Note: This page contains sample records for the topic millennium personality structure from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Structural change and poverty: Dynamic analysis of Bolivian Millennium trajectories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several poor countries are currently implementing Poverty Reduction Strategies, aiming to halve extreme poverty by 2015. Output structure matters for poverty reduction. Dynamic input-output simulation is used to represent the effects of different strategies on the structure of output growth and income distribution. Model simulation shows that the current Poverty Reduction Strategy may not achieve the Millennium Goal of halving

Jorge Buzaglo; Alvaro Calzadilla

2

Gulf Stream Density Structure and Transport during the Last Millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf Stream is a key component of the global oceanic circulation, acting as the northward surface compensation for meridional overturning as well as the western boundary of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Using a suite of 13 well-dated, high-resolution cores from the Straits of Florida, we reconstructed the density structure of the Florida Current (the portion of the Gulf Stream confined to the Straits) using benthic and planktonic foraminiferal ?18O. We found that the average cross-current density gradient and vertical current shear varied by ~10% during last millennium. Assuming a constant level of no motion at 850 m water depth, we estimate that Florida Current transport was 3 ± 1 Sv lower during the Little Ice Age (1200 - 1850 A. D.) than today and ~1000 A. D. The timing of reduced flow is consistent with anomalously cold conditions inferred from several paleoclimate archives, implicating Atlantic oceanic heat transport in centennial-scale climate variability of the last millennium. Lower volume transport occurred primarily in the 100-500 m depth range of the Florida Current, water which today originates in the wind-driven subtropical gyre. This suggests that low flow during the Little Ice Age was largely a function of weaker winds in the mid- to low-latitude North Atlantic.

Lund, D. C.; Lynch-Stieglitz, J.; Curry, W. B.

2005-12-01

3

MECHATRONICS AND SMART STRUCTURES: EMERGING ENGINEERING DISCIPLINES FOR THE NEXT MILLENNIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper tackles the impact that Mechatronics and Smart Structures disciplines have on the engineering education in the new millennium. Mechatronics is an emerging engineering area that will likely alter the fundamental nature of engineering education, in the disciplines of electrical and mechanical engineering. It can provide an academic model for developing multi-disciplinary programs within the engineering college departmental structure

Victor Giurgiutiu; Abdel-Moez E. Bayoumi; Craig A. Rogers; Greg Nall

2002-01-01

4

Mechatronics and smart structures: emerging engineering disciplines for the third millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tackles the impact that Mechatronics and Smart Structures disciplines have on the engineering education in the new millennium. Mechatronics is an emerging engineering area that will likely alter the fundamental nature of engineering education in the disciplines of electrical and mechanical engineering. It can provide an academic model for developing multi-disciplinary programs within the engineering college departmental structure

Victor Giurgiutiu; Abdel-Moez E. Bayoumi; Greg Nall

2002-01-01

5

Personality correlates of structural holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use survey network and personality profile data to explore the idea that personality varies systematically with structural holes. We draw two conclusions from the analysis: (1) Personality does vary with structural holes. The association is concentrated in a few items, but those few personality items describe three-fourths of the variance in network constraint. (2) The association is consistent with

Ronald S. Burt; Joseph E. Jannotta; James T. Mahoney

1998-01-01

6

Gulf Stream Density Structure and Transport during the Last Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf Stream is a key component of the global oceanic circulation, acting as the northward surface compensation for meridional overturning as well as the western boundary of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Using a suite of 13 well-dated, high-resolution cores from the Straits of Florida, we reconstructed the density structure of the Florida Current (the portion of the Gulf

D. C. Lund; J. Lynch-Stieglitz; W. B. Curry

2005-01-01

7

STING Millennium: a web-based suite of programs for comprehensive and simultaneous analysis of protein structure and sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

STING Millennium Suite (SMS) is a new web-based suite of programs and databases providing visuali- zation and a complex analysis of molecular sequence and structure for the data deposited at the Protein Data Bank (PDB). SMS operates with a collection of both publicly available data (PDB, HSSP, Prosite) and its own data (contacts, interface contacts, surface accessibility). Biologists find SMS

Goran Neshich; Roberto C. Togawa; Adauto L. Mancini; Paula R. Kuser; Michel E. B. Yamagishi; Georgios Joannis Pappas Jr.; Wellington V. Torres; Tharsis Fonseca E Campos; Leonardo L. Ferreira; Fabio M. Luna; Adilton G. Oliveira; Ronald T. Miura; Marcus K. Inoue; Luiz G. Horita; Dimas F. De Souza; Fabiana Dominiquini; Alexandre Alvaro; Cleber S. Lima; Fabio O. Ogawa; Gabriel B. Gomes; Juliana F. Palandrani; Gabriela F. Dos Santos; Esther M. De Freitas; Amanda R. Mattiuz; Ivan C. Costa; Celso L. De Almeida; Savio Souza; Christian Baudet; Roberto H. Higa

2003-01-01

8

Millennium maskmaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate of change within the microelectronics industry is not only continuing but accelerating, driven by both technical and economic requirements. Nowhere is this more visible than in the requirements for smaller and smaller geometries. 1999 will see full production of devices using 0.18 micrometers technology in Europe with 0.15 micrometers being introduced during the first years of the new Millennium; both technologies being supported by 'existing' 248nm lithography. The advent of routine subwavelength wafer patterning brings a number of major challenges for mask makers. This paper reviews the changes in mask technologies, production techniques and attitudes which will have to be adopted by maskshops over the next twelve months to meet these very real demands within Europe as the Millennium arrives.

Hourd, Andrew C.

1999-04-01

9

Millennium Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Affiliated with the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, the Transportation Research Board's (TRB) "mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation by stimulating and conducting research, facilitating the dissemination of information, and encouraging the implementation of research results." Drawing on contributions from thousands of engineers and transportation researchers, these specially selected Millennium Papers are intended give an up-to-date representation of the kind of research currently conducted at the TRB (which is also responsible for the TRIS Database discussed in the January 21, 2000 Scout Report). The numerous papers supplied here (full-text, .pdf) may be selected by title, author, or committee. Examples of a few titles include "Asphalt Technology," "Engineering Geology," and "Transportation in the New Millennium." This site holds an interesting and varied collection of papers for engineers and transportation researchers.

10

Unexpected variability of millennium green: structural color of Japanese jewel beetle resulted from thermosensitive porous organic multilayer.  

PubMed

The Japanese jewel beetle (Chrysochroa fulgidissima) is one of the beautiful beetles showing metallic green color that is kept over a millennium. This is a typical structural color resulting from a multilayer, frequently seen in insects. It was found that the elytra unexpectedly change the color from original green to blue or red by heating at 200 degrees C or by immersing in bromoform for over 1 month. This variability implies that the multilayer consists of a thermosensitive porous material. The color change induced by heating was accompanied with elytron shrinkage; the sensitivity of the reflection peak was -0.6 nm/ degrees C in 30-65 degrees C. The porous structure was determined by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy; the averaged pore radius was around 0.25-0.30 nm, which is close to the size of the bromoform molecule. These features prove the thermosensitivity and porous structure of the multilayer although in unusual environments. PMID:17626258

Adachi, Eiki

2007-09-01

11

Person-Centered Planning for the Millennium: We're Old Enough To Remember When PCP Was Just a Drug.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews core values which form the basis for person-centered planning. Looking to the future, the authors then examine key system and skill problems, suggesting solutions where possible. Concludes that more emphasis must be paid to specific traits of individual clients, and that shifts in power relationships must occur in keeping with the model's…

Marrone, Joe; Hoff, David; Helm, David T.

1997-01-01

12

The Factor Structure of Greek Personality Adjectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality descriptors—3,302 adjectives—were extracted from a dictionary of the modern Greek language. Those terms with the highest frequency were administered to large samples in Greece to test the universality of the Big-Five dimensions of personality in comparison to alternative models. One- and 2-factor structures were the most stable across variable selections and subsamples and replicated such structures found in previous

Gerard Saucier; Stelios Georgiades; Ioannis Tsaousis; Lewis R. Goldberg

2005-01-01

13

LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES AND PERSONAL SAFETY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with a number of topics related to the lightning protection of structures and personal safety, as outlined next. Lightning incidence to areas and structures is discussed. A review of lightning protective systems of structures, whose function is to intercept lightning and safely direct its current to ground, is given. Small open shelters commonly found on golf

Vladimir A. Rakov

2000-01-01

14

United Nations Millennium Declaration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UN has posted the End of Millennium Summit Final Declaration signed by over 150 heads of state who attended the Millennium Summit earlier this month in New York (see the September 5, 2000 Scout Report for the Social Sciences). The document articulates 32 points, expressing the goals of the UN for peace and prosperity in the coming century. Among the more substantive statements are a commitment to "minimize the adverse effects of United Nations economic sanctions on innocent populations, subjecting such sanctions regimes to regular reviews" and a promise to give full support to the political and institutional structures of emerging democracies in Africa. Among the most ambitious goals -- and one quite possibly beyond the powers of the current UN to realize -- is the goal "to halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of the world's people whose income is less than one dollar a day and the proportion of people who suffer from hunger; and also, by the same date, to halve the proportion of people who are unable to reach, or to afford, safe drinking water."

2000-01-01

15

Personality in middle childhood: A hierarchical structure and longitudinal connections with personality in late adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the structure of personality in middle childhood, while advancing, is still in the early stages of development. In this study, we employed a group of 1563 twins to elucidate the hierarchical structure of personality in middle childhood and provide connections to established personality traits in adult populations. Our results provide evidence for a higher-order structure of personality in

Jennifer L. Tackett; Robert F. Krueger; William G. Iacono; Matt McGue

2008-01-01

16

Personality Structure, Group Composition, and Group Functioning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three-man groups, homogeneous in personality structure, participated in a stock market simulation over 10 sessions. It was hypothesized that more abstract individuals (i.e., individuals who perceive a more multi-faceted world and who think in terms of alt...

B. W. Tuckman

1964-01-01

17

Ferrochelatase at the millennium: structures, mechanisms and [2Fe-2S] clusters.  

PubMed

Ferrochelatase (E.C. 4.99.1.1, protoheme ferrolyase) catalyzes the insertion of ferrous iron into protoporphyrin IX to form protoheme (heme). In the past 2 years, the crystal structures of ferrochelatases from the bacterium Bacillus subtilis and human have been determined. These structures along with years of biophysical and kinetic studies have led to a better understanding of the catalytic mechanism of ferrochelatase. At present, the complete DNA sequences of 45 ferrochelatases from procaryotes and eucaryotes are available. These sequences along with direct protein studies reveal that ferrochelatases, while related, vary significantly in amino acid sequence, molecular size, subunit composition, solubility, and the presence or absence of nitric-oxide-sensitive [2Fe-2S] cluster. PMID:11215517

Dailey, H A; Dailey, T A; Wu, C K; Medlock, A E; Wang, K F; Rose, J P; Wang, B C

2000-12-01

18

Personalization of Structured Queries with Personal and Collaborative Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underlying idea of personalized searches is that different people may find different things relevant; therefore, they may expect different answers to the same query. One of the primary ways to personalize a search is query personalization. This is the process of dynamically enhancing a query with related preferences stored in a user profile with the purpose of providing more

Georgia Koutrika

19

The Galactic Millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The celebration of the end of the Galaxy's first millennium, which probably will not be celebrated here on Earth, will be a quiet affair, with a notable lack of fireworks. This Essay is one of a series of invited contributions which will appear in the PASP throughout the year 2000 to mark the upcoming millennium. (Eds.)

Hodge, Paul

2000-08-01

20

New Millennium EO3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The New Millennium Program (NMP) is a NASA technology program that focuses on the validation of advanced spacecraft and instrumentation technologies in space. This program specifically seeks technologies that could significantly benefit future space and E...

F. K. Li

2000-01-01

21

Schizoid and Narcissistic Features in Personality Structure Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examines the relationship between schizoid and narcissistic personality features. While the schizoid personality disorder seems widely accepted as a diagnostic category, the utility of the narcissistic personality disorder construct is under discussion. We regard schizoidism as a primary, structural disturbance of interaction with the world, whereas narcissism appears as a secondary phenomenon of self-organization and self-regulation. This

Franziska Geiser; Klaus Lieberz

2000-01-01

22

Poised for the Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents advice from five school administrators on how schools are meeting facility and business challenges in the new millennium. Issues discussed concern power needs, the Y2K computer problem, the explosion of new educational technology, school security, educational finance, and building deterioration. (GR)|

Agron, Joe, Ed.

1999-01-01

23

The Blue Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through much of the current millennium, the oceans connected the world and shaped the global economy. The past few decades saw a surge of progress in air travel, and outer space began to occupy the dreams of mankind. With the end of the Cold War, however, save for an expected expansion of jet transport and satellites for communication and entertainment,

Takeo Kondo; Tadashi Matsunaga; Joseph Vadus; Patrick Takahashi

1998-01-01

24

Poised for the Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents advice from five school administrators on how schools are meeting facility and business challenges in the new millennium. Issues discussed concern power needs, the Y2K computer problem, the explosion of new educational technology, school security, educational finance, and building deterioration. (GR)

Agron, Joe, Ed.

1999-01-01

25

Passport to the Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a year-long social studies program called "Passport to the Millennium." Students "travel" around the world learning about the history, geography, culture, and economy of different countries. The program is appropriate for students in elementary to secondary grades. Includes a sample lesson plan. (CMK)

Yost, Mary Grace

2001-01-01

26

Passport to the Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a year-long social studies program called "Passport to the Millennium." Students "travel" around the world learning about the history, geography, culture, and economy of different countries. The program is appropriate for students in elementary to secondary grades. Includes a sample lesson plan. (CMK)|

Yost, Mary Grace

2001-01-01

27

The Mars Millennium Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The countdown to a new century provides a unique opportunity to engage America's youth in charting a course for the future. The Mars Millennium Project challenges students across the nation to design a community yet to be imagined for the planet Mars. This interdisciplinary learning project aims to encourage K-12 students in classrooms and youth…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

28

Dysfunctional Cognitions in Personality Pathology: The Structure and Validity of the Personality Belief Questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Background This study examines the structure of the Personality Belief Questionnaire (PBQ), a self-report instrument designed to assess dysfunctional beliefs associated with personality pathology, as proposed by the cognitive theory of personality dysfunction. Methods The PBQ was examined using exploratory factor analysis with responses from 438 depressed outpatients, and confirmatory factor analysis with responses from 683 treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatients. All participants were assessed for personality disorder using a standard clinical interview. The validity of the resulting factor structure was assessed in the combined sample (N=1121) by examining PBQ scores for patients with and without personality disorder diagnoses. Results Exploratory and confirmatory analyses converged to indicate that the PBQ is best described by 7 empirically identified factors: 6 assess dysfunctional beliefs associated with forms of personality pathology recognized in DSM-IV. Validity analyses revealed that those diagnosed with a personality disorder evidenced a higher average score on all factors, relative to those without these disorders. Subsets of patients diagnosed with specific DSM-IV personality disorders scored higher, on average, on the factor associated with their respective diagnosis, relative to all other factors. Conclusions The pattern of results has implications for the conceptualization of personality pathology. To our knowledge, no formal diagnostic or assessment system has yet systematically incorporated the role of dysfunctional beliefs into its description of personality pathology. The identification of dysfunctional beliefs may not only aid in case conceptualization, but may provide unique targets for psychological treatment. Recommendations for future personality pathology assessment systems are provided.

Fournier, Jay C.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Beck, Aaron T.

2013-01-01

29

The African Millennium Villages  

PubMed Central

We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families.

Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

2007-01-01

30

The Structuring of Personal Example Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper elaborates the notion of a personal example space as the set of mathematical objects and construction techniques that a learner has access to as examples of a concept while working on a given task. This is different from the conventional space of examples that is represented by the worked examples and exercises in textbooks. We refer…

Sinclair, Nathalie; Watson, Anne; Zazkis, Rina; Mason, John

2011-01-01

31

Identifying Psychopathy Subtypes on the Basis of Personality Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of criminal psychopaths on the basis of differences in personality structure. Participants included 96 male prisoners diagnosed as psychopathic, using the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). Personality was assessed using the brief form of the Multidimensional…

Hicks, Brian M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Krueger, Robert F.; Newman, Joseph P.

2004-01-01

32

[Treatment procrastination time in breast cancer and personality structure].  

PubMed

Sixty patients with mammary cancer were studied in order to determine whether a connection between the tendency to delay medical treatment and a neurotic personality structure exists. The results are based on different personality factors that were investigated by means of the 16-PF test by Cattell. It could be shown that for patients who had delayed treatment (D2) the personality traits "limited inner tension" and "slightly inhibited" were present. On the other hand patients who had not delayed treatment (K1) displayed the personality traits "higher inner tension" and "free of inhibitions". PMID:392383

Lütgemeier, I; Rössler, J; Lütgemeier, J; Hörst, M

1979-08-01

33

Personality and the latent structure of PTSD comorbidity  

PubMed Central

This study examined the structure of PTSD comorbidity and its relationship to personality in a sample of 214 veterans using data from diagnostic interviews and the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire-Brief Form (MPQ-BF; Patrick, Curtin, & Tellegen, 2002). Confirmatory factor analyses supported a three factor model composed of Externalizing, Fear and Distress factors. Analyses that examined the location of borderline personality disorder revealed significant cross-loadings for this disorder on both Externalizing and Distress. Structural equation models showed trait negative emotionality to be significantly related to all three comorbidity factors whereas positive emotionality and constraint evidenced specific associations with Distress and Externalizing, respectively. These results shed new light on the location of borderline personality disorder within the internalizing/externalizing model and clarify the relative influence of broad dimensions of personality on patterns of comorbidity.

Miller, Mark W.; Wolf, Erika J.

2012-01-01

34

Personality and the latent structure of PTSD comorbidity.  

PubMed

This study examined the structure of PTSD comorbidity and its relationship to personality in a sample of 214 veterans using data from diagnostic interviews and the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire-Brief Form (MPQ-BF; Patrick, Curtin, & Tellegen, 2002). Confirmatory factor analyses supported a three factor model composed of Externalizing, Fear and Distress factors. Analyses that examined the location of borderline personality disorder revealed significant cross-loadings for this disorder on both Externalizing and Distress. Structural equation models showed trait negative emotionality to be significantly related to all three comorbidity factors whereas positive emotionality and constraint evidenced specific associations with Distress and Externalizing, respectively. These results shed new light on the location of borderline personality disorder within the internalizing/externalizing model and clarify the relative influence of broad dimensions of personality on patterns of comorbidity. PMID:22480716

Miller, Mark W; Wolf, Erika J; Reardon, Annemarie; Greene, Ashley; Ofrat, Shani; McInerney, Scott

2012-03-14

35

Personality Structure, Instructional Outcomes, and Instructional Preference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four instructional treatments differing in structure and student responsibility were used with 60 abstract-thinking and 60 concrete-thinking students. A differentiated outcomes hypothesis is offered to account for the findings. (Authors)

Tuckman, Bruce W.; Orefice, Dominick S.

1973-01-01

36

The five-factor personality structure of dissociative experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between dissociative experiences and the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of Personality was investigated in a sample of 858 college undergraduates. The NEO-PI-R [Costa Jr., P.T., & McCrae, R.R. (1992). The revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R and NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI)) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.] was used to examine the factor structure of dissociative experiences as measured

Thomas R. Kwapil; Michael J. Wrobel; Cameron A. Pope

2002-01-01

37

Personality Assessment Based on the Five-factor Model of Personality Structure in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose Several characteristic personality types have been reported for glaucoma patients in previous studies. However, none of the previous studies used a common structural theory of personality. In this study, we conducted a multicenter cross-sectional case–control study using the recently established five-factor model of personality structure. Methods Personality was evaluated using the Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), which is

Fumihiko Mabuchi; Kimio Yoshimura; Kenji Kashiwagi; Kunihiko Shioe; Shigenobu Kanba; Hiroyuki Iijima; Shigeo Tsukahara

2005-01-01

38

The Hierarchical Structure of DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits  

PubMed Central

A multidimensional trait system has been proposed for representing personality disorder (PD) features in DSM-5 to address problematic classification issues such as comorbidity. In this model, which may also assist in providing scaffolding for the underlying structure of major forms of psychopathology more generally, 25 primary traits are organized by 5 higher order dimensions: Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism. We examined a) the generalizability of the structure proposed for DSM-5 PD traits and b) the potential for an integrative hierarchy based upon DSM-5 PD traits to represent the dimensions scaffolding psychopathology more generally. A large sample of student participants (N=2,461) completed the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, which operationalizes the DSM-5 traits. Exploratory factor analysis replicated the initially reported five-factor structure as indicated by high factor congruencies. The two-, three-, and four- factor solutions estimated in the hierarchy of the DSM-5 traits bear close resemblance to existing models of common mental disorders, temperament, and personality pathology. Thus, beyond the description of individual differences in personality disorder, the trait dimensions might provide a framework for the metastructure of psychopathology in the DSM-5 and the integration of a number of ostensibly competing models of personality trait covariation.

Wright, Aidan G.C.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Markon, Kristian E.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Krueger, Robert F.

2012-01-01

39

Coping with Unemployment: Personality, Role Demands, and Time Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Time structure has been found to be an important coping mechanism for dealing with the negative effects of unemployment on psychological well-being. This study extends the literature by investigating personality (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and proactivity) and role demands (marital status, being the only…

Van Hoye, Greet; Lootens, Hanne

2013-01-01

40

Factor structure of the basic personality inventory with incarcerated offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The item and scale factor structure of the Basic Personality Inventory (BPI) was examined in a sample of 486 offenders incarcerated for violent and sexual crimes. Separate principal-component analyses of the items for each of the 11 clinical scales, critical item scale, and social desirability scale indicated a one-dimensional factor solution for all scales except Depression and Persecutory Ideation. The

Daryl G. Kroner; John R. Reddon

1996-01-01

41

Personality Structure of Batterers and Nonbatterers: Qualitative and Quantitative Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was conducted to compare sufficiently large samples of male batterers (N=99) and help-seeking nonbatterers (N=71) on factor structure of the eight personality scales on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) and MCMI profiles within similar subgroup types. The groups were matched on age, education range, marital status, and…

Hamberger, L. Kevin; Hastings, James E.

42

The Structural Relationships of Parenting Style, Creative Personality, and Loneliness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of the relationships between children's reports of their mother's and father's parenting style (leniency and acceptance), teacher's reports of children's creative personality, and teacher's reports of children's loneliness in school in a sample of South Korean sixth graders (N = 421). Using structural equation modeling, the results showed that parenting styles that

Sungtaek Lim; Joshua Smith

2008-01-01

43

The Wellbeing of the Self's Personality: A Structural Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Leaning on the formal faceted definition of wellbeing (Levy and Guttman (1975) "Social Indicators Research," 2, 361-388), a mapping sentence is provided for defining the universe of observations of the wellbeing of the self-expanding on personality aspects. The structure of the interrelationships among the variables of the expanded…

Levy, Shlomit; Sabbagh, Clara

2008-01-01

44

Impact of Follower Personality and Organizational Structure on Transformational Leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses an experimental design to look at the effects of followers' openness to experience, one of the Big Five personality traits and an organic organizational structure (operationalized as low configuration and large span of control) on transformational leadership. The five factors of transformational leadership measured are idealized influence (attributed), idealized influence (behavioural), inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized

Haritha Vashti Kandalla; Venkat R. Krishnan

2004-01-01

45

The Wellbeing of the Self's Personality: A Structural Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leaning on the formal faceted definition of wellbeing (Levy and Guttman (1975) "Social Indicators Research," 2, 361-388), a mapping sentence is provided for defining the universe of observations of the wellbeing of the self-expanding on personality aspects. The structure of the interrelationships among the variables of the expanded…

Levy, Shlomit; Sabbagh, Clara

2008-01-01

46

The Factor Structure of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first study, we administered the 40-item Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988) to 843 female and 843 male college students, most of whom were Euro-American, to comprehensively assess the NPI factor structure using confirmatory factor analysis. Initial exploratory common factor analyses (N = 724) revealed a 2-factor model (Leadership\\/Authority and Exhibitionism\\/Entitlement). Subsequently, we used confirmatory factor

Nida Corry; Rebecca Davis Merritt; Sylvie Mrug; Barbara Pamp

2008-01-01

47

Item Selection, Evaluation, and Simple Structure in Personality Data  

PubMed Central

We report an investigation of the genesis and interpretation of simple structure in personality data using two very different self-reported data sets. The first consists of a set of relatively unselected lexical descriptors, whereas the second is based on responses to a carefully constructed instrument. In both data sets, we explore the degree of simple structure by comparing factor solutions to solutions from simulated data constructed to have either strong or weak simple structure. The analysis demonstrates that there is little evidence of simple structure in the unselected items, and a moderate degree among the selected items. In both instruments, however, much of the simple structure that could be observed originated in a strong dimension of positive vs. negative evaluation.

Pettersson, Erik; Turkheimer, Eric

2010-01-01

48

Make your own millennium sundial.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A home-made sundial offers a unique blend of design, construction and mathematical challenge. Readers armed with no more than a calculator and toolbox may wish to celebrate the millennium by constructing a sundial for their school, college or home. The design and construction of two dials is detailed in this article.

Kibble, B.

1999-05-01

49

Personalization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how a typical high school in Huntington Beach, California, curbed disruptive student behavior by personalizing the school experience for "problem" students. Through mostly volunteer efforts, an adopt-a-kid program was initiated that matched kids' learning styles to adults' personality styles and resulted in fewer suspensions and…

Shore, Rebecca Martin

1996-01-01

50

The structure of semantic person memory: evidence from semantic priming in person recognition.  

PubMed

This paper reviews research on the structure of semantic person memory as examined with semantic priming. In this experimental paradigm, a familiarity decision on a target face or written name is usually faster when it is preceded by a related as compared to an unrelated prime. This effect has been shown to be relatively short lived and susceptible to interfering items. Moreover, semantic priming can cross stimulus domains, such that a written name can prime a target face and vice versa. However, it remains controversial whether representations of people are stored in associative networks based on co-occurrence, or in more abstract semantic categories. In line with prominent cognitive models of face recognition, which explain semantic priming by shared semantic information between prime and target, recent research demonstrated that priming could be obtained from purely categorically related, non-associated prime/target pairs. Although strategic processes, such as expectancy and retrospective matching likely contribute, there is also evidence for a non-strategic contribution to priming, presumably related to spreading activation. Finally, a semantic priming effect has been demonstrated in the N400 event-related potential (ERP) component, which may reflect facilitated access to semantic information. It is concluded that categorical relatedness is one organizing principle of semantic person memory. PMID:21988391

Wiese, Holger

2011-06-15

51

Paranoid Personality Has a Dimensional Latent Structure: Taxometric Analyses of Community and Clinical Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although paranoid personality is one of the most commonly diagnosed personality disorders and is associated with numerous negative life consequences, relatively little is known about the structural properties of this condition. This study examines whether paranoid personality traits represent a latent dimension or a discrete class (i.e., taxon). In Study 1, the authors conducted taxometric analyses of paranoid personality disorder

John F. Edens; David K. Marcus; Leslie C. Morey

2009-01-01

52

Interplay Between Personal Goals and Classroom Goal Structures in Predicting Student Outcomes: A Multilevel Analysis of Person–Context Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined cross-level interactions between personal goals and classroom goal structures, as well as their additive contributions to predicting math achievement, engagement, interest, effort withdrawal, and avoidance coping, using a sample of 3,943 Grade 5 students from 130 classrooms. Results of hierarchical linear modeling showed that classroom performance goal structures exacerbated (a) the negative association between personal performance-avoidance goals

Shun Lau; Youyan Nie

2008-01-01

53

[Health, equity, and the Millennium Development Goals].  

PubMed

In September 2000 representatives of 189 countries met for the Millennium Summit, which the United Nations convened in New York City, and adopted the declaration that provided the basis for formulating the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The eight goals are part of a long series of initiatives that governments, the United Nations system, and international financial institutions have undertaken to reduce world poverty. Three of the eight goals deal with health, so the health sector will be responsible for implementing, monitoring, and evaluating measures proposed to meet targets that have been formulated: to reduce by two-thirds the mortality rate in children under 5 years of age between 1990 and 2015; to reduce by three-quarters the maternal mortality rate between 1990 and 2015; and to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by the year 2015, as well as to halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria, tuberculosis, and other major diseases. The health sector must also work with other parties to achieve targets connected with two other of the goals: to improve access to affordable essential drugs, and to reduce the proportion of persons who do not have safe drinking water. Adopting a strategy focused on the most vulnerable groups-ones concentrated in locations and populations with the greatest social exclusion-would make possible the largest total reduction in deaths among children, thus reaching the proposed target as well as producing greater equity. In the Region of the Americas the principal challenges in meeting the MDGs are: improving and harmonizing health information systems; designing health programs related to the MDGs that bring together the set of services and interventions that have the greatest impact, according to the special characteristics of the populations who are intended to be the beneficiaries; strengthening the political will to support the MDGs; and guaranteeing funding for the measures undertaken to attain the MDGs. PMID:15272989

Torres, Cristina; Mújica, Oscar J

2004-06-01

54

A Neural Network Model of the Structure and Dynamics of Human Personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a neural network model that aims to bridge the historical gap between dynamic and structural approaches to personality. The model integrates work on the structure of the trait lexicon, the neurobiology of personality, temperament, goal-based models of personality, and an evolutionary analysis of motives. It is organized in terms of two overarching motivational systems, an approach and an

Stephen J. Read; Brian M. Monroe; Aaron L. Brownstein; Yu Yang; Gurveen Chopra; Lynn C. Miller

2010-01-01

55

Empathy in the Structure of Personality of Special Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Empathy is a personality attribute involving the capacity to respond emotionally, cognitively, and communicatively to other persons without loss of objectivity and identity. Empathy is linked with helping behavior and with more effective professional functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate relations between empathy and personality

Klis, Maria; Kossewska, Joanna

56

NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of NASA's New Millennium Program is to validate advanced technologies in space and thus lower the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on spacecraft of the future. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's

A. B. Chmielewski; R. M. Nelson; C. M. Stevens; S. Chien; A. Davies; W. Wyman

2004-01-01

57

Public Libraries and the Millennium Development Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public libraries can make a major contribution to the achievement of the eight United Nations Millennium Development Goals. This paper examines actual and potential uses highlighting the importance of libraries to community development, and provides some examples, such as mobile libraries in slums and reading tents, where libraries are already assisting with Millennium Development Goals being achieved.

Ellen Forsyth

2005-01-01

58

The relationship between self-leadership and personality : A comparison of hierarchical factor structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between self-leadership and personality through an analysis and comparison of hierarchical factor structures. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to examine several competing models combining the hierarchical factor structures of self-leadership and personality. Model fit increased significantly through a progression of models that reflected increasingly greater distinction between self-leadership skill dimensions and key personality traits.

Jeffery D. Houghton; T. W. Bonham; Christopher P. Neck; Kusum Singh

2004-01-01

59

Ethnicity and Population Structure in Personal Naming Networks  

PubMed Central

Personal naming practices exist in all human groups and are far from random. Rather, they continue to reflect social norms and ethno-cultural customs that have developed over generations. As a consequence, contemporary name frequency distributions retain distinct geographic, social and ethno-cultural patterning that can be exploited to understand population structure in human biology, public health and social science. Previous attempts to detect and delineate such structure in large populations have entailed extensive empirical analysis of naming conventions in different parts of the world without seeking any general or automated methods of population classification by ethno-cultural origin. Here we show how ‘naming networks’, constructed from forename-surname pairs of a large sample of the contemporary human population in 17 countries, provide a valuable representation of cultural, ethnic and linguistic population structure around the world. This innovative approach enriches and adds value to automated population classification through conventional national data sources such as telephone directories and electoral registers. The method identifies clear social and ethno-cultural clusters in such naming networks that extend far beyond the geographic areas in which particular names originated, and that are preserved even after international migration. Moreover, one of the most striking findings of this approach is that these clusters simply ‘emerge’ from the aggregation of millions of individual decisions on parental naming practices for their children, without any prior knowledge introduced by the researcher. Our probabilistic approach to community assignment, both at city level as well as at a global scale, helps to reveal the degree of isolation, integration or overlap between human populations in our rapidly globalising world. As such, this work has important implications for research in population genetics, public health, and social science adding new understandings of migration, identity, integration and social interaction across the world.

Mateos, Pablo; Longley, Paul A.; O'Sullivan, David

2011-01-01

60

Cosmology at the millennium  

SciTech Connect

One hundred years ago we did not know how stars generate energy, the age of the Universe was thought to be only millions of years, and our Milky Way galaxy was the only galaxy known. Today, we know that we live in an evolving and expanding universe comprising billions of galaxies, all held together by dark matter. With the hot big-bang model we can trace the evolution of the Universe from the hot soup of quarks and leptons that existed a fraction of a second after the beginning, to the formation of galaxies a few billion years later, and finally to the Universe we see today 13 billion years after the big bang, with its clusters of galaxies, superclusters, voids, and great walls. The attractive force of gravity acting on tiny primeval inhomogeneities in the distribution of matter gave rise to all the structure seen today. A paradigm based upon deep connections between cosmology and elementary particle physics{emdash}inflation+cold dark matter{emdash}holds the promise of extending our understanding to an even more fundamental level and much earlier times, as well as shedding light on the unification of the forces and particles of Nature. As we enter the 21st century, a flood of observations is testing this paradigm. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

Turner, M.S. [Department of Astronomy Astrophysics and Department of Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637-1433 (United States)]|[NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500 (United States); Tyson, J.A. [Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)

1999-03-01

61

Delineating the Structure of Normal and Abnormal Personality: An Integrative Hierarchical Approach  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence indicates that normal and abnormal personality can be treated within a single structural framework. However, identification of a single integrated structure of normal and abnormal personality has remained elusive. Here, a constructive replication approach was used to delineate an integrative hierarchical account of the structure of normal and abnormal personality. This hierarchical structure, which integrates many Big Trait models proposed in the literature, replicated across a meta-analysis as well as an empirical study, and across samples of participants as well as measures. The proposed structure resembles previously suggested accounts of personality hierarchy and provides insight into the nature of personality hierarchy more generally. Potential directions for future research on personality and psychopathology are discussed.

Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.; Watson, David

2008-01-01

62

Personality factors, family structure, and sex of drawn figure on the Draw-A-Person Test.  

PubMed

One hundred seventy-four youthful psychiatric inpatients were given the Draw-A-Person Test (DAP) as part of an assessment battery. Sex of person drawn was compared to subject's sex, Achenbach aggression and delinquency scores, and scores on Children's Inventory of Anger and Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale. The sex of the person drawn was also compared to family composition, specifically whether or not the child came from an intact family with both a male and female parent or role model. Results support drawing of a same-sexed individual as normative, regardless of age or sex. Adolescent girls and young boys were the only groups that differed significantly from this norm. Personality measures and family composition were not significantly related to the tendency to draw same versus opposite sex. PMID:2231255

Dickson, J M; Saylor, C F; Finch, A J

1990-01-01

63

Structural Convergence of Mood and Personality: Evidence for Old and New Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using factor analytic techniques, extensively researched 2-dimensional models of mood structure (Watson & Tellegen, 1985) and Personality structure (H. J. Eysenck & Eysenck, 1985) were examined for their degree of convergence. As hypothesized, it was shown that extraversion and positive affect share a common dimension in combined mood–personality space and that neuroticism and negative affect together define the 2nd dimension

Gregory J. Meyer; John R. Shack

1989-01-01

64

Drugs for a new millennium.  

PubMed Central

A millennium, a century, even a decade is a long time-frame for speculation about anything. Advances in biomedical research in the last few decades have been so extraordinary and escalating at an ever-accelerating pace that any prophecy is a risky proposition. However, it is possible to divine the big, unanswered questions and envisage ways in which they might reasonably be approached in the next few decades, a task which I will try to essay. So many drugs treat so many different medical conditions that a detailed and comprehensive coverage would probably be tiresome. Instead, I will address certain broad themes and diseases that offer both immense challenges and great potential for advances. Rather than review detailed experimental issues, I will confine myself to the 'big picture' issues, providing examples of specific research only in a few instances drawing largely from areas I know best.

Snyder, S H

1999-01-01

65

Personal, Role, Structural, Alternative and Affective Correlates of Organizational Commitment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The generalizability of the correlates of organizational commitment is examined using two definitions of commitment. Personal, job, organizational, and labor market variables are examined in relation to organizational commitment and employee turnover. Res...

W. H. Mobley K. K. Hwang

1982-01-01

66

The Millennium Run Observatory: first light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of galaxy evolution aim to capture our current understanding as well as to make predictions for testing by future experiments. Simulations and observations are often compared in an indirect fashion: physical quantities are estimated from the observational data and compared to models. However, many applications can benefit from a more direct approach, where the observing process is also simulated, so that the models are seen fully from the observer's perspective. To facilitate this, we have developed the Millennium Run Observatory (MRObs), a theoretical virtual observatory which uses virtual telescopes to `observe' semi-analytic galaxy formation simulations based on the suite of Millennium Run (MR) dark matter simulations. The MRObs produces data that can be processed and analysed using the standard observational software packages developed for real observations. At present, we produce images in 40 filters covering the rest-frame ultraviolet to infrared for two stellar population synthesis models, for three different models of absorption by the intergalactic medium, and in two cosmologies (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe year 1 and 7). Galaxy distributions for a large number of mock light cones can be `observed' using models of major ground- and space-based telescopes. The data include light cone catalogues linked to structural properties of galaxies, pre-observation model images, mock telescope images and Source Extractor products that can all be traced back to the higher level dark matter, semi-analytic galaxy and light cone catalogues available in the MR data base. Here, we describe our methods and announce a first public release of simulated observations that emulate a large number of extragalactic surveys [e.g. Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHT-LS), Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), GOODS/Early Release Science (ERS), Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF)]. The MRObs browser, an online tool, further facilitates exploration of the simulated data. We demonstrate the benefits of a direct approach through a number of example applications: (1) deep galaxy number counts in the CANDELS survey; (2) observed properties of galaxy clusters; (3) structural parameters of galaxies; and (4) identification of dropout galaxies. The MRObs enhances the range of questions that can be asked of semi-analytic models, allowing observers and theorists to work towards each other with virtually complete freedom of where to meet.

Overzier, R.; Lemson, G.; Angulo, R. E.; Bertin, E.; Blaizot, J.; Henriques, B. M. B.; Marleau, G.-D.; White, S. D. M.

