

Jian LiuBin; Bin Wang; Hongli Wang; Xueyuan Kuang; Ruyuan Ti

2011-01-01

409

The Millennium Galaxy Catalogue: The connection between close pairs and asymmetry; implications for the galaxy merger rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the use of galaxy asymmetry and pair proximity for measuring\\u000agalaxy merger fractions and rates for a volume limited sample of 3184 galaxies\\u000awith -21 < M(B) -5 log h < -18 mag. and 0.010 < z < 0.123 drawn from the\\u000aMillennium Galaxy Catalogue. Our findings are that:\\u000a (i) Galaxies in close pairs are generally more asymmetric

Roberto De Propris; Christopher J. Conselice; Jochen Liske; Simon P. Driver; David R. Patton; Alister W. Graham; Paul D. Allen

2007-01-01

410

UltraFlex-175 Solar Array Technology Maturation Achievements for NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) Space Technology 8 (ST8)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATK space systems (ATK) in collaboration with the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and EMCORE Photovoltaics (EPV), is executing NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) Space Technology 8 (ST8) Project Formulation Refinement Phase to develop and validate through spaceflight a state-of-the-art solar array system called UltraFlex-175. UltraFlex-175 is a highly evolved and scaled version of the

B. Spence; S. White; A. Jones; J. Wachholz; N. Wilder; P. Cronin; T. Gregory; P. Barker; T. Allmandinger; N. Mardesich; M. Piszczor; P. Sharps; N. Fatemi

2006-01-01

411

The NASA New Millennium Program: Space Flight Validation of Advanced Technologies for Future Astronomy and Astrophysics Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) was established to identify breakthrough spacecraft and instrument technologies that are needed for future NASA space and Earth science missions, and to validate these technologies in space, if necessary, to reduce their inherent risk and\\/or cost for the first science user. For example, Deep Space 1 (DS1) validated a solar-powered ion propulsion system and

D. Crisp

2000-01-01

412

Enhanced 20th century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanic heat transport variations, carried by the northward flowing Atlantic Water, strongly influence Arctic sea-ice distribution, ocean-atmosphere exchanges, and pan-Arctic temperatures. Paleoceanographic reconstructions from marine sediments near Fram Strait have documented a dramatic increase in Atlantic Water temperatures over the 20th century, unprecedented in the last millennium. Here we present results from Earth system model simulations over the last millennium that reproduce and explain reconstructed integrated quantities such as pan-Arctic temperature evolution during the pre-industrial millennium as well as the exceptional Atlantic Water warming in Fram Strait in the 20th century. The associated increase in ocean heat transfer to the Arctic can be traced back to changes in the ocean circulation in the sub-polar North Atlantic. An interplay between a weakening overturning circulation and a strengthening sub-polar gyre as a consequence of 20th century global warming is identified as driving mechanism for the pronounced warming along the Atlantic Water path toward the Arctic. Simulations covering the late Holocene provide a reference frame that allows us to conclude that the changes during the last century are unprecedented in the last 1150 years and that they cannot be explained by internal variability or natural forcing alone.

Jungclaus, J. H.; Lohmann, K.; Zanchettin, D.

2014-07-01

413

Simulated cold events in the northern North Atlantic during the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoceanographic data show large inter-decadal cold excursions in sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the western subpolar gyre region and north of Iceland throughout the last millennium. A series of such events could have contributed to demise the Norse settlements over Greenland during the 13th to the 15th century due to associated deteriorating environmental conditions in the region. However, spatial extent, attribution and mechanism(s) of these cold events are not known. In this contribution, we use climate model simulations to clarify the role of the ocean and of coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics in triggering these cold events, and to assess whether they can be explained by internal climate variability alone. Specifically, we investigate the North Atlantic-Arctic climate variability in a 1000-year control run describing an unperturbed pre-industrial climate, and in a 3-member ensemble of full-forcing transient simulations of the last millennium. Simulations are performed with the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model for paleo-applications. In the control and transient simulations, we identified cold events of similar amplitude and duration to the reconstructed data. Spatial patterns and temporal evolutions of simulated cold events are similar in both simulation types. In the transient runs, furthermore, they do not robustly coincide with periods of strong external forcing (e.g. of major volcanic eruptions). We therefore conclude that such events can emerge because of internally-generated regional climate variability alone. Local ocean-atmosphere coupled processes in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region appear as key part of the mechanism of simulated cold events. In particular, they are typically associated with the onset of prolonged positive sea-level pressure anomalies over the North Atlantic and associated weaker and south-eastward displaced subpolar gyre. The salt transport reduction by the Irminger Current together with an intensification of the southward fresh water transport through the Denmark Strait reduce the sea-surface salinity and trigger reduced deep ocean mixing in the Labrador Sea. The consequent weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation peaks well after the minimum of SST anomalies, allowing us to exclude, in contrast to former suggestions, the overturning circulation as a major triggering factor of such cold events. Cold SSTs and the weakened atmospheric circulation over the Labrador Sea force reduced ocean heat losses in the ocean basin, being the main cause of the cold anomalies over Greenland. The simulated climatic anomaly further entails sea-ice expansion along the eastern coast of Greenland. This would have reduced the trade and fishery in the region, thus increasing the stress on the Norse society during the time of its settlement demise over Greenland.

Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo; Zanchettin, Davide; Lohmann, Katja; Jungclaus, Johann

2014-05-01

414

A climate simulation of the first millennium AD using a comprehensive Earth System Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of past climate using fully coupled comprehensive Earth System Models are restricted by the large computational costs of these simulations. Here we present first results from an on-going simulation with the MPI-ESM-P starting in year 100 BC. The simulation is forced with changes in orbital forcing and long-term solar variations augmented by a synthetic 11-year cycle including an interactive ozone cycle. For the first time also changes in volcanic activity are implemented based on the reconstruction method by Crowley and Unterman (2012). The basis of the extended volcanic forcing in terms of aerosol optical depth and effective radius are new sulfate estimations from ice cores from Greenland (NEEM) and Antarctica (WAIS) presented by Sigl et al. (2013). Because the NEEM record only reaches back as far as 79 AD, the time until 100 BC was filled by earlier information contained in the Dye 3 and GRIP record (Clausen et al., 1997). Compared to the 2nd millennium AD, the first millennium does however show a considerably reduced amount of large explosive tropical eruptions. On hemispheric and global scale the large outbreaks around the years 530 and 740 AD are well reflected as negative temperature anomalies. The 79 AD Vesuvius eruption does not however produce a pronounced hemispheric signal. The amount of sulphate ejected into the stratosphere may have been too low for a sustained hemispheric-scale cooling. The large eruption of 530 AD (so called 'mystic cloud') is however well reflected within the temperature evolution and is more pronounced over the northern hemisphere during summertime. On longer, multi-centennial, time scales, global temperatures show a slight decrease. This decrease is more pronounced over the NH hemisphere during JJA and is caused by the decline in the TOA short wave incoming radiation. Over the extratropical SH changes in orbital forcing are not reflected in temperature trends as clearly as over the NH due to the larger oceanic and ice-covered areas. Future investigations will concentrate on the analyses of additional modes of variability, such as the AO and AAO, and ENSO as well as changes in ocean circulation, for instance related to the variability of the North Atlantic.

