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1

Personality and Performance at the Beginning of the New Millennium: What Do We Know and Where Do We Go Next?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we begin the new millennium, it is an appropriate time to examine what we have learned about personality-performance relationships over the past century and to embark on new directions for research. In this study we quantitatively summarize the results of 15 prior meta-analytic studies that have investigated the relationship between the Five Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and job

Murray R. Barrick; Michael K. Mount; Timothy A. Judge

2001-01-01

2

Mechatronics and smart structures: emerging engineering disciplines for the third millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tackles the impact that Mechatronics and Smart Structures disciplines have on the engineering education in the new millennium. Mechatronics is an emerging engineering area that will likely alter the fundamental nature of engineering education in the disciplines of electrical and mechanical engineering. It can provide an academic model for developing multi-disciplinary programs within the engineering college departmental structure

Victor Giurgiutiu; Abdel-Moez E. Bayoumi; Greg Nall

2002-01-01

3

MECHATRONICS AND SMART STRUCTURES: EMERGING ENGINEERING DISCIPLINES FOR THE NEXT MILLENNIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper tackles the impact that Mechatronics and Smart Structures disciplines have on the engineering education in the new millennium. Mechatronics is an emerging engineering area that will likely alter the fundamental nature of engineering education, in the disciplines of electrical and mechanical engineering. It can provide an academic model for developing multi-disciplinary programs within the engineering college departmental structure

Victor Giurgiutiu; Abdel-Moez E. Bayoumi; Craig A. Rogers; Greg Nall

2002-01-01

4

Structural violence: a barrier to achieving the millennium development goals for women.  

PubMed

In 2000, all 191 United Nations member states agreed to work toward the achievement of a set of health and development goals by 2015. The achievement of these eight goals, the Millennium Development goals (MDGs) is highly dependent on improving the status of women, who play a key role in health and education in families and communities around the world. Yet structural violence, defined as the systematic exclusion of a group from the resources needed to develop their full human potential, remains a significant barrier against women's development and threatens the achievement of the MDGs. Although sound evidence has long existed for improving women's survival, the will to address women's health concretely and holistically is only recently gaining the advocacy needed to change policy. Concrete examples of the integration of approaches to mitigate structural violence within the delivery of health services do exist and should be incorporated into global advocacy for women's health. PMID:21438698

Mukherjee, Joia S; Barry, Donna J; Satti, Hind; Raymonville, Maxi; Marsh, Sarah; Smith-Fawzi, Mary Kay

2011-04-01

5

Millennium Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Affiliated with the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, the Transportation Research Board's (TRB) "mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation by stimulating and conducting research, facilitating the dissemination of information, and encouraging the implementation of research results." Drawing on contributions from thousands of engineers and transportation researchers, these specially selected Millennium Papers are intended give an up-to-date representation of the kind of research currently conducted at the TRB (which is also responsible for the TRIS Database discussed in the January 21, 2000 Scout Report). The numerous papers supplied here (full-text, .pdf) may be selected by title, author, or committee. Examples of a few titles include "Asphalt Technology," "Engineering Geology," and "Transportation in the New Millennium." This site holds an interesting and varied collection of papers for engineers and transportation researchers.

6

Multidimensional Structure of the Hypomanic Personality Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure of the Hypomanic Personality Scale was explored in a sample of young adults (N = 884); resulting structures were validated on subsamples with measures of personality traits, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing behaviors. Hierarchical cluster analysis and estimates of general factor saturation suggested the presence of a weak…

Schalet, Benjamin D.; Durbin, C. Emily; Revelle, William

2011-01-01

7

Personality in middle childhood: A hierarchical structure and longitudinal connections with personality in late adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the structure of personality in middle childhood, while advancing, is still in the early stages of development. In this study, we employed a group of 1563 twins to elucidate the hierarchical structure of personality in middle childhood and provide connections to established personality traits in adult populations. Our results provide evidence for a higher-order structure of personality in

Jennifer L. Tackett; Robert F. Krueger; William G. Iacono; Matt McGue

2008-01-01

8

United Nations Millennium Declaration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UN has posted the End of Millennium Summit Final Declaration signed by over 150 heads of state who attended the Millennium Summit earlier this month in New York (see the September 5, 2000 Scout Report for the Social Sciences). The document articulates 32 points, expressing the goals of the UN for peace and prosperity in the coming century. Among the more substantive statements are a commitment to "minimize the adverse effects of United Nations economic sanctions on innocent populations, subjecting such sanctions regimes to regular reviews" and a promise to give full support to the political and institutional structures of emerging democracies in Africa. Among the most ambitious goals -- and one quite possibly beyond the powers of the current UN to realize -- is the goal "to halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of the world's people whose income is less than one dollar a day and the proportion of people who suffer from hunger; and also, by the same date, to halve the proportion of people who are unable to reach, or to afford, safe drinking water."

2000-01-01

9

MECHATRONICS AND SMART STRUCTURES: EMERGING ENGINEERING DISCIPLINES FOR THE NEXT MILLENNIUM  

E-print Network

technologies such as sensors, actuators, software, optics, communications, electronics, structural mechanics engineering, electrical engineering, computer engineering, and information technology to establish basic in the engineering curriculum would support the synergistic integration of precision mechanical engineering

Giurgiutiu, Victor

10

Entrepreneurial Consulting: Some Structural and Personal Learnings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These authors, who have managed a small, entrepreneurial applied-research firm for more than twenty years, share their reflections about what elements of organizational structure have worked best for them, and offer some observations on a personal level as well about how to optimize and remain viable in a volatile professional field. The term…

Lyons, Morgan; Harrington, Maura J.

2006-01-01

11

The Millennium Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about the Millennium Assessment. Charged with describing the current state of the environment, scientists worldwide collaborated to produce the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. In seven synthesis reports and other technical documents, the assessment summarizes the Earth's present condition and the impacts humans have on critical ecosystem services

FRED POWLEDGE (; )

2006-11-01

12

Dysfunctional Cognitions in Personality Pathology: The Structure and Validity of the Personality Belief Questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Background This study examines the structure of the Personality Belief Questionnaire (PBQ), a self-report instrument designed to assess dysfunctional beliefs associated with personality pathology, as proposed by the cognitive theory of personality dysfunction. Methods The PBQ was examined using exploratory factor analysis with responses from 438 depressed outpatients, and confirmatory factor analysis with responses from 683 treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatients. All participants were assessed for personality disorder using a standard clinical interview. The validity of the resulting factor structure was assessed in the combined sample (N=1121) by examining PBQ scores for patients with and without personality disorder diagnoses. Results Exploratory and confirmatory analyses converged to indicate that the PBQ is best described by 7 empirically identified factors: 6 assess dysfunctional beliefs associated with forms of personality pathology recognized in DSM-IV. Validity analyses revealed that those diagnosed with a personality disorder evidenced a higher average score on all factors, relative to those without these disorders. Subsets of patients diagnosed with specific DSM-IV personality disorders scored higher, on average, on the factor associated with their respective diagnosis, relative to all other factors. Conclusions The pattern of results has implications for the conceptualization of personality pathology. To our knowledge, no formal diagnostic or assessment system has yet systematically incorporated the role of dysfunctional beliefs into its description of personality pathology. The identification of dysfunctional beliefs may not only aid in case conceptualization, but may provide unique targets for psychological treatment. Recommendations for future personality pathology assessment systems are provided. PMID:21910933

Fournier, Jay C.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Beck, Aaron T.

2013-01-01

13

The Blue Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through much of the current millennium, the oceans connected the world and shaped the global economy. The past few decades saw a surge of progress in air travel, and outer space began to occupy the dreams of mankind. With the end of the Cold War, however, save for an expected expansion of jet transport and satellites for communication and entertainment,

Takeo Kondo; Tadashi Matsunaga; Joseph Vadus; Patrick Takahashi

1998-01-01

14

The Mars Millennium Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The countdown to a new century provides a unique opportunity to engage America's youth in charting a course for the future. The Mars Millennium Project challenges students across the nation to design a community yet to be imagined for the planet Mars. This interdisciplinary learning project aims to encourage K-12 students in classrooms and youth…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

15

Passport to the Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a year-long social studies program called "Passport to the Millennium." Students "travel" around the world learning about the history, geography, culture, and economy of different countries. The program is appropriate for students in elementary to secondary grades. Includes a sample lesson plan. (CMK)

Yost, Mary Grace

2001-01-01

16

The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire: Structural Validity and Comparison with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structural and external validity of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and the relations among TPQ lower-order and higher-order scales and those of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire were examined. Results for 1,236 adults support the TPQ's validity but indicate its failure to operationalize portions of the…

Waller, Niels G.; And Others

1991-01-01

17

State Effect of Traumatic Experience on Personality Structure  

PubMed Central

Objective Personality is defined as the trait-like qualities of a person. However, it has been recently suggested that the state effect of a situation leads to changes in scores on personality assessments. We predicted that traumatic experiences would induce changes not only in personality scores but also in the factor structures of personality assessments. Methods MethodsaaWe conducted a cross-sectional, case-controlled study using two data sets: a traumatized adolescent sample (n=71) and a non-traumatized adolescent sample (n=296). Personality factor structures were compared between the two samples using exploratory factor analyses for 25 lower-ordered subscales of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). In the non-traumatized sample, evaluation of the scree plot suggested a five-factor solution supporting TCI's original seven-factor model. Results The traumatized sample showed a three-factor structure representing a biological factor, a social factor and an existential factor. This decrease in number of personality factors was caused by strengthened correlations among personality subscales related to coping with traumatic situations. Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality (i.e., temperament-character) was adequate in capturing personality traits of non-traumatized adolescents, but the tripartite view of existential psychology (i.e., body-mind-spirit) clearly corresponded to the factor structure of the traumatized adolescents. Conclusion The three-factor solution of the present traumatized group is consistent with the tripartite model of personality (i.e., body-mind-spirit), while the five-factor solution of the non-traumatized group corresponds to Cloninger's seven-factor model. This is the first study to describe the state effects of traumatic experiences on personality structure. PMID:23251200

Lee, Hong-seock; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Heung-Pyo

2012-01-01

18

Relationship Between Dream Structure, Boundary Structure and the Big Five Personality Dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between dream structure, the concept of boundary structure, and the Big Five personality dimensions. Dream structure was assessed with the recently developed Düsseldorf Dream Inventory, which is based on a factorial assessment of dream structure. Dream structure was correlated with boundary structure (Boundary Questionnaire) and personality dimensions (Big Five Inventory) in 1,958

Carolin Aumann; Olaf Lahl; Reinhard Pietrowsky

2012-01-01

19

The African Millennium Villages  

PubMed Central

We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

2007-01-01

20

Science for the Millennium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science for the Millennium, provided by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), is a Multimedia Online Expo. The Expo is a beautifully designed virtual museum of science and industry which will be of interest to students and others with an interest in science and computing. Users have access to three pavilions: Science and Industry, Collaboration, and Computation, as well as the Online Science Theatre. Exhibits include Whispers from the Cosmos, Spacetime Wrinkles and The Metacomputer. The Online Science Theatre offers MPEG and QuickTime movies on many of the same topics discussed in the pavilions. Science for the Millennium is a highly graphical site and some of the files will take a while to download, but your patience will be rewarded.

1996-01-01

21

Identifying Psychopathy Subtypes on the Basis of Personality Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of criminal psychopaths on the basis of differences in personality structure. Participants included 96 male prisoners diagnosed as psychopathic, using the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). Personality was assessed using the brief form of the Multidimensional…

Hicks, Brian M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Krueger, Robert F.; Newman, Joseph P.

2004-01-01

22

Factorial Structure of Pathological Personality as Evaluated by Peers  

PubMed Central

This study explored how individuals apply features of personality disorders (PDs) to peers. Members of groups nominated peers who exhibited symptoms for each of the 10 PDs in the DSM–IV. Data were gathered in 2 samples: 1st-year college students (n = 1,440) and Air Force recruits (n = 2,075). The peer method reliably identified group members exhibiting specific PD features. Factor analyses identified a clearly interpretable structure relevant to the pathological personality constructs being assessed. The structure replicated well across samples and showed expected relationships to broader models of normal personality. However, cross-method correlations of factor scores were only moderate, suggesting that peer reports are reliably different from self-reports regarding the presence of pathological personality traits. PMID:12653416

Thomas, Cannon; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2015-01-01

23

On its opening day, the London Millennium Bridge experienced unexpected large oscillations due to crowd loading. This form of pedestrian-structure interaction has since  

E-print Network

measurements on the London Millennium Bridge, leading to divergent amplitude vibrations above a critical number of the Second Severn Crossing cable-stayed bridge. Part of this work directly contributed to a vibration of Sound and Vibration. CIVIL RESEARCH GROUP SEMINAR Wobbly Bridges & Why People Don't Fall Over? Speaker

Davies, Christopher

24

New Millennium Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New Millennium Observatory (NeMO) is a seafloor observatory at Axial Seamount, an active underwater volcano located about 250 miles off the coast of the northwest United States. The observatory studies the relationships between submarine volcanic activity, the chemistry of seafloor hotsprings, and the biological communities that depend on them. Materials available at the NeMO web site include updates from observatory expeditions, videos and animations, and an interactive feature that lets users pilot a simulated remotely operated vehicle to explore the seamount. The NeMO curriculum page features a unit, with activities, in which students investigate a swarm of small earthquakes and the disappearance of an instrument. A volcanic eruption occurred at Axial in January 1998, destroying some hydrothermal vent sites and creating new ones. Since then NeMO scientists have been assessing the impact of the eruption and documenting the ongoing changes in Axial's summit caldera.

2004-09-24

25

The Hierarchical Structure of DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits  

PubMed Central

A multidimensional trait system has been proposed for representing personality disorder (PD) features in DSM-5 to address problematic classification issues such as comorbidity. In this model, which may also assist in providing scaffolding for the underlying structure of major forms of psychopathology more generally, 25 primary traits are organized by 5 higher order dimensions: Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism. We examined a) the generalizability of the structure proposed for DSM-5 PD traits and b) the potential for an integrative hierarchy based upon DSM-5 PD traits to represent the dimensions scaffolding psychopathology more generally. A large sample of student participants (N=2,461) completed the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, which operationalizes the DSM-5 traits. Exploratory factor analysis replicated the initially reported five-factor structure as indicated by high factor congruencies. The two-, three-, and four- factor solutions estimated in the hierarchy of the DSM-5 traits bear close resemblance to existing models of common mental disorders, temperament, and personality pathology. Thus, beyond the description of individual differences in personality disorder, the trait dimensions might provide a framework for the metastructure of psychopathology in the DSM-5 and the integration of a number of ostensibly competing models of personality trait covariation. PMID:22448740

Wright, Aidan G.C.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Markon, Kristian E.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Krueger, Robert F.

2012-01-01

26

The Wellbeing of the Self's Personality: A Structural Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leaning on the formal faceted definition of wellbeing (Levy and Guttman (1975) "Social Indicators Research," 2, 361-388), a mapping sentence is provided for defining the universe of observations of the wellbeing of the self-expanding on personality aspects. The structure of the interrelationships among the variables of the expanded…

Levy, Shlomit; Sabbagh, Clara

2008-01-01

27

Author's personal copy Precise derivatization of structurally distinct chitosans  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Precise derivatization of structurally distinct chitosans with rhodamine B of deacetylation; Molecular weight; Rhodamine B isothiocyanate; Rhodamine B; Extinction coefficient; Degree isothiocyanate Odette Ma a,1 , Marc Lavertu a,1 , Jun Sun b , Sophie Nguyen c,d , Michael D. Buschmann a

Buschmann, Michael

28

Aging and Heterogeneity: Genetics, Social Structure, and Personality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that the heterogeneity of human personality characteristics increases with age. Examines reasons for this phenomenon in terms of individual differentiation, social structure/allocation, and behavioral genetics. Develops a model synthesizing various study designs that prevent variation and covariation errors from occurring in life course…

Light, John M.; And Others

1996-01-01

29

The Millennium Cohort Study.  

PubMed

The Millennium Cohort Study is the latest in the line of British birth cohort studies. MCS resembles its predecessors which follow people born in 1946, 1958 and 1970 in the intention to become multi-purpose longitudinal data resource charting many aspects of individual's lives over time. The families of a sample of around 20,000 babies are being interviewed during 2001-02, when eligible babies reach 9 months, to establish the conditions from which they set out in life. The survey contrasts with the previous cohort studies in various ways. Instead of taking all births in one week, the sample of births is spread over a year; the births are from a selection of electoral wards, thereby enabling eventual analysis by neighbourhood characteristics; it also over samples children living in deprived areas, wards with high ethnic minority populations and samples have been boosted in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The latter UK country has not been covered by the other studies. It interviews fathers as well as mothers, and given that its initial funding comes via the ESRC, puts a greater emphasis on socio-economic data than in early parts of the other studies. MCS has been enhanced by additional Government funding. The research team, based at the Institute of Education, aims to deposit a multi-purpose dataset for public use at the ESRC data Archive in the Spring of 2003. PMID:12152184

Smith, Kate; Joshi, Heather

2002-01-01

30

Narcissistic Personality Inventory: structure of the adapted Dutch version.  

PubMed

The present study examined the structure of a Dutch adaptation of the 40-item Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988) in a community sample (n = 460) and a student sample (n = 515). Altering the response format of the NPI to a Likert-scale had no apparent effect on the responses. Confirmatory factor analyses supported neither the four-factor structure reported by Emmons (1984), nor the seven-factor structure reported by Raskin and Terry (1988). Instead, exploratory factor analyses supported either a single-factor solution (general narcissism), or a two-factor solution (Authority/Power and Self-Admiration). The validity of the NPI was supported by its relations with sex, age, personality, self-esteem, shame, guilt and social desirability. PMID:19614906

Barelds, Dick P H; Dijkstra, Pieternel

2010-04-01

31

A Heating Model for the Millennium Gas Run  

E-print Network

The comparison between observations of galaxy clusters thermo-dynamical properties and theoretical predictions suggests that non-gravitational heating needs to be added into the models. We implement an internally self-consistent heating scheme into GADGET-2 for the third (and fourth) run of the Millennium gas project (Pearce et al. in preparation), a set of four hydrodynamical cosmological simulations with N=2(5x10^8) particles and with the same volume (L=500 h-1 Mpc) and structures as the the N-body Millennium Simulation (Springel et al. 2005). Our aim is to reproduce the observed thermo-dynamical properties of galaxy clusters.

L. Gazzola; F. R. Pearce

2006-11-22

32

Make your own millennium sundial.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A home-made sundial offers a unique blend of design, construction and mathematical challenge. Readers armed with no more than a calculator and toolbox may wish to celebrate the millennium by constructing a sundial for their school, college or home. The design and construction of two dials is detailed in this article.

Kibble, B.

1999-05-01

33

Personalization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a typical high school in Huntington Beach, California, curbed disruptive student behavior by personalizing the school experience for "problem" students. Through mostly volunteer efforts, an adopt-a-kid program was initiated that matched kids' learning styles to adults' personality styles and resulted in fewer suspensions and numerous…

Shore, Rebecca Martin

1996-01-01

34

A Neural Network Model of the Structure and Dynamics of Human Personality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a neural network model that aims to bridge the historical gap between dynamic and structural approaches to personality. The model integrates work on the structure of the trait lexicon, the neurobiology of personality, temperament, goal-based models of personality, and an evolutionary analysis of motives. It is organized in terms of two…

Read, Stephen J.; Monroe, Brian M.; Brownstein, Aaron L.; Yang, Yu; Chopra, Gurveen; Miller, Lynn C.

2010-01-01

35

Interpersonal Personality Measures Show Circumplex Structure Based on New Psychometric Criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of the interpersonal circle in organizing the interpersonal domain is complemented by its empirical relations with broader personality taxonomies and with more specific personality variables. Yet circumplex structure in interpersonal measures has often been investigated using the \\

G. Scott Acton; William Revelle

2002-01-01

36

The factor structure of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory.  

PubMed

In the first study, we administered the 40-item Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988) to 843 female and 843 male college students, most of whom were Euro-American, to comprehensively assess the NPI factor structure using confirmatory factor analysis. Initial exploratory common factor analyses (N = 724) revealed a 2-factor model (Leadership/Authority and Exhibitionism/Entitlement). Subsequently, we used confirmatory factor analysis in a separate sample (N = 724) to evaluate the Emmons (1987) 4-factor model, the Raskin and Terry (1988) 7-factor model, the Kubarych, Deary, and Austin (2004) 2- and 3-factor models, and our 2-factor model. Finally, we assessed construct validity by correlating the scale scores with the Five-factor model of personality in an independent sample (N = 238). The 2-factor models for the NPI we obtained in this study and by Kubarych et al. (2004) appeared to be the most parsimonious models, with both a good fit to the data and satisfactory internal consistency values; so they are recommended for use. However, additional NPI research is needed to rescale, modify, or omit several NPI items and develop gender-equivalent items. PMID:18925501

Corry, Nida; Merritt, Rebecca Davis; Mrug, Sylvie; Pamp, Barbara

2008-11-01

37

Bioengineering in the millennium.  

PubMed

This symposium identified the major challenges in biomedical research that will benefit from bioengineering applications. Attention was focused on the important role that bioengineers will play in future advances in biomedical research. There was considerable discussion about how to integrate bioengineering with biological research in meeting the challenges of the twenty-first century. Symposium presenters showcased the accomplishments of NIH-funded bioengineering researches and increased the visibility of bioengineering to NIH leaders, staff, and members of the intramural and extramural research community. Recommendations were also made for future NIH-funded research projects. Attention was also placed on how basic bioengineering research can lead to commercialization of new health care technology and therefore maintain the nation's leadership in this important area. New products, from biotechnology and novel devices for diagnosis and treatment, are marketed through interactions between universities, medical centers, small start-up firms, and larger, more established companies. In the United States the gross revenue of the bioengineering private sector industry involved in the manufacture of health care products already exceeds $40 billion. More then 750 persons attended this bioengineering symposium. Over 110 scientific posters and exhibits relating to biology and medicine were presented. They provided a forum for showcasing NIH-funded bioengineering projects and fostered future collaboration among academic investigators, industry, and members of the small business community. The contributions of Pugwash bioengineer, Maciej Natecz, a member of the Polish Academy of Sciences, was recognized by the Conference Planning Committee. He was honored for his work in nuclear disarmament. Indian medical scientists should note that this symposium provided a framework for the development of technology in biomedical sciences during the Twenty-First Century. Major concentrations in interdisciplinary research should occur at all of the premier research institutions in India. PMID:9777462

Ranu, H S

1998-10-01

38

Delineating the Structure of Normal and Abnormal Personality: An Integrative Hierarchical Approach  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence indicates that normal and abnormal personality can be treated within a single structural framework. However, identification of a single integrated structure of normal and abnormal personality has remained elusive. Here, a constructive replication approach was used to delineate an integrative hierarchical account of the structure of normal and abnormal personality. This hierarchical structure, which integrates many Big Trait models proposed in the literature, replicated across a meta-analysis as well as an empirical study, and across samples of participants as well as measures. The proposed structure resembles previously suggested accounts of personality hierarchy and provides insight into the nature of personality hierarchy more generally. Potential directions for future research on personality and psychopathology are discussed. PMID:15631580

Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.; Watson, David

2008-01-01

39

A Fairbairnian structural analysis of the narcissistic personality disorder.  

PubMed

Fairbairn's structural theory is based on the developing child's need to dissociate actual events between himself or herself and his or her objects that are excessively rejecting in order to contine an uninterrupted, pristine attachment to them. This eventuates in three selves in relation to three objects: One pair is conscious (the central ego which relates to the ideal object), while the other two pairs (the antilibidinal ego, which relates to the rejecting object, and the libidinal ego, which relates to the exciting object) are mostly held in the unconscious. Fairbairn saw the fluid relationship between the two split-off pairs of unconscious part selves and the conscious central ego as the primary dynamic of the human personality. The author proposes a specific variation in Fairbairn's structural theory to account for the development of narcissism. Specifically, this disorder is viewed as the result of a developmental history in which the child finds himself or herself in an exceedingly hostile interpersonal environment that precludes the child from using an idealized version either of his or her parental objects as the "exciting object." The child therefore substitutes a grandiose view of himself or herself as the exciting object. This defense deflects external influences and replaces relationships with external objects with a closed internal world that is comprised of an admiring part-self basking in reflected love from its relationship with an exciting part-object. PMID:24866161

Celani, David P

2014-06-01

40

Water recycling at the Millennium Dome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thames Water is working with the New Millennium Experience Company to provide a water recycling system for the Millennium Dome which will supply 500m3\\/d of reclaimed water for WC and urinal flushing. The system will treat water from three sources: • rainwater - from the Dome roof • greywater - from handbasins in the toilet blocks • groundwater - from

S. Hills; A. Smith; P. Hardy; R. Birks

2001-01-01

41

The Lost Millennium History's Timetables Under Siege  

E-print Network

, highly readable, and important new book, The Lost Millennium: History's Timetables Under Siege, UVic math1 The Lost Millennium History's Timetables Under Siege Written by Florin Diacu Category: Science - History; Science - Time; Mathematics - History Publisher: Knopf Canada Format: Hardcover, 310 pages

Diacu, Florin

42

Millennium Graduates' Orientations to Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines graduates' orientations to higher education at the turn of the millennium. The focus is on "millennium graduates" since this cohort has experienced a time of radical reform in higher education. Twenty-four graduates were interviewed and four orientations to higher education were found: (A) gaining a qualification for a…

Spronken-Smith, R. A.; Bond, C.; Buissink-Smith, N.; Grigg, G.

2009-01-01

43

Public Libraries and the Millennium Development Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public libraries can make a major contribution to the achievement of the eight United Nations Millennium Development Goals. This paper examines actual and potential uses highlighting the importance of libraries to community development, and provides some examples, such as mobile libraries in slums and reading tents, where libraries are already assisting with Millennium Development Goals being achieved.

Ellen Forsyth

2005-01-01

44

Millennium drought and ecosystem multifunctionality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme drought events are projected to increase in frequency and magnitude in the near future - however there is not much known about their effects on plant community composition and ecosystem functioning. We test the response of ecosystem processes to experimentally-increased frequency and magnitude of extreme drought with respect to regulating ecosystem services in grassland and shrubland including various parameters of primary productivity, nutrient cycling, gas exchange, water regulation, biological diversity, phenology, reproductive fitness and stability. Our interdisciplinary results from the five-year experimental study suggest that millennium drought excites ecosystem regulating functions for maintaining overall stability in productivity.

Jentsch, Anke; Elmer, M.; Grant, K.; Hein, R.; Kreyling, J.; Mirzae, H.; Nagy, L.; Otieno, D.; Pritsch, K.; Rascher, U.; Schädler, M.; Schloter, M.; Singh, B.; Walter, J.; Wöllecke, J.; Beierkuhnlein, C.

2010-05-01

45

Personality Structure in Brown Capuchin Monkeys: Comparisons with Chimpanzees, Orangutans, and Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

Species comparisons of personality structure (i.e. how many personality dimensions and the characteristics of those dimensions) can facilitate questions about the adaptive function of personality in nonhuman primates. Here we investigate personality structure in the brown capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella), a New World primate species, and compare this structure to those of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Brown capuchins evolved behavioral and cognitive traits that are qualitatively similar to those of great apes, and individual differences in behavior and cognition are closely associated with differences in personality. Thus, we hypothesized that brown capuchin personality structure would overlap more with great apes than with rhesus macaques. We obtained personality ratings from seven sites on 127 brown capuchin monkeys. Principal-components analysis identified five personality dimensions (Assertiveness, Openness, Neuroticism, Sociability, and Attentiveness), which were reliable across raters and, in a subset of subjects, significantly correlated with relevant behaviors up to a year later. Comparisons between species revealed that brown capuchins and great apes overlapped in personality structure, particularly chimpanzees in the case of Neuroticism. However, in some respects (i.e. capuchin Sociability and Openness) the similarities between capuchins and great apes were not significantly greater than those between capuchins and rhesus macaques. We discuss the relevance of our results to brown capuchin behavior, and the evolution of personality structure in primates. PMID:23668695

Morton, F. Blake; Lee, Phyllis C.; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M.; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Thierry, Bernard; Paukner, Annika; de Waal, Frans B. M.; Widness, Jane; Essler, Jennifer L.; Weiss, Alexander

2013-01-01

46

Cosmology at the millennium  

SciTech Connect

One hundred years ago we did not know how stars generate energy, the age of the Universe was thought to be only millions of years, and our Milky Way galaxy was the only galaxy known. Today, we know that we live in an evolving and expanding universe comprising billions of galaxies, all held together by dark matter. With the hot big-bang model we can trace the evolution of the Universe from the hot soup of quarks and leptons that existed a fraction of a second after the beginning, to the formation of galaxies a few billion years later, and finally to the Universe we see today 13 billion years after the big bang, with its clusters of galaxies, superclusters, voids, and great walls. The attractive force of gravity acting on tiny primeval inhomogeneities in the distribution of matter gave rise to all the structure seen today. A paradigm based upon deep connections between cosmology and elementary particle physics{emdash}inflation+cold dark matter{emdash}holds the promise of extending our understanding to an even more fundamental level and much earlier times, as well as shedding light on the unification of the forces and particles of Nature. As we enter the 21st century, a flood of observations is testing this paradigm. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

Turner, M.S. [Department of Astronomy Astrophysics and Department of Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637-1433 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy Astrophysics and Department of Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637-1433 (United States); [NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500 (United States); Tyson, J.A. [Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)] [Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)

1999-03-01

47

Ethnicity and Population Structure in Personal Naming Networks  

PubMed Central

Personal naming practices exist in all human groups and are far from random. Rather, they continue to reflect social norms and ethno-cultural customs that have developed over generations. As a consequence, contemporary name frequency distributions retain distinct geographic, social and ethno-cultural patterning that can be exploited to understand population structure in human biology, public health and social science. Previous attempts to detect and delineate such structure in large populations have entailed extensive empirical analysis of naming conventions in different parts of the world without seeking any general or automated methods of population classification by ethno-cultural origin. Here we show how ‘naming networks’, constructed from forename-surname pairs of a large sample of the contemporary human population in 17 countries, provide a valuable representation of cultural, ethnic and linguistic population structure around the world. This innovative approach enriches and adds value to automated population classification through conventional national data sources such as telephone directories and electoral registers. The method identifies clear social and ethno-cultural clusters in such naming networks that extend far beyond the geographic areas in which particular names originated, and that are preserved even after international migration. Moreover, one of the most striking findings of this approach is that these clusters simply ‘emerge’ from the aggregation of millions of individual decisions on parental naming practices for their children, without any prior knowledge introduced by the researcher. Our probabilistic approach to community assignment, both at city level as well as at a global scale, helps to reveal the degree of isolation, integration or overlap between human populations in our rapidly globalising world. As such, this work has important implications for research in population genetics, public health, and social science adding new understandings of migration, identity, integration and social interaction across the world. PMID:21909399

Mateos, Pablo; Longley, Paul A.; O'Sullivan, David

2011-01-01

48

Chicago Public Library: Millennium Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The transformation of the area east of Michigan Avenue from an industrial wasteland into the vibrant and heavily-used Millennium Park is truly a remarkable tale in Chicago's recent history. The apocryphal tale says that Mayor Richard M. Daley looked out from his dentist's office and envisioned a public park that would be comparable to other grand spaces in the city. The construction of Millennium Park took quite some time, but when the park was finished in 2004, most people were quite happy with it. This digital collection from the Chicago Public Library brings together over 5,100 images of the park at various phases of its construction. Visitors can view a highlights file of 154 images, and they can wander through topical areas like Cloud Gate, Crown Fountain, and Lurie Garden. Visitors interested in broad vistas of the entire setting should click on Full Park. Finally, visitors can use the tabs on the left-hand side of the page to look at architectural renderings and models of the park's various sections.

2012-03-16

49

Developing a Structure for Personalization in the High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personalization is achieved when teachers and students have the time and the desire to develop a relationship. One Georgia high school lends itself to personalization by encouraging a mentoring relationship between teachers and students. Developing academic teaching teams and block schedules for all grades was the key to reducing teacher isolation…

Cresswell, Robert A.; Rasmussen, Patty

1996-01-01

50

Intelligence and the Factorial Structure of Person Perception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Person perception is used in this study to refer to the behavioral domain which is also called interpersonal or social perception. This domain typically consists of judgments of other persons' actions, expressions, or intentions. Three groups of 10 children differing on IQ and CA comprised the subject population. One group was gifted, one average,…

Gardner, Thomas D.; Barnard, James W.