2013-01-01

67

The Millennium Project: a plan for meeting the Millennium Development Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This year marks a pivotal moment in international efforts to fight extreme poverty. During the United Nations (UN) Millennium Summit in 2000, 147 heads of state gathered and adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, panel 1) to address extreme poverty in its many dimensions—income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter, and exclusion—while promoting education, gender equality, and environmental sustainability,

J D Sachs; J W McArthur

2005-01-01

68

Volumetric structural brain abnormalities in men with schizophrenia or antisocial personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain abnormalities are found in association with antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia, the two mental disorders most implicated in violent behaviour. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate the whole brain, cerebellum, temporal lobe, lateral ventricles, caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala and the prefrontal, pre-motor, sensorimotor, occipito-parietal regions in 13 men with antisocial personality disorder, 13 men with

Ian Barkataki; Veena Kumari; Mrigendra Das; Pamela Taylor; Tonmoy Sharma

2006-01-01

69

Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO): Preliminary Psychometrics in a Clinical Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we describe the development and preliminary psychometric properties of the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO), a semistructured interview designed for the dimensional assessment of identity, primitive defenses, and reality testing, the three primary content domains in the model of personality health and disorder elaborated by Kernberg (1984; Kernberg & Caligor, 2005). Results of this investigation, conducted

Barry L. Stern; Eve Caligor; John F. Clarkin; Kenneth L. Critchfield; Susanne Horz; Verna MacCornack; Mark F. Lenzenweger; Otto F. Kernberg

2010-01-01

70

The Network Structure of Human Personality According to the NEO-PI-R: Matching Network Community Structure to Factor Structure  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human personality is described preferentially in terms of factors (dimensions) found using factor analysis. An alternative and highly related method is network analysis, which may have several advantages over factor analytic methods. Aim To directly compare the ability of network community detection (NCD) and principal component factor analysis (PCA) to examine modularity in multidimensional datasets such as the neuroticism-extraversion-openness personality inventory revised (NEO-PI-R). Methods 434 healthy subjects were tested on the NEO-PI-R. PCA was performed to extract factor structures (FS) of the current dataset using both item scores and facet scores. Correlational network graphs were constructed from univariate correlation matrices of interactions between both items and facets. These networks were pruned in a link-by-link fashion while calculating the network community structure (NCS) of each resulting network using the Wakita Tsurumi clustering algorithm. NCSs were matched against FS and networks of best matches were kept for further analysis. Results At facet level, NCS showed a best match (96.2%) with a ‘confirmatory’ 5-FS. At item level, NCS showed a best match (80%) with the standard 5-FS and involved a total of 6 network clusters. Lesser matches were found with ‘confirmatory’ 5-FS and ‘exploratory’ 6-FS of the current dataset. Network analysis did not identify facets as a separate level of organization in between items and clusters. A small-world network structure was found in both item- and facet level networks. Conclusion We present the first optimized network graph of personality traits according to the NEO-PI-R: a ‘Personality Web’. Such a web may represent the possible routes that subjects can take during personality development. NCD outperforms PCA by producing plausible modularity at item level in non-standard datasets, and can identify the key roles of individual items and clusters in the network.

Goekoop, Rutger; Goekoop, Jaap G.; Scholte, H. Steven

2012-01-01

71

United Nations Millennium Development Goals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the year 2000, all of the world's countries and all the world's leading development institutions signed on to a compact sponsored by the United Nations in order to assist the needs of the world's poorest people. This compact included eight primary development goals that would be met by 2015. Some of these goals included a significant reduction of child mortality and the promotion of gender equality. This particular site offers updates on the progress towards these eight primary goals, along with links to the annual report on these goals. Visitors can visit the documents area to read the text of the previous annual reports, along with reading some of the regional reports filed for Latin American, Africa, Asia, and Europe. The "Background" area is another good place to look for summary materials, as it features the text of the millennium declaration and progress reports from 2004 and 2005. The site is rounded out by a selection of links to additional sites that may be helpful, such as those for the United Nations Population Fund and the Food and Agriculture Organization.

2005-01-01

72

Self-Narratives as Personal Structures of Meaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The question of “self” is put on the psychological agenda as soon as people start reflecting upon themselves. Trying to find\\u000a an answer to questions like “who am I?” or “what am I?” implies a cognitive operation which results in the attribution of\\u000a meaning to oneself as a person. But answering the identity question is rather difficult for two reasons.

Jeroen Jansz

73

Structural models of corporate bond pricing with personal taxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural approach offers an integrated framework to deal with yield spreads and default probability simultaneously. However, structural models perform poorly in predicting corporate bond spreads. It is unclear whether this poor performance is caused by characteristics of individual models, missing factors, or different calibration procedures. This study evaluates the performance of four structural models by incorporating two important factors,

Howard Qi; Sheen Liu; Chunchi Wu

2010-01-01

74

Personal performance goal orientation, classroom goal structure, persistence, and self-handicapping in the classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether the interaction effect model could be used to explain the joint influence of personal performance goals and classroom goal structure on achievement related outcomes. Cluster analysis was used to examine whether high school students who predominately viewed the classroom as performance goal structured and predominately viewed the classroom as combined goal structured, who were high in

Taryn Sarstedt Ferrera

2011-01-01

75

THE STRUCTURE OF CONSCIENTIOUSNESS: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION BASED ON SEVEN MAJOR PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify the underlying structure of the trait domain of Conscientiousness using scales drawn from 7 major personality inventories. Thirty-six scales conceptually related to Consci- entiousness were administered to a large community sample (N = 737); analyses of those scales revealed a hierarchical structure with 6 factors: industriousness, order, self-control, responsibility, traditionalism, and virtue.

BRENT W. ROBERTS; OLEKSANDR S. CHERNYSHENKO; STEPHEN STARK; LEWIS R. GOLDBERG

2005-01-01

76

Non-experts' Recognition of Structure in Personal Network Data.  

PubMed

Network-based interventions are gaining prominence in the treatment of chronic illnesses; however, little is known about what aspects of network structure are easily identified by non-experts when shown network visualizations. This study examines which structural features are recognizable by non-experts. Nineteen non-experts were asked to pile-sort 68 network diagrams. Results were analyzed using multidimensional scaling, discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, and PROFIT analysis. Participants tended to sort networks along the dimensions of isolates and size of largest component, suggesting that interventions aimed at helping individuals understand and change their social environments could benefit from incorporating visualizations of social networks. PMID:21765798

Kennedy, David P; Green, Harold D; McCarty, Christopher; Tucker, Joan

2011-08-01

77

Chemical Evolution of Milky Way Type Galaxies in the Millennium Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we make use of the Millennium Run, which is at the moment the largest high-resolution simulation of structure formation ever carried out, combined with the semi-analytical model of De Lucia & Blaizot (2007), to follow the chemical evolution of Milky Way type galaxies with the aim at understanding their level of enrichment and the dispersion in the

M. E. de Rossi; G. De Lucia; P. B. Tissera; G. Kauffmann

2009-01-01

78

Personality traits of a group of young adults from different family structures.  

PubMed

The impact of parental divorce and remarriage and young adults' gender on second-order personality traits, such as extraversion, anxiety, tough poise and independence, was examined. The responses of 227 young adults on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF; Cattell, Eber, & Tatsuoka, 1970) were subjected to a parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Results revealed significant differences between the anxiety scores of the young men and women as well as between those of the three different family-structure groups, but divorce and remarriage was not associated with either positive or negative personality development in this sample. PMID:1403973

Du Toit, J; Nel, E M; Steel, H R

1992-07-01

79

The Narcissistic Personality Inventory: factor structure in a non-clinical sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the most widely used measure of the construct of narcissism. Four- and seven-factor solutions have been reported for the instrument. In the present study, 338 undergraduates completed the NPI along with a battery of personality questionnaires that include the NEO-FFI. Exploratory principal components analysis indicated that the NPI had a two- or three-factor structure.

Thomas S. Kubarych; Ian J. Deary; Elizabeth J. Austin

2004-01-01

80

The social structural basis of the organization of persons in memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes and discusses three studies of patterns in the recall of persons in socially bounded communities. Individual\\u000a sin three different communities (a graduate academic program, a religious fellowship, and a department in a formal organization)\\u000a free-listed the names of persons in their respective communities. Results indicate that the individuals in each community\\u000a share a common cognitive structure of

Devon D. Brewer

1995-01-01

81

Sources of structure: genetic, environmental, and artifactual influences on the covariation of personality traits.  

PubMed

The phenotypic structure of personality traits has been well described, but it has not yet been explained causally. Behavior genetic covariance analyses can identify the underlying causes of phenotypic structure; previous behavior genetic research has suggested that the effects from both genetic and nonshared environmental influences mirror the phenotype. However, nonshared environmental effects are usually estimated as a residualterm that may also include systematic bias, such as that introduced by implicit personality theory. To reduce that bias, we supplemented data from Canadian and German twin studies with cross-observer correlations on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. The hypothesized five-factor structure was found in both the phenotypic and genetic/familial covariances. When the residual covariance was decomposed into true nonshared environmental influences and method bias, only the latter showed the five-factor structure. True nonshared environmental influences are not structured as genetic influences are, although there was some suggestion that they do affect two personality dimensions, Conscientiousness and Love. These data reaffirm the value of behavior genetic analyses for research on the underlying causes of personality traits. PMID:11497029

McCrae, R R; Jang, K L; Livesley, W J; Riemann, R; Angleitner, A

2001-08-01

82

Liquid Crystal Physics at the Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid crystal science can look back on a century of impressive fundamental and technological accomplishment. The next millennium greets us not only with a new set of scientific challenges but also with the need to define ourselves in the broader scientific arena. This talk will look at some of the research areas where we are likely to see future growth.

T. C. Lubensky

2001-01-01

83

Designer milks for the new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk is an inherently expensive raw material for use as a food. To compete in the new millennium, dairy products will need to be based on special values that can only come from milk. These include traditional dairy products and health-giving products. Designer milks will be needed to give new, enhanced products and to improve the quality and value of

Mike Boland; Alastair MacGibbon; Jeremy Hill

2001-01-01

84

NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Millennium ST6 project developed the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE)and the Inertial Stellar Compass (ISC). ASE improves a spacecraft's ability to make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and downlink. ISC determines a spacecraft's attitude and adjusts its pointing.

Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S.; Davies, A. G.; Sherwood, R. L.; Wyman, W.

2005-03-01

85

IT IMPACT ON NEW MILLENNIUM MANUFACTURING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the new millennium, technology and technological knowledge will continue to experience sustained rates of growth in no small part because of greatly enhanced information and communication technology. As our understanding of technology becomes greater, developments come faster, leading to near exponential growth of ideas, inventions and products. This in turn drives an increasing complexity and interdependency in manufacturing enterprises

Ajith Abraham; Baikunth Nath

86

NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Millennium ST6 project developed the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE)and the Inertial Stellar Compass (ISC). ASE improves a spacecraft's ability to make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and downlink. ISC determines a spacecraft's attitude and adjusts its pointing.

A. B. Chmielewski; R. M. Nelson; C. M. Stevens; S. Chien; A. G. Davies; R. L. Sherwood; W. Wyman

2005-01-01

87

Science and Public Policy: Millennium Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the beginning of the twentieth century, at the International Congress of Mathemati- cians in Paris, the mathematician David Hilbert presented twenty-three of the greatest unsolved problems of his day. At the start of our new millennium (and century) similar question-posing exercises can be observed in several areas of science. The Clay Mathemat- ics Institute of Cambridge (MA) has announced

Lloyd S. Etheredge; David Hilbert

88

Rethinking the Millennium Development Goals for Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global economy and especially its poorest members, face a perfect storm. The crisis has been created by a Global LIE: leverage that is unfathomable, institutions that are discredited, and, experts who are uncertain about the uncertainty. The poorest countries have been the hardest hit by the crisis, and their recovery may be years away. Under these circumstances, the Millennium

Stephen Bovard Peterson

2010-01-01

89

Volcanoes and ENSO over the Past Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controversial claim that El Niño events might be partially caused by radiative forcing due to volcanic aerosols is reassessed. Building on the work of Mann et al., estimates of volcanic forcing over the past millennium and a climate model of intermediate complexity are used to draw a diagram of El Niño likelihood as a function of the intensity of

Julien Emile-Geay; Richard Seager; Mark A. Cane; Edward R. Cook; Gerald H. Haug

2008-01-01

90

Structural Brain Abnormalities and Suicidal Behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Structural brain abnormalities have been demonstrated in subjects with BPD in prefrontal and fronto-limbic regions involved in the regulation of emotion and impulsive behavior, executive cognitive function and episodic memory. Impairment in these cognitive functions is associated with increased vulnerability to suicidal behavior. We compared BPD suicide attempters and non-attempters, high and low lethality attempters to healthy controls to identify neural circuits associated with suicidal behavior in BPD. Methods Structural MRI scans were obtained on 68 BPD subjects (16 male, 52 female), defined by IPDE and DIB/R criteria, and 52 healthy controls (HC: 28 male, 24 female). Groups were compared by diagnosis, attempt status, and attempt lethality. ROIs were defined for areas reported to have structural or metabolic abnormalities in BPD, and included: mid-inf. orbitofrontal cortex, mid-sup temporal cortex, anterior cingulate, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, fusiform, lingual and parahippocampal gyri. Data were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry implemented with DARTEL in SPM5, co-varied for age and gender, corrected for cluster extent (p<.001). Results Compared to HC, BPD attempters had significantly diminished gray matter concentrations in 8 of 9 ROIs, non-attempters in 5 of 9 ROIs. Within the BPD sample, attempters had diminished gray matter in Lt. insula compared to non-attempters. High lethality attempters had significant decreases in Rt. mid-sup. temporal gyrus, Rt. mid-inf. orbitofrontal gyrus, Rt. insular cortex, Lt. fusiform gyrus, Lt. lingual gyrus and Rt. parahippocampal gyrus compared to low lethality attempters. Conclusions Specific structural abnormalities discriminate BPD attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters.

Soloff, Paul H.; Pruitt, Patrick; Sharma, Mohit; Radwan, Jacqueline; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.

2012-01-01

91

Examining the Impact of Gender on the Factor Structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory—Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the factor structure of psychopathy has yielded mixed results, supporting anywhere from one to three factors. Additionally, most of this research has used all-male samples, and the possibility of structural invariance across gender has not been examined. Using a mixed-gender sample of 360 undergraduates, the factor structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory—Revised was examined using confirmatory factor analysis

Joye C. Anestis; Kelly M. Caron; Joyce L. Carbonell

2011-01-01

92

Assessing personality with a structured employment interview: construct-related validity and susceptibility to response inflation.  

PubMed

The authors evaluated the extent to which a personality-based structured interview was susceptible to response inflation. Interview questions were developed to measure facets of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability. Interviewers administered mock interviews to participants instructed to respond honestly or like a job applicant. Interviewees completed scales of the same 3 facets from the NEO Personality Inventory, under the same honest and applicant-like instructions. Interviewers also evaluated interviewee personality with the NEO. Multitrait-multimethod analysis and confirmatory factor analysis provided some evidence for the construct-related validity of the personality interviews. As for response inflation, analyses revealed that the scores from the applicant-like condition were significantly more elevated (relative to honest condition scores) for self-report personality ratings than for interviewer personality ratings. In addition, instructions to respond like an applicant appeared to have a detrimental effect on the structure of the self-report and interview ratings, but not interviewer NEO ratings. PMID:15910148

Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Raymark, Patrick H; Roth, Philip L

2005-05-01

93

Evicase: an evidence-based case structuring approach for personalized healthcare.  

PubMed

The personalized medicine era stresses a growing need to combine evidence-based medicine with case based reasoning in order to improve the care process. To address this need we suggest a framework to generate multi-tiered statistical structures we call Evicases. Evicase integrates established medical evidence together with patient cases from the bedside. It then uses machine learning algorithms to produce statistical results and aggregators, weighted predictions, and appropriate recommendations. Designed as a stand-alone structure, Evicase can be used for a range of decision support applications including guideline adherence monitoring and personalized prognostic predictions. PMID:22874262

Carmeli, Boaz; Casali, Paolo; Goldbraich, Anna; Goldsteen, Abigail; Kent, Carmel; Licitra, Lisa; Locatelli, Paolo; Restifo, Nicola; Rinott, Ruty; Sini, Elena; Torresani, Michele; Waks, Zeev

2012-01-01

94

Repeat Purchase amid Rapid Quality Improvement: Structural Estimation of Demand for Personal Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates a structural model of demand for the personal computer (PC) by repeat purchasers. Taking advantage of a large data set on household-level PC purchases, the econometric model uses variation in PC holdings among PC owners to identify households' marginal values of quality improvements. The analysis only requires data on a cross-section of households along with observed PC

Jeffrey T. Prince

2008-01-01

95

The Joint Influence of Personal Achievement Goals and Classroom Goal Structures on Achievement-Relevant Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors provide an analytic framework for studying the joint influence of personal achievement goals and classroom goal structures on achievement-relevant outcomes. This framework encompasses 3 models (the direct effect model, indirect effect model, and interaction effect model), each of which addresses a different aspect of the joint influence of the 2 goal levels. These 3 models were examined together

Kou Murayama; Andrew J. Elliot

2009-01-01

96

Fear of personal death: Attribution, structure, and relation to religious belief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothesized that individuals attribute the fear of their own death to the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal consequences of human mortality. A multidimensional measure of fear of personal death was constructed and administered together with an index of Jewish belief and practice to 178 18–30 yr old males. Principal-components factor analysis of this measure uncovered a factor structure that paralleled the

Victor Florian; Shlomo Kravetz

1983-01-01

97

Health sciences librarianship in the new millennium.  

PubMed

Is the millennium really a critical point in time or just part of a continuum, in which health sciences librarians have always been innovators? Librarians have always had special knowledge that enabled them to identify, collect, organize, and distribute information. They have always embraced new technology, from the printing press to the Internet. As a profession, we must continue to promote how our particular skills can reinforce our role in the health care field. PMID:11299653

Wood, E H

2000-01-01

98

Millennium Bug found by CSIRO entomologists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Entomologists at Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization have announced the discovery of the "real" Millennium Bug, belonging to a new genus of the family Veliidae (small water striders). The bug was found at several mountain streams of southeast Queensland and northeast New South Wales and will be described in a publication of the Australian journal Invertebrate Taxonomy. The CSIRO news release is provided above.

99

Millennium simulation dark matter haloes: multifractal and lacunarity analysis and the transition to homogeneity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate from a fractal viewpoint the way in which dark matter is grouped at z = 0 in the Millennium dark matter cosmological simulation. Determination of the crossing point to homogeneity in the Millennium Simulation data is described with regard to the behaviour of the fractal dimension and lacunarity. We use the sliding-window technique to calculate the fractal mass-radius dimension, the pre-factor F and the lacunarity of this fractal relation. Additionally, we determine the multifractal dimension and the lacunarity spectrum, including their dependence on radial distance. The calculations show a radial distance dependence of all fractal quantities, with heterogeneous clustering of dark matter haloes up to depths of 100 Mpc h-1. Dark matter halo clustering in the Millennium Simulation shows a radial distance dependence, with two regions clearly defined. The lacunarity spectrum for values of the structure parameter q ? 1 shows regions with relative maxima, revealing the formation of clusters and voids in the dark matter halo distribution. With use of the multifractal dimension and the lacunarity spectrum, the transition to homogeneity at depths between 100 Mpc h-1 and 120 Mpc h-1 for Millennium Simulation dark matter haloes is detected.

Chacón-Cardona, C. A.; Casas-Miranda, R. A.

2012-12-01

100

The lexical approach to the study of personality structure: toward the identification of cross-culturally replicable dimensions of personality variation.  

PubMed

The structure of personality variation is discussed from the perspective of the lexical approach, which is based on the examination of relations among personality-descriptive adjectives that are indigenous to various languages. The results of this approach--which reveal a cross-culturally replicated set of six dimensions--are described. Specifically, the obtained structure corresponds rather closely to the Five-Factor Model, but differs from that model in the nature of the Agreeableness and Emotionality/Neuroticism factors and also in the existence of a sixth factor known as Honesty-Humility. It is suggested that the emergence of this structure provides support for attempts to establish a cross-culturally generalizable structural model that could summarize normal and abnormal personality variation. PMID:16175738

Ashton, Michael C; Lee, Kibeom

2005-06-01

101

Evaluation of DSM-IV personality disorder criteria as assessed by the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV personality disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this research was to investigate the psychometric and diagnostic efficiency properties of DSM-IV personality disorder (PD) criteria as assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II). Logistic regression analyses were also employed to identify discriminating and nondiscriminating diagnostic criteria within specific PD categories. Results based on a community sample of 149 psychotropic medication-free

Richard F. Farmer; Alexander L. Chapman

2002-01-01

102

A latent structure analysis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Narcissistic Personality Disorder criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the latent structure of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) criteria in a group of 641 outpatients. The consecutively admitted outpatients were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders, Version 2.0, and the Personality Questionnaire. Both confirmatory and

Andrea Fossati; Federica Grazioli; Ilaria Carretta; Francesca Cortinovis; Cesare Maffei

103

A latent structure analysis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Narcissistic Personality Disorder criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the latent structure of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) criteria in a group of 641 outpatients. The consecutively admitted outpatients were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders, Version 2.0, and the Personality Questionnaire. Both confirmatory and exploratory

Andrea Fossati; Theodore P. Beauchaine; Federica Grazioli; Ilaria Carretta; Francesca Cortinovis; Cesare Maffei

2005-01-01

104

Interpersonal personality measures show circumplex structure based on new psychometric criteria.  

PubMed

The importance of the interpersonal circle in organizing the interpersonal domain is complemented by its empirical relations with broader personality taxonomies and with more specific personality variables. Yet circumplex structure in interpersonal measures has often been investigated using the "eyeball test" rather than using circumplex criteria of known effectiveness. Simulations (Acton, 1999) showed the effectiveness of 5 exploratory criteria (3 entirely new) that assess the properties of equal spacing, constant radius, and no preferred rotation. Along with Browne's (1992) criterion, these were applied to the Interpersonal Checklist (ICL; LaForge & Suczek, 1955; N = 763), Interpersonal Adjective Scales (IAS; Wiggins, 1979; Ns = 716 and 187), Revised IAS (IAS-R; Wiggins, Trapnell, & Phillips, 1988; N = 474), Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scales (IIP-C; Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 1990; Ns = 616 and 1,381), and Inventory of Interpersonal Goals (IIG; Horowitz, Dryer, & Krasnoperova, 1997; N = 318). In corroboration of interpersonal theory, all showed circumplex structure. PMID:12511015

Acton, G Scott; Revelle, William

2002-12-01

105

From Domination to Partnership: Meeting the UN Millennium Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The UN Millennium goals envision a more just and sustainable future. This article explains why there is a need to shift from domination model to a partnership model in meeting the UN Millennium goals. The domination model is a configuration based on top-down rankings of control, while the partnership model is a configuration that can support a…

Eisler, Riane; Corral, Thais

2005-01-01

106

Access to agricultural information and millennium development goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The millennium development goals (MDGs) emerged from the Millennium Declaration adopted by all Member States of the United Nations. The MDGs are international objectives on poverty reduction adopted by the world community in 2000. This paper examines provision of agricultural information to rural dwellers\\/farmers in meeting the MDG 1: eradicating poverty and hunger in the world. Design\\/methodology\\/approach –

Adebambo Adewale Oduwole; Chichi Nancy Okorie

2010-01-01

107

The new millennium: wireless technologies for a truly mobile society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Universal access to a wide range of telecommunication services, from speech over multimedia to navigation and mobile computing, must be provided for the mobile society of the next millennium. The backbone of this scenario is a worldwide high-bandwidth wireless system. The wireless terminals of the next millennium, comprising all conceivable services in small size with long operating time require significant

G. Weinberger

2000-01-01

108

Latent structure analysis of DSM-IV borderline personality disorder criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the structure of DSM-IV borderline personality disorder (BPD) criteria. The study group consisted of 564 consecutively admitted inpatients and outpatients. BPD criteria discriminatory power was tested by using corrected item-tototal and item-to-diagnosis correlations. Weighted least-squares (WLS) confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to assess the fit of DSM-IV BPD unidimensional model. The

Andrea Fossati; Cesare Maffei; Maria Bagnato; Deborah Donati; Caterina Namia; Liliana Novella

1999-01-01

109

Nuclear energy for the third millennium  

SciTech Connect

The major energy sources of today are expected to last for only a small fraction of the millennium starting three years hence. In the plans of most people, nuclear energy has been ruled out for four separate reasons: 1. The danger of radioactivity from a reactor accident or from reactor products during a long period after reactor shutdown; 2. The proposed fuels, U-235 and also Pu-239, as obtained by presently available procedures will serve only for a limited duration; 3. Energy from nuclear reactors will be more expensive than costs of present alternatives; 4. The possibility of misusing the products for military purposes is an unacceptable danger. The development described below 1 attempts to meet all four objections. Specifically, we propose a structure as an example of future reactors that is deployed two hundred meters underground in loose and dry earth. The reactor is designed to function for thirty years, delivering electrical power on demand up to a level of thousand electrical megawatts. From the time that the reactor is started to the time of its shutdown thirty years later, the functioning is to be completely automatic. This is an obviously difficult condition to fulfill. The most important factor in making it possible is to design and operate the reactor without moving mechanical parts. At the start, the reactor functions on thermal neutrons within a structure containing uranium enriched in U-235 or having an addition of plutonium. That part of the reactor is to deliver energy for approximately one year after which a neighboring portion of the reactor containing thorium has been converted into Th-233 which rather rapidly decays into fissile U-233. This part of the assembly works on fission by fast neutrons. It will heat-up if insufficient thermal energy is withdrawn from the reactor`s core, under the negative feedback action of engineered-in thermostats. Indeed, these specifically designed thermostatic units absorb neutrons if excessive reactor core heating occurs in order to decrease heat generation and to act like automatic control rods. These units will be described below. After the thorium in a given volume of the reactor`s fuel charge is depleted, an adjacent thorium-containing portion of the fuel charge will have been converted bred into fissile material and is ready to continue the reaction. A schematic representation of this concept is shown in Figure 1. Actually, the thorium `reactors` in this Figure will be merged together into a single reactor system with the nuclear fuel-burning reactions propagating down to the ultimate `reactor` U. (In practice, we consider placing the fuel-igniting charge in the middle of the reactor system`s `fuel stick` and arrange breeding regions on both sides, shown in Figure 3.) After all the thorium in the reactor`s fuel charge has been used up, the reactor is shut down by the first positive action of the operators in thirty years. The residual radioactivity will be sealed within the reactor`s core and thereafter allowed to decay in place. The initially intense radioactivity will leave the reactor products inaccessible and unusable for military purposes except if complicated, expensive and easily observed large-scale operations are performed. Having thereby avoided transportation of fission products and reprocessing significantly reduces cost and hazards.

Teller, E.

1997-10-01

110

Taxonic structure of schizotypal personality disorder: A multiple-instrument, multi-sample study based on mixture models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used a multi-sample, multiple-instrument strategy to evaluate the hypothesis that schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is taxonic. In Study 1, 721 consecutively admitted inpatients and outpatients were evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II) and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+). The data from both questionnaire types were submitted to multivariate normal mixture analysis,

Andrea Fossati; Alessandra Citterio; Federica Grazioli; Serena Borroni; Ilaria Carretta; Cesare Maffei; Marco Battaglia

2005-01-01

111

Water recycling at the Millennium Dome.  

PubMed

Thames Water is working with the New Millennium Experience Company to provide a water recycling system for the Millennium Dome which will supply 500 m3/d of reclaimed water for WC and urinal flushing. The system will treat water from three sources: rainwater--from the Dome roof greywater--from handbasins in the toilet blocks groundwater--from beneath the Dome site The treatment technologies will range from "natural" reedbeds for the rainwater, to more sophisticated options, including biological aerated filters and membranes for the greywater and groundwater. Pilot scale trials were used to design the optimum configuration. In addition to the recycling system, water efficient devices will be installed in three of the core toilet blocks as part of a programme of research into the effectiveness of conservation measures. Data on water usage and customer behaviour will be collected via a comprehensive metering system. Information from the Dome project on the economics and efficiency of on-site recycling at large scale and data on water efficient devices, customer perception and behaviour will be of great value to the water industry. For Thames Water, the project provides vital input to the development of future water resource strategies. PMID:11436793

Hills, S; Smith, A; Hardy, P; Birks, R

2001-01-01

112

Associations between Delusion Proneness and Personality Structure in Non-Clinical Participants: Comparison between Young and Elderly Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few studies have explored the prevalence of delusions in the non-clinical, elderly population. In addition, the association between personality structure and delusions remains poorly investigated. The aims of the present study were, first, to explore the relation between age and the prevalence of delusion proneness and, second, to examine the association between personality and delusion proneness in young and

Frank Larøi; Martial Van der Linden; Filip DeFruyt; Jim van Os; André Aleman

2006-01-01

113

Structural and Dialectal Characteristics of the Fictional and Personal Narratives of School-Age African American Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural and dialectal characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method: Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, generated a fictional narrative and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a…

Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.

2013-01-01

114

Personality, Self-Estimated Intelligence, and Uses of Music: A Spanish Replication and Extension Using Structural Equation Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study replicates and extends a recent study on personality, intelligence and uses of music [Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Furnham, A. (2007). Personality and music: Can traits explain how people use music in everyday life? British Journal of Psychology, 98, 175–185] using Spanish participants and structural equation modeling. Data from 245 university students showed that, in line with our hypotheses, individuals

Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic; Montserrat Gomà-i-Freixanet; Adrian Furnham; Anna Muro

2009-01-01

115

The Millennium: One Thousand Years of Finance and Companies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A section of the special turn-of-the-millennium edition of the Wall Street Journal Interactive, "The Millennium: One Thousand Years of Finance and Companies" recapitulates world business and economics in the past1,000 years. A timeline chronicling "Finance and Firms" in the eleventh through the twentieth centuries is featured along with a look at taxes throughout the millennium. Five articles focus on the twentieth century, looking at the rise of Manhattan as the finance center of the US, the history of the DuPont company, and the stock market.

116

Patrick Moore's millennium yearbook : the view from AD 1001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a year that will probably be remembered almost as much for books about the millennium as for the turn of 2000 A.D itself, Patrick Moore's Millennium Yearbook celebrates.....well, the wrong millennium! This thoroughly entertaining book - which is for everyone, not just astronomers - contains articles on King Alfred's chronological work, reviews of the new Star Catalogue by the Arab Al-Sufi and the latest edition of Ptolemy's Almagast. And foreshadowing the change to metric units by 1000 years, the book uses arabic numbers instead of Roman - but there is a conversion table if you have trouble with the idea of "zero" and prefer the older system.

Moore, Patrick, Chapman, Allan

117

Integrating psychopathology and personality disorders conceptualized by the MMPI-2-RF and the MCMI-III: a structural validity study.  

PubMed

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 ) Restructured Clinical scales and Higher Order scales were linked to the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (Millon, Millon, Davis, & Grossman, 2009 ) personality disorder scales and clinical syndrome scales in a Flemish/Dutch sample of psychiatric inpatients and outpatients, substance abuse patients, correctional inmates, and forensic psychiatric patients (N = 968). Structural validity of psychopathology and personality disorders as conceptualized by both instruments was investigated by means of principal component analysis. Results reveal a higher order structure with 4 dimensions (internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, paranoid ideation/thought disturbance, and pathological introversion) that parallels earlier research on pathological personality dimensions as well as research linking pathological personality traits with mental disorders. Theoretical and clinical implications are considered. PMID:22338624

van der Heijden, Paul T; Egger, Jos I M; Rossi, Gina M P; Derksen, Jan J L

2012-02-16

118

The Brain in Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A Review of Structural MRI and CT Findings  

PubMed Central

Studies of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) are important because the condition is genetically related to schizophrenia and because data accumulating to confirm its biological underpinnings are challenging some traditional views about the nature of personality disorders. This review of 17 structural imaging studies in SPD indicates that individuals with this disorder show brain abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus, parahippocampus, temporal horn region of the lateral ventricles, corpus callosum, thalamus, and septum pellucidum, as well as in total cerebrospinal fluid volume, similar to those seen in persons with schizophrenia. Differences between SPD and schizophrenia include lack of abnormalities in the medial temporal lobes and lateral ventricles in SPD. Whether the normal volume, and possibly normal functioning, of the medial temporal lobes in individuals with SPD may help to suppress psychosis in this disorder remains an intriguing but still unresolved question. Such speculation must be tempered due to a paucity of studies, and additional work is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. The imaging findings do suggest, however, that SPD probably represents a milder form of disease along the schizophrenia continuum. With further clarification of the neuroanatomy of SPD, researchers may be able to identify which neuroanatomical abnormalities are associated with the frank psychosis seen in schizophrenia.

Dickey, Chandlee C.; McCarley, Robert W.; Shenton, Martha E.

2010-01-01

119

Employee assistance programs in the new millennium.  

PubMed

This article presents an overall view of Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs). Beginning with the history, this article describes various models and essential ingredients of EAPs. It then discusses current trends including integration with Work/Life, web-based services, EAP accreditation, and the growth of international programs. Several issues are discussed including the need for licensing done nationally rather than by states and the effect the lack of substance abuse and brief counseling education has had on the delivery of EAP services. Future directions for EAPs emphasize the importance of quality assurance and the development of performance measurements, performance guarantees, and outcome measurements. The formation of the Alliance for Employee Assistance Advancement, an organization of organizations, completes the description and shows a new direction for EAPs in the next millennium. PMID:16265971

Masi, Dale A

2005-01-01

120

Basic mechanisms for the new millennium  

SciTech Connect

This part of the Short Course will review the basic mechanisms for radiation effects in semiconductor devices. All three areas of radiation damage will be considered -- total dose, displacement effects, and single event effects. Each of these areas will be discussed in turn. First an overview and background will be provided on the historical understanding of the damage mechanism. Then there will be a discussion of recent enhancements to the understanding of those mechanisms and an up-to-date picture provided of the current state of knowledge. Next the potential impact of each of these damage mechanisms on devices in emerging technologies and how the mechanisms may be used to understand device performance will be described, with an emphasis on those likely to be of importance in the new millennium. Finally some additional thoughts will be presented on how device scaling expected into the next century may impact radiation hardness.

Dressendorfer, P.V.

1998-09-01

121

NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of NASA's New Millennium Program is to validate advanced technologies in space and thus lower the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on spacecraft of the future. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing to deploy resources on other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S.; Davies, A.; Wyman, W.

2004-11-01

122

NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's New Millennium Program validates advanced technologies in space and thus lowers the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on future missions. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing re-deployment of resources to other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S. A.; Davies, A.; Sherwood, R. L.; Wyman, W.

2004-12-01

123

NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's New Millennium Program is intended to validate advanced technologies in space and thus lower the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on spacecraft of the future. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing to deploy resources on other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

Nelson, R. M.; Chmielewski, A.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S.; Davies, A.; Wyman, W.

2005-05-01

124

Millennium Challenge Corporation: Vanuatu Compact Overstates Projected Program Impact.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In January 2004, Congress established the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) for foreign assistance. Congress has appropriated almost $6 billion to MCC. As of March 2007, MCC had signed almost $3 billion in compacts with 11 countries, including a 5-ye...

2007-01-01

125

Mars Mania: Internet Resources for the New Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Mars Millennium Project that challenges elementary and secondary school students across the nation to design communities on Mars. Lists the sponsoring organizations, explains how to participate in the project, and suggests appropriate books and Web sites. (LRW)|

Albrecht, Bob; Davis, Paul

1999-01-01

126

Mars Mania: Internet Resources for the New Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Mars Millennium Project that challenges elementary and secondary school students across the nation to design communities on Mars. Lists the sponsoring organizations, explains how to participate in the project, and suggests appropriate books and Web sites. (LRW)

Albrecht, Bob; Davis, Paul

1999-01-01

127

Structured terror: further exploring the effects of mortality salience and personal need for structure on worldview defense.  

PubMed

Previous research indicates that people respond to heightened death-related cognition with increased defense of predominant cultural beliefs (cultural worldview defense). However, recent research indicates that individual differences in personal need for structure (PNS) impact responses to threatening thoughts of death such that those high, but not low, in PNS respond to death thoughts by seeking a highly structured, clear, and coherent view of the world. Research has yet to fully consider the extent to which PNS affects the cultural worldview defenses typically exhibited after death is rendered salient. The current 3 studies examine the potential for PNS to determine the extent to which people respond to mortality salience with increased worldview defense. In all three studies PNS was measured and mortality salience induced. Subsequently, university-related (Study 1) or religious (Studies 2 and 3) worldview defense was assessed. Only individuals high in PNS responded to mortality salience with increased worldview defense. PMID:20573132

Juhl, Jacob; Routledge, Clay

2010-06-01

128

A Cross-Setting Study of Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Personality Structure and Development  

PubMed Central

This study addressed whether personality ratings using a 43 adjective questionnaire based on the Five-Factor Model generalized from a sample of 202 zoo-housed chimpanzees to a sample of 175 chimpanzees housed in Yerkes National Primate Research Center. Mean interrater reliabilities of adjectival ratings were lower for the chimpanzees housed in Yerkes. In addition, rank order of the interrater reliabilities of items differed between settings. To compare factor structure, we first examined whether we could replicate the original six factor structure found in an earlier study of 100 zoo chimpanzees using principal factors analysis in the Yerkes sample and 102 new zoo chimpanzees. The dominance, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness factors were clearly replicated in the Yerkes sample and the 102 new zoo chimpanzees. The Neuroticism and Openness factors did not replicate in the Yerkes sample, but they also did not replicate in the new zoo chimpanzees. These findings suggest the need to sample more adjectives representing neuroticism and openness in future versions of the questionnaire. We next sought to determine whether factor structure, as determined by principal components analysis, remained invariant across the two settings. This analysis revealed dominance, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness factors in both settings and a high level of congruence between the zoo and Yerkes samples for these factors. Finally, we tested whether factor scores in the two samples were similarly related to age and sex. With the exception of differences in age effects for dominance and agreeableness, age, and sex effects were consistent across samples. These findings suggest that, whereas there may be differences in the ease with which ratings are made, personality structure, and development are largely consistent across widely differing settings.

WEISS, ALEXANDER; KING, JAMES E.; HOPKINS, WILLIAM D.