Wagner, Sebastian; Zorita, Eduardo

2014-05-01

415

Short-Interval Test-Retest Interrater Reliability of the Dutch Version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the short-interval test-retest reliability of the Struc- tured Clinical Interview (SCID-II: First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1995) for DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs). The SCID-II was adminis- tered to 69 in- and outpatients on two occasions separated by 1 to 6 weeks. The interviews were conducted at three sites by ten raters. Each rater acted as first and

Anoek Weertman; Arnoud ArntZ; Laura Dreessen; Carol van Velzen; Stefaan Vertommen

2003-01-01

416

Depressive personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the theoretical construct of depressive personality disorder and its related research. The history of depressive personality disorder is reviewed. It is concluded that differing theories converge on similar descriptions and mechanisms of development for the depressive personality disorder. Substantial empirical work supports the diagnostic distinctiveness of depressive personality disorder in clinical populations. Past and current assessment devices

Steven K. Huprich

1998-01-01

417

Study Required by Section 104 of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Section 104 of the 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) required the US Copyright Office to conduct a study to begin "an ongoing evaluation by Congress on the relationship between technological change and U.S. copyright law." This report focuses on three areas traditionally handled under copyright law that have changed in the digital world: first sale doctrine and the related issue of digital transmission of copyrighted works, certain temporary incidental copies, such as copies of a work existing in RAM on a computer, and archival copying of computer programs. First sale doctrine allows the purchaser of a copyrighted work to loan or share that work and has a great impact on the functions of libraries. In summary, the report does not recommend amending the DMCA in the area of first sale doctrine; it does argue that copies of a work created in RAM for the purposes of streaming media are probably protected under fair use and that archival back-up copies of computer programs are becoming less necessary for the average consumer. The report includes public commentary from the library community, publishers, and private citizens.

2001-01-01

418

Low Dimensional Description of Pedestrian-Induced Oscillation of the Millennium Bridge  

E-print Network

When it opened to pedestrian traffic in the year 2000, London's Millennium Bridge exhibited an unwanted, large, side-to-side oscillation which was apparently due to a resonance between the stepping frequency of walkers and one of the bridge modes. Models for this event, and similar events on other bridges, have been proposed. The model most directly addressing the synchronization mechanism of individual walkers and the resulting global response of the bridge-pedestrian system is one developed by Eckhardt et al. This model treats individual walkers with a phase oscillator description and is inherently high dimensional with system dimensionality (N+2), where N is the number of walkers. In the present work we use a method proposed by Ott and Antonsen to reduce the model of Eckhardt et al. to a low dimensional dynamical system, and we employ this reduced description to study the global dynamics of the bridge/pedestrian interaction. More generally, this treatment serves as an interesting example of the possibility of low dimensional macroscopic behavior in large systems of coupled oscillators.

Mahmoud M. Abdulrehem; Edward Ott

2008-09-02

419

Multidecadal to multicentury scale collapses of Northern Hemisphere monsoons over the past millennium  

PubMed Central

Late Holocene climate in western North America was punctuated by periods of extended aridity called megadroughts. These droughts have been linked to cool eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Here, we show both short-term and long-term climate variability over the last 1,500 y from annual band thickness and stable isotope speleothem data. Several megadroughts are evident, including a multicentury one, AD 1350–1650, herein referred to as Super Drought, which corresponds to the coldest period of the Little Ice Age. Synchronicity between southwestern North American, Chinese, and West African monsoon precipitation suggests the megadroughts were hemispheric in scale. Northern Hemisphere monsoon strength over the last millennium is positively correlated with Northern Hemisphere temperature and North Atlantic SST. The megadroughts are associated with cooler than average SST and Northern Hemisphere temperatures. Furthermore, the megadroughts, including the Super Drought, coincide with solar insolation minima, suggesting that solar forcing of sea surface and atmospheric temperatures may generate variations in the strength of Northern Hemisphere monsoons. Our findings seem to suggest stronger (wetter) Northern Hemisphere monsoons with increased warming. PMID:23716648

Asmerom, Yemane; Polyak, Victor J.; Rasmussen, Jessica B. T.; Burns, Stephen J.; Lachniet, Matthew

2013-01-01

420

Creation of an Adiposity Index for Children Aged 6-8 Years: The Gateshead Millennium Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. A number of measures of childhood adiposity are in use, but all are relatively imprecise and prone to bias. We constructed an adiposity index (AI) using a number of different measures. Methods. Detailed body composition data on 460 of the Gateshead Millennium Study cohort at the age of 6–8 years were analysed. The AI was calculated using factor analysis on age plus thirteen measures of adiposity and/or size. Correlations between these variables, the AI, and more traditional measures of adiposity in children were investigated. Results. Based on the factor loading sizes, the first component, taken to be the AI, consisted mainly of measures of fat-mass (the skinfold measurements, fat mass score, and waist circumference). The second comprised variables measuring frame size, while the third consisted mainly of age. The AI had a high correlation with body mass index (BMI) (rho = 0.81). Conclusions. While BMI is practical for assessing adiposity in children, the AI combines a wider range of data related to adiposity than BMI alone and appears both valid and valuable as a research tool for studies of childhood adiposity. Further research is necessary to investigate the utility of AI for research in other samples of children and also in adults. PMID:24089678

Pearce, Mark S.; James, Peter W.; Franco-Villoria, Maria; Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Jones, Angela R.; Basterfield, Laura; Drewett, Robert F.; Wright, Charlotte M.; Adamson, Ashley J.

2013-01-01

421

Climate-related changes in peatland carbon accumulation during the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands are a major terrestrial carbon store and a persistent natural carbon sink during the Holocene, but there is considerable uncertainty over the fate of peatland carbon in a changing climate. It is generally assumed that higher temperatures will increase peat decay, causing a positive feedback to climate warming and contributing to the global positive carbon cycle feedback. Here we use a new extensive database of peat profiles across northern high latitudes to examine spatial and temporal patterns of carbon accumulation over the past millennium. Opposite to expectations, our results indicate a small negative carbon cycle feedback from past changes in the long-term accumulation rates of northern peatlands. Total carbon accumulated over the last 1000 yr is linearly related to contemporary growing season length and photosynthetically active radiation, suggesting that variability in net primary productivity is more important than decomposition in determining long-term carbon accumulation. Furthermore, northern peatland carbon sequestration rate declines over the climate transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) to the Little Ice Age (LIA), probably because of lower LIA temperatures combined with increased cloudiness suppressing net primary productivity. Other factors including changing moisture status, peatland distribution, fire, nitrogen deposition, permafrost thaw and methane emissions will also influence future peatland carbon cycle feedbacks, but our data suggest that the carbon sequestration rate could increase over many areas of northern peatlands.