51

Author's personal copy Assessing phytoplankton structure and spatio-temporal  

E-print Network

6 8 #12;Author's personal copy to combine those methods with classical light microscopy. In fact dynamics and diversity are particularly difficult to analyze, especially when (i) the scale of the analysis

Jacquet, Stéphan

52

Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rationale and procedures for the development of a taxonomic basis for personality research and theory construction are outlined. Some prior research efforts in this area are briefly reviewed and evaluated. Results of a series of studies are presented which employed primarily groups of university male Ss who varied in length and intimacy of previous associations. Data were obtained using

Warren T. Norman

1963-01-01

53

The Millennium Run Observatory: first light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of galaxy evolution aim to capture our current understanding as well as to make predictions for testing by future experiments. Simulations and observations are often compared in an indirect fashion: physical quantities are estimated from the observational data and compared to models. However, many applications can benefit from a more direct approach, where the observing process is also simulated, so that the models are seen fully from the observer's perspective. To facilitate this, we have developed the Millennium Run Observatory (MRObs), a theoretical virtual observatory which uses virtual telescopes to `observe' semi-analytic galaxy formation simulations based on the suite of Millennium Run (MR) dark matter simulations. The MRObs produces data that can be processed and analysed using the standard observational software packages developed for real observations. At present, we produce images in 40 filters covering the rest-frame ultraviolet to infrared for two stellar population synthesis models, for three different models of absorption by the intergalactic medium, and in two cosmologies (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe year 1 and 7). Galaxy distributions for a large number of mock light cones can be `observed' using models of major ground- and space-based telescopes. The data include light cone catalogues linked to structural properties of galaxies, pre-observation model images, mock telescope images and Source Extractor products that can all be traced back to the higher level dark matter, semi-analytic galaxy and light cone catalogues available in the MR data base. Here, we describe our methods and announce a first public release of simulated observations that emulate a large number of extragalactic surveys [e.g. Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHT-LS), Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), GOODS/Early Release Science (ERS), Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF)]. The MRObs browser, an online tool, further facilitates exploration of the simulated data. We demonstrate the benefits of a direct approach through a number of example applications: (1) deep galaxy number counts in the CANDELS survey; (2) observed properties of galaxy clusters; (3) structural parameters of galaxies; and (4) identification of dropout galaxies. The MRObs enhances the range of questions that can be asked of semi-analytic models, allowing observers and theorists to work towards each other with virtually complete freedom of where to meet.

Overzier, R.; Lemson, G.; Angulo, R. E.; Bertin, E.; Blaizot, J.; Henriques, B. M. B.; Marleau, G.-D.; White, S. D. M.

2013-01-01

54

Personality and Dreaming: Boundary Structure and Dream Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior studies indicate that a personality dimension reflecting thin versus thick boundaries is related to global ratings of dream vividness, amount of emotion, and amount of interaction. In the present study, these relationships were examined by relating scores from the Boundary Questionnaire ( Hartmann, 1991) to dream content among 80 patients seen at a sleep disorders center. Thinness of boundaries

Ernest Hartmann; Rachel Rosen; William Rand

1998-01-01

55

Spinoff 2001: Special Millennium Feature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the past 43 years, NASA has devoted its facilities, labor force, and expertise to sharing the abundance of technology developments used for its missions with the nation's industries. These countless technologies have not only successfully contributed to the growth of the U.S. economy, but also to the quality of life on Earth. For the past 25 years, NASA's Spinoff publication has brought attention to thousands of technologies, products, and services that were developed as a direct result of commercial partnerships between NASA and the private business sector. Many of these exciting technologies included advances in ceramics, computer technology, fiber optics, and remote sensing. New and ongoing research at the NASA field centers covers a full spectrum of technologies that will provide numerous advantages for the future, many of which have made significant strides in the commercial market. The NASA Commercial Technology Network plays a large role in transferring this progress. By applying NASA technologies such as data communication, aircraft de-icing technologies, and innovative materials to everyday functions, American consumers and the national economy benefit. Moving forward into the new millennium, these new technologies will further advance our country's position as the world leader in scientific and technical innovation. These cutting-edge innovations represent the investment of the U.S. citizen in the Space Program. Some of these technologies are highlighted in Spinoff 2001, an example of NASA's commitment to technology transfer and commercialization assistance. This year's issue spotlights the commercial technology efforts of NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center. Kennedy's extensive network of commercial technology opportunities has enabled them to become a leader in technology transfer outreach. This kind of leadership is exemplified through Kennedy's recent partnership with the State of Florida, working toward the development of the Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory. The new laboratory is the first step toward the development of a proposed 400-acre Space Commerce Park, located at Kennedy Space Center. Spinoff, once again, successfully showcases the variety of commercial successes and benefits resulting from the transfer of NASA technology to private industry. It is with great pride and pleasure that we present Spinoff 2001 with a Special Millennium Feature. With help from U.S. industry and commercial technology programs, NASA will continue to assist in the presentation of innovative new products to our nation.

2001-01-01

56

Gendering the millennium: globalising women.  

PubMed

As the century has just changed for the Western calendar it should be borne in mind that for a vast part of the world the centuries are rolling at a different time and under different conditions. So, although we live and trade in a "global village", we are yet divided by time, space, and ideologies. The hope is that the 21st century will enable us to have a closer look at each other and that the global networks, the web sites, and the electronic mailing systems, will work as a bridge rather than as a new means of widening the gaps. This article is a plea for a better understanding of the different priorities and views that Islamist women have of themselves, of their place in history, and what it is that they need to fight for. It is also a call for the universality of sisterhood and a wish that the solidarity that was forged in the latter part of the 20th century will not be fragmented into smithereens in the new millennium. PMID:12349747

Afshar, H

2000-08-01

57

United Nations Millennium Development Goals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the year 2000, all of the world's countries and all the world's leading development institutions signed on to a compact sponsored by the United Nations in order to assist the needs of the world's poorest people. This compact included eight primary development goals that would be met by 2015. Some of these goals included a significant reduction of child mortality and the promotion of gender equality. This particular site offers updates on the progress towards these eight primary goals, along with links to the annual report on these goals. Visitors can visit the documents area to read the text of the previous annual reports, along with reading some of the regional reports filed for Latin American, Africa, Asia, and Europe. The "Background" area is another good place to look for summary materials, as it features the text of the millennium declaration and progress reports from 2004 and 2005. The site is rounded out by a selection of links to additional sites that may be helpful, such as those for the United Nations Population Fund and the Food and Agriculture Organization.

2005-01-01

58

MOLView: A program for analyzing and displaying atomic structures on the Macintosh personal computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program is described that allows the user to analyze and display atomic structures on any Macintosh personal computer. The program reads ASCII format structure files including PDB, plot files from the graphics programs O and FRODO, and Cartesian coordinates from ChemDraw 3D. The program has a graphical interface that features floating button palettes for objects and tools. The structures

Thomas James Smith

1995-01-01

59

Personal performance goal orientation, classroom goal structure, persistence, and self-handicapping in the classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether the interaction effect model could be used to explain the joint influence of personal performance goals and classroom goal structure on achievement related outcomes. Cluster analysis was used to examine whether high school students who predominately viewed the classroom as performance goal structured and predominately viewed the classroom as combined goal structured, who were high in

Taryn Sarstedt Ferrera

2011-01-01

60

Structural contingency theory and individual differences: Examination of external and internal person-team fit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops and tests a structurally based, integrated theory of person-team fit. The theory developed is an extension of structural contingency theory and considers issues of external fit simulta- neously with its examination of internal fit at the team level. Results from 80 teams working on an interdependent team task indicate that divisional structures demand high levels of cognitive

John R. Hollenbeck; Henry Moon; Aleksander P. J. Ellis; Bradley J. West; Daniel R. Ilgen; Lori Sheppard; Christopher O. L. H. Porter

2002-01-01

61

The hierarchical structure of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP-BQ).  

PubMed

Hierarchical personality models have the potential to identify common and specific components of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs), and may offer a solution for the re-tooling of personality pathology in future versions of the DSM. In this paper, we examined the hierarchical structure of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ; Livesley & Jackson, 2009) and the capacity of various trait components at different levels to predict DSM-IV PD symptoms. Participants were 275 psychiatric outpatients and 365 undergraduate students. Goldberg's (2006) bass-ackwards method was used to investigate the hierarchical structure of the DAPP-BQ. The predictive capacity of hierarchy components was assessed. We found that Level 5 of the hierarchy enhanced the capacity of the DAPP-BQ for predicting DSM PD symptoms beyond a four-factor structure, particularly for borderline PD. PMID:21838565

Kushner, Shauna C; Quilty, Lena C; Tackett, Jennifer L; Bagby, R Michael

2011-08-01

62

The Course Structure Inventory: A Classroom Personality Measure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing emphasis is being given to the construct of course structure in educational research. The Course Structure Inventory (CSI) was designed to measure this construct as a unitary dimension made up of student attitudes toward varying degrees and kinds of structure (ACS). In addition to measuring ACS, the CSI has the added advantage of…

Strom, Bruce; And Others

63

Psychiatric Emergencies and the Millennium: an International Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The millennium posed an unknown challenge to mental health services worldwide. In anticipation, contingencies were implemented in preparation for the unexpected impact on psychiatric morbidity.Results: This study evaluates the impact of the millennium on psychiatric emergency service utilization in the Northern and Southern hemispheres the UK, Nigeria and Australia. Findings did not demonstrate a notable “millennium effect” on mental

Justin Sauer; Oyedeji Ayonrinde; Rahman Lawal; Michael Finn; Abayomi Ojo

2002-01-01

64

Author's personal copy In uence of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid on structure, mechanical  

E-print Network

collagen networks. The presence of CS also induces more substantial changes in the storage and loss moduli to differentiate structural, mechanical and biochemical effects of changes to matrix composition on cell motilityAuthor's personal copy In uence of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid on structure, mechanical

Kaufman, Laura

65

Author's personal copy A pseudo-waveform technique to assess forest structure using discrete lidar data  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy A pseudo-waveform technique to assess forest structure using discrete lidar Available online 23 December 2010 Keywords: Lidar Airborne laser Intensity Forest structure Tree height Crown base height Canopy coverage The use of airborne laser scanning systems (lidar) to describe forest

Mladenoff, David

66

Author's personal copy A bi-functional cathode structure for alkaline-acid direct  

E-print Network

, this problem is rather difficult to be solved based on the acid electrolyte, even with the Pt-based catalystsAuthor's personal copy A bi-functional cathode structure for alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel 19 August 2011 Keywords: Fuel cell Alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel cell Bi-functional structure

Zhao, Tianshou

67

Characterizing the Best Cosmic Telescopes with the Millennium Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain configurations of massive structures projected along the line of sight (LOS) maximize the number of detections of gravitationally lensed z ~ 10 galaxies. We characterize such LOSs with the étendue ??, the area in the source plane magnified over some threshold ?. We use the Millennium I and Millennium XXL cosmological simulations to determine the frequency of high ?? beams on the sky, their properties, and efficient selection criteria. We define the best beams as having ?? > 3 > 2000 arcsec2, for a z ~ 10 source plane, and predict 477 ± 21 such beams on the sky. The total mass in the beam and ?? > 3 are strongly correlated. After controlling for total mass, we find a significant residual correlation between ?? > 3 and the number of cluster-scale halos (>1014 M ? h -1) in the beam. Beams with ?? > 3 > 2000 arcsec2, which should be best at lensing z ~ 10 galaxies, are 10 times more likely to contain multiple cluster-scale halos than a single cluster-scale halo. Beams containing an A1689-like massive cluster halo often have additional structures along the LOS, including at least one additional cluster-scale (M 200 > 1014 M ? h -1) halo 28% of the time. Selecting beams with multiple, massive structures will lead to enhanced detection of the most distant and intrinsically faint galaxies.

French, K. Decker; Wong, Kenneth C.; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Ammons, S. Mark; Keeton, Charles R.; Angulo, Raul E.

2014-04-01

68

Neural Correlates of Emotional Personality: A Structural and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Studies addressing brain correlates of emotional personality have remained sparse, despite the involvement of emotional personality in health and well-being. This study investigates structural and functional brain correlates of psychological and physiological measures related to emotional personality. Psychological measures included neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness scores, as assessed using a standard personality questionnaire. As a physiological measure we used a cardiac amplitude signature, the so-called E? value (computed from the electrocardiogram) which has previously been related to tender emotionality. Questionnaire scores and E? values were related to both functional (eigenvector centrality mapping, ECM) and structural (voxel-based morphometry, VBM) neuroimaging data. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were obtained from 22 individuals (12 females) while listening to music (joy, fear, or neutral music). ECM results showed that agreeableness scores correlated with centrality values in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens). Individuals with higher E? values (indexing higher tender emotionality) showed higher centrality values in the subiculum of the right hippocampal formation. Structural MRI data from an independent sample of 59 individuals (34 females) showed that neuroticism scores correlated with volume of the left amygdaloid complex. In addition, individuals with higher E? showed larger gray matter volume in the same portion of the subiculum in which individuals with higher E? showed higher centrality values. Our results highlight a role of the amygdala in neuroticism. Moreover, they indicate that a cardiac signature related to emotionality (E?) correlates with both function (increased network centrality) and structure (grey matter volume) of the subiculum of the hippocampal formation, suggesting a role of the hippocampal formation for emotional personality. Results are the first to show personality-related differences using eigenvector centrality mapping, and the first to show structural brain differences for a physiological measure associated with personality. PMID:24312166

Koelsch, Stefan; Skouras, Stavros; Jentschke, Sebastian

2013-01-01

69

Volcanoes and ENSO over the Past Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controversial claim that El Niño events might be partially caused by radiative forcing due to volcanic aerosols is reassessed. Building on the work of Mann et al., estimates of volcanic forcing over the past millennium and a climate model of intermediate complexity are used to draw a diagram of El Niño likelihood as a function of the intensity of

Julien Emile-Geay; Richard Seager; Mark A. Cane; Edward R. Cook; Gerald H. Haug

2008-01-01

70

Health Sciences Librarianship in the New Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is the millennium really a critical point in time or just part of a continuum, in which health sciences librarians have always been innovators? Librarians have always had special knowledge that enabled them to identify, collect, organize, and distribute information. They have always embraced new technology, from the printing press to the Internet. As a profession, we must continue to

Elizabeth H. Wood

2000-01-01

71

Voting Rights Issues in the New Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication examines ways to teach about law in the liberal arts. This issue focuses on future voting rights issues by exploring the 2000 presidential election. Articles included are: "Voting Rights in the New Millennium" (Jason F. Kirksey); "Legal and Political Lessons from 'Bush v. Gore'" (David Schultz); "The Ford-Carter Commission and…

Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

2001-01-01

72

Professional Counseling: Transitioning into the Next Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to attempt to forecast the future of professional counseling as it transitions into the next millennium. It is designed to help professional counselors understand and prepare for future changes in the profession of counseling. Understanding the rationale and observable predictors of anticipated changes meaningfully…

Dixon, Charlotte G., Ed.; Emener, William G., Ed.

73

Personal Need for Structure and Attitudes toward Homosexuality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the need to cognitively structure reality through the use of stereotypes as a predictor of individual attitudes toward homosexuality. Shows that responses were slightly, yet significantly, related to attitudes toward homosexuality and that the gender of the respondent did not significantly alter the impact. Suggests additional future…

Smith, Michael R.; Gordon, Randall A.

1998-01-01

74

The Joint Hierarchical Structure of Adolescent Personality Pathology: Converging Evidence from Two Approaches to Measurement  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the joint hierarchical structure of two measures of adolescent personality pathology within a community sample of Canadian adolescents. Method: Self-reported data on demographic information and pathological personality traits were obtained from 144 youth (Mage = 16.08 years, SD = 1.30). Personality pathology was measured using the youth-version of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP-Y; Linde, Stringer, Simms, & Clark, in press) and the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI; De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006). Lower-order scales were subjected to structural hierarchical analyses. Results: Scales from the two measures were complementary in defining higher-order traits. Traits at the 4-factor level of the hierarchy (Need for Approval, Disagreeableness, Detachment, and Compulsivity) showed similarities and differences with previous results in adults. Conclusions: The current investigation integrated top-down and bottom-up measures for a comprehensive account of the higher-order hierarchy of adolescent personality pathology. Results are discussed in the context of convergence across approaches and in comparison with previous findings in adult samples. PMID:23970908

Kushner, Shauna C.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; De Clercq, Barbara

2013-01-01

75

Structure of personality pathology in normal and clinical samples: Spanish validation of the DAPP-BQ.  

PubMed

Given that the DSM taxonomy of personality disorders is flawed by severe classificatory problems, the development of alternative classificatory systems, such as the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ), has now become a priority. This study examined the internal consistency, second-order factor structure, and criterion validity of a Spanish translation of the DAPP-BQ in two samples: subjects with personality disorder (n = 155) and subjects from the general population (n = 300). Alpha coefficients ranged satisfactorily from .75 to .93. Four second-order factors of Emotional Dysregulation, Dissocial Behavior, Inhibitedness, and Compulsivity were obtained, which were replicable between samples and identical to those reported in the literature. Finally, disordered subjects scored significantly higher than normal subjects on 17 of the 18 DAPP-BQ traits. Some pending issues in the construction of an alternative taxonomy of personality disorders are discussed. PMID:18684051

Gutiérrez-Zotes, Jose Alfonso; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Valero, Joaquín; Gallego, Emma; Baillés, Eva; Torres, Xavier; Labad, Antonio; Livesley, W John

2008-08-01

76

The study of virus structure and function: a personal history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I describe my gradually evolving role as a scientist from my birth in Frankfurt (Germany) to my education in the UK, my post-doc years and my experiences as an independent investigator at Purdue University1. I discuss the significance of my post-doctoral work in Minnesota where I had my first encounter with an electronic computer and subsequently in Cambridge where I participated in the first structure determination of proteins. After six years back in England my family moved to Indiana (USA) where my home remains to this day. At Purdue University I first studied the structure of enzymes and in the process I discovered the organization and slow evolution of protein domains, each with a specific function. With this success I started what had been on my mind already for a long time, namely the structural analysis of viruses. Initially we studied plant viruses but then switched to small RNA animal viruses, discovering that some plant and animal RNA viruses have closely similar structures and therefore presumably had a common evolutionary origin. Next I became interested in somewhat larger viruses that had lipid membrane envelopes. In turn that has led to the study of very large dsDNA viruses as big as small bacteria as well as studies of bacterial viruses that require complex molecular motors for different parts of their life cycle. While developing crystallographic techniques for the study of viruses it has become progressively more apparent that electron microscopy is an important new tool that is likely to eclipse x-ray crystallography in the next decade.

Rossmann, Michael G.

2014-09-01

77

Structural Brain Abnormalities and Suicidal Behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Structural brain abnormalities have been demonstrated in subjects with BPD in prefrontal and fronto-limbic regions involved in the regulation of emotion and impulsive behavior, executive cognitive function and episodic memory. Impairment in these cognitive functions is associated with increased vulnerability to suicidal behavior. We compared BPD suicide attempters and non-attempters, high and low lethality attempters to healthy controls to identify neural circuits associated with suicidal behavior in BPD. Methods Structural MRI scans were obtained on 68 BPD subjects (16 male, 52 female), defined by IPDE and DIB/R criteria, and 52 healthy controls (HC: 28 male, 24 female). Groups were compared by diagnosis, attempt status, and attempt lethality. ROIs were defined for areas reported to have structural or metabolic abnormalities in BPD, and included: mid-inf. orbitofrontal cortex, mid-sup temporal cortex, anterior cingulate, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, fusiform, lingual and parahippocampal gyri. Data were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry implemented with DARTEL in SPM5, co-varied for age and gender, corrected for cluster extent (p<.001). Results Compared to HC, BPD attempters had significantly diminished gray matter concentrations in 8 of 9 ROIs, non-attempters in 5 of 9 ROIs. Within the BPD sample, attempters had diminished gray matter in Lt. insula compared to non-attempters. High lethality attempters had significant decreases in Rt. mid-sup. temporal gyrus, Rt. mid-inf. orbitofrontal gyrus, Rt. insular cortex, Lt. fusiform gyrus, Lt. lingual gyrus and Rt. parahippocampal gyrus compared to low lethality attempters. Conclusions Specific structural abnormalities discriminate BPD attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters. PMID:22336640

Soloff, Paul H.; Pruitt, Patrick; Sharma, Mohit; Radwan, Jacqueline; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.

2012-01-01

78

Buckling of structures with uncertain imperfections - Personal perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The previous review on stochastic buckling of structures was written by Amazigo in 1976. This review summarizes some of the developments which took place in recent two decades. A brief overview is given of the effect on uncertainty in the initial geometric imperfections, elastic moduli, applied forces, and thickness variation. For the benefit of the thinking reader, the review has a critical nature. It should be noted that this manuscript has yet to be completed.

Elishakoff, Isaac

1998-01-01

79

DAPP-BQ: factor structure and relations to personality disorder symptoms in a non-clinical sample.  

PubMed

We assessed the factor structure of the DAPP-BQ (Livesley & Jackson, in press), as well as the relations between DAPP-BQ higher- and lower-order personality trait scores and DSM-IV (APA, 2000) personality disorder symptoms in a sample of approximately 300 nonclinical young adults. The four-factor structure of the DAPP-BQ was replicated, and DAPP-BQ higher-order and lower-order scores were related to personality disorder symptoms in predictable ways. Finally, regression analyses revealed that specific DAPP-BQ traits accounted for variance in individual personality disorder scores above and beyond comorbid personality disorder symptoms. PMID:12659544

Bagge, Courtney L; Trull, Timothy J

2003-02-01

80

Impact of methods for reducing respondent burden on personal network structural measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine methods for reducing respondent burden in evaluating alter–alter ties on a set of network structural measures. The data consist of two sets, each containing 45 alters from respondent free lists: the first contains 447 personal networks, and the second 554. Respondents evaluated the communication between 990 alter pairs. The methods were (1) dropping alters from the end of

Christopher McCarty; Peter D. Killworth; James Rennell

2007-01-01

81

The Joint Influence of Personal Achievement Goals and Classroom Goal Structures on Achievement-Relevant Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors provide an analytic framework for studying the joint influence of personal achievement goals and classroom goal structures on achievement-relevant outcomes. This framework encompasses 3 models (the direct effect model, indirect effect model, and interaction effect model), each of which addresses a different aspect of the joint…

Murayama, Kou; Elliot, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

82

The Do Re Mi's of Everyday Life: The Structure and Personality Correlates of Music Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research examined individual differences in music preferences. A series of 6 studies investigated lay beliefs about music, the structure underlying music preferences, and the links between music preferences and personality. The data indicated that people consider music an important aspect of their lives and listening to music an activity they engaged in frequently. Using multiple samples, methods, and

Peter J. Rentfrow; Samuel D. Gosling

2003-01-01

83

A Structured Interview for the Assessment of the Five-Factor Model of Personality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the psychometric properties of a new semistructured interview, the Structured Interview for the Five-Factor Model of Personality (T. Trull and T. Widiger, 1997). Data from clinical and nonclinical samples (187 undergraduates and 46 mental health outpatients) support the reliability and validity of the measure's scores. (SLD)

Trull, Timothy J.; Widiger, Thomas A.; Useda, J. David; Holcomb, Jay; Doan, Bao-Tran; Axelrod, Seth R.; Stern, Barry L.; Gershuny, Beth S.

1998-01-01

84

Understanding Social Structure through Personal Experience: The Creative Use of Status and Role as Explanatory Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"It's all up to the individual!" Most sociology instructors have encountered this response from students who have internalized the dominant ideological perspective of "personal responsibility" and therefore resist their efforts to encourage a rigorous examination of structural forces. A number of articles in recent issues of "Teaching Sociology"…

Greenfield, Derek

2006-01-01

85

Author's personal copy Defining the structural requirements for ribose 5-phosphate-binding and  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Defining the structural requirements for ribose 5-phosphate-binding and intersubunit cross-talk of the malarial pyridoxal 5-phosphate synthase Bianca Derrer a , Volker Windeisen b Available online 17 September 2010 Edited by Stuart Ferguson Keywords: Vitamin B6 Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP

Rippe, Karsten

86

A Structural and Correlational Analysis of Two Common Measures of Personal Epistemology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scope and Method of Study: The current inquiry is a factor analytic study which utilizes first and second order factor analytic methods to examine the internal structures of two measurements of personal epistemological beliefs: the Schommer Epistemological Questionnaire (SEQ) and Epistemic Belief Inventory (EBI). The study also examines the…

Laster, Bonnie Bost

2010-01-01

87

Attitudes towards emotional expression: factor structure, convergent validity and associations with personality.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure of the Attitudes towards Emotional Expression scale (AEE), its convergent validity with the Ambivalence over Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire (AEQ), and its association with the Big 5 personality dimensions. The AEE was found to consist of four clearly identifiable factors, which loaded together on a higher order single factor. Higher scores on the AEE were associated with higher scores on the AEQ. Regression of scores on the AEE onto the Big 5 personality dimensions showed that scores on the AEE were associated with agreeableness, extraversion, and openness to experience. PMID:11003378

Laghai, A; Joseph, S

2000-09-01

88

Millennium Development Goals, Agricultural Growth and Openness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of poverty reduction aims for halving of the head-count ratio over the period 1990-2015. The present study examines the feasibility of halving poverty at the global, regional and country levels drawing upon two-stage cross-sectional and panel estimations which,take into account agric ultural growth,and inequality. The gaps between required and observed growth rates of aggregate and

Raghav Gaiha

2003-01-01

89

Millennium Bug found by CSIRO entomologists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Entomologists at Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization have announced the discovery of the "real" Millennium Bug, belonging to a new genus of the family Veliidae (small water striders). The bug was found at several mountain streams of southeast Queensland and northeast New South Wales and will be described in a publication of the Australian journal Invertebrate Taxonomy. The CSIRO news release is provided above.

90

78 FR 13904 - Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION [MCC FR 13-01] Millennium Challenge Corporation...Secretary via email at corporatesecretary@mcc.gov or by telephone at (202) 521-3600...the Millennium Challenge Corporation (``MCC'') will hold a meeting to discuss...

2013-03-01

91

Will man wish to prevail? Some fundamental choices facing humanity early in the Third Millennium  

SciTech Connect

With the subtle but occasionally vital exception of vaccination-induced immunity to many of the major infectious diseases, no human today is other than virtually identical biologically to those who greeted the dawn of the Second Millennium, nearly 1000 years ago. Culturally, however, we of the West are quite highly evolved from our ancestors of a millennium ago, primarily due to the advent of means for communicating with ever smaller latencies and ever higher bandwidths over ever greater distances in space and time: printed documents have been supplemented in succession by telephony, radio, video and, just now, the first personal communications sets. Also, within a fraction of a human lifetime from the present moment, the first prosthesis for the human brain has appeared and just very recently has become quite ubiquitous: digital computing systems. We are hardly members of the same species, culturally speaking; people of 1000 years ago would be truly and utterly lost in our communications-intensive civilization, and even a highly educated person from those times would swear that a personal computer equipped with a wireless communications module was as at least a familiar, if not a golem. Conversely, a computer-using person from our own times somehow translated back to 1000 A.D. would likely find the profound isolation and the ``informational slowness`` of life then to be acutely intolerable, certainly to a far greater extent than would a citizen of the High Middle Ages translated back to Augustus Caesar`s Rome.

Wood, L.L.

1994-10-01

92

Limitations of the Millennium Development Goals: a literature review.  

PubMed

With the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) showing uneven progress, this review identifies possible limitations arising from the MDG framework itself rather than extrinsic issues. A multidisciplinary literature review was conducted with a focus on limitations in the formulation of the MDGs, their structure, content and implementation. Of 1837 MDG-related articles, 90 met criteria for analysis. Articles describe MDGs as being created by only a few stakeholders without adequate involvement by developing countries and overlooking development objectives previously agreed upon. Others claim MDGs are unachievable and simplistic, not adapted to national needs, do not specify accountable parties and reinforce vertical interventions. While MDGs have promoted increased health and well-being in many countries by recognising and deliberating on the possible constraints of the MDG framework, the post-2015 agenda may have even greater impact. PMID:24266508

Fehling, Maya; Nelson, Brett D; Venkatapuram, Sridhar

2013-01-01

93

Limitations of the Millennium Development Goals: a literature review  

PubMed Central

With the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) showing uneven progress, this review identifies possible limitations arising from the MDG framework itself rather than extrinsic issues. A multidisciplinary literature review was conducted with a focus on limitations in the formulation of the MDGs, their structure, content and implementation. Of 1837 MDG-related articles, 90 met criteria for analysis. Articles describe MDGs as being created by only a few stakeholders without adequate involvement by developing countries and overlooking development objectives previously agreed upon. Others claim MDGs are unachievable and simplistic, not adapted to national needs, do not specify accountable parties and reinforce vertical interventions. While MDGs have promoted increased health and well-being in many countries by recognising and deliberating on the possible constraints of the MDG framework, the post-2015 agenda may have even greater impact. Complex problems have simple, easy to understand, wrong answers (Henry Louis Mencken) PMID:24266508

Fehling, Maya; Nelson, Brett D.; Venkatapuram, Sridhar

2013-01-01

94

Conceptual structure and social functions of behavior explanations: beyond person--situation attributions.  

PubMed

The traditional approach to studying behavior explanations involves treating them as either person causes or situation causes and assessing them by using rating scales. An analysis of people's free-response behavior explanations reveals, however, that the conceptual distinctions people use in their explanations are more complex and sophisticated than the person-situation dichotomy suggests. The authors, therefore, introduce a model of the conceptual structure of folk behavior explanations (the network of concepts and assumptions on which explanations are based) and test it in 4 studies. The modes and features of behavior explanations within this conceptual structure also have specific social functions. In 2 additional studies, the authors demonstrate that people alter distinct features of their explanations when pursuing particular impression-management goals and that listeners make inferences about explainers' goals on the basis of these features. PMID:10981836

Malle, B F; Knobe, J; O'Laughlin, M J; Pearce, G E; Nelson, S E

2000-09-01

95

The New York Times Magazine: The Shadow Story of the Millennium: Women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part two of this special series in The New York Times Magazine devoted to the millennium focuses on the evolution of the role of women in the last thousand years and the contributions they have made to the millennium's history. Over a dozen features touch on everything from changes in the world of medicine vis-a-vis women's bodies, to the changing role of women in China, to the female mystical experience over the last thousand years. Highlights include an article by novelist Jim Harrison entitled "First Person Female," "The Truth About Sex - at Any Given Moment" by Camille Sweeney, and "The Rest of the Story" by Jill Kerr Conway and Natalie Zemon Davis, which focuses on the untold part of human history, the "shape of women's lives." There are also video and audio companions to a number of the articles, columns on gender-related issues by William Safire and Deborah Tannen, and online forums discussing such issues as Women Through the Millennium; Power, Suffering, Gender, and Communication; and Fertility.

96

Impulsivity, aggression and brain structure in high and low lethality suicide attempters with borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

Impulsivity and aggressiveness are trait dispositions associated with the vulnerability to suicidal behavior across diagnoses. They are associated with structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in regulation of mood, impulse and behavior. They are also core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder defined, in part, by recurrent suicidal behavior. We assessed the relationships between personality traits, brain structure and lethality of suicide attempts in 51 BPD attempters using multiple regression analyses on structural MRI data. BPD was diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients-revised, impulsivity by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), aggression by the Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression (LHA), and high lethality by a score of 4 or more on the Lethality Rating Scale (LRS). Sixteen High Lethality attempters were compared to 35 Low Lethality attempters, with no significant differences noted in gender, co-morbidity, childhood abuse, BIS or LHA scores. Degree of medical lethality (LRS) was negatively related to gray matter volumes across multiple fronto-temporal-limbic regions. Effects of impulsivity and aggression on gray matter volumes discriminated High from Low Lethality attempters and differed markedly within lethality groups. Lethality of suicide attempts in BPD may be related to the mediation of these personality traits by specific neural networks. PMID:24656768

Soloff, Paul; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

2014-06-30

97

Critical Issues around the Millennium Development Goals and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the UN Millennium Assembly in 2000 global leaders committed themselves to eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Seven of these goals were set for achievement in 2015, including the achievement of universal primary education. Only one goal was set for 2005: the achievement of gender parity in primary and secondary education. There was good…

Archer, David

2005-01-01

98

From Domination to Partnership: Meeting the UN Millennium Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The UN Millennium goals envision a more just and sustainable future. This article explains why there is a need to shift from domination model to a partnership model in meeting the UN Millennium goals. The domination model is a configuration based on top-down rankings of control, while the partnership model is a configuration that can support a…

Eisler, Riane; Corral, Thais

2005-01-01

99

India's Challenge to Meet the Millennium Development Goals  

E-print Network

India's Challenge to Meet the Millennium Development Goals Nirupam Bajpai, Jeffrey D. Sachs and Sustainable Development The Earth Institute at Columbia University www.earth.columbia.edu #12;2 India Abstract On its current economic trajectory, India will achieve some of the eight Millennium Development

100

Millennium modem/channelizer special test equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A broadband modem/channelizer test set developed by NASA Lewis Research Center is discussed. The test set is a fully programmable, bit-error-rate (BER) test set designed for broadband modem-only and multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator characterization. It is currently configured for testing a multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator and was developed for the Advanced Research and Projects Agency under a Technology Reinvestment Program Cooperative Agreement entitled 'Millennium: 21st Century Broadband Digital Telecommunications Technology.' The test set can easily be modified to provide testing of other modems and multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator systems and is available to industry for such testing.

Ivancic, William D.

1995-11-01

101

Millennium Modem/Channelizer Special Test Equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A broadband modem/channelizer test set developed by NASA Lewis Research Center is discussed. The test set is a fully programmable, bit-error-rate (BER) test set designed for broadband modem-only and multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator characterization. It is currently configured for testing a multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator and was developed for the Advanced Research and Projects Agency under a Technology Reinvestment Program Cooperative Agreement entitled 'Millennium: 21st Century Broadband Digital Telecommunications Technology.' The test set can easily be modified to provide testing of other modems and multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator systems and is available to industry for such testing.

Ivancic, William D.

1995-01-01

102

NeMO: New Millennium Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOAA's New Millennium Observatory (NeMO) "studies the dynamic interactions between submarine volcanic activity and seafloor hotsprings at an observatory, Axial seamount." The website presents a host of information on the participants, tools, and cruise plans for past, present, and scheduled expeditions. Researchers can learn about the Remote Access Sampler (RAS) and a Bottom Access Pressure Recorder (BPR) which transmits the latest data from the seafloor to the website. Through NeMO explorer, users can explore the seafloor with panorama, fly-throughs, and video clips. The education section offers stimulating curriculum materials where students can learn about mid-ocean ridges, hydrothermal vents, axial volcanoes, and much more.