2009-01-01

129

Internal, External, and Self-Report Structure of Personality in a Non-Western Culture: An Investigation of Cross-Language and Cross-Cultural Generalizability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors explored the internal (similarity of meaning), external (peer nominations), and self-report structure of personality with Filipino college students. Informants' natural language of personality in English and Tagalog provided a taxonomy as broad and differentiated, though not a dense, as an existing dictionary-based taxonomy (Peabody, 1987). The internal structure of personality was quite similar in the two languages, supporting

A. Timothy Church; Marcia S. Katigbak

1989-01-01

130

Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and Narcissism in the Five-Factor Model and the HEXACO model of personality structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relations of the “Dark Triad” personality traits—Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and Narcissism—with the variables of the Five-Factor Model and the HEXACO model of personality structure. Results (N=164) indicated that all three Dark Triad traits were strongly negatively correlated (rs=?0.72, ?0.57, and ?0.53, respectively) with the HEXACO Honesty–Humility factor. Psychopathy and Machiavellianism showed moderate negative correlations with Big Five Agreeableness

Kibeom Lee; Michael C. Ashton

2005-01-01

131

The Structure of Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for DSM-IV Personality Disorders  

PubMed Central

Context Although both genetic and environmental factors affect risk of individual personality disorders (PDs), we know little of how they contribute to the pattern of comorbidity between the PDs in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) (DSM-IV). Objective To clarify the structure of the genetic and environmental risk factors for the 10 DSM-IV PDs. Design Assessment of PDs at personal interview and multivariate twin modeling with the Mx program. Setting General community. Participants A total of 2794 young adult members of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel. Main Outcome Measure Number of endorsed criteria for the 10 DSM-IV PDs. Results The best-fit multivariate twin model required 3 genetic and 3 individual-specific environmental factors and genetic and individual-specific factors unique to each PD. The first genetic factor had high loadings on PDs from all 3 clusters including paranoid, histrionic, borderline, narcissistic, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive. The second genetic factor had substantial loadings only on borderline and antisocial PD. The third genetic factor had high loadings only on schizoid and avoidant PD. Several PDs had substantial disorder-specific genetic risk factors. The first, second, and third individual-specific environmental factors had high loadings on the cluster B, A, and C PDs, respectively, with 1 exception: obsessive-compulsive PD loaded with cluster B and not cluster C PDs. Conclusions Genetic risk factors for DSM-IV PDs do not reflect the cluster A, B, and C typology. Rather, 1 genetic factor reflects a broad vulnerability to PD pathology and/or negative emotionality. The 2 other genetic factors are more specific and reflect high impulsivity/low agreeableness and introversion. Unexpectedly, the cluster A, B, and C typology is well reflected in the structure of environmental risk factors, suggesting that environmental experiences may be responsible for the tendency of cluster A, B, and C PDs to co-occur.

Kendler, Kenneth S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Czajkowski, Nikolai; R?ysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian; Torgersen, Svenn; Neale, Michael C.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

2009-01-01

132

Morphometric differences in central stress-regulating structures between women with and without borderline personality disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Experiences of early life stress, increased psychological arousal and the body’s physiologic stress response seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis and maintenance of borderline personality disorder (BPD). In the present study, we investigated alterations in grey matter of central stress-regulating structures in female patients with BPD. Methods We examined T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of unmedicated, right-handed female patients with BPD (according to DSM-IV criteria) and healthy controls matched for age, intelligence and education using fully automated DARTEL voxel-based morphometry. Our regions of interest analyses included the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and hypothalamus. Results We enrolled 30 patients and 33 controls in our study. The grey matter of patients with BPD was reduced in the hippocampus, but increased in the hypothalamus compared with healthy participants. Hypothalamic volume correlated positively with the history of traumatization in patients with BPD. No significant alterations were found in the amygdala and ACC. Limitations This study is limited by the lack of measures of corticotropin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels. Furthermore, moderate sample size and comorbid disorders need to be considered. Conclusion Our findings provide new evidence for grey matter alterations in the hypothalamus and replicate previously reported decrements in hippocampal volume in patients with BPD. Understanding the role of the hypothalamus and other central stress-regulating structures could help us to further understand the neurobiological underpinnings of this complex disorder.

Kuhlmann, Andrea; Bertsch, Katja; Schmidinger, Ilinca; Thomann, Philipp A.; Herpertz, Sabine C.

2013-01-01

133

Premature Delivery and the Millennium Development Goal  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, approximately 15 million babies (1 in 10) are born prematurely each year. Prematurity is the leading cause of death among newborns, accounting for 1 million deaths per year, and, after pneumonia, is the second leading cause of death in children under age 5 years. Newborns who do survive preterm delivery (PTD) struggle with visual, auditory, and learning disabilities. In order to reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG-4) of reducing the mortality rate in children under age 5 years by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, there must be significantly fewer PTDs. In high-income nations, 50% of babies born at 24 weeks survive, whereas in low-resource nations, this survival rate is not achieved until 32 weeks of gestation. Over 90% of babies born in low-resource settings before 28 weeks die in the first few days of life (< 10% die in high-income nations), a 10:90 survival gap. Over 60% of PTDs worldwide occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Risk factors for PTD include adolescent pregnancy, short interval between births, poor prepregnancy weight (very low or high body mass index), chronic diseases (diabetes and hypertension), infectious disease, substance abuse, cervical incompetence, and poor psychological health. Thus, a commitment to improving maternal health and the quality of prenatal care is necessary to achieve the MDG-4.

Nour, Nawal M

2012-01-01

134

Premature delivery and the millennium development goal.  

PubMed

Worldwide, approximately 15 million babies (1 in 10) are born prematurely each year. Prematurity is the leading cause of death among newborns, accounting for 1 million deaths per year, and, after pneumonia, is the second leading cause of death in children under age 5 years. Newborns who do survive preterm delivery (PTD) struggle with visual, auditory, and learning disabilities. In order to reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG-4) of reducing the mortality rate in children under age 5 years by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, there must be significantly fewer PTDs. In high-income nations, 50% of babies born at 24 weeks survive, whereas in low-resource nations, this survival rate is not achieved until 32 weeks of gestation. Over 90% of babies born in low-resource settings before 28 weeks die in the first few days of life (< 10% die in high-income nations), a 10:90 survival gap. Over 60% of PTDs worldwide occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Risk factors for PTD include adolescent pregnancy, short interval between births, poor prepregnancy weight (very low or high body mass index), chronic diseases (diabetes and hypertension), infectious disease, substance abuse, cervical incompetence, and poor psychological health. Thus, a commitment to improving maternal health and the quality of prenatal care is necessary to achieve the MDG-4. PMID:22866189

Nour, Nawal M

2012-01-01

135

Millennium development goals and eye health  

PubMed Central

In September 2000, world leaders made a commitment to build a more equitable, prosperous and safer world by 2015 and launched the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In the previous year, the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness in partnership launched the global initiative to eliminate avoidable blindness by the year 2020–VISION 2020 the Right to Sight. It has focused on the prevention of a disability-blindness and recognized a health issue–sight as a human right. Both global initiatives have made considerable progress with synergy especially on MDG 1–the reduction of poverty and the reduction in numbers of the blind. A review of the MDGs has identified the need to address disparities within and between countries, quality, and disability. Noncommunicable diseases are emerging as a challenge to the MDGs and Vision 2020:0 the Right to Sight. For the future, up to and beyond 2015, there will be need for both initiatives to continue to work in synergy to address present and emerging challenges.

Faal, Hannah B

2012-01-01

136

Adolescent violence: concepts for a new millennium.  

PubMed

Violence is a form of aggressive behavior that has a debilitating effect on the optimal growth and development of our youth. Violence pervades the lives of a significant proportion of all adolescents in the U.S., but has a particularly devastating impact on males and minority youth. Adolescent males are more likely to be victimizers and victims of violence and aggression, except in cases of sexual victimization and suicide attempts. For all adolescents, exposure to violence at home, school, or in the community is associated with aggression later in life, the development of supportive attitudes toward aggression and violence, psychological distress, school absenteeism, academic dysfunction, and subsequent injury. Violence has historical, cultural, and societal roots in our world. Until and unless we begin to understand where violence fits on the continuum of aggressive behavior and until we address the politics of violence, we will remain conflicted and paralyzed by the dangers our youth face. By understanding the social, political, and developmental aspects of violence and understanding the nature and characteristics of resilient children, we can better prepare our youth for life. We may not be able to protect our adolescents from exposure to violence, but we most certainly can help them develop the necessary skills to survive such exposure and work to enhance and strengthen their access to protective factors so that they can experience a healthy transition from adolescence to adulthood in this new millennium. PMID:10640341

Pratt, H D; Greydanus, D E

2000-02-01

137

Brand Personality Structures in the United States and Korea: Common and Culture-Specific Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symbolic meaning of commercial brands (often called brand personality) can represent the values and beliefs of a culture. When a set of global brands were rated on the same personality attributes in the United States and Korea, 6 common dimensions of brand personality and 2 fac- tors unique to each culture were observed. The 2 culture-specific factors in Korea

Yongjun Sung; Spencer F. Tinkham

2005-01-01

138

Factor Structure of the Primary Scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization in a Nonclinical Sample Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using exploratory structural equation modeling and multiple regression, we examined the factor structure and criterion relations of the primary scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO; Kernberg & Clarkin, 1995) in a nonclinical sample. Participants (N = 1,260) completed the IPO and measures of self-concept clarity, defenses,…

Ellison, William D.; Levy, Kenneth N.

2012-01-01

139

Willingness to participate in genomics research and desire for personal results among underrepresented minority patients: a structured interview study.  

PubMed

Patients from traditionally underrepresented communities need to be involved in discussions around genomics research including attitudes towards participation and receiving personal results. Structured interviews, including open-ended and closed-ended questions, were conducted with 205 patients in an inner-city hospital outpatient clinic: 48 % of participants self-identified as Black or African American, 29 % Hispanic, 10 % White; 49 % had an annual household income of <$20,000. When the potential for personal results to be returned was not mentioned, 82 % of participants were willing to participate in genomics research. Reasons for willingness fell into four themes: altruism; benefit to family members; personal health benefit; personal curiosity and improving understanding. Reasons for being unwilling fell into five themes: negative perception of research; not personally relevant; negative feelings about procedures (e.g., blood draws); practical barriers; and fear of results. Participants were more likely to report that they would participate in genomics research if personal results were offered than if they were not offered (89 vs. 62 % respectively, p?personal genomic risk results for cancer, heart disease and type 2 diabetes than obesity (89, 89, 91, 80 % respectively, all p?personal results was disease-specific worry. There was considerable willingness to participate in and desire for personal results from genomics research in this sample of predominantly low-income, Hispanic and African American patients. When returning results is not practical, or even when it is, alternatively or additionally providing generic information about genomics and health may also be a valuable commodity to underrepresented minority and other populations considering participating in genomics research. PMID:23794263

Sanderson, Saskia C; Diefenbach, Michael A; Zinberg, Randi; Horowitz, Carol R; Smirnoff, Margaret; Zweig, Micol; Streicher, Samantha; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Richardson, Lynne D

2013-06-22

140

Millennium development goals and child undernutrition.  

PubMed

Reduction in prevalence of underweight children (under five years of age) has been included as an indicator for one of the targets to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (Goal 1) of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The most recent MDG report of 2012 indicates that the target of reducing extreme poverty by half has been reached five years ahead of the 2015 deadline but close to one third of children in Southern Asia were underweight. In India, at the historical rate of decline the proportion of underweight children below 3 years, required to be reduced to 26% by 2015, is expected to come down only to about 33%. With barely 3 years left for achieving MDGs, the level of commitment to reduce child undernutrition needs to be gauged and effectiveness of current strategies and programmes ought to be reviewed. Undernutrition in children is not affected by food intake alone; it is also influenced by access to health services, quality of care for the child and pregnant mother as well as good hygiene practices. Would the scenario be different if child undernutrition was a part of Goal 4 of MDGs? What difference it would have made in terms of strategies and programmes if reduction in undernutrition in children underfive was a target instead of an indicator? It is time for nutrition to be placed higher on the development agenda. A number of simple, cost-effective measures to reduce undernutrition in the critical period from conception to two years after birth are available. There is a need for choosing nutrition strategies relevant in Indian context. Experiences from other countries should lead India toward innovative nutritional strategies to reduce underfive undernutrition in the country- that too on a fast track. PMID:23778725

Patwari, A K

2013-05-01

141

A First Look at the Structured Clinical Interview for "DSM-IV" Personality Disorders Screening Questionnaire: More Than Just a Screener?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the psychometrics of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders Personality Questionnaire (SCID-IIP) self-report personality questionnaire. The responses to the instrument were found reliable and evidenced good self-other convergence. Correlations with external criteria showed the SCID-IIP to contain…

Piedmont, Ralph L.; Sherman, Martin F.; Sherman, Nancy C.; Williams, Joseph E. G.

2003-01-01

142

The Big Five Personality Traits and Uses of Music: A Replication in Malaysia Using Structural Equation Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study set out to replicate and extend a recent paper (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2007) on personality and uses of music using structural equation modeling. Responses to questionnaire data from 227 Malaysian university students showed that, in line with our hypotheses, individuals higher in Neuroticism were more likely to use music for emotional regulation (influencing their mood states), Extraversion

Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic; Viren Swami; Adrian Furnham; Ismail Maakip

2009-01-01

143

Interpersonal Perceptions of the Five-Factor Model of Personality: An Examination Using the Structural Summary Method for Circumplex Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research investigating the structural convergence of the Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC; Wiggins, 1979, 1995) with the Five Factor Model (FFM; Costa & McCrae, 1992) of personality has predominantly focused on the traits of Agreeableness and Extraversion. The characteristics of the other three FFM traits: Neuroticism, Openness, and Conscientiousness…

Ansell, Emily B.; Pincus, Aaron L.

2004-01-01

144

Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for Ukraine.…

Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

2012-01-01

145

Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for Ukraine.…

Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

2012-01-01

146

The Structure of Maladaptive Personality Traits in Childhood: A Step Toward an Integrative Developmental Perspective for DSM–V  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes the construction of a taxonomy of trait-related symptoms in childhood, the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI), and examines the replicability of the taxonomy's higher order structure across maternal ratings of referred (N = 205) and nonreferred (N = 242) children and self-ratings of adolescents (N = 453). The DIPSI's 4 higher order factors—that is, Emotional

Barbara De Clercq; Filip De Fruyt; Karla Van Leeuwen; Ivan Mervielde

2006-01-01

147

Circumplex Structure and Personality Disorder Correlates of the Interpersonal Problems Model (IIP-C): Construct Validity and Clinical Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study assessed the construct validity of the circumplex model of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-C) in Norwegian clinical and nonclinical samples. Structure was examined by evaluating the fit of the circumplex model to data obtained by the IIP-C. Observer-rated personality disorder criteria (DSM-IV, Axis II) were used as…

Monsen, Jon T.; Hagtvet, Knut A.; Havik, Odd E.; Eilertsen, Dag E.

2006-01-01

148

Structural Relations of Personal and Collective Self-Esteem to Subjective Well-Being: Attachment as Moderator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A model indicating that the relationship between collective self-esteem and indicators of subjective well-being, happiness and life satisfaction, was mediated by personal self-esteem was tested by structural equation modeling. The model, including all participants, fitted well to the data. The results suggested that the relationship of collective…

Simsek, Omer Faruk

2013-01-01

149

The Personal and Academic Self-Concept Inventory: Factor Structure and Gender Differences in High School and College Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Personal and Academic Self-Concept Inventory (PASCI) measures global, social, physical, and academic components of self-concept, as well as social anxiety. Several competing structural models were tested by confirmatory factor analysis for a sample of high school (N = 222) and college (N = 338) students. Seven oblique factors which included two social factors (Social Acceptance and Social Anxiety) fit

James S. Fleming; D. Joel Whalen

1990-01-01

150

[Evaluation of fear and analysis of personality structure of women at risk for premature and after term labor].  

PubMed

Psychological studies were performed in 57 pregnant women at risk for premature labour and 36 at risk for after term labour. The level of fear was evaluated using the Spielberger STAI questionnaire. The structure of fear and restlessness was studied using the R.B. Cattell's five factor Self-estimation Sheet. The analysis of personality structure was performed on the basis of results of the MMPI-WISKAD test. In the patients in both studied groups, groups an increased level of situational and persistent fear was found. Women at risk for premature labour are characterized by higher level of fear of neurotic character resulting from disharmonious personality. In women delivered after term the fear is of reactive character. Women at risk for after term labour are characterized by a higher degree of personality integration and more effective ability to control fear. Women at risk for premature labour are characterized by disharmonious personality and simultaneously they use more primitive protective mechanisms. Women delivered after term are characterized by higher degree of personality integration and more effective ability to control fear. PMID:9638200

Kwa?niewska, A; Wartacz, E; Kwa?niewski, S W; Grudzie?, M; Robak, J

151

Factor structure and construct validity of the psychopathic personality inventory in a forensic sample.  

PubMed

A wealth of research has underscored the strong relationship between PCL-R scores and recidivism. However, mounting criticism cites the PCL-R's cumbersome administration procedures and failure to adequately measure core features associated with the construct of psychopathy (Skeem, Polaschek, Patrick, & Lilienfeld, 2011). In light of these concerns, this study examined the PPI and the PPI-R, which were designed to measure core personality features associated with psychopathy (Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). Study one examined the PPI relative to the PCL-R and examined its factor structure. The instruments shared few significant correlations and neither the PCL-R nor the PPI significantly predicted recidivism. Study two examined the PPI-R relative to the PCL-R, the PPI, both history of violence and future criminal activity and measure of related constructs. The PPI-R was significantly correlated with measures of empathy and criminal thinking and the factors were related to a history of violence and predicted future violent criminal behavior. PMID:23399313

Gonsalves, Valerie M; McLawsen, Julia E; Huss, Matthew T; Scalora, Mario J

2013-02-08

152

``Thermal'' and ``superthermal'' two-class structure of the personal income distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Ref. [1] we proposed an analogy between the thermal Boltzmann-Gibbs probability distribution of energy in physics and the probability distribution of money in economics in statistical equilibrium. In Ref. [2] we find that the probability distribution of personal income in the USA has a well-defined two-class structure. The majority of population (97-99%) belongs to the lower class characterized by the exponential Boltzmann-Gibbs (``thermal'') distribution, whereas the upper class (1-3% of population) has a Pareto power-law (``superthermal'') distribution. By analyzing the income data for 1983--2001 from IRS, we show that the ``thermal'' part is stationary in time, save for a gradual increase of the effective temperature, whereas the nonequilibrium ``superthermal'' tail swells and shrinks following the stock market. We discuss the concept of equilibrium inequality in a society, based on the principle of maximal entropy, and quantitatively show that it applies to the majority of the US population. [] [1] A. Dragulescu and V. M. Yakovenko, ``Statistical mechanics of money'', Eur. Phys. J. B 17, 723--729 (2000). [cond-mat/0001432] [] [2] A. C. Silva and V. M. Yakovenko, ``Temporal evolution of the `thermal' and `superthermal' income classes in the USA during 1983--2001'', accepted to Europhysics Letters. [cond- mat/0406385

Yakovenko, Victor

2005-03-01

153

Factor Structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory: Validity and Implications for Clinical Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by impulsive antisocial deviance in the context of emotional and interpersonal detachment. A factor analysis of the subscales of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) yielded evidence for 2 factors. One factor showed relations with external criteria mirroring those of the emotional-interpersonal facet of psychopathy, including high dominance, low anxiety, and venturesomeness. The other factor

Stephen D. Benning; Christopher J. Patrick; Brian M. Hicks; Daniel M. Blonigen; Robert F. Krueger

2003-01-01

154

NASA's New Millennium ST-8 Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, four technologies: Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; UltraFlex-175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array; and Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science computing. These technologies have been identified by NMP, with input from the space science community, as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The Thermal Loop, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The UltraFlex-175 will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The Dependable Multiprocessor will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform. It is expected that this experiment will enable more capable, high performance, fault-tolerant, processing to handle, in a variety of planetary and deep space environments, the large science and autonomy data processing loads expected in the future. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA.

Abakians, H.; Bothwell, M.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; White, S.; Samson, J. R.; Zsoldos, J.; McDermott, T.

2006-12-01

155

NASA's New Millennium ST8 Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft, four technologies These are : 1. Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; 2. SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; 3. UltraFlex-175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array 3. Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science computing. These technologies have been identified, with input from the space science community, as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The Thermal Loop, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The UltraFlex-175 will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fanfolded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3 ), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. 1 The Dependable Multiprocessor will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform. It is expected that this experiment will enable more capable, high performance, fault-tolerant, processing to handle, in a variety of planetary and deep space environments, the large science and autonomy data processing loads expected in the future. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA. 2

Abakians, H.; Botwell, M.; Chmielski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; White, S.; Samson, J. R.; Zsoldos, J.

156

NASA's New Millennium ST-8 Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Space Technology 8 project (ST-8) is subsystem demonstration which will validate four technologies that have been identified as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. NASA's New Millennium Program, with input from the science community, identified the following four technologies: Miniature Loop Heat Pipe with Multiple Evaporators Thermal Management System (MLHP), Scalable Architecture for the Investigation of the Load Managing Attributes of a Slender Truss (SAILMAST), Next Generation UltraFlex (NGU), and Environmentally Adaptive Fault Tolerant Computing (EAFTC). Once validated on a deep space mission, these technologies will be available for use on future science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The MLHP, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The NGU will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The EAFTC will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform. It is expected that this experiment will enable more capable, high performance, fault-tolerant, processing to handle, in a variety of planetary and deep space environments, the large science and autonomy data processing loads expected in the future. This work performed at JPL/Caltech under contract with NASA.

Bothwell, M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Fujita, T.; Minning, C.; Nelson, R. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; Sampson, J. R.

2005-12-01

157

NASA's New Millennium ST8 Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, four technologies: Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; Ultraflex 175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array; and Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science computing. These technologies have been identified by NMP, with input from the space science community, as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The Thermal Loop, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The Ultraflex 175 will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The Dependable Multiprocessor will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform. It is expected that this experiment will enable more capable, high performance, fault-tolerant, processing to handle, in a variety of planetary and deep space environments, the large science and autonomy data processing loads expected in the future. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

Stevens, C. M.; Stocky, J. F.; Nelson, R. M.

2007-12-01

158

NASA's New Millennium ST8 Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, four technologies: Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; Ultraflex 175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array; and Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science computing. These technologies have been identified by NMP, with input from the space science community, as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The Thermal Loop, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The Ultraflex 175 will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultracompact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The Dependable Multiprocessor will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform. It is expected that this experiment will enable more capable, high performance, fault-tolerant, processing to handle, in a variety of planetary and deep space environments, the large science and autonomy data processing loads expected in the future. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

Abakians, H.; Kim, Y.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; White, S.; Samson, J. R., Jr.; Zsoldos, J.; McDermott, T.

2007-08-01

159

Roe v. Wade. Into the next millennium.  

PubMed

In order to take the fight for reproductive rights into the next millennium, women in the US must be reminded of what life was like for women when contraception and abortion were illegal, and the silent majority of women who accept that abortion is a private decision must be marshalled to express their views politically. In the US, abortion was allowed until the mid- to late-1800s when Protestant leaders feared that Protestant births were being outnumbered by births to Irish Roman Catholic immigrants. There was only minimal organized opposition to abortion during the period when it was illegal and millions of women were dying as a result. An estimated 30,000 women died each year of illegal abortion in the US, and by the 1960s, illegal abortion was the greatest killer of women of reproductive age. Organized medicine, which witnessed these tragedies, never rallied to assure women quality reproductive health care. In fact, one of the first projects of the American Medical Association (AMA) was an anti-abortion campaign designed to put competitors out of business. The AMA waited until 1937 to endorse contraception and until the late 1960s to make efforts to legalize abortion. In 1997, the AMA again abandoned women by supporting the ban on late-term abortions. Pro-choice forces should prioritize the promotion of technological advances that will allow women to control conception and abortion. The means of achieving medical abortion and emergency contraception should be available in every physician's office and should be covered by every health insurance scheme. Reproductive health advocates must also work to inspire honesty about sex and sexuality in our sexually-obsessed, sexually-repressed society. Sex education in Denmark has nearly obliterated adolescent pregnancy and led to an 80% decline in the abortion rate over 30 years. In the US, nearly half of women have an abortion, and anti-abortion advocates should face the reality that their wives, daughters, mothers, and sisters have been affected by the right to choose. It is time to claim the moral high ground in the effort to secure safe, quality reproductive health care for all women. PMID:12178889

Sanger, A C

1998-01-01

160

A chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) analogue of cross-national generalization of personality structure: zoological parks and an African sanctuary.  

PubMed

Six personality factors, including five resembling the human Big Five, had previously been identified in a separate group of zoo-housed chimpanzees. Comparability of chimpanzee personality factor structure was examined in two highly contrasting habitats: zoos and a large African sanctuary. Questionnaires for the zoo chimpanzees were in English, while most for the chimpanzees in the sanctuary were in French. Differences between the two settings were sufficiently extensive to make them analogous to cross-national human personality studies. Internal consistencies for five of the six factors did not differ between the two samples. The patterns of correlations between the unit-weighted factors were also similar for the two samples. Data from these two samples were pooled and factor analyzed. The resulting factor structure was then rotated to the factor structure described in the original study of chimpanzee personality. Dominance, Extraversion, Dependability, and Agreeableness had high congruences. Emotionality and Openness did not, but the items that had the highest loadings were consistent with the factors' definitions. Finally, sex and age effects for all factors generalized across habitats. PMID:15745435

King, James E; Weiss, Alexander; Farmer, Kay H

2005-04-01

161

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act and Other Egregious Laws.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act, providing increased protection against unauthorized access to copyrighted electronic media, and the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, extending the term of most copyrighted books, unduly burden users of electronic media and books. Discusses the negative impact of recent federal laws to…

Van Horn, Royal

2002-01-01

162

Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This newsletter features innovations in resource management and information technology to support New York State government. The newsletter contains the following six sections: (1) "Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium" -- examining the need for government involvement in electronic commerce policy and partnership; (2)…

Maxwell, Terrence A., Ed.

1998-01-01

163

The New Millennium Program power technology [space power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Millennium Program (NMP) has been established to accelerate the infusion of breakthrough technologies into NASA space science missions. The goal of this technology infusion is to fulfill the NASA vision of frequent, low-cost missions to deep space and to planet Earth. Power is one of the most important keys to cost-effective space science missions. The power subsystem comprises

A. B. Chmielewski; A. Das; C. Cassapakis; D. Allen; W. J. Schafer; J. Sercel; F. Deligiannis; M. Piszczor; P. A. Jones; D. M. Barnett; S. Rawal; T. Reddy

1996-01-01

164

Critical Thinking for the New Millennium: A Pedagogical Imperative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The pedagogical imperative to prepare students to become critical thinkers, critical readers, and critical writers for the coming millennium necessitates a comprehensive college discourse on critical thinking. The paper cites seminars and workshops that incorporate theoretical and practical dimensions of teaching critical-analytical thinking…

Lee, Andrew Ann Dinkins

165

Remote Agent: An Autonomous Control System for the New Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

On May 17th 1999, the Remote Agent (RA) became the first Artificial Intelligence based closed loop autonomous control system to take control of a spacecraft. The RA commanded NASA's New Millennium Deep Space One spacecraft when it was 65 million miles away from earth. For a period of one week this system com- manded DS1's Ion Propulsion System, its camera,

Kanna Rajan; Douglas E. Bernard; Gregory Dorais; Edward B. Gamble; Bob Kanefsky; James Kurien; William Millar; Nicola Muscettola; P. Pandurang Nayak; Nicolas F. Rouquette; Benjamin D. Smith; William Taylor; Yu-wen Tung

2000-01-01

166

New Millennium AI and the Convergence of History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has recently become a real form al science: the new millennium brought the first mathematically sound, asymptotically optimal, unive rsal problem solvers, providing a new, rigorous foundation for the previously largely heuristic field of Gen eral AI and embedded agents. At the same time there has been rapid progress in practical methods for learning true sequence-processing programs,

Juergen Schmidhuber

2006-01-01

167

A Guide for Education in the Third Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the philosophical approaches to knowledge that have governed education and concludes that a new paradigm is needed for the new millennium. Education is subdivided into a three-level hierarchy, including: (1) the accumulation of factoids as knowledge; (2) the development of knowledge into theories and models for the purpose of…

Whiddon, Tom; Wirth, Rex; Pool, Harbison

168

Skills for the New Millennium. Paper Presentations: Session G.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains 14 papers from the skills for the new millennium section of an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Research on Vocational Education and Training as a Field for Knowledge Development--Starting Points for the…

2000

169

International terrorism on the eve of a new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to review the international terrorist activities of the last half century of this millennium and to make a case for needed changes in U.S. efforts to curb the growth of terrorism. Unless we can muster a unified front against global terrorism and organized crime, we are in danger of carrying these burdens with us

Roger Medd; Frank Goldstein

1997-01-01

170

Empowering people through donkey power into the next millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tractor programmes, designed to provide the much-needed draught power for the smallholder farming sector, have proved unsustainable and difficult to implement in most developing countries. Therefore, notwithstanding the continued promotion of tractors, the dependency of small-scale farmers on draught animal power (DAP) for crop production, is likely to continue into the next millennium. Cattle have been the predominant and preferred

E. M. Nengomasha; R. Anne Pearson; A. Gebre Wold

171

The Sri-Lankan Construction Industry in the New Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction investment in Sri- Lanka has followed the economic changes that took place during the last decade. This resulted in a significant change particularly in the supply side of the construction industry. Projections towards the new millennium reveal that government policies will be the key deterministic factor with its traditional role changing from that of an investor and a

C WEDDIKKARA; K. DEVAPRIYA

172

The Millennium Development Goals and Development after 2015  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five years from the end of the 15-year span of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) it is already plain that progress has been patchy and that the larger goals will not be met. The scale and profile of the MDGs will make them subject to eventual success or failure judgments and ‘lessons learned’ analyses, but the evidence of the past

Nana K Poku; Jim Whitman

2011-01-01

173

High Performance Computing Facilities for the Next Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

High Performance Computing facilities face increased pressures to survive and thrive in the next millennium. HPC facilities must combine effective techniques of the past with innovative methods of the future. This tutorial explores requirements and pressures on HPC centers, and presents effective methods being employed and new approaches to employ to overcome these challenges. Topics include: The current state of

William Kramer; Francesca Verdier; Keith Fitzgerald; James Craw; Tammy. Welcome

1999-01-01

174

Developing an Educational Performance Indicator for New Millennium Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educational performance based on the learning outcomes of formal schooling in a future knowledge society could be significantly different from that of today. This study investigates the possibilities of developing an educational performance indicator for new-millennium learners (NMLs). The researchers conducted literature reviews, a meeting of…

Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Jo, Il-Hyun; Shin, Jongho; Seo, Jeonghee

2012-01-01

175

Developing an Educational Performance Indicator for New Millennium Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educational performance based on the learning outcomes of formal schooling in a future knowledge society could be significantly different from that of today. This study investigates the possibilities of developing an educational performance indicator for new-millennium learners (NMLs). The researchers conducted literature reviews, a meeting of…

Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Jo, Il-Hyun; Shin, Jongho; Seo, Jeonghee

2011-01-01

176

Millennium Challenge Corporation: Budget Justification, Fiscal Year 2008  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The President is requesting in his Fiscal Year (FY) 2008 Budget an appropriation of $3 billion for the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC). These funds are essential for building on MCC's track record of success and for furthering MCC's mission of redu...

2007-01-01

177

Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 1: Early Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

2007-01-01

178

Spintronics: a new paradigm for electronics for the new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

SPIN TRansport electrONICS or SPINTRONICS, in which the spin degree of freedom of the electron will play an important role in addition to or in place of the charge degree of freedom in mainstream electronics will be important as we start the new millennium. The prospects for this new electronics in nonvolatile radiation hard magnetic memory for the Department of

Stuart A. Wolf; Daryl Treger

2000-01-01

179

Who was who in Elephantine of the third millennium BC?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fourth millennium BC, a settlement with a small island necropolis to its south started to develop in a restricted area in the eastern part of the southern tip of the island (fig. 1). In about 2700 BC, the town occupied the entire eastern part of the southern tip of the island; later on, the western part was used

Dietrich Raue

180

Literacy: The First Decade of the New Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the importance of literacy instruction has remained con­stant since the beginning of the new millennium, literacy trends have shifted, often alongside acts of legislation. Areas of literacy education that were once overlooked in the past like adolescent literacy and RTI are now receiving increased attention, whereas areas of literacy like phonemic awareness, phonics, and fluency receive considerably less attention

Jack Cassidy; Evan Ortlieb

2011-01-01

181

AIR TRANSPORTATION POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION AT THE MILLENNIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines air transportation policy and administration at the millennium. It reviews and analyzes major problem areas and focuses on issues that have to be dealt with to streamline the policy and administration in the field as it becomes more integrated in our increasingly intermodal transportation system. The first part of the article sets the stage for the changes

Van. R. Johnston

2002-01-01

182

Themed flagship brand stores in the new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flagship brand store is an increasingly popular venue used by marketers to build relationships with consumers. As we move further into an experience economy in the new millennium, retailers are refining the flagship brand store into new forms such as the themed retail brand store. This new form not only promotes a more engaging experience of the brand’s essence

Robert V. Kozinets; John F. Sherry; Benet DeBerry-Spence; Adam Duhachek; Krittinee Nuttavuthisit; Diana Storm

2002-01-01

183

Marketing research in the new millennium: emerging issues and trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the focus of the special issue, the present paper combines both the academic and the practitioner perspectives to highlight several issues and emerging trends that will shape the role of marketing research in the new millennium. These include a redefinition of the marketing researcher, the on-going nature of marketing research, qualitative research, quantitative research, international marketing research, Internet marketing

Naresh K. Malhotra; Mark Peterson

2001-01-01

184

The millennium challenge account: Neoliberalism, poverty and security  

Microsoft Academic Search

March 2002 George W. Bush announced that the new Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) would increase US development assistance by $5 billion per annum. The MCA's goal of ‘reducing poverty through growth’ was highlighted in the November 2002 National Security Strategy, which elevated development to join defence and diplomacy as one of the three pillars of the ‘war on terror’. This

Emma Mawdsley

2007-01-01

185

HCI in the Next Millennium: Supporting the World Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation uses three worlds, collective stance and learning curves perspectives to analyze developments in human-compute r interaction. It argues from historic data that the human interests have remained unchanged over at least five millennia, and may be expected to have the same basis during the next millennium. It concludes that we are still at a very early stage in

Brian R. Gaines

186

The Neo Personality Inventory-Revised: Factor Structure and Gender Invariance from Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in a High-Stakes Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study presents new analyses of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) responses collected from a large British sample in a high-stakes setting. The authors show the appropriateness of the five-factor model underpinning these responses in a variety of new ways. Using the recently developed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM)…

Furnham, Adrian; Guenole, Nigel; Levine, Stephen Z.; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

2013-01-01

187

Factorial structure and diagnostic efficiency of DSM-IV criteria for avoidant personality disorder in patients with binge eating disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the factorial structure and diagnostic efficiency of the DSM-IV criteria for avoidant personality disorder (AVPD). Two hundred and twenty-eight consecutive outpatients (181 females and 47 males) with a primary diagnosis of binge eating disorder were reliably assessed with diagnostic interviews. Internal consistency of AVPD criteria was good, as suggested by coefficient alpha of 0.87, the pattern of

Carlos M. Grilo

2004-01-01

188

The professional structure of Soviet medical care: the relationship between personal characteristics, medical education, and occupational setting for Estonian physicians.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. Using the Estonian example, this study provides data to describe the ways in which personal, educational, and occupational factors interacted to determine the professional structure of the Soviet health care system. METHODS. The study analyzes data gathered from a survey of 20% of the physicians in Estonia. It measures the frequencies of pertinent personal and occupational factors, and uses multivariate analysis to explore relationships between these factors. RESULTS. Most physicians in Estonia are women and work in urban settings. About half of the physicians work in hospitals, and one third work in large outpatient clinics called polyclinics. About one third work in primary care. Gender affects education, specialty, type of workplace, and administrative duties; nationality affects education and administrative duties. CONCLUSIONS. The Soviet system of health care derived its professional structure from a combination of personal and occupational factors. Those considering options for reform of the health care systems of the newly independent states that once constituted the Soviet Union should appreciate the nature of these structural forces.

Barr, D A

1995-01-01

189

The Big Five of Personality and structural imaging revisited: a VBM - DARTEL study.  

PubMed

The present study focuses on the neurostructural foundations of the human personality. In a large sample of 227 healthy human individuals (168 women and 59 men), we used MRI to examine the relationship between personality traits and both regional gray and white matter volume, while controlling for age and sex. Personality was assessed using the German version of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory that measures individual differences in the 'Big Five of Personality': extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. In contrast to most previous studies on neural correlates of the Big Five, we used improved processing strategies: white and gray matter were independently assessed by segmentation steps before data analysis. In addition, customized sex-specific diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra templates were used. Our results did not show significant correlations between any dimension of the Big Five and regional gray matter volume. However, among others, higher conscientiousness scores correlated significantly with reductions in regional white matter volume in different brain areas, including the right insula, putamen, caudate, and left fusiformis. These correlations were driven by the female subsample. The present study suggests that many results from the literature on the neurostructural basis of personality should be reviewed carefully, considering the results when the sample size is larger, imaging methods are rigorously applied, and sex-related and age-related effects are controlled. PMID:23531766

Liu, Wei-Yin; Weber, Bernd; Reuter, Martin; Markett, Sebastian; Chu, Woei-Chyn; Montag, Christian

2013-05-01

190

Work Engagement Accumulation of Task, Social, Personal Resources: A Three-Wave Structural Equation Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Drawing on Conservation of Resources Theory and previous research on work engagement, the present study investigates gain spirals between employees' engagement and their task, social, and personal resources. It focuses on the key resources of job control, positive work relationships, and active coping behavior. In a three-wave design, work…

Weigl, Matthias; Hornung, Severin; Parker, Sharon K.; Petru, Raluca; Glaser, Jurgen; Angerer, Peter

2010-01-01

191

Internal consistency and factor structure of personality disorders in a forensic intellectual disability sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The publication of the DSM-III (American Psychiatric Association (APA), 1980) prompted a significant increase in interest and research on personality disorder (PD), and the concept has subsequently been incorporated into mental health legislation in the developed world. Despite this, such research on people with intellectual disability (ID) has been sporadic, with widely varying results. The present study addresses a

William R. Lindsay; Lesley Steptoe; Todd E. Hogue; John L. Taylor; Paul Mooney; Fabian Haut; Susan Johnston; Gregory O'Brien

2007-01-01

192

Factor Structure and Construct Validity of the Interaction with Disabled Persons Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigated the psychometric properties of the Interaction with Disabled Persons Scale (IDP; L. Gething, 1991). Exploratory factor analysis with 358 undergraduates and confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of 272 undergraduates suggest that the IDP may provide a reasonable measurement of multidimensional attitudes toward individuals with…

Thomas, Adrian; Palmer, Jerry K.; Coker-Juneau, Carla J.; Williams, David J.

2002-01-01

193

Personality Structure as Viewed Through Early Memories and Identity Status in College Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early memories were obtained from 98 college men and women in the four identity status categories and rated for psychosocial maturity in order to replicate an earlier study by Josselson (1982) with college women. In a result that was consistent with those of that earlier study and other studies in which deeper aspects of personality development that underlie identity formation

Jacob Orlofsky; Monica Frank

1986-01-01

194

Factor Structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI): Findings from a Large Incarcerated Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; S. O. Lilienfeld, 1990; S. O. Lilienfeld & B. P. Andrews, 1996) with a community sample has suggested that the PPI subscales may comprise 2 higher order factors (S. D. Benning, C. J. Patrick, B. M. Hicks, D. M. Blonigen, & R. F. Krueger, 2003). However, substantive…

Neumann, Craig S.; Malterer, Melanie B.; Newman, Joseph P.