Charman, D. J.; Beilman, D. W.; Blaauw, M.; Booth, R. K.; Brewer, S.; Chambers, F. M.; Christen, J. A.; Gallego-Sala, A.; Harrison, S. P.; Hughes, P. D. M.; Jackson, S. T.; Korhola, A.; Mauquoy, D.; Mitchell, F. J. G.; Prentice, I. C.; van der Linden, M.; De Vleeschouwer, F.; Yu, Z. C.; Alm, J.; Bauer, I. E.; Corish, Y. M. C.; Garneau, M.; Hohl, V.; Huang, Y.; Karofeld, E.; Le Roux, G.; Loisel, J.; Moschen, R.; Nichols, J. E.; Nieminen, T. M.; MacDonald, G. M.; Phadtare, N. R.; Rausch, N.; Sillasoo, Ü.; Swindles, G. T.; Tuittila, E.-S.; Ukonmaanaho, L.; Väliranta, M.; van Bellen, S.; van Geel, B.; Vitt, D. H.; Zhao, Y.

2012-10-01

422

Climate-related changes in peatland carbon accumulation during the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands are a major terrestrial carbon store and a persistent natural carbon sink during the Holocene, but there is considerable uncertainty over the fate of peatland carbon in a changing climate. It is generally assumed that higher temperatures will increase peat decay, causing a positive feedback to climate warming and contributing to the global positive carbon cycle feedback. Here we use a new extensive database of peat profiles across northern high latitudes to examine spatial and temporal patterns of carbon accumulation over the past millennium. Opposite to expectations, our results indicate a small negative carbon cycle feedback from past changes in the long-term accumulation rates of northern peatlands. Total carbon accumulated over the last 1000 yr is linearly related to contemporary growing season length and photosynthetically active radiation, suggesting that variability in net primary productivity is more important than decomposition in determining long-term carbon accumulation. Furthermore, northern peatland carbon sequestration rate declined over the climate transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) to the Little Ice Age (LIA), probably because of lower LIA temperatures combined with increased cloudiness suppressing net primary productivity. Other factors including changing moisture status, peatland distribution, fire, nitrogen deposition, permafrost thaw and methane emissions will also influence future peatland carbon cycle feedbacks, but our data suggest that the carbon sequestration rate could increase over many areas of northern peatlands in a warmer future.

Charman, D. J.; Beilman, D. W.; Blaauw, M.; Booth, R. K.; Brewer, S.; Chambers, F. M.; Christen, J. A.; Gallego-Sala, A.; Harrison, S. P.; Hughes, P. D. M.; Jackson, S. T.; Korhola, A.; Mauquoy, D.; Mitchell, F. J. G.; Prentice, I. C.; van der Linden, M.; De Vleeschouwer, F.; Yu, Z. C.; Alm, J.; Bauer, I. E.; Corish, Y. M. C.; Garneau, M.; Hohl, V.; Huang, Y.; Karofeld, E.; Le Roux, G.; Loisel, J.; Moschen, R.; Nichols, J. E.; Nieminen, T. M.; MacDonald, G. M.; Phadtare, N. R.; Rausch, N.; Sillasoo, Ü.; Swindles, G. T.; Tuittila, E.-S.; Ukonmaanaho, L.; Väliranta, M.; van Bellen, S.; van Geel, B.; Vitt, D. H.; Zhao, Y.

2013-02-01

423

Poverty reduction and Millennium Development Goals: recognizing population, health, and environment linkages in rural Madagascar.  

PubMed

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), committed to by all 191 United Nations member states, are rooted in the concept of sustainable development. Although 2007 (midway) reports indicated that programs are under way, unfortunately many countries are unlikely to reach their goals by 2015 due to high levels of poverty. Madagascar is one such example, although some gains are being made. Attempts of this island nation to achieve its MDGs, expressed most recently in the form of a Madagascar Action Plan, are notable in their emphasis on (1) conserving the country's natural resource base, (2) the effect of demographic trends on development, and (3) the importance of health as a prerequisite for development. Leadership in the country's struggle for economic growth comes from the president of the Republic, in part, through his "Madagascar Naturally" vision as well as his commitment to universal access to family planning, among other health and development interventions. However, for resource-limited countries, such as Madagascar, to get or stay "on track" to achieving the MDGs will require support from many sides. "Madagascar cannot do it alone and should not do it alone." This position is inherent in the eighth MDG: "Develop a global partnership for development." Apparently, it takes a village after all - a global one. PMID:18311367

Gaffikin, Lynne; Ashley, Jeffrey; Blumenthal, Paul D

2007-01-01

424

Towards realizing the health-related millennium development goals for migrants from Burma in Thailand.  

PubMed

ETHICAL ISSUES IN HEALTH-RELATED research on politically oppressed migrant populations differ in significant ways from community health research in other contexts. The United Nations has set goals for such research. The health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were investigated in communities ("clusters") of migrants from Burma living in villages in the Sangkhlaburi District of Thailand, adjacent to the Thai-Burma border. Hunger was experienced regularly in 70% of the households, and 26% of children under 5 years were underweight. Malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS were prevalent. Few households took part in family planning, and there were many large families and disabled children. The health of the migrant populations was compromised by poverty, social exclusion, and under- or unemployment. Stakeholders in discussion groups concurred with the authors that tuberculosis detection and treatment and food production activities were important issues to address in developing projects to improve migrant health. This case study illustrates how the MDGs can be operationally defined. PMID:19754234

Ditton, Mary J; Lehane, Leigh

2009-09-01

425

Millennium Development Goals: how public health professionals perceive the achievement of MDGs  

PubMed Central

Background There have been various consultations on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by different groups. However, even if it is clear that the health sector has led the development success of the MDGs, only a few MDG reports consider public health experts’ points of view and these are mainly government driven. Designs The World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA) has executed a global survey to consult public health professionals worldwide concerning the implementation and achievements of the MDGs. The survey was conceived by WFPHA health professionals and promulgated online. Public health professionals and organisations dealing with MDGs responded to the survey. Content analysis was conducted to analyse the data. Results Survey participants attributed the highest importance worldwide to MDGs dealing with women, poverty and hunger reduction, and disease prevention and management. Moreover, they underlined the role of education, referring both to school children and professionals. In high and upper-middle income countries, environmental challenges also received considerable attention. Notably, respondents underlined that weak governance and unstable political situations, as well as the gap between professionals and politicians, were among the main causes that detracted from MDG achievements. Conclusion The public health workforce felt it would be imperative to be included from the outset in the design and implementation of further goals. This implies that those professionals have to take an active part in the political process leading to a new and accountable framework. PMID:25249060

Lomazzi, Marta; Laaser, Ulrich; Theisling, Mareike; Tapia, Leticia; Borisch, Bettina

2014-01-01

426

Environmental changes in the northern Altai during the last millennium documented in Lake Teletskoye pollen record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution pollen record from Lake Teletskoye documents the climate-related vegetation history of the northern Altai Mountain region during the last millennium. Siberian pine taiga with Scots pine, fir, spruce, and birch dominated the vegetation between ca. AD 1050 and 1100. The climate was similar to modern. In the beginning of the 12th century, birch and shrub alder increased. Lowered pollen concentrations and simultaneous peaks in herbs (especially Artemisia and Poaceae), ferns, and charcoal fragments point to colder and more arid climate conditions than before, with frequent fire events. Around AD 1200, regional climate became warmer and more humid than present, as revealed by an increase of Siberian pine and decreases of dry herb taxa and charcoal contents. Climatic conditions were rather stable until ca. AD 1410. An increase of Artemisia pollen may reflect slightly drier climate conditions between AD 1410 and 1560. Increases in Alnus, Betula, Artemisia, and Chenopodiaceae pollen and in charcoal particle contents may reflect further deterioration of climate conditions between AD 1560 and 1810, consistent with the Little Ice Age. After AD 1850 the vegetation gradually approached the modern one, in conjunction with ongoing climate warming.