103

The structure of borderline personality disorder symptoms: a multi-method, multi-sample examination.  

PubMed

We examined the factor structure of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms by using a multimethod, multisample approach. The factorial structure of BPD has previously been examined through the lens of broad retrospective reports of symptoms without directly contrasting results from different samples of participants, with studies producing inconsistent patterns of results. We go beyond previous work by examining symptoms from multiple timeframes and by examining results across and within 2 diagnostic groups-individuals with and without BPD. Participants (n = 281) completed a structured clinical interview for personality disorders, 2 weekly reports of BPD symptoms, and 2 weeks of in-the-moment "immediate" symptom reports, assessed 5 times daily. Across all participants, results revealed a robust 1-factor structure that replicated across all assessment methods. Moreover, these results replicated within each diagnostic group, with the lone exception of an unclear structure in interview assessment among participants who had a BPD diagnosis. Results have implications regarding the nature, assessment, and treatment of BPD. PMID:25314228

Hawkins, Ashley A; Furr, R Michael; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Law, Mary Kate; Mneimne, Malek; Fleeson, William

2014-10-01

104

Structural and Dialectal Characteristics of the Fictional and Personal Narratives of School-Age African American Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural and dialectal characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method: Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, generated a fictional narrative and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a…

Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.

2013-01-01

105

Structure of Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Symptoms of DSM-IV Borderline Personality Disorder  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Previous studies have indicated that the psychopathological dimensions of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are influenced by a unitary liability factor. However, to our knowledge, the underlying etiological nature of the individual criteria for BPD as defined by the DSM-IV has not been explored. OBJECTIVE To determine the structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for the symptoms of BPD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Multivariate twin study with BPD criteria assessed by personal interview within a general community setting. Participants included 2794 young adults from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The 9 criteria for BPD assessed by the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality. RESULTS A common pathway model dominated by 1 highly heritable (55%) general BPD factor that strongly influenced all 9 BPD criteria (standardized path coefficients, 0.53–0.79) fit the data best. The model also included 2 additional common liability factors, mainly influencing criteria reflecting the affective and interpersonal dimensions. Both of these were mostly influenced by environmental liability factors (heritability, 29.3% and 2.2%). With 1 exception (criterion 2, unstable and intense relationships), the specific criteria were strongly influenced by environmental factors. Five of the 9 criterion-specific genetic effects were either 0 or negligible. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These results indicate that most of the genetic effects on the individual BPD criteria derive from 1 highly heritable general BPD factor, whereas the environmental influences were mostly criterion specific. PMID:24048243

Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Ystrom, Eivind; Neale, Michael C.; Aggen, Steven H.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Tambs, Kristian; Czajkowski, Nikolai O.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

2013-01-01

106

[New investigations on the melancholic type personality structure in migraine patients].  

PubMed

In an earlier published study [16, 17, 18], it was demonstrated that migraine sufferers have personality traits significantly more strongly associated with the typus melancholicus than healthy individuals and patients with other mental and physical illnesses. They display a fixation on tidiness which manifests itself in an excessive striving for quality and quantity in performance-oriented situations. The main features of their social relationships are excessive helpfulness combined with an exaggerated tendency towards guilt avoidance and symbiotic attachment to their own families. They do not differ from unipolar depressives in these respects. The major aim of the new study is to examine whether the concept of the typus melancholicus in relation to migraine sufferers as proposed in the first study is adaptable to explaining the personality characteristics of migraine sufferers ("typus migraenicus"). Age-matched samples of 42 female migraine sufferers, 40 female patients with unipolar depression, and 41 female control subjects took part in the new study. The test instruments used were von Zerssen's Munich Personality Test (MPT) and a questionnaire specially designed by the first author for assessing the typus migraenicus (German "Fragebogen zur Erfassung des Typus migraenicus," or FETM). The results obtained using univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrate a confirmation of the typus migraenicus concept, although to a less pronounced degree than the previous study. This can be seen as supporting evidence that, independently of the study sample and the investigators, migraine sufferers display with higher random frequency a personality profile very similar to the premorbid personality structure in unipolar depressives. PMID:10989812

Schäfer, M L; Lautenbacher, S; Postberg-Flesch, C

2000-07-01

107

Factorial Structure and Age-Related Psychometrics of the MIDUS Personality Adjective Items across the Lifespan  

PubMed Central

The present study addresses issues of measurement invariance and comparability of factor parameters of Big Five personality adjective items across age. Data from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) survey were used to investigate age-related developmental psychometrics of the MIDUS personality adjective items in two large cross-sectional samples (exploratory sample: N = 862; analysis sample: N = 3,000). After having established and replicated a comprehensive five-factor structure of the measure, increasing levels of measurement invariance were tested across ten age groups. Results indicate that the measure demonstrates strict measurement invariance in terms of number of factors and factor loadings. Also, we found that factor variances and covariances were equal across age groups. By contrast, a number of age-related factor mean differences emerged. The practical implications of these results are discussed and future research is suggested. PMID:21910548

Zimprich, Daniel; Allemand, Mathias; Lachman, Margie E.

2014-01-01

108

The interrater reliability of the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality  

PubMed Central

We examined the joint interview interrater reliability of the Structured Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Personality Disorders (SIDP-IV) in 433 non–treatment-seeking military recruits. Reliability was computed for the diagnosis of a specific personality disorder (PD) and for the number of PD criteria present, and computed using a dimensional score. Reliability increased when PDs were computed using dimensional scores rather than categorical scores. Avoidant and dependent PDs demonstrated the highest interrater reliability, whereas schizoid and schizotypal showed the lowest. This large sample allowed us to perform item-level analyses of the SIDP-IV. Interrater reliability for each of the PD criteria was generally more than 0.70, with the notable exception of criteria scored through observation only. Overall, the SIDP-IV demonstrated good reliability in a non–treatment-seeking population. PMID:16905399

Jane, J. Serrita; Pagan, Jason L.; Turkheimer, Eric; Fiedler, Edna R.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2015-01-01

109

The Validity and Structure of Culture-Level Personality Scores: Data From Ratings of Young Adolescents  

PubMed Central

We examined properties of culture-level personality traits in ratings of targets (N = 5,109) aged 12 to 17 in 24 cultures. Aggregate scores were generalizable across gender, age, and relationship groups and showed convergence with culture-level scores from previous studies of self-reports and observer ratings of adults, but they were unrelated to national character stereotypes. Trait profiles also showed cross-study agreement within most cultures, eight of which had not previously been studied. Multidimensional scaling showed that Western and non-Western cultures clustered along a dimension related to Extraversion. A culture-level factor analysis replicated earlier findings of a broad Extraversion factor, but generally resembled the factor structure found in individuals. Continued analysis of aggregate personality scores is warranted. PMID:20573127

McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; Gelfand, Michele J.; Costa, Paul T.; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Blatný, Marek; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R.; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T.; de Lima, Margarida P.; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gülgöz, Sami; H?ebí?ková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Kneževi?, Goran; de Figueroa, Nora Leibovich; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Martin, Thomas A.; Maruši?, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Puri?, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle

2010-01-01

110

The Structure of Personality Disorders in Individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

PubMed Central

Research on the structure of personality disorders (PDs) has relied primarily on exploratory analyses to evaluate trait-based models of the factors underlying the covariation of these disorders. This study used confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate whether a model that included both PD traits and a general personality dysfunction factor would account for the comorbidity of the PDs better than a trait-only model. It also examined if the internalizing/externalizing model of psychopathology, developed previously through research on the structure of Axis I disorders, might similarly account for the covariation of the Axis II disorders in a sample of 245 veterans and non-veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Results indicated that the best fitting model was a modified bifactor structure composed of nine lower-order common factors. These factors indexed pathology ranging from aggression to dependency, with the correlations among them accounted for by higher-order Internalizing and Externalizing factors. Further, a general factor, reflecting a construct that we termed boundary disturbance, accounted for additional variance and covariance across nearly all the indicators. The Internalizing, Externalizing, and Boundary Disturbance factors evidenced differential associations with trauma-related covariates. These findings suggest continuity in the underlying structure of psychopathology across DSM-IV Axes I & II and provide empirical evidence of a pervasive, core disturbance in the boundary between self and other across the PDs. PMID:22448802

Wolf, Erika J.; Miller, Mark W.; Brown, Timothy A.

2015-01-01

111

The effect of task structure leadership style and jungian personality characteristics on job satisfaction: a field study  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF TASK STRUCTURE LEADERSHIP STYLE AND JUNGIAN PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS ON JOB SATISFACTION: A FIELD STUDY A Thesis by JENNIFER RHINE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1980 Major Subject: Psychology THE EFFECT OF TASK STRUCTURE LEADERSHIP STYLE AND JUNGIAN PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS ON JOB SATISFACTION: A FIELD STUDY A Thesis by JENNIFER RHINE Approved...

Rhine, Jennifer

1980-01-01

112

[Schizoid versus hysterical personality structure. III: Origin and severity of neurosis].  

PubMed

Compared to the hysterical structure, the following characteristics are more frequent in schizoids: they are illegitimate, are born late after several siblings and are quiet and shy as children. The mother is irascible, the father aloof; on the other hand, the parental combination "mother and father affectionate" is more common. The father is often absent in early childhood, and there is the additional stress caused by changes of residence. In their earliest childhood memory, the mother and father are named as central reference persons. According to the impairment score, the schizoids are more severely disturbed. In contrast, hysterical patients have young mothers that taboo sexuality and irascible fathers; they criticize the mothers more and also idealize the father. The hysterically structured individual is an only child or has few siblings. As children, these patients are well-behaved, lively, athletic, have many friends, fight and compete with siblings. In their earliest childhood memory, they name other adults--not family members--and topics centering on possession and contact. Their childhood is affected by stress arising from the death of the father and other close reference persons as well as from flight experiences. The results make it possible to describe a markedly different line of development in the structure groups and a greater degree of stress due to various risk factors in the schizoids. PMID:3564719

Studt, H H

1987-01-01

113

Testing Predictions From Personality Neuroscience: Brain Structure and the Big Five  

PubMed Central

We used a new theory of the biological basis of the Big Five personality traits to generate hypotheses about the association of each trait with the volume of different brain regions. Controlling for age, sex, and whole-brain volume, results from structural magnetic resonance imaging of 116 healthy adults supported our hypotheses for four of the five traits: Extraversion, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Extraversion covaried with volume of medial orbitofrontal cortex, a brain region involved in processing reward information. Neuroticism covaried with volume of brain regions associated with threat, punishment, and negative affect. Agreeableness covaried with volume in regions that process information about the intentions and mental states of other individuals. Conscientiousness covaried with volume in lateral prefrontal cortex, a region involved in planning and the voluntary control of behavior. These findings support our biologically based, explanatory model of the Big Five and demonstrate the potential of personality neuroscience (i.e., the systematic study of individual differences in personality using neuroscience methods) as a discipline. PMID:20435951

DeYoung, Colin G.; Hirsh, Jacob B.; Shane, Matthew S.; Papademetris, Xenophon; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Gray, Jeremy R.

2011-01-01

114

The Millennium: One Thousand Years of Finance and Companies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A section of the special turn-of-the-millennium edition of the Wall Street Journal Interactive, "The Millennium: One Thousand Years of Finance and Companies" recapitulates world business and economics in the past1,000 years. A timeline chronicling "Finance and Firms" in the eleventh through the twentieth centuries is featured along with a look at taxes throughout the millennium. Five articles focus on the twentieth century, looking at the rise of Manhattan as the finance center of the US, the history of the DuPont company, and the stock market.

115

MolView: a program for analyzing and displaying atomic structures on the Macintosh personal computer.  

PubMed

A program is described that allows the user to analyze and display atomic structures on any Macintosh personal computer. The program reads ASCII format structure files including PDB, plot files from the graphics programs O and FRODO, and Cartesian coordinates from ChemDraw 3D. The program has a graphical interface that features floating button palettes for objects and tools. The structures may be displayed using stick, ball-and-stick, space-filling, and ribbon models. Each type of drawing can be colored according to a variety of schemes to accentuate various structural aspects. The figures can be rotated, displayed in stereo, and exported using the Clipboard, PICT files, or Quick-Time movies. The structure can be further analyzed by displaying hydrogen bonds, making Ramachandran plots, labeling atoms, measuring distances, and finding neighboring atoms. By using the Macintosh computer and emphasizing a graphical interface, this program helps to bring structural analysis to students and researchers that may not have access to, or experience with, large graphics workstations. In addition, the object-oriented output PICT images are ideal for creating publication-ready diagrams that can be easily modified or inserted into other documents (e.g., see Refs. 1-3). PMID:7619787

Smith, T J

1995-04-01

116

Basic mechanisms for the new millennium  

SciTech Connect

This part of the Short Course will review the basic mechanisms for radiation effects in semiconductor devices. All three areas of radiation damage will be considered -- total dose, displacement effects, and single event effects. Each of these areas will be discussed in turn. First an overview and background will be provided on the historical understanding of the damage mechanism. Then there will be a discussion of recent enhancements to the understanding of those mechanisms and an up-to-date picture provided of the current state of knowledge. Next the potential impact of each of these damage mechanisms on devices in emerging technologies and how the mechanisms may be used to understand device performance will be described, with an emphasis on those likely to be of importance in the new millennium. Finally some additional thoughts will be presented on how device scaling expected into the next century may impact radiation hardness.

Dressendorfer, P.V.

1998-09-01

117

Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel.

The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2007-01-01

118

Social personality traits in chimpanzees: temporal stability and structure of behaviourally assessed personality traits in three captive populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals of many species show consistency in behaviour across time and contexts that differs from other individuals' behaviour\\u000a in the same population. Such ‘personality’ affects fitness and has therefore become an increasingly relevant research topic\\u000a in biology. However, consistent variation in social behaviour is understudied. In socially living species, behaviour occurs\\u000a in a social environment and social interactions have a

Sonja E. Koski

119

Internal, External, and Self-Report Structure of Personality in a Non-Western Culture: An Investigation of Cross-Language and Cross-Cultural Generalizability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors explored the internal (similarity of meaning), external (peer nominations), and self-report structure of personality with Filipino college students. Informants' natural language of personality in English and Tagalog provided a taxonomy as broad and differentiated, though not a dense, as an existing dictionary-based taxonomy (Peabody, 1987). The internal structure of personality was quite similar in the two languages, supporting

A. Timothy Church; Marcia S. Katigbak

1989-01-01

120

Domains of psychopathy: Evaluating the structure of a lexical model of psychopathic personality disorder.  

PubMed

This study examines the structure of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) from a card sort perspective. The CAPP is a lexically based construct map of psychopathy comprising 33 symptoms organized by its developers into 6 broad functional domains of personality (i.e., Attachment, Behavioral, Cognitive; Dominance; Emotional, Self). Groups of mental health workers and students were asked to sort the CAPP symptoms into the model's 6 proposed domains. Overall, both mental health workers and students were able to categorize the symptoms speedily and intuitively according to model. This suggests that the CAPP model's hierarchical structure is plausible, and that the lexical nature of the model is successful in facilitating people's ability to understand features of psychopathy in a way that requires limited cognitive effort. Together, these findings support the validity of the CAPP model as a lexically based concept map of psychopathy. Yet, some exceptions to the overall pattern of agreement with model were identified. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25867837

Hoff, Helge Andreas; Rypdal, Knut; Hart, Stephen D; Cooke, David J; Mykletun, Arnstein

2015-04-01

121

An examination of the factor structure of DSM-IV Narcissistic Personality Disorder Criteria  

PubMed Central

A growing body of research has suggested that narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) contains two factors or types: overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable. A recent factor analysis of DSM-IV NPD symptoms supported a similar two-factor model. The present research tested this proposed two-factor solution against a one-factor solution (N = 298; 72% patients) using both confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and an examination of associations between the resultant factors and theoretically relevant criteria (other PDs; depression, anxiety). The results of the CFA supported a one-factor solution. Likewise, the two factors each yielded a similar pattern of correlations with relevant criteria. Together, these results argue against a two-factor structure for the current DSM-IV NPD symptoms. Given the broader research literature suggesting a two-factor structure of narcissism, strategies for assessing both overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable forms of narcissism in DSM-V are discussed. PMID:18243885

Miller, Joshua D.; Hoffman, Brian J.; Campbell, W. Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A.

2008-01-01

122

Examination of the Factor Structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire among British and Trinidadian Adults.  

PubMed

Much debate in schizotypal research has centred on the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), with research variously showing higher-order dimensionality consisting of two to seven dimensions. In addition, cross-cultural support for the stability of those factors remains limited. Here, we examined the factor structure of the SPQ among British and Trinidadian adults. Participants from a White British subsample (n = 351) resident in the UK and from an African Caribbean subsample (n = 284) resident in Trinidad completed the SPQ. The higher-order factor structure of the SPQ was analysed through confirmatory factor analysis, followed by multiple-group analysis for the model of best fit. Between-group differences for sex and ethnicity were investigated using multivariate analysis of variance in relation to the higher-order domains. The model of best-fit was the four-factor structure, which demonstrated measurement invariance across groups. Additionally, these data had an adequate fit for two alternative models: (a) 3-factor and (b) modified 4-factor model. The British subsample had significantly higher scores across all domains than the Trinidadian group, and men scored significantly higher on the disorganised domain than women. The four-factor structure received confirmatory support and, importantly, support for use with populations varying in ethnicity and culture. PMID:25699263

Barron, David; Swami, Viren; Towell, Tony; Hutchinson, Gerard; Morgan, Kevin D

2015-01-01

123

Examination of the Factor Structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire among British and Trinidadian Adults  

PubMed Central

Much debate in schizotypal research has centred on the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), with research variously showing higher-order dimensionality consisting of two to seven dimensions. In addition, cross-cultural support for the stability of those factors remains limited. Here, we examined the factor structure of the SPQ among British and Trinidadian adults. Participants from a White British subsample (n = 351) resident in the UK and from an African Caribbean subsample (n = 284) resident in Trinidad completed the SPQ. The higher-order factor structure of the SPQ was analysed through confirmatory factor analysis, followed by multiple-group analysis for the model of best fit. Between-group differences for sex and ethnicity were investigated using multivariate analysis of variance in relation to the higher-order domains. The model of best-fit was the four-factor structure, which demonstrated measurement invariance across groups. Additionally, these data had an adequate fit for two alternative models: (a) 3-factor and (b) modified 4-factor model. The British subsample had significantly higher scores across all domains than the Trinidadian group, and men scored significantly higher on the disorganised domain than women. The four-factor structure received confirmatory support and, importantly, support for use with populations varying in ethnicity and culture. PMID:25699263

Barron, David; Swami, Viren; Hutchinson, Gerard

2015-01-01

124

Mars Mania: Internet Resources for the New Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Mars Millennium Project that challenges elementary and secondary school students across the nation to design communities on Mars. Lists the sponsoring organizations, explains how to participate in the project, and suggests appropriate books and Web sites. (LRW)

Albrecht, Bob; Davis, Paul

1999-01-01

125

Telemedicine in the NHS for the millennium and beyond.  

PubMed Central

This article defines telemedicine, discusses evidence of its effectiveness, looks at its advantages and disadvantages (and barriers to implementation), and considers its role in the NHS for the millennium and beyond. PMID:10320886

Wallace, S.; Wyatt, J.; Taylor, P.

1998-01-01

126

Personality in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Exploring the Hierarchical Structure and Associations with the Vasopressin V1A Receptor Gene  

PubMed Central

One of the major contributions of recent personality psychology is the finding that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy. To date, however, researchers have yet to investigate this hierarchy in nonhuman primates. Such investigations are critical in confirming the cross-species nature of trait personality helping to illuminate personality as neurobiologically-based and evolutionarily-derived dimensions of primate disposition. Investigations of potential genetic polymorphisms associated with hierarchical models of personality among nonhuman primates represent a critical first step. The current study examined the hierarchical structure of chimpanzee personality as well as sex-specific associations with a polymorphism in the promoter region of the vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A), a gene associated with dispositional traits, among 174 chimpanzees. Results confirmed a hierarchical structure of personality across species and, despite differences in early rearing experiences, suggest a sexually dimorphic role of AVPR1A polymorphisms on hierarchical personality profiles at a higher-order level. PMID:24752497

Latzman, Robert D.; Hopkins, William D.; Keebaugh, Alaine C.; Young, Larry J.

2014-01-01

127

Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and Narcissism in the Five-Factor Model and the HEXACO model of personality structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relations of the “Dark Triad” personality traits—Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and Narcissism—with the variables of the Five-Factor Model and the HEXACO model of personality structure. Results (N=164) indicated that all three Dark Triad traits were strongly negatively correlated (rs=?0.72, ?0.57, and ?0.53, respectively) with the HEXACO Honesty–Humility factor. Psychopathy and Machiavellianism showed moderate negative correlations with Big Five Agreeableness

Kibeom Lee; Michael C. Ashton

2005-01-01

128

MASSIVE HALOS IN MILLENNIUM GAS SIMULATIONS: MULTIVARIATE SCALING RELATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The joint likelihood of observable cluster signals reflects the astrophysical evolution of the coupled baryonic and dark matter components in massive halos, and its knowledge will enhance cosmological parameter constraints in the coming era of large, multiwavelength cluster surveys. We present a computational study of intrinsic covariance in cluster properties using halo populations derived from Millennium Gas Simulations (MGS). The MGS are re-simulations of the original 500 h {sup -1} Mpc Millennium Simulation performed with gas dynamics under two different physical treatments: shock heating driven by gravity only (GO) and a second treatment with cooling and preheating (PH). We examine relationships among structural properties and observable X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signals for samples of thousands of halos with M {sub 200} {>=} 5 x 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M {sub sun} and z < 2. While the X-ray scaling behavior of PH model halos at low redshift offers a good match to local clusters, the model exhibits non-standard features testable with larger surveys, including weakly running slopes in hot gas observable-mass relations and {approx}10% departures from self-similar redshift evolution for 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M {sub sun} halos at redshift z {approx} 1. We find that the form of the joint likelihood of signal pairs is generally well described by a multivariate, log-normal distribution, especially in the PH case which exhibits less halo substructure than the GO model. At fixed mass and epoch, joint deviations of signal pairs display mainly positive correlations, especially the thermal SZ effect paired with either hot gas fraction (r = 0.88/0.69 for PH/GO at z = 0) or X-ray temperature (r = 0.62/0.83). The levels of variance in X-ray luminosity, temperature, and gas mass fraction are sensitive to the physical treatment, but offsetting shifts in the latter two measures maintain a fixed 12% scatter in the integrated SZ signal under both gas treatments. We discuss halo mass selection by signal pairs, and find a minimum mass scatter of 4% in the PH model by combining thermal SZ and gas fraction measurements.

Stanek, R. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Rasia, E. [Department of Astronomy and Michigan Society of Fellows, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Evrard, A. E. [Departments of Physics and Astronomy and Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Pearce, F.; Gazzola, L., E-mail: rstanek@umich.ed [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

2010-06-01

129

Massive Halos in Millennium Gas Simulations: Multivariate Scaling Relations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The joint likelihood of observable cluster signals reflects the astrophysical evolution of the coupled baryonic and dark matter components in massive halos, and its knowledge will enhance cosmological parameter constraints in the coming era of large, multiwavelength cluster surveys. We present a computational study of intrinsic covariance in cluster properties using halo populations derived from Millennium Gas Simulations (MGS). The MGS are re-simulations of the original 500 h -1 Mpc Millennium Simulation performed with gas dynamics under two different physical treatments: shock heating driven by gravity only (GO) and a second treatment with cooling and preheating (PH). We examine relationships among structural properties and observable X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signals for samples of thousands of halos with M 200 >= 5 × 1013 h -1 M sun and z < 2. While the X-ray scaling behavior of PH model halos at low redshift offers a good match to local clusters, the model exhibits non-standard features testable with larger surveys, including weakly running slopes in hot gas observable-mass relations and ~10% departures from self-similar redshift evolution for 1014 h -1 M sun halos at redshift z ~ 1. We find that the form of the joint likelihood of signal pairs is generally well described by a multivariate, log-normal distribution, especially in the PH case which exhibits less halo substructure than the GO model. At fixed mass and epoch, joint deviations of signal pairs display mainly positive correlations, especially the thermal SZ effect paired with either hot gas fraction (r = 0.88/0.69 for PH/GO at z = 0) or X-ray temperature (r = 0.62/0.83). The levels of variance in X-ray luminosity, temperature, and gas mass fraction are sensitive to the physical treatment, but offsetting shifts in the latter two measures maintain a fixed 12% scatter in the integrated SZ signal under both gas treatments. We discuss halo mass selection by signal pairs, and find a minimum mass scatter of 4% in the PH model by combining thermal SZ and gas fraction measurements.

Stanek, R.; Rasia, E.; Evrard, A. E.; Pearce, F.; Gazzola, L.

2010-06-01

130

Comparing the factor structure of the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire.  

PubMed

Schizotypy is a multidimensional construct that captures the expression of schizophrenic symptoms and impairment from subclinical levels to full-blown psychosis. The present study examined the comparability of the factor structure of 2 leading psychometric measures of schizotypy: the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales (WSS) and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Both the SPQ and WSS purportedly capture the multidimensional structure of schizotypy; however, whether they are measuring comparable factors has not been empirically demonstrated. This study provided support for a 2-factor model with positive and negative factors underlying the WSS; however, contrary to previous findings, the best fit for the SPQ was for a 4-factor model using confirmatory factor analysis, and a 2-factor model using exploratory factor analysis. The WSS factors were relatively distinct, whereas those underlying the SPQ showed high overlap. The WSS positive and SPQ cognitive-perceptual factors appeared to tap comparable constructs. However, the WSS negative and SPQ interpersonal factors appeared to tap somewhat different constructs based on their correlation and their patterns of associations with other schizotypy dimensions and the Five-Factor Model-suggesting that the SPQ interpersonal factor may not adequately tap negative or deficit schizotypy. Although the SPQ offers the advantage over the WSS of having a disorganization factor, it is not clear that this SPQ factor is actually distinct from positive schizotypy. Existing measures should be used with caution and new measures based on a priori theories are necessary to further understand the factor structure of schizotypy. PMID:25314229

Gross, Georgina M; Mellin, Juliann; Silvia, Paul J; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Kwapil, Thomas R

2014-10-01

131

Immobile Robots: AI in the New Millennium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new generation of sensor rich, massively distributed, autonomous systems are being developed that have the potential for profound social, environmental, and economic change. These include networked building energy systems, autonomous space probes, chemical plant control systems, satellite constellations for remote ecosystem monitoring, power grids, biosphere-like life support systems, and reconfigurable traffic systems, to highlight but a few. To achieve high performance, these immobile robots (or immobots) will need to develop sophisticated regulatory and immune systems that accurately and robustly control their complex internal functions. To accomplish this, immobots will exploit a vast nervous system of sensors to model themselves and their environment on a grand scale. They will use these models to dramatically reconfigure themselves in order to survive decades of autonomous operations. Achieving these large scale modeling and configuration tasks will require a tight coupling between the higher level coordination function provided by symbolic reasoning, and the lower level autonomic processes of adaptive estimation and control. To be economically viable they will need to be programmable purely through high level compositional models. Self modeling and self configuration, coordinating autonomic functions through symbolic reasoning, and compositional, model-based programming are the three key elements of a model-based autonomous systems architecture that is taking us into the New Millennium.

Williams, Brian C.; Nayak, P. Pandurang

1996-01-01

132

Millennium development goals and eye health  

PubMed Central

In September 2000, world leaders made a commitment to build a more equitable, prosperous and safer world by 2015 and launched the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In the previous year, the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness in partnership launched the global initiative to eliminate avoidable blindness by the year 2020–VISION 2020 the Right to Sight. It has focused on the prevention of a disability-blindness and recognized a health issue–sight as a human right. Both global initiatives have made considerable progress with synergy especially on MDG 1–the reduction of poverty and the reduction in numbers of the blind. A review of the MDGs has identified the need to address disparities within and between countries, quality, and disability. Noncommunicable diseases are emerging as a challenge to the MDGs and Vision 2020:0 the Right to Sight. For the future, up to and beyond 2015, there will be need for both initiatives to continue to work in synergy to address present and emerging challenges. PMID:22944751

Faal, Hannah B

2012-01-01

133

Cohort profile: UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS).  

PubMed

The UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) is an observational, multidisciplinary cohort study that was set up to follow the lives of children born at the turn of the new century. The MCS is nationally representative and 18 552 families (18 827 children) were recruited to the cohort in the first sweep. There have currently been five main sweeps of data collection, at ages 9 months and 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. A further sweep of data collection is planned for age 14 years. A range of health-related data have been collected as well as measures concerning child development, cognitive ability and educational attainment. The data also include a wealth of information describing the social, economic and demographic characteristics of the cohort members and their families. In addition, the MCS data have been linked to administrative data resources including health records. The MCS provides a unique and valuable resource for the analysis of health outcomes and health inequalities. The MCS data are freely available to bona fide researchers under standard access conditions via the UK Data Service (http://ukdataservice.ac.uk) and the MCS website provides detailed information on the study (http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/mcs). PMID:24550246

Connelly, Roxanne; Platt, Lucinda

2014-12-01

134

Meteors And Showers A Millennium Ago  

E-print Network

Meteors can be classified into either sporadic meteors or showery meteors. We compile the meteor records in the astronomical archives in the Chronicle of the Koryo dynasty (918-1392), and investigate the spatial distribution of meteor streams along the orbit of the Earth from the 10th century to the 14th century. We see that meteors from meteor streams signalize themselves over noisy sporadic meteors, and that the seasonal activity of sporadic meteors was apparently regular. We discover the presence of a few meteor streams by analysing about 700 meteors in the Koryo period. We also compile the records of meteor showers and storms in the chronicles of Korea, Japan, China, Arab, and Europe, and compare their appearance dates with those of showers obtained above, as well as with the modern observations. We confirm that the three sets of data are in agreement with each other. The representative meteor showers are the Perseids, the Leonids, and the $\\eta$-Aquarids/Orionids pair formed by Halley's comet. The other weak or relic meteor streams are also observable but uncertain. Hence, we witness the regularity of meteor activity, which is seen to persist for a millennium.

Sang-Hyeon Ahn

2003-05-02

135

Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium" project tackles the issue of reengineering and extension of validated physics-based modeling capabilities ("legacy" computer codes) to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. While the design and architecture layouts are in terms of general particle distributions involved in scattering, impact, and reactive interactions, initial Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT) implementations are aimed at construction and evaluation of photochemical transport models with rapid execution for use in remote sensing data analysis activities in distributed systems. Current focus is on the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data acquired during the CASSINI flyby of Jupiter. Overall, the project has stayed on the development track outlined in the Year 1 annual report and most Year 2 goals have been met. The issues that have required the most attention are: implementation of the core photochemistry algorithms; implementation of a functional Java Graphical User Interface; completion of a functional CORBA Component Model framework; and assessment of performance issues. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Work to be carried out in the next year center on: completion of testing of the initial operational implementation; its application to analysis of the CASSINI/CIRS Jovian flyby data; extension of the PPMT to incorporate additional phenomenology algorithms; and delivery of a mature operational implementation.

Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott

2001-01-01

136

Effects of Personality on Conflict Resolution in Student Teams: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports results of a study of the effects of five personality dimensions on conflict resolution preferences in student teams. Two hundred and sixteen students provided self-reports of personality dimensions and conflict styles using the Neo-FFI and ROCI-II scales. Simultaneous effects of five personality dimensions on five conflict…

Forrester, William R; Tashchian, Armen

2013-01-01

137

The relationship between critical thinking, personality type, and performance on the Objective Structured Clinical Examination of senior medical students at Meharry Medical College  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to investigate the relationship between critical thinking, personality style, and performance on the Objective Structured Clinical Examination of senior medical students at Meharry Medical College. Demographic information was gathered from the Admissions and Records Department at Meharry Medical College. The results of Myers Briggs Personality Evaluation were utilized to identify student personality

Ethel Mai Robertson

2001-01-01

138

Identifying with fictive characters: structural brain correlates of the personality trait 'fantasy'.  

PubMed

The perception of oneself as absorbed in the thoughts, feelings and happenings of a fictive character (e.g. in a novel or film) as if the character's experiences were one's own is referred to as identification. We investigated whether individual variation in the personality trait of identification is associated with individual variation in the structure of specific brain regions, using surface and volume-based morphometry. The hypothesized regions of interest were selected on the basis of their functional role in subserving the cognitive processing domains considered important for identification (i.e. mental imagery, empathy, theory of mind and merging) and for the immersive experience called 'presence'. Controlling for age, sex, whole-brain volume and other traits, identification covaried significantly with the left hippocampal volume, cortical thickness in the right anterior insula and the left dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and with gray matter volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings show that trait identification is associated with structural variation in specific brain regions. The findings are discussed in relation to the potential functional contribution of these regions to identification. PMID:24464847

Cheetham, Marcus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jancke, Lutz

2014-11-01

139

Towards Structural Systems Pharmacology to Study Complex Diseases and Personalized Medicine  

PubMed Central

Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS), whole genome sequencing, and high-throughput omics techniques have generated vast amounts of genotypic and molecular phenotypic data. However, these data have not yet been fully explored to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of drug discovery, which continues along a one-drug-one-target-one-disease paradigm. As a partial consequence, both the cost to launch a new drug and the attrition rate are increasing. Systems pharmacology and pharmacogenomics are emerging to exploit the available data and potentially reverse this trend, but, as we argue here, more is needed. To understand the impact of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors on drug action, we must study the structural energetics and dynamics of molecular interactions in the context of the whole human genome and interactome. Such an approach requires an integrative modeling framework for drug action that leverages advances in data-driven statistical modeling and mechanism-based multiscale modeling and transforms heterogeneous data from GWAS, high-throughput sequencing, structural genomics, functional genomics, and chemical genomics into unified knowledge. This is not a small task, but, as reviewed here, progress is being made towards the final goal of personalized medicines for the treatment of complex diseases. PMID:24830652

Xie, Lei; Ge, Xiaoxia; Tan, Hepan; Xie, Li; Zhang, Yinliang; Hart, Thomas; Yang, Xiaowei; Bourne, Philip E.