2008-01-01

195

Work Engagement Accumulation of Task, Social, Personal Resources: A Three-Wave Structural Equation Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on Conservation of Resources Theory and previous research on work engagement, the present study investigates gain spirals between employees' engagement and their task, social, and personal resources. It focuses on the key resources of job control, positive work relationships, and active coping behavior. In a three-wave design, work…

Weigl, Matthias; Hornung, Severin; Parker, Sharon K.; Petru, Raluca; Glaser, Jurgen; Angerer, Peter

2010-01-01

196

Personality structure and identity status in women as viewed through early memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early memories were obtained from women in the four identity status categories and rated for developmental level in an effort to assess deeper aspects of personality development that underlie identity formation. In contrast to some previous research which has found similarities between Achievement and Foreclosure women and between Moratorium and Diffusion women, this study found that Moratorium women show greater

Ruthellen Josselson

1982-01-01

197

Brief Report: Structure of Personal Narratives of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Young adults with High Functioning Autism and a matched comparison group told personal narratives using a standard conversational procedure. Longest narratives were determined (i.e., number of propositions included) and scored using an analysis that looks at the organization of a narrative around a highpoint. The group with Autism Spectrum…

McCabe, Allyssa; Hillier, Ashleigh; Shapiro, Claudia

2013-01-01

198

Printing Method Considering Character Structures of Word-processed Sentenceswith Personal Fonts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although word-processed sentences are easy to read because of the use of standardized character fonts and their orderly arrangement, these sentences lack a writer's individual style and thus fail to convey the writer's true message. Recently in response to this, word-processed sentences with personal fonts are desired. On the other hand, distinguished calligraphers decide character arrangements in consideration of the

Tsunemasa Saiki; Yoichi Kitagawa; Akihiro Hayashi

2003-01-01

199

Personality Traits and General Intelligence as Predictors of Academic Performance: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, after controlling for general intelligence, predict academic performance in different school subjects. Upper secondary school students in Sweden (N=315) completed the Wonderlic IQ test (Wonderlic, 1992) and the IPIP-NEO-PI test (Goldberg, 1999). A series of…

Rosander, Pia; Backstrom, Martin; Stenberg, Georg

2011-01-01

200

Millennium Report of the Secretary General of the United Nations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on April 3, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan's detailed report sets the agenda for the UN Millennium Summit, an extraordinary meeting of Heads of State and Government around the world to be held September 6-8, 2000, on the eve of the first UN General Assembly of the new millennium. Entitled, "We the Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century," the report "is the most comprehensive presentation of the UN's mission in its fifty-five year history, containing numerous specific goals and programme initiatives." Users can read the full text of the report in .pdf or HTML format, as well as a summary, fact sheet, press release, key proposals, and the Secretary General's statement to the General Assembly at the UN site. Additional resources include Annan's statement from the press conference, photos, and an archived webcast of his speech before the General Assembly.

201

Sports medicine in the new millennium: a vision for 2020.  

PubMed

Globalisation, empowerment and technological change will determine the emerging directions in sports medicine in the new millennium. Networks and alliances of scientist and clinician services, as well as electronic profiling of athletes' learning styles, genetic predisposition and other variables, will enhance the spectrum of sports medicine services. Visionary direction will require changes in the organisational paradigms employed, the communication of information to athletes and coaches and the methodologies of assessment. An emphasis on prevention science and clinical and educational interventions will require a clearer focus. The sports medicine scientist and clinician of today must utilise the endowments suggested by Covey and the multiple intelligence models advanced by Gardner in capturing the clarity of focus for sports medicine in the new millennium. PMID:10541439

Miller, T W; Kraus, R F; Adams, J; Bilyeu, J; Ogilvie, B

1999-09-01

202

Solar activity and climate during the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sunspot number is the longest running direct index of solar activity, with direct measurements starting in 1610. For many purposes, e.g., for comparisons with climate indices, it is still too short. We present a reconstruction of the cycle-averaged sunspot number over the last millennium based on 10Be concentrations in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. As intermediate steps of the method, we also reconstruct the cosmic ray flux at Earth and the Sun's open magnetic flux. The reconstructions are validated by comparison with direct measurements or independent reconstructions. We also compare with records of global climate, in particular with the global temperature ("hockey stick") curve of Mann et al (1998). A reasonable agreement is found for the entire millennium, excluding only the last decades, when the two curves start diverging from each other.

Solanki, S. K.; Usoskin, I.; Schüssler, M.

203

SAUDI MEDICAL EDUCATION: CHALLENGES IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM  

PubMed Central

Medical education has been and continues to be a priority in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia since the establishment of the first medical school more than 30 years ago. As the kingdom moves into the new millennium through its 100th birthday, several issues pertaining to medical education are noted. These include selection and admission criteria to medical schools, suitability concerns, and the need for reform of the current undergraduate curriculum as well as allocation and utilization of available resources. The postgraduate medical training programs, particularly the university-based, need re-evaluation, and definition of their future role in graduate medical education. Medical educators must make sure that research in medical education should not only survive but also thrive. In this article, some suggestions for Saudi medical education in n the new millennium are put forth.

Al-Sulaiman, Abdulsalam A.

2000-01-01

204

The evolution of climate over the last millennium.  

PubMed

Knowledge of past climate variability is crucial for understanding and modeling current and future climate trends. This article reviews present knowledge of changes in temperatures and two major circulation features-El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)-over much of the last 1000 years, mainly on the basis of high-resolution paleoclimate records. Average temperatures during the last three decades were likely the warmest of the last millennium, about 0.2 degrees C warmer than during warm periods in the 11th and 12th centuries. The 20th century experienced the strongest warming trend of the millennium (about 0.6 degrees C per century). Some recent changes in ENSO may have been unique since 1800, whereas the recent trend to more positive NAO values may have occurred several times since 1500. Uncertainties will only be reduced through more extensive spatial sampling of diverse proxy climatic records. PMID:11326088

Jones, P D; Osborn, T J; Briffa, K R

2001-04-27

205

The elderly at the millennium: Courting the older consumer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major debate in social gerontology has been where ageing might be going in the future. In this article, author Thomas K.\\u000a Fitzgerald looks at media challenges as responses to economic realities, as well as futurist predictions of the millennium—the\\u000a preeminent metaphor for the future. Progress is noted based on current metaphors of ageing and the aged as well as

Thomas K. Fitzgerald

1999-01-01

206

Hotel Technology At the Start of the New Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the beginning of the new millennium, hotel technology will be entrenched in every phase of hotel management, marketing, and operations. Powerful new microchips will provide dramatic increases in power perdollarinvested. High-speed, high-capacity fiber-optic cable will link the world for faster, less costly telecommuni cations and will help change how hotels communicate with their guests and with headquarters. New hotel

Larry Chervenak

1993-01-01

207

Red-sequence cluster finding in the Millennium Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate halo mass selection properties of red-sequence cluster finders using galaxy populations of the Millennium Simulation (MS). A clear red sequence exists for MS galaxies in massive haloes at redshifts z < 1, and we use this knowledge to inform a cluster-finding algorithm applied to 500h-1Mpc projections of the simulated volume. At low redshift (z = 0.4), we find

J. D. Cohn; A. E. Evrard; M. White; D. Croton; E. Ellingson

2007-01-01

208

A Smart Sensor Integrated Circuit for NASA's New Millennium Spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern space era can greatly benefit from the rapidly growingmicroelectronics technologies in order to enable the ambitious exploratoryand commercial space endeavors of the new millennium. A smart sensor, analog\\/digital, integrated circuit, suitable for spacecraft avionics dataacquisition and control is presented. The Remote Input\\/Output (RIO) device isdeveloped by The Johns Hopkins University\\/Applied Physics Laboratory, for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, to

Nikolaos P. Paschalidis

2001-01-01

209

A smart sensor integrated circuit for NASA's new millennium spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern space era can greatly benefit from the rapidly growing microelectronics technologies in order to enable the ambitious exploratory and commercial space endeavors of the new millennium. A smart sensor, analog\\/digital, integrated circuit, suitable for spacecraft avionics data acquisition and control is presented. The Remote Input\\/Output (RIO) device is developed by The Johns Hopkins University\\/Applied Physics Laboratory, for NASA's

Nikolaos P. Paschalidis

1999-01-01

210

Assessing the Universal Structure of Personality in Early Adolescence: The NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years from 24 cultures. Replacement…

De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

2009-01-01

211

Latent structure of a two-dimensional model of antisocial personality disorder: construct validation and taxometric analysis.  

PubMed

Indicators from three different self-report measures-the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy (LSRP) scale, and the Antisocial Features (ANT) scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory-were organized into two dimensions, proactive and reactive, and subjected to construct validation and taxometric analysis in 637 male medium and maximum security inmates. Using three nonredundant and relatively independent taxometric procedures, mean above minus below a cut (MAMBAC), maximum eigenvalue (MAXEIG), and latent mode factor analysis (L-Mode), consistent evidence of dimensional latent structure was discerned for the proactive and reactive dimensions of antisociality, both of which correlated moderately with a measure of antisocial personality disorder. It is reasoned that the two-dimensional model may eventually be capable of bridging the gap between childhood aggression and adult criminality as well as provide guidance to clinicians working with criminal offenders. PMID:20001180

Walters, Glenn D

2009-12-01

212

Last Millennium Climate and Its Variability in CCSM4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Last Millennium simulation of the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) reproduces many large-scaled climate patterns suggested by historical and proxy-data records including cooling from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age, a "hockey-stick" pattern of surface temperature changes from 850-2005, and a broad cooling with a delayed La Niña-type of pattern in the tropical Pacific response to large volcanic events. Atmospheric modes, one oceanic mode (the Pacific Decadal Oscillation), and one ocean-atmosphere coupled mode (the El Niño-Southern Oscillation) of variability show little or no change in their variances, teleconnection patterns and spectra between the Last Millennium simulation and the 1850 non-transient control run. Two oceanic modes, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation have higher variances and increased power at low frequencies in the Last Millennium simulation compared with the control run, suggesting long-term oceanic response to natural solar and volcanic forcings.

Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Landrum, L.; Conley, A.; Lawrence, P.; Rosenbloom, N. A.; Teng, H.

2011-12-01

213

Sunyaev-Zel'dovich clusters in Millennium gas simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large surveys using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect to find clusters of galaxies are now starting to yield large numbers of systems out to high redshift, many of which are new discoveries. In order to provide theoretical interpretation for the release of the full SZ cluster samples over the next few years, we have exploited the large-volume Millennium gas cosmological N-body hydrodynamics simulations to study the SZ cluster population at low and high redshift, for three models with varying gas physics. We confirm previous results using smaller samples that the intrinsic (spherical) Y500-M500 relation has very little scatter (?), is insensitive to cluster gas physics and evolves to redshift 1 in accordance with self-similar expectations. Our preheating and feedback models predict scaling relations that are in excellent agreement with the recent analysis from combined Planck and XMM-Newton data by the Planck Collaboration. This agreement is largely preserved when r500 and M500 are derived using the hydrostatic mass proxy, YX, 500, albeit with significantly reduced scatter (?), a result that is due to the tight correlation between Y500 and YX, 500. Interestingly, this assumption also hides any bias in the relation due to dynamical activity. We also assess the importance of projection effects from large-scale structure along the line of sight, by extracting cluster Y500 values from 50 simulated 5 × 5-deg2 sky maps. Once the (model-dependent) mean signal is subtracted from the maps we find that the integrated SZ signal is unbiased with respect to the underlying clusters, although the scatter in the (cylindrical) Y500-M500 relation increases in the preheating case, where a significant amount of energy was injected into the intergalactic medium at high redshift. Finally, we study the hot gas pressure profiles to investigate the origin of the SZ signal and find that the largest contribution comes from radii close to r500 in all cases. The profiles themselves are well described by generalized Navarro, Frenk & White profiles but there is significant cluster-to-cluster scatter. In conclusion, our results support the notion that Y500 is a robust mass proxy for use in cosmological analyses with clusters.

Kay, Scott T.; Peel, Michael W.; Short, C. J.; Thomas, Peter A.; Young, Owain E.; Battye, Richard A.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Pearce, Frazer R.

2012-05-01

214

PERSONALITY AND REGIONAL PREFERENCE STRUCTURES: A STUDY OF INTROVERSION-EXTRAVERSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introverts and extraverts differ in their residential preferences for thirty-nine regions in eastern Australia. Preference was assessed on a seven-point scale and introversion-extraversion by means of a 210-item questionnaire. Mapping of the correlations between personality trait scores and regional preference scores revealed that introverts prefer inland, temperate, and settled areas whereas extraverts prefer marginal, relatively undeveloped, wilderness areas, coastal resorts,

D. J. Walmsley

1982-01-01

215

The Psychopathic Personality Inventory: Construct validity of the two-factor structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996), consists of two factors, Fearless-Dominance (PPI-I) and Antisocial-Impulsivity (PPI-II). The present study investigated the construct validity of the PPI in 165 inmates, and 431 undergraduates. Inmates and students filled in the PPI and the Behavioural Inhibition (BIS) and Behavioural Activation Scales (BAS) (BIS\\/BAS; Carver & White, 1994). A

Katarzyna Uzieblo; Bruno Verschuere; Geert Crombez

2007-01-01

216

The Ripple Effect of Personality on Social Structure: Self-Monitoring Origins of Network Brokerage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite growing interest in social network brokerage, its psychological antecedents have been neglected. One possibility is that brokerage relates to self-monitoring personality orientation. High self-monitors, relative to low self-monitors, in adapting their self-presentations to the demands of different groups, may occupy positions as brokers between disconnected social worlds. For 162 Korean expatriate entrepreneurs in a Canadian urban area, the results

Hongseok Oh; Martin Kilduff

2008-01-01

217

Examining the Impact of Gender on the Factor Structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory--Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the factor structure of psychopathy has yielded mixed results, supporting anywhere from one to three factors. Additionally, most of this research has used all-male samples, and the possibility of structural invariance across gender has not been examined. Using a mixed-gender sample of 360 undergraduates, the factor structure of the…

Anestis, Joye C.; Caron, Kelly M.; Carbonell, Joyce L.

2011-01-01

218

Social Structure-Personality: What is the Relationship Between Social Class and Child-Rearing Values  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sociologist, Melvin Kohn, argued that people's locations in social structures, particularly the occupational structure, influenced the values they would stress for their children because variations in structural locations exposed them to different experiences. His research, however, was done some time ago. Much has changed in our social world since then. Does the original relationship still hold?

Lashbrook, Jeffrey

2009-04-21

219

Right person, right skills, right job: the contribution of objective structured clinical examinations in advancing staff nurse experts.  

PubMed

Recruitment processes need to discriminate among candidates to ensure that the right person with the right skills is selected for advancement opportunities. An innovative recruitment process using an objective structured clinical examination grounded in best practice guidelines resulted in improved recruitment practices for senior nursing clinical expert roles. Candidates' skills, knowledge, and attitudes in the areas of patient focus, clinical expertise, teamwork, and leadership were assessed using a clinical simulation. Candidates achieving advancement were assessed at 6 months to validate the efficacy of the process. PMID:24061588

Mitchell, Marion; Strube, Petra; Vaux, Amanda; West, Nicky; Auditore, Anthony

2013-10-01

220

The prevalence and structure of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in Hispanic psychiatric outpatients  

PubMed Central

This study sought to confirm a multi-factor model of Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in a Hispanic outpatient sample and to explore associations of the OCPD factors with aggression, depression, and suicidal thoughts. One hundred and thirty monolingual, Spanish-speaking participants were recruited from a community mental health center and were assessed by bilingual doctoral level clinicians. OCPD was highly prevalent (26%) in this sample. Multi-factor models of OCPD were tested and the two factors - perfectionism and interpersonal rigidity - provided the best model fit. Interpersonal rigidity was associated with aggression and anger while perfectionism was associated with depression and suicidal thoughts.

Ansell, Emily B.; Pinto, Anthony; Crosby, Ross D.; Becker, Daniel F.; Anez, Luis M.; Paris, Manuel; Grilo, Carlos M.

2010-01-01

221

Evolution of organizations in the new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progressive stages in the evolution of organizations correspond to progressively deeper aspects of the mind. The stage of task-based management emphasized the more superficial sensorimotor and concrete thinking capacities; this approach of rigid rules and structures is now unsuited for an increasingly knowledge-based economy. The next stage, process-based management, makes greater use of the intellect of organizational members to design,

Harald S. Harung; Dennis P. Heaton; Charles N. Alexander

1999-01-01

222

[Perceptions of classroom goal structures, personal achievement goal orientations, and learning strategies].  

PubMed

We examined the relations among students' perceptions of classroom goal structures (mastery and performance goal structures), students' achievement goal orientations (mastery, performance, and work-avoidance goals), and learning strategies (deep processing, surface processing and self-handicapping strategies). Participants were 323 5th and 6th grade students in elementary schools. The results from structural equation modeling indicated that perceptions of classroom mastery goal structures were associated with students' mastery goal orientations, which were in turn related positively to the deep processing strategies and academic achievement. Perceptions of classroom performance goal stractures proved associated with work avoidance-goal orientations, which were positively related to the surface processing and self-handicapping strategies. Two types of goal structures had a positive relation with students' performance goal orientations, which had significant positive effects on academic achievement. The results of this study suggest that elementary school students' perceptions of mastery goal structures are related to adaptive patterns of learning more than perceptions of performance goal structures are. The role of perceptions of classroom goal structure in promoting students' goal orientations and learning strategies is discussed. PMID:16200881

Miki, Kaori; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu

2005-08-01

223

The effects of religious contextual norms, structural constraints, and personal religiosity on abortion decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have established that individual religiosity influences abortion attitudes, and that abortion attitudes, in turn, shape abortion restrictions and access. Less clear is whether religion and abortion structural constraints influence abortion decisions. This study examines the several individual, contextual, and structural factors that could shape the abortion decisions of women who conceive before marriage. Special attention is given to the

Amy Adamczyk

2008-01-01

224

Innovative Approaches to Funding the Millennium Development Goals. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief, No. 24  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which set targets for reducing poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women by 20151. The need for additional development funding, if the MDGs are to be achieved by 2015, is…

Reisen, Helmut

2004-01-01

225

Visual tracking of the Millennium Development Goals with a Self-organizing neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) represent commitments to reduce poverty and hunger, and to tackle ill- health, gender inequality, lack of education, lack of access to clean water and environmental degradation by 2015. The eight goals of the Millennium Declaration are tracked using 21 benchmark targets, measured by 60 indicators. This paper explores whether the application of the Self-organizing map

Peter Sarlin

2011-01-01

226

A Millennium Learning Goal for education post?2015: a question of outcomes or processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the target year for the current Millennium Development Goal of universal completion of primary education approaches, three World Bank economists have proposed its replacement with a Millennium Learning Goal. This is part of a trend of increased privileging of learning outcomes. The proposal is assessed from the perspective of human rights?based and social justice conceptualisations of education quality. A

Angeline M. Barrett

2011-01-01

227

Chagas disease: an impediment in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Achieving sustainable economic and social growth through advances in health is crucial in Latin America within the framework of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. DISCUSSION: Health-related Millennium Development Goals need to incorporate a multidimensional approach addressing the specific epidemiologic profile for each region of the globe. In this regard, addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with

Carlos Franco-Paredes; Anna Von; Alicia Hidron; Alfonso J Rodríguez-Morales; Ildefonso Tellez; Maribel Barragán; Danielle Jones; Cesar G Náquira; Jorge Mendez

2007-01-01

228

A Millennium Learning Goal for Education Post-2015: A Question of Outcomes or Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the target year for the current Millennium Development Goal of universal completion of primary education approaches, three World Bank economists have proposed its replacement with a Millennium Learning Goal. This is part of a trend of increased privileging of learning outcomes. The proposal is assessed from the perspective of human rights-based…

Barrett, Angeline M.

2011-01-01

229

Innovative Approaches to Funding the Millennium Development Goals. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief, No. 24  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which set targets for reducing poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women by 20151. The need for additional development funding, if the MDGs are to be achieved by 2015, is…

Reisen, Helmut

2004-01-01

230

Paleoclimate simulations and reconstructions. An intercomparison for the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A suite of paleoclimate simulations spanning the last millennium are analyzed with several high complexity general circulation models (AOGCMs), such as ECHO-G, HadCM3, CSM1.4, CCSM3, MPI-ESM, CNRM and IPSL and compared with available paleoclimatic reconstructions. The simulations are forced with different estimates of natural and anthropogenic external forcings, including solar and volcanic activity and atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and anthropogenic aerosols. The various external forcing configurations applied in each model are compared, evidencing that the largest differences refer to the variability of solar forcing, the implementation of volcanic forcing, the exclusion of some anthropogenic forcing in some model runs and the fact that one of the models uses an interactive carbon cycle. . The analysis is mainly focused on the temperature response in the various model simulations, paying special attention to the internal variability and its sensitivity to the external forcing. The temporal evolution is studied at global and hemispherical scales, emphasizing relevant periods of the last millennium as the Medieval Climate Anomaly, the Little Ice Age, the industrial times or significant volcanic eruptions. For most of the simulations a linear relationship between the total equivalent external forcing applied and the temperature response is found which allows to define a paleo-transient climate sensitivity (PTCS) for the last millennium. The PTCS is compared in each model with the equilibrium climate sensitivity as well as with the transient climate response obtained for future climate change projections. In addition, the variations produced by important volcanic events is analysed in order to provide complementary estimations of climate sensibility focusing on higher frequencies.

Fernández-Donado, L.; Gonzalez-Rouco, F. J.; Raible, C.; Barriopedro, D.; Luterbacher, J.; Jungclaus, J. H.; Swingedouw, D.; Servonnat, J.; Tett, S. F.; Brohan, P.; Zorita, E.; Wagner, S.; Ammann, C. M.; Yiou, P.; Lorenz, S.

2011-12-01

231

[Terra Sigillata--a remedy used through millenniums].  

PubMed

Terra Sigillata is clay. It has been used as medicine for different diseases through Centuries even millenniums. This specific clay has been used from Hippocrates until the 20th cent. more or less for the same kind of diseases, mostly various poisonings. The earliest known clay in use as medicine came from the Greek island Lemnos. Later on, when the clay became a very popular medicine, it was manufactured as tablets all over Europe where this specific type of clay was available. But Terra Sigillata is also a type of Roman Samian ware, used in the widespread Roman Empire. PMID:19831289

Frölich, Annette

2008-01-01

232

Halo Pairs in the Millennium Simulation: Love and Deception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work I investigate the statistical properties of a huge catalog of closely interacting pairs of dark matter haloes, extracted from the Millennium Simulation database. Only haloes that reach a minimum mass ? 8.6 × 1010 M? h–1 (corresponding to 100 particles) are considered. Close pairs are selected if they come within a critical distance dcrit. I explore the effects of replacing dcrit = 1 Mpc h–1 ? 200 kpc h–1 on the evolution of separations, lifetimes, total masses and mass ratios of these pairs.

Moreno, J.

2013-10-01

233

Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium: Panel Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest release from the National Academy Press is the free online version of Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium: Panel Reports. The book contains contributions from the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Space Studies Board, and National Research Council. Although the online version is a "free, browseable, nonproprietary, fully and deeply searchable version of the publication," a disclaimer suggests that it is not designed to replace printed books. Users can search, browse, or print the document through the easy-to-use Open Book page image presentation framework.

2007-10-24

234

Human gene therapy: ensuring progress in the next millennium.  

PubMed

The year 2000 will mark the tenth anniversary of the first human gene therapy experiment. This first year of the new millennium is also the twenty-fifth anniversary of the National Academy of Sciences conference known as "Asilomar." In the early 1970s, the importance of recombinant DNA technologies to the development of a host of new therapeutics to treat many of humanity's most devastating diseases was widely recognized. At the same time, public anxiety increased about the possible generation of hazardous biological agents and unknown public health risks that might arise as a result of this new technology. PMID:12455554

Knorr, D

1999-01-01

235

Neutron instrument simulations in the next millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neutron Instrument Simulation Package (NISP) is available on the world-wide web at URL http://strider.lansce.lanl.gov/NISP/Welcome.html. With more than 20 years of development, there is a certain amount of maturity in the code, but also the potential for a great deal of growth. As requirements for more sophisticated simulations grow, NISP can be expanded or modified to meet those needs. This report describes features of the NISP structures that make it possible for users to contribute algorithms. Any interaction that can be coded as a Fortran-callable subroutine can be included as a region type in the simulations. New ideas are always solicited, and may be sent by e-mail to

Seeger, P. A.; Daemen, L. L.; Thelliez, T. G.; Hjelm, R. P.

2000-06-01

236

Fossil groups in the Millennium simulation. Their environment and its evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Fossil systems are defined to be X-ray bright galaxy groups (or clusters) with a two-magnitude difference between their two brightest galaxies within half the projected virial radius, and represent an interesting extreme of the population of galaxy agglomerations. However, the physical conditions and processes leading to their formation are still poorly constrained. Aims: We compare the outskirts of fossil systems with that of normal groups to understand whether environmental conditions play a significant role in their formation. We study the groups of galaxies in both, numerical simulations and observations. Methods: We use a variety of statistical tools including the spatial cross-correlation function and the local density parameter ?5 to probe differences in the density and structure of the environments of "normal" and "fossil" systems in the Millennium simulation. Results: We find that the number density of galaxies surrounding fossil systems evolves from greater than that observed around normal systems at z = 0.69, to lower than the normal systems by z = 0. Both fossil and normal systems exhibit an increment in their otherwise radially declining local density measure (?5) at distances of order 2.5 rvir from the system centre. We show that this increment is more noticeable for fossil systems than normal systems and demonstrate that this difference is linked to the earlier formation epoch of fossil groups. Despite the importance of the assembly time, we show that the environment is different for fossil and non-fossil systems with similar masses and formation times along their evolution. We also confirm that the physical characteristics identified in the Millennium simulation can also be detected in SDSS observations. Conclusions: Our results confirm the commonly held belief that fossil systems assembled earlier than normal systems but also show that the surroundings of fossil groups could be responsible for the formation of their large magnitude gap.

Díaz-Giménez, E.; Zandivarez, A.; Proctor, R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Abramo, L. R.

2011-03-01

237

Ray-tracing through the Millennium Simulation: Born corrections and lens-lens coupling in cosmic shear and galaxy-galaxy lensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Weak-lensing surveys need accurate theoretical predictions for interpretation of their results and cosmological-parameter estimation. Aims: We study the accuracy of various approximations to cosmic shear and weak galaxy-galaxy lensing and investigate effects of Born corrections and lens-lens coupling. Methods: We use ray-tracing through the Millennium Simulation, a large N-body simulation of cosmic structure formation, to calculate various cosmic-shear and

S. Hilbert; J. Hartlap; S. D. M. White; P. Schneider

2009-01-01

238

Deliberate self-harm in female patients with affective disorders: investigation of personality structure and affect regulation by means of operationalized psychodynamic diagnostics.  

PubMed

This study investigated psychodynamically relevant dimensions in female depressive patients with and without deliberate self-harm (DSH). DSH is often observed in depressive patients and frequently shows a correlation with personality disorders. Forty female depressive patients with and without DSH were investigated after recovery from acute depressive pathology by means of "operationalized psychodynamic diagnostics" (OPD). Patients with DSH had a significantly lower level of integration in the OPD dimension "structure," and their "interpersonal relationships" showed dysfunctional interaction patterns. They also had a significantly higher rate of personality disorders. These results underline the significance of aspects of personality structure in female depressive patients with DSH, and enable a deeper understanding of their dysfunctional defense strategies, the connections with underlying disturbed affect regulation, and vicious circles in the therapeutic transference-countertransference relationship. OPD has been shown to be a useful tool for empirical research into therapeutically relevant dimensions of personality. PMID:18852618

Boeker, Heinz; Himmighoffen, Holger; Straub, Miriam; Schopper, Christian; Endrass, Jerome; Kuechenhoff, Bernhard; Weber, Silvan; Hell, Daniel

2008-10-01

239

Physician adoption of personal digital assistants (PDA): testing its determinants within a structural equation model.  

PubMed

Research has begun to explore the determinants of personal digital assistant (PDA) adoption in health care. Much of this research has, however, been inconsistent in its treatment of key constructs and its methodological approaches. The current study takes a stricter approach and tracks the pre- and postadoption beliefs of physicians provided with an actual PDA within a single health care facility in the United States. Results show that age, position in hospital, beliefs about health IT, and cluster ownership are significant, direct predictors of the physician's preadoption beliefs about PDAs. Contrary to prior research findings, both ease of use and usefulness perceptions significantly influenced the physician's intent to adopt PDAs. More important, results show that physicians focus on a broader range of PDA factors during preadoption assessment of the technology, while actual use is based solely on the PDA's ease of use. Moreover, the preadoption usefulness perceptions do not influence postadoption usefulness. Hence, the cognitive and affective determinants of intent to use are seemingly different from those used to evaluate PDA use. PMID:19180373

Vishwanath, Arun; Brodsky, Linda; Shaha, Steve

240

Filipino personality structure and the big five model: a lexical approach.  

PubMed

In lexically based studies, we derived Filipino personality dimensions and related them to the Big Five model. In Study 1, Filipino high-school and college students (N = 629) rated themselves on a near-comprehensive list of 861 Filipino (Tagalog) trait adjectives. In Study 2, Filipino high-school and college students (N = 1,531) rated 280 markers of dimensions identified in Study 1. Some students (n = 473) also completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Seven comparable Filipino dimensions were identified in factor analyses in the two studies. We concluded that the dimensions we labeled Concern for Others (vs. Egotism), Conscientiousness, Gregariousness, and Intellect were quite similar to Big Five Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Intellect, respectively. The Filipino Self-Assurance dimension was most similar to Big Five Neuroticism. The Filipino Temperamentalness dimension was more complex in Big Five terms, overlapping Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism. A final Filipino factor resembled a Negative Valence or Infrequency dimension. More than five factors had to be extracted to obtain Philippine dimensions resembling all of the Big Five. PMID:9327587

Church, A T; Reyes, J A; Katigbak, M S; Grimm, S D

1997-09-01

241

The person in the mirror: using the enfacement illusion to investigate the experiential structure of self-identification  

PubMed Central

How do we acquire a mental representation of our own face? Recently, synchronous, but not asynchronous, interpersonal multisensory stimulation (IMS) between one’s own and another person’s face was used to evoke changes in self-identification (enfacement illusion). We investigated the conscious experience of these changes with principal component analyses (PCA) that revealed that while the conscious experience during synchronous IMS focused on resemblance and similarity with the other’s face, during asynchronous IMS it focused on multisensory stimulation. Analyses on the identified common factor structure revealed significant quantitative differences between synchronous and asynchronous IMS on self-identification and perceived similarity with the other’s face. Experiment 2 revealed that participants with lower interoceptive sensitivity experienced stronger enfacement illusion. Overall, self-identification and body-ownership rely on similar basic mechanisms of multisensory integration, but the effects of multisensory input on their experience are qualitatively different, possibly underlying the face’s unique role as a marker of selfhood.

Tajadura-Jimenez, Ana; Longo, Matthew R.; Coleman, Rosie; Tsakiris, Manos

2013-01-01

242

Groups in the Millennium Simulation and in SDSS DR7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Millennium N-body simulation and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey seventh data release (SDSS DR7) galaxy and galaxy group catalogues are compared to study the properties of galaxy groups and the distribution of galaxies in groups. We construct mock galaxy group catalogues for a Millennium semi-analytical galaxy catalogue by using the same friends-of-friends method, which was used by Tago et al to analyse the SDSS data. We analyse in detail the group luminosities, group richnesses, virial radii, sizes of groups and their rms velocities for four volume-limited samples from observations and simulations. Our results show that the spatial densities of groups agree within one order of magnitude in all samples with a rather good agreement between the mock catalogues and observations. All group property distributions have similar shapes and amplitudes for richer groups. For galaxy pairs and small groups, the group properties for observations and simulations are clearly different. In addition, the spatial distribution of galaxies in small groups is different: at the outskirts of the groups the galaxy number distributions do not agree, although the agreement is relatively good in the inner regions. Differences in the distributions are mainly due to the observational limitations in the SDSS sample and to the problems in the semi-analytical methods that produce too compact and luminous groups.

Nurmi, P.; Heinämäki, P.; Sepp, T.; Tago, E.; Saar, E.; Gramann, M.; Einasto, M.; Tempel, E.; Einasto, J.

2013-09-01

243

Groups in the Millennium Simulation and in SDSS DR7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Millennium N-body simulation and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey seventh data release (SDSS DR7) galaxy and galaxy group catalogues are compared to study the properties of galaxy groups and the distribution of galaxies in groups. We construct mock galaxy group catalogues for a Millennium semi-analytical galaxy catalogue by using the same friends-of-friends method, which was used by Tago et al to analyse the SDSS data. We analyse in detail the group luminosities, group richnesses, virial radii, sizes of groups and their rms velocities for four volume-limited samples from observations and simulations. Our results show that the spatial densities of groups agree within one order of magnitude in all samples with a rather good agreement between the mock catalogues and observations. All group property distributions have similar shapes and amplitudes for richer groups. For galaxy pairs and small groups, the group properties for observations and simulations are clearly different. In addition, the spatial distribution of galaxies in small groups is different: at the outskirts of the groups the galaxy number distributions do not agree, although the agreement is relatively good in the inner regions. Differences in the distributions are mainly due to the observational limitations in the SDSS sample and to the problems in the semi-analytical methods that produce too compact and luminous groups.

Nurmi, P.; Heinämäki, P.; Sepp, T.; Tago, E.; Saar, E.; Gramann, M.; Einasto, M.; Tempel, E.; Einasto, J.

2013-11-01

244

Simulation of Drought in Central Asia during the Last Millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the Central Asian Climate Dynamics project (CADY), we aim to apply multiproxy reconstructions and climate models to analyse and (semi)quantify the Last Millennium climate variability and regional hydrology in Central Asia. In this context, we have used simulations of the uncoupled atmosphere version of global COSMOS Model (ECHAM5) in T31L19 spatial resolution within the Last Millennium; Medieval Warm Period (MWP; 900-1100 AD), the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1515-1715 AD) and after industrialization (REC; 1800-2000 AD) to drive the COSMO-CLM regional climate model at its lateral boundaries for 30 year time-slices based on the definition of extreme spells in the past climate. The Palmer Drought Severity Index over Central Asia has been calculated for both global and regional simulations. The simulated PDSI from COSMO-CLM driven by ERA-INTERIM data shows very good agreements compared to observations (PDSI from Dai et al., 2004) in space-time-frequency. Based on the EOF analysis, the simulated drought patterns are well captured compared to the reconstructed PDSI from Cook et al., 2010 ( pattern correlation = 0.68 (0.83) for LIA(REC) at a 99% significance level). Further, historical droughts can be identified by the simulated PDSI (e.g. Ming Dynasty Drought and The Great Drought). The Principal Components of simulated PDSI also show significant correlations with SST anomalies for the period from 1856 to 2000.

Fallah, Bijan; Polanski, Stefan; Prasad, Sushma; Cubasch, Ulrich

2013-04-01

245

Family structure, personality, drinking, smoking and illicit drug use: a study of UK teenagers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a survey of 7722 15–16 year old school students in the United Kingdom were used to examine relationships between family structure and using alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs. Respondents living with both parents were significantly less likely to participate in all of these, with girls more affected, particularly as regards cigarette smoking and illicit drugs. For other families,

Patrick Miller

1997-01-01

246

Identification of the Liaison Persons of an Organization Using the Structure Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear graphs have been utilized by several authors to provide a geometric depiction of the structure of a group. Graphs will be defined in the next section where it will also be shown that they are in a one-to-one correspondence with certain square matrices whose only elements are 0 and 1. These corresponding matrices have been used as a mathematical

Ian C. Ross; Frank Harary

1955-01-01

247

Factor Validation of the Addiction Severity Index Scale Structure in Persons With Concurrent Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the scale structure of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) in a sample of 1,802 substance abusers (43% alcohol dependent) with a concurrent psychiatric disorder (46% with mood disorders). The fit of the original composite score model based on the work of P. L. McGahan, J. A. Griffith, R. Parente, & A.…

Currie, Shawn R.; el-Guebaly, Nady; Coulson, Ronaye; Hodgins, David; Mansley, Chrystal

2004-01-01

248

A NARRATIVE ANALYSIS OF ABUSEConnecting the Personal, the Rhetorical, and the Structural  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narrating experiences of intimate, interpersonal violence is a means by which abused women make the violence coherent to self and to others. Narratives demonstrate that abusive relationships have courses, that women's actions within these relationships are rational and reasonable, and, further, that these actions can be made understandable to others. By using the theoretical literature on narrative structure, this analysis

LORA BEX LEMPERT

1994-01-01

249

Factor Validation of the Addiction Severity Index Scale Structure in Persons With Concurrent Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the scale structure of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) in a sample of 1,802 substance abusers (43% alcohol dependent) with a concurrent psychiatric disorder (46% with mood disorders). The fit of the original composite score model based on the work of P. L. McGahan, J. A. Griffith, R. Parente, & A.…

Currie, Shawn R.; el-Guebaly, Nady; Coulson, Ronaye; Hodgins, David; Mansley, Chrystal

2004-01-01

250

Seeing things clearly: social structure, personality, and accuracy in social network perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

People differ in their ability to perceive accurately the informal patterns of interpersonal relationships in their social groups, i.e., the group's network structure. Existing research leaves us largely unable to explain the variation in accuracy in social network perception. This paper argues that the study of accuracy in social network perception should consider the effect of both situational factors and

Tiziana Casciaro

1998-01-01

251

Collaborative Employment Placement and Training: A Structure To Support the Employment of Persons with Severe Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a collaborative employment placement and training structure which provides a flexible format for implementing various natural support models for the employment of individuals with severe disabilities. A team approach is used to develop and implement job assessment, training, and follow-up activities. Each team may be composed…

Woolcock, William W.

252

Structural alteration of spermatozoa in the persons employed in lead acid battery factory.  

PubMed

Lead is one of the industrially heavy metals that caused adverse effects on male reproductive system among battery factory workers, but information on the possible impact of lead on the structural integrity of sperm cell is limited. Thus present study was undertaken to assess the structural details of human spermatozoa of lead acid battery factory workers. Blood and semen samples were collected from total 80 workers (7-15 years exposure) and 40 non-occupationally exposed control subjects. The lead exposed battery factory workers showed lowering (P < 0.001) of sperm count, density, motility and semen volume along with an increase incidence of sperm abnormality and prolong liquefaction time. Structural alteration of sperm cell was prevalent among the exposed population as evidenced by significantly (P < 0.001) low sperm viability, low hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) percentage, high lipid peroxidation of sperm membrane with concomitant alterations of seminal plasma total and dehydro ascorbate level. Sharp depressions, membrane folding and granularity at sperm head surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both blood lead and semen lead was significantly (P < 0.001) higher among the factory workers. Thus it appears plausible that lead may reduce the antioxidant level in seminal plasma and enhance the lipid peroxidative changes in sperm membrane leading to concomitant structural damage of sperm cell surface in the workers employed in lead acid battery factories. PMID:16170983

Naha, Nibedita; Bhar, R B; Mukherjee, A; Chowdhury, Amal Roy

2005-04-01

253

Personal(ized) Health Monitoring, Personalization, and Personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of technology in individual health monitoring is predicted to be widespread in near future healthcare systems and in smart home environments. The term Personalized Health Monitoring (PHM) is proposed for these applications. A framework describing aspects of personalization and personality that are relevant to personalized health monitoring is presented. The framework addresses personal data, adaptability, feedback, and personality. Influence

Dieter Rhode

2011-01-01

254

Neurobiology of the structure of personality: dopamine, facilitation of incentive motivation, and extraversion.  