Andreev, Andrei A.; Pierau, Roberto; Kalugin, Ivan A.; Daryin, Andrei V.; Smolyaninova, Lyubov G.; Diekmann, Bernhard

2007-05-01

427

Meeting targets or saving lives: maternal health policy and Millennium Development Goal 5 in Nicaragua.  

PubMed

In support of maternal health, disease-specific and target-oriented global policy initiatives, such as in Millennium Development Goal 5, have led to a prioritisation of narrow indicators at the expense of more comprehensive approaches. In line with global policy, Nicaragua has made skilled attendants and institutionalised delivery central to its efforts to achieving MDG5 on maternal health. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in Nicaragua, involving participant observation and interviews with hospital and community health workers, and women and their families, this paper critically discusses how target-oriented maternal health strategies were manifested in local realities. It shows that Nicaragua's brigadistas (community health workers) and parteras (traditional birth attendants) have been driven to narrowing their own roles to identifying pregnant women and advocating that they have an institutional delivery as one their most important tasks, making them agents of MDG 5 target achievement. This has engendered fear among brigadistas and parteras of being held individually responsible in the event of a maternal death, creating dissatisfaction with their role and reducing their motivation. While intended to improve maternal health, the pressure to reach targets has unintended negative implications for the relationship between women, the local volunteers and the formal health system, which needs to be addressed. PMID:24315060

Kvernflaten, Birgit

2013-11-01

428

Simulated climate variability in the region of Rapa Nui during the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Easter Island, an isolated island in the Southeast Pacific, was settled by the Polynesians probably between 600 and 1200 AD and discovered by the Europeans in 1722 AD. While the Polynesians presumably found a profuse palm woodland on Easter Island, the Europeans faced a landscape dominated by grassland. Scientists have examined potential anthropogenic, biological and climatic induced vegetation changes on Easter Island. Here, we analyze observational climate data for the last decades and climate model results for the period 800-1750 AD to explore potential causes for a climatic-induced vegetation change. A direct influence of the ENSO phenomenon on the climatic parameters of Easter Island could not be found in the model simulations. Furthermore, strong climatic trends from a warm Medieval Period to a Little Ice Age or rapid climatic fluctuations due to large volcanic eruptions were not verifiable for the Easter Island region, although they are detectable in the simulations for many regions world wide. Hence we tentatively conclude that large-scale climate changes in the oceanic region around Easter Island might be too small to explain strong vegetation changes on the island over the last millennium.

Junk, C.; Claussen, M.

2011-01-01

429

Century/millennium internal climate oscillations in an ocean-atmosphere-continental ice sheet model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We demonstrate in a simple climate model that there exist nonlinear feedbacks between the atmosphere, ocean, and ice sheets capable of producing century/millennium timescale internal oscillations resembling those seen in the paleoclimate record. Feedbacks involve meridional heat and salt transports in the North Atlantic, surface ocean freshwater fluxes associated with melting and growing continental ice sheets in the northen hemisphere and with Atlantic to Pacific water vapor transport. The positive feedback between the production of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and the meridional salt transport by the Atlantic thermohaline circulation tends to destabilize the climate system, while the negative feedback between the freshwater flux, either to or from the continental ice sheets, and meridional heat flux to the high-latitude North Atlantic, accomplished by the thermohaline circulation, stabilizes the system. The thermohaline circulation plays a central role in both positive and negative feedbacks because of its transport of both heat and salt. Because of asymmetries between the growth and melt phases the oscillations are, in general, accompanied by a growing or decreasing ice volume over each cycle, which in the model is reflected by increasing or decreasing mean salinity.

Birchfield, Edward G.; Wang, Huaxiao; Rich, Jonathan J.

1994-01-01

430

Reconstruction of Precipitation in North America Over The Last Millennium Using Multiple Proxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past work in making long-term reconstructions of precipitation and deriving estimates of hydro-climatic variability from those reconstructions was based largely in tree-ring proxy records. More recent work that was focused on the Pacific Northwest region of the United States employed oxygen isotope data derived from lake sediments to reconstruct winter precipitation for the last 1500 y and yielded that wet conditions prevailed in winter during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) period (900-1300 AD) and drier winters prevailed during the Little Ice Age (LIA) period (1450-1850 AD), which somewhat contradicted findings derived from tree-ring records alone. The work that we present here exploits this notion that multiple paleo-climate proxies are required for robust long-term reconstructions of precipitation. We are making a precipitation reconstruction for approximately the last millennium over a large area of land in North America spanning from approximately central Mexico to southern Canada. A Regularized Expectation Maximization (RegEM) algorithm is employed, with some modifications aimed at accommodating use of multiple types of proxy record. Some early results from this work will be presented.

Brouillette, D. J.; Mann, M. E.; Miller, S. K.; Rutherford, S. D.; Steinman, B. A.

2013-12-01

431

Multidecadal to multicentury scale collapses of Northern Hemisphere monsoons over the past millennium.  

PubMed

Late Holocene climate in western North America was punctuated by periods of extended aridity called megadroughts. These droughts have been linked to cool eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Here, we show both short-term and long-term climate variability over the last 1,500 y from annual band thickness and stable isotope speleothem data. Several megadroughts are evident, including a multicentury one, AD 1350-1650, herein referred to as Super Drought, which corresponds to the coldest period of the Little Ice Age. Synchronicity between southwestern North American, Chinese, and West African monsoon precipitation suggests the megadroughts were hemispheric in scale. Northern Hemisphere monsoon strength over the last millennium is positively correlated with Northern Hemisphere temperature and North Atlantic SST. The megadroughts are associated with cooler than average SST and Northern Hemisphere temperatures. Furthermore, the megadroughts, including the Super Drought, coincide with solar insolation minima, suggesting that solar forcing of sea surface and atmospheric temperatures may generate variations in the strength of Northern Hemisphere monsoons. Our findings seem to suggest stronger (wetter) Northern Hemisphere monsoons with increased warming. PMID:23716648

Asmerom, Yemane; Polyak, Victor J; Rasmussen, Jessica B T; Burns, Stephen J; Lachniet, Matthew

2013-06-11

432

Long-range memory in internal and forced dynamics of millennium-long climate model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern Hemisphere (NH) temperature records from a palaeoclimate reconstruction and a number of millennium-long climate model experiments are investigated for long-range memory (LRM). The models are two Earth system models and two atmosphere-ocean general circulation models. The periodogram, detrended fluctuation analysis and wavelet variance analysis are applied to examine scaling properties and to estimate a scaling exponent of the temperature records. A simple linear model for the climate response to external forcing is also applied to the reconstruction and the forced climate model runs, and then compared to unforced control runs to extract the LRM generated by internal dynamics of the climate system. The climate models show strong persistent scaling with power spectral densities of the form S(f) ~ f -? with 0.8 < ? < 1 on timescales from years to several centuries. This is somewhat stronger persistence than found in the reconstruction (? ? 0.7). We find no indication that LRM found in these model runs is induced by external forcing, which suggests that LRM on sub-decadal to century time scales in NH mean temperatures is a property of the internal dynamics of the climate system. Reconstructed and instrumental sea surface temperature records for a local site, Reykjanes Ridge, are also studied, showing that strong persistence is found also for local ocean temperature.