2014-01-01

140

Factor Structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI): Findings from a Large Incarcerated Sample  

PubMed Central

Recent exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld, 1990) with a community sample suggested that the PPI subscales may be comprised of two higher-order factors (Benning et al., 2003). However, little research has examined the PPI structure in offenders. The current study attempted to replicate the Benning et al. two-factor solution using a large (N=1224) incarcerated male sample. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of this model with the full sample resulted in poor model fit. Next, to identify a factor solution that would summarize the offender data, EFA was conducted using a split-half of the total sample, followed by an attempt to replicate the EFA solution via CFA with the other split-half sample. Using the recommendations of Prooijen and van der Kloot (2001) for recovering EFA solutions, model fit results provided some evidence that the EFA solution could be recovered via CFA. However, this model involved extensive cross-loadings of the subscales across three factors, suggesting item overlap across PPI subscales. In sum, the two-factor solution reported by Benning et al. (2003) was not a viable model for the current sample of offenders, and additional research is needed to elucidate the latent structure of the PPI. PMID:18557694

Neumann, Craig S.; Malterer, Melanie B.; Newman, Joseph P.

2010-01-01

141

77 FR 53917 - Notice of the September 13, 2012, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION [MCC FR 12-09] Notice of the September 13...Secretary via email at corporatesecretary@mcc.gov or by telephone at (202) 521-3600...the Millennium Challenge Corporation (``MCC'') will hold a meeting to discuss...

2012-09-04

142

76 FR 74077 - Notice of the December 15, 2011, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION [MCC FR 11-13] Notice of the December 15...Secretary via email at Corporatesecretary@mcc.gov or by telephone at (202) 521-3600...the Millennium Challenge Corporation (``MCC'') will hold a meeting to discuss...

2011-11-30

143

77 FR 75198 - Notice of the December 19, 2012, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION [MCC FR 12-12] Notice of the December 19...Secretary via email at Corporatesecretary@mcc.gov or by telephone at (202) 521-3600...the Millennium Challenge Corporation (``MCC'') will hold a meeting to discuss...

2012-12-19

144

Personality structure in brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella): comparisons with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).  

PubMed

Species comparisons of personality structure (i.e., how many personality dimensions and the characteristics of those dimensions) can facilitate questions about the adaptive function of personality in nonhuman primates. Here we investigate personality structure in the brown capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella), a New World primate species, and compare this structure to those of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Brown capuchins evolved behavioral and cognitive traits that are qualitatively similar to those of great apes, and individual differences in behavior and cognition often reflect differences in personality. Thus, we hypothesized that brown capuchin personality structure would overlap more with great apes than with rhesus macaques. We obtained personality ratings from seven sites, including 127 brown capuchin monkeys. Principal-components analysis identified five personality dimensions (Assertiveness, Openness, Neuroticism, Sociability, and Attentiveness), which were reliable across raters and, in a subset of subjects, significantly correlated with relevant behaviors up to a year later. Comparisons between species revealed that brown capuchins and great apes overlapped in personality structure, particularly chimpanzees in the case of Neuroticism. However, in some respects (i.e., capuchin Sociability and Openness) the similarities between capuchins and great apes were not significantly greater than those between capuchins and rhesus macaques. We discuss the relevance of our results to brown capuchin behavior and the evolution of personality structure in primates. PMID:23668695

Morton, F Blake; Lee, Phyllis C; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Brosnan, Sarah F; Thierry, Bernard; Paukner, Annika; de Waal, Frans B M; Widness, Jane; Essler, Jennifer L; Weiss, Alexander

2013-08-01

145

Converging Evidence for the Latent Structure of Antisocial Personality DisorderConsistency of Taxometric and Latent Class Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The latent structure of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy has been examined using both Meehl's taxometric method and other latent variable models, yielding results that have not been entirely consistent. However, in each instance, researchers used independent data sets for their analyses, obscuring whether the inconsistent findings resulted from the analytic method or from the study's methodology and data.

David K. Marcus; John Ruscio; Scott O. Lilienfeld; Kathleen T. Hughes

2008-01-01

146

Structural Relations of Personal and Collective Self-Esteem to Subjective Well-Being: Attachment as Moderator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model indicating that the relationship between collective self-esteem and indicators of subjective well-being, happiness and life satisfaction, was mediated by personal self-esteem was tested by structural equation modeling. The model, including all participants, fitted well to the data. The results suggested that the relationship of collective…

Simsek, Omer Faruk

2013-01-01

147

Sampling to Reduce Respondent Burden in Personal Network Studies and Its Effect on Estimates of Structural Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, researchers have been increasingly interested in collecting personal network data. Collecting this type of data is particularly burdensome on the respondents, who need to elicit the names of alters, answer questions about each alter (network composition), and evaluate the strength of possible relationships among the named alters (network structure). In line with the research of McCarty et al., the

Daniela Golinelli; Gery Ryan; Harold D. Green; David P. Kennedy; Joan S. Tucker; Suzanne L. Wenzel

2010-01-01

148

Circumplex Structure and Personality Disorder Correlates of the Interpersonal Problems Model (IIP-C): Construct Validity and Clinical Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the construct validity of the circumplex model of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-C) in Norwegian clinical and nonclinical samples. Structure was examined by evaluating the fit of the circumplex model to data obtained by the IIP-C. Observer-rated personality disorder criteria (DSM-IV, Axis II) were used as external…

Monsen, Jon T.; Hagtvet, Knut A.; Havik, Odd E.; Eilertsen, Dag E.

2006-01-01

149

Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for Ukraine.…

Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

2012-01-01

150

Interpersonal Perceptions of the Five-Factor Model of Personality: An Examination Using the Structural Summary Method for Circumplex Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research investigating the structural convergence of the Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC; Wiggins, 1979, 1995) with the Five Factor Model (FFM; Costa & McCrae, 1992) of personality has predominantly focused on the traits of Agreeableness and Extraversion. The characteristics of the other three FFM traits: Neuroticism, Openness, and Conscientiousness…

Ansell, Emily B.; Pincus, Aaron L.

2004-01-01

151

Millennium development goals and child undernutrition.  

PubMed

Reduction in prevalence of underweight children (under five years of age) has been included as an indicator for one of the targets to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (Goal 1) of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The most recent MDG report of 2012 indicates that the target of reducing extreme poverty by half has been reached five years ahead of the 2015 deadline but close to one third of children in Southern Asia were underweight. In India, at the historical rate of decline the proportion of underweight children below 3 years, required to be reduced to 26% by 2015, is expected to come down only to about 33%. With barely 3 years left for achieving MDGs, the level of commitment to reduce child undernutrition needs to be gauged and effectiveness of current strategies and programmes ought to be reviewed. Undernutrition in children is not affected by food intake alone; it is also influenced by access to health services, quality of care for the child and pregnant mother as well as good hygiene practices. Would the scenario be different if child undernutrition was a part of Goal 4 of MDGs? What difference it would have made in terms of strategies and programmes if reduction in undernutrition in children underfive was a target instead of an indicator? It is time for nutrition to be placed higher on the development agenda. A number of simple, cost-effective measures to reduce undernutrition in the critical period from conception to two years after birth are available. There is a need for choosing nutrition strategies relevant in Indian context. Experiences from other countries should lead India toward innovative nutritional strategies to reduce underfive undernutrition in the country- that too on a fast track. PMID:23778725

Patwari, A K

2013-05-01

152

New Space Industries for the Next Millennium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New Space Industries For the Next Millennium is a final report of the findings from the New Space Industries Workshop held in Washington, DC, in February 1998. The primary purpose of this workshop was to identify what must be done to develop new markets, and to generate plans, milestones and new organizational relationships designed to facilitate the goal of space development. This document provides a summary report on the results of that workshop and is not intended as a statement of NASA or government policy. Previous studies had shown great potential for the development of new markets in space (e.g., travel and entertainment, space solar power, satellite and space transfer services, research and development in space, space manufacturing, and space resources), and a great need for coordination and formation of infrastructures (e.g., space transportation, space business parks, and space utilities), to facilitate the growth of new space businesses. The New Space Industries Workshop brought together government, academia, and industry participants from several previous studies and other professionals interested in the development of space for commercial purposes. Their participation provided input into the role of government and industry in space development as well as the technology needs that will enable space development. The opening of the frontier of space, not just to government missions but to private individuals and commercial business, is a challenge of overarching importance. It is our hope that the workshop and this final report continue in earnest the process of identifying and overcoming the barriers to large-scale public access and development of space in the early years of the next century.

Smitherman, D. V., Jr. (Compiler)

1998-01-01

153

Child health in the new millennium.  

PubMed

In today's modern, industrialized and affluent countries, like Japan and Australia, better living conditions and hygiene, plentiful nutritious food and rapid advances in biology and medical technologies have helped to bring about dramatic improvements in child health. The previous heavy burdens of infections and undernutrition have been eliminated or can now be controlled or effectively treated. In these countries, child health standards are higher than ever and expectation of life at birth is much higher than in the past. Some of the technological advances that have helped bring about this transformation are immunization, antimicrobial therapy, successful treatment of childhood leukemias, transplantation of vital organs and implementation of genetic diagnosis and gene therapy. The use of genetically modified foods and the prospects for cloning of humans are areas of intense interest and controversy. However, these advances have their disadvantages (e.g. antibiotic-induced drug resistance). Urbanization has encouraged the 'westernization' of dietary patterns and the long-term 'lifestyle diseases' that can follow in adults. Accidents, violence and drug abuse are major problems in many parts of the world. Changes in attitudes to sexuality and the spread of HIV/AIDS is another major problem, especially in Africa and Asia. Environmental pollution and the degradation of agricultural lands, rivers and seas are also important. Ironically, standards of child health and the prospects for long life in countries like Japan are better than ever before, but social and environmental changes are presenting children and their carers with new and unanswered challenges as we enter the 21 st century and the new millennium. PMID:11059531

Gracey, M

2000-10-01

154

HIV and the Millennium Development Goals.  

PubMed

Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6 has two HIV/AIDS commitments: to have halted and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015 and to ensure access to treatment among all those in need by 2010. Given the almost universal lack of access to HIV testing, prevention and treatment for children in high prevalence countries in 2000, the achievements of the past 15?years have been extraordinary, fuelled by massive donor investment, strong political commitment and ambitious global targets; however, MDG 6 is some way from being attained. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services have expanded enormously, with new infections among children falling by 58% between 2002 and 2013. There has been a shift towards initiation of lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for pregnant and breastfeeding women, although low HIV testing rates in pregnancy, suboptimal PMTCT coverage and poor retention in care remain barriers to achieving HIV elimination among children. Early infant diagnosis has expanded substantially but, in 2013, only 44% of all HIV-exposed infants were tested before 2?months of age. Diagnosis of HIV, therefore, frequently occurs late, leading to delays in ART initiation. By the end of 2013, approximately 760?000 children were receiving ART, leading to 40% decline in AIDS-related mortality. However, only 24% of HIV-infected children were receiving ART, compared with 36% of adults, leading to a 'treatment gap'. In this review, we summarise progress and remaining challenges in reaching MDG 6 and discuss future strategies to achieve the ambitious goals of paediatric HIV elimination and universal access to treatment. PMID:25613968

Prendergast, Andrew J; Essajee, Shaffiq; Penazzato, Martina

2015-02-01

155

The personal disturbance scale (DSSI\\/sAD): Development, use and structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second in a series of three articles reviewing and reassessing Foulds' theoretical conceptions of personality disturbance and personal illness and the scales that were developed to assess them. In this report we review the theoretical development of DSSI\\/sAD (Delusions-Symptoms-States Inventory\\/states of Anxiety and Depression, otherwise known as the Personal Disturbance Scale) and describe how it fits into

Alan Bedford; Ian J. Deary

1997-01-01

156

Kids and Media at the New Millennium: A Comprehensive National Analysis of  

E-print Network

Chart 20 Kids and Media at the New Millennium: A Comprehensive National Analysis of Children: minutes. All Children Source: Kids & Media at the New Millennium, Kaiser Family Foundation, November 1999 includes amount of time children are read to. Source: Kids & Media at the New Millennium, Kaiser Family

Cassell, Justine

157

Integrating normal and abnormal personality structure: the Five-Factor Model.  

PubMed

It is evident that the conceptualization, diagnosis, and classification of personality disorder (PD) is shifting toward a dimensional model. The purpose of this special issue of Journal of Personality is to indicate how the Five-Factor Model (FFM) can provide a useful and meaningful basis for an integration of the description and classification of both normal and abnormal personality functioning. This introductory article discusses its empirical support and the potential advantages of understanding personality disorders, including those included within the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and likely future PDs from the dimensional perspective of the FFM. PMID:22320149

Widiger, Thomas A; Costa, Paul T

2012-12-01

158

A comparative study of Zuckerman's three structural models for personality through the NEO-PI-R, ZKPQ-III-R, EPQ-RS and Goldberg's 50-bipolar adjectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to explore the inter-relationships of the personality inventories NEO-PI-R, ZKPQ-III-R and EPQ-RS, within the framework of the structural models of 3, 4 and 5 factors proposed by Zuckerman, Kuhlman, Teta, Joireman, and Kraft [(1993). A comparison of three structural models of personality: the Big Three, the Big Five, and the alternate Five. Journal of Personality and

Anton Aluja; Óscar Garc??a; Luis F. Garc??a

2002-01-01

159

``Thermal'' and ``superthermal'' two-class structure of the personal income distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Ref. [1] we proposed an analogy between the thermal Boltzmann-Gibbs probability distribution of energy in physics and the probability distribution of money in economics in statistical equilibrium. In Ref. [2] we find that the probability distribution of personal income in the USA has a well-defined two-class structure. The majority of population (97-99%) belongs to the lower class characterized by the exponential Boltzmann-Gibbs (``thermal'') distribution, whereas the upper class (1-3% of population) has a Pareto power-law (``superthermal'') distribution. By analyzing the income data for 1983--2001 from IRS, we show that the ``thermal'' part is stationary in time, save for a gradual increase of the effective temperature, whereas the nonequilibrium ``superthermal'' tail swells and shrinks following the stock market. We discuss the concept of equilibrium inequality in a society, based on the principle of maximal entropy, and quantitatively show that it applies to the majority of the US population. [] [1] A. Dragulescu and V. M. Yakovenko, ``Statistical mechanics of money'', Eur. Phys. J. B 17, 723--729 (2000). [cond-mat/0001432] [] [2] A. C. Silva and V. M. Yakovenko, ``Temporal evolution of the `thermal' and `superthermal' income classes in the USA during 1983--2001'', accepted to Europhysics Letters. [cond- mat/0406385

Yakovenko, Victor

2005-03-01

160

Personality Assessment Inventory internalizing and externalizing structure in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: associations with aggression.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n?=?433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n?=?165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n's?=?299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges. PMID:25131806

Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Paul A; Elbogen, Eric B; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S

2014-01-01

161

The Structure of Personality in Australian as Compared with English Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 336 male and 318 female Australian adults was administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (E.P.Q.), and the items were intercorrelated and factor analyzed. Results were compared with the results obtained from an English sample of 2312 males and 3262 females, using indices of factor comparison. Identical factors corresponding to the major personality dimensions of Psychoticism (P), Extraversion (E),

S. B. G. Eysenck; N. Humphery; H. J. Eysenck

1980-01-01

162

Radiology system evolution in the new millennium.  

PubMed

For many decades the practice of radiology grew slowly in America and was largely a secondary function under the control of hospitals. In more recent times it has vastly expanded its array of diagnostic, interventional, and therapeutic abilities. There is increasing consumer logic for direct access. Motivations have grown to create large independent entities with broadly diverse capabilities in order to succeed in the new millennium. Most regional markets are evolving rapidly in terms of managed care penetration, health system formation, physician practice consolidation and aggressive purchaser behavior by employers and consumers. To understand the enormity of healthcare evolution, it is useful to look at the industry's paradigm shifts in recent decades. Virtually every aspect of organizational infrastructure, delivery approaches, and the business environment has evolved markedly during the past fifty years. These changes will accelerate. To succeed financially, radiology groups must strengthen their market positions, technical capabilities, continuums of care and geographic dominance. Equally important is the wisdom of diversifying incomes into related services and businesses that provide additional related revenues. Key factors for successful development include facility market growth, full coverage of managed care contracts, high efficiency and aggressive diversification. A fully evolved system generates significant revenues and profitability by protecting and strengthening its financial position in this environment. That is accomplished through the development of strategically located radiology groups, aggressive alliances with medical practices in allied disciplines, and managed radiology departments and facilities for partner health systems. Organizational success ultimately depends on the ability to accept capitated payments under risk-bearing arrangements. The strategic business plan should be organized with the appropriate levels of detail needed to establish executive focus and priorities. These should be woven into operational and capital budgets to reflect expectations of the revenues, expenses and investments tied to the plan. While formidable, all of these objectives are realistic and can be accomplished if the right decisions are made. Initially, the entity's principle business objective is to formulate and begin implementation of methodical yet aggressive strategies for growth that are sensitive to sustaining high levels of quality patient care. The next phase features mergers with large, independent radiology practices in key geographic areas and successful acquisition of smaller practices. The objective of the final phase is to aggressively expand into select metropolitan areas with regional coverage and full teleradiology capabilities. High levels of market strength and financial performance are necessary to succeed. Passive limitations to small geographic areas and narrow practices will undermine their market position and dissolve financial strength with no hope of recovery. Only the dominant systems will survive and prosper. PMID:11499080

Nauert, R C

2001-01-01

163

The Neo Personality Inventory-Revised: Factor Structure and Gender Invariance from Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in a High-Stakes Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents new analyses of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) responses collected from a large British sample in a high-stakes setting. The authors show the appropriateness of the five-factor model underpinning these responses in a variety of new ways. Using the recently developed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM)…

Furnham, Adrian; Guenole, Nigel; Levine, Stephen Z.; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

2013-01-01

164

At the Threshold of the Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume of essays was written as a tribute to the ideals of Phi Delta Kappa and to the fraternity's retiring executive director, Lowell C. Rose, who led the international professional fraternity in education from 1971 to 1995. Each contributor was invited to reflect on his or her personal experiences in education and life and to speculate on…

Walling, Donovan R., Ed.

165

Notes from Girl X: Anne Frank at the Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers if Anne Frank's diary is still viable or if it has been too far removed from its original author or its original context. Concludes that the book "Anne Frank and Me" offers historical accuracies about the Holocaust while placing its readers squarely at the millennium. (SG)

Levitsky, Holli

2002-01-01

166

ProjectofChange AstudyoftheUnitedNationsMillenniumDevelopmentGoals  

E-print Network

· School of Social Sciences Project of Change A Study of the U.N. Millennium Development Goals 1 #12;GLOBALSCOPE PUBLICATIONS University of California, Irvine · School of Social Sciences All rights reserved created by the University of California Irvine's School of Social Sciences for secondary school educators

Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

167

Millennium Development Goals for Honduras: current achievements and forthcoming challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress on many Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Honduras lags behind other countries in Latin America, and, if current trends continue, none of the MDGs are likely to be reached by 2015. Using a dynamic general equilibrium model extended to include explicit 'production functions' for MDGs (the MAMS model), a baseline scenario is contrasted with several alternative scenarios. The

Maurizio Bussolo; Denis Medvedev

168

Paperless in the Electronic Era: Millennium Dream and Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this third millennium, the world is undergoing a revolution where technologies are being introduced almost daily. Until now, paperless has been a long dream of every organization and individual, which never became a reality. We unveil all available technologies covering the communication, storage device, and retrieval methodologies toward paperless activities. We view this from the perspective of the provider

Azmi Mohd Yusoff; Manjit Singh Sidhu

2001-01-01

169

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act and Other Egregious Laws.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act, providing increased protection against unauthorized access to copyrighted electronic media, and the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, extending the term of most copyrighted books, unduly burden users of electronic media and books. Discusses the negative impact of recent federal laws to…

Van Horn, Royal

2002-01-01

170

Encyclopedia of computational neuroscience: The end of the second millennium  

E-print Network

1 Encyclopedia of computational neuroscience: The end of the second millennium ROMAN BORISYUK under the same cover a brilliant and nicely illustrated introduction into neuroanatomy/neurophysiology and an encyclopedia of mathematical/computational models in neuroscience. The book contains two chapters: I) Three

Borisyuk, Roman

171

Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter features innovations in resource management and information technology to support New York State government. The newsletter contains the following six sections: (1) "Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium" -- examining the need for government involvement in electronic commerce policy and partnership; (2)…

Maxwell, Terrence A., Ed.

1998-01-01

172

Skills for the New Millennium. Paper Presentations: Session G.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 14 papers from the skills for the new millennium section of an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Research on Vocational Education and Training as a Field for Knowledge Development--Starting Points for the…

2000

173

Parallel Computing to Start the Millennium Computer Science  

E-print Network

Parallel Computing to Start the Millennium Joel Adams Computer Science Calvin College Grand Rapids, MI 49546 adams@calvin.edu Chris Nevison Computer Science Colgate University Hamilton, NY 13346 chris high-powered, state-of-the-art parallel machines, the UFE workshops tended to suggest low cost

Adams, Joel

174

Where Are You Going in the Next Millennium?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public education should no longer reflect agricultural or industrial era learning modes. Third-millennium administrators must recognize certain societal trends: the "net generation" of students, predominance of technology, electronic schools, the information deluge and the democratization of information, the age of convenience and flexibility, and…

Hay, LeRoy E.

1999-01-01

175

Vocational education: challenges for hospitality management in the new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puts forward the author’s view of key issues affecting hospitality education into the new millennium. Issues identified as particularly impacting on UK centres are graduate standards, quality and quality assessment, research assessment, key skills and learning and teaching including the impact of information technology. Amongst these issues, information technology is identified as having the greatest potential impact to bring about

Mike Rimmington

1999-01-01

176

Themed flagship brand stores in the new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flagship brand store is an increasingly popular venue used by marketers to build relationships with consumers. As we move further into an experience economy in the new millennium, retailers are refining the flagship brand store into new forms such as the themed retail brand store. This new form not only promotes a more engaging experience of the brand’s essence

Robert V. Kozinets; John F. Sherry; Benet DeBerry-Spence; Adam Duhachek; Krittinee Nuttavuthisit; Diana Storm

2002-01-01

177

The Lagoon at Caroline/Millennium Atoll, Republic of Kiribati: Natural History of a Nearly Pristine Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

A series of surveys were carried out to characterize the physical and biological parameters of the Millennium Atoll lagoon during a research expedition in April of 2009. Millennium is a remote coral atoll in the Central Pacific belonging to the Republic of Kiribati, and a member of the Southern Line Islands chain. The atoll is among the few remaining coral reef ecosystems that are relatively pristine. The lagoon is highly enclosed, and was characterized by reticulate patch and line reefs throughout the center of the lagoon as well as perimeter reefs around the rim of the atoll. The depth reached a maximum of 33.3 m in the central region of the lagoon, and averaged between 8.8 and 13.7 m in most of the pools. The deepest areas were found to harbor large platforms of Favia matthaii, which presumably provided a base upon which the dominant corals (Acropora spp.) grew to form the reticulate reef structure. The benthic algal communities consisted mainly of crustose coralline algae (CCA), microfilamentous turf algae and isolated patches of Halimeda spp. and Caulerpa spp. Fish species richness in the lagoon was half of that observed on the adjacent fore reef. The lagoon is likely an important nursery habitat for a number of important fisheries species including the blacktip reef shark and Napoleon wrasse, which are heavily exploited elsewhere around the world but were common in the lagoon at Millennium. The lagoon also supports an abundance of giant clams (Tridacna maxima). Millennium lagoon provides an excellent reference of a relatively undisturbed coral atoll. As with most coral reefs around the world, the lagoon communities of Millennium may be threatened by climate change and associated warming, acidification and sea level rise, as well as sporadic local resource exploitation which is difficult to monitor and enforce because of the atoll's remote location. While the remote nature of Millennium has allowed it to remain one of the few nearly pristine coral reef ecosystems in the world, it is imperative that this ecosystem receives protection so that it may survive for future generations. PMID:20539746

Barott, Katie L.; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Maragos, James E.; Obura, David; Rohwer, Forest L.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Zgliczynski, Brian

2010-01-01

178

Personality-dependent dispersal: characterization, ontogeny and consequences for spatially structured populations  

PubMed Central

Dispersal is one of the most fundamental components of ecology, and affects processes as diverse as population growth, metapopulation dynamics, gene flow and adaptation. Although the act of moving from one habitat to another entails major costs to the disperser, empirical and theoretical studies suggest that these costs can be reduced by having morphological, physiological or behavioural specializations for dispersal. A few recent studies on different systems showed that individuals exhibit personality-dependent dispersal, meaning that dispersal tendency is associated with boldness, sociability or aggressiveness. Indeed, in several species, dispersers not only develop behavioural differences at the onset of dispersal, but display these behavioural characteristics through their life cycle. While personality-dependent dispersal has been demonstrated in only a few species, we believe that it is a widespread phenomenon with important ecological consequences. Here, we review the evidence for behavioural differences between dispersers and residents, to what extent they constitute personalities. We also examine how a link between personality traits and dispersal behaviours can be produced and how personality-dependent dispersal affects the dynamics of metapopulations and biological invasions. Finally, we suggest future research directions for population biologists, behavioural ecologists and conservation biologists such as how the direction and the strength of the relationship between personality traits and dispersal vary with ecological contexts. PMID:21078658

Cote, J.; Clobert, J.; Brodin, T.; Fogarty, S.; Sih, A.

2010-01-01

179

Adolf Hitler's Parkinson's disease and an attempt to analyse his personality structure.  

PubMed

It has been proved that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic Parkinson's disease. No indication for postencephalitic parkinsonism was found in the clinical symptoms or the case history. Professor Max de Crinis established his diagnosis of Parkinson's disease in Hitler early in 1945 and informed the SS leadership, who decided to initiate treatment with a specially prepared 'antiparkinsonian mixture' to be administered by a physician. However, Hitler never received the mixture, this implies that the SS intended to remove the severely diseased 'Leader'. Two different character traits can be analysed in Hitler's personality: on the one hand the typical premorbid personality of parkinsonian patients with uncorrectable mental rigidity, extreme inflexibility and insupportable pedantry. On the other an antisocial personality disorder with lack of ethical and social values, a deeply rooted tendency to betray others and to deceive himself and uncontrollable emotional reactions. This special combination in Hitler's personality resulted in the uncritical conviction of his mission and an enormous driving for recognition. The neuropsychiatric analysis of Hitler's personality could lead to a better explanation of the pathological traits of one of the most conspicuous historical personalities. PMID:10053222

Gerstenbrand, F; Karamat, E

1999-03-01

180

The impact of structured risk assessments followed by management recommendations on aggression in patients with personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the proposition that structured risk assessments followed immediately by the risk assessment results and recommendations for management can reduce the frequency of aggression in high-risk personality-disordered patients. The study included three phases during which aggressive behaviour was recorded: (a) baseline, (b) daily risk assessment using the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression (DASA) and HCR-20 Clinical Scale, and

Michael Daffern; Kevin Howells; Laura Hamilton; Aisling Mannion; Richard Howard; Mary Lilly

2009-01-01

181

A latent structure analysis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Narcissistic Personality Disorder criteria.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the latent structure of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) criteria in a group of 641 outpatients. The consecutively admitted outpatients were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders, Version 2.0, and the Personality Questionnaire. Both confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses (CFA and EFA, respectively) were used to evaluate whether the NPD criteria measure a single latent trait. Latent class analysis was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the individual DSM-IV NPD criteria. Mean above minus below a cut (MAMBAC) and maximum covariance (MAXCOV) taxometric analyses were used to evaluate whether the latent distribution of the DSM-IV NPD features is actually discrete. Both CFA and EFA results showed that the 9 DSM-IV NPD criteria loaded on 2 correlated factors. The latent class analysis results suggested a 3-class solution for NPD criteria; relevant differences in diagnostic efficiency were observed among the NPD criteria. MAMBAC and MAXCOV analyses provided consistent evidence of taxonic (ie, discrete) latent structure for NPD. This study gave only partial support to the validity of the DSM-IV NPD construct. Taxometric analyses indicated that a typological model is appropriate for describing NPD, but CFA and EFA suggested the existence of 2 distinct-albeit correlated-clusters of narcissistic features. As a whole, the DSM-IV criteria discriminated NPD from other personality disorders, but diagnostic accuracy statistics did not replicate the rank order of diagnostic efficiency of NPD criteria proposed by the DSM-IV. PMID:16122536

Fossati, Andrea; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Grazioli, Federica; Carretta, Ilaria; Cortinovis, Francesca; Maffei, Cesare

2005-01-01

182

Relating the Tellegen and five-factor models of personality structure.  

PubMed

With 575 college students, the relationship between A. Tellegen's (1985) personality model, assessed with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), and the Big Five model, operationalized by Costa and McCrae's (1985) NEO Personality Inventory, was investigated. Correlations and joint factor analyses indicated that the MPQ constructs could be well-organized under the Big Five model, and the NEO constructs could be well-organized under the Tellegen higher-order dimensions (plus Absorption). Tellegen's higher-order dimensions relate to components of the Big Five hierarchically: Negative Emotionality encompasses Big Five Neuroticism and Agreeableness, Positive Emotionality encompasses Extraversion and the surgent aspect of Conscientiousness, and Constraint encompasses the controlled aspect of Conscientiousness and much of Openness to Experience. PMID:7983581

Church, A T

1994-11-01

183

Assessing the Universal Structure of Personality in Early Adolescence: The NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years from 24 cultures. Replacement…

De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

2009-01-01

184

Brief report: structure of personal narratives of adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Young adults with High Functioning Autism and a matched comparison group told personal narratives using a standard conversational procedure. Longest narratives were determined (i.e., number of propositions included) and scored using an analysis that looks at the organization of a narrative around a highpoint. The group with Autism Spectrum Disorder produced narratives with significantly poorer HP macrostructure and introduced proportionately fewer propositions with conjunctions. Such impairments in the ability to make sense of personal experiences both reflect and contribute to difficulty in social-emotional functioning. PMID:22767138

McCabe, Allyssa; Hillier, Ashleigh; Shapiro, Claudia

2013-03-01

185

Personality Traits and General Intelligence as Predictors of Academic Performance: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, after controlling for general intelligence, predict academic performance in different school subjects. Upper secondary school students in Sweden (N=315) completed the Wonderlic IQ test (Wonderlic, 1992) and the IPIP-NEO-PI test (Goldberg, 1999). A series of…

Rosander, Pia; Backstrom, Martin; Stenberg, Georg

2011-01-01

186

Brief Report: Structure of Personal Narratives of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adults with High Functioning Autism and a matched comparison group told personal narratives using a standard conversational procedure. Longest narratives were determined (i.e., number of propositions included) and scored using an analysis that looks at the organization of a narrative around a highpoint. The group with Autism Spectrum…

McCabe, Allyssa; Hillier, Ashleigh; Shapiro, Claudia

2013-01-01

187

Brain structure in narcissistic personality disorder: a VBM and DTI pilot study.  

PubMed

We analysed T1-weighted MRI scans using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBBS) on diffusion tensor images (DTI) in narcissistic personality disorder (NaPD) patients and healthy controls. Grey matter deficits include right prefrontal and bilateral medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortices, and decreased fractional anisotropy in right frontal lobe white matter. PMID:25492857

Nenadic, Igor; Güllmar, Daniel; Dietzek, Maren; Langbein, Kerstin; Steinke, Johanna; Gaser, Christian

2015-02-28

188

Investigating the structure of semantic networks in low and high creative persons  

PubMed Central

According to Mednick's (1962) theory of individual differences in creativity, creative individuals appear to have a richer and more flexible associative network than less creative individuals. Thus, creative individuals are characterized by “flat” (broader associations) instead of “steep” (few, common associations) associational hierarchies. To study these differences, we implement a novel computational approach to the study of semantic networks, through the analysis of free associations. The core notion of our method is that concepts in the network are related to each other by their association correlations—overlap of similar associative responses (“association clouds”). We began by collecting a large sample of participants who underwent several creativity measurements and used a decision tree approach to divide the sample into low and high creative groups. Next, each group underwent a free association generation paradigm which allowed us to construct and analyze the semantic networks of both groups. Comparison of the semantic memory networks of persons with low creative ability and persons with high creative ability revealed differences between the two networks. The semantic memory network of persons with low creative ability seems to be more rigid, compared to the network of persons with high creative ability, in the sense that it is more spread out and breaks apart into more sub-parts. We discuss how our findings are in accord and extend Mednick's (1962) theory and the feasibility of using network science paradigms to investigate high level cognition. PMID:24959129

Kenett, Yoed N.; Anaki, David; Faust, Miriam

2014-01-01

189

The Effects of Structured Team Meetings and Performance Feedback on Person-Centered Planning Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The period of transition from high school is challenging for most adolescents. There are a substantial number of life-changing decisions that transpire during this time. Choices must be made regarding career paths, continued education, future residence, and avenues for social activities and general integration in the community. Person-centered…

Vatland, Christopher H.