PubMed

Extraversion has two central characteristics: (1) interpersonal engagement, which consists of affiliation (enjoying and valuing close interpersonal bonds, being warm and affectionate) and agency (being socially dominant, enjoying leadership roles, being assertive, being exhibitionistic, and having a sense of potency in accomplishing goals) and (2) impulsivity, which emerges from the interaction of extraversion and a second, independent trait (constraint). Agency is a more general motivational disposition that includes dominance, ambition, mastery, efficacy, and achievement. Positive affect (a combination of positive feelings and motivation) is closely associated with extraversion. Extraversion is accordingly based on positive incentive motivation. Parallels between extraversion (particularly its agency component) and a mammalian behavioral approach system based on positive incentive motivation implicate a neuroanatomical network and modulatory neurotransmitters in the processing of incentive motivation. A corticolimbic-striatal-thalamic network (1) integrates the salient incentive context in the medial orbital cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus; (2) encodes the intensity of incentive stimuli in a motive circuit composed of the nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, and ventral tegmental area dopamine projection system; and (3) creates an incentive motivational state that can be transmitted to the motor system. Individual differences in the functioning of this network arise from functional variation in the ventral tegmental area dopamine projections, which are directly involved in coding the intensity of incentive motivation. The animal evidence suggests that there are three neurodevelopmental sources of individual differences in dopamine: genetic, "experience-expectant," and "experience-dependent." Individual differences in dopamine promote variation in the heterosynaptic plasticity that enhances the connection between incentive context and incentive motivation and behavior. Our psychobiological threshold model explains the effects of individual differences in dopamine transmission on behavior, and their relation to personality traits is discussed. PMID:11301519

Depue, R A; Collins, P F

1999-06-01

255

On-line structural health and fire monitoring of a composite personal aircraft using an FBG sensing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report in this paper on the design and development of a novel on-line structural health monitoring and fire detection system based on an array of optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and interrogation system installed on a new, precommercial compact aircraft. A combined total of 17 FBG sensors - strain, temperature and high-temperature - were installed at critical locations in an around the wings, fuselage and engine compartment of a prototype, Comp Air CA 12 all-composite, ten-passenger personal airplane powered by a 1,650 hp turbine engine. The sensors are interrogated online and in real time by a swept laser FBG interrogator (Micron Optics sm125-700) mounted on board the plane. Sensors readings are then combined with the plane's avionics system and displayed on the pilot's aviation control panel. This system represents the first of its kind in commercial, small frame, airplanes and a first for optical fiber sensors.

Chandler, K.; Ferguson, S.; Graver, T.; Csipkes, A.; Mendez, A.

2008-05-01

256

A new generalized mechanism of secure internetworked information service creation for future personal communications networks. VI  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the next millennium, to globally provide versatile resource-rich multimedia-based internetworked broadband personal communications services (PCS) with and for everyone, at any time, on any place, and in any format, is the expected ultimate goal of telecommunications networks. The main purpose of this paper is to initially discuss a new generalized mechanism of secure internetworked information service creation using the

Geng-Sheng Kuo

1998-01-01

257

Personal evaluation structure of environmental sounds: experiments of subjective evaluation using subjects' own terms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we conducted an experiment to investigate the evaluation structure that lies at the basis of peoples' psychological evaluation of environmental sounds. In the experiment, subjects were given cards on each of which a name of one of the environmental sounds in the specified context is written. Then they did the following three tasks: (1) to sort the cards into groups by the similarity of their impressions of the imagined sounds; (2) to name each group with the word that best represented their overall impression of the group; and (3) to evaluate all sounds on the cards using the words obtained in the previous task. These tasks were done twice: once assuming they heard the sounds at ease inside their homes and once while walking outside in a resort theme park. We analysed the similarity of imagined impression between the sounds with a cluster analysis and clusters of sounds were produced, namely, sounds labelled "natural," "transportation," and so on. A principal component analysis revealed the three major factors of the evaluation structure for both contexts and they were interpreted as preference, activity and sense of daily life.

Kawai, Keiji; Kojima, Takaya; Hirate, Kotaroh; Yasuoka, Masahito

2004-10-01

258

The Architecture of Personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a theoretical framework for analyzing psychological systems that contribute to the variability, consistency, and cross-situational coherence of personality functioning. In the proposed knowledge-and-appraisal personality architecture (KAPA), personality structures and processes are delineated by combining 2 principles: distinctions (a) between knowledge structures and appraisal processes and (b) among intentional cognitions with varying directions of fit, with the latter

Daniel Cervone

2004-01-01

259

Higher-order dimensions of personality disorder: hierarchical structure and relationships with the five-factor model, the interpersonal circle, and psychopathy.  

PubMed

Two studies examined the higher-order factor structure of DSM-IV personality disorders using the International Personality Disorder Examination in male forensic psychiatric patients. In Study 1 (N = 168), exploratory factor analysis at the level of individual personality disorder criteria indicated nine primary factors. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of these first-order factors supported a hierarchical structure in which two of three second-order factors covaried to yield a third-order factor. The two resulting superordinate factors were labelled Anxious-Inhibited and Acting Out. In Study 2 (N = 160), we used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to test hypotheses of common dimensions underlying these superordinate factors of personality disorder and superordinate factors of the five-factor model of personality, dimensions of the interpersonal circle, and psychopathy. Of three common factors, one combined Anxious-Inhibited disorders, "neurotic introversion," and hostile-submission. The other two factors of Acting Out/ psychopathy and antagonism/hostile-dominance covaried to yield a superordinate factor. Possible substrates underlying two superordinate dimensions common to normal and abnormal personality were identified in the theoretical literature. PMID:16553558

Blackburn, Ronald; Logan, Caroline; Renwick, Stanley J D; Donnelly, John P

2005-12-01

260

[Human person and personalism].  

PubMed

The first part of this article is an analysis of the historical and philosophical evolution of the concept of human person, from antiquity to present times, including an outline of its major developments. The second part deals critically with reductionist and empiricist positions -particularly Engelhardt's and of utilitarianism- exposing some of its practical implications in the realm of Bioethics. Finally the author concludes with an enunciation of what would constitute a conceptual basis for the ontological foundation of Personal Bioethics derived from the initial framework of intuitive ideas first outlined by Sgreccia in the eighties. PMID:23745824

Sgreccia, Elio

261

Theoretical studies of structure, function and reactivity of molecules-- A personal account  

PubMed Central

Last few decades theoretical/computational studies of structure, function and reactivity of molecules have been contributing significantly in chemistry by explanation of experimental results, better understanding of underlying principles and prediction of the unknown experimental outcome. Accuracy needed in chemistry has long been established, but due to high power dependency of such accurate methods on the molecular size, it has been a major challenge to apply theoretical methods to large molecular systems. In the present article we will review some examples of such applications. One is theoretical study of growth/formation of carbon nanostructures such as fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, using quantum mechanical molecular dynamics method. For growth of single walled carbon nanotube from transition metal cluster, we have demonstrated continued growth of attached nanotube, cap formation and growth from small carbon fragments. For homogeneous catalysis we presented results of studies on N2 activation by Zr complexes. For biomolecular reactions we use active site and protein models and show that in some catalyses the protein environment is involved in reactions and changes the preferred pathway, and in some other case the effect is modest. The review is concluded with a perspective.

Morokuma, Keiji

2009-01-01

262

Theoretical studies of structure, function and reactivity of molecules--a personal account.  

PubMed

Last few decades theoretical/computational studies of structure, function and reactivity of molecules have been contributing significantly in chemistry by explanation of experimental results, better understanding of underlying principles and prediction of the unknown experimental outcome. Accuracy needed in chemistry has long been established, but due to high power dependency of such accurate methods on the molecular size, it has been a major challenge to apply theoretical methods to large molecular systems. In the present article we will review some examples of such applications. One is theoretical study of growth/formation of carbon nanostructures such as fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, using quantum mechanical molecular dynamics method. For growth of single walled carbon nanotube from transition metal cluster, we have demonstrated continued growth of attached nanotube, cap formation and growth from small carbon fragments. For homogeneous catalysis we presented results of studies on N(2) activation by Zr complexes. For biomolecular reactions we use active site and protein models and show that in some catalyses the protein environment is involved in reactions and changes the preferred pathway, and in some other case the effect is modest. The review is concluded with a perspective. PMID:19444009

Morokuma, Keiji

2009-01-01

263

The structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition, text revision) personality disorder symptoms in a large national sample.  

PubMed

We examined the latent structure underlying the criteria for DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.) personality disorders in a large nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Personality disorder symptom data were collected using a structured diagnostic interview from approximately 35,000 adults assessed over two waves of data collection in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Our analyses suggested that a seven-factor solution provided the best fit for the data, and these factors were marked primarily by one or at most two personality disorder criteria sets. A series of regression analyses that used external validators tapping Axis I psychopathology, treatment for mental health problems, functioning scores, interpersonal conflict, and suicidal ideation and behavior provided support for the seven-factor solution. We discuss these findings in the context of previous studies that have examined the structure underlying the personality disorder criteria as well as the current proposals for DSM-5 personality disorders. PMID:22506626

Trull, Timothy J; Vergés, Alvaro; Wood, Phillip K; Jahng, Seungmin; Sher, Kenneth J

2012-04-16

264

The Structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Edition, Text Revision) Personality Disorder Symptoms in a Large National Sample  

PubMed Central

We examined the latent structure underlying the criteria for DSM–IV–TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.) personality disorders in a large nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Personality disorder symptom data were collected using a structured diagnostic interview from approximately 35,000 adults assessed over two waves of data collection in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Our analyses suggested that a seven-factor solution provided the best fit for the data, and these factors were marked primarily by one or at most two personality disorder criteria sets. A series of regression analyses that used external validators tapping Axis I psychopathology, treatment for mental health problems, functioning scores, interpersonal conflict, and suicidal ideation and behavior provided support for the seven-factor solution. We discuss these findings in the context of previous studies that have examined the structure underlying the personality disorder criteria as well as the current proposals for DSM-5 personality disorders.

Trull, Timothy J.; Verges, Alvaro; Wood, Phillip K.; Jahng, Seungmin; Sher, Kenneth J.

2013-01-01

265

Asian monsoon failure and megadrought during the last millennium.  

PubMed

The Asian monsoon system affects more than half of humanity worldwide, yet the dynamical processes that govern its complex spatiotemporal variability are not sufficiently understood to model and predict its behavior, due in part to inadequate long-term climate observations. Here we present the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA), a seasonally resolved gridded spatial reconstruction of Asian monsoon drought and pluvials over the past millennium, derived from a network of tree-ring chronologies. MADA provides the spatiotemporal details of known historic monsoon failures and reveals the occurrence, severity, and fingerprint of previously unknown monsoon megadroughts and their close linkages to large-scale patterns of tropical Indo-Pacific sea surface temperatures. MADA thus provides a long-term context for recent monsoon variability that is critically needed for climate modeling, prediction, and attribution. PMID:20413498

Cook, Edward R; Anchukaitis, Kevin J; Buckley, Brendan M; D'Arrigo, Rosanne D; Jacoby, Gordon C; Wright, William E

2010-04-23

266

Intelligent robot trends and predictions for the new millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An intelligent robot is a remarkably useful combination of a manipulator, sensors and controls. The current use of these machines in outer space, medicine, hazardous materials, defense applications and industry is being pursued with vigor but little funding. In factory automation such robotics machines can improve productivity, increase product quality and improve competitiveness. The computer and the robot have both been developed during recent times. The intelligent robot combines both technologies and requires a thorough understanding and knowledge of mechatronics. In honor of the new millennium, this paper will present a discussion of futuristic trends and predictions. However, in keeping with technical tradition, a new technique for 'Follow the Leader' will also be presented in the hope of it becoming a new, useful and non-obvious technique.

Hall, Ernest L.; Mundhenk, T. Nathan

1999-08-01

267

The last total solar eclipse of the millennium in Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last total solar eclipse of the millennium will be observed from Turkey which bridges two continents and has been the cradle of so many past civilizations. Wouldn't you like to witness this magnificent event in the mystic ambiance of central Anatolia which offers its guests Turkish hospitality and a lot of historical examples of paganism, Christianity and Islam. Among the countries from which the eclipse will be visible, Turkey seems to be one of the most suitable countries in terms of its climate and observational facilities. Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute has arranged fieldwork on the eclipse path to determine the suitable points for the observations. The shadow of the moon will be first seen from the Black Sea coast at 14:20 L.T. It will then pass through central Anatolia and will leave Turkey from south-east at 14:42 L.T.

Ozguc, A.; Atac, T.; Altas, L.

1999-03-01

268

Revisiting Public Health Challenges in the New Millennium  

PubMed Central

Positive Health of the communities could only be brought out through the interrelationship between conventional health sector and other development sectors. It was a dream that came true when World Health Organization (WHO) accepted Primary Health Care (PHC) as the major tool to achieve its proposed goal of Health For All (HFA) by 2000 A.D., but we could not succeed as expected. Now we have the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which place health at the heart of development but the achievements in health is still challenging. The literature search in this article has been conducted in Pub Med and Google scholar, with the aim to draw references to discuss the major health issues and ways to tackle them. The current article briefly narrates the burden and complexities of challenges faced by the present global health. Revisiting the concept of PHC and reaffirming our solidarity to this philosophy is the need of this hour.

Anish, TS; Sreelakshmi, PR

2013-01-01

269

Achieving Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

Sri Lanka has an exemplary record in maternal and child health care. Provision of free education for over 60 years has helped to empower women. Medical care is accessible and provided free of charge. The maternal mortality ratio and the other indices of maternal and neonatal health have shown uninterrupted improvement since 1930. Midwives and the policy to increase their presence has been the key to success. Public health midwives provide care at the doorstep. Institutional midwives carry out the vast majority of deliveries, of which 99% occur in hospitals. Although on target with the Millennium Development Goals, some challenges that still remain are maternal death from postpartum haemorrhage and unsafe abortion, and perinatal deaths due to congenital abnormalities and prematurity. PMID:21951505

Senanayake, H; Goonewardene, M; Ranatunga, A; Hattotuwa, R; Amarasekera, S; Amarasinghe, I

2011-09-01

270

Questions of identity in the millennium round of Commonwealth censuses.  

PubMed

All Commonwealth census authorities have posed questions about identity in the millennium round of enumerations. The most controversial issue has been ethnicity. No universal definition or classification system has been devised and each of the 71 states and dependencies has tended to pursue the enquiry in virtual isolation from its neighbours. The attempt to describe the population in terms of race and ethnicity has been inherited from the colonial era. More recently the requirements of monitoring affirmative-action programmes in multicultural populations have resulted in the introduction or refinement of questions on these categories. A few states-a small minority of Commonwealth countries-remain hostile to such enquiries. Where the issues of race and identity are not pursued, questions of nationality, language, and religion often fill the gaps left, adding further refinements to the definition of identity. An examination of current questioning about identity in Commonwealth censuses reveals a highly complex picture. PMID:17060057

Christopher, A J

2006-11-01

271

The Vanuatu medical supply system - documenting opportunities and challenges to meet the Millennium Development Goals  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Limited human resources are widely recognised as a barrier to achieve health-related Millennium Development Goals. Availability of medical supplies and suitably trained health personnel are crucial to ensuring a well-functioning medical supply system. The objective of this paper is to identify the factors which influence the availability of medical supplies within the health facilities of Vanuatu. Methods: A qualitative triangulated strategy using semi-structured interviews, observational workplace surveys and semi-structured focus groups was developed. This research was approved by the Human Ethics Committee of the University of Canberra and was funded through a direct grant from the United Nations Population Fund Suva, Pacific sub regional office. Results: During two weeks of data collection, 21 interviews were conducted, observational workplace surveys were completed in 19 facilities and 22 personnel participated in three focus groups across three provinces. The interviewees had a wide range of primary professional groupings and were representative of the Vanuatu health workforce. A complex array of medical supply issues are described from within the three tiered structure of the medical supply system. Conclusion: The results of this research have further informed our understanding of the competencies required by healthcare personnel to conduct medical supply management activities effectively in Pacific Island countries. As a result of this research, a platform is provided for the government of Vanuatu to engage development partners to work toward a sustainable medical supply system.

Brown, Andrew; Gilbert, Ben

2012-01-01

272

External forcing influence on Weather Types along the last Millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate models are widely used to perform climate change projections under a set of assumptions of the evolution of climate forcings. Often, the analysis of these simulations include the study of the frequency changes in the main Weather Types, and of how these changes impact the mean and extreme values of climatic variables which are specially relevant to human activities, such as temperature and precipitation. However, less attention has been devoted to the analysis of Weather Types in paleoclimate simulations. This study analyses the evolution of the most prominent Weather Types in a paleosimulation performed with a climate version of the mesoscalar model MM5 over Europe and the Iberian Peninsula for the last millennium. The simulation includes three varying external forcings: greenhouse gases, volcanic activity and solar radiation. We have analysed the frequency and persistence of the main Weather Types in winter and summer during the last millennium. For the characterization of the Weather Types, daily mean series of simulated SLP and Z500 fields have been employed over a window encompassing the Iberian Peninsula. Weather Types and their relative importance through the simulation were calculated for the whole simulated period. They have been obtained with a k-means clustering algorithm initialized with a set of seeds previously obtained with a PC-mode T clustering. The results indicate that the different forcings considered may activate different mechanism depending on the forcing dominating in a given period (for instance, solar forcing dominates around the Maunder Minimum, volcanic around the Dalton minimum and greenhouse gases during the industrial period). These mechanisms yield modifications in the atmospheric circulation at continental scale which, in general terms, are more noticeable in summer than in winter.

García-Valero, J. A.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.; Montávez, J. P.; Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; Lorente-Plazas, R.; Baró, R.; Zorita, E.

2012-04-01

273

The NEO Personality Inventory-Revised: factor structure and gender invariance from exploratory structural equation modeling analyses in a high-stakes setting.  

PubMed

This study presents new analyses of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) responses collected from a large British sample in a high-stakes setting. The authors show the appropriateness of the five-factor model underpinning these responses in a variety of new ways. Using the recently developed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) technique, the authors show that model fits improve markedly over conventional confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of the same data set, but that (a) factor interpretations do not change under ESEM analyses, (b) ESEM factor scores, just like CFA factors scores, correlate at near unity with sums of observed scores, (c) NEO-PI-R facets under ESEM analyses are invariant across gender, and (d) ESEM highlights the inappropriateness of alpha and beta as a higher order representation of NEO-PI-R facets, whereas a CFA approach might lead researchers to believe in the appropriateness of these higher order factors. These results, coupled with the existing validity evidence for the NEO-PI-R, suggest that the five-factor structure is the most parsimonious structure for summarizing NEO-PI-R responses from high-stakes settings in the United Kingdom. PMID:22837539

Furnham, Adrian; Guenole, Nigel; Levine, Stephen Z; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

2012-07-26

274

Personality disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Personality disorders are a group of mental health conditions in which a person has a long-term pattern ... Causes of personality disorders are unknown. Genetic and ... a role. Mental health professionals categorize these disorders ...

275

Millennium Cohort Study: A 21-Year Prospective Cohort Study of 140, 000 Military Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Does military service, in particular operational deployment, result in a higher risk of chronic illness among military personnel and veterans. The Millennium Cohort Study, the largest Department of Defense prospective cohort study ever conducted, will att...

K. B. Chesbrough M. A. Ryan P. Amoroso E. J. Boyko G. D. Gackstetter

2001-01-01

276

When Epidemiology Meets the Internet: Web-Based Surveys in the Millennium Cohort Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Almost 60% of American households were connected to the Internet in 2001, when the Millennium Cohort Study, the largest longitudinal study ever undertaken by the Department of Defense, was launched. To facilitate survey completion, increase data integrity...

B. Smith G. C. Gray M. A. Ryan T. C. Smith

2007-01-01

277

A New Heaven and New Earth: Uses of the Millennium in American Religious History  

Microsoft Academic Search

As far as American religion is concerned, the countdown to the year 2000 began centuries ago. From the “Great Awakening” through Scofield's Reference Bible and on to Hal Lindsey's Late Great Planet Earth, Americans have been fascinated with the millennium.

James H. Smylie

1999-01-01

278

77 FR 14010 - Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Assessment for the Proposed: Minisink Compressor Project The staff of the Federal Energy...environmental assessment (EA) for the Minisink Compressor Project, proposed by Millennium Pipeline...construct and operate a natural gas compressor station in Minisink, New York to...

2012-03-08

279

Focus Groups in the Context of International Development: In Pursuit of the Millennium Development Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legacy of the twentieth century and the promise of the twenty-first century were on the minds of leaders, change agents,\\u000a and ordinary people around the world as the new millennium approached. The most far-reaching aspirations—the Millennium Development\\u000a Goals (MDGs)—were adopted in 2000 by all 189 memberstates of the United Nations General Assembly, the International Monetary\\u000a Fund (IMF), the Organization

Janet Mancini Billson

280

Global value chains, industry structure, and technology upgrading of local firms: the personal computer industry in Korea and Taiwan during the 1980s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that the modular value chains of the personal computer (PC) industry provide similar windows of opportunity to Korean and Taiwanese firms, however, the local firms have incorporated foreign technology and markets in different ways, and this has resulted in the development of distinctive innovation patterns in Korea and Taiwan. The structural coupling argument emphasizes the right strategies

YoungJa Bae

2011-01-01

281

Divergent Reactions to the Terror of Terrorism: Personal Need for Structure Moderates the Effects of Terrorism Salience on Worldview-Related Attitudinal Rigidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current studies explore how individual differences in personal need for structure (PNS) influence the extent to which people respond to terrorism threats with cultural worldview-related attitudinal rigidity. PNS was measured, terrorism salience manipulated, and British participants' attitudes toward an essay arguing against the British adoption of the Euro (Study 1) or American participants' attitudes toward an essay arguing for

Clay Routledge; Jacob Juhl; Matthew Vess

2010-01-01

282

Episodes of large unforced variability in European climate over the last millennium.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are some indications of large multi-decadal excursions in temperature in European climate over the recent past that do not match the estimated external forcing. Characterisation of these episodes of large internal variability, in terms of their duration, amplitude and spatial structure is important for informing the effort to develop secure climate predictions and estimations of the possible future range of deviation from the forced response. Here we statistically analyse a set of annually resolved climate proxy composites, representative of temperature and hydroclimate in several seasons, covering Europe over the last millennium, and interpret them with the help of global climate simulations over the same period. Superposed to the forced response we find large amplitude continental-wide modes of temperature variation in both winter and summer seasons. European summer temperatures respond coherently to the external forcings throughout Europe. However, in addition to the forced response we find an unforced mode of variability which expresses as a north-south dipole in summer temperature anomalies. A very similar spatial structure also appears in the simulations and there it seems related to low frequency variations in the atmospheric circulation, also represented by a north-south dipole in the summer sea-level-pressure field. In wintertime, the quality and sparseness of temperature proxies yields a more blurred picture. The mode of internal winter temperature variability seems to be absent in a climate simulation, at least with the large amplitude displays by the proxy records.

Gagen, M.; Zorita, E.; McCarroll, D.

2012-04-01

283

A Structural Model of Parental Alcoholism, Family Functioning, and Psychological Health: The Mediating Effects of Hardiness and Personal Growth Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were to (a) determine whether personal growth orientation and hardiness mediated the relations of parental alcoholism and family functioning to psychological well-being and distress; (b) determine whether this mediational model was invariant across women and men; and (c) examine the role of parental alcoholism in a model that included family functioning. Personal growth orientation appeared

Christine Robitschek; Susan Kashubeck

1999-01-01

284

[Automutilistic behaviour in female patients with affective disorders: investigation of personality structure and affect regulation by means of Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostics (OPD)].  

PubMed

Automutilistic behaviour is frequently correlated with personality disorders and should be differentiated from suicidal behaviour during acute episodes of affective disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate psychotherapeutically and psychodynamically significant personality traits and affect regulation. The dimensions "relationship", "conflict" and "structure" were examined by means of Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostics. Sample: 20 female patients with depression and automutilistic behaviour and 20 age-matched female subjects with a similar educational background, suffering from depression without automutilistic behaviour. RESULTS The female patients with depression and automutilistic behaviour could be differentiated from the control group in all categories in the OPD dimension "structure". They showed an "isolated" and "disclosed" self-image. This negative self-perception corresponded with a negative countertransference. There were no differences between the patients with automutilistic behaviour and the control group regarding the OPD dimension "conflict". Low and moderate levels of integration were prominently correlated with the autonomy-dependence conflict. CONCLUSION The results underline the significance of aspects of personality structure in automutilistic behaviour seen in female patients with depression. Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostics can reveal therapeutically relevant personality dimensions for empirical research. PMID:17377890

Böker, Heinz; Schopper, Christian; Straub, Miriam; Himmighoffen, Holger; Endrass, Jerome; Küchenhoff, Bernhard; Weber, Silvan; Hell, Daniel

2007-03-22

285

Open problems on the eve of the next millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To predict the future of Celestial Mechanics and to investigate unsolved problems for the next millennium contradicts the nature of our field of science which is based on non-integrable and transcendental equations with short time predictability. The reliability and predictability in our field depend on several factors, most of them unpredictable. Numerical predictions depend on the development of computer technology, which is itself not predictable. New analytical approaches call for the genius of Newton. We must realize that between Ptolemaeus (100 178) and Copernicus (1473 1543) our field received little attention. Between 1700 and 1800 the explosion occurred (Newton, Euler, Laplace, Lagrange and Gauss) followed by the period of 1800 1900 associated with Hamilton, Hill, Jacobi, Poincaré and Tisserand. Can we expect anyone to make similar contributions in the next 1000 years? The entrance and emphasis of probability in our field certainly will continue. Speaking about bounds of trajectories instead of individual orbits gains significant popularity. Theory of stability and chaos are expected to receive more and more attention together with Poincare's conjectures concerning the denseness of periodic orbits in the set of bounded orbits. Planetary computations for long time have shown considerable advances, partly due to computer advances as well as the selection of the proper formulation of the problems. The preparation of “exact” short time ephemerides and qualitative long time predictions require initial conditions with small observational errors, the use of proper models (including relativity effects and non-conservative forces) and the use of correct values of astronomical constants. The results of such calculations in the future should include approximate estimations of errors in the outcome. The observations and orbital calculations of Earth-crossing asteroids should receive special attention along with development of various techniques of space dynamics to avoid collisions. Interplanetary orbit calculations of space probes with optimizations included, shall receive additional attention since interplanetary flights expect to become regular travels in the next millennium. Here, again, the use of proper models, constants and planetary ephemerides will be essential. This paper was prepared with the help of many of my colleagues whose suggestions and ideas were incorporated with my many thanks.[/p

Szebehely, Victor

1996-03-01

286

[Primary health care and the millennium development goals].  

PubMed

Member countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) met in Alma Ata (8-12 September 1978) to define and advocate the implementation of primary health care (PHC) worldwide, above all, in developing countries, which had a real need to review their strategies for meeting the health needs of their populations. They did not suspect that 20 years later the vision they displayed would remain undeniably relevant. Here we examine the similarities and points of convergence of their declaration about PHC with the Millennium Development Goals that seek today to reduce poverty across the world. An exhaustive and analytic literature review was conducted to collect those similarities. Further analysis of the definitions, objectives, principles and recommendations of the Alma Ata Declaration and the Millennium Declaration reveals multiple dependencies and fundamental points of similarity between these two representations. Almost all states have pledged to achieve the eight MDG by 2015: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as essential health care, based on practical methods and techniques that are both scientifically sound and socially acceptable, universally accessible to all individuals and all families of the community, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and countries can afford at all stages of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It is an integral part of economic and social development. The following principles are involved in the achievement of both primary health care and the MDG: social equity, community participation, and intersectorality. Public health is an essential condition of poverty eradication and MDG achievement. Public health issues are central to the problem of sustainable development and must therefore remain the focus of attention. It is increasingly urgent to break the vicious circle created by the close correlation between environmental degradation, poor health, and poverty. PMID:22868717

Faye, A; Bob, M; Fall, A; Fall, C

287

Biotechnology and ethics in medical education of the new millennium: physician roles and responsibilities.  

PubMed

Although the medical education curriculum varies internationally, we suggest that it is desirable for medical educators to share a universal responsibility to prepare physicians to perform three distinct, yet interrelated professional roles. The first is that of a clinician who has the knowledge and technical skills to care for individual patients, as well as the public. The second role can be viewed as that of an educator, a teacher, or a consultant who has the interpersonal skills and personal qualities to teach, advise and counsel patients and the public about their health and illness, risk factors and healthy lifestyle. The third role is that of a resource manager to enable physicians to care for patients and serve the public not only by drawing on available material assets but also by prudent use of the resources for better serving the most number of people at the least expense without compromising the quality of care. The very nature of the medical profession also obligates medical educators through the world to sensitize medical students and physicians to the ethical responsibilities that are implicit to each of the three aforementioned roles. Although the basic ethical responsibilities of do no harm and confidentiality are universal, certain global changes, such as rapid advancements in biotechnology and resource allocation, are now reshaping medical ethics on every continent. Spawned by the rapid advances in the biomedical sciences, biotechnology is revolutionizing human reproduction, sustaining human life, cloning human beings, and mapping the entire human genetic terrain. These advances imply changes in medical education and formal preparation of physicians in performing their roles as clinicians, educators and resource managers. These biotechnological developments, coupled with the increasing cost of healthcare and maldistribution of resources worldwide, present unprecedented ethical-social challenges that need to be addressed in the education of the physician in the new millennium. PMID:12098384

Gonnella, Joseph S.; Hojat, Mohammadreza

2001-07-01

288

Cyber disorders: the mental health concern for the new millennium.  

PubMed

Anecdotal evidence has suggested that mental health practitioners' report increased caseloads of clients whose primary complaint involves the Internet. However, little is known about the incidence, associated behaviors, attitudes of practitioners, and interventions involved related to this relatively new phenomenon. Therefore, this study surveyed therapists who have treated clients suffering from cyber-related problems to gather such outcome information. Respondents reported an average caseload of nine clients who they classified as Internet-addicted, with a range between 2 and 50 clients treated within the past year. Five general subtypes of Internet addiction were categorized based on the most problematic types of online applications, and they include addictions to Cybersex, Cyber-relationships, online stock trading or gambling, information surfing, and computer games. Treatment strategies included cognitive-behavioral approaches, sexual offender therapy, marital and family therapy, social skills training, and pharmacological interventions. Based on their client encounters, efforts to initiate support groups and recovery programs specializing in the treatment of Internet addiction were being considered. Finally, based upon the findings, this article examines the impact of cyberdisorders on future research, treatment, and public policy issues for the new millennium. PMID:19178220

Young, K; Pistner, M; O'Mara, J; Buchanan, J

1999-01-01

289

UN Millennium Development Goals E-Learning Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations continues to work on its Millennium Development Goals, which are meant to address human suffering throughout the world. While various media outlets have offered some coverage of these goals over the past ten years, some people may have not heard much about them. The unique learning materials offered on this site provide a bit of background about the goals and an increased understanding of the data that the United Nations collects in order to measure progress in these areas. Along the top of the site, visitors can look through the "Glossary" of terms and click on a link to get further help with using the site. The primary educational materials are contained within four separate sections that help users learn about the Economic and Social Data Services (ESDS) database, which is the primary data source for these types of international databases. Finally visitors can look through the "Activities" section to take in some hands-on activities that use various data sets from the ESDS database.

290

History of psychiatry in Sweden during a millennium.  

PubMed

This report covers a millennium, from year 1000 when Sweden had only 0.4 million people until today's 9.4 million. In the 13th century, the first Swedish legal text about the mentally ill and the first hospital to treat them are documented. Control, care and cure of the ill have been shaped by social and cultural changes from time to time, e.g. King Gustav Vasa introduced a paradigm shift of care after the Reformation, when he altered Catholic buildings into state hospitals. He also ordered that medical texts should no longer be written in Latin but in Swedish. The first book dealing with mental illnesses was published in 1578. Laypersons ran the mental hospitals for centuries until the medical perspective and doctors were engaged in the 1800 s. To advance the hospital doctors' competence and skill, a Swedish Psychiatric Association was established in 1905. Severely psychotic patients could not be effectively treated until the introduction of chlorpromazine in the 1950s and there is still no cure available. Following the deinstitutionalization, from more than 35,000 beds 50 years ago down to about 4500 today, the request for outpatient treatment increased. Mandatory training in psychotherapies for all psychiatrists started in the 1970s. A major "psychiatry reform", with the hope of improving the situation for the mentally ill, and to reduce the stigma, was introduced in Sweden in 1995. The historic long-term effect of the reform cannot yet be fully evaluated. PMID:21770823

Wetterberg, Lennart

2011-07-19

291

The role of ethics and product personality in the intention to purchase organic food products: a structural equation modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study is to examine the role of ethical dimensions and product personality in the purchasing intention\\u000a of organic food products. The Prospect method (Caprara et al. in Test Psicomet Metodol 7(3–4):113–128, 2000), which integrates the Five factors model of personality (cf. Digman in Annu Rev Psychol 41(1):417–440, 1990) and the Theory of planned behavior (Ajzen

Gianluigi Guido; M. Irene Prete; Alessandro M. Peluso; R. Christian Maloumby-Baka; Carolina Buffa

2010-01-01

292

Personality Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... and inflexible. The behaviors cause serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble ... everyday stresses and problems. They often have stormy relationships with other people. The cause of personality disorders ...

293

Factor analytic studies of the neo personality inventory and the five-factor model: The problem of high structural complexity and conceptual indeterminacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was threefold: (1) to analyze the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and the five-factor model—using both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)—with the aim of establishing a Norwegian version of the instrument; (2) to compare the results of the analyses with the original NEO-PI simple structure five-factor models as well as later revisions

Olav Vassend; Anders Skrondal

1995-01-01

294

Comparison of Factor Structures and Criterion-Related Validity Coefficients for Two Measures of Personality Based on the Five Factor Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factor structure and criterion-related validity for 2 types of personality measures that are based on 5 factor models were studied. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare a 5 versus 6 factor model in an applied setting. In addition, criterion-related validity coefficients were examined for the 2 inventories. Two Big Five measures were used—1 was an adjective-based bipolar inventory

Douglas F. Cellar; Mark L. Miller; Dennis D. Doverspike; Jeffery D. Klawsky

1996-01-01

295

Policy Study on the National and Local Government Expenditures for Millennium Development Goals, 2000–2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

In line with the commitment of the Philippine government to adopt the Millennium Declaration, there have been efforts geared towards the achievement of the millennium development goals (MDGs) particularly the specific targets set for each of the eight MDGs. The MDGs include eradication of extreme poverty and hunger; universal primary education; gender equality and women empowerment; reduction of child mortality;

Rosario G. Manasan

2008-01-01

296

The Lagoon at Caroline\\/Millennium Atoll, Republic of Kiribati: Natural History of a Nearly Pristine Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of surveys were carried out to characterize the physical and biological parameters of the Millennium Atoll lagoon during a research expedition in April of 2009. Millennium is a remote coral atoll in the Central Pacific belonging to the Republic of Kiribati, and a member of the Southern Line Islands chain. The atoll is among the few remaining coral

Katie L. Barott; Jennifer E. Caselle; Elizabeth A. Dinsdale; Alan M. Friedlander; James E. Maragos; David Obura; Forest L. Rohwer; Stuart A. Sandin; Jennifer E. Smith; Brian Zgliczynski; Stuart Humphries

2010-01-01

297

Reconstruction of temperature of the last millennium in Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reconstruct the temperature in Greenland the data on 18O/16O concentration in Greenland ice cores over the last millennium (GISP2, Quaternary Isotope Laboratory, University of Washington, 1997) were analyzed. Original year- by-year data were averaged over 10-year intervals. For the purpose of calibration the temperature data and amount of precipitation in Greenland during 1873-2000 years (Danish Meteorological institute, Technical report 01-11, Ilulissat station)were used. The temperature data of Ilulissat station were averaged also over 10-year intervals with weight, deduced from the amount of precipitation. As a result of calibration the months, making the basic contribution to generation of fluctuations of 18O/16O concentration were identified. The greatest contribution to this variability is made by the February temperature. The correlation factor of weighted night temperature of February and 18O/16O concentration account for 0.85+/-0.01. For the reconstruction of the February temperature of preceded decade autoregressive model was used. The coefficient of this model were defined by concentration of isotopes and temperature in a period of a few decades. The main results of reconstruction are: 1. There is a long-time component of duration of a cycle ~1000 years and amplitude of ~0.3 degrees. 2. On the average cold winters were with 1335 to 1865 years. 3. On the average warm winters were with 890 to1335 years and since 1865 till the present time. 4. Reconstructed temperature of February fluctuated with the basis period of about 30 years. 5. The amplitude of ~30-year fluctuations varies in time. The greatest amplitude was in the 13 century and in 20 century. From the beginning of the 14 century till middle of the 19 century the amplitude was minimal. The nature of ~30-year temperature oscillations is discussed. This work was supported by INTAS, Grant 97-31008 and Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) - project 047.009.005.

Vasiliev, S. S.; Dergachev, V. A.; Raspopov, O. M.; Nevanlinna, H.