Østvand, L.; Nilsen, T.; Rypdal, K.; Divine, D.; Rypdal, M.

2014-08-01

433

A millennium of metallurgy recorded by lake sediments from Morococha, Peruvian Andes.  

PubMed

To date, information concerning pre-Colonial metallurgy in South America has largely been limited to the archaeological record of artifacts. Here, we reconstruct a millennium of smelting activity in the Peruvian Andes using the lake-sediment stratigraphy of atmospherically derived metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, Sb, Bi, and Ti) and lead isotopic ratios (206Pb/ 207Pb) associated with smelting from the Morococha mining region in the central Peruvian Andes. The earliest evidence for metallurgy occurs ca. 1000 A.D., coinciding with the fall of the Wari Empire and decentralization of local populations. Smelting during this interval appears to have been aimed at copper and copper alloys, because of large increases in Zn and Cu relative to Pb. A subsequent switch to silver metallurgy under Inca control (ca. 1450 to conquest, 1533 A.D.) is indicated by increases in Pb, Sb, and Bi, a conclusion supported by further increases of these metals during Colonial mining, which targeted silver extraction. Rapid development of the central Andes during the 20th century raised metal burdens by an order of magnitude above previous levels. Our results represent the first evidence for pre-Colonial smelting in the central Peruvian Andes, and corroborate the sensitivity of lake sediments to pre-Colonial metallurgical activity suggested by earlier findings from Bolivia. PMID:17547165

Cooke, Colin A; Abbott, Mark B; Wolfe, Alexander P; Kittleson, John L

2007-05-15

434

Reconstruction of solar activity for the last millennium using $^{10}$Be data  

E-print Network

In a recent paper (Usoskin et al., 2002a), we have reconstructed the concentration of the cosmogenic $^{10}$Be isotope in ice cores from the measured sunspot numbers by using physical models for $^{10}$Be production in the Earth's atmosphere, cosmic ray transport in the heliosphere, and evolution of the Sun's open magnetic flux. Here we take the opposite route: starting from the $^{10}$Be concentration measured in ice cores from Antarctica and Greenland, we invert the models in order to reconstruct the 11-year averaged sunspot numbers since 850 AD. The inversion method is validated by comparing the reconstructed sunspot numbers with the directly observed sunspot record since 1610. The reconstructed sunspot record exhibits a prominent period of about 600 years, in agreement with earlier observations based on cosmogenic isotopes. Also, there is evidence for the century scale Gleissberg cycle and a number of shorter quasi-periodicities whose periods seem to fluctuate in the millennium time scale. This invalidates the earlier extrapolation of multi-harmonic representation of sunspot activity over extended time intervals.

I. G. Usoskin; K. Mursula; S. Solanki; M. Schuessler; K. Alanko

2003-09-20

435

Distribution, geochemistry and age of the Millennium eruptives of Changbaishan volcano, Northeast China -- A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large explosive volcanic eruptions generate extensive regional tephra deposits that provide favorable conditions for identifying the source of volcanoes, comparing the sedimentary strata of a region and determining their ages. The tephra layer, referred to as BTm, generated by the Millennium eruption of Changbaishan volcano, is widely distributed in Northeast China, Japan, D.P.R. Korea, and the nearby coastal area of Russia. It forms part of the widespread northeast Asian strata and is significant for establishing an isochronal stratigraphic framework. However, research on the temporal characterization and stratigraphic correlation of associated strata using this tephra layer is mainly concentrated in and near Japan. In northeastern China, this tephra layer is seldom seen and its application in stratigraphic correlations is even rarer. More importantly, the determination of accurate ages for both distal and proximal tephras has been debated, leading to controversy in discussions of its environmental impacts. Stratigraphic records from both distal and proximal Changbaishan ash show that this eruption generally occurred between 1,012 and 1,004 cal yr BP. Geochemical comparison between Changbaishan ash and the Quaternary widespread ash around Japan illustrates that Changbaishan ash is a continuous composition from rhyolitic to trachytic and its ratio of FeOT to CaO is usually greater than 4, which can be used as a distinguishing identifier among worldwide contemporary eruptions.

Sun, Chunqing; You, Haitao; Liu, Jiaqi; Li, Xin; Gao, Jinliang; Chen, Shuangshuang

2014-04-01

436

Satellites around Massive Galaxies Since z ~ 2: Confronting the Millennium Simulation with Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minor merging has been postulated as the most likely evolutionary path to produce the increase in size and mass observed in the massive galaxies since z ~ 2. In this Letter, we directly test this hypothesis, comparing the population of satellites around massive galaxies in cosmological simulations versus the observations. We use state-of-the-art, publically available, Millennium I and II simulations, and the associated semi-analytical galaxy catalogs to explore the time evolution of the fraction of massive galaxies that have satellites, the number of satellites per galaxy, the projected distance at which the satellites locate from the host galaxy, and the mass ratio between the host galaxies and their satellites. The three virtual galaxy catalogs considered here overproduce the fraction of galaxies with satellites by a factor ranging between 1.5 and 6 depending on the epoch, whereas the mean projected distance and ratio of the satellite mass over host mass are in closer agreement with data. The larger pull of satellites in the semi-analytical samples could suggest that the size evolution found in previous hydrodynamical simulations is an artifact due to the larger number of infalling satellites compared to the real universe. These results advise us to revise the physical ingredients implemented in the semi-analytical models in order to reconcile the observed and computed fraction of galaxies with satellites, and eventually, it would leave some room for other mechanisms explaining the galaxy size growth not related to the minor merging.

Quilis, Vicent; Trujillo, Ignacio

2012-06-01

437

The Internet and the menopause consultation: menopause management in the third millennium.  