2012-01-01

190

Internal Consistency and Factor Structure of Personality Disorders in a Forensic Intellectual Disability Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The publication of the DSM-III (American Psychiatric Association (APA), 1980) prompted a significant increase in interest and research on personality disorder (PD), and the concept has subsequently been incorporated into mental health legislation in the developed world. Despite this, such research on people with intellectual disability…

Lindsay, William R.; Steptoe, Lesley; Hogue, Todd E.; Taylor, John L.; Mooney, Paul; Haut, Fabian; Johnston, Susan; O'Brien, Gregory

2007-01-01

191

The DAPP-BQ in The Netherlands: factor structure and relationship with basic personality dimensions.  

PubMed

After discarding eight items in the Dutch translation of Livesley's DAPP-BQ that showed item-total correlations < 0.20 in a sample of 223 normal subjects. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were calculated for the remaining items in the 18 scales of this instrument. The 'Dutch' alpha coefficients proved to be satisfactory. Furthermore, the Dutch DAPP-BQ scales were factor analyzed, retaining four factors. Three of these factors proved to be identical (Emotional Dysregulation and Dissocial) or nearly identical (Compulsivity) to the Canadian factors. However, the original factor Inhibition was not the same as the remaining Dutch factor Intimacy Problems. In a sample of 115 students, the estimated scores for the Dutch Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) factors were correlated with the scales of Van Kampen's Four-Dimensional Personality Test. As expected, Emotional Dysregulation was found to correlate with Neuroticism, Dissocial with Insensitivity, and Compulsivity with Orderliness. The Intimacy Problems factor proved to be negatively correlated with Extraversion. The results obtained are embedded in the context of the evidence favoring a dimensional model of personality disorder. Furthermore, Livesley's proposal that separate diagnostic criteria for the existence of a personality disorder must be formulated to supplement the assessment by means of the DAPP-BQ is critically discussed. PMID:12136680

van Kampen, Dirk

2002-06-01

192

A fractional-order model for MINMOD Millennium.  

PubMed

MINMOD Millennium has been widely used to estimate insulin sensitivity (SI) in glucose-insulin dynamics. In order to explain the rheological behavior of glucose-insulin we attempt to modify MINMOD Millennium with fractional-order differentiation of order ? ? (0, 1]. We show that the new modified model has non-negative, bounded solutions and a stable equilibrium point. Quasi-optimal fractional orders and parameters are estimated by using a nonlinear weighted least-squares method, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, and the fractional Adams-Bashforth-Moulton method for several subjects (normal subjects and type 2 diabetic patients). The numerical results confirm that SI is significantly lower in diabetics than in non-diabetics. In addition, we explain the new factor (?(1 - ?)) determining glucose tolerance and the relation between SI and ?(1 - ?). PMID:25645181

Cho, Yongjin; Kim, Imbunm; Sheen, Dongwoo

2015-04-01

193

Sports medicine in the new millennium: a vision for 2020.  

PubMed

Globalisation, empowerment and technological change will determine the emerging directions in sports medicine in the new millennium. Networks and alliances of scientist and clinician services, as well as electronic profiling of athletes' learning styles, genetic predisposition and other variables, will enhance the spectrum of sports medicine services. Visionary direction will require changes in the organisational paradigms employed, the communication of information to athletes and coaches and the methodologies of assessment. An emphasis on prevention science and clinical and educational interventions will require a clearer focus. The sports medicine scientist and clinician of today must utilise the endowments suggested by Covey and the multiple intelligence models advanced by Gardner in capturing the clarity of focus for sports medicine in the new millennium. PMID:10541439

Miller, T W; Kraus, R F; Adams, J; Bilyeu, J; Ogilvie, B

1999-09-01

194

Econutrition: implementation models from the Millennium Villages Project in Africa.  

PubMed

Econutrition integrates environmental health and human health, with a particular focus on the interactions among the fields of agriculture, ecology, and human nutrition. Soil loss and degradation and human undernutrition are major barriers to economic development in Africa. A primary aim of the Millennium Villages Project in Africa is to meet the Millennium Development Goals by integrated multisectoral interventions in health and nutrition, agriculture, and environmental sustainability in hunger and poverty hot spots in Africa. Econutrition is only one example of how interdisciplinary approaches are not only critical to alleviating extreme poverty but also fundamental to linking basic science understanding in multiple areas. Human health and agricultural productivity gain, and the costs of the gains are lowered, when we take the opportunity to apply different disciplines through cross-sectoral, thematically linked interventions. PMID:17209476

Deckelbaum, Richard J; Palm, Cheryl; Mutuo, Patrick; DeClerck, Fabrice

2006-12-01

195

Textualism and Democratic Legitimacy: The Moment and the Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every age, it is said, gets the savior it deserves. Who then would be recognized as a deliverer for our millennium? The answer is pretty clear. Our redeemer would have been a programmer, a cyber-savior, walking forth upon the worldwide web with a cheap fix for the so-called Year 2000 problem.\\u000aSurely it is a matter of cultural concern when

Jed Rubenfeld

1998-01-01

196

AGRICULTURE, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND THE WTO MILLENNIUM ROUND  

Microsoft Academic Search

AGRICULTURE, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES,AND THE WTO MILLENNIUM ROUNDKym AndersonThe potential welfare gains from further liberalizing agricultural markets arehuge, both absolutely and relative to gains from liberalizing textiles or othermanufacturing, according to recent GTAP modeling results. Should attempts toliberalize farm trade in the next WTO round follow the same pattern as the UruguayRound, or might a more radical approach be required to

Kym Anderson

1999-01-01

197

The prevalence and structure of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in Hispanic psychiatric outpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to confirm a multi-factor model of Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in a Hispanic outpatient sample and to explore associations of the OCPD factors with aggression, depression, and suicidal thoughts. One hundred and thirty monolingual, Spanish-speaking participants were recruited from a community mental health center and were assessed by bilingual doctoral-level clinicians. OCPD was highly prevalent (26%) in

Emily B. Ansell; Anthony Pinto; Ross D. Crosby; Daniel F. Becker; Luis M. Añez; Manuel Paris; Carlos M. Grilo

2010-01-01

198

Circuits design and nano-structured electrodes for drugs monitoring in personalized therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug development and personalized therapy require accurate and frequent monitoring of the metabolic response by living tissues to treatments. In case of high risk side effects, e.g. therapies with interfering anti-cancer molecule cocktails, direct monitoring of the patientpsilas drugs metabolism is essential as the metabolic pathways efficacy is highly variable on a patient-by-patient basis. Currently, there are no fully mature

Sandro Carrara; Andrea Cavallini; Giovanni De Micheli; V. V. Shumyantseva; A. I. Archakov; J. Olivo; L. Benini

2008-01-01

199

41 CFR 102-75.170 - What happens to the related personal property in a structure scheduled for demolition?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...demolished, any fixtures or related personal property therein may, at the...be designated for disposition as personal property where a ready disposition...possible historical or artistic value as personal property....

2010-07-01

200

A Thousand Shadows of Andromeda: Rotating Planes of Satellites in the Millennium-II Cosmological Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent contribution, Bahl & Baumgardt investigated the incidence of planar alignments of satellite galaxies in the Millennium-II simulation and concluded that vast, thin planes of dwarf galaxies, similar to that observed in the Andromeda galaxy (M31), occur frequently by chance in ?-cold dark matter cosmology. However, their analysis did not capture the essential fact that the observed alignment is simultaneously radially extended, yet thin, and kinematically unusual. With the caveat that the Millennium-II simulation may not have sufficient mass resolution to identify confidently simulacra of low-luminosity dwarf galaxies, we re-examine that simulation for planar structures, using the same method as employed by Ibata et al. on the real M31 satellites. We find that 0.04% of host galaxies display satellite alignments that are at least as extreme as the observations, when we consider their extent, thickness, and number of members rotating in the same sense. We further investigate the angular momentum properties of the co-planar satellites, and find that the median of the specific angular momentum derived from the line-of-sight velocities in the real M31 structure (1.3 × 104 km s-1 kpc) is very high compared to systems drawn from the simulations. This analysis confirms that it is highly unlikely that the observed structure around the Andromeda galaxy is due to a chance occurrence. Interestingly, the few extreme systems that are similar to M31 arise from the accretion of a massive sub-halo with its own spatially concentrated entourage of orphan satellites.

Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Ibata, Neil G.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Conn, Anthony; Elahi, Pascal; Arias, Veronica; Fernando, Nuwanthika

2014-03-01

201

Neuroimaging of structural pathology and connectomics in traumatic brain injury: Toward personalized outcome prediction  

E-print Network

Neuroimaging of structural pathology and connectomics in traumatic brain injury: Toward of knowledge on traumatic brain injury (TBI) favor the view that multimodal neu- roimaging using structural Park, NY 12065, USA d Brain Injury Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, University

Prastawa, Marcel

202

Convergent and Incremental Predictive Validity of Clinician, Self-Report, and Structured Interview Diagnoses for Personality Disorders Over Five Years  

PubMed Central

Objective Research has demonstrated poor agreement between clinician-assigned personality disorder (PD) diagnoses and those generated by self-report questionnaires and semi-structured diagnostic interviews. No research has compared prospectively the predictive validity of these methods. We investigated the convergence of these three diagnostic methods and tested their relative and incremental validity in predicting independent, multi-method assessments of psychosocial functioning performed prospectively over five years. Method Participants were 320 patients in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS) diagnosed with PDs by therapist, self-report, and semi-structured interview at baseline. We examined the relative incremental validity of therapists’ naturalistic ratings relative to these other diagnostic methods for predicting psychosocial functioning at five-year follow-up. Results Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that both the self-report questionnaire and semi-structured interview PD diagnoses had significant incremental predictive validity over the PD diagnoses assigned by a treating clinician. Although in some cases the clinicians’ ratings for individual PDs did have validity for predicting subsequent functioning, they did not generally provide incremental prediction beyond the other methods. These findings remained robust in a series of analyses restricted to a subsample of therapist ratings based on clinical contact of one year or greater. Conclusions These results from a large clinical sample echo previous research documenting limited agreement between clinicians’ naturalistic PD diagnoses and those from self-report and semi-structured interview methods. They extend prior work by providing the first evidence about the relative predictive validity of these different methods. Our findings challenge the validity of naturalistic PD diagnoses and suggest the use of structured diagnostic instruments. PMID:23647282

Samuel, Douglas B.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Shea, M. Tracie; Skodol, Andrew E.; Morey, Leslie C.; Ansell, Emily B.; Markowitz, John C.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Grilo, Carlos M.

2014-01-01

203

Examining the Impact of Gender on the Factor Structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory--Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the factor structure of psychopathy has yielded mixed results, supporting anywhere from one to three factors. Additionally, most of this research has used all-male samples, and the possibility of structural invariance across gender has not been examined. Using a mixed-gender sample of 360 undergraduates, the factor structure of the…

Anestis, Joye C.; Caron, Kelly M.; Carbonell, Joyce L.

2011-01-01

204

Social Structure-Personality: What is the Relationship Between Social Class and Child-Rearing Values  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sociologist, Melvin Kohn, argued that people's locations in social structures, particularly the occupational structure, influenced the values they would stress for their children because variations in structural locations exposed them to different experiences. His research, however, was done some time ago. Much has changed in our social world since then. Does the original relationship still hold?

Lashbrook, Jeffrey

205

The prevalence and structure of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in Hispanic psychiatric outpatients.  

PubMed

This study sought to confirm a multi-factor model of Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in a Hispanic outpatient sample and to explore associations of the OCPD factors with aggression, depression, and suicidal thoughts. One hundred and thirty monolingual, Spanish-speaking participants were recruited from a community mental health center and were assessed by bilingual doctoral-level clinicians. OCPD was highly prevalent (26%) in this sample. Multi-factor models of OCPD were tested and the two factors - perfectionism and interpersonal rigidity - provided the best model fit. Interpersonal rigidity was associated with aggression and anger while perfectionism was associated with depression and suicidal thoughts. PMID:20227063

Ansell, Emily B; Pinto, Anthony; Crosby, Ross D; Becker, Daniel F; Añez, Luis M; Paris, Manuel; Grilo, Carlos M

2010-09-01

206

Global energy for the next millennium  

SciTech Connect

Public demand for cleaner air; an ever-growing need for electricity; rising standards of living; convenience of use and reliability of supply--these are the global forces that are accelerating the demand for natural gas today, from Thailand to Brazil, and the gas industry worldwide is moving fast to meet this growing need. Changes--in the regulatory environment, physical infrastructure, and technology--are coming at an unprecedented rate. These changes in turn are exerting a strong influence on the structuring of new gas industries, and the restructuring of existing ones, around the world. The most dramatic increase in gas use, in recent years, was in the Asia-Pacific region and South America, but the expansion is virtually universal. The widespread availability of more efficient gas-fired, combined-cycle power plants are playing a major role in this expansion, but changing trends in demand, regulatory policy, infrastructure development, and technology all contribute to structural change in the industry. In the broadest sense, these are all global issues, transcending national and even regional boundaries. When one looks more closely at exactly how demand growth or regulatory change, for example, is acting as a catalyst for industry restructuring, one can still see significant regional and national differences. A brief overview of these trends is presented.

Jacobs, R.H. [Purvin and Gertz, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-05-01

207

Inter-hemispheric temperature variability over the past millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's climate system is driven by a complex interplay of internal chaotic dynamics and natural and anthropogenic external forcing. Recent instrumental data have shown a remarkable degree of asynchronicity between Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere temperature fluctuations, thereby questioning the relative importance of internal versus external drivers of past as well as future climate variability. However, large-scale temperature reconstructions for the past millennium have focused on the Northern Hemisphere, limiting empirical assessments of inter-hemispheric variability on multi-decadal to centennial timescales. Here, we introduce a new millennial ensemble reconstruction of annually resolved temperature variations for the Southern Hemisphere based on an unprecedented network of terrestrial and oceanic palaeoclimate proxy records. In conjunction with an independent Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstruction ensemble, this record reveals an extended cold period (1594-1677) in both hemispheres but no globally coherent warm phase during the pre-industrial (1000-1850) era. The current (post-1974) warm phase is the only period of the past millennium where both hemispheres are likely to have experienced contemporaneous warm extremes. Our analysis of inter-hemispheric temperature variability in an ensemble of climate model simulations for the past millennium suggests that models tend to overemphasize Northern Hemisphere-Southern Hemisphere synchronicity by underestimating the role of internal ocean-atmosphere dynamics, particularly in the ocean-dominated Southern Hemisphere. Our results imply that climate system predictability on decadal to century timescales may be lower than expected based on assessments of external climate forcing and Northern Hemisphere temperature variations alone.

Neukom, Raphael; Gergis, Joëlle; Karoly, David J.; Wanner, Heinz; Curran, Mark; Elbert, Julie; González-Rouco, Fidel; Linsley, Braddock K.; Moy, Andrew D.; Mundo, Ignacio; Raible, Christoph C.; Steig, Eric J.; van Ommen, Tas; Vance, Tessa; Villalba, Ricardo; Zinke, Jens; Frank, David

2014-05-01

208

Innovative Approaches to Funding the Millennium Development Goals. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief, No. 24  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which set targets for reducing poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women by 20151. The need for additional development funding, if the MDGs are to be achieved by 2015, is…

Reisen, Helmut

2004-01-01

209

A Millennium Learning Goal for education post?2015: a question of outcomes or processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the target year for the current Millennium Development Goal of universal completion of primary education approaches, three World Bank economists have proposed its replacement with a Millennium Learning Goal. This is part of a trend of increased privileging of learning outcomes. The proposal is assessed from the perspective of human rights?based and social justice conceptualisations of education quality. A

Angeline M. Barrett

2011-01-01

210

A Millennium Learning Goal for Education Post-2015: A Question of Outcomes or Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the target year for the current Millennium Development Goal of universal completion of primary education approaches, three World Bank economists have proposed its replacement with a Millennium Learning Goal. This is part of a trend of increased privileging of learning outcomes. The proposal is assessed from the perspective of human rights-based…

Barrett, Angeline M.

2011-01-01

211

75 FR 52990 - Notice of the September 15, 2010, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION [MCC FR 10-08] Notice of the September 15...Secretary via e-mail at corporatesecretary@mcc.gov or by telephone at (202) 521-3600...the Millennium Challenge Corporation (``MCC'') will hold a meeting to discuss...

2010-08-30

212

Chagas disease: an impediment in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Achieving sustainable economic and social growth through advances in health is crucial in Latin America within the framework of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. DISCUSSION: Health-related Millennium Development Goals need to incorporate a multidimensional approach addressing the specific epidemiologic profile for each region of the globe. In this regard, addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with

Carlos Franco-Paredes; Anna Von; Alicia Hidron; Alfonso J Rodríguez-Morales; Ildefonso Tellez; Maribel Barragán; Danielle Jones; Cesar G Náquira; Jorge Mendez

2007-01-01

213

Hierarchical structure of maladaptive personality traits in older adults: joint factor analysis of the PID-5 and the DAPP-BQ.  

PubMed

In DSM-5, the categorical model and criteria for the 10 personality disorders included in DSM-IV will be reprinted in Section II. Moreover, an alternative dimensional classification model will appear in Section III. This alternative DSM-5 proposal for the diagnosis of a personality disorder is based on two fundamental criteria: impairments in personality functioning (Criterion A) and the presence of pathological personality traits (Criterion B). In the maladaptive trait model that has been developed to operationalize Criterion B, 25 pathological traits are organized according to five higher order dimensions. The current study focuses on the convergence of the proposed DSM-5 trait model (as measured by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 [PID-5]) with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP) model (as measured by the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire [DAPP-BQ]) in a sample of older people. A joint hierarchical factor analysis showed clear convergence between four PID-5 dimensions (Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition) and conceptually similar DAPP-BQ components. Moreover, the PID-5 and the DAPP-BQ showed meaningful associations on different levels of their joint hierarchical factor structure. Methodological and theoretical implications of these initial results for the conceptualization of personality pathology are discussed. PMID:23786271

Van den Broeck, Joke; Bastiaansen, Leen; Rossi, Gina; Dierckx, Eva; De Clercq, Barbara; Hofmans, Joeri

2014-04-01

214

Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium: Panel Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest release from the National Academy Press is the free online version of Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium: Panel Reports. The book contains contributions from the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Space Studies Board, and National Research Council. Although the online version is a "free, browseable, nonproprietary, fully and deeply searchable version of the publication," a disclaimer suggests that it is not designed to replace printed books. Users can search, browse, or print the document through the easy-to-use Open Book page image presentation framework.

2002-01-01

215

Vision-21: Space Travel for the Next Millennium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The papers from this symposium, that was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on April 3-4, 1990, are presented. The theme selected for the symposium was space travel for the next millennium. It was hoped that the participants would allow their focus to consider possible advances in technologies for space travel not just for currently envisioned projects, but for possibilities beyond the next generation and the next thousand years. About half of the contributed papers focussed on propulsion and the other half on other issues related to space travel.

Landis, Geoffrey A. (editor)

1990-01-01

216

Reconstruction of Trace Elements Concentrations of the Mediterranean during the Past Millennium in Context to Environmental, Natural and Anthropogenic  

E-print Network

and mean sea level of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea over the past millennium. In this study we present-resolution trace metal records of the Mediterranean Sea over the past millennium. We also analyze trace metalsReconstruction of Trace Elements Concentrations of the Mediterranean during the Past Millennium

Simon, Emmanuel

217

Long-term use of psychedelic drugs is associated with differences in brain structure and personality in humans.  

PubMed

Psychedelic agents have a long history of use by humans for their capacity to induce profound modifications in perception, emotion and cognitive processes. Despite increasing knowledge of the neural mechanisms involved in the acute effects of these drugs, the impact of sustained psychedelic use on the human brain remains largely unknown. Molecular pharmacology studies have shown that psychedelic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)2A agonists stimulate neurotrophic and transcription factors associated with synaptic plasticity. These data suggest that psychedelics could potentially induce structural changes in brain tissue. Here we looked for differences in cortical thickness (CT) in regular users of psychedelics. We obtained magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of the brains of 22 regular users of ayahuasca (a preparation whose active principle is the psychedelic 5HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT)) and 22 controls matched for age, sex, years of education, verbal IQ and fluid IQ. Ayahuasca users showed significant CT differences in midline structures of the brain, with thinning in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a key node of the default mode network. CT values in the PCC were inversely correlated with the intensity and duration of prior use of ayahuasca and with scores on self-transcendence, a personality trait measuring religiousness, transpersonal feelings and spirituality. Although direct causation cannot be established, these data suggest that regular use of psychedelic drugs could potentially lead to structural changes in brain areas supporting attentional processes, self-referential thought, and internal mentation. These changes could underlie the previously reported personality changes in long-term users and highlight the involvement of the PCC in the effects of psychedelics. PMID:25637267

Bouso, José Carlos; Palhano-Fontes, Fernanda; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Sanches, Rafael; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Hallak, Jaime E C; de Araujo, Draulio B; Riba, Jordi

2015-04-01

218

Personality Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... family, friends, and co-workers. What is a Personality Disorder? Those who struggle with a personality disorder have ... difficult to participate in social activities. Recognizing a Personality Disorder A personality disorder must fulfill several criteria. A ...

219

Person Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Person changes can be of three kinds: developmental trends, swells, and tremors. Person unreliability in the tremor sense (momentary fluctuations) can be estimated from person characteristic curves. Average person reliability for groups can be compared from item characteristic curves. (Author)

Lumsden, James

1977-01-01

220

Origins and structure of social and political attitudes: insights from personality system theory and behavioural genetics   

E-print Network

People differ, often strikingly, in their views on desired social structures and processes. For example, while some value ethnic diversity in their society, others believe non-indigenous individuals (whatever that might ...

Lewis, Gary J.

2012-06-27

221

The person in the mirror: using the enfacement illusion to investigate the experiential structure of self-identification  

PubMed Central

How do we acquire a mental representation of our own face? Recently, synchronous, but not asynchronous, interpersonal multisensory stimulation (IMS) between one’s own and another person’s face was used to evoke changes in self-identification (enfacement illusion). We investigated the conscious experience of these changes with principal component analyses (PCA) that revealed that while the conscious experience during synchronous IMS focused on resemblance and similarity with the other’s face, during asynchronous IMS it focused on multisensory stimulation. Analyses on the identified common factor structure revealed significant quantitative differences between synchronous and asynchronous IMS on self-identification and perceived similarity with the other’s face. Experiment 2 revealed that participants with lower interoceptive sensitivity experienced stronger enfacement illusion. Overall, self-identification and body-ownership rely on similar basic mechanisms of multisensory integration, but the effects of multisensory input on their experience are qualitatively different, possibly underlying the face’s unique role as a marker of selfhood. PMID:23123685

Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Longo, Matthew R.; Coleman, Rosie; Tsakiris, Manos

2013-01-01

222

Personality structure, sex differences, and temporal change and stability in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).  

PubMed

Research on nonhuman primate personality dimensions has focused on a small number of taxa, and little of this work has focused on wild populations. We used ratings to assess personality structure in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) over a 9-year period, using a capuchin-specific rating instrument based partly on existing instruments. Adequate levels of interrater reliability were found for 24 of 26 items. A longitudinal analysis found that 15 of these items showed significant rank-order stability from adolescence through early adulthood. Principal components analysis revealed 5 components. Four of these components were recognizable "Big Five" dimensions: Extraversion (E), Openness (O), Neuroticism (N), and Agreeableness (A). A dimension incorporating aspects of high O and high Conscientiousness (C) was labeled Eccentricity. Every dimension except for N showed significant rank-order stability from adolescence through early adulthood. Males were more extraverted, open, neurotic, and eccentric than females, whereas females were more agreeable than males. A cross-sectional analysis revealed that openness and agreeableness declined, whereas eccentricity increased, during adulthood. The item content of capuchin Extraversion and Openness, and the existence of a distinctive Eccentricity dimension, are consistent with known characteristics of capuchin social and ecological adaptations, specifically the central roles of alliances, behavioral innovation, and social learning. PMID:23339561

Manson, Joseph H; Perry, Susan

2013-08-01

223

Unforced variability in summer storm track position over the past millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gridded past millennium climate reconstructions, encompassing the European continent (e.g. Luterbacher et al 2004), based on proxy records, have previously been generated assuming that spatial temperature covariance across the region behaves in the past in the same way as it does in the observational period. This strategy bears the risk of artificially identifying the same patterns of variability as presently observed and overlooking periodically occurring modes of internal climate variability, that are not uniformly spatio-temporally expressed. Here, we construct regional proxy composites for Europe which are not constrained by the modes of variability expressed in the 20th century, and should thus broadly represent coherent regional summer temperatures back through time, independent from present modes of variability. The proxy data set analysed was provided by the efforts of the EU 6th Framework Millennium project. Proxy data are dominated by tree ring width, density and annual height increment. Four composites are used describing summer temperatures in the Arctic, Central, Pyrenean and Alpine zones of Europe. The proxy data sets cover the period AD 1260-1996. We jointly analyse an ensemble of simulations with global climate models participating in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) included in the 5th Assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) covering the period AD 850-2005, with the above aims in mind. The climate models were driven by estimations of the main external forcings. The implementations of these forcings may vary among simulations, depending on the different estimates used and on the structure of the models themselves. We analyse three simulations (CCSM4, IPSL, MPI-ESM) that, at the time of writing, provide daily data over the period AD 850-2005 obtained with the very same model version through the whole period. The analysis of both proxy and model data allowed us to more precisely identify the behaviour of the internal climate mode identified.

Gagen, Mary; Zorita, Eduardo; McCarroll, Danny; Loader, Neil; Young, Giles; Robertson, Iain

2014-05-01

224

Mass Identification of Persons Missing from the Break-up of the Former Yugoslavia: Structure, Function, and Role of the International Commission on Missing Persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The staff of the International Commission on Missing Persons (ICMP) is attempting to undertake the largest mass hu- man identification effort in history. Through the generosity of numerous governmental and private corporations the ICMP has established or is currently establishing a strong network of political allies, family outreach centers, and DNA laboratories throughout the former Yugoslavia. Furthermore, the ICMP is

Edwin Huffine; John Crews; Brenda Kennedy; Kathryn Bomberger; Asta Zinbo

225

Factor structure of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire and its relationship with the revised NEO personality inventory in a Japanese sample.  

PubMed

The Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology, Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) was developed to assess 18 personality traits that provide a systematic representation of personality disorder. This study investigates the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the DAPP-BQ and the relationship between the DAPP-BQ and Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) in a heterogeneous general population sample (n = 1485). Internal consistency (coefficient alpha) and test-retest reliability over a 3-week period was satisfactory for all scales. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors labeled "emotional dysregulation," "dissocial behavior," "inhibition," and "compulsivity" that accounted for 76.0% of the total variance. Subsequently, we investigated the relationships between the 18 dimensions and the 5 dimensions of the NEO-PI-R in a second heterogeneous general population sample (n = 717). Combined factor analysis of the 2 scales again yielded 4 factors accounting for 70.4% of the total variance. Finally, we used multiple regression analyses to examine the extent to which the 5 NEO-PI-R scales could be used to predict individual DAPP-BQ scales. These indicated that the NEO-PI-R does not have content that covers some DAPP-BQ dimensions, especially conduct problems, narcissism, and stimulus seeking. PMID:17067879

Maruta, Toshimasa; Yamate, Taketo; Iimori, Makio; Kato, Masaaki; Livesley, W John

2006-01-01

226

The millennium development goals and household energy requirements in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Access to clean and affordable energy is critical for the realization of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals, or MDGs. In many developing countries, a large proportion of household energy requirements is met by use of non-commercial fuels such as wood, animal dung, crop residues, etc., and the associated health and environmental hazards of these are well documented. In this work, a scenario analysis of energy requirements in Nigeria's households is carried out to compare estimates between 2005 and 2020 under a reference scenario, with estimates under the assumption that Nigeria will meet the millennium goals. Requirements for energy under the MDG scenario are measured by the impacts on energy use, of a reduction by half, in 2015, (a) the number of household without access to electricity for basic services, (b) the number of households without access to modern energy carriers for cooking, and (c) the number of families living in one-room households in Nigeria's overcrowded urban slums. For these to be achieved, household electricity consumption would increase by about 41% over the study period, while the use of modern fuels would more than double. This migration to the use of modern fuels for cooking results in a reduction in the overall fuelwood consumption, from 5 GJ/capita in 2005, to 2.9 GJ/capita in 2015. PMID:24255832

Ibitoye, Francis I

2013-01-01

227

Groups in the Millennium Simulation and in SDSS DR7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Millennium N-body simulation and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey seventh data release (SDSS DR7) galaxy and galaxy group catalogues are compared to study the properties of galaxy groups and the distribution of galaxies in groups. We construct mock galaxy group catalogues for a Millennium semi-analytical galaxy catalogue by using the same friends-of-friends method, which was used by Tago et al to analyse the SDSS data. We analyse in detail the group luminosities, group richnesses, virial radii, sizes of groups and their rms velocities for four volume-limited samples from observations and simulations. Our results show that the spatial densities of groups agree within one order of magnitude in all samples with a rather good agreement between the mock catalogues and observations. All group property distributions have similar shapes and amplitudes for richer groups. For galaxy pairs and small groups, the group properties for observations and simulations are clearly different. In addition, the spatial distribution of galaxies in small groups is different: at the outskirts of the groups the galaxy number distributions do not agree, although the agreement is relatively good in the inner regions. Differences in the distributions are mainly due to the observational limitations in the SDSS sample and to the problems in the semi-analytical methods that produce too compact and luminous groups.

Nurmi, P.; Heinämäki, P.; Sepp, T.; Tago, E.; Saar, E.; Gramann, M.; Einasto, M.; Tempel, E.; Einasto, J.

2013-11-01

228

Groups in the Millennium Simulation and in SDSS DR7  

E-print Network

The Millennium N-body simulation and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey seventh data release (SDSS DR7) galaxy and galaxy group catalogues are compared to study the properties of galaxy groups and the distribution of galaxies in groups. We construct mock galaxy group catalogues for a Millennium semi-analytical galaxy catalogue by using the same friends-of-friends method, which was used by Tago et al to analyse the SDSS data. We analyse in detail the group luminosities, group richnesses, virial radii, sizes of groups and their rms velocities for four volume-limited samples from observations and simulations. Our results show that the spatial densities of groups agree within one order of magnitude in all samples with a rather good agreement between the mock catalogues and observations. All group property distributions have similar shapes and amplitudes for richer groups. For galaxy pairs and small groups, the group properties for observations and simulations are clearly different. In addition, the spatial distribution...

Nurmi, P; Sepp, T; Tago, E; Saar, E; Gramann, M; Einasto, M; Tempel, E; Einasto, J

2013-01-01

229

Millennium Development Goal 5 and adolescents: looking back, moving forward.  

PubMed

Since the Millennium Declaration in 2000, unprecedented progress has been made in the reduction of global maternal mortality. Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG 5; improving maternal health) includes two primary targets, 5A and 5B. Target 5A aimed for a 75% reduction in the global maternal mortality ratio (MMR), and 5B aimed to achieve universal access to reproductive health. Globally, maternal mortality since 1990 has nearly halved and access to reproductive health services in developing countries has substantially improved. In setting goals and targets for the post-MDG era, the global maternal health community has recognised that ultimate goal of ending preventable maternal mortality is now within reach. The new target of a global MMR of <70 deaths per 100?000 live births by 2030 is ambitious, yet achievable and to reach this target a significantly increased effort to promote and ensure universal, equitable access to reproductive, maternal and newborn services for all women and adolescents will be required. In this article, as we reflect on patterns, trends and determinants of maternal mortality, morbidity and other key MDG5 indicators among adolescents, we aim to highlight the importance of promoting and protecting the sexual and reproductive health and rights of adolescents as part of renewed global efforts to end preventable maternal mortality. PMID:25613967

Vogel, Joshua P; Pileggi-Castro, Cynthia; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Pileggi, Vicky Nogueira; Souza, João Paulo; Chou, Doris; Say, Lale

2015-02-01

230

On-line structural health and fire monitoring of a composite personal aircraft using an FBG sensing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report in this paper on the design and development of a novel on-line structural health monitoring and fire detection system based on an array of optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and interrogation system installed on a new, precommercial compact aircraft. A combined total of 17 FBG sensors - strain, temperature and high-temperature - were installed at critical locations in an around the wings, fuselage and engine compartment of a prototype, Comp Air CA 12 all-composite, ten-passenger personal airplane powered by a 1,650 hp turbine engine. The sensors are interrogated online and in real time by a swept laser FBG interrogator (Micron Optics sm125-700) mounted on board the plane. Sensors readings are then combined with the plane's avionics system and displayed on the pilot's aviation control panel. This system represents the first of its kind in commercial, small frame, airplanes and a first for optical fiber sensors.

Chandler, K.; Ferguson, S.; Graver, T.; Csipkes, A.; Mendez, A.