2003-04-01

298

Personality Development: Stability and Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract In this review, we evaluate four topics in the study of personality de- velopment where discernible progress has been made since 1995 (the last time the area of personality development was reviewed in this series). We (a) evaluate research about the structure of personality in childhood and in adulthood, with special atten- tion to possible developmental changes in

Avshalom Caspi; Brent W. Roberts; Rebecca L. Shiner

2005-01-01

299

Design of RTPV generators integrated with new millennium spacecraft for outer solar system  

SciTech Connect

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration`s recently inaugurated New Millennium program, with its emphasis on miniaturized spacecraft, has generated interest in a low-power (10- to 30-watt), low-mass, high-efficiency RTPV (Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic) power system. This led to a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored design study of such a system. A 75-watt design employed two 250-watt General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules that DOE had previously developed and safety-qualified for various space missions. These modules were too large for the small RTPVs described in this paper. To minimize the need for new development and safety verification studies, derivative designs for 125-watt and 62.5-watt heat source modules containing identical fuel pellets, clads, impact shell, and thermal insulation were generated along with a novel heat source support scheme to reduce the heat losses through the structural supports, and a new and much simpler radiator structure, employing no honeycombs or heat pipes. Previous RTPV study had been based on the use of GaSb PV cells and spectrally selective IR filters. Because of the very encouraging results of system design studies, in the fall of 1994 an experimental program was initiated to develop improved filters and cells, to demonstrate how much improvement can actually be achieved. First priority was given to filter improvements, because our system studies indicated that improved filters would have a much greater effect on system performance than cell improvements. By September 1995 about 94{percent} of the filter performance improvement projected in 1993 had been achieved. (Abstract Truncated)

Schock, A.; Or, C.; Kumar, V. [Orbital Sciences Corporation, 20301 Century Blvd., Germantown, Maryland 20874 (United States)

1996-03-01

300

On the Genetics of Avian Personalities: mechanism and structure of behavioural strategies in the great tit (Parus major)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for evolutionary studies on quantitative traits that integrate genetics, development and fitness consequences is increasing. Due to the complexity, coherence and variability of behavioural traits, evolutionary biologists are therefore more and more attracted to the study of behaviour. The use of the model system of consistent individual differences in personality traits in the great tit provides a good

C. H. J. van Oers

2003-01-01

301

The "Interaction with Disabled Persons" Scale: Revisiting Its Internal Consistency and Factor Structure, and Examining Item-Level Properties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "Interaction with Disabled Persons" scale (IDP) has been used in research into baseline attitudes and to evaluate whether a shift in attitudes towards people with developmental disabilities has occurred following some form of intervention. This research has been conducted on the assumption that the IDP measures attitudes as a multidimensional…

Iacono, Teresa; Tracy, Jane; Keating, Jenny; Brown, Ted

2009-01-01

302

Exploring the non-linear density field in the Millennium Simulations with tessellations - I. The probability distribution function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the Delaunay Tessellation Field Estimator (DTFE) to study the one-point density distribution functions of the Millennium Simulation (MS) and Millennium-II Simulation (MS-II). The DTFE technique is based directly on the particle positions, without requiring any type of smoothing or analysis grid, thereby providing high sensitivity to all non-linear structures resolved by the simulations. In order to identify the detailed origin of the shape of the one-point density probability distribution function (PDF), we decompose the simulation particles according to the mass of their host FoF haloes, and examine the contributions of different halo mass ranges to the global density PDF. We model the one-point distribution of the FoF haloes in each halo mass bin with a set of Monte Carlo realizations of idealized Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter haloes, finding that this reproduces the measurements from the N-body simulations reasonably well, except for a small excess present in simulation results. This excess increases with increasing halo mass. We show that its origin lies in substructure, which becomes progressively more abundant and better resolved in more massive dark matter haloes. We demonstrate that the high-density tail of the one-point distribution function in less massive haloes is severely affected by the gravitational softening length and the mass resolution. In particular, we find these two parameters to be more important for an accurate measurement of the density PDF than the simulated volume. Combining our results from individual halo mass bins we find that the part of the one-point density PDF originating from collapsed haloes can nevertheless be quite well described by a simple superposition of a set of NFW haloes with the expected cosmological abundance over the resolved mass range. The transition region to the low-density unbound material is however not well captured by such an analytic halo model.

Pandey, Biswajit; White, Simon D. M.; Springel, Volker; Angulo, Raul E.

2013-11-01

303

Personality Trait Development in Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the middle part of the 20th century, a healthy dialogue existed between sociology and personality psychology. Leading scholars\\u000a in sociology actively discussed the relationship between social structure and personality (Neugarten, 1968; Parsons, 1942), and between organizations and personality (Inkeles & Levinson, 1963). In turn, many personality psychologists studied similar phenomena (e.g., Sanford, 1956; Sarbin, 1964). However, over the past

Brent W. Roberts; Richard W. Robins; Kali H. Trzesniewski; Avshalom Caspi

304

Diagnostic Efficiency among Psychiatric Outpatients of a Self-Report Version of a Subset of Screen Items of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders (SCID-II)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the identification of a 10-item set of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) items, which proved to be effective as a self-report assessment instrument in screening personality disorders. The item selection was based on the retrospective analyses of 495 SCID-II interviews. The…

Germans, Sara; Van Heck, Guus L.; Masthoff, Erik D.; Trompenaars, Fons J. W. M.; Hodiamont, Paul P. G.

2010-01-01

305

Personality development from 12 to 18 years of age: changes in mean levels and structure of traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The Estonian NEO-FFI was administered to 2650 Estonian adolescents (1420 girls and 1230 boys) aged from 12 to 18 years and attending 6th, 8th, 10th, or 12th grade at secondary,schools all over Estonia. Although the mean,levels of personality traits of Estonian adolescents were quite similar to the respective scores of Estonian adults, there was a developmental,gap in Agreeableness and

Jüri Allik; Kaia Laidra; Anu Realo; Helle Pullmann

2004-01-01

306

Gender Differences in the Structure of Narcissism: A Multi-Sample Analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-sample analysis of the Emmons factor modelof the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) was usedto test the prediction that exploitive tendencies andfeelings of entitlement are less central to the construct of narcissism among females thanthey are among males. As predicted, the hypothesis ofcross-gender equivalence of the Emmons factorvariance\\/covariance matrixwas rejected. Follow-upanalyses confirmed thatthis hypothesis was rejectedprimarily because Exploitiveness\\/Entitlement showedweaker correlations with

Brian T. Tschanz; Carolyn C. Morf; Charles W. Turner

1998-01-01

307

The Personal Disturbance Scale (sAD): normative data and latent structure in a large non-clinical sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Personal Disturbance Scale [sAD; Bedford & Foulds (1978) Delusions–Symptoms–States Inventory State of Anxiety and Depression. Windsor: NFER-Nelson] is widely used in diverse settings and yet there are unresolved issues concerning its psychometric properties and normative data for the English speaking version are limited. The sAD was administered to a large sample of the general adult population (N=758). Demographic variables

J. D. Henrya; J. R. Crawford; A. Bedford; C. Crombie; E. P. Taylor

2002-01-01

308

Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa's children and women of childbearing age live?  

PubMed Central

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments. Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation. Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the distribution of key vulnerable groups, and that doing so has substantial impacts on derived metrics through accounting for spatial demographic heterogeneities that exist within nations across Africa.

2013-01-01

309

Global spatial patterns of natural and forced variability in the past millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several climate simulations over the past millennium with the model ECHO-G, driven by past solar variations, greenhouse gas concentrations and a parametrization of volcanic forcing, have been analysed to estimate the magnitude of externally forced variability relative to total variability at different time scales. The effect of individual volcanic eruptions has not been targeted in this study, which is rather focused on the signal of the slowly varying external forcings through time. Several variables have been placed in the focus of this study: near surface temperature, precipitation, sea-level pressure and the atmospheric zonally averaged meridional circulation. Due the to the length of the simulated period the simulation ensemble size is small. The externally forced signal is therefore identified by applying correlation techniques between the fields simulated in the various simulations. As expected the externally forced signal becomes stronger going from inter-annual to multi-decadal scales, but the spatial patterns differ for the different variables. For near-surface temperature the effect of external forcing is stronger in the tropics, where forced variability at multi-decadal time scales explains about 50% of the total variance. The external signal for precipitation is much weaker even at multi-decadal time scales, but at high-latitudes it amount to about 25% of the total variance. The corresponding spatial patters for sea-level pressure also displays larger externally forced variance at high latitudes (about 30%) than in the Tropics, but certain sea-level-pressure structures like the subtropical anticyclones display larger externally forced variability than the surrounding regions. Regarding the zonally averaged atmospheric meridional circulation, the externally forced signal is not very strong at multi-decadal time scales. It is mostly restricted to the Ferrell cell in the Southern Hemisphere with no clear signal of a response of the Hadley cell to external forcing

Zorita, E.; Caballero, R.; Wagner, S.

2012-04-01

310

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: a treatment review. What have we learned since the beginning of the millennium?  

PubMed Central

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) can significantly affect an individual’s quality of life, the health care system, and even society. The first decade of the new millennium has seen renewed interest in this condition, but etiological understanding and evidence-based treatment availability remain limited. After the diagnosis of PNES is established, the first therapeutic step includes a presentation of the diagnosis that facilitates engagement in treatment. The purpose of this review is to present the current evidence of treatments for PNES published since the year 2000 and to discuss further needs for clinical treatment implementation and research. This article reviews clinical trials that have evaluated the efficacy of structured, standardized psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological interventions. The primary outcome measure in clinical trials for PNES is event frequency, although it is questionable whether this is the most accurate indicator of functional recovery. Cognitive behavioral therapy has evidence of efficacy, including one pilot randomized, controlled trial where cognitive behavioral therapy was compared with standard medical care. The antidepressant sertraline did not show a significant difference in event frequency change when compared to placebo in a pilot randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, but it did show a significant pre- versus posttreatment decrease in the active arm. Other interventions that have shown efficacy in uncontrolled trials include augmented psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy, group psychodynamic psychotherapy, group psychoeducation, and the antidepressant venlafaxine. Larger clinical trials of these promising treatments are necessary, while other psychotherapeutic interventions such as hypnotherapy, mindfulness-based therapies, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing may deserve exploration. Flexible delivery of treatment that considers the heterogeneous backgrounds of patients is emphasized as necessary for successful outcomes in clinical practice.

Baslet, Gaston

2012-01-01

311

Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being made available for the RWSS sector.

Mwendera, E. J.

312

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: a treatment review. What have we learned since the beginning of the millennium?  

PubMed

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) can significantly affect an individual's quality of life, the health care system, and even society. The first decade of the new millennium has seen renewed interest in this condition, but etiological understanding and evidence-based treatment availability remain limited. After the diagnosis of PNES is established, the first therapeutic step includes a presentation of the diagnosis that facilitates engagement in treatment. The purpose of this review is to present the current evidence of treatments for PNES published since the year 2000 and to discuss further needs for clinical treatment implementation and research. This article reviews clinical trials that have evaluated the efficacy of structured, standardized psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological interventions. The primary outcome measure in clinical trials for PNES is event frequency, although it is questionable whether this is the most accurate indicator of functional recovery. Cognitive behavioral therapy has evidence of efficacy, including one pilot randomized, controlled trial where cognitive behavioral therapy was compared with standard medical care. The antidepressant sertraline did not show a significant difference in event frequency change when compared to placebo in a pilot randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, but it did show a significant pre- versus posttreatment decrease in the active arm. Other interventions that have shown efficacy in uncontrolled trials include augmented psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy, group psychodynamic psychotherapy, group psychoeducation, and the antidepressant venlafaxine. Larger clinical trials of these promising treatments are necessary, while other psychotherapeutic interventions such as hypnotherapy, mindfulness-based therapies, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing may deserve exploration. Flexible delivery of treatment that considers the heterogeneous backgrounds of patients is emphasized as necessary for successful outcomes in clinical practice. PMID:23251092

Baslet, Gaston

2012-12-10

313

The NASA New Millennium Program: Space Flight Validation of Advanced Technologies for Future Science Missions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A broad range of advanced technologies are needed to support NASA's ambitious plans for planetary exploration during the next decade. To address these needs, the NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) identifies breakthrough spacecraft and instrument technologies and validates them in space to reduce their cost and risk. The first NMP Deep Space mission, DS1, was launched on October 24, 1998. Since then, it has successfully validated a solar-powered ion propulsion system, a miniaturized deep space transponder, autonomous operations and navigation software, multifunctional structures, low-power microelectronics and 2 instruments: the Miniature Integrated Camera and Spectrometer (MICAS), and the Plasma Experiment for Planetary Exploration (PEPE). To validate these technologies in a realistic environment, DS1's trajectory includes a close (<10km) flyby of asteroid 1992KD. An extended mission will allow encounters with comets Wilson-Harrington and Borrelly. The second NMP mission, DS2, consists of a pair of micro penetrators that are targeted near the Martian South Pole (71 to 76 S). DS2 was launched on January 3, 1999 as a piggyback payload on the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander cruise stage. After crashing into the Martian surface at greater than 200 m/s on December 3, 1999, these probes will validate technologies that will enable future Mars penetrator networks. These technologies include a single-stage, passive atmospheric entry system and a high-impact landing system designed to deliver a payload up to 1 meter below the Martian surface. This mission will also validate a miniaturized telecom system, low-temperature batteries, a suite of miniaturized in-situ scientific instruments, and other innovative packaging technologies. The next 2 NMP space science missions are currently being planned. If approved, Space Technology 3 (ST3) will validate technologies for separated spacecraft optical interferometry, to enable the ambitious Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission. The ST5 mission will validate advanced technologies needed by the space physics and astrophysics communities.

Crisp, D.; Raymond, C.

1999-09-01

314

New Technologies\\/New Literacies: Reconstructing Education for the New Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we enter a new millennium, most people are by now aware that we are in the midst of one of the most dramatic technological revolutions in history that is changing everything from the ways that we work, to the ways that we communicate with each other, to how we spend our leisure time. The technological revolution centers on computer,

Douglas Kellner

2001-01-01

315

Non-residential Fatherhood and Child Involvement: Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen per cent of British babies are now born to parents who are neither cohabiting nor married. Little is known about non-residential fatherhood that commences with the birth of a child. Here, we use the Millennium Cohort Study to examine a number of aspects of this form of fatherhood. Firstly, we consider the extent to which these fathers were involved

KATHLEEN KIERNAN

2006-01-01

316

Women at the Millennium, Accomplishments and Challenges Ahead. Facts on Working Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To benefit from new millennium opportunities, women should take advantage of the burgeoning information technology revolution and growth in other mathematics- and science-based occupations. Among occupations, professional jobs will increase the fastest and add the most employment. Among industries, the computer and data processing services…

Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

317

Accelerating the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Ghana: Literacy, the Missing Link  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Millennium Development Goals launched in 2001 provide a worldwide agenda to reduce poverty by 2015. Though the eight goals provide synergies for the rapid reduction of poverty, the MDGs have come under criticism for being too narrow and sometimes leaving out critical aspects of human development and well-being. Although the MDGs address some…

Tagoe, Michael Ayitey

2011-01-01

318

What Will Be the Demands of Literacy in the Workplace in the Next Millennium?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents five educators' ideas about what the demands of literacy in the workplace in the next millennium will be. Notes increased expansion of multiple literacies and considers electronic performance support systems and expert systems. Considers how future workplace literacy is dependent on adult literacy skills. (SC)

Smith, M Cecil; Mikulecky, Larry; Kibby, Michael W.; Dreher, Mariam Jean; Dole, Janice A.

2000-01-01

319

The Impact of ICT Use on New Millennium Learners' Educational Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) use on the educational performance of new millennium learners (NMLs). Even though many factors might influence individual performance besides ICT use itself, the research focus was on the relationship between the behavioral patterns…

Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Kim, Minjeong

2011-01-01

320

The Carbon Conundrum: Global Warming and Energy Policy in the Third Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many different models and ideas have been presented, studied and even implemented as policy on the issue of climate change. Many models have presented one extreme or the other in providing a method with which to go forward. The Carbon Conundrum; Global Warming and Energy Policy in the Third Millennium is an interesting book that presents alternative scenarios for dealing

R. C. Kelly

2003-01-01

321

Behind the Public Face of Kew: Education and Conservation in the Millennium Seed Bank  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At its Wakehurst Place garden in West Sussex, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, has established the UK home of one of the world's largest conservation projects, the Millennium Seed Bank (MSB) partnership, a global project to conserve biodiversity by collecting and preserving seeds. This article describes what the MSB partnership does, how seeds are…

McFarlane, Angela

2010-01-01

322

Toward an essential ethic for teaching science in the new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify and explore values and views that might underlie an essential ethic for teaching science in the new millennium. With such an ethic, teachers may be better able to prepare young people to form and fully participate in communities that restore and sustain Earth. Reviewed in the literature for this study were changing

Irene De La Bretonne Hays

1997-01-01

323

Knowledge of Millennium Development Goals among University Faculty in Uganda and Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the level of knowledge of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) among university faculty. The assessment is based on data from 197 academic unit or faculty heads randomly selected from universities in Uganda and Kenya. Frequency distributions and logistic regression were used for analysis. Slightly more than one in three…

Wamala, Robert; Nabachwa, Mary Sonko; Chamberlain, Jean; Nakalembe, Eva

2012-01-01

324

The Environmental Millennium Development Goal: progress and barriers to its achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensuring environmental sustainability is the aim of the seventh Millennium Development Goal (MDG7). United Nations data shows insufficient progress, especially in developing countries. In order to generate new information about this progress and the main barriers that hinder it, we conducted a systematic review to describe the scientific evidence concerning MDG7, and to analyse the quality of the studies. In

Lucas Donat Castelló; Diana Gil-González; Carlos Alvarez-Dardet Diaz; Ildefonso Hernández-Aguado

2010-01-01

325

Distraction, destruction, deliverance: the presence of mindscape in marketing’s new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marketing-driven consumer culture is often indicted in the degradation of the ecosphere. Futurists envision an ecological crisis in the new millennium. Marketing and consumer research can be enlisted in the aversion of this crisis. Political and philosophical regimes of environmental reclamation and redemption must be mobilized by conversion experiences in the individual’s soul. In this paper, I propose that marketers

Jr John F. Sherry

2000-01-01

326

The history, evolution and principles of services marketing: poised for the new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and evolution of services marketing have been extraordinary. Provides a brief historical overview of services marketing, highlights its differences, then presents an extensive list of principles that attempts to reflect the current state of the field and provides a springboard for the further development of services marketing in the next millennium. The list provides guidelines for marketing managers

Charles L. Martin

1999-01-01

327

Schoolwide Literacy and Service-Learning through the Millennium Development Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the ways one school continues to enhance both literacy and service-learning through the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals. Over the course of their middle-school years, young adolescents at Canterbury School visit a range of sites in the community. They also explore service-learning at home and around the world by…

Wall, Amanda; Edmunds, J. Spencer

2009-01-01

328

Dynamic analysis of interventions designed to achieve millennium development goals (MDG): The case of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of countries are orientating their development strategies based on the millennium development goals (MDG), a broad set of directives agreed to by the United Nations (UN) in the year 2000. Developing coherent plans to achieve MDG has been complicated by their multidisciplinary nature, and by the complexity of the system being managed. The “system” here is the

Matteo Pedercini; Gerald O. Barney

2010-01-01

329

Safe Harbor for Service Providers Under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Congress passed the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) in 1998 in an effort to adapt copyright law to an evolving digital environment. The expansive legislation is divided into five titles, the second of which is the focus of this report. Title II of...

B. Yeh R. Jeweler

2004-01-01

330

The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic growth and reduce fertility,

Dina Abu-Ghaida; Stephan Klasen

2003-01-01

331

The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic growth, reduced fertility, child

Stephan Klasen

2004-01-01

332

An annually resolved bristlecone pine carbon isotope chronology for the last millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first near millennium-length, annually resolved stable isotope record from bristlecone pines (Pinus longaeva, D.K Bailey). The carbon isotope ratios from the cellulose of seven trees from the White Mountains of California, corrected for anthropogenic changes in atmospheric chemistry, are used to reconstruct growing season (June through August) precipitation back to AD 1085. Extremely negative isotope results are

Roderick J. Bale; Iain Robertson; Matthew W. Salzer; Neil J. Loader; Steven W. Leavitt; Mary Gagen; Thomas P. Harlan; Danny McCarroll

2011-01-01

333

Meeting the needs of the new millennium: passenger space travel and world economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without doubt, humans’ most urgent need at the start of the new millennium is the continuation of economic growth, which is the only means by which the great majority of the world population can lift themselves out of the poverty in which they live. A sine qua non for continuing economic growth is for the rich countries to continue to

Patrick Collins

2002-01-01

334

Education Finance in the New Millennium. Yearbook of the American Education Finance Association, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This yearbook reaffirms the connections between the field of education finance and the wider education community. Among the topics it examines are curricula reform, outcome assessment, accountability, community control, and privatization. Twelve chapters include: (1) "Education Finance in the New Millennium: Overview and Summary" (Stephen Chaikind…

Chaikind, Stephen, Ed.; Fowler, William J., Ed.

335

Aid, Debt Relief and New Sources of Finance for Meeting the Millennium Development Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have lofty expectations regarding the impact of official development aid. Are these expectations valid? This paper surveys the literature on aid and growth. It finds that practically all aid studies since the late 1990s conclude that aid increases economic growth. By implication, therefore, it can be inferred that poverty would be higher in the absence

Tony Addison; George Mavrotas; Mark McGillivray

2010-01-01

336

How Road Traffic Injuries Affect Household Welfare in Cambodia Using the Millennium Development Goals Benchmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reveals the welfare costs of traffic injuries in Cambodia at the beginning of a decade in which greater research and resources will be focused on road safety. The results quantify how road traffic injuries affect progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) using survey data from 100 Cambodian households. The median age of the police-reported casualties was 28

Matthew Ericson; Pagna Kim

2011-01-01

337

Combatting cancer in the third millennium – The contribution of medical physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this invited opening Plenary Lecture at the 1st European Conference on Medical Physics, I indicated some of the roles of medical physics, and specifically medical radiation therapy physics, in the development of improved cancer care for the third millennium. It is said that you are only asked to predict the future if you are seriously old and\\/or will not

Steve Webb

2008-01-01

338

Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Impact of the Gates Millennium Scholars Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation began an innovative scholarship program that provides full financial support to low-income minority students across the United States. The Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) program has already awarded more than 10,000 scholarships to exceptional students, with the ultimate goal of funding at least 20,000…

Ramsey, Jennifer

2010-01-01

339

The Economic and Human Development Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic growth and reduces fertility,

Dina Abu-Ghaida; Stephan Klasen

340

The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic growth and reduce fertility,

Dina Abu-Ghaida; Stephan Klasen

2002-01-01

341

HDR 2003 - Millennium Development Goals: A Compact Among Nations to End Human Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new century opened with an unprecedented declaration of solidarity and determination to rid the world of poverty. In 2000 the UN Millennium Declaration, adopted at the largest-ever gathering of heads of state, committed countries — rich and poor — to doing all they can to eradicate poverty, promote human dignity and equality and achieve peace, democracy and environmental sustainability.

342

Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 2: Childhood Literacy. Praeger Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

2007-01-01

343

The Challenges of Attaining Millennium Development Goals in Education in Africa by 2015  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Millennium Development Goals were established by the United Nations to help underdeveloped countries to overcome problems of illiteracy, poverty, low health status and quality of life. Much emphasis was placed on the attainment of MDG targets in education because of its pivotal role in national development. The targets include education for all…

Ojogwu, C. N.

2009-01-01

344

A multi-proxy perspective on millennium-long climate variability in the Southern Pyrenees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of selected, well-dated, multiproxy paleoclimatic records (lacustrine, dendrochronological, geomorphological) characterizes the main environmental changes occurred in the Southern Pyrenees during the last millennium. Warmer and relatively arid conditions prevailed during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, <1300 AD), with a significant development of xerophytes and Mediterranean vegetation and limited deciduous tree formations (mesophytes). The Little Ice Age (LIA, 1300-1800

M. Morellón; A. Pérez-Sanz; J. P. Corella; U. Büntgen; J. Catalán; P. González-Sampériz; J. J. González-Trueba; J. A. López-Sáez; A. Moreno; S. Pla; M. Á. Saz-Sánchez; P. Scussolini; E. Serrano; F. Steinhilber; V. Stefanova; T. Vegas-Vilarrúbia; B. Valero-Garcés

2011-01-01

345

For equalities are plural: reassessing the social in Europe during the third millennium bc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of evolutionary thought is fundamental to the archaeological perception that the third millennium bc in Europe is a period of highly developed social hierarchy. Following a critique of previous uses of the evolutionary frame of reference to model understandings of the material culture for this period, I suggest an alternative reading on the basis of a polythetic analysis

Marc Vander Linden

2007-01-01

346

Post-Compulsory Education and the New Millennium. Higher Education Policy Series 54.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contributors to this collection deal with many of the most important issues facing further education in the United Kingdom and present a graphic picture of the kinds of problems facing colleges as they move into the new millennium. The chapters are: (1) "The Changing Framework of Post-16 Education - The Rhetoric of Reform" (Colin Griffin and…

Gray, David E., Ed.; Griffin, Colin, Ed.

347

Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 2: Childhood Literacy. Praeger Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

2007-01-01

348

Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 4: Adult Literacy. Praeger Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

2007-01-01

349

Implementing the millennium development food security goals – Challenges of the southern African context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Millennium Development Goals’ target to halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger is extremely important in southern Africa, where food security has become increasingly problematic over the last 20 years. One “quick-win” proposal is replenishment of soil nutrients for smallholder farmers, through free or subsidised chemical fertilisers. Other proposals include appropriate irrigation technology, improved inputs and interventions

David Love; Steve Twomlow; Walter Mupangwa; Pieter van der Zaag; Bekithemba Gumbo

2006-01-01

350

Carbon isotopes, the sun, and climate change over the last millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

aurora histories in combination with the behaviour of solar-like stars have been used to estimate past solar irradiance. The temporal evolution of different proxy series is in reasonable agreement for the past millennium. However, the scaling required to translate a proxy record into solar irradiance anomalies is highly uncertain and published estimates of multi-decadal solar irradiance changes vary by a

Fortunat Joos; Raimund Muscheler; Caspar M. Ammann; Simon A. Müller

351

Governing by Partnerships: Dilemmas in Swedish Education Policy at the Turn of the Millennium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years, governing through partnerships has become more and more common and is today reflected in a range of policy areas. In the following article, governing through partnerships is analysed in Swedish education policy around the turn of the millennium, where the notion of partnership has had a large impact. Using as its point of…

Dahlstedt, Magnus

2009-01-01

352

SWOT investigation of China's science and technology planning system in the new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the new millennium, China's National Science and Technology Planning System (NSTPS) must adapt to the critical transition from the planned economy system to the market economy system. This paper firstly develops a conceptual model of how science and technology (S&T) based economic growth should be viewed for the purposes of NSTPS analysis and formulation. The second section illustrates the

Lin Miao; Su Jun

2000-01-01

353

Women at the Millennium, Accomplishments and Challenges Ahead. Facts on Working Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To benefit from new millennium opportunities, women should take advantage of the burgeoning information technology revolution and growth in other mathematics- and science-based occupations. Among occupations, professional jobs will increase the fastest and add the most employment. Among industries, the computer and data processing services…

Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

354

Relative sea level change in west Greenland during the last millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative sea level (RSL) data provide important long-term (century to millennial-scale) constraints on ice load history in Greenland. In this paper we present the results of a litho-, bio- and chronostratigraphic study designed to reconstruct RSL during the last millennium from salt marsh deposits recovered from a field site near to the town of Sisimiut, west Greenland. The stratigraphy at

Antony J. Long; Sarah A. Woodroffe; Glenn A. Milne; Charlotte L. Bryant; Leanne M. Wake

2010-01-01

355

Learning for Development: The Commonwealth of Learning and the Millennium Development Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|World leaders, meeting at the United Nations in 2000, set eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that aim to transform the condition of humankind in the 21st century. These Goals now guide the policies of governments and the priorities of development agencies. These eight goals are: (1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2) Achieve…

Commonwealth of Learning, 2011

2011-01-01

356

Millennium Development Goals: The September 2010 U.N. High-Level Meeting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From September 20 to 22, 2010, heads of state and government convened at United Nations (U.N.) Headquarters for a High-level Plenary Meeting to review progress toward the U.N. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs are a group of measurable develop...

L. Blanchfield M. L. Lawson

2010-01-01

357

Efficiency in Reaching the Millennium Development Goals. World Bank Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide clear targets and areas of focus for international organizations such as the World Bank. At a conceptual level, to reduce poverty and hunger, to improve education and health indicators, and to promote gender equality and sustainable development, countries can either increase the resources they…

Jayasuriya, Ruwan, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

358

Manufacturing’s role in corporate environmental sustainability - Concerns for the new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural environment and the manufacturing function are becoming inextricably linked. As the new millennium approaches and progresses, profitability, productivity and environmental consciousness are increasingly viewed as integral goals of manufacturing organizations. The issues facing manufacturing organizations, in general, and the manufacturing function in particular, are discussed in this paper. Some of the current practices and future requirements for an

Joseph Sarkis

2001-01-01

359

The Use of ICT in Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contribution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the contribution of higher education institutions in achieving these have been emphasized. This study sought to find out the extent to which university-based researches on ICTs addressed and impacted the three MDGs of gender…

Kaino, L. M.

2012-01-01

360

The Future of Small Telescopes In The New Millennium. Volume I - Perceptions, Productivities, and Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

An invaluable reference for any student, scientist or administrator, using small telescopes for research. An essential collection of data and opinions for those charged with setting scientific and funding priorities. This three-volume set, The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium details the essential roles that small telescopes should play in 21st century science and how their future productivity

T. D. Oswalt

2003-01-01

361

The Future of Small Telescopes In The New Millennium. Volume II - The Telescopes We Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

An invaluable reference for any student, scientist or administrator, using small telescopes for research. An essential collection of data and opinions for those charged with setting scientific and funding priorities. This three-volume set, The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium details the essential roles that small telescopes should play in 21st century science and how their future productivity

T. D. Oswalt

2003-01-01

362

The Sydney 2000 Olympic Games Bid: Marketing Indigenous Australia for the Millennium Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The almost universal reaction across Australia to the 1993 announcement that Sydney would host the 2000 Olympic Games was one of elation. Since the bid launch in 1990, the city of Sydney and the nation had been urged to ‘Share the Spirit’ and maintain enthusiasm for the possibility of hosting the Millennium Olympics. The bid campaign appeared to be a

Leanne White

2011-01-01

363

Florida Current surface temperature and salinity variability during the last millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salinity and temperature of the Florida Current are key parameters affecting the transport of heat into the North Atlantic, yet little is known about their variability on centennial timescales. Here we report replicated, high-resolution foraminiferal records of Florida Current surface hydrography for the last millennium from two coring sites, Dry Tortugas and the Great Bahama Bank. The oxygen isotopic

David C. Lund; William Curry

2006-01-01

364

Urban ecosystem management and change during the past millennium: a case study from New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in a deciduous forest and salt marsh ecosystem, Hunter Island, New York City, are related to management over the past millennium. Sequential methods, fossil pollen analysis, map and aerial photography series, and vegetation resampling were performed to supplement the historical and archaeological records. The enhanced ecosystem management history provides an expanded context to examine management planning alternatives.

Robert E. Loeb

1998-01-01

365

HIV\\/AIDS' spread and impact on other health-related millennium development goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV\\/AIDS threatens the development of countries with high HIV preva- lence. This article focuses on the magnitude of the impact of HIV\\/AIDS on the millennium development goals (MDGs) for health. The article is based on a literature survey on the impact of HIV on child health, maternal mor- tality, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria. At global level 10% of child mortality

Anita Alban; Nina Bjerglund Andersen

2007-01-01

366

Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 3: Adolescent Literacy. Praeger Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

2007-01-01

367

Monsoonal Responses to External Forcings over the Past Millennium: A Model Study (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The climate variations related to Global Monsoon (GM) and East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall over the past 1000 years were investigated by analysis of a pair of millennium simulations with the coupled climate model named ECHO-G. The free run was generated using fixed external (annual cycle) forcing, while the forced run was obtained using time-varying solar irradiance variability, greenhouse

J. Liu; B. Wang

2009-01-01

368

Personality Disorders  

PubMed Central

To date, five major studies have examined the prevalence and type of personality disorders in community samples in the United States. According to the majority of studies, the overall prevalence of Axis II disorders in the general population is consistently around 10 percent. According to the most recent study, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is the most frequent Axis II disorder in community samples in the United States, followed by narcissistic and borderline personality disorders. In contrast to studies in the United States, community prevalence rates of personality disorders in other countries show moderately wide variation, from 6.1 to 13.4 percent; yet, the averaging of these two low/high percentages results in 9.7 percent. The most common type of personality pathology in a given country varies, and this variance may be accounted for in a number of relevant ways.

Sansone, Lori A.

2011-01-01

369

Cybercounseling and Cyberlearning: Strategies and Resources for the Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to assist counselors in becoming better informed about cybercounseling so that they can decide for themselves what their personal opinion is on its worth and use. It describes current practices that will give a glimpse as to the behavioral health professions in the future. The book contains the following chapters: (1)…

Bloom, John W.; Walz, Garry R.

370

Social-Cognitive Theory of Personality Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a social-cognitive theory of personality assessment. We articulate the implications of social-cognitive theories of personality for the question of what constitutes an assessment of personality structure and behavioral dispositions. The theory consists of 5 social-cognitive principles of assessment. Personality assessments should (a) distin - guish the task of assessing internal personality structures and dynamics from that of

Daniel Cervone; William G. Shadel; Simon Jencius

2001-01-01

371

Monsoonal Responses to External Forcings over the Past Millennium: A Model Study (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climate variations related to Global Monsoon (GM) and East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall over the past 1000 years were investigated by analysis of a pair of millennium simulations with the coupled climate model named ECHO-G. The free run was generated using fixed external (annual cycle) forcing, while the forced run was obtained using time-varying solar irradiance variability, greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) concentration and estimated radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. The model results indicate that the centennial-millennial variation of the GM and EASM is essentially a forced response to the external radiative forcings (insolation, volcanic aerosols, and greenhouse gases). The GM strength responds more directly to the effective solar forcing (insolation plus radiative effect of the volcanoes) when compared to responses of the global mean surface temperature on centennial timescale. The simulated GM precipitation in the forced run exhibits a significant quasi-bi-centennial oscillation. Weak GM precipitation was simulated during the Little Ice Age (1450-1850) with three weakest periods concurring with the Spörer, Maunder, and Dalton Minimum of solar activity. Conversely, strong GM was simulated during the model Medieval Warm Period (ca. 1030-1240). Before the industrial period, the natural variation in effective solar forcing reinforces the thermal contrasts both between the ocean and continent and between the northern and southern hemispheres, resulting in millennium-scale variation and the quasi-bi-centennial oscillation of the GM. The prominent upward trend in the GM precipitation occurring in the last century and the remarkably strengthening of the global monsoon in the period of 1961-1990 appear unprecedented and owed possibly in part to the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. The EASM has the largest meridional extent (5oN-55oN) among all the regional monsoons on globe. Thus, the EASM provides an unique opportunity for understanding the latitudinal differences of the monsoonal responses to external forcings and internal feedback processes. The strength of the forced response depends on latitude. On centennial-millennial time scales, the variation of the extratropical and subtropical rainfall tends to follow the effective solar radiation forcing closely; the tropical rainfall is less sensitive to the effective solar radiation forcing but responds significantly to the modern anthropogenic CO2 forcing. The spatial patterns and structures of the forced response differ from the internal mode (i.e., interannual variability that arises primarily from the internal feedback processes within the climate system). Further, the behavior of the internal mode is effectively modulated by changes in the mean state on the centennial to millennial time scales. These findings have important ramification in understanding the differences and linkages between the forced and internal modes of variability as well as in promoting communication between scientists studying modern- and paleo-monsoon variations.

Liu, J.; Wang, B.

2009-12-01

372

Radiocarbon Variability in the Tropical Pacific During the Last Millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strength of upwelling in the tropical Pacific strongly influences global climate, as demonstrated during El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) extremes. Understanding the causes of past variability in tropical Pacific upwelling will help to predict how future climate may evolve under radiative forcing caused by the increase in greenhouse gases. We measured radiocarbon (14C) records in corals collected from Palmyra (6°°N, 162°°W) and Christmas (2°°N, 157°°W) Islands, located in the central tropical Pacific, to reconstruct high-resolution variations in tropical Pacific upwelling over the last millennium. Corals incorporate 14C/12C ratios equal to those in the dissolved inorganic carbon of surrounding seawater, and thus provide monthly-resolved records of surface ocean radiocarbon concentrations back through time. Surface ocean waters are more enriched with radiocarbon than deep waters, owing to the atmospheric source for radiocarbon. Upwelled waters are depleted in radiocarbon because significant radioactive decay has occurred during their isolation in the deeper ocean. Previous work with central tropical Pacific corals has determined that upwelled waters are approximately -55‰° to -65‰° in this region, while currents flowing from the west Pacific to the east Pacific carry waters with a higher 14C signature, roughly -38‰, and waters from the east have a value of -72‰° (Konishi et. al, 1981, Druffel, 1981). Therefore, variations in 14C in the Palmyra and Christmas corals reflect the mixing of the cool, radiocarbon-depleted, waters associated with equatorial upwelling and the warm, radiocarbon-enriched waters advected from the western tropical Pacific. Oxygen isotopic (?18O) analyses of the Palmyra and Christmas fossil corals reveal a rich climatic history of interannual to centennial variability (Cobb et al., 2003). Our approach targets specific time intervals associated with strong interannual to centennial ?18O anomalies for high-resolution radiocarbon analysis. We compare seasonally-resolved radiocarbon measurements from the Palmyra and Christmas modern corals to their fossil counterparts. The 1941 El Niño event is not associated with a significant radiocarbon departure, despite significant changes in upwelling and horizontal advection inferred from sea-surface temperature records and coral ?18O data. Indeed, high-resolution radiocarbon sampling of the 10th, 15th, and 17th century fossil corals reveals no significant radiocarbon variations associated with ENSO activity. Decadal to centennial-scale variations in radiocarbon variability are resolved by annually-averaged samples during the 10%th, 15th and 17th centuries. These analyses indicate that during active ENSO periods, the corals are more enriched in 14C than during suppressed ENSO activity. Coral radiocarbon from the 17th century, when ENSO was very prominent, averaged -51‰°, compared to -57‰° and -60‰° during the 15th and 10th centuries, respectively. Discussion of the mechanisms that would allow low variability in 14C, and large changes in ?18O, including the variations in response times of the corals to incorporating temperature differences versus radiocarbon will be presented.

Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Cobb, K. M.; Druffel, E. R.; Griffin, S. M.

2007-12-01

373

Personality Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality disorder (PD) is the primary psychiatric illness observed in most patients with psychosocial complaints, particularly\\u000a young adults. PD is present in one sixth of people in the general population and more than half of all psychiatric patients.\\u000a Reliable diagnosis of PD can be made in routine clinical practice by brief assessment of two essential features of a person’s\\u000a character—low

C. Robert Cloninger; Dragan M. Svrakic

374

A cross-setting study of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) personality structure and development: zoological parks and Yerkes National Primate Research Center.  

PubMed

This study addressed whether personality ratings using a 43 adjective questionnaire based on the Five-Factor Model generalized from a sample of 202 zoo-housed chimpanzees to a sample of 175 chimpanzees housed in Yerkes National Primate Research Center. Mean interrater reliabilities of adjectival ratings were lower for the chimpanzees housed in Yerkes. In addition, rank order of the interrater reliabilities of items differed between settings. To compare factor structure, we first examined whether we could replicate the original six factor structure found in an earlier study of 100 zoo chimpanzees using principal factors analysis in the Yerkes sample and 102 new zoo chimpanzees. The dominance, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness factors were clearly replicated in the Yerkes sample and the 102 new zoo chimpanzees. The Neuroticism and Openness factors did not replicate in the Yerkes sample, but they also did not replicate in the new zoo chimpanzees. These findings suggest the need to sample more adjectives representing neuroticism and openness in future versions of the questionnaire. We next sought to determine whether factor structure, as determined by principal components analysis, remained invariant across the two settings. This analysis revealed dominance, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness factors in both settings and a high level of congruence between the zoo and Yerkes samples for these factors. Finally, we tested whether factor scores in the two samples were similarly related to age and sex. With the exception of differences in age effects for dominance and agreeableness, age, and sex effects were consistent across samples. These findings suggest that, whereas there may be differences in the ease with which ratings are made, personality structure, and development are largely consistent across widely differing settings. PMID:17397036

Weiss, Alexander; King, James E; Hopkins, William D

2007-11-01

375

Changing personalities: towards realistic virtual characters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer modelling of personality and behaviour is becoming increas- ingly important in many fields of computer science and psychology. Personality and emotion-driven Believable Agents are needed in areas like human-machine interfaces, electronic advertising and, most notably, electronic entertainment. Computer models of personality can help explain personality by illustrating its underlying structure and dynamics. This work presents a neural network model

Mike Poznanski; Paul Thagard

2005-01-01

376

Understanding maltreating mothers: a synthesis of relational trauma, attachment disorganization, structural dissociation of the personality, and experiential avoidance.  