PubMed

The Internet was born in 1969; it was originally developed so that computers could share information on research and development in the scientific and military fields. The original Internet consisted of four university computers networked in the United States. Email became available two years later. The infant Internet initially required complex computing knowledge to be used. However, this was all to change with the development of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s, which made the Internet much more widely accessible. The Internet has since grown at a phenomenal rate and has evolved into a global communications tool. It is by nature anarchic, in that it is an unrestricted broadcast medium. Although this lack of censorship is a strength, it is also a weakness. The quality of information available on the Web is variable and discernment is required. With the growth of e-health, medicine and its allied specialties are faced with the challenges of providing their services in a novel way while maintaining the first principle of medicine, primum non nocere (first, do no harm). This provision of e-health care is in its infancy and this review explores issues arising from the use of the Internet as a medium for organizing menopausal health care in the third millennium. PMID:16157001

Cumming, Grant P; Currie, Heather

2005-09-01

438

East African climate dynamics over the past millennium in PMIP3/CMIP5 simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the East African's agriculture depends on the amount and the seasonal occurrence of rainfall. This, with other factors such as rapid changes in land use associated to population growth, makes this region very sensitive to climate change. However, there is no consensus on the future climate change of this region, the drivers responsible for the East African precipitation variability being poorly understood. General circulation models (GCMs) generally predict a wetter climate over that region in the context of the global warming, but these projections contrast with the recent severe droughts that have impacted East Africa. The objective of this study is to improve the understanding of the mechanisms driving the variability of the East African climate at inter-annual to decadal time scales using the experiments performed in the framework of the PMIP3/CMIP5 projects. In a first step, the performance of the different GCMs is estimated through the comparison of their mean state and the trends in precipitation and temperature over the last decades with different reanalyses. The variability of these climate variables are then studied for both the recent decades and the last Millennium using EOF analyses. This allows putting forward different patterns of variability depending on the frequency studied. Finally, the mechanisms responsible for the simulated variability are analysed by examining the dynamical links between the East African climate and, among others, the forcings as well as the sea surface temperature of the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

Klein, François; Goosse, Hugues

2014-05-01

439

Driving forces of global wildfires over the past millennium and the forthcoming century  

PubMed Central

Recent bursts in the incidence of large wildfires worldwide have raised concerns about the influence climate change and humans might have on future fire activity. Comparatively little is known, however, about the relative importance of these factors in shaping global fire history. Here we use fire and climate modeling, combined with land cover and population estimates, to gain a better understanding of the forces driving global fire trends. Our model successfully reproduces global fire activity record over the last millennium and reveals distinct regimes in global fire behavior. We find that during the preindustrial period, the global fire regime was strongly driven by precipitation (rather than temperature), shifting to an anthropogenic-driven regime with the Industrial Revolution. Our future projections indicate an impending shift to a temperature-driven global fire regime in the 21st century, creating an unprecedentedly fire-prone environment. These results suggest a possibility that in the future climate will play a considerably stronger role in driving global fire trends, outweighing direct human influence on fire (both ignition and suppression), a reversal from the situation during the last two centuries. PMID:20974914

Pechony, O.; Shindell, D. T.

2010-01-01

440

Tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals: reaching consensus on child mortality levels and trends.  

PubMed Central

The increased attention to tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including Goal 4 of reducing child mortality, has drawn attention to a number of interrelated technical, operational and political challenges and to the underlying weaknesses of country health information systems upon which reliable monitoring depends. Assessments of child mortality published in 2005, for almost all low-income countries, are based on an extrapolation of the trends observed during the 1990s, rather than on the empirical data for more recent years. The validity of the extrapolation depends on the quality and quantity of the data used, and many countries lack suitable data. In the long run, it is hoped that vital registration or sample registration systems will be established to monitor vital events in a sustainable way. However, in the short run, tracking child mortality in high-mortality countries will continue to rely on household surveys and extrapolations of historical trends. This will require more collaborative efforts both to collect data through initiatives to strengthen health information systems at the country level, and to harmonize the estimation process. The latter objective requires the continued activity of a coordinating group of international agencies and academics that aims to produce transparent estimates -- through the consistent application of an agreed-upon methodology --for monitoring at the international level. PMID:16583082

2006-01-01

441

Filling the Eastern European gap in millennium-long temperature reconstructions.  

PubMed

Tree ring-based temperature reconstructions form the scientific backbone of the current global change debate. Although some European records extend into medieval times, high-resolution, long-term, regional-scale paleoclimatic evidence is missing for the eastern part of the continent. Here we compile 545 samples of living trees and historical timbers from the greater Tatra region to reconstruct interannual to centennial-long variations in Eastern European May-June temperature back to 1040 AD. Recent anthropogenic warming exceeds the range of past natural climate variability. Increased plague outbreaks and political conflicts, as well as decreased settlement activities, coincided with temperature depressions. The Black Death in the mid-14th century, the Thirty Years War in the early 17th century, and the French Invasion of Russia in the early 19th century all occurred during the coldest episodes of the last millennium. A comparison with summer temperature reconstructions from Scandinavia, the Alps, and the Pyrenees emphasizes the seasonal and spatial specificity of our results, questioning those large-scale reconstructions that simply average individual sites. PMID:23319641

Büntgen, Ulf; Kyncl, Tomáš; Ginzler, Christian; Jacks, David S; Esper, Jan; Tegel, Willy; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Kyncl, Josef

2013-01-29

442

Toward the personal factory?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production tools undergo a constant process of miniaturization. Technical, economical, as well as environmental reasons motivate this process. The research in the field of the Microfactory and Nanofactory addresses these issues. The question is how far and how fast will this miniaturization go? Does it make sense to have a factory so small that you can put it on your desk, next to you computer, and start to produce whatever you can imagine? Will Personal Factories (PF) ever exist? We first present different scenarios of the Personal Factory. One approach, which is generally favored by physicists, chemists and biologists, consists in the assembly of atoms or molecules, like LEGO-bricks, to build up complex devices (bottom up). We will not follow this approach in this paper. The second approach consists in the 3D microstructuring of the parts and their assembly (top down). We briefly present different structuring technologies that could apply in the PFs. We then briefly present micro-positioning systems developed at EPFL that could be used in assembly in PF.

Breguet, Jean-Marc; Bergander, Arvid

2001-10-01

443

Personality disorders in obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Standardized structured interview personality scales are now available that provide better reliability than clinician interview, but are still imperfect. These scales diagnose DSM III-R personality disorders, which are more illness-oriented than Freudian notions. Use of these scales has found that the majority of patients with OCD have at least one Axis II personality disorder, with most falling in cluster C. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder, as described in DSM-III-R, is, in most samples studied, present in the minority of patients with OCD, and is often less common than other personality disorders such as mixed, dependent, avoidant, and histrionic. The prevalence of this personality disorder as modified in DSM-III-R (making it easier for a patient to qualify for this personality disorder diagnosis) appears to be higher, although still present in a minority of patients with OCD. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder (along with the other cluster B and C personality disorders) has not been reported to have a consistent relation to treatment outcome. There is evidence that in some cases, obsessive compulsive personality disorder may be secondary to OCD. Swedo et al hypothesized that some children may develop compulsive personality traits as an adaptive mechanism to deal with OCD. This hypothesis is in accord with our finding that OCD often predates compulsive personality disorder and that mixed personality disorder may develop over time, possibly secondary to OCD. We found in our sample of 96 adult patients with OCD that the presence of mixed personality disorder was more likely with longer duration of OCD, suggesting that patients who do not have premorbid personality disorders may develop significant personality traits (especially avoidant, compulsive, and dependent), which may be related to behavioral and life-style changes that are secondary to OCD. This hypothesis is strengthened by our finding that patients with one of these personality disorders at baseline tended to no longer meet criteria for them following successful treatment of their OCD. It now appears that schizotypal personality disorder, which is thought to be related genetically to schizophrenia (e.g., in three male identical twin pairs concordant for OCD but discordant for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, the nonpsychotic co-twins all had schizotypal personality disorder), is the only consistent personality disorder predictor of poorer outcome in OCD. These traits may help explain other proposed poor predictors of treatment outcome such as overvalued beliefs, poor compliance, and chaotic family situations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1461797