2008-03-01

231

Interactive 3D visualization of structural changes in the brain of a person with corticobasal syndrome  

PubMed Central

The visualization of the progression of brain tissue loss in neurodegenerative diseases like corticobasal syndrome (CBS) can provide not only information about the localization and distribution of the volume loss, but also helps to understand the course and the causes of this neurodegenerative disorder. The visualization of such medical imaging data is often based on 2D sections, because they show both internal and external structures in one image. Spatial information, however, is lost. 3D visualization of imaging data is capable to solve this problem, but it faces the difficulty that more internally located structures may be occluded by structures near the surface. Here, we present an application with two designs for the 3D visualization of the human brain to address these challenges. In the first design, brain anatomy is displayed semi-transparently; it is supplemented by an anatomical section and cortical areas for spatial orientation, and the volumetric data of volume loss. The second design is guided by the principle of importance-driven volume rendering: A direct line-of-sight to the relevant structures in the deeper parts of the brain is provided by cutting out a frustum-like piece of brain tissue. The application was developed to run in both, standard desktop environments and in immersive virtual reality environments with stereoscopic viewing for improving the depth perception. We conclude, that the presented application facilitates the perception of the extent of brain degeneration with respect to its localization and affected regions. PMID:24847243

Hänel, Claudia; Pieperhoff, Peter; Hentschel, Bernd; Amunts, Katrin; Kuhlen, Torsten

2014-01-01

232

Learning about Persons: The Effects of Text Structure and Executive Capacity on Conceptual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the supportive effects of conceptual change texts documented in science education (1) can also be demonstrated in the domain of social cognition and (2) are moderated by the structure of the text and the learner's central executive capacity. In two experiments, participants were presented…

Baadte, Christiane; Dutke, Stephan

2013-01-01

233

Optimal design of structures with multiple design variables per group and multiple loading conditions on the personal computer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite element based programming system for minimum weight design of a truss-type structure subjected to displacement, stress, and lower and upper bounds on design variables is presented. The programming system consists of a number of independent processors, each performing a specific task. These processors, however, are interfaced through a well-organized data base, thus making the tasks of modifying, updating, or expanding the programming system much easier in a friendly environment provided by many inexpensive personal computers. The proposed software can be viewed as an important step in achieving a 'dummy' finite element for optimization. The programming system has been implemented on both large and small computers (such as VAX, CYBER, IBM-PC, and APPLE) although the focus is on the latter. Examples are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the code. The present programming system can be used stand-alone or as part of the multilevel decomposition procedure to obtain optimum design for very large scale structural systems. Furthermore, other related research areas such as developing optimization algorithms (or in the larger level: a structural synthesis program) for future trends in using parallel computers may also benefit from this study.

Nguyen, D. T.; Rogers, J. L., Jr.

1986-01-01

234

Factorial structure of the German version of the dimensional assessment of personality pathology-basic questionnaire in clinical and nonclinical samples.  

PubMed

The Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) assesses 18 traits to provide a systematic representation of the overall domain of personality disorders. We tested the cross-cultural stability of the prediction that four higher-order factors (Emotional Dysregulation, Dissocial Behavior, Inhibitedness, and Compulsivity) underlie the 18 basic traits. A total of 81 patients who were primarily treated for an Axis II personality disorder and N = 166 healthy control patients completed the German version of the DAPP-BQ. Results clearly confirmed cross-cultural stability of the postulated four-factor structure in both samples, accounting for 74.7% (clinical sample), and 65.7% (nonclinical sample) of the total variance. All four higher-order factors showed specific correlational relationships with dimensional assessments of DSM-IV personality disorders. PMID:11723879

Pukrop, R; Gentil, I; Steinbring, I; Steinmeyer, E

2001-10-01

235

[Schizoid versus hysterical personality structure. II: Social behavior of precipitating events].  

PubMed

38 schizoid and 70 hysterical patients with neurotic disturbances are compared with regard to social data, intelligence and triggering situation. Schizoids are more frequently single, childless and live alone, while hysterics are married, remarried or divorced, have one child and live with their partner and the child. With nearly the same education and intelligence, schizoid patients are more often workers/skilled workers, pupils/apprentices/students or have no profession; hysterically structured individuals, being predominantly women, are more frequently housewives. Nearly half of the most frequent triggering events are equally distributed in both structure groups; these are particularly events signalling a change during development, which, in degree of severity, can just as well be minor threshold situations as serious reverses. With an earlier age of onset, schizoids decompensate significantly more often in "developmental stages", whereas hysterical patients are more likely to do so in connection with events of "love-sexuality" and those which provoke hysterical anxieties. Of the 15 most frequent events, only 6 each occur in either the schizoids (starting school, puberty, moving away from home, entering into a heterosexual relationship in terms of a casual encounter, beginning an apprenticeship or studies, failure in a test) or the hysterically structured individuals (vacation, marriage, pregnancy/delivery, marital disharmony, extra-marital relationship and severe illness of the patient). PMID:3811641

Studt, H H

1986-01-01

236

Mass identification of persons missing from the break-up of the former Yugoslavia: structure, function, and role of the International Commission on Missing Persons.  

PubMed

The staff of the International Commission on Missing Persons (ICMP) is attempting to undertake the largest mass human identification effort in history. Through the generosity of numerous governmental and private corporations the ICMP has established or is currently establishing a strong network of political allies, family outreach centers, and DNA laboratories throughout the former Yugoslavia. Furthermore, the ICMP is currently working to streamline current technology as well as employ new technology in its efforts to assist in identifying missing individuals. ICMP will continue to act as a link between the family associations in the region and will synchronize the work of the DNA identification process in the countries affected by the war in the regions of the former Yugoslavia. In the longer term, ICMP seeks to contribute to the closure of the missing persons issue, to raise awareness of the human dimension of the missing persons tragedy, and to preserve a shared and common memory of the missing in the former Yugoslavia. PMID:11387637

Huffine, E; Crews, J; Kennedy, B; Bomberger, K; Zinbo, A

2001-06-01

237

The Structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Edition, Text Revision) Personality Disorder Symptoms in a Large National Sample  

PubMed Central

We examined the latent structure underlying the criteria for DSM–IV–TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.) personality disorders in a large nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Personality disorder symptom data were collected using a structured diagnostic interview from approximately 35,000 adults assessed over two waves of data collection in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Our analyses suggested that a seven-factor solution provided the best fit for the data, and these factors were marked primarily by one or at most two personality disorder criteria sets. A series of regression analyses that used external validators tapping Axis I psychopathology, treatment for mental health problems, functioning scores, interpersonal conflict, and suicidal ideation and behavior provided support for the seven-factor solution. We discuss these findings in the context of previous studies that have examined the structure underlying the personality disorder criteria as well as the current proposals for DSM-5 personality disorders. PMID:22506626

Trull, Timothy J.; Vergés, Alvaro; Wood, Phillip K.; Jahng, Seungmin; Sher, Kenneth J.

2013-01-01

238

The structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition, text revision) personality disorder symptoms in a large national sample.  

PubMed

We examined the latent structure underlying the criteria for DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.) personality disorders in a large nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Personality disorder symptom data were collected using a structured diagnostic interview from approximately 35,000 adults assessed over two waves of data collection in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Our analyses suggested that a seven-factor solution provided the best fit for the data, and these factors were marked primarily by one or at most two personality disorder criteria sets. A series of regression analyses that used external validators tapping Axis I psychopathology, treatment for mental health problems, functioning scores, interpersonal conflict, and suicidal ideation and behavior provided support for the seven-factor solution. We discuss these findings in the context of previous studies that have examined the structure underlying the personality disorder criteria as well as the current proposals for DSM-5 personality disorders. PMID:22506626

Trull, Timothy J; Vergés, Alvaro; Wood, Phillip K; Jahng, Seungmin; Sher, Kenneth J

2012-10-01

239

Personal evaluation structure of environmental sounds: experiments of subjective evaluation using subjects' own terms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we conducted an experiment to investigate the evaluation structure that lies at the basis of peoples' psychological evaluation of environmental sounds. In the experiment, subjects were given cards on each of which a name of one of the environmental sounds in the specified context is written. Then they did the following three tasks: (1) to sort the cards into groups by the similarity of their impressions of the imagined sounds; (2) to name each group with the word that best represented their overall impression of the group; and (3) to evaluate all sounds on the cards using the words obtained in the previous task. These tasks were done twice: once assuming they heard the sounds at ease inside their homes and once while walking outside in a resort theme park. We analysed the similarity of imagined impression between the sounds with a cluster analysis and clusters of sounds were produced, namely, sounds labelled "natural," "transportation," and so on. A principal component analysis revealed the three major factors of the evaluation structure for both contexts and they were interpreted as preference, activity and sense of daily life.

Kawai, Keiji; Kojima, Takaya; Hirate, Kotaroh; Yasuoka, Masahito

2004-10-01

240

Cross-cultural invariance of the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire across Spanish and American college students.  

PubMed

The main goal of this study was to examine the cross-cultural invariance of the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) (Raine, 1991) in two large samples of Spanish and American young adults. The final sample was made up of 2313 college students (508 men, 22%). Their mean age was 20.5 years (S.D.=3.2). The results indicated that the Stefanis et al. (2004) four-factor model yielded the best goodness-of-fit indices compared to alternative models. Moreover, the results support configural, metric, and partial measurement invariance of the covariances of the SPQ across the two samples. The finding of measurement equivalence across cultures provides essential evidence of construct validity for the schizotypy dimensions and of the cross-cultural validity of SPQ scores. The finding of comparable dimensional structures in cross-cultural samples lends further support to the continuum model of schizotypy and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Future studies should continue to examine the validity of scores on the SPQ and other schizotypy measures and their variation or consistency across cultures. PMID:25412981

Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Compton, Michael T; Tone, Erin B; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Fumero, Ascensión; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín

2014-08-13

241

Cross-cultural invariance of the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire across Spanish and American college students.  

PubMed

The main goal of this study was to examine the cross-cultural invariance of the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) (Raine, 1991) in two large samples of Spanish and American young adults. The final sample was made up of 2313 college students (508 men, 22%). Their mean age was 20.5 years (S.D.=3.2). The results indicated that the Stefanis et al. (2004) four-factor model yielded the best goodness-of-fit indices compared to alternative models. Moreover, the results support configural, metric, and partial measurement invariance of the covariances of the SPQ across the two samples. The finding of measurement equivalence across cultures provides essential evidence of construct validity for the schizotypy dimensions and of the cross-cultural validity of SPQ scores. The finding of comparable dimensional structures in cross-cultural samples lends further support to the continuum model of schizotypy and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Future studies should continue to examine the validity of scores on the SPQ and other schizotypy measures and their variation or consistency across cultures. PMID:25632419

Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Compton, Michael T; Tone, Erin B; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Fumero, Ascensión; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín

2014-12-30

242

Revisiting public health challenges in the new millennium.  

PubMed

Positive Health of the communities could only be brought out through the interrelationship between conventional health sector and other development sectors. It was a dream that came true when World Health Organization (WHO) accepted Primary Health Care (PHC) as the major tool to achieve its proposed goal of Health For All (HFA) by 2000 A.D., but we could not succeed as expected. Now we have the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which place health at the heart of development but the achievements in health is still challenging. The literature search in this article has been conducted in Pub Med and Google scholar, with the aim to draw references to discuss the major health issues and ways to tackle them. The current article briefly narrates the burden and complexities of challenges faced by the present global health. Revisiting the concept of PHC and reaffirming our solidarity to this philosophy is the need of this hour. PMID:24116303

Anish, Ts; Sreelakshmi, Pr

2013-07-01

243

Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5: progress and challenges.  

PubMed

The Millennium Development Goals have galvanized efforts to improve child survival (MDG-4) and maternal health (MDG-5). There has been important progress on both MDGs at global level, although it now appears that few countries will reach them by the target date of 2015. There are known and efficacious interventions to address most of the major causes of these deaths, but important gaps remain. The biggest challenge is to ensure that all women and children have access to life-saving interventions. Current levels of intervention coverage are too low, representing missed opportunities. Providing services at the community level is an important emerging priority, but preventing maternal and neonatal deaths also requires access to health facilities. Readers of the Medicine for Global Health collection in BMC Medicine are urged to make maternal and child health one of their key concerns, even if they work on other topics. PMID:24228742

Bryce, Jennifer; Black, Robert E; Victora, Cesar G

2013-01-01

244

Interdecadal Modulation of ENSO Amplitude During the Last Millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of interannual variability, and affects climate around the globe. ENSO amplitude displays considerable variations on the instrumental record, and its future change is highly uncertain. Here we analyze a newly updated version of the tree-ring derived North American Drought Atlas (NADA) for the past 1100 years, and show that ENSO variance displays a quasi-regular cycle of 50-90 years. Interannual variability and its low-frequency amplitude modulation in NADA are in broad agreement with independent proxy records in the Pacific and surrounding regions. Large volcanic eruptions tend to trigger El Niño, but for the past millennium solar variations seem to drive amplitude modulation of ENSO. Simulating the quasi-periodic ENSO amplitude modulation may hold the key to improving models and their prediction of ENSO behavior in global warming.

Li, J.; Xie, S.; Cook, E.; Huang, G.; D'Arrigo, R.; Liu, F.; Ma, J.; Zheng, X.

2010-12-01

245

The last total solar eclipse of the millennium in Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last total solar eclipse of the millennium will be observed from Turkey which bridges two continents and has been the cradle of so many past civilizations. Wouldn't you like to witness this magnificent event in the mystic ambiance of central Anatolia which offers its guests Turkish hospitality and a lot of historical examples of paganism, Christianity and Islam. Among the countries from which the eclipse will be visible, Turkey seems to be one of the most suitable countries in terms of its climate and observational facilities. Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute has arranged fieldwork on the eclipse path to determine the suitable points for the observations. The shadow of the moon will be first seen from the Black Sea coast at 14:20 L.T. It will then pass through central Anatolia and will leave Turkey from south-east at 14:42 L.T.

Ozguc, A.; Atac, T.; Altas, L.

1999-03-01

246

The New Millennium Program Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Project is part of NASA's New Millennium Program. ST-5 will consist of a constellation of three 25kg microsatellites. The mission goals are to demonstrate the research-quality science capability of the ST-5 spacecraft; to operate the three spacecraft as a constellation; and to design, develop and flight-validate three capable microsatellites with new technologies. ST-5 will be launched by a Pegasus XL into an elliptical polar (sun-synchronous) orbit. The three-month flight demonstration phase, beginning in March 2006, will validate the ability to perform science measurements, as well as the technologies and constellation operations. ST-5's technologies and concepts will enable future microsatellite science missions.

Webb, Evan H.; Carlisle, Candace C.; Slavin, James A.

2005-01-01

247

Tuberculosis elimination in the post Millennium Development Goals era.  

PubMed

The Millennium Development Goal for tuberculosis (TB) is to stop the increase in incidence and halve the mortality of TB between 1990 and 2015. This goal has now been reached on a global scale, although not in the most affected region of Africa. The new target is TB elimination, defined as one case of active TB per one million population per year, which is to be reached before 2050. This review will discuss the main tools in play, namely case-finding and new diagnostics, increased access and effectiveness of anti-TB therapy (directly observed therapy, short course (DOTS)), preventive therapy for latent infection, and vaccination. Each approach is discussed and a way forward in research and management is suggested. PMID:25809772

Wejse, Christian

2015-03-01

248

World Bank eAtlas of the Millennium Development Goals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank established a set of Millennium Development Goals as both a challenge to poor countries to demonstrate "good governance" and to wealthy nations as a spur that would hopefully encourage them to support economic and social development. Recently, the World Bank created this visually engaging and sophisticated interactive atlas to track those eight goals, which include the promotion of gender equality, combating disease, and reducing child mortality. Visitors can click on any of these eight goals and they will be able to view maps of the world that document the progress that has been made in each nation. Clicking on each nation individually brings up clear and easy-to-read tables that chart additional changes within each separate goal. Visitors can export the data for their own use, and they can also resize the map to demonstrate the changes made over the past few years.

249

Herblock's History: Political Cartoons from the Crash to the Millennium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Caricaturing twelve American presidents from Herbert Hoover to Bill Clinton, editorial cartoonist Herbert Block has chronicled the nation's political history from the stock market crash in 1929 through the new millennium. Some of his many achievements include three Pulitzer Prizes for editorial cartooning (1942, 1954, and 1979) and a fourth with Washington colleagues for public service during the Watergate investigation (1973). Herblock's History celebrates Block's gift to the Library of Congress of more than one hundred works, spanning seventy years of world history. His cartoons are not only humorous but also enlightening and inspiring. For political cartoon enthusiasts and users with a funny bone waiting for a tickle, this site is definitely one to explore.

2001-01-01

250

Revisiting Public Health Challenges in the New Millennium  

PubMed Central

Positive Health of the communities could only be brought out through the interrelationship between conventional health sector and other development sectors. It was a dream that came true when World Health Organization (WHO) accepted Primary Health Care (PHC) as the major tool to achieve its proposed goal of Health For All (HFA) by 2000 A.D., but we could not succeed as expected. Now we have the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which place health at the heart of development but the achievements in health is still challenging. The literature search in this article has been conducted in Pub Med and Google scholar, with the aim to draw references to discuss the major health issues and ways to tackle them. The current article briefly narrates the burden and complexities of challenges faced by the present global health. Revisiting the concept of PHC and reaffirming our solidarity to this philosophy is the need of this hour. PMID:24116303

Anish, TS; Sreelakshmi, PR

2013-01-01

251

Personality disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Personality disorders are a group of mental health conditions in which a person has a long-term pattern ... Causes of personality disorders are unknown. Genetic and ... a role. Mental health professionals categorize these disorders ...

252

On the Structure of Personality Disorder Traits: Conjoint Analyses of the CAT-PD, PID-5, and NEO-PI-3 Trait Models  

PubMed Central

The current study examines the relations among contemporary models of pathological and normal range personality traits. Specifically, we report on (a) conjoint exploratory factor analyses of the Computerized Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder static form (CAT-PD-SF) with the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012) and NEO Personality Inventory-3 First Half (NEI-PI-3FH; McCrae & Costa, 2007), and (b) unfolding hierarchical analyses of the three measures in a large general psychiatric outpatient sample (N = 628; 64% Female). A five-factor solution provided conceptually coherent alignment among the CAT-PD-SF, PID-5, and NEO-PI-3FH scales. Hierarchical solutions suggested that higher-order factors bear strong resemblance to dimensions that emerge from structural models of psychopathology (e.g., Internalizing and Externalizing spectra). These results demonstrate that the CAT-PD-SF adheres to the consensual structure of broad trait domains at the five-factor level. Additionally, patterns of scale loadings further inform questions of structure and bipolarity of facet and domain level constructs. Finally, hierarchical analyses strengthen the argument for using broad dimensions that span normative and pathological functioning to scaffold a quantitatively derived phenotypic structure of psychopathology to orient future research on explanatory, etiological, and maintenance mechanisms. PMID:24588061

Wright, Aidan G.C.; Simms, Leonard J.

2014-01-01

253

Personal Genomics, Personalized Medicine,  

E-print Network

/Science Translational Medicine panel discussion; MLA 2012 #12;Timeline: Human Genome Sequence HSLS, U.Pitt 1995 2014 2000 2003 2007 2007 2010 Human Genome Draft Sequence Complete Human Reference Genome Individual Human of a free living organism: Haemophilus Influenzae #12;Personal Genome Project HSLS, U.Pitt #12;Why get

Napp, Nils

254

Author's personal copy Novel high-pressure structures of MgCO3, CaCO3 and CO2 and their role in  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Novel high-pressure structures of MgCO3, CaCO3 and CO2 and their role crystal structure prediction evolutionary algorithm high pressure Most of the oxidized carbon in the Earth's lower mantle is believed to be stored in the high-pressure forms of MgCO3 and/or CaCO3 or possibly even

Oganov, Artem R.

255

77 FR 14835 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors; March 22, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Millennium Challenge Corporation (``MCC'') will hold a meeting to discuss Candidate Country Report for FY2012, the Niger Threshold Program, the Zambia Compact and an update on Malawi. The agenda items are expected to involve the...

2012-03-13

256

75 FR 63503 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Solar Millennium, Amargosa...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Millennium, Amargosa Farm Road Solar Power Project, Nye County, NV AGENCY...EIS) for the Amargosa Farm Road Solar Power Project, Nye County, Nevada...decision on the Amargosa Farm Road Solar Power Project for a minimum of 30...

2010-10-15

257

Review of Chemical Processes for the Synthesis of Sodium Borohydride Millennium Cell Inc.  

E-print Network

Review of Chemical Processes for the Synthesis of Sodium Borohydride Millennium Cell Inc. Prepared..................................................................................................................................... 1 Section 1: Commercially Practiced Sodium Borohydride Synthesis Process) is a versatile reducing agent used in a number of industrial processes. Major applications include organic

258

Global connectivity of hub residues in Oncoprotein structures encodes genetic factors dictating personalized drug response to targeted Cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

The efficacy and mechanisms of therapeutic action are largely described by atomic bonds and interactions local to drug binding sites. Here we introduce global connectivity analysis as a high-throughput computational assay of therapeutic action – inspired by the Google page rank algorithm that unearths most “globally connected” websites from the information-dense world wide web (WWW). We execute short timescale (30?ps) molecular dynamics simulations with high sampling frequency (0.01?ps), to identify amino acid residue hubs whose global connectivity dynamics are characteristic of the ligand or mutation associated with the target protein. We find that unexpected allosteric hubs – up to 20Å from the ATP binding site, but within 5Å of the phosphorylation site – encode the Gibbs free energy of inhibition (?Ginhibition) for select protein kinase-targeted cancer therapeutics. We further find that clinically relevant somatic cancer mutations implicated in both drug resistance and personalized drug sensitivity can be predicted in a high-throughput fashion. Our results establish global connectivity analysis as a potent assay of protein functional modulation. This sets the stage for unearthing disease-causal exome mutations and motivates forecast of clinical drug response on a patient-by-patient basis. We suggest incorporation of structure-guided genetic inference assays into pharmaceutical and healthcare Oncology workflows. PMID:25465236

Soundararajan, Venky; Aravamudan, Murali

2014-01-01

259

Global connectivity of hub residues in Oncoprotein structures encodes genetic factors dictating personalized drug response to targeted Cancer therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficacy and mechanisms of therapeutic action are largely described by atomic bonds and interactions local to drug binding sites. Here we introduce global connectivity analysis as a high-throughput computational assay of therapeutic action - inspired by the Google page rank algorithm that unearths most ``globally connected'' websites from the information-dense world wide web (WWW). We execute short timescale (30 ps) molecular dynamics simulations with high sampling frequency (0.01 ps), to identify amino acid residue hubs whose global connectivity dynamics are characteristic of the ligand or mutation associated with the target protein. We find that unexpected allosteric hubs - up to 20Å from the ATP binding site, but within 5Å of the phosphorylation site - encode the Gibbs free energy of inhibition (?Ginhibition) for select protein kinase-targeted cancer therapeutics. We further find that clinically relevant somatic cancer mutations implicated in both drug resistance and personalized drug sensitivity can be predicted in a high-throughput fashion. Our results establish global connectivity analysis as a potent assay of protein functional modulation. This sets the stage for unearthing disease-causal exome mutations and motivates forecast of clinical drug response on a patient-by-patient basis. We suggest incorporation of structure-guided genetic inference assays into pharmaceutical and healthcare Oncology workflows.

Soundararajan, Venky; Aravamudan, Murali

2014-12-01

260

Microbial community structure and pharmaceuticals and personal care products removal in a membrane bioreactor seeded with aerobic granular sludge.  

PubMed

A process involving the use of membrane bioreactor seeded with aerobic granular sludge (GMBR) was applied to the treatment of sewage containing pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). The removal effects of five kinds of medicines in the reactor were investigated, and the microbial communities were constructed by polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. We also determined the effects of different sludge retention and hydraulic retention times (SRT and HRT, respectively) and influent organic loading on GMBR's efficiency in processing sewage containing PPCPs. The removal effects of the GMBR on five PPCPs varied. Using the GMBR, the removal rates of prednisolone, naproxen and norfloxacin were 98.56, 84.02 and 87.85%, respectively. The removal rates of sulfamethoxazole and ibuprofen were 77.83 and 63.32%, respectively. In the system, PPCP drugs had relatively less effect on microbial diversity. A certain succession was observed in the structural variation of microbial species in the GMBR. Microorganisms that can degrade PPCPs gradually accumulated, and antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, such as Firmicutes sp., Aeromonas sp. and Nitrospira sp., served a key function in the treatment of sewage containing antibiotics. Long SRT and HRT during the GMBR process can facilitate the removal of most PPCPs. The system efficiently removed PPCPs at high influent organic loading. PMID:25099174

Xia, Zhao; Xiao-chun, Wang; Zhong-lin, Chen; Hao, Xu; Qing-fang, Zhang

2015-01-01

261

A Guatemalan Speleothem Record Of Climate Of The Past Millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 32-cm active stalagmite collected in 2007 in eastern Guatemala near the Belize border began growing in ~1000 AD, and provides a near continuous record of the past 1000 years. The cave was at 350 m asl, and 23C. 15 U/Th MC ICPMS dates were used to establish the growth model, and almost 1000 ?18O stable isotope samples have been analyzed at sub-annual resolution. The GUXI-1 speleothem grew at a rate of 0.35mm/y from ~1000 to ~1450, when it tilted 25 mm/ 11 degrees from its original axis, possibly related to seismic events of the Motagua River plate margin to the south. Growth continued on the angled upside as a transparent calcite, but with restricted deposition rates from ~1460 to 1650: this reduction was likely due to the time to re-create a more suitable site for deposition, but also to environmental conditions on the surface. After 1660 to the present, GUXI-1 grew steadily along a new axis, much faster at 0.58mm/yr than its pre-tilt rate. The ?18 oxygen isotopes of the deposited calcite are construed as a rainfall proxy, influenced by the amount effect of the tropics. The values range from -4 ‰ to -2.75‰, showing four major regimes over the millennium, and indicating several periods of drought [less-negative ?18O]. Prior to tilting, the Guatemala stalagmite displayed a trend of increasing precipitation following its inception, until it was tilted. Average ?18O was -3.4‰. The record during the ~1450-1660 tilt suggests a period of aridity, but from 1700-1800 precipitation was increasing again as ?18O reached its most negative mean values of ~ -3.6‰, and growth rate was also at its highest. A very abrupt drop in ?18O [0.2 ‰] occurred in 1816 (the year of a major nearby earthquake and a year after the Tambora mega-eruption), and continued as a long-term drying trend to the present, though with a sharp central peak and 2 troughs. This drying trend was also accompanied by a 1/3 decrease in growth rate. A new ?18O mean of -3.1‰ is higher than that during the tilt interval. Other nearby climate records include stalagmites from Belize. The closest (Macal Chasm) speleothem record 30 km to the north reported a coarse ?18O resolution of 50 years, and suggest a long arid period ending about 1150 AD, and another centered about 1500 [mean ?18O -4‰]. The luminescence record [organic acid concentration indicating greater rainfall] of this speleothem supports the presence of the first long arid period, but not that of about 1500; a long modern drying began about 1800. A second stalagmite [Yok Balum] a similar distance to the south also recorded its "most pronounced dry period" between 1000-1100 AD, with elevated rainfall in about half of the subsequent millennium. The final years from 1840 to the present have been drier. A wider Caribbean comparison is possible with speleothem from the northern Yucatan and one as far east as Puerto Rico. Like that of GUXI-1, the period from 1100-1550 appears relatively wetter than preceding centuries, declining to a minimum about 1600, recovering by 1750, then dropping rapidly after 1800. Each of the three also experienced a brief wet interval about 1900. In summary, Central America and the Caribbean appeared to be recovering from dry conditions in the first centuries of the past millennium, encountered a deep rainfall decline in the middle followed by wetter conditions until ~1800, and since then have been experiencing increasing dryness.

Miller, T.; Winter, A.; Burnett, A.; Haug, G. H.; Kelly, M. J.; Edwards, R.

2012-12-01

262

Parental perceptions of weight status in children: the Gateshead Millennium Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate parents’ perceptions of weight status in children and to explore parental understanding of and attitudes to childhood overweight. Design Questionnaires and focus groups within a longitudinal study. Subjects 536 parents of Gateshead Millennium Study children, of which 27 attended 6 focus groups. Main outcome measures Parents’ perception of their child’s weight status according to actual weight status as defined by International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) cut-offs. Focus group outcomes included parental awareness of childhood overweight nationally and parental approaches to identifying overweight children. Results The sensitivity of parents recognising if their child was overweight was 0.31. Prevalence of child overweight was underestimated: 7.3% of children were perceived as ‘overweight’ or ‘very overweight’ by their parents, 23.7% were identified as overweight or obese using IOTF criteria. 69.3% of parents of overweight or obese children identified their child as being of ‘normal’ weight. During focus groups parents demonstrated an awareness of childhood overweight being a problem nationally but their understanding of how it is defined was limited. Parents used alternative approaches to objective measures when identifying overweight in children such as visual assessments and comparisons with other children. Such approaches relied heavily on extreme and exceptional cases as a reference point. The apparent lack of relevance of childhood overweight to their child’s school or own community along with scepticism towards both media messages and clinical measures commonly emerged as grounds for failing to engage with the issue at a personal level. Conclusion Parents’ ability to identify when their child was overweight according to standard criteria was limited. Parents did not understand, use or trust clinical measures and used alternative approaches primarily reliant on extreme cases. Such approaches underpinned their reasoning for remaining detached from the issue. This study highlights the need to identify methods of improving parental recognition of and engagement with the problem of childhood overweight. PMID:21673651

Jones, Angela R; Parkinson, Kathryn N; Drewett, Robert F; Hyland, Robert M; Pearce, Mark S; Adamson, Ashley J

2011-01-01

263

Open problems on the eve of the next millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To predict the future of Celestial Mechanics and to investigate unsolved problems for the next millennium contradicts the nature of our field of science which is based on non-integrable and transcendental equations with short time predictability. The reliability and predictability in our field depend on several factors, most of them unpredictable. Numerical predictions depend on the development of computer technology, which is itself not predictable. New analytical approaches call for the genius of Newton. We must realize that between Ptolemaeus (100 178) and Copernicus (1473 1543) our field received little attention. Between 1700 and 1800 the explosion occurred (Newton, Euler, Laplace, Lagrange and Gauss) followed by the period of 1800 1900 associated with Hamilton, Hill, Jacobi, Poincaré and Tisserand. Can we expect anyone to make similar contributions in the next 1000 years? The entrance and emphasis of probability in our field certainly will continue. Speaking about bounds of trajectories instead of individual orbits gains significant popularity. Theory of stability and chaos are expected to receive more and more attention together with Poincare's conjectures concerning the denseness of periodic orbits in the set of bounded orbits. Planetary computations for long time have shown considerable advances, partly due to computer advances as well as the selection of the proper formulation of the problems. The preparation of “exact” short time ephemerides and qualitative long time predictions require initial conditions with small observational errors, the use of proper models (including relativity effects and non-conservative forces) and the use of correct values of astronomical constants. The results of such calculations in the future should include approximate estimations of errors in the outcome. The observations and orbital calculations of Earth-crossing asteroids should receive special attention along with development of various techniques of space dynamics to avoid collisions. Interplanetary orbit calculations of space probes with optimizations included, shall receive additional attention since interplanetary flights expect to become regular travels in the next millennium. Here, again, the use of proper models, constants and planetary ephemerides will be essential. This paper was prepared with the help of many of my colleagues whose suggestions and ideas were incorporated with my many thanks.[/p

Szebehely, Victor

1996-03-01

264

[Primary health care and the millennium development goals].  

PubMed

Member countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) met in Alma Ata (8-12 September 1978) to define and advocate the implementation of primary health care (PHC) worldwide, above all, in developing countries, which had a real need to review their strategies for meeting the health needs of their populations. They did not suspect that 20 years later the vision they displayed would remain undeniably relevant. Here we examine the similarities and points of convergence of their declaration about PHC with the Millennium Development Goals that seek today to reduce poverty across the world. An exhaustive and analytic literature review was conducted to collect those similarities. Further analysis of the definitions, objectives, principles and recommendations of the Alma Ata Declaration and the Millennium Declaration reveals multiple dependencies and fundamental points of similarity between these two representations. Almost all states have pledged to achieve the eight MDG by 2015: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as essential health care, based on practical methods and techniques that are both scientifically sound and socially acceptable, universally accessible to all individuals and all families of the community, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and countries can afford at all stages of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It is an integral part of economic and social development. The following principles are involved in the achievement of both primary health care and the MDG: social equity, community participation, and intersectorality. Public health is an essential condition of poverty eradication and MDG achievement. Public health issues are central to the problem of sustainable development and must therefore remain the focus of attention. It is increasingly urgent to break the vicious circle created by the close correlation between environmental degradation, poor health, and poverty. PMID:22868717

Faye, A; Bob, M; Fall, A; Fall, C

2012-01-01

265

The New Millennium Program: Validating Advanced Technologies for Future Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation reviews the activities of the New Millennium Program (NMP) in validating advanced technologies for space missions. The focus of these breakthrough technologies are to enable new capabilities to fulfill the science needs, while reducing costs of future missions. There is a broad spectrum of NMP partners, including government agencies, universities and private industry. The DS-1 was launched on October 24, 1998. Amongst the technologies validated by the NMP on DS-1 are: a Low Power Electronics Experiment, the Power Activation and Switching Module, Multi-Functional Structures. The first two of these technologies are operational and the data analysis is still ongoing. The third program is also operational, and its performance parameters have been verified. The second program, DS-2, was launched January 3 1999. It is expected to impact near Mars southern polar region on 3 December 1999. The technologies used on this mission awaiting validation are an advanced microcontroller, a power microelectronics unit, an evolved water experiment and soil thermal conductivity experiment, Lithium-Thionyl Chloride batteries, the flexible cable interconnect, aeroshell/entry system, and a compact telecom system. EO-1 on schedule for launch in December 1999 carries several technologies to be validated. Amongst these are: a Carbon-Carbon Radiator, an X-band Phased Array Antenna, a pulsed plasma thruster, a wideband advanced recorder processor, an atmospheric corrector, lightweight flexible solar arrays, Advanced Land Imager and the Hyperion instrument

Minning, Charles P.; Luers, Philip

1999-01-01

266

The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next.  