PubMed

Treatment options are limited for families in which the child has severe and intractable disturbances of emotion and behavior, in which there is suspected or confirmed maltreatment by the mother, and in which the mother has her own history of childhood neglect and abuse. This paper proposes a model for understanding maltreatment in mother-child dyads, drawing upon the developmental psychopathology, behavior, and trauma literatures. At the core of this model is the hypothesis that a mother's maltreating behavior arises from unconscious attempts to experientially avoid the reemergence of an attachment-related dissociative part of the personality that contains the distress arising from her own early experiences of attachment relationships. The implications of this model for therapy are considered. PMID:21967177

Amos, Jackie; Furber, Gareth; Segal, Leonie

2011-01-01

377

Low-Latitude Western North Atlantic Climate Variability During the Past Millennium: Insights from Proxies and Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Estimates of natural climate variability during the past millennium provide a frame of reference in which to assess the significance of recent changes. This thesis investigates new methods of reconstructing low-latitude sea surface temperature (SST) and h...

C. P. Saenger

2009-01-01

378

Next Millennium Conference: Ending Domestic Violence; Femicide and Fatality Review. Held in Chicago, Illinois, August 31, 1999.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In August 1999, practitioners, researchers, academicians, and administrators from around the country assembled at the The Next Millennium Conference: Ending Domestic Violence to reflect on the historical milestones of the domestic violence movement: celeb...

C. Block J. Campbell R. Thompson

2000-01-01

379

76 FR 57765 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice of the September 28, 2011, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Directors (the ``Board'') of the Millennium Challenge Corporation (``MCC'') will hold a meeting to discuss update on Tunisia, discussion of the Indonesia compact and the Selection Criteria & Methodology report. The agenda items are expected to...

2011-09-16

380

Redefining the Air Force Medical Service in the New Millennium: Should the AFMS Outsource Physician Training and Residency Education Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the United States Air Force enters the new millennium and reorganizes into an Expeditionary Air Force comprised of 10 Air Expeditionary Air Forces, medical support of these forces is one factor that will greatly impact military readiness. Providing the...

S. S. Baker

2000-01-01

381

78 FR 14787 - Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Assessment for the Proposed Hancock Compressor Project The staff of the Federal Energy...environmental assessment (EA) on the Hancock Compressor Project proposed by Millennium Pipeline...to construct and operate its Hancock Compressor Project in Delaware County, New...

2013-03-07

382

Paranoid Personality Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Paranoid Personality Disorder What is paranoid personality disorder? Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is one of a group of conditions called eccentric personality disorders. People with these disorders ...

383

PERSONS WITH MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, Internal Self 1lelpers (ISM) of persons with multiple personality rlisorrler OWPI)) have been deseriberl by rr )7mill Humber of therapists. ii is .studV Iwo\\/ens the base ala I inaton relating to ISHs. Forty respondents who collectively had been therapists fur-rr totrtl of 690 i11P1) patients participated in the snarly. 77re findings of this study suti g ges

M. Ann Adams; Ann Adams; M. N. Sc

1989-01-01

384

Special feature: personality and personality disorders. A facet theoretical analysis of the similarity relationships.  

PubMed

Categorical and dimensional models of personality, and personality disorders and their interrelationships, are discussed. A facet theoretical analysis of the structural relationships between personality factors and disorders is described. It is hypothesized that higher-order personality traits organize the personality of both the psychically healthy and the psychically ill, and that personality disorders represent maladaptive variants of traits that are evident in all persons to varying degrees. Data were collected from a clinical (n = 165) and a nonclinical sample (n = 100). Results show that the two classes of variables (personality factors and disorders) have similar relationships to each other, and can be structured in the form of a radex in both samples. Finally, the compatibility of the radex structure with other models is examined, comparing facet theory with factor analytical techniques. The results of the facet theoretical analysis further support the hypothesis of a universal personality model, and a continuous transition from normal personalities to personality disorders. PMID:9785265

Pukrop, R; Herpertz, S; Sass, H; Steinmeyer, E M

1998-01-01

385

Modeling Behavior with Personalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decoupling behavior modeling from a specific inheritance hierarchy has become one of the challenges for object- oriented software engineering. The goal is to encapsulate behavior on its own, and yet be able to freely apply it to a given class structure. We claim that standard object- oriented languages do not directly address this problem and propose the concept of Personalities

Luis Blando; Karl Lieberherr; Mira Mezini

386

Monitoring the millennium development goals: the potential role of the INDEPTH Network  

PubMed Central

The Millennium Declaration, adopted by the United Nations (UN) in 2000, set a series of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as priorities for UN member countries, committing governments to realising eight major MDGs and 18 associated targets by 2015. Progress towards these goals is being assessed by tracking a series of 48 technical indicators that have since been unanimously adopted by experts. This concept paper outlines the role member Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs) of the INDEPTH Network could play in monitoring progress towards achieving the MDGs. The unique qualities of the data generated by HDSSs lie in the fact that they provide an opportunity to measure or evaluate interventions longitudinally, through the long-term follow-up of defined populations.

Bangha, Martin; Diagne, Alioune; Bawah, Ayaga; Sankoh, Osman

2010-01-01

387

Financing the Millennium Development Goals for health and beyond: sustaining the 'Big Push'  

PubMed Central

Many of the Millennium Development Goals are not being achieved in the world's poorest countries, yet only five years remain until the target date. The financing of these Goals is not merely insufficient; current evidence indicates that the temporary nature of the financing, as well as challenges to coordinating its delivery and directing it to the most needy recipients, hinder achievement of the Goals in countries that may benefit most. Traditional approaches to providing development assistance for health have not been able to address both prevalent and emergent public health challenges captured in the Goals; these challenges demand sustained forms of financial redistribution through a coordinated mechanism. A global social health protection fund is proposed to address recurring failures in the modern aid distribution mechanism. Such a Fund could use established and effective strategies for aid delivery to mitigate many financial problems currently undermining the Millennium Development Goals initiative.

2010-01-01

388

Personality in frontal lobe disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality changes in frontal lobe disorders are easy to recognize, but their evolution can be hard to predict. Both focal\\u000a lesions and diffuse neurodegenerative processes may produce personality change based on interruption of prefrontal cortex\\u000a or subcortical structures that comprise the frontal-subcortical circuits. Observed changes in personality have been classified\\u000a by behavioral neurologists into three frontal-subcortical circuit syndromes, yet a

Tiffany W. Chow

2000-01-01

389

Students' perception of community disapproval, perceived enforcement of school antismoking policies, personal beliefs, and their cigarette smoking behaviors: Results from a structural equation modeling analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: School tobacco use policies are often considered to be part of a comprehensive approach to preventing or reducing adolescent cigarette smoking. However, little is known about the relationships between such policies and adolescents’ smoking behaviors or the mechanisms by which any such influence may occur. The present study tested a conceptual model that specifies possible direct and indirect relationships among community norms, school antismoking policies, adolescents’ personal smoking beliefs, and cigarette smoking behaviors. Methods: This study used data from 17,256 middle and high school students who participated in the 2006 Oregon Health Teens Survey. Results: Structural equation modeling indicated that perceived enforcement of school policy was directly and positively related to perceived community norms. In addition, adolescents’ personal beliefs appeared to mediate the relationship between perceived enforcement of school antismoking policies and past-30-day cigarette smoking. School policies, in turn, partially mediated the relationship between community norms and smoking beliefs. Discussion: The results of this study provide a better understanding of how community norms and school antismoking policies may affect adolescents’ cigarette smoking.

Grube, Joel W.

2009-01-01

390

Personal Revelation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Activity: You are going to develop a scripture chain that teaches us how we can receive Personal Revelation. Remember, when we talk to Heavenly Father we call it prayer. When Heavenly Father responds to us by the Holy Ghost we call it Personal Revelation. Teaching Emphasis (Core) I cannot use any language that describes to you what a revelation is. Somebody said, How can I tell if I have a revelation? I have had a feeling that such and such is true. How can I be sure? ...Revelation is something you experience, and the way that ...

Vasas, Brother

2008-10-15

391

Age and Education Effects on Relationships of Cognitive Test Scores With Brain Structure in Demographically Diverse Older Persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how age and education influence the relationship between neuropsychological test scores and brain structure in demographically diverse older adults spanning the range from normal cognition to dementia. A sample of 351 African Americans, 410 Hispanics, and 458 Whites underwent neuropsychological testing. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of total brain, white matter hyperintensity, and hippocampus were available

Dan Mungas; Bruce R. Reed; Sarah Tomaszewski Farias; Charles DeCarli

2009-01-01

392

Integrating autonomy technologies into an embedded spacecraft system-flight software system engineering for new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep Space 1 (DS1) is the first deep-space mission of NASA's New Millennium technology validation program. The DS1 flight software will validate five autonomy technologies: 1) Planner\\/Scheduler, which receives ground or on-board requests for spacecraft activities and schedules them to resolve any resource conflicts or timing constraints; 2) Smart Executive, which expands planned activities into lower-level commands, deduces required hardware

S. M. Kransner; D. E. Bernard

1997-01-01

393

Undernutrition in British Haredi infants within the Gateshead Millennium Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveDuring a study of weight faltering it was observed that infants from a minority Haredi (ultra-Orthodox Jewish) religious group showed very different growth patterns from the rest of the cohort. The authors thus set out to explore the characteristics of the community that may explain these differences.Setting and subjectsGateshead Millennium Study cohort, UK.DesignProspective population-based cohort study of 961 term infants

Charlotte M Wright; David H Stone; Kathryn N Parkinson

2010-01-01

394

Parental perceptions of weight status in children: the Gateshead Millennium Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To investigate parents’ perceptions of weight status in children and to explore parental understanding of and attitudes to childhood overweight.Design:Questionnaires and focus groups within a longitudinal study.Subjects:536 parents of Gateshead Millennium Study children, of which 27 attended six focus groups.Main outcome measures:Parents’ perception of their child's weight status according to actual weight status as defined by International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF)

A R Jones; K N Parkinson; R F Drewett; R M Hyland; M S Pearce; A J Adamson

2011-01-01

395

The potential impact of plant biotechnology on the Millennium Development Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are international development targets for the year 2015 that aim to achieve\\u000a relative improvements in the standards of health, socioeconomic status and education in the world’s poorest countries. Many\\u000a of the challenges addressed by the MDGs reflect the direct or indirect consequences of subsistence agriculture in the developing\\u000a world, and hence, plant biotechnology has

Dawei YuanLudovic; Ludovic Bassie; Maite Sabalza; Bruna Miralpeix; Svetlana Dashevskaya; Gemma Farre; Sol M. Rivera; Raviraj Banakar; Chao Bai; Georgina Sanahuja; Gemma Arjó; Eva Avilla; Uxue Zorrilla-López; Nerea Ugidos-Damboriena; Alberto López; David Almacellas; Changfu Zhu; Teresa Capell; Gunther Hahne; Richard M. Twyman; Paul Christou

2011-01-01

396

Data assimilation over the last millennium using a large ensemble of simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simulation is performed over the past millennium using a three-dimensional climate model of intermediate complexity that is forced to follow temperature histories obtained from a recent compilation of well-calibrated surface temperature proxies. This is achieved using a simple data assimilation technique that could be briefly described as follows. For each year, a large ensemble of simulation is performed (96 here). The member of the ensemble that is the closest to observations is then selected as representative for this particular year and used as the initial condition for the subsequent year. The distance between the model results and the proxy record is measured by a cost function using reconstructed and simulated temperatures at the locations where the proxies are available. The best simulation retained is the one that minimizes this cost function. The simulation obtained by this technique provides a continuous record over the past millennium that is compatible with model physics, with the forcing applied and with the available proxy-records. In a first step, the simulated temperatures over the last 150 years are compared to estimates obtained using only information from thermometers in order to demonstrate the validity of the techniques as well as to provide estimates of the errors bars on this new reconstruction. In a second step, the simulated temperatures over the whole millennium are compared at quasi- hemispheric-scales with the reconstructions based on statistical techniques. The simulated pattern of anomalies are then analyzed as well as the mechanisms responsible for the regional changes, with a particular focus over Europe and North America. The results are then compared to the ones of other data assimilation techniques used to study the climate of the last millennium.

Goosse, H.; Mann, M. E.; Renssen, H.; Timmermann, A.

2007-12-01

397

Laissez Faire, sustainable development and crisis in democracy in the new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract:The new millennium, endorsing the paradigm of globalization, has been characterized by the revival of the concept of laissez faire conceived long ago by the French Physiocrats and later on corroborated by the neo-classicists. Karl Marx opposed this view and put forward his concept of socialism (as an interim path towards communism) based on a completely state-controlled centralized economic system.

Ratan Lal Basu

2008-01-01

398

Climatic change over the last millennium in Tasmania reconstructed from tree-rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree-ring widths from millennium-old Huon pine (Lagarostrobos franklinii) trees have been used to reconstruct warm season (November-April) temperatures back to AD 900 for Tasmania. The reconstruction indicates that the most recent 100 years of climate have been highly unusual, with the coldest and warmest 25-year periods occurring from 1890 to 1914 and 1965 to 1989, respectively. Although the most recent

Er Cook; T. Bird; M. Peterson; M. Barbetti; B. Buckley; R. DArrigo; R. Francey

1992-01-01

399

Natural forcing of climate during the last millennium: fingerprint of solar variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability of the climate during the last millennium is partly forced by changes in total solar irradiance (TSI). Nevertheless,\\u000a the amplitude of these TSI changes is very small so that recent reconstruction data suggest that low frequency variations\\u000a in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and in the thermohaline circulation may have amplified, in the North Atlantic sector\\u000a and mostly

D. Swingedouw; L. Terray; C. Cassou; A. Voldoire; D. Salas-Mélia; J. Servonnat

2011-01-01

400

Towards accountability: A point of orientation for post-modern applied linguistics in the third millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Towards accountability: A point of orientation for post-modern applied linguistics in the third millennium In this article three difficulties in dealing with post-modern applied lin- guistics are identified, and three reasons are given for taking the trouble to define this emerging tradition of doing applied linguistics. In the context of earlier analyses of the history of applied linguistics, post-modernism is

Albert Weideman

2003-01-01

401

Variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in the last millennium and two IPCC scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is investigated in several climate simulations with\\u000a the ECHO-G atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, including two forced integrations of the last millennium, one millennial-long\\u000a control run, and two future scenario simulations of the twenty-first century. This constitutes a new framework in which the\\u000a AMOC response to future climate change conditions is addressed

Pablo Ortega; Marisa Montoya; Fidel González-Rouco; Juliette Mignot; Stephanie Legutke

2008-01-01

402

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act: The Future of the Safe Harbor Provision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspired by the current federal case, Viacom v. YouTube, this discussion delves into the history and creation of the Digital Millennium Act (DMCA), the court cases which set the foundation for the ongoing Viacom v . YouTube case, and an in-depth discussion on the growth of technology and the Internet with how it is affecting copyright holders. This article culminates

Jennette Wiser; Kristin Luciano; Christopher Psihoules; Caesar Lopez

2011-01-01

403

Adult Personality Development: Dynamics and Processes  

PubMed Central

The focus of this special issue of Research in Human Development is on adult personality and how personality may contribute to and be involved in adult development. Specifically, the contributions in this issue focus on the links between personality structures (e.g., traits) and personality processes (e.g., goal pursuit, self--regulation) and emphasize the contributions that intensive repeated measurement approaches can make to the understanding of personality and development across the adult life span.

Diehl, Manfred; Hooker, Karen

2013-01-01

404

Organizing around Intelligence: The Strategy for the Next Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intelligent organization theory perceives business organizations as complex adaptive intelligent systems. Such systems have spaces of order surrounded by spaces of complexity. A structure of this nature, embedded with intelligence, blends better with the requirements of the information era. At the moment, the structure of many business organizational systems is distorted by the linear mechanistic characteristics of the industrial

Thow Yick LIANG

1999-01-01

405

Age and education effects on relationships of cognitive test scores with brain structure in demographically diverse older persons.  

PubMed

This study examined how age and education influence the relationship between neuropsychological test scores and brain structure in demographically diverse older adults spanning the range from normal cognition to dementia. A sample of 351 African Americans, 410 Hispanics, and 458 Whites underwent neuropsychological testing. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of total brain, white matter hyperintensity, and hippocampus were available for 79 African Americans, 102 Hispanics, and 134 Whites. The authors used latent variable modeling to examine effects of age, education, and brain volumes on test scores and determine how much variance brain volumes explained in unadjusted and age- and education-adjusted scores. Age adjustment resulted in weaker relationships of test scores with MRI variables; adjustment for ethnicity yielded stronger relationships. Education adjustment increased relationships with MRI variables in the combined sample and Hispanics, made no difference in Whites, but decreased some associations in African Americans. Results suggest that demographic adjustment is beneficial when demographic variables are strongly related to test scores independent of measures of brain structure, but adjustment has negative consequences when effects of demographic characteristics are mediated by brain structure. PMID:19290743

Mungas, Dan; Reed, Bruce R; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Decarli, Charles

2009-03-01

406

Person Perception and Personality Pathology  

PubMed Central

Studies of person perception (people's impressions and beliefs about others) have developed important concepts and methods that can be used to help improve the assessment of personality disorders. They may also inspire advances in our knowledge of the nature and origins of these conditions. Information collected from peers and other types of informants is reliable and provides a perspective that often differs substantially from that obtained using questionnaires and interviews. For some purposes, this information is quite useful. Much remains to be learned about the incremental validity (and potential biases) associated with data from various kinds of informants.

Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Turkheimer, Eric

2010-01-01

407

The Personality Structure of Pre-Service Teachers as Measured by the 16 PF: Estimates of Stability across Time and Gender.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a study of the personalities of preservice teachers, Cattell's 16 Personality Factor (PF) Questionnaire was administered to 2,225 applicants to the College of Education of the University of Akron (Ohio). Data were analyzed by gender and by year of application (Year 1, 2, or 3). Results indicated that at the primary factor level, personality

Marth, Joseph R.; Newman, Isadore

408

Person Tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most basic building blocks for the understanding of human actions and interactions is the accurate detection and tracking of persons in a scene. In constrained scenarios involving at most one subject, or in situations where persons can be confined to a controlled monitoring space or required to wear markers, sensors, or microphones, these tasks can be solved with relative ease. However, when accurate localization and tracking have to be performed in an unobtrusive or discreet fashion, using only distantly placed microphones and cameras, in a variety of natural and uncontrolled scenarios, the challenges posed are much greater. The problems faced by video analysis are those of poor or uneven illumination, low resolution, clutter or occlusion, unclean backgrounds, and multiple moving and uncooperative users that are not always easily distinguishable.

Bernardin, Keni; Stiefelhagen, Rainer; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Lanz, Oswald; Brutti, Alessio; Casas, Josep R.; Potamianos, Gerasimos

409

Aging and the Structure and Long-Term Stability of the Internalizing Spectrum of Personality and Psychopathology  

PubMed Central

Structural psychopathology research has identified two broad factors—internalizing and externalizing—that account for comorbidity among many common mental disorders. Evaluating the utility of these factors for nosology, research, and treatment entails expanding beyond a cross-sectional understanding to how these factors evolve over time. We tested factorial invariance of internalizing in three age cohort groups—35 years and under (n = 1,729), 36–50 years (n = 2,719), and over 50 years (n = 2,601)—as well as the long-term stability of internalizing within individuals. Internalizing showed a notable degree of invariance between cohorts and within cohorts over time; long-term internalizing stability was equivalently moderate-to-high in each cohort.

Eaton, Nicholas R.; Krueger, Robert F.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2011-01-01

410

Personalizing Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA is the essence of biological diversity. But it's responsible for more than just the basics like eye color, hair texture or height. At a less visible level, DNA also varies our bodies' reactions to our environment. It's also the foundation of personalized medicine, a developing medical model that takes our genetic differences into account.\\u000aThis new approach may reshape

2011-01-01

411

Cooperative Education in the New Millennium: Implications for Faculty Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges and universities are being challenged to examine their mission, structure, and delivery of services for two reasons with far-reaching implications for cooperative education. The first is the move from an industrial to a postindustrial economy. The second deals with incorrect assumptions about learning based on outmoded information and…

Crow, Cal

1997-01-01

412

Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. METHODS: The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was compared to 84

Roope Tikkanen; Matti Holi; Nina Lindberg; Matti Virkkunen

2007-01-01

413

[Personalized neurooncology].  

PubMed

The treatment of patients with intrinsic brain tumors is radically changing. This change is currently not (yet) signified by the use of targeted therapy in clinical practice but more by the definition of molecular markers as predictors for response to therapy which have been used for a long time. While in the past the choice of treatment has been based solely on the tumor entity and its degree of malignancy derived from histological analyses, large randomized trials have now provided a solid basis for personalized molecular-guided treatment decisions. For instance, in the German NOA-08 trial a benefit of chemotherapy with temozolomide alone was only demonstrated in a subgroup of elderly patients with malignant gliomas displaying promoter hypermethylation of the DNA repair enzyme MGMT. This is only one of several examples where molecular analysis of tumor tissue becomes clinically relevant as these analyses can and should be taken into account for treatment decisions and not, as previously, just as an additional parameter for estimating prognosis. This article illustrates the current developments in the area of personalized neurooncology and critically reviews the impact on clinical decision-making in daily practice. PMID:23775285

Platten, M; Steinbach, J P; Wick, W

2013-08-01

414

Comorbid personality impairment in body dysmorphic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality impairment was evaluated in 17 body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) patients undergoing a treatment study of clomipramine versus desipramine. Semistructured interviews were administered using both categorical (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM [SCID II]) and dimensional (Dimensional Assessment of Personality Impairment [DAPI]) methods. Personality measures were also correlated with a range of clinical variables (severity of BDD and depressive symptoms, age,

Lisa J. Cohen; Priscilla Kingston; Andrew Bell; Jee Kwon; Bonnie Aronowitz; Eric Hollander

2000-01-01

415

Written Discourse and Acquired Brain Impairment: Evaluation of Structural and Semantic Features of Personal Letters from a Systemic Functional Linguistic Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative study investigated written discourse in the form of personal letters written by ten people with aphasia following stroke and ten people with cognitive-language disorder as a consequence of traumatic brain injury, and compared their performance with 15 non brain-damaged writers. Personal letters perform the dual function of…

Mortensen, Lynne

2005-01-01

416

Personal construct psychology and personal selling performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes an alternative approach to understanding personal selling performance based on personal construct psychology, a cognitively based personality paradigm, originally formulated in clinical psychology by George Kelly. Explains how personal construct psychology theory (PCT), which reflects a constructivist epistemology, provides a conceptual framework for understanding and predicting sales performance. Demonstrates how PCT can be integrated with existing theoretical models of

Richard E. Plank; Joel N. Greene

1996-01-01

417

Achieving Millennium Development Goals for health: building understanding, trust and capacity to respond.  

PubMed

Biomedical interventions promise achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals provided social-, capacity- and knowledge-based constraints to scaling up and reaching marginalized people at risk, are addressed, and balance between prevention and treatment is struck. We argue for a new approach: multi-stakeholder capacity building and learning for empowerment: MuSCLE. MuSCLE is used as a way to frame three systemic weaknesses in traditional health science and policy approaches: (1) a lack of engagement with people at risk to build a collective understanding of the contexts of health problems, including social drivers; (2) a lack of multi-criteria evaluation of alternative interventions; (3) a lack of attention paid to integrated capacity building. The MuSCLE framework responds in three ways: (1) participatory assessment of the ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political contexts of health, identifying priorities using risk and vulnerability science, and modeling drivers; (2) selection among intervention alternatives that makes ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political tradeoffs transparent; (3) integrated capacity building for sustainable and adaptive interventions. Literature and field lessons support the argument, and guidelines are set down. A MuSCLE approach argues for a transformation in health science and policy in order to achieve Millennium Development Goals for health. PMID:17399849

Downs, Timothy John; Larson, Heidi Jane

2007-03-30

418

Coupled North Atlantic slope water forcing on Gulf of Maine temperatures over the past millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate ocean variability during the last millennium in the Western Gulf of Maine (GOM), we collected a 142-year-old living bivalve ( Arctica islandica L.) in 2004, and three fossil A. islandica shells (calibrated 14CAMS = 1030 ± 78 ad; 1320 ± 45 ad; 1357 ± 40 ad) for stable isotope and growth increment analysis. A statistically significant relationship exists between modern GOM temperature records [shell isotope-derived (30 m) ( r = -0.79; P < 0.007), Prince 5 (50 m) ( r = -0.72; P < 0.019), Boothbay Harbor SST ( r = -0.76; P < 0.011)], and Labrador Current (LC) transport data from the Eastern Newfoundland Slope during 1993-2003. In all cases, as LC transport increased, GOM water temperatures decreased the following year. Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) influence GOM water temperatures in the most recent period, with water temperatures decreasing during NAO and AMO negative modes most likely linked to LC transport and Gulf Stream interaction. Mean shell-derived isotopic changes (?18Oc) during the last 1,000 years were +0.47‰ and likely reflect a 1-2°C cooling from 1000 ad to present. Based on these results, we suggest that observed cooling in the GOM during the last millennium was due to increased transport and/or cooling of the LC, and decreased Gulf Stream influence on the GOM.

Wanamaker, Alan D.; Kreutz, Karl J.; Schöne, Bernd R.; Pettigrew, Neal; Borns, Harold W.; Introne, Douglas S.; Belknap, Daniel; Maasch, Kirk A.; Feindel, Scott

2008-08-01

419

[Regionalisation of the Millennium Development Goals: markers for assessing child health in Algeria].  

PubMed

The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) include measurable, quantifiable objectives that facilitate the monitoring of their progress and help focus the work of local authorities intended to improve the living conditions of their populations. Since the adoption of the Declaration of the Millennium in September 2000, Algeria has made considerable progress, with excellent scores for some objectives but substantial delays for others. We also note that even when national averages provide a satisfactory impression, they often hide striking inequalities. This work is thus an attempt to evaluate progress for one of the eight objectives on a less aggregate scale that should permit a more realistic assessment. We thus restrict this article to a single aspect child health. Successive surveys have all confirmed substantial achievements on a national scale. These improvements nonetheless remain insufficient in light of the available resources. For example, the infant mortality rate, one of the most valuable child health indicators, decreased from 46.8 per thousand in 1990 to 25.5 per thousand in 2008. Nonetheless, the same studies showed the persistence of inequalities between geographic areas, urban and rural areas, and between sexes. Additional efforts are thus necessary if we are to reach the objective of reducing the mortality rate of children under 5 years by two-thirds. Results will also be more effective if healthy policy is regionalized, especially through the promotion of the implementation of this goal at the local level. PMID:20185391

Bedrouni, Mohammed

420

Achieving Millennium Development Goals for Health: Building Understanding, Trust and Capacity to Respond  

PubMed Central

Biomedical interventions promise achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals provided social-, capacity- and knowledge-based constraints to scaling up and reaching marginalized people at risk, are addressed, and balance between prevention and treatment is struck. We argue for a new approach: multi-stakeholder capacity building and learning for empowerment: MuSCLE. MuSCLE is used as a way to frame three systemic weaknesses in traditional health science and policy approaches: 1) a lack of engagement with people at risk to build a collective understanding of the contexts of health problems; 2) a lack of multi-criteria evaluation of alternative interventions; and 3) a lack of attention paid to integrated capacity building. The MuSCLE framework responds in three ways: 1) Participatory assessment of the ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political contexts of health, identifying priorities using risk and vulnerability science, and modeling drivers; 2) Selection among intervention alternatives that makes ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political tradeoffs transparent; and 3) Integrated capacity building for sustainable and adaptive interventions. Literature and field lessons support the argument, and guidelines are set down. A MuSCLE approach argues for a transformation in health science and policy in order to achieve Millennium Development Goals for health.

Larson, Heidi J.

2007-01-01

421

Antarctic temperature changes during the last millennium: evaluation of simulations and reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature changes in Antarctica over the last millennium are investigated using proxy records, a set of simulations driven by natural and anthropogenic forcings and one simulation with data assimilation. Over Antarctica, a long term cooling trend in annual mean is simulated during the period 1000-1850. The main contributor to this cooling trend is the volcanic forcing, astronomical forcing playing a dominant role at seasonal timescale. Since 1850, all the models produce an Antarctic warming in response to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations. We present a composite of Antarctic temperature, calculated by averaging seven temperature records derived from isotope measurements in ice cores. This simple approach is supported by the coherency displayed between model results at these data grid points and Antarctic mean temperature. The composite shows a weak multi-centennial cooling trend during the pre-industrial period and a warming after 1850 that is broadly consistent with model results. In both data and simulations, large regional variations are superimposed on this common signal, at decadal to centennial time scales. The model results appear spatially more consistent than ice core records. We conclude that more records are needed to resolve the complex spatial distribution of Antarctic temperature variations during the last millennium.

Goosse, Hugues; Braida, Martina; Crosta, Xavier; Mairesse, Aurélien; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Mathiot, Pierre; Neukom, Raphael; Oerter, Hans; Philippon, Gwenaelle; Renssen, Hans; Stenni, Barbara; van Ommen, Tas; Verleyen, Elie

2013-04-01

422

Private Schools and the Millennium Development Goal of Universal Primary Education: A Census and Comparative Survey in Hyderabad, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development literature suggests that private schools serving the poor are not part of the solution to meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of universal primary education. The study conducted a census and survey of schools in notified slums of Hyderabad, India, to contribute to the sparse literature on the nature and extent of private…

Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Gomathi, S. V.

2007-01-01

423

OG-Miner: An Intelligent Health Tool for Achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in m-Health Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The latest statistics of WHO show that approxi- mately 500,000 women die worldwide every year - the majority of them residing in developing countries - due to pregnancy related complications. The situation is so grave that UN has set a target of reducing Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) by 75% till the year 2015 in its millennium development goals (MDGs). Therefore,

M. Jamal Afridi; Muddassar Farooq

2011-01-01

424

Evidence for Banana Cultivation and Animal Husbandry During the First Millennium bc in the Forest of Southern Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The faunal and botanical data from the first millennium bc site of Nkang, Southern Cameroon, are presented in this paper. The analysed material, retrieved from refuse pits, comprises charcoal, phytoliths, molluscs and animal bones, which allow a reconstruction of the former environment. In addition, the site provides new insights into the emergence of food-producing communities in the African rainforest. Food

Christophe M. Mbida; Wim Van Neer; Hugues Doutrelepont; Luc Vrydaghs

2000-01-01

425

Squashing the Millennium Bug: A Year 2000 Compliance Guide for Elementary/Secondary Schools and School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was developed to assist the nation's elementary and secondary schools and school districts address their Year 2000 (Y2K) problem. The guide is divided into three sections: Squashing the Millennium Bug Step-by-Step; Remediating Specific Types of Systems; and Appendix. The first chapter presents the following steps for tackling the Year…

Root, Mark; Carlson, Robert; Dexter, David; Karinch, Samantha; Kaplan, Heather

426

Sakiko Fukuda-Parr - Millennium Development Goal 8: Indicators for International Human Rights Obligations? - Human Rights Quarterly 28:4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millennium Development Goal 8 is arguably the most significant step since the Covenant on Economic Social Rights in taking the idea of global solidarity and international responsibilities for development from a statement of principle to international policy. It commits the international community to strengthen partnership for poverty reduction, and defines benchmark targets and indicators of progress. This article examines this

Sakiko Fukuda-Parr

427

The occupational role of women in military service: Validation of occupation and prevalence of exposures in the Millennium Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the US military's global peacekeeping and combat operations, which may expose a growing population of American servicewomen to challenging occupations and environments. Concordance between self-reported and electronic occupation codes for female participants in the Millennium Cohort was measured using kappa statistics. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to assess the odds of five self-reported potentially toxic environmental

Tyler C. Smith; Isabel G. Jacobson; Besa Smith; Tomoko I. Hooper; Margaret A. K. Ryan

2007-01-01

428

Area and Family Effects on the Psychopathology of the Millennium Cohort Study Children and Their Older Siblings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: To model and compare contextual (area and family) effects on the psychopathology of children nested in families nested in areas. Method: Data from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study were used. The final study sample was 9,630 children clustered in 6,052 families clustered in 1,681 Lower-layer Super Output Areas.…

Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos

2010-01-01

429

Nutrition And the Millennium Development Goals A Kenyan Perspective on the Eradication of Extreme Poverty and Hunger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poverty and food insecurity are the twin challenges of the 21st century, alongside issues such as HIV\\/ AIDS, conflicts, and natural disasters. Although many countries have had different strategies to tackle these challenges, the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide a united front where eight universal goals must be achieved by the year 2015. The first part of this

Susan J Keino

2004-01-01

430

Assessing the Progress of Gender Parity in Education through Achieving Millennium Development Goals: A Case Study of Quetta District Balochistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using secondary data of Government Schools and literacy department for 10 years that is 2000-2010, this paper assesses the progress on the issue of gender equality within the framework of education related Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in district Quetta. The assessment is based on the selected indicators of goals by applying descriptive…

Rashid, Abdul; Bibi, Zainab; Din, Siraj ud

2012-01-01

431

The Future of Small Telescopes In The New Millennium. Volume III - Science in the Shadows of Giants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An invaluable reference for any student, scientist or administrator, using small telescopes for research. An essential collection of data and opinions for those charged with setting scientific and funding priorities. This three-volume set, The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium details the essential roles that small telescopes should play in 21st century science and how their future productivity

T. D. Oswalt

2003-01-01

432

Area and Family Effects on the Psychopathology of the Millennium Cohort Study Children and Their Older Siblings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To model and compare contextual (area and family) effects on the psychopathology of children nested in families nested in areas. Method: Data from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study were used. The final study sample was 9,630 children clustered in 6,052 families clustered in 1,681 Lower-layer Super Output Areas.…

Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos

2010-01-01

433

Personality and eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives of review. This chapter reviews research findings from 2005 and 2006 regarding dimensional personality traits, categorical personality disorders and dimensional personality pathology, and categorical person- ality subtypes in eating disorders. Summary of recent findings. Approaches linking specific personality traits to eating pathology have demonstrated the predictive validity of perfec- tionism and impulsiveness. Impulsive behaviors are associated with com- pulsivity

Kristin M von Ranson

434

Large Scale Structures and Galaxy Evolution in COSMOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large Scale Structures have been imaged in the COSMOS survey out to z = 2.5 using very high accuracy photometric redshifts. We compare measurements of the structure properties with those in the Millennium simulation and evaluate the correlations of galaxy properties with environment.

Nicholas Scoville

2009-01-01

435

THE HALO MERGER RATE IN THE MILLENNIUM SIMULATION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OBSERVED GALAXY MERGER FRACTIONS  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a new method to extract halo merger rates from the Millennium Simulation. First, by removing superfluous mergers that are artifacts of the standard friends-of-friends (FOF) halo identification algorithm, we find a lower merger rate compared to previous work. The reductions are more significant at lower redshifts and lower halo masses, and especially for minor mergers. Our new approach results in a better agreement with predictions from the extended Press-Schechter model. Second, we find that the FOF halo finder overestimates the halo mass by up to 50% for halos that are about to merge, which leads to an additional {approx}20% overestimate of the merger rate. Therefore, we define halo masses by including only particles that are gravitationally bound to their FOF groups. We provide new best-fitting parameters for a global formula to account for these improvements. In addition, we extract the merger rate per progenitor halo, as well as per descendant halo. The merger rate per progenitor halo is the quantity that should be related to observed galaxy merger fractions when they are measured via pair counting. At low-mass/redshift, the merger rate increases moderately with mass and steeply with redshift. At high enough mass/redshift (for the rarest halos with masses a few times the 'knee' of the mass function), these trends break down, and the merger rate per progenitor halo decreases with mass and increases only moderately with redshift. Defining the merger rate per progenitor halo also allows us to quantify the rate at which halos are being accreted onto larger halos, in addition to the minor and major merger rates. We provide an analytic formula that converts any given merger rate per descendant halo into a merger rate per progenitor halo. Finally, we perform a direct comparison between observed merger fractions and the fraction of halos in the Millennium Simulation that have undergone a major merger during the recent dynamical friction time, and find a fair agreement, within the large uncertainties of the observations. Our new halo merger trees are available at http://www.mpe.mpg.de/ir/MillenniumMergerTrees/.

Genel, Shy; Genzel, Reinhard; Bouche, Nicolas [Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching, Germany. (Germany); Naab, Thorsten [Universitaets-Sternwarte Muenchen, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen, Germany. (Germany); Sternberg, Amiel [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel. (Israel)], E-mail: shy@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: nbouche@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: naab@usm.uni-muenchen.de, E-mail: amiel@wise.tau.ac.il

2009-08-20

436

Volcanic forcing as a major source of European decadal climate variability during the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal variability of regional temperatures reconstructed for the last millennium is among the most important and debated aspects concerning modern climate research. Especially the magnitude and extent of pre-industrial warm and cold anomalies constrain the range of naturally-forced and internal climate variability which is necessary to estimate the anthropogenic contribution to the 20th Century warming and its possible future implications. The MPI-Earth System Model (ESM) simulation ensemble for the last millennium shows that strong tropical volcanic eruptions (SVE) can trigger decadal and even longer timescale fluctuations in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. These coherently result in the emergence of winter warm anomalies over continental Europe about one decade after a major eruption ("delayed winter warming"). A key period for the assessment of how the magnitude of the eruption and the background climate conditions can affect the temporal occurrence and the spatial pattern of the delayed winter warming is the early XIX Century period. The close succession of two SVEs in 1809 and in 1815 matched the Dalton minimum of solar activity and dominated the climate evolution over decades. An additional MPI-ESM simulation ensemble consisting of a set of full-forcing experiments for the early XIX Century period and a set of volcanic forcing only experiments simulating the climatic effects of the 1809 and 1815 SVEs under pre-industrial background climate conditions is used here to describe in detail the physical mechanism governing the simulated climate response to SVEs, to individuate its key processes and to assess its dependency on the background conditions. We cross-validate our numerical model results with reconstructed winter surface air temperatures for the European region for the last six Centuries. This corroborates our hypothesis that volcanic forcing was a major source of European regional decadal climate variability during the last millennium. The relative importance of internal and externally driven variability and their possible interference adds complexity to the interpretation of simulated and reconstructed past climate variability.

Zanchettin, D.; Graf, H.; Timmreck, C.; Lorenz, S.; Jungclaus, J. H.