Baer, L; Jenike, M A

1992-12-01

444

Personal identity, multiple personality, and hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of multiple personality ia critically examined in the light of its historical development. Various conceptions of multiple personality are considered: aa a diagnostic fashion; aa a product of shaping in therapy; as a product of hypnotic suggestion; as simulation; and aa an extension of characteristica found in “normal” personslitiea. These considerations lead to the conclusion that the significant

J. P. Sutcliffe; Jean Jones

1962-01-01

445

Position in formal structure, personal characteristics and choices of advisors in a law firm: A logistic regression model for dyadic network data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a statistical model for the analysis of binary sociometric choice data, the p2 model, which provides a flexible way for using explanatory variables to model network structure. It is applied to examine the influence of the formal structure of an organization on interactions among its members. It is shown to provide a general and precise method for

Emmanuel Lazega; Marijtje van Duijn

1997-01-01

446

Conceptions of Personality Disorders and Dimensions of Personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differing conceptions of personality disorders inherent in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Personality Disorder Scales and the Personality Adjective Checklist were evaluated within the context of the circumplex model of interpersonal behavior and the 5-factor model of personality in a sample of 581 university students. Conceptions of personality disorders were strongly and clearly related to dimensions of normal personality traits.

Jerry S. Wiggins; Aaron L. Pincus

1989-01-01

447

Monsoon dynamics over the past millennium on the southern-central Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tibetan Plateau has experienced abrupt climate change superimposed by a gradual weakening of the summer monsoon systems during the Holocene. Although lake sediment records from the Tibetan Plateau are considered to be particularly sensitive to climate variations a holistic picture of the spatial and temporal monsoon evolution is still lacking due to the interplay of different moisture-transporting wind systems (Indian summer monsoon, East Asian summer monsoon, Westerlies). Closing this data gap is important since the Tibetan Plateau is a key area for understanding the climate evolution and its impact on the availability of current and future water resources in Central Asia. Hence, well-dated and high-resolution records are essential to improve the understanding of the spatial and temporal monsoonal evolution. To investigate the hydrological cycle indicating past monsoon variability on the southern-central Tibetan Plateau, records of several lakes were studied along an E-W-transect including Nam Co, Tangra Yumco, Taro Co and a small lake named TT Lake. In this study, a high-resolution sediment record from TT Lake (31.10° N, 86.57° E; 4,745 m asl) was investigated to reveal monsoonal dynamics and northern hemispheric climate oscillations over the past millennium. The 9 m deep TT Lake has a surface area of ~14,500 sqm and is located ~1,500 m west and 205 m above the recent western shoreline of Tangra Yumco. Terraces of former lake level highstands indicate that the TT Lake was part of the Tangra Yumco, but the timing remains unknown. Three sediment gravity cores, obtained in 2011 and 2012, were investigated with geochemical and sedimentological methods. By now a sedimentological core description, magnetic susceptibility data, radiocarbon age determinations, XRF scanning data, and grain size data are available. Further bio-geochemical as well as magnetostratigraphic analyses are in progress. The sedimentological description of the 50 to 89 cm long cores revealed predominantly stratified, silty to fine sandy sediments with gray, grayish-brown to black color. Several sand layers with a fining-upwards trend are distinguishable, whereas the topmost one has a thickness of 18 cm and occurs in all three cores. This layer might be caused by a mudflow which occurred between 2004 and 2009 as indicated by the analysis of satellite images. The trigger of this mudflow remains unclear, but might be associated with a meteorological event or seismic activity. Radiocarbon age determinations revealed that the record, below the sand layer, covers a timespan from AD ~1050 to AD ~1620. Grain sizes are getting coarser towards the top pointing to a falling lake level. Ti, K, Rb, and Fe quantities, indicators for minerogenic input into the lake, show higher values before AD ~1200 and low values thereafter. This sequence might correspond to the northern hemispheric climate oscillations of the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age as also documented in Nam Co (Frenzel et al., 2010, QI 218, 157-165; Günther et al., 2011, QI 236, 82-90.). These coinciding climatic variations in Nam Co and TT Lake might suggest a synchronous climatic pattern on the southern-central Tibetan Plateau during the past millennium.

Ahlborn, Marieke; Haberzettl, Torsten; Kasper, Thomas; Henkel, Karoline; Doberschütz, Stefan; Daut, Gerhard; Reinwarth, Bastian; Ju, Jianting; Wang, Junbo; Zhu, Liping; Mäusbacher, Roland

2013-04-01

448

La Niña-Induced Rainfall Events in East Java, Indonesia During the Past Millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The El Niño-Southern oscillation and associated changes in the Walker Circulation are major controls on variability in precipitation and convection across the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite the importance of these phenomena to Pacific, as well as global rainfall, there is considerable debate over whether radiative heating of the tropical Pacific Ocean enhances or reduces Walker Circulation strength and ENSO variability. Paleolimnological reconstructions from Peru (Moy et al., 2002, Nature) and the Galapagos (Conroy et al., 2008, Quat. Sci. Rev.) suggest large variations in precipitation and surface runoff driven by El Niño events during the past millennium at one of ENSO's centers of action in the eastern Pacific. However, these records are rectified signals in that they unable to record ENSO's other phase, La Niña, which results in anomalously high rainfall in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool region. To gain new perspective on the history of rainfall on the western end of the Walker Circulation over the last 1,200 years, we present a new record of runoff from the southwestern edge of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool. Our runoff record is constructed with grain size and magnetic susceptibility data from a sediment core from Lake Lading, located in East Java, Indonesia. This core consists of laminated sediments accumulating at 0.45 cm/yr, allowing us to reconstruct surface runoff at 2.2 yr resolution. Runoff events preserved in the well-dated core-top sediments correspond to high monthly rainfall anomalies in instrumental data, and all runoff events between 1950 and 2010 occur during La Niña years. Our data suggests highly variable surface runoff over the past millennium at the multi-decadal timescale, but indicates relatively weak variability at the multi-centennial band, i.e. the well-known Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). During the Medieval Climate Anomaly, when the Asian Summer Monsoon was strong, variations in surface runoff appear to be closely tied to strengthening and weakening of the Asian Monsoon, with a weaker Asian Monsoon corresponding to enhanced runoff in Lake Lading. During the Little Ice Age, solar forcing appears to have played a significant role in controlling runoff at Lake Lading, with enhanced solar output corresponding to increased runoff at our study site at the decadal timescale. A positive relationship between solar forcing and La Niña-driven surface runoff in Indonesia would contradict the "ocean dynamical thermostat" mechanism that has been observed in model simulations, as positive radiation forcing should strengthen the Bjerknes feedback and reduced ENSO variability, although this assumes that runoff events respond dominantly to interannual variability and La Niña events rather than general strengthening of the Walker Circulation during enhanced solar output. The variable relationship between solar forcing and runoff events in our record suggests that the controls on Indonesian precipitation variability are strongly sensitive to the mean climate state of the tropical Pacific, potentially due to the influence of the Asian Summer Monsoon on tropical Pacific zonal SST gradients and the Walker Circulation.