PubMed

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

2014-01-01

267

The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next  

PubMed Central

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

2014-01-01

268

Science for managing ecosystem services: Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment  

PubMed Central

The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) introduced a new framework for analyzing social–ecological systems that has had wide influence in the policy and scientific communities. Studies after the MA are taking up new challenges in the basic science needed to assess, project, and manage flows of ecosystem services and effects on human well-being. Yet, our ability to draw general conclusions remains limited by focus on discipline-bound sectors of the full social–ecological system. At the same time, some polices and practices intended to improve ecosystem services and human well-being are based on untested assumptions and sparse information. The people who are affected and those who provide resources are increasingly asking for evidence that interventions improve ecosystem services and human well-being. New research is needed that considers the full ensemble of processes and feedbacks, for a range of biophysical and social systems, to better understand and manage the dynamics of the relationship between humans and the ecosystems on which they rely. Such research will expand the capacity to address fundamental questions about complex social–ecological systems while evaluating assumptions of policies and practices intended to advance human well-being through improved ecosystem services. PMID:19179280

Carpenter, Stephen R.; Mooney, Harold A.; Agard, John; Capistrano, Doris; DeFries, Ruth S.; Díaz, Sandra; Dietz, Thomas; Duraiappah, Anantha K.; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred; Pereira, Henrique Miguel; Perrings, Charles; Reid, Walter V.; Sarukhan, José; Scholes, Robert J.; Whyte, Anne

2009-01-01

269

UN Millennium Development Goals E-Learning Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations continues to work on its Millennium Development Goals, which are meant to address human suffering throughout the world. While various media outlets have offered some coverage of these goals over the past ten years, some people may have not heard much about them. The unique learning materials offered on this site provide a bit of background about the goals and an increased understanding of the data that the United Nations collects in order to measure progress in these areas. Along the top of the site, visitors can look through the "Glossary" of terms and click on a link to get further help with using the site. The primary educational materials are contained within four separate sections that help users learn about the Economic and Social Data Services (ESDS) database, which is the primary data source for these types of international databases. Finally visitors can look through the "Activities" section to take in some hands-on activities that use various data sets from the ESDS database.

270

The role of ethics and product personality in the intention to purchase organic food products: a structural equation modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study is to examine the role of ethical dimensions and product personality in the purchasing intention\\u000a of organic food products. The Prospect method (Caprara et al. in Test Psicomet Metodol 7(3–4):113–128, 2000), which integrates the Five factors model of personality (cf. Digman in Annu Rev Psychol 41(1):417–440, 1990) and the Theory of planned behavior (Ajzen

Gianluigi Guido; M. Irene Prete; Alessandro M. Peluso; R. Christian Maloumby-Baka; Carolina Buffa

2010-01-01

271

Personality Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. ...

272

Assessment of DSM-IV personality disorders in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Comparison of clinical diagnosis, self-report questionnaire and semi-structured interview. [IF 1.7  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, personality disorders are not many times assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. The purpose of the present study is to examine the prevalence of personality disorders diagnosed according to the DSM-IV in a severely disordered OCD popula- tion (n = 65) with three different methods of assessing personality disor- ders (structured interview, questionnaire, and clinical diagnoses).

N. H. Tenneij; Chris K. W. Schotte; Damiaan A. J. P. Denys; Megen van H. J. G. M; Herman G. M. Westenberg

2003-01-01

273

The Papua New Guinea medical supply system - documenting opportunities and challenges to meet the Millennium Development Goals  

PubMed Central

Objectives Limited human resources are widely recognised as an impediment to achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals in Pacific Island Countries, with the availability of medical supplies and suitably trained health personnel crucial to ensuring a well-functioning medical supply chain. This paper presents our findings as we seek to answer the research question ‘What factors influence the availability of medical supplies within the health facilities of Papua New Guinea?’ Methods We used a qualitative, triangulated strategy using semi-structured interviews, workplace observation and semi-structured focus groups. The parallel use of the interview tool and workplace observation tool allowed identification of ‘know-do’ gaps between what the interviewee said they did in their work practices, and the actual evidence of these practices. Focus groups provided further opportunities for raising and elaborating issues. Results During 2 weeks of data collection we conducted 17 interviews and 15 observational workplace surveys in 15 facilities. Sixteen health personnel participated in 3 focus groups across 2 provinces and one district. An array of medical supply issues across all levels of the medical supply chain were revealed, including standard operating procedures, facilities, transport, emergency medical kits, the cold chain and record keeping. The influence of health worker training and competency was found to be common across all of these issues. Conclusion The factors influencing the availability of medical supplies in PNG consist of a range of interrelating issues, consisting of both simple and complex problems involving the different levels and cadres of workers within the medical supply chain. Health systems sustainability theory suggests that a coordinated approach which addresses the inter-related nature of these issues, led by the PNG government and supported by suitable development partners, will be required for sustainable health systems change to occur. These changes are necessary for PNG to meet the health-related Millennium Development Goals.

2014-01-01

274

Personality Trait Development in Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the middle part of the 20th century, a healthy dialogue existed between sociology and personality psychology. Leading scholars\\u000a in sociology actively discussed the relationship between social structure and personality (Neugarten, 1968; Parsons, 1942), and between organizations and personality (Inkeles & Levinson, 1963). In turn, many personality psychologists studied similar phenomena (e.g., Sanford, 1956; Sarbin, 1964). However, over the past

Brent W. Roberts; Richard W. Robins; Kali H. Trzesniewski; Avshalom Caspi

275

Pancreas transplantation: The Wake Forest experience in the new millennium  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the Wake Forest experience with pancreas transplantation in the new millennium with attention to surgical techniques and immunosuppression. METHODS: A monocentric, retrospective review of outcomes in simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplant (SKPT) and solitary pancreas transplant (SPT) recipients was performed. All patients underwent pancreas transplantation as intent-to-treat with portal venous and enteric exocrine drainage and received depleting antibody induction; maintenance therapy included tapered steroids or early steroid elimination with mycophenolate and tacrolimus. Recipient selection was based on clinical judgment whether or not the patient exhibited measureable levels of C-peptide. RESULTS: Over an 11.25 year period, 202 pancreas transplants were performed in 192 patients including 162 SKPTs and 40 SPTs. A total of 186 (92%) were primary and 16 (8%) pancreas retransplants; portal-enteric drainage was performed in 179 cases. A total of 39 pancreas transplants were performed in African American (AA) patients; of the 162 SKPTs, 30 were performed in patients with pretransplant C-peptide levels > 2.0 ng/mL. In addition, from 2005-2008, 46 SKPT patients were enrolled in a prospective study of single dose alemtuzumab vs 3-5 doses of rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin induction therapy. With a mean follow-up of 5.7 in SKPT vs 7.7 years in SPT recipients, overall patient (86% SKPT vs 87% SPT) and kidney (74% SKPT vs 80% SPT) graft survival rates as well as insulin-free rates (both 65%) were similar (P = NS). Although mortality rates were nearly identical in SKPT compared to SPT recipients, patterns and timing of death were different as no early mortality occurred in SPT recipients whereas the rates of mortality following SKPT were 4%, 9% and 12%, at 1-, 3- and 5-years follow-up, respectively (P < 0.05). The primary cause of graft loss in SKPT recipients was death with a functioning graft whereas the major cause of graft loss following SPT was acute and chronic rejection. The overall incidence of acute rejection was 29% in SKPT and 27.5% in SPT recipients (P = NS). Lower rates of acute rejection and major infection were evidenced in SKPT patients receiving alemtuzumab induction therapy. Comparable kidney and pancreas graft survival rates were observed in AA and non-AA recipients despite a higher prevalence of a “type 2 diabetes” phenotype in AA. Results comparable to those achieved in insulinopenic diabetics were found in the transplantation of type 2 diabetics with detectable C-peptide levels. CONCLUSION: In the new millennium, acceptable medium-term outcomes can be achieved in SKPT and SPTs as nearly 2/3rds of patients are insulin independent following pancreas transplantation. PMID:25512802

Rogers, Jeffrey; Farney, Alan C; Orlando, Giuseppe; Iskandar, Samy S; Doares, William; Gautreaux, Michael D; Kaczmorski, Scott; Reeves-Daniel, Amber; Palanisamy, Amudha; Stratta, Robert J

2014-01-01

276

Diagnostic Efficiency among Psychiatric Outpatients of a Self-Report Version of a Subset of Screen Items of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders (SCID-II)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the identification of a 10-item set of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) items, which proved to be effective as a self-report assessment instrument in screening personality disorders. The item selection was based on the retrospective analyses of 495 SCID-II interviews. The…

Germans, Sara; Van Heck, Guus L.; Masthoff, Erik D.; Trompenaars, Fons J. W. M.; Hodiamont, Paul P. G.

2010-01-01

277

Recent unprecedented warming and oligotrophy of the eastern Mediterranean Sea within the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean region is a climatic transitional zone between the subtropical/monsoon regime and the temperate westerlies and is subject to forces acting upon the global climate system. Much knowledge about its climate over the last millennium is derived from terrestrial records, whereas changes in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and in the dissolved inorganic carbon pool (DIC) are poorly known. We present continuous high-resolution reconstructions of SST and ?13CDIC in the eastern Mediterranean (EM) Sea, as inferred from oxygen and carbon isotope records from the skeletons of the reef builder gastropod Dendropoma sp. Spanning the past millennium, the SST reconstruction reveals a 250 year persistent warming trend during which the twentieth century was the warmest on record. Coupled with a distinct trend of 13CDIC depletion and superimposed upon decreased primary production, this climate reconstruction reflects a new state of the EM over the Anthropocene era that exceeds the natural variability of the last millennium.

Sisma-Ventura, Guy; Yam, Ruth; Shemesh, Aldo

2014-07-01

278

Many views, many modes, many tools ... one structure: Towards a Non-disruptive Integration of Personal Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

People yearn for more integration of their information. But tools meant to help often do the opposite-pulling people and their information in different directions. Fragmentation is potentially worsened as personal information moves onto the Web and into a myriad of special-purpose, mobile-enabled applications. How can tool developers innovate \\

William Jones; Kenneth M. Anderson

2011-01-01

279

A Comparison of Three Structural Models for Personality: The Big Three, the Big Five, and the Alternative Five  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major factors from 3 models of personality are compared: Eysenck's Three Factor model, Costa and McCrae's version of the Big Five, and Zuckerman and Kuhlman's Alternative Five. The 1st study describes the development of a questionnaire measure for the Alternative Five and the reliability assessments of the scales. The 2nd study used factor analysis to compare the factors among

Marvin Zuckerman; D. Michael Kuhlman; Jeffrey Joireman; Paul Teta; Michael Kraft

1993-01-01

280

Reviewing the Differences in Size, Composition and Structure between the Personal Networks of High-and Low-Performing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interesting aspect in the current literature about learning networks is the shift of focus from the understanding of the "whole network" of a course to the examination of the "personal networks" of individual students. This line of research is relatively new, based on small-scale studies and diverse analysis techniques,…

Casquero, Oskar; Ovelar, Ramón; Romo, Jesús; Benito, Manuel

2015-01-01

281

The Structure of the Biblioblogosphere: An Examination of the Linking Practices of Institutional and Personal Library Blogs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The biblioblogosphere is comprised of the institutional publication of blogs of libraries and the personal, professionally-oriented publication of blogs by librarians. Since introduction of this neologism in 2004, a number of researchers have examined this particular class of bloggers and blogging. However, there is limited investigation into the…

Finlay, S. Craig; Hank, Carolyn; Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Johnson, Michael

2013-01-01

282

The "Interaction with Disabled Persons" Scale: Revisiting Its Internal Consistency and Factor Structure, and Examining Item-Level Properties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Interaction with Disabled Persons" scale (IDP) has been used in research into baseline attitudes and to evaluate whether a shift in attitudes towards people with developmental disabilities has occurred following some form of intervention. This research has been conducted on the assumption that the IDP measures attitudes as a multidimensional…

Iacono, Teresa; Tracy, Jane; Keating, Jenny; Brown, Ted

2009-01-01

283

North Atlantic sea-level variability during the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate modelling studies have demonstrated that spatial and temporal sea-level variability observed in North Atlantic tide-gauge records is controlled by a complex array of processes, including ice-ocean mass exchange, freshwater forcing, steric changes, changes in wind fields, and variations in the speed of the Gulf Stream. Longer records of sea-level change, also covering the pre-industrial period, are important as a 'natural' and long-term baseline against which to test model performance and to place recent and future sea-level changes and ice-sheet change into a long-term context. Such records can only be reliably and continuously reconstructed from proxy methods. Salt marshes are capable of recording decimetre-scale sea-level variations with high precision and accuracy. In this paper we present four new high-resolution proxy records of (sub-) decadal sea-level variability reconstructed from salt-marsh sediments in Iceland, Nova Scotia, Maine and Connecticut that span the past 400 to 900 years. Our records, based on more than 100 new radiocarbon analyses, Pb-210 and Cs-137 measurements as well as other biological and geochemical age markers, together with hundreds of new microfossil observations from contemporary and fossil salt marshes, capture not only the rapid 20th century sea-level rise, but also small-scale (decimetre, multi-decadal) sea-level fluctuations during preceding centuries. We show that in Iceland three periods of rapid sea-level rise are synchronous with the three largest positive shifts of the reconstructed North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Along the North American east coast we compare our data with salt-marsh records from New Jersey, North Carolina and Florida and observe a trend of increased pre-industrial sea-level variability from south to north (Florida to Nova Scotia). Mass changes and freshwater forcing cannot explain this pattern. Based on comparisons with instrumental sea-level data and modelling studies we hypothesise that multi-decadal to centennial changes in wind and air pressure are more important than mass flux from land-based ice as drivers of North Atlantic sea-level variability during the last millennium.

Gehrels, Roland; Long, Antony; Saher, Margot; Barlow, Natasha; Blaauw, Maarten; Haigh, Ivan; Woodworth, Philip

2014-05-01

284

Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa's children and women of childbearing age live?  

PubMed

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments.Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation.Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the distribution of key vulnerable groups, and that doing so has substantial impacts on derived metrics through accounting for spatial demographic heterogeneities that exist within nations across Africa. PMID:23875684

Tatem, Andrew J; Garcia, Andres J; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Gaughan, Andrea E; Gilbert, Marius; Linard, Catherine

2013-01-01

285

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: a treatment review. What have we learned since the beginning of the millennium?  

PubMed

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) can significantly affect an individual's quality of life, the health care system, and even society. The first decade of the new millennium has seen renewed interest in this condition, but etiological understanding and evidence-based treatment availability remain limited. After the diagnosis of PNES is established, the first therapeutic step includes a presentation of the diagnosis that facilitates engagement in treatment. The purpose of this review is to present the current evidence of treatments for PNES published since the year 2000 and to discuss further needs for clinical treatment implementation and research. This article reviews clinical trials that have evaluated the efficacy of structured, standardized psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological interventions. The primary outcome measure in clinical trials for PNES is event frequency, although it is questionable whether this is the most accurate indicator of functional recovery. Cognitive behavioral therapy has evidence of efficacy, including one pilot randomized, controlled trial where cognitive behavioral therapy was compared with standard medical care. The antidepressant sertraline did not show a significant difference in event frequency change when compared to placebo in a pilot randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, but it did show a significant pre- versus posttreatment decrease in the active arm. Other interventions that have shown efficacy in uncontrolled trials include augmented psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy, group psychodynamic psychotherapy, group psychoeducation, and the antidepressant venlafaxine. Larger clinical trials of these promising treatments are necessary, while other psychotherapeutic interventions such as hypnotherapy, mindfulness-based therapies, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing may deserve exploration. Flexible delivery of treatment that considers the heterogeneous backgrounds of patients is emphasized as necessary for successful outcomes in clinical practice. PMID:23251092

Baslet, Gaston

2012-01-01

286

Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa’s children and women of childbearing age live?  

PubMed Central

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments. Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation. Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the distribution of key vulnerable groups, and that doing so has substantial impacts on derived metrics through accounting for spatial demographic heterogeneities that exist within nations across Africa. PMID:23875684

2013-01-01

287

Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being made available for the RWSS sector.

Mwendera, E. J.

288

Mystery Person  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this coordination.…

O'Brien, Tom

2011-01-01

289

Personal Finance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter presents four articles designed to help business educators educate learners in grades K-12 about personal finance. "Now More Than Ever: The Need for Financial Literacy" examines the following topics: evidence that the United States is becoming a nation of debtors; the plummeting personal savings rate; the increasing complexity of…

Wagner, June G.

2003-01-01

290

Poverty, Education, Gender and the Millennium Development Goals: Reflections on Boundaries and Intersectionality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article considers the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) concerned with poverty, education and gender (MDG 1, MDG 2 and MDG 3). Despite considerable achievements associated with the MDG approach, which entails international and national target setting and monitoring, a sharp distinction between areas of social policy is entailed. In addition…

Unterhalter, Elaine

2012-01-01

291

International Norm Dynamics and ‘the End of Poverty’: Understanding the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since their emergence in 2001, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have become accepted as consensus objectives of international development efforts. They have generated controversies and literature that focus on the economics of whether and how they can be achieved. However, little work has been done to understand why they became so widely accepted as an international normative framework of development.

David Hulme; Sakiko Fukudu-Parr

2009-01-01

292

Efficiency in Reaching the Millennium Development Goals. World Bank Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide clear targets and areas of focus for international organizations such as the World Bank. At a conceptual level, to reduce poverty and hunger, to improve education and health indicators, and to promote gender equality and sustainable development, countries can either increase the resources they…

Jayasuriya, Ruwan, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

293

Global Inequality, Capabilities, Social Justice: The Millennium Development Goal for Gender Equality in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for gender equality in education by 2005 has been criticised for its grandiose ambition, its failure to adequately conceptualise the nature of gender inequality or the diverse forms this takes, the inadequate policies developed to put the goal into practice and the limited measurements used for monitoring. The…

Unterhalter, E.

2005-01-01

294

The Challenges of Attaining Millennium Development Goals in Education in Africa by 2015  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Millennium Development Goals were established by the United Nations to help underdeveloped countries to overcome problems of illiteracy, poverty, low health status and quality of life. Much emphasis was placed on the attainment of MDG targets in education because of its pivotal role in national development. The targets include education for all…

Ojogwu, C. N.

2009-01-01

295

Knowledge of Millennium Development Goals among University Faculty in Uganda and Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the level of knowledge of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) among university faculty. The assessment is based on data from 197 academic unit or faculty heads randomly selected from universities in Uganda and Kenya. Frequency distributions and logistic regression were used for analysis. Slightly more than one in three…

Wamala, Robert; Nabachwa, Mary Sonko; Chamberlain, Jean; Nakalembe, Eva

2012-01-01

296

Contribution of Universities towards Knowledge of Millennium Development Goals (MDGS): A Study of Uganda and Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the contribution of universities towards students' awareness of issues related to Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The assessment is based on data of 1,920 students randomly selected from universities in Uganda and Kenya. Frequency distributions, the Chi-square test, and complementary log-log regression were used for…

Wamala, Robert; Chamberlain, Jean; Nabachwa, Mary Sonko

2012-01-01

297

Meeting the needs of the new millennium: passenger space travel and world economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without doubt, humans’ most urgent need at the start of the new millennium is the continuation of economic growth, which is the only means by which the great majority of the world population can lift themselves out of the poverty in which they live. A sine qua non for continuing economic growth is for the rich countries to continue to

Patrick Collins

2002-01-01

298

Learning for Development: The Commonwealth of Learning and the Millennium Development Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

World leaders, meeting at the United Nations in 2000, set eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that aim to transform the condition of humankind in the 21st century. These Goals now guide the policies of governments and the priorities of development agencies. These eight goals are: (1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2) Achieve…

Commonwealth of Learning, 2011

2011-01-01

299

The Economic and Human Development Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic growth and reduces fertility,

Dina Abu-Ghaida; Stephan Klasen

300

Simon Thoma Implementation and Impact of the Millennium Development Goals on Development Policies in Pakistan  

E-print Network

in Pakistan Implementation and Impact of the Millennium Development Goals on Development Policies in Pakistan are asked to make special efforts to move towards the Goals. Pakistan as a developing country faces many in Pakistan. The first research hypothesis states that the Goals do not have a direct impact on development

Richner, Heinz

301

Accelerating the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Ghana: Literacy, the Missing Link  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Millennium Development Goals launched in 2001 provide a worldwide agenda to reduce poverty by 2015. Though the eight goals provide synergies for the rapid reduction of poverty, the MDGs have come under criticism for being too narrow and sometimes leaving out critical aspects of human development and well-being. Although the MDGs address some…

Tagoe, Michael Ayitey

2011-01-01

302

Beyond the Millennium Development Goals: Public health challenges in water and sanitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 1 billion people lack access to improved water sources and 2.6 billion lack access to appropriate sanitation, greatly contributing to the global burden of disease. The international community has committed to reducing by half the proportion of the world's population lacking access to water and sanitation as a part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, the disease burden

R. Rheingans; R. Dreibelbis; M. C. Freeman

2006-01-01

303

Toward an Essential Ethic for Teaching Science in the New Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify and explore values and views that might underlie an essential ethic for teaching science in the new millennium. With such an ethic, teachers may be better able to prepare young people to form and fully participate in communities that restore and sustain Earth. Reviewed in the literature for this study were…

Hays, Irene de la Bretonne

304

Toward an essential ethic for teaching science in the new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify and explore values and views that might underlie an essential ethic for teaching science in the new millennium. With such an ethic, teachers may be better able to prepare young people to form and fully participate in communities that restore and sustain Earth. Reviewed in the literature for this study were changing

Irene De La Bretonne Hays

1997-01-01

305

The UN Millennium Development Goals, tourism and development: the tour operators' perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread perception of tourism as a development tool in the developing world has propagated, with many seeing tourism as a means of contributing to the UN Millennium Development Goals (UN-MDGs). While this remains a credible assumption, current literature offers a rather limited set of empirical studies to support it. This paper contributes to this body of knowledge by focusing

Marina Novelli; Alexander Hellwig

2011-01-01

306

Implications for Art Education in the Third Millennium: Art Technology Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most would agree that today's art education is far more complex than art activities such as making pumpkin paintings in October. For one, art education continually evolves in response to arts technology integration. What exactly are the implications for art education in the new millennium? In this article, the author presents and shows some of the…

Mayo, Sherry

2007-01-01

307

Solar influence on climate during the past millennium: Results from transient simulations  

E-print Network

Solar influence on climate during the past millennium: Results from transient simulations University, Stanford, CA, June 28, 2006 (received for review February 27, 2006) The potential role of solar that solar forcing may be less than previously believed. Because solar variability before the satellite

Lachniet, Matthew S.

308

Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 3: Adolescent Literacy. Praeger Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

2007-01-01

309

Post-Compulsory Education and the New Millennium. Higher Education Policy Series 54.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributors to this collection deal with many of the most important issues facing further education in the United Kingdom and present a graphic picture of the kinds of problems facing colleges as they move into the new millennium. The chapters are: (1) "The Changing Framework of Post-16 Education - The Rhetoric of Reform" (Colin Griffin and David…

Gray, David E., Ed.; Griffin, Colin, Ed.

310

Volcanoes and ENSO over the Past Millennium JULIEN EMILE-GEAY  

E-print Network

eruption of the millennium (A.D. 1258), and show that it is likely to have favored the occurrence eruptions in the en- tire Holocene occurred circa A.D. 1258 (Stothers 2000). Although both its timing O F C L I M A T E VOLUME 21 DOI: 10.1175/2007JCLI1884.1 #12;curred early in 1258 (probably January

Emile-Geay, Julien

311

Volcanoes and ENSO over the Past Millennium JULIEN EMILE-GEAY  

E-print Network

eruption of the millennium (A.D. 1258), and show that it is likely to have favored the occurrence eruptions in the en- tire Holocene occurred circa A.D. 1258 (Stothers 2000). Although both its timing;curred early in 1258 (probably January) and having caused massive rainfall anomalies, with adverse

Gilli, Adrian

312

Behind the Public Face of Kew: Education and Conservation in the Millennium Seed Bank  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At its Wakehurst Place garden in West Sussex, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, has established the UK home of one of the world's largest conservation projects, the Millennium Seed Bank (MSB) partnership, a global project to conserve biodiversity by collecting and preserving seeds. This article describes what the MSB partnership does, how seeds are…

McFarlane, Angela

2010-01-01

313

Vegetable gardens and their impact on the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attainment of the Millennium Development Goals is at severe risk, owing to rising malnutrition and high child stunting and mortality rates, greater poverty, a large increase in the incidence of noncommunicable diseases, and lack of progress in women's empowerment. Here, the role of vegetable home, school, community, and disaster recovery gardens as a pro-poor and pro-environment intervention in the

J. D. H. Keatinge; M. L. Chadha; J. d A. Hughes; W. J. Easdown; R. J. Holmer; A. Tenkouano; R. Y. Yang; R. Mavlyanova; S. Neave; V. Afari-Sefa; G. Luther; M. Ravishankar; C. Ojiewo; M. Belarmino; A. Ebert; J. F. Wang; L. J. Lin

2012-01-01

314

A multi-proxy perspective on millennium-long climate variability in the Southern Pyrenees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of selected, well-dated, multiproxy paleoclimatic records (lacustrine, dendrochronological, geomorphological) characterizes the main environmental changes occurred in the Southern Pyrenees during the last millennium. Warmer and relatively arid conditions prevailed during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, <1300 AD), with a significant development of xerophytes and Mediterranean vegetation and limited deciduous tree formations (mesophytes). The Little Ice Age (LIA, 1300-1800

M. Morellón; A. Pérez-Sanz; J. P. Corella; U. Büntgen; J. Catalán; P. González-Sampériz; J. J. González-Trueba; J. A. López-Sáez; A. Moreno; S. Pla; M. Á. Saz-Sánchez; P. Scussolini; E. Serrano; F. Steinhilber; V. Stefanova; T. Vegas-Vilarrúbia; B. Valero-Garcés

2011-01-01

315

Effects of anthropogenic land cover change on the carbon cycle of the last millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient simulations are performed over the entire last millennium with a general circulation model that couples the atmosphere, ocean, and the land surface with a closed carbon cycle. This setup applies a high-detail reconstruction of anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) as the only forcing to the climate system with two goals: (1) to isolate the effects of ALCC on the

J. Pongratz; C. H. Reick; T. Raddatz; M. Claussen

2009-01-01

316

Implementing the millennium development food security goals – Challenges of the southern African context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Millennium Development Goals’ target to halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger is extremely important in southern Africa, where food security has become increasingly problematic over the last 20 years. One “quick-win” proposal is replenishment of soil nutrients for smallholder farmers, through free or subsidised chemical fertilisers. Other proposals include appropriate irrigation technology, improved inputs and interventions

David Love; Steve Twomlow; Walter Mupangwa; Pieter van der Zaag; Bekithemba Gumbo

2006-01-01

317

96 International THE WORLD IN 2OO5 he new millennium opened with great expectations.  

E-print Network

96 International THE WORLD IN 2OO5 T he new millennium opened with great expectations. When 147 be in store. The goals were ambitious but achievable. In essence, the world leaders promised to take actions-policy thinking, the rich countries will finally make good on their commitment. Indeed, two important leaders

318

Northern Hemisphere Temperatures During the Past Millennium: Inferences, Uncertainties, and Limitations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geophysical Data Center provides the paper "Northern Hemisphere Temperatures During the Past Millennium: Inferences, Uncertainties, and Limitations" online. The article suggests, at moderately high levels of confidence, that 1998 was the warmest year and the 1990s were the warmest decade. The abstract may be viewed in HTML format, and the full-text article is available in .pdf format.

Mann, Michael E.

1999-01-01

319

The Future of Small Telescopes In The New Millennium. Volume I - Perceptions, Productivities, and Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

An invaluable reference for any student, scientist or administrator, using small telescopes for research. An essential collection of data and opinions for those charged with setting scientific and funding priorities. This three-volume set, The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium details the essential roles that small telescopes should play in 21st century science and how their future productivity

T. D. Oswalt

2003-01-01

320

The Future of Small Telescopes In The New Millennium. Volume II - The Telescopes We Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

An invaluable reference for any student, scientist or administrator, using small telescopes for research. An essential collection of data and opinions for those charged with setting scientific and funding priorities. This three-volume set, The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium details the essential roles that small telescopes should play in 21st century science and how their future productivity

T. D. Oswalt

2003-01-01

321

Solar activity, cosmic rays, and Earth's temperature: A millennium-scale comparison  

E-print Network

Solar activity, cosmic rays, and Earth's temperature: A millennium-scale comparison I. G. Usoskin. We use two recently reconstructed series of the sunspot number and the cosmic ray flux to study coefficients for the cosmic rays. The significance levels reach up to 99% but vary strongly for the different

Usoskin, Ilya G.

322

The Impact of ICT Use on New Millennium Learners' Educational Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) use on the educational performance of new millennium learners (NMLs). Even though many factors might influence individual performance besides ICT use itself, the research focus was on the relationship between the behavioral patterns of…

Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Kim, Minjeong

2011-01-01

323

Pan-Continental Droughts in North America over the Last Millennium* BENJAMIN I. COOK  

E-print Network

Pan-Continental Droughts in North America over the Last Millennium* BENJAMIN I. COOK NASA Goddard (Manuscript received 14 February 2013, in final form 22 July 2013) ABSTRACT Regional droughts are common in North America, but pan-continental droughts extending across multiple regions, including the 2012 event

Smerdon, Jason E.

324

The nexus between achieving the Millennium Development Goals and economic growth: the role of policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achieving the Millennium Development Goals is increasingly being accepted as a major development objective in Asian and Pacific countries. In this paper, it is argued that, in order to fulfill this objective, attention needs to be paid to the nexus between achieving the Goals and economic growth. Pro-growth MDGs are as important as pro-MDG growth. Appropriate macroeconomic and sectoral policies

Hiren Sarkar

2007-01-01

325

School Environmental Health Programs and the Challenges of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United Nations (UN) mandate of achieving healthful living for all by the year 2015 through the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is facing several challenges. In the school environment, and particularly in less developed countries (LDCs), the situation is further strained by both relatively weak infrastructure and competing governmental…

Ana, Godson R. E. E.; Shendell, Derek G.

2011-01-01

326

Nothing but the Truth? The United Nations and the Millennium Development Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United Nations established eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, with the target for achievement set at 2015. On the UN website a special section is devoted to the MDGs. In this article the website as it was presented in late 2013 is examined. Although the website was easy to negotiate, it was difficult to ascertain any…

Porter, Shirley

2014-01-01

327

Women at the Millennium, Accomplishments and Challenges Ahead. Facts on Working Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To benefit from new millennium opportunities, women should take advantage of the burgeoning information technology revolution and growth in other mathematics- and science-based occupations. Among occupations, professional jobs will increase the fastest and add the most employment. Among industries, the computer and data processing services…

Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

328

The Use of ICT in Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contribution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the contribution of higher education institutions in achieving these have been emphasized. This study sought to find out the extent to which university-based researches on ICTs addressed and impacted the three MDGs of gender…

Kaino, L. M.

2012-01-01

329

Schoolwide Literacy and Service-Learning through the Millennium Development Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the ways one school continues to enhance both literacy and service-learning through the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals. Over the course of their middle-school years, young adolescents at Canterbury School visit a range of sites in the community. They also explore service-learning at home and around the world by…

Wall, Amanda; Edmunds, J. Spencer

2009-01-01

330

An examination of the factor structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, narcissistic personality disorder criteria: one or two factors?  

PubMed

A growing body of research has suggested that narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) contains 2 factors or types: overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable. A recent factor analysis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), NPD symptoms supported a similar 2-factor model. The present research tested this proposed 2-factor solution against a 1-factor solution (N = 289; 72% patients) using both confirmatory factor analysis and an examination of associations between the resultant factors and theoretically relevant criteria (other personality disorders; depression, anxiety). The results of the confirmatory factor analysis supported a 1-factor solution. Likewise, the 2 factors each yielded a similar pattern of correlations with relevant criteria. Together, these results argue against a 2-factor structure for the current DSM-IV NPD symptoms. Given the broader research literature suggesting a 2-factor structure of narcissism, strategies for assessing both overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable forms of narcissism in DSM-V are discussed. PMID:18243885

Miller, Joshua D; Hoffman, Brian J; Campbell, W Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A

2008-01-01

331

Personal Computers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the hardware, software, applications, and current proliferation of personal computers (microcomputers). Includes discussions of microprocessors, memory, output (including printers), application programs, the microcomputer industry, and major microcomputer manufacturers (Apple, Radio Shack, Commodore, and IBM). (JN)

Toong, Hoo-min D.; Gupta, Amar

1982-01-01

332

Sociology of Aging in Canada: Issues for the Millennium. [and] Commentary: Sociological Issues for the Millennium. [and] Commentary: Asian Perspectives on Sociological Issues for the Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews sociological gerontology in Canada in four areas: (1) inequality, population aging, and the social construction of aging; (2) retirement and income security; (3) health, health care services, and health policy; and (4) family relations and caregiving. Identifies the importance of social structures for individual experience of aging.…

Chappell, Neena L.; Penning, Margaret J.

2001-01-01

333

Foundations and companies have a critical role to play in the decade remaining to achieve the Millennium  

E-print Network

and foundations be harmonized with the individual country MDG-related poverty reduction strategies? The Millennium in the context of MDG-based poverty reduction strategies will be another effective way for private companies

334

This article to appear in AI Magazine, Fall 1996. 1 Immobile Robots: AI in the New Millennium  

E-print Network

, autonomous space probes, chemical plant control systems, satellite constellations for re- mote ecosystem us into the New Millennium. Introduction The lime-light has shifted dramatically in the last few

Williams, Brian C.

335

This article to appear in AI Magazine, Fall 1996. 1 Immobile Robots: AI in the New Millennium \\Lambda  

E-print Network

, autonomous space probes, chemical plant control systems, satellite constellations for re­ mote ecosystem us into the New Millennium. Introduction The lime­light has shifted dramatically in the last few

Williams, Brian C.