2011-12-01

437

THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY: TRENDS AND CHANGING STRUCTURE IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 2010, foodservice establishments are projected to capture 53 percent of consumers' food expenditures, whereas in 1980, foodservice captured less than 40 percent. The foodservice industry accounts for approximately 4 percent of the Gross Domestic Product and about 11 million jobs. It has been rapidly changing due to economic factors, technological advances, and labor matters.1 This overview covers many of

Charlotte G. Friddle; Sandeep Mangaraj; Jean D. Kinsey

2001-01-01

438

Millennium maskmaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of change within the microelectronics industry is not only continuing but accelerating, driven by both technical and economic requirements. Nowhere is this more visible than in the requirements for smaller and smaller geometries. 1999 will see full production of devices using 0.18 micrometers technology in Europe with 0.15 micrometers being introduced during the first years of the new

Andrew C. Hourd

1999-01-01

439

PERSONAL NETWORKS AND THE PERSONAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to technologically deterministic approaches that focus on how communication technology affects social relationships, this paper examines how individuals draw on a variety of commonly used communication media in conjunction with in-person contact to stay connected to their personal networks. I term this use of multiple communication media the ‘personal communication system’. Findings are based on a random sample

Jeffrey Boase

2008-01-01

440

Can computer personalities be human personalities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study demonstrates that (1) computer personalities can be easily created using a minimal set of cues, and (2) that people will respond to these personalities in the same way they would respond to similar human personalities. The present study focuses on the “simikirityattraction hypothesis,” which predicts that people will prefer to interact with others who are similar in

Clifford Nass; Youngme Moon; B. J. Fogg; Byron Reeves; Chris Dryer

1995-01-01

441

Dependent personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Dependent personality disorder is a mental health condition in which people depend too much on others to meet their emotional ... Cause of dependent personality disorder is unknown. The disorder usually ... is one of the most common personality disorders and is ...

442

Schizoid Personality Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... of disorders, which includes schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia. These conditions all have similar symptoms, such as ... emotional expression. However, unlike schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia, people with schizoid personality disorder: Are in touch ...

443

Climate variability in China during the last millennium based on reconstructions and simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-decadal to centennial climate variability in China during the last millennium is analysed. We compare the low frequency temperature and precipitation variations from proxy-based reconstructions and palaeo-simulations from climate models. Focusing on the regional responses to the global climate evolution is of high relevance due to the complexity of the interactions between physical mechanisms at different spatio-temporal scales and the potential severity of the derived multiple socio-economic impacts. China stands out as a particularly interesting region, not only due to its complex climatic features, ranging from the semiarid northwestern Tibetan Plateau to the tropical monsoon southeastern climates, but also because of its wealth of proxy data. However, comprehensive assessments of proxy- and model-based information about palaeo-climatic variations in China are, to our knowledge, still lacking. In addition, existing studies depict a general lack of agreement between reconstructions and model simulations with respect to the amplitude and/or occurrence of warmer/colder and wetter/drier periods during the last millennium and the magnitude of the 20th century warming trend. Furthermore, these works are mainly focused on eastern China regions that show a denser proxy data coverage. We investigate how last millennium palaeo-runs compare to independent evidences from an unusual large number of proxy reconstructions over the study area by employing state-of-the-art palaeo-simulations with multi-member ensembles from the CMIP5/PMIP3 project. This shapes an ideal frame for the evaluation of the uncertainties associated to internal and intermodel model variability. Preliminary results indicate that despite the strong regional and seasonal dependencies, temperature reconstructions in China evidence coherent variations among all regions at centennial scale, especially during the last 500 years. The spatial consistency of low frequency temperature changes is an interesting aspect and of relevance for the assessment of forced climatic responses in China. The comparison between reconstructions and simulations from climate models show that, apart from the 20th century warming trend, the variance of the reconstructed mean China temperature lies in the envelope (uncertainty range) spanned by the temperature simulations. The uncertainty arises from the internal (multi-member ensembles) and the inter-model variability. Centennial variations tend to be broadly synchronous in the reconstructions and the simulations. However, the simulations show a delay of the warm period 1000-1300 AD. This warm medieval period both in the simulations and the reconstructions is followed by cooling till 1800 AD. Based on the simulations, the recent warming is not unprecedented and is comparable to the medieval warming. Further steps of this study will address the individual contribution of anthropogenic and natural forcings on climate variability and change during the last millennium in China. We will make use of of models that provide runs including single forcings (fingerprints) for the attribution of climate variations from decadal to multi-centennial time scales. With this aim, we will implement statistical techniques for the detection of optimal signal-to-noise-ratio between external forcings and internal variability of reconstructed temperatures and precipitation. To apply these approaches the uncertainties associated with both reconstructions and simulations will be estimated. The latter will shed some light into the mechanisms behind current climate evolution and will help to constrain uncertainties in the sensitivity of model simulations to increasing CO2 scenarios of future climate change. This work will also contribute to the overall aims of the PAGES 2k initiative in Asia (http://www.pages.unibe.ch/workinggroups/2k-network)

García-Bustamante, E.; Luterbacher, J.; Xoplaki, E.; Werner, J. P.; Jungclaus, J.; Zorita, E.; González-Rouco, J. F.; Fernández-Donado, L.; Hegerl, G.; Ge, Q.; Hao, Z.; Wagner, S.

2012-04-01

444

Implications of high amplitude atmospheric CO2 fluctuations on past millennium climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stomatal frequency analysis of leaves of land plants preserved in peat and lake deposits can provide a proxy record of pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration complementary to measurements in Antarctic ice cores. Stomatal frequency based CO2 trends from the USA and NW European support the presence of significant CO2 variability during the first half of the last millennium (Kouwenberg et al., 2005; Wagner et al., 2004; van Hoof et al., 2008). The timing of the most significant perturbation in the stomata records (1200 AD) is in agreement with an observed CO2 fluctuation in the D47 Antarctic ice-core record (Barnola et al., 1995; van Hoof et al., 2005). The amplitude of the stomatal frequency based CO2 changes (> 34ppmv) exceeds the maximum amplitude of CO2 variability in the D47 ice core (< 10 ppmv). A modelling experiment taking into account firn-densification based smoothing processes in the D47 ice core proved, however, that the amplitude difference between the stomata record and the D47 ice-core can be explained by natural smoothing processes in the ice (van Hoof et al., 2005). This observation gives credence to the existence of high-amplitude CO2 fluctuations during the last millennium and suggests that high resolution ice core CO2 records should be regarded as a smoothed representation of the atmospheric CO2 signal. In the present study, potential marine and terrestrial sources and sinks associated with the observed atmospheric CO2 perturbation will be discussed. The magnitude of the observed CO2 variability implies that inferred changes in CO2 radiative forcing are of a similar magnitude as variations ascribed to other forcing mechanisms (e.g. solar forcing and volcanism), therefore challenging the IPCC concept of CO2 as an insignificant preindustrial climate forcing factor. References Barnola J.M., M. Anklin, J. Porcheron, D. Raynaud, J. Schwander and B. Stauffer 1995. CO2 evolution during the last millennium as recorded by Antarctic and Greenland ice. Tellus, v 47B, p. 264-272 Kouwenberg L.L.R., F. Wagner, W.M. Kürschner and H. Visscher 2005. Atmospheric CO2 fluctuations during the last Millennium reconstructed by stomatal frequency analysis of Tsuga heterophylla needles. Geology, v. 33, no.1, pp. 33-36 van Hoof T.B., K.A. Kaspers, F. Wagner, R.S.W. van de Wal, W.M. Kürschner and H. Visscher 2005. Atmospheric CO2 during the 13th century AD: reconciliation of data from ice core measurements and stomatal frequency analysis. Tellus B, v. 57, pp. 351-355 van Hoof T.B., F. Wagner-Cremer, W.M. K Kürschner and H. Visscher 2008. A role for atmospheric CO2 in preindustrial climate forcing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, v. 105, no. 41, pp. 15815-15818 Wagner F., L.L.R. Kouwenberg, T.B. van Hoof and H. Visscher 2004. Reproducibility of Holocene atmospheric CO2 records based on stomatal frequency. Quartenary Science Reviews. V. 23, pp. 1947-1954

van Hoof, Thomas; Kouwenberg, Lenny; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Visscher, Henk

2010-05-01

445

The largest Last Supper: depictions of food portions and plate size increased over the millennium.  

PubMed

Portion sizes of foods have been noticably increasing in recent years, but when did this trend begin? If art imitates life and if food portions have been generally increasing with time, we might expect this trend to be reflected in paintings that depict food. Perhaps the most commonly painted meal has been that of Jesus Christ's Last Supper, chronicled in the New Testament of the Bible. A CAD-CAM analysis of the relative food-to-head ratio in 52 representative paintings of the Last Supper showed that the relative sizes of the main dish (entree) (r=0.52, P=0.002), bread (r=0.30, P=0.04), and plates (r=0.46, P=0.02) have linearly increased over the past millennium. PMID:20308996

Wansink, B; Wansink, C S

2010-03-23

446

The World Bank: An Online Atlas of the Millennium Development Goals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank established a set of Millennium Development Goals as both a challenge to poor countries to demonstrate "good governance" and to wealthy nations as a spur that would hopefully encourage them to support economic and social development. Recently, the World Bank created this visually engaging and sophisticated interactive atlas to track those eight goals, which include the promotion of gender equality, combating disease, and reducing child mortality. Visitors can click on any of these eight goals and they will be able to view maps of the world that document the progress that has been made in each nation. Clicking on each nation individually brings up clear and easy-to-read tables that chart additional changes within each separate goal. Visitors can export the data for their own use, and they can also resize the map to demonstrate the changes made over the past few years.

447

The 2010 millennium technology grand prize: dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

The 2010 Millennium Technology Grand Prize was awarded to Michael Gratzel for his ground-breaking research that has led to the practical application of dye-sensitized solar cells. Although Gratzel began his research well before nanotechnology had the "buzz" that it does today, the mesoscopic thin films he has developed have paved the way for generations of scientists to exploit the nanoscale for energy conversion. In addition to practical application, his research has led to a deeper understanding of photoinitiated charge-transfer processes at semiconductor interfaces. Here, the key scientific developments that guided early progress in dye-sensitized solar cells are summarized, with emphasis on fundamental advances that have enabled practical application. PMID:20731419

Meyer, Gerald J

2010-08-24

448

The potential impact of plant biotechnology on the Millennium Development Goals.  

PubMed

The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are international development targets for the year 2015 that aim to achieve relative improvements in the standards of health, socioeconomic status and education in the world's poorest countries. Many of the challenges addressed by the MDGs reflect the direct or indirect consequences of subsistence agriculture in the developing world, and hence, plant biotechnology has an important role to play in helping to achieve MDG targets. In this opinion article, we discuss each of the MDGs in turn, provide examples to show how plant biotechnology may be able to accelerate progress towards the stated MDG objectives, and offer our opinion on the likelihood of such technology being implemented. In combination with other strategies, plant biotechnology can make a contribution towards sustainable development in the future although the extent to which progress can be made in today's political climate depends on how we deal with current barriers to adoption. PMID:21249369

Yuan, Dawei; Bassie, Ludovic; Sabalza, Maite; Miralpeix, Bruna; Dashevskaya, Svetlana; Farre, Gemma; Rivera, Sol M; Banakar, Raviraj; Bai, Chao; Sanahuja, Georgina; Arjó, Gemma; Avilla, Eva; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Ugidos-Damboriena, Nerea; López, Alberto; Almacellas, David; Zhu, Changfu; Capell, Teresa; Hahne, Gunther; Twyman, Richard M; Christou, Paul

2011-01-20

449

Pacific and Atlantic influences on Mesoamerican climate over the past millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new tree-ring reconstruction of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for Mesoamerica from AD 771 to 2008 identifies megadroughts more severe and sustained than any witnessed during the twentieth century. Correlation analyses indicate strong forcing of instrumental and reconstructed June PDSI over Mesoamerica from the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Spectral analyses of the 1,238-year reconstruction indicate significant concentrations of variance at ENSO, sub-decadal, bi-decadal, and multidecadal timescales. Instrumental and model-based analyses indicate that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation is important to warm season climate variability over Mexico. Ocean-atmospheric variability in the Atlantic is not strongly correlated with the June PDSI reconstruction during the instrumental era, but may be responsible for the strong multidecadal variance detected in the reconstruction episodically over the past millennium. June drought indices in Mesoamerica are negatively correlated with gridded June PDSI over the United States from 1950 to 2005, based on both instrumental and reconstructed data. Interannual variability in this latitudinal moisture gradient is due in part to ENSO forcing, where warm events favor wet June PDSI conditions over the southern US and northern Mexico, but dryness over central and southern Mexico (Mesoamerica). Strong anti-phasing between multidecadal regimes of tree-ring reconstructed June PDSI over Mesoamerica and reconstructed summer (JJA) PDSI over the Southwest has also been detected episodically over the past millennium, including the 1950-1960s when La Niña and warm Atlantic SSTs prevailed, and the 1980-1990s when El Niño and cold Atlantic SSTs prevailed. Several Mesoamerican megadroughts are reconstructed when wetness prevailed over the Southwest, including the early tenth century Terminal Classic Drought, implicating El Niño and Atlantic SSTs in this intense and widespread drought that may have contributed to social changes in ancient Mexico.

Stahle, D. W.; Burnette, D. J.; Diaz, J. Villanueva; Heim, R. R.; Fye, F. K.; Paredes, J. Cerano; Soto, R. Acuna; Cleaveland, M. K.

2012-09-01

450

Dietary guidelines in the Czech Republic III.: Challenge for the 3rd millennium.  

PubMed

In developed countries, dietary guidelines are more and more often used as a source of binding information not only in public health, food production, nutrition and agricultural policy, but in ecology and economy as well. In view of that, it is imperative to formulate such guidelines that would be supported by relevant population studies and correspond to the European model of WHO/CINDI guidelines. At the turn of the millennium, the Czech guidelines were updated in order that serving sizes of 5 basic food groups were brought closer to contemporary trends emphasizing lower protein intakes and at the same time, by setting limit ranges, they were able to meet specific need of people of different age group, sex, physiological status, physical activity, etc. The conversion of recommended servings to nutrients was compared with the results of the actual food basket of the Czech population and specific recommendations for amendments in proportions of individual food items in food groups and subgroups were given. On the basis of diet guidelines, conclusions describing tasks for the beginning of the third millennium were made. Besides them the most important are: production or health information systems with special emphasis to food intake and nutritional status report, policies to increase the access to vegetables and fruit for vulnerable groups, legislation to curb advertising high-fat energy-dense foods to children, policy to strengthen the operational targets of Innocenti Declaration and to increase the number of Baby Friendly Hospitals, legislation regarding food control systems based on international standards, sustainable campaigns to promote safe healthy diet, policies to ensure sustainable food production. PMID:11243587

Brázdová, Z; Ruprich, J; Hrubá, D; Petráková, A

2001-02-01

451

Avoidant Personality Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Home > Health & Education Avoidant Personality Disorder Avoidant personality disorder is characterized by extreme social inhibition (shyness), feelings of inadequacy, and acute sensitivity to actual or perceived ...

452

Schizotypal Personality Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... subject of bullying or teasing. Schizotypal personality vs. schizophrenia Schizotypal personality disorder can easily be confused with schizophrenia, a severe mental illness in which people lose ...

453

Culture, universals, and the personal.  

PubMed

This chapter summarizes a part of the case that can be made that the individual construction of a personal domain of choice and privacy generalizes across cultures and is not restricted to persons who live within Western or so-called modern societies. The research findings reported here are consistent with the view that persons seek to establish such areas of control in order to maintain a differentiated personal identity and a sense of personal agency. Children, adolescents, and adults from the United States and traditional cultures have been found to identify a class of behaviors and issues as being outside the legitimate sphere of social or moral regulation. Mothers from Western and traditional cultural settings recognize and foster their children's claims to areas of personal choice and privacy. Across cultures, as children mature and move toward adulthood, they lay claim to a broader range of issues and actions as personal matters. Research on adolescent-parent conflict with U.S. and Chinese samples has indicated that these shifts associated with adolescent claims to freedom are the source of most family conflicts. Anthropological accounts of adolescent-parent conflicts in 160 cultures have provided evidence that such conflicts are widespread (Schlegel and Barry, 1991). Finally, we are beginning to obtain evidence that parental overcontrol of personal issues is associated with symptoms of psychological problems in their adolescent children. These research findings are consistent with the proposal (Nucci, 1996) that establishment of a personal domain is an intrinsic feature of normal human development, resulting from the inevitable attempt by individuals to account for and differentiate between their own motives, values, and experiences and those of others. The evidence also points to the fact that such personal issues are coexistent with concerns for interpersonal harmony and social integration. Thus, it is not surprising that the work summarized here also suggests considerable social-class and cultural variation in how the personal is expressed. Such variation is consistent with the assumption that the personal is constructed out of social interactions (Nucci, 1996) that entail reciprocal interchange between individual and societal structures (Turiel, 1996). In Spiro's analysis (1984), the results of such reciprocal structural interaction cannot be accounted for by reducing the analysis of psychological structures in terms of cultural structures and vice versa. Thus, any accurate interpretation of the impact of culture on psychological development must be constrained by features that are peculiar to psychological systems. Extending this to the cross-cultural study of the personal domain, a case can be made for the need to explore such issues at the level of the individual, rather than at the level of the cultural shared-symbol system. On the other hand, this nonreductionist approach and the available evidence rule out the reification of the personal as a culturally empty set of psychological issues. As illustrated in studies of the distribution of rights in relation to gender and social hierarchy among Druze Arabs (Wainryb and Turiel, 1994), the interplay between the personal and the cultural system of roles and obligations provides a rich and contradictory portrait that can be understood only by shifting perspective from the social to the individual and back again without favor. PMID:9348764

Nucci, L

1997-01-01

454

Exploring the Michigan model: The relationship of personality, managerial support and organizational structure with health outcomes in entrants to the healthcare environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have examined the role of managerial support in the adaptation of entrants to healthcare. The purpose of this study was to identify the job characteristic and role-related variables that mediate the effects of managerial support and personality on the mental and physical health and sickness absence in two independent groups of new recruits to a healthcare organization. Entrants

Martyn C Jones; Karen Smith; Derek W Johnston

2005-01-01

455

Stiff-Person Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Stiff-Person Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Stiff-Person Syndrome? Is there ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Stiff-Person Syndrome? Stiff-person syndrome (SPS) is a rare neurological ...

456

PERSONAL VERSUS MASS COMMUNICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the comparison of the various aspects of advertising and personal selling, it can be seen that personal selling is a more effective and powerful communication tool than advertising, but advertising is more time and cost efficient than personal selling. Thus advertising and personal selling are tools at the disposal of a marketer and subjects to a firm’s overall objectives.

Girboveanu Sorina

2007-01-01

457

Person memory and judgment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two general types of information about a person are considered in this article: One pertains to specific behaviors a person has manifested, and the other refers to more abstract personality disposi- tions or behavioral tendencies. A theoretical model of person memory that incorporates both types of information is developed. The model accounts for a large number of factors that are

Thomas K. Srull; Robert S. Wyer

1989-01-01

458

Neuroimaging in borderline personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroimaging has become one of the most important methods in the investigation of the neurobiological underpinnings of borderline personality disorder. Structural and functional imaging studies have revealed dysfunction in different brain regions which seem to contribute to borderline symptomatology. This review presents relevant studies using different methodologies: volumetry of limbic and prefrontal regions, investigations of brain metabolism under resting conditions,

Christian Schmahl; J. Douglas Bremner

2006-01-01

459

Teacher Leadership and Organizational Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional models of school organization favor peaked hierarchies that concentrate power and leadership responsibility on\\u000a the office of the principal. As these models struggle to effectively meet the needs of education in the new millennium, leadership\\u000a structures that distribute leadership influence and empower teachers to play a greater role in the leadership of the school,\\u000a are slowly being implemented. This

Camille Rutherford

2006-01-01

460

Balancing personalized medicine and personalized care.  

PubMed

The current description of personalized medicine by the National Institutes of Health is "the science of individualized prevention and therapy." Although physicians are beginning to see the promise of genetic medicine coming to fruition, the rapid pace of sequencing technology, informatics, and computer science predict a revolution in the ability to care for patients in the near future. The enthusiasm expressed by researchers is well founded, but the expectations voiced by the public do not center on advancing technology. Rather, patients are asking for personalized care: a holistic approach that considers physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. This perspective considers psychological, religious, and ethical challenges that may arise as the precision of preventive medicine improves. Psychological studies already highlight the barriers to single gene testing and suggest significant barriers to the predictive testing envisioned by personalized medicine. Certain religious groups will likely mount opposition if they believe personalized medicine encourages embryo selection. If the technology prompts cost-containment discussions, those concerned about the sanctity of life may raise ethical objections. Consequently, the availability of new scientific developments does not guarantee advances in treatment because patients may prove unwilling to receive and act on personalized genetic information. This perspective highlights current efforts to incorporate personalized medicine and personalized care into the medical curriculum, genetic counseling, and other aspects of clinical practice. Because these efforts are generally independent, the authors offer recommendations for physicians and educators so that personalized medicine can be implemented in a manner that meets patient expectations for personalized care. PMID:23348082

Cornetta, Kenneth; Brown, Candy Gunther

2013-03-01

461

Variability in Eritrea and the Archaeology of the Northern Horn During the First Millennium BC: Subsistence, Ritual, and Gold Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around the margins of Asmara, Eritrea, hundreds of sites dating to the early and mid-first millennium BC have been documented.\\u000a They range from single family dwellings to small and large hamlets, small and large villages, and small towns. We call these\\u000a Ancient Ona sites, using the Tigrinya term for ruin. Our findings testify to significant subsistence, ritual, and economic\\u000a variation

Peter R. Schmidt

2009-01-01

462

Examining smoking behaviours among parents from the UK Millennium Cohort Study after the smoke-free legislation in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo investigate parental smoking behaviours between England and Scotland after the smoke-free legislation in Scotland came into effect in 2006 and examine inequalities in maternal smoking behaviours between countries.Methods5954 white mothers and 3757 fathers resident in England and 1522 white mothers and 904 fathers resident in Scotland who participated in the Millennium Cohort Study (a prospective nationally representative cohort study)

Summer Sherburne Hawkins; Tim J Cole; Catherine Law

2010-01-01

463

Achieving the millennium development goals for health Cost effectiveness analysis of strategies to combat HIV\\/AIDS in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the costs and health effects of a range of interventions for preventing the spread of HIV and for treating people with HIV\\/AIDS in the context of the millennium development goal for combating HIV\\/AIDS. Design Cost effectiveness analysis based on an epidemiological model. Setting Analyses undertaken for two regions classified by WHO according to their epidemiological grouping—Afr-E, countries

Daniel R Hogan; Rob Baltussen; Chika Hayashi; Jeremy A Lauer; Joshua A Salomon

2005-01-01

464

Implications of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on volcanic impacts on Northern Hemisphere winter climates during the Last Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viability of using Earth System Model (ESM) simulations of the last millennium to determine aspects of the climate variability generated by strong volcanic eruptions (SVE) is explored by using five all-forcing ESM ECHAM5\\/MPIOM simulations. This enables us to investigate a large number of historical SVE (35 tropical and 35 high-latitude ones) under different climate conditions. Volcanic effects were determined

Davide Zanchettin; Angelo Rubino; Stephan J. Lorenz; Claudia Timmreck; Johann H. Jungclaus

2010-01-01

465

Do Donors Target Aid in Line with the Millennium Development Goals? A Sector Perspective of Aid Allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the aid portfolio of various bilateral and multilateral donors, testing whether they have prioritized aid in line\\u000a with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Employing Tobit models that combine sectorally disaggregated aid data with various\\u000a indicators reflecting the situation of recipient countries regarding the MDGs, we show that donors differ in the extent to\\u000a which their sectoral aid allocation

Rainer Thiele; Peter Nunnenkamp; Axel Dreher

2007-01-01

466

An examination of the factor structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, narcissistic personality disorder criteria: one or two factors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of research has suggested that narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) contains 2 factors or types: overt\\/grandiose and covert\\/vulnerable. A recent factor analysis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), NPD symptoms supported a similar 2-factor model. The present research tested this proposed 2-factor solution against a 1-factor solution (N = 289; 72% patients) using

Joshua D. Miller; Brian J. Hoffman; W. Keith Campbell; Paul A. Pilkonis

2008-01-01

467

What Is the Latent Structure of Alcohol Use Disorders? A Taxometric Analysis of the Personality Assessment Inventory Alcohol Problems Scale in Male and Female Prison Inmates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three indicators derived from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) Alcohol Problems scale (ALC)—tolerance\\/high consumption, loss of control, and negative social and psychological consequences—were subjected to taxometric analysis—mean above minus below a cut (MAMBAC), maximum covariance (MAXCOV), and latent mode factor analysis (L-Mode)—in 1,374 federal prison inmates (905 males, 469 females). Whereas the total sample yielded ambiguous results, the male subsample

Glenn D. Walters; Pamela M. Diamond; Philip R. Magaletta

2010-01-01

468

Antisocial personality disorder and pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of antisocial personality disorder and its relationship to criminal offenses in pathological gamblers was investigated. A semi-structured interview schedule containing DSM-III criteria for antisocial personality and the California Psychological Inventory Socialisation subscale was administered to a sample of 306 pathological gamblers. Of the total sample, 35% reported no offense. Forty eight percent admitted to the commission of a

Alex P. Blaszczynski; Neil McConaghy

1994-01-01

469

The Ford Brand Personality in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study is to empiri- cally measure the Ford Brand Personality in Chile, using as a framework, the five-dimension Brand Personality scale developed by Aaker (1997). The study was carried out in two mid- sized cities in the central part of Chile. The confirmatory factor analysis of the measurement model and the analysis of the structural

José I Rojas-Méndez; Isabel Erenchun-Podlech; Elizabeth Silva-Olave

2004-01-01

470

Personality and Fibromyalgia Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objectives: We aimed to review how personality characteristics contribute to the onset, maintenance or modulation of fibromyalgia. Method: The databases Medline and PsychINFO were examined from 1967 to 2012 to identify studies that investigated associations between fibromyalgia and personality. Search terms included fibromyalgia and personality, trait psychology, characteristics and individual differences. Results: Numerous studies indicate that patients with fibromyalgia experience psychological distress. Various instruments have been used to evaluate distress and related psychological domains, such as anxiety or depression, in fibromyalgia. In many cases, these same instruments have been used to study personality characteristics in fibromyalgia with a subsequent blurring of cause and effect between personality and psychological distress. In addition, the symptoms of fibromyalgia may change pre-illness personality characteristics themselves. These issues make it difficult to identify specific personality characteristics that might influence the fibromyalgia process. Despite this inherent problem with the methodologies used in the studies that make up this literature review, or perhaps because of it, we found no defined personality profile specific to fibromyalgia. However, many patients with fibromyalgia do show personality characteristics that facilitate psychological responses to stressful situations, such as catastrophising or poor coping techniques, and these in turn associate with mechanisms contributing to fibromyalgia. Conclusion: No specific fibromyalgia personality is defined but it is proposed that personality is an important filter that modulates a person’s response to psychological stressors. Certain personalities may facilitate translation of these stressors to physiological responses driving the fibromyalgia mechanism.

Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey O

2012-01-01

471

Variability in ISOW Vigor Over the Last Millennium and its Relationship to Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resolving the scale and origins of recent low frequency (decadal-centennial) climate variations, such as the Little Ice Age (LIA), is crucial for predicting how natural variability and anthropogenic forcing will interact to affect future climate evolution. These multi-decadal to centennial variations are often postulated to involve, or even be driven by, changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Assessing this hypothesis for events such as the LIA and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) requires records capable of depicting multidecadal changes in past ocean circulation. Here we use well dated (210Pb and AMS 14C), high sedimentation rate, multi and gravity cores taken on the Gardar Sediment Drift (60.19N, 23.58W, 2081 m) to reconstruct decadal to centennial variability in the properties and vigor of the eastern branch of the Nordic Seas overflows over the past millennium. The Gardar drift accumulates on the eastern flank of the Reykjanes ridge due the supply of sediments provided by the overlying Iceland Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW), an important component of NADW. We reconstruct the bottom water physical and chemical properties of ISOW using the oxygen and carbon isotopes of benthic foraminifera (C. wuellerstorfi), while changes in the vigor of near bottom flow are inferred from size variations in the sediment mean sortable silt. Taken together, the records provide a sub-decadally sampled history of ISOW variability spanning from ~900-2002 AD. In addition, changes in surface hydrography are reconstructed using ?18O of the planktonic foraminifera N. pachyderma (d) and G. inflata. Initial results show significant multi-decadal and centennial variability in near surface temperature and/or salinity throughout the last millennium. Although there is a clear warming/freshening trend in our surface water proxies since 1850, similarly large events have occurred repeatedly throughout the record, with the warmest/freshest period in the record occurring in the seventeenth century. Considering these surface water records in the context of regional climate records we discuss the link between decadal-centennial scale climate change and ISOW variability.

Lien Mjell, T.; Ninnemann, U.; Kleiven, H.

2008-12-01

472

Maternal deaths in Sagamu in the new millennium: a facility-based retrospective analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Health institutions need to contribute their quota towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) with respect to maternal health. In order to do so, current data on maternal mortality is essential for careproviders and policy makers to appreciate the burden of the problem and understand how best to distribute resources. This study presents the magnitude and distribution of causes of maternal deaths at the beginning of the 21st century in a Nigerian referral hospital and derives recommendations to reduce its frequency. Methods A retrospective descriptive analysis of all cases of maternal deaths at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Southwest Nigeria between 1 January 2000 to 30 June 2005. Results There were 75 maternal deaths, 2509 live births and 2728 deliveries during the study period. Sixty-three (84.0%) of the deaths were direct maternal deaths while 12 (16.0%) were indirect maternal deaths. Major causes of deaths were hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (28.0%), haemorrhage (21.3%) and sepsis (20.0%). Overall, eclampsia was the leading cause of deaths singly accounting for 24.0% of all maternal deaths. Abortion and HIV-related mortality accounted for 1.3% and 4.0% of maternal deaths, respectively. The maternal mortality ratio of 2989.2 per 100,000 live births was significantly higher than that reported for 1988–1997 in the same institution. Up to 67/794 (8.4%) patients referred from other facilities died compared to 8/1934 (0.4%) booked patients (OR: 22.1; 95% CI: 10.2–50.1). Maternal death was more likely to follow operative deliveries than non-operative deliveries (27/545 vs 22/2161; OR: 5.07; 95% CI: 2.77–9.31). Conclusion At the middle of the first decade of the new millennium, a large number of pregnant women receiving care in this centre continue to die from preventable causes of maternal death. Adoption of evidence-based protocol for the management of eclampsia and improvement in the quality of obstetric care for unbooked emergencies would go a long way to significantly reduce the frequency of maternal deaths in this institution.

Oladapo, Olufemi T; Lamina, Mustafa A; Fakoya, Tuminu A

2006-01-01

473

Sleep Characteristics, Mental Health, and Diabetes Risk: A prospective study of U.S. military service members in the Millennium Cohort Study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE Research has suggested that a higher risk of type 2 diabetes associated with sleep characteristics exists. However, studies have not thoroughly assessed the potential confounding effects of mental health conditions associated with alterations in sleep. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We prospectively assessed the association between sleep characteristics and self-reported incident diabetes among Millennium Cohort Study participants prospectively followed over a 6-year time period. Surveys are administered approximately every 3 years and collect self-reported data on demographics, height, weight, lifestyle, features of military service, sleep, clinician-diagnosed diabetes, and mental health conditions assessed by the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Statistical methods for longitudinal data were used for data analysis. RESULTS We studied 47,093 participants (mean 34.9 years of age; mean BMI 26.0 kg/m(2); 25.6% female). During 6 years of follow-up, 871 incident diabetes cases occurred (annual incidence 3.6/1,000 person-years). In univariate analyses, incident diabetes was significantly more likely among participants with self-reported trouble sleeping, sleep duration <6 h, and sleep apnea. Participants reporting incident diabetes were also significantly older, of nonwhite race, of higher BMI, less likely to have been deployed, and more likely to have reported baseline symptoms of panic, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression. After adjusting for covariates, trouble sleeping (odds ratio 1.21 [95% CI 1.03-1.42]) and sleep apnea (1.78 [1.39-2.28]) were significantly and independently related to incident diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Trouble sleeping and sleep apnea predict diabetes risk independent of mental health conditions and other diabetes risk factors. PMID:23835691

Boyko, Edward J; Seelig, Amber D; Jacobson, Isabel G; Hooper, Tomoko I; Smith, Besa; Smith, Tyler C; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F

2013-07-08

474

The person in political emotion.  

PubMed

Recent social psychological theory and research on political issues has returned to once-popular concepts such as political emotion and ideology. Strikingly, however, this work tends to avoid the notion of personality and explicit reference to individual differences. For example, the numerous studies that examine correlations between political beliefs, feelings, and preferences rarely acknowledge that such associations show an ideological coherence in individuals. Instead, correlations between abstract constructs are interpreted as suggesting causal processes. Individuals, and their responses, are aggregated to generate such correlations but remain for the most part unexamined and unmentioned. I discuss 5 practices in research and reporting that make it difficult to find the person in correlational models of political emotion. I use my own research to illustrate these practices and to show how attention to macrolevel forces such as group membership, status, and structure may be integrated with attention to the individual person and meaningful aggregates. PMID:21039533

Leach, Colin Wayne

2010-10-12

475

Affect and the computer game player: the effect of gender, personality, and game reinforcement structure on affective responses to computer game-play.  

PubMed

Previous research on computer games has tended to concentrate on their more negative effects (e.g., addiction, increased aggression). This study departs from the traditional clinical and social learning explanations for these behavioral phenomena and examines the effect of personality, in-game reinforcement characteristics, gender, and skill on the emotional state of the game-player. Results demonstrated that in-game reinforcement characteristics and skill significantly effect a number of affective measures (most notably excitement and frustration). The implications of the impact of game-play on affect are discussed with reference to the concepts of "addiction" and "aggression." PMID:16780398

Chumbley, Justin; Griffiths, Mark

2006-06-01

476

Manic-depression genes and the new millennium: poised for discovery.  

PubMed

Manic-depressive illness is a common psychiatric disorder with complex etiology that likely involves multiple genes and non-genetic influences. The uncertain path to gene discovery has spurred considerable debate over genetic findings and gene-finding strategies. In this article, I review the main findings, with a focus on: (1) putative linked loci on chromosomes 1q31-32, 4p16, 6pter-p24, 10p14, 10q21-26, 12q23-24, 13q31-32, 18p11, 18q21-23, 21q22, 22q11-13, and Xq24-28; and (2) association studies with candidate genes, dynamic mutations, mitochondrial mutations, and chromosomal aberrations. Although no gene has been identified, promising findings are emerging. I then discuss the challenges and opportunities ahead, with special emphasis on gene-finding methods-in particular, questions pertaining to phenotype definition, linkage and association mapping, gene markers, sampling, study population, multigene systems, lessons from other disorders, animal models, and bioinformatics. The progress to date, together with rapid advances in genomics, analytical and computational methods, and bioinformatics, holds promise for new insights into the genetics of manic-depression, in the new millennium. PMID:11986978

Baron, M

2002-01-01

477

Anomalous sulfur isotope compositions of volcanic sulfate over the last millennium in Antarctic ice cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reconstruction of past volcanism from glaciological archives is based on the measurement of sulfate concentrations in ice. This method does not allow a proper evaluation of the climatic impact of an eruption owing to the uncertainty in classifying an event between stratospheric or tropospheric. This work develops a new method, using anomalous sulfur isotope composition of volcanic sulfate in order to identify stratospheric eruptions over the last millennium. The advantages and limits of this new method are established with the examination of the 10 largest volcanic signals in ice cores from Dome C and South Pole, Antarctica. Of the 10, seven are identified as stratospheric eruptions. Among them, three have been known to be stratospheric (Tambora, Kuwae, the 1259 Unknown Event) and they exhibit anomalous sulfur isotope compositions. Three unknown events (circa 1277, 1230, 1170 A.D.) and the Serua eruption have been identified as stratospheric eruptions, which suggests for the first time that they could have had significant climatic impact. However, the Kuwae and the 1259 Unknown Event stratospheric eruptions exhibit different anomalous sulfur isotope compositions between South Pole and Dome C samples. Differences in sulfate deposition and preservation patterns between the two sites can help explain these discrepancies. This study shows that the presence of an anomalous sulfur isotope composition of volcanic sulfate in ice core indicates a stratospheric eruption, but the absence of such composition does not necessarily lead to the conclusion of a tropospheric process because of differences in the sulfate deposition on the ice sheet.

Baroni, MéLanie; Savarino, JoëL.; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Rai, Vinai K.; Thiemens, Mark H.

2008-10-01

478

E-health in the new millennium: a research and practice agenda.  

PubMed

Advances in telecommunications, automated processes, web technologies and wireless computing are already forcing dramatic changes in a variety of sectors, ranging from business and industry to education and health. Yet, the electronic business space, in a broader sense, is still in a relatively early state of evolution, and it is only recently that policy makers have started looking at the potential of applying the tools and techniques of e-commerce to the tasks of other sectors. The use of the internet as a source of health information and connectivity between healthcare providers and consumers has increased interest in e-health. E-health offers the rich potential of supplementing traditional delivery of services and channels of communication in ways that extend the healthcare organisation's ability to meet the needs of its patients. To date, some e-health applications have improved the quality of healthcare, and later they will lead to substantial cost savings. However, e-health is not simply a technology but a complex technological and relational process. In this sense, practitioners and researchers who want to successfully exploit e-health need to pay attention to various pending issues that have to be addressed. The aim of this paper is to propose a novel taxonomy for e-health research in the new millennium by instantaneously presenting the current status with some major themes of e-health research. PMID:18048218

Metaxiotis, Kostas; Ptochos, Dimitrios; Psarras, John

2004-01-01

479

Creation of an Adiposity Index for Children Aged 6-8 Years: The Gateshead Millennium Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. A number of measures of childhood adiposity are in use, but all are relatively imprecise and prone to bias. We constructed an adiposity index (AI) using a number of different measures. Methods. Detailed body composition data on 460 of the Gateshead Millennium Study cohort at the age of 6–8 years were analysed. The AI was calculated using factor analysis on age plus thirteen measures of adiposity and/or size. Correlations between these variables, the AI, and more traditional measures of adiposity in children were investigated. Results. Based on the factor loading sizes, the first component, taken to be the AI, consisted mainly of measures of fat-mass (the skinfold measurements, fat mass score, and waist circumference). The second comprised variables measuring frame size, while the third consisted mainly of age. The AI had a high correlation with body mass index (BMI) (rho = 0.81). Conclusions. While BMI is practical for assessing adiposity in children, the AI combines a wider range of data related to adiposity than BMI alone and appears both valid and valuable as a research tool for studies of childhood adiposity. Further research is necessary to investigate the utility of AI for research in other samples of children and also in adults.