Lunghino, B.; Rodysill, J. R.; Russell, J. M.; Bijaksana, S.

2012-12-01

449

Persons, imposters, and monsters  

E-print Network

This dissertation is about person features, their representation and interpretation in natural language. I will argue that there are several ways in which person features can be represented and interpreted. Most importantly, ...

Podobryaev, Alexander

2014-01-01

450

Avoidant personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Without treatment, a person with avoidant personality disorder may lead a life of near or total isolation. They may go on to develop a second mental health disorder such as substance abuse or a mood disorder such as depression.

451

Schizotypal personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... have depression. A second personality disorder, such as paranoid personality disorder, is also common. Common signs of ... of risk, such as a family history of schizophrenia, may allow early diagnosis.

452

Family employment and child socioemotional behaviour: longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Levels of paid employment in two parent and lone parent families have increased in the UK but evidence of its impact on child socioemotional behaviour is limited and inconsistent. Methods We conducted a longitudinal analysis using the first four sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (9?months, 3 years, 5 years and 7?years) to investigate the influence of family employment trajectories in the early years on socioemotional behaviour at 7?years, unadjusted and adjusted for covariates. In addition, mothers’ employment was investigated separately. Results Children from families where no parent was employed for one or more sweeps were at a greater risk of socioemotional problem behaviour compared with those where a parent was continuously employed, even after adjustment for covariates. Children of mothers who were non-employed for one or more sweeps were at greater risk of problem behaviour compared with mothers who were employed at all sweeps. Adjustment for covariates fully attenuated the excess risk for children whose mothers had moved into employment by the time they were 7?years. In contrast, the elevated risk associated with continuous non-employment and a single transition out of employment was attenuated after adjustment for early covariates, fathers’ employment, household income and mothers’ psychological distress at 7?years, but remained significant. Conclusions Family and mothers’ employment were associated with a lower risk of problem behaviour for children in middle childhood, in part explained by sociodemographic characteristics of families and the apparent psychological and socioeconomic benefits of employment. Results for mothers’ transitions in or out of the labour market suggest that child problem behaviour is influenced by current status, over and above diverse earlier experiences of employment and non-employment. PMID:24889054

Hope, Steven; Pearce, Anna; Whitehead, Margaret; Law, Catherine

2014-01-01

453

Pan-continental droughts in North America over the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional droughts are common in North America, but pan-continental droughts extending across multiple regions, including 2012, are rare relative to single region events. We use the tree-ring derived North American Drought Atlas to investigate drought variability in four regions over the last millennium, focusing on pan-continental droughts. During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the Central Plains (CP), Southwest (SW), and Southeast (SE) experienced drier conditions and increased occurrence of droughts and the Northwest (NW) witnessed several extended pluvials. Enhanced MCA aridity in the SW and CP manifested as multi-decadal megadroughts. Notably, megadroughts in these regions differed in their timing and persistence, suggesting that they represent regional events influenced by local dynamics, rather than a unified, continental-scale phenomenon. There is no trend in pan-continental drought occurrence, defined as temporally synchronous droughts in three or more regions. SW+CP+SE droughts are the most common, occurring in 12% of all years and peaking in prevalence during the 12th and 13th centuries; patterns involving three other regions occur in about 8% of years. Positive values of the Southern Oscillation Index (La Nina conditions) are linked to SW+CP+SE and SW+CP+NW droughts, while CP+NW+SE droughts are associated with positive values of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. While relatively rare, pan-continental droughts are present in the paleo-record and are linked to defined modes of climate variability, implying the potential for seasonal predictability. Assuming stable drought teleconnections, these events will remain an important feature of future North American hydroclimate, possibly increasing in their severity in step with other expected hydroclimate responses to increased greenhouse gas forcing.

Cook, B.; Smerdon, J. E.; Seager, R.; Cook, E. R.

2013-12-01

454

Maternal employment and breast-feeding initiation: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Maternal employment rates have increased rapidly in recent years and little is known about how this influences whether women start breast feeding. We examined data from the Millennium Cohort Study to determine whether a mother's employment status (full-time, part-time, self-employed, on leave, not employed/student) and employment characteristics are related to breast-feeding initiation. This analysis comprised 14 830 white mothers from Britain and Ireland (6917 employed) with singleton babies, born from 2000 to 2002. Information was obtained on infant feeding history and mother's employment when the cohort child was 9 months old. We found that women employed full-time were less likely to initiate breast feeding than mothers who were not employed/students, after adjustment for confounding factors [adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89, 0.96]; however, there were no differences in breast-feeding initiation between mothers employed part-time, self-employed, or on leave and mothers who were not employed/students. Among employed mothers, those who returned to work within 4 months postpartum were less likely to start breast feeding than women who returned at 5 or 6 months [aRR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92, 0.99], and women who returned within the first 6 weeks were much less likely to start breast feeding [aRR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.77, 0.94]. Mothers returning for financial reasons were also less likely to initiate breast feeding [aRR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.93, 0.99] than those who returned for other reasons. Policies to increase breast feeding should address how both the time and circumstances of a mother's return to employment postpartum influence whether she decides to start breast feeding. PMID:17439534

Hawkins, Summer S; Griffiths, Lucy J; Dezateux, Carol; Law, Catherine

2007-05-01

455

The Thorium-Cycle: safe, abundant power for the new millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design has been developed for using accelerator-driven thorium fission to produce electric power. A thorium-cycle reactor works by electro-breeding. A pattern of thorium fuel rods is supported in a vessel containing molten lead. A beam of high-energy (1 GeV) protons is targeted in the center of the vessel, and produces a copious flux of energetic neutrons by spallation. The neutrons transmute the thorium nuclei two steps up the periodic table to U233, which fissions rapidly to produce thermal energy. The lead serves as the spallation target, the moderator, and the heat exchange medium to transfer heat from the core to steam exchangers above the core. The thorium cycle has several important advantages over current uranium-cycle fission technology: it is intrinsically stable it cannot melt down; it eats its own waste; it cannot produce bomb-grade isotopes; and there are sufficient thorium reserves to supply the entire Earth’s energy economy for the next millennium. The concept of a thorium-cycle power reactor was first proposed by Rubbia in 1995. Key problems in the original concept were the proton injector (15