336

Low-latitude Western North Atlantic climate variability during the past millennium : insights from proxies and models  

E-print Network

Estimates of natural climate variability during the past millennium provide a frame of reference in which to assess the significance of recent changes. This thesis investigates new methods of reconstructing low-latitude ...

Saenger, Casey Pearce

2009-01-01

337

77 FR 41779 - Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...operate a 15,900 horsepower compressor station and associated appurtenant...between Millennium's existing compressor station in Corning, New York and the planned Hancock Compressor Station. According to...

2012-07-16

338

Dynamic personalities of proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because proteins are central to cellular function, researchers have sought to uncover the secrets of how these complex macromolecules execute such a fascinating variety of functions. Although static structures are known for many proteins, the functions of proteins are governed ultimately by their dynamic character (or 'personality'). The dream is to 'watch' proteins in action in real time at atomic

Katherine Henzler-Wildman; Dorothee Kern

2007-01-01

339

Author's personal copy COMMUNICATION  

E-print Network

is weak and of poor quality indicating that these regions are disordered and/or assume multiple positionsAuthor's personal copy COMMUNICATION Structure of the Full-length Human RPA14/32 Complex Gives, have been determined for the full-length protein in multiple crystal forms. In all crystals

Borgstahl, Gloria

340

PERSONS WITH MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, Internal Self 1lelpers (ISM) of persons with multiple personality rlisorrler OWPI)) have been deseriberl by rr )7mill Humber of therapists. ii is .studV Iwo\\/ens the base ala I inaton relating to ISHs. Forty respondents who collectively had been therapists fur-rr totrtl of 690 i11P1) patients participated in the snarly. 77re findings of this study suti g ges

M. Ann Adams; Ann Adams; M. N. Sc

1989-01-01

341

The Creative Personality: A Synthesis and Development of the Creative Person Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several constructs from the research literature on the creative personality were reoperationalized to gain further understanding of the structure of the creative personality and to develop a broad measure of relevant traits (CPP—the Creative Person Profile). From an initial pool of 38 creativity relevant personality constructs, 7 factors were identified and labeled (emotional instability, ambition, associative orientation, motivation, need for

Øyvind L. Martinsen

2011-01-01

342

Personal Revelation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Activity: You are going to develop a scripture chain that teaches us how we can receive Personal Revelation. Remember, when we talk to Heavenly Father we call it prayer. When Heavenly Father responds to us by the Holy Ghost we call it Personal Revelation. Teaching Emphasis (Core) I cannot use any language that describes to you what a revelation is. Somebody said, How can I tell if I have a revelation? I have had a feeling that such and such is true. How can I be sure? ...Revelation is something you experience, and the way that ...

Brother Vasas

2008-10-15

343

Financing the Millennium Development Goals for health and beyond: sustaining the 'Big Push'  

PubMed Central

Many of the Millennium Development Goals are not being achieved in the world's poorest countries, yet only five years remain until the target date. The financing of these Goals is not merely insufficient; current evidence indicates that the temporary nature of the financing, as well as challenges to coordinating its delivery and directing it to the most needy recipients, hinder achievement of the Goals in countries that may benefit most. Traditional approaches to providing development assistance for health have not been able to address both prevalent and emergent public health challenges captured in the Goals; these challenges demand sustained forms of financial redistribution through a coordinated mechanism. A global social health protection fund is proposed to address recurring failures in the modern aid distribution mechanism. Such a Fund could use established and effective strategies for aid delivery to mitigate many financial problems currently undermining the Millennium Development Goals initiative. PMID:20932274

2010-01-01

344

Personality Disorders in Persons with Gender Identity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background. Investigations in the field of gender identity disorder (GID) have been mostly related to psychiatric comorbidity and severe psychiatric disorders, but have focused less on personality and personality disorders (PDs). Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of PDs in persons with GID as compared to cisgendered (a cisgender person is a person who is content to remain the gender they were assigned at birth) heterosexuals, as well as to biological sex. Methods. The study sample consisted of 30 persons with GID and 30 cisgendered heterosexuals from the general population. The assessment of PDs was conducted by application of the self-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PDs (SCID-II). Results. Persons with GID compared to cisgender heterosexuals have higher presence of PDs, particularly Paranoid PD, avoidant PDs, and comorbid PDs. In addition, MtF (transwomen are people assigned male at birth who identify as women) persons are characterized by a more severe psychopathological profile. Conclusions. Assessment of PDs in persons with GID is of great importance as it comprises a key part of personalized treatment plan tailoring, as well as a prognostic factor for sex-reassignment surgery (SRS) outcome. PMID:24959629

Duišin, Dragana; Batini?, Borjanka; Bariši?, Jasmina; Djordjevic, Miroslav L.; Vujovi?, Svetlana; Bizic, Marta

2014-01-01

345

Any Personality Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... About Us Home > Health & Education > Statistics > Prevalence Any Personality Disorder Statistics Home Prevalence Serious Mental Illness (SMI) Among ... Major Depression with Severe Impairment among Adolescents Any Personality ... Personality Disorder Avoidant Personality Disorder Borderline Personality ...

346

Times of Plenty, Times of Less: Last-Millennium Societal Disruption in the Pacific Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last millennium in the Pacific Basin (islands and continental rim) there was a marked contrast between ‘times of\\u000a plenty’ and ‘times of less’ for its human societies. This contrast is attributable to climate and sea-level variations, notably\\u000a the Medieval Warm Period (a.d. 700–1250) and the Little Ice Age (a.d. 1350–1800) separated by a time of rapid cooling and

Patrick D. Nunn; Rosalind Hunter-Anderson; Mike T. Carson; Frank Thomas; Sean Ulm; Michael J. Rowland

2007-01-01

347

Climate Change and War Frequency in Eastern China over the Last Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the association between climate change and warfare in eastern China over the past millennium from a macro-historic\\u000a perspective. High-resolution palaeo-temperature reconstructions and the complete record of warfare incidence in eastern China\\u000a were compared. Results show that warfare frequency in eastern China (its southern portion in particular) significantly correlated\\u000a with the Northern Hemisphere temperature oscillations. Almost all peaks of

David D. Zhang; Jane Zhang; Harry F. Lee; Yuan-qing He

2007-01-01

348

Climatic change over the last millennium in Tasmania reconstructed from tree-rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree-ring widths from millennium-old Huon pine (Lagarostrobos franklinii) trees have been used to reconstruct warm season (November-April) temperatures back to AD 900 for Tasmania. The reconstruction indicates that the most recent 100 years of climate have been highly unusual, with the coldest and warmest 25-year periods occurring from 1890 to 1914 and 1965 to 1989, respectively. Although the most recent

Er Cook; T. Bird; M. Peterson; M. Barbetti; B. Buckley; R. DArrigo; R. Francey

1992-01-01

349

Atlantic and Pacific Influences on Mesoamerican Climate Over the Past Millennium (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Montezuma baldcypress (Taxodium mucronatum) trees in Queretaro have been used to develop the first exactly dated millennium-long tree-ring chronology in central Mexico. The chronology is sensitive to both precipitation and temperature, and has been used to reconstruct the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for June from AD 771-2008 for a large sector of Mesoamerica (most of central and southern Mexico).

D. W. Stahle; D. J. Burnette; J. Villanueva; M. K. Cleaveland

2010-01-01

350

Constraining temperature variations over the last millennium by comparing simulated and observed atmospheric CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of atmospheric CO2 and climate to the reconstructed variability in solar irradiance and radiative forcing by volcanoes over the last millennium is examined by applying a coupled physical-biogeochemical climate model that includes the Lund-Potsdam-Jena dynamic global vegetation model (LPJ-DGVM) and a simplified analogue of a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. The modeled variations of atmospheric CO2 and Northern

S. Gerber; F. Joos; P. Brügger; T. F. Stocker; M. E. Mann; S. Sitch; M. Scholze

2003-01-01

351

Natural forcing of climate during the last millennium: fingerprint of solar variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability of the climate during the last millennium is partly forced by changes in total solar irradiance (TSI). Nevertheless,\\u000a the amplitude of these TSI changes is very small so that recent reconstruction data suggest that low frequency variations\\u000a in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and in the thermohaline circulation may have amplified, in the North Atlantic sector\\u000a and mostly

D. Swingedouw; L. Terray; C. Cassou; A. Voldoire; D. Salas-Mélia; J. Servonnat

2011-01-01

352

Youth and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): Challenges and Opportunities for Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young people ages 15 to 24 are 1.2 billion of the world’s human capital. Around the world, many of them are already making contributions to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and their work should be further acknowledged and strengthened. Increasingly, youth are recognized as key participants in decision-making and development, as reflected in the growing presence of non-governmental youth organizations

Amir Farmanesh; Melanie Ashton; Luis Davila-Ortega; Emily Freeburg; Catherine Kamping; Solange Marquez; Cameron Neil; Richard Bartlett

2005-01-01

353

Countdown to 2015: will the Millennium Development Goal for child survival be met?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), ratified by most nations in 2000, set specific targets for poverty reduction, eradication of hunger, education, gender equality, health and environmental sustainability. MDG 4 aims to reduce child mortality with a target of reducing under-five mortality rates by two thirds over the period 1990–2015. Over the last year, Live Aid, Make Poverty History, the G8

Joy E Lawn; Anthony Costello; Charles Mwansambo; David Osrin

2007-01-01

354

Waking and dreaming: Related but structurally independent. Dream reports of congenitally paraplegic and deaf-mute persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of dream analysis either assume a continuum of waking and dreaming or the existence of two dissociated realities. Both approaches rely on different methodology. Whereas continuity models are based on content analysis, discontinuity models use a structural approach. In our study, we applied both methods to test specific hypotheses about continuity or discontinuity. We contrasted dream reports of congenitally

Ursula Voss; Inka Tuin; Karin Schermelleh-Engel; Allan Hobson

2011-01-01

355

Are Low-Income Canadians Financially Literate? Placing Financial Literacy in the Context of Personal and Structural Constraints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that financial literacy varies across socioeconomic groups and their neighborhoods, in part because of the adult learning that occurs within a local context. The study begins by explaining that financial literacy needs vary across socioeconomic groups and that there are important structural factors affecting the financial…

Buckland, Jerry

2010-01-01

356

Measurement Structure of the Trait Hope Scale in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the measurement structure of the Trait Hope Scale (THS) among individuals with spinal cord injury. Design: Confirmatory factor analysis and reliability and validity analyses were performed. Participants: 242 individuals with spinal cord injury. Results: Results support the two-factor measurement model for the THS with agency…

Smedema, Susan Miller; Pfaller, Joseph; Moser, Erin; Tu, Wei-Mo; Chan, Fong

2013-01-01

357

Age and Education Effects on Relationships of Cognitive Test Scores With Brain Structure in Demographically Diverse Older Persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how age and education influence the relationship between neuropsychological test scores and brain structure in demographically diverse older adults spanning the range from normal cognition to dementia. A sample of 351 African Americans, 410 Hispanics, and 458 Whites underwent neuropsychological testing. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of total brain, white matter hyperintensity, and hippocampus were available

Dan Mungas; Bruce R. Reed; Sarah Tomaszewski Farias; Charles DeCarli

2009-01-01

358

Structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Criteria for Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorder in Patients With Binge Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine 1-, 2-, and 3-factor model structures through confirmatory analytic procedures for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) criteria in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method Participants were consecutive outpatients (n = 263) with binge eating disorder and were assessed with semi-structured interviews. The 8 OCPD criteria were submitted to confirmatory factor analyses in Mplus Version 4.2 (Los Angeles, CA) in which previously identified factor models of OCPD were compared for fit, theoretical relevance, and parsimony. Nested models were compared for significant improvements in model fit. Results Evaluation of indices of fit in combination with theoretical considerations suggest a multifactorial model is a significant improvement in fit over the current DSM-IV single-factor model of OCPD. Though the data support both 2- and 3-factor models, the 3-factor model is hindered by an underspecified third factor. Conclusion A multifactorial model of OCPD incorporating the factors perfectionism and rigidity represents the best compromise of fit and theory in modelling the structure of OCPD in patients with BED. A third factor representing miserliness may be relevant in BED populations but needs further development. The perfectionism and rigidity factors may represent distinct intrapersonal and interpersonal attempts at control and may have implications for the assessment of OCPD. PMID:19087485

Ansell, Emily B; Pinto, Anthony; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Grilo, Carlos M

2013-01-01

359

Removal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products during Water Recycling: Microbial Community Structure and Effects of Substrate Concentration  

PubMed Central

Many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been shown to be biotransformed in water treatment systems. However, little research exists on the effect of initial PPCP concentration on PPCP biotransformation or on the microbial communities treating impacted water. In this study, biological PPCP removal at various concentrations was assessed using laboratory columns inoculated with wastewater treatment plant effluent. Pyrosequencing was used to examine microbial communities in the columns and in soil from a soil aquifer treatment (SAT; a method of water treatment prior to reuse) site. Laboratory columns were supplied with different concentrations (0.25, 10, 100, or 1,000 ?g liter?1) of each of 15 PPCPs. Five PPCPs (4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol [biosol], p-chloro-m-xylenol, gemfibrozil, ketoprofen, and phenytoin) were not removed at any tested concentrations. Two PPCPs (naproxen and triclosan) exhibited removals independent of PPCP concentration. PPCP removal efficiencies were dependent on initial concentrations for biphenylol, p-chloro-m-cresol, chlorophene, diclofenac, 5-fluorouracil, ibuprofen, and valproic acid, showing that PPCP concentration can affect biotransformation. Biofilms from sand samples collected from the 0.25- and 10-?g liter?1 PPCP columns were pyrosequenced along with SAT soil samples collected on three consecutive days of a wetting and drying cycle to enable comparison of these two communities exposed to PPCPs. SAT communities were similar to column communities in taxonomy and phylotype composition, and both were found to contain close relatives of known PPCP degraders. The efficiency of biological removal of PPCPs was found to be dependent on the concentration at which the contamination occurs for some, but not all, PPCPs. PMID:24509919

Onesios-Barry, Kathryn M.; Berry, David; Proescher, Jody B.; Sivakumar, I. K. Ashok

2014-01-01

360

Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products during water recycling: microbial community structure and effects of substrate concentration.  

PubMed

Many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been shown to be biotransformed in water treatment systems. However, little research exists on the effect of initial PPCP concentration on PPCP biotransformation or on the microbial communities treating impacted water. In this study, biological PPCP removal at various concentrations was assessed using laboratory columns inoculated with wastewater treatment plant effluent. Pyrosequencing was used to examine microbial communities in the columns and in soil from a soil aquifer treatment (SAT; a method of water treatment prior to reuse) site. Laboratory columns were supplied with different concentrations (0.25, 10, 100, or 1,000 ?g liter(-1)) of each of 15 PPCPs. Five PPCPs (4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol [biosol], p-chloro-m-xylenol, gemfibrozil, ketoprofen, and phenytoin) were not removed at any tested concentrations. Two PPCPs (naproxen and triclosan) exhibited removals independent of PPCP concentration. PPCP removal efficiencies were dependent on initial concentrations for biphenylol, p-chloro-m-cresol, chlorophene, diclofenac, 5-fluorouracil, ibuprofen, and valproic acid, showing that PPCP concentration can affect biotransformation. Biofilms from sand samples collected from the 0.25- and 10-?g liter(-1) PPCP columns were pyrosequenced along with SAT soil samples collected on three consecutive days of a wetting and drying cycle to enable comparison of these two communities exposed to PPCPs. SAT communities were similar to column communities in taxonomy and phylotype composition, and both were found to contain close relatives of known PPCP degraders. The efficiency of biological removal of PPCPs was found to be dependent on the concentration at which the contamination occurs for some, but not all, PPCPs. PMID:24509919

Onesios-Barry, Kathryn M; Berry, David; Proescher, Jody B; Sivakumar, I K Ashok; Bouwer, Edward J

2014-04-01

361

Age and education effects on relationships of cognitive test scores with brain structure in demographically diverse older persons  

PubMed Central

This study examined how age and education influence the relationship between neuropsychological test scores and brain structure in demographically diverse older adults spanning the range from normal cognition to dementia. A sample of 351 African Americans, 410 Hispanics, and 458 Caucasians received neuropsychological testing; volumetric MRI measures of total brain, white matter hyperintensity, and hippocampus were available for 79 African Americans, 102 Hispanics, and 134 Caucasians. Latent variable modeling was used to examine effects of age, education, and brain volumes on test scores and determine how much variance brain volumes explained in unadjusted and age and education adjusted scores. Age adjustment resulted in weaker relationships of test scores with MRI variables and adjustment for ethnicity yielded stronger relationships. Education adjustment increased relationships with MRI in the combined sample and in Hispanics, made no difference in Caucasians, but decreased some associations in African Americans. Results suggest that demographic adjustment is beneficial when demographic variables are strongly related to test scores independent of measures of brain structure, but adjustment has negative consequences when effects of demographic characteristics are mediated by brain structure. PMID:19290743

Mungas, Dan; Reed, Bruce R.; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; DeCarli, Charles

2010-01-01

362

Person Perception and Personality Pathology  

PubMed Central

Studies of person perception (people's impressions and beliefs about others) have developed important concepts and methods that can be used to help improve the assessment of personality disorders. They may also inspire advances in our knowledge of the nature and origins of these conditions. Information collected from peers and other types of informants is reliable and provides a perspective that often differs substantially from that obtained using questionnaires and interviews. For some purposes, this information is quite useful. Much remains to be learned about the incremental validity (and potential biases) associated with data from various kinds of informants. PMID:20539833

Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Turkheimer, Eric

2010-01-01

363

Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. METHODS: The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was compared to 84

Roope Tikkanen; Matti Holi; Nina Lindberg; Matti Virkkunen

2007-01-01

364

Personality structure in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus), Scottish wildcat (Felis silvestris grampia), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), snow leopard (Panthera uncia), and African lion (Panthera leo): a comparative study.  

PubMed

Although the study of nonhuman personality has increased in the last decade, there are still few studies on felid species, and the majority focus on domestic cats. We assessed the structure of personality and its reliability in five felids-domestic cats, clouded leopards, snow leopards, African lions, and previous data on Scottish wildcats-and compared the results. In addition to the benefits of understanding more about this taxon, comparative studies of personality structure have the potential to provide information on evolutionary relationships among closely related species. Each of the species studied was found to have three factors of personality. Scottish wildcats' factors were labeled Dominance, Agreeableness, and Self Control; domestic cats' factors were Dominance, Impulsiveness, and Neuroticism; clouded leopards' factors were Dominance/Impulsiveness, Agreeableness/Openness, and Neuroticism; snow leopards' factors were Dominance, Impulsiveness/Openness, and Neuroticism; and African lions' factors were Dominance, Impulsiveness, and Neuroticism. The Neuroticism and Impulsiveness factors were similar, as were two of the Dominance factors. A taxon-level personality structure also showed three similar factors. Age and sex effects are also discussed. PMID:25111629

Gartner, Marieke Cassia; Powell, David M; Weiss, Alexander

2014-11-01

365

New millennium long oak tree-ring width chronology and its potential for climate reconstruction for the Czech Lands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution provides basic information about a newly created oak (Quercus sp) tree ring width (TRW) chronology spatially covering the territory of the Czech Republic (CR) in the 761-2012 period. The series was completed from more than 3000 oak TRW samples of living, historical and sub-fossil material. At first variability in age structure, number of replications and common signal strength through time are discussed. Then we introduce a methodology how positive and negative extremes may be defined from high-pass filtered TRW oak series. Based on an assumption that positive/negative extremes indicate an occurrence of extremely wet/dry seasons in a moisture sensitive oak TRW chronology we verify this hypothesis against extremely wet/dry seasons that are known from various types of documentary evidence for the territory of CR. Degree of agreement in extremes found in both oak TRW series and documentary based precipitation index series is discussed. Finally mean CR precipitation series completed from 14 long homogenized station measurements and starting at 1803 is used to test a potential of the newly created oak TRW series for quantitative reconstruction of precipitation and drought characteristics of millennium lengths.

Dobrovolný, Petr; Brázdil, Rudolf; ?ezní?ková, Ladislava; Rybní?ek, Michal; Kolá?, Tomáš; Büntgen, Ulf

2014-05-01

366

Personal Beacon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MicroPLB (personal locator beacon) is a search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) transmitter. When activated it emits a distress signal to a constellation of internationally operated satellites. The endangered person's identity and location anywhere on Earth is automatically forwarded to central monitoring stations around the world. It is accurate to within just a few meters. The user uses the device to download navigation data from a global positioning satellite receiver. After the download is complete, the MicroPLB functions as a self-locating beacon. Also, it is the only PLB to use a safe battery. In the past, other PLB devices have used batteries that have enough volatility to explode with extreme force. It was developed by Microwave Monolithic, Inc. through SBIR funding from Glenn Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center.

2000-01-01

367

Molecular imprinting: at the edge of the third millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) represent a new class of materials that have artificially created receptor structures 1–3. Since their discovery in 1972, MIPs have attracted considerable interest from scientists and engineers involved with the development of chromatographic adsorbents, membranes, sensors and enzyme and receptor mimics.

Sergey A Piletsky; Susan Alcock; Anthony P. F Turner

2001-01-01

368

Personality Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality disorders (PDs) represent some of the most insidious and challenging psychiatric conditions that clinicians encounter,\\u000a and often create unwarranted and unwanted conflicts in clinical settings. The reasons for these conflicts lie at the core\\u000a of the PD pathology, namely, a fundamental impairment in interpersonal relationships that leads to a variety of maladaptive,\\u000a inappropriate, or outrageous behaviors that the affected

Marc E. Agronin

369

Animal personalities: consequences for ecology and evolution  

E-print Network

variation as an important factor affecting intra- and interspecific competition and the structure intraspecific variation. Personality differences in animal populations The study of animal behavior has

Langerhans, Brian

370

The personality of prostitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two female prostitutes and 32 controls were compared on the five scales of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) and responses to a semi-structured interview. It was predicted that prostitutes would score higher on the Impulsive Sensation Seeking (ImpSS) and Aggression-Hostility (Agg-Host) scales. Differences between the groups on age and education were controlled by analysis of covariance. The ANCOVA showed the

Dennis M. O'Sullivan; Marvin Zuckerman; Michael Kraft

1996-01-01

371

Antisocial Personality Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... About Us Home > Health & Education > Statistics > Prevalence Antisocial Personality Disorder Statistics Home Prevalence Serious Mental Illness (SMI) Among ... Major Depression with Severe Impairment among Adolescents Any Personality ... Disorder Avoidant Personality Disorder Borderline Personality ...

372

Borderline Personality Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... About Us Home > Health & Education > Statistics > Prevalence Borderline Personality Disorder Statistics Home Prevalence Serious Mental Illness (SMI) Among ... Major Depression with Severe Impairment among Adolescents Any Personality ... Disorder Avoidant Personality Disorder Borderline Personality ...

373

Personalized neuroprosthetics.  

PubMed

Decades of technological developments have populated the field of neuroprosthetics with myriad replacement strategies, neuromodulation therapies, and rehabilitation procedures to improve the quality of life for individuals with neuromotor disorders. Despite the few but impressive clinical successes, and multiple breakthroughs in animal models, neuroprosthetic technologies remain mainly confined to sophisticated laboratory environments. We summarize the core principles and latest achievements in neuroprosthetics, but also address the challenges that lie along the path toward clinical fruition. We propose a pragmatic framework to personalize neurotechnologies and rehabilitation for patient-specific impairments to achieve the timely dissemination of neuroprosthetic medicine. PMID:24197737

Borton, David; Micera, Silvestro; Millán, José del R; Courtine, Grégoire

2013-11-01

374

A multi-proxy model-tested NAO reconstruction for the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we propose a new last millennium reconstruction of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic. For this purpose, we use a selection of 60 annually to decadally resolved proxy records from different archives (ice cores, tree rings, speleothems, and lake and ocean sediments), which are distributed around the Atlantic Ocean and continental boundaries. These records are selected for showing a significant correlation with the longest instrumental NAO time series. The reconstruction is based on a Principal Component Regression (PCR) technique using a subset of the initial predictors. Two pseudo-proxy studies based on the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) and the last millennium PMIP3 simulations are performed to validate the choice of proxies and therefore produce a model and reanalysis-consistent NAO. This is a novel approach in which proxy and model worlds are combined with the aim of improving the reliability of the reconstruction. An ensemble of reconstructions is additionally generated to explore the potential uncertainties inherent to the reconstruction method (i.e. calibration period, number of PCs retained, level of significance imposed, and data smoothing). Thus, we provide a robust benchmark that enables us to test recent hypotheses. For example, no persistent positive NAO phase is observed during medieval times, in clear contrast with the bi-proxy NAO reconstruction by Trouet et al (2009). Furthermore, no significant link between the winter NAO and the external forcings is identified, thus opposed to previous results with climate models. Finally, our millennial reconstruction depicts a remarkable shift around 1450 AD, characterised by a fast negative-to-positive NAO transition lying within the range of recent winter NAO excursions. This result supports that 20th century NAO variability is not unprecedent in the context of the last millennium, in line with the IPCC AR5.

Ortega, Pablo; Lehner, Flavio; Casado, Mathieu; Swingedouw, Didier; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Yiou, Pascal; Raible, Christoph

2014-05-01

375

Personal Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For this homework assignment, students have to draw two scaled timelines. The first is a personal timeline. They need to come up with the events themselves, an easy task that will build confidence for student who are intimidated by science and math. Following guidelines, they decide on a scale, and draw a linear timeline on which they plot their chosen events. Most students will primarily include recent events. They are asked to identify and explain any patterns in their timeline. Students should note the clustering at the present, and describe the emphasis on the present as resulting from memory, relevance to future hopes and worries, etc. The second timeline is more traditional. The students are given 16 Earth history events with dates and asked to draw another timeline, using the procedure from the personal timeline, but the line is already drawn for them. They will probably recognize most of the events on the list, and will be keeping them in order and spacing them out on the timeline. They are once again asked to identify and explain patterns and should recognize the emphasis on the present. This time, availability of fossils/rocks and relevance to current conditions and problems are good answers.

Rebecca Teed

376

Holding a country countdown to 2015 conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – the Zambian experience  

PubMed Central

Initiatives such as the Country Countdown to 2015 Conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided countries with high maternal and child deaths like Zambia a platform to assess progress, discuss challenges and share lessons learnt as a conduit for national commitment to reaching and attaining the MDGs four and five. This paper discusses and highlights the process of holding a successful country countdown conference and shares Zambia’s experience with other countries planning to organise country countdown to 2015 Conferences on MDGs. PMID:24447509

2014-01-01

377

Big hopes for the children of the world: a review of the Millennium Development Goals.  

PubMed

The Millennium Development Goals are a set of eight goals drafted by the United Nations in 2000 with the aim of improving the health and welfare of people worldwide. The goals provide specific targets to be met by 2015, using the 1990 basis as a standard. This review presents these goals as they relate to children, discussing progress and future aims. Although not all eight goals specifically address children, each has its own impact on global child health. Thus far, much progress has been made, but increased rates of improvement must be achieved in order to meet the goals by 2015 and improve the health of children worldwide. PMID:22041462

Keating, E M; Chock, M; Fischer, P R

2011-01-01

378

Climate Forcing Reconstructions for Use in PMIP Simulations of the Last Millennium (v1.0)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulations of climate over the Last Millennium (850-1850 CE) have been incorporated into the third phase of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3). The drivers of climate over this period are chiefly orbital, solar, volcanic, changes in land use/land cover and some variation in greenhouse gas levels. While some of these effects can be easily defined, the reconstructions of solar, volcanic and land use-related forcing are more uncertain. We describe here the approach taken in defining the scenarios used in PMIP3, document the forcing reconstructions and discuss likely implications.

Schmidt, Gavin A.; Jungclaus, J.H.; Steinhilber, F.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Ammann, C. M.; Bard, E.; Braconnot, P.; Crowley, T. J.; Delayque, G.; Joos, F.; Krivova, N. A.; Muscheler, R.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Pongratz, J.; Shindell, D. T.; Solanki, S. K.

2011-01-01

379

The Number of Mentally Retarded--A Result of Steps Taken by Society? Changes in the Age Structure among Mentally Retarded Persons in Sweden 1973-1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From 1973 to 1983 the number and proportion of mentally retarded persons in the total population of Sweden has not changed, but there are fewer children and young persons and more adults. The changes are hypothetically attributed to prenatal diagnosis, improved obstetrical techniques, and the introduction of antibiotics in 1948. (Author/VW)

Wallner, Teut

1988-01-01

380

Dust and temperature influences on glaciofluvial sediment deposition in southwestern Tibet during the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust over the Himalayas and southern Tibetan Plateau may influence high-elevation temperature and hydrology across Asia, but little is known about long-term dust variability and its relationship with regional climate over the last millennium. Here we have reconstructed a proxy record of past dust and temperature impacts on glacial streamflow and sediment deposition in Kiang Co, a small lake on the southwestern Tibetan Plateau. Terrigenous elemental variability in the Kiang Co sediment record, a proxy for glaciofluvial sediment deposition in the lake, covaries with the Dasuopu ice core dust record from the central Himalayas on centennial timescales. The relationship between the Kiang Co sediment record and Dasuopu indicates coherent dust forcing across the central Himalayas over much of the last millennium, and suggests that regional dustiness influences glacial streamflow and sediment transport on centennial timescales. In addition, the Kiang Co terrigenous elemental abundance record is positively correlated with May-September temperatures from the Tibetan Plateau to central India from 1870 to 2007 AD, highlighting the important influence of temperature on melting and streamflow in this region, as well as a relationship between dust and temperature on centennial timescales. These findings strengthen the likelihood of future dustiness with continued warming, along with further increases in melting and high-elevation streamflow in coming decades.

Conroy, Jessica L.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Cole, Julia E.; Liu, Kam-Biu; Wang, Luo; Ducea, Mihai N.

2013-08-01

381

Relationship between sea ice variability and atmospheric circulation during the last millennium in Antarctic Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric circulation influences the seasonal sea ice duration in Antarctic Peninsula and plays a significant role on the heat budget in Antarctica. However, little is know about past regional variations of this important component of the earth climate system . In this study, we present two marine sediment core records covering the last millennium from key located in the eastern and the western sides of Antarctic Peninsula. We combined diatom assemblages and specific sea-ice biomarkers to document changes in sea ice, hydrology and primary productivity over the last ~700 years. Diatom assemblage and biomarker variations were coincident with Na+ concentration record in Siple Dome ice core suggesting that oceanic conditions variations, upper circumpolar deep water upwelling and Weddell Gyre intensity in west and east Antarctic Peninsula areas respectively, responded to the atmospheric circulation variability during the last millennium. For both regions, we identified a period of shorter seasonal sea ice cover and reduced primary productivity related to a strengthening of the Westerlies during the so-called Little Ice Age (LIA) period. Acooler interval, characterized by an increase of the sea ice seasonal duration, a stronger water column stratification and a higher productivity extending of the last two centuries as a response to a weakening of wind intensity has also been indentifed. We propose that the globally mild environmental conditions in both sides of the Antarctic Peninsula during the LIA resulted from a common atmospheric forcing such as the greater occurrence of positive SAM anomalies during that period.

Barbara, L.; Crosta, X.; Schmidt, S.; Massé, G.

2013-05-01

382

Millennium tree-ring reconstruction of drought variability in the eastern Qilian Mountains, northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of natural long-term drought variability is essential for water resource management and planning, especially in arid and sub-arid regions of the world. In the eastern Qilian Mountains of China, long-term drought variability based on high-resolution proxy records such as tree-ring data are still scarce to date. Here we present a new tree-ring chronology from the eastern Qilian Mountains which provides a valuable 1,002-year record (1009-2010 CE) of drought variability. The new reconstruction of June-July 5-month scale standardized precipitation and evapotranspiration index is the first millennium tree-ring estimate of past climate developed in the eastern Qilian Mountains. The record shows that this region has experienced several persistent droughts and pluvials over the past millennium, with significantly drier climate during the fifteenth century and dramatic wetting since the nineteenth century. The low frequency generally agrees with other nearby studies based on both tree-ring data and other proxy data.

Gou, Xiaohua; Deng, Yang; Gao, Linlin; Chen, Fahu; Cook, Edward; Yang, Meixue; Zhang, Fen

2014-12-01

383

Tree ring inferred summer temperature variations over the last millennium in western Himalaya, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first millennium-long reconstruction of mean summer (May-June-July-August) temperature extending back to AD 940 derived from tree-ring width data of Himalayan pencil juniper ( Juniperus polycarpos C. Koch) from the monsoon-shadow zone in the western Himalaya, India. Centennial-scale variations in the reconstruction reveal periods of protracted warmth encompassing the 11-15th centuries. A decreasing trend in mean summer temperature occurred since the 15th century with the 18-19th centuries being the coldest interval of the last millennium, coinciding with the expansion of glaciers in the western Himalaya. Since the late 19th century summer temperatures increased again. However, current warming may be underestimated due to a weakening in tree growth-temperature relationship noticeable in the latter part of the 20th century. Mean summer temperature over the western Himalaya shows a positive correlation with summer monsoon intensity over north central India. Low-frequency variations in mean summer temperature anomalies over northwestern India are consistent with tree-ring inferred aridity in western North America. These far-distance linkages reported here for the first time underscore the utility of long-term temperature records from the western Himalayan region in understanding global-scale climatic patterns.

Yadav, Ram Ratan; Braeuning, Achim; Singh, Jayendra

2011-04-01

384

A tree-ring reconstruction of the South Asian summer monsoon index over the past millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) is a major atmospheric synoptic climate system affecting nearly a quarter of the human population. Climate proxy data derived from tree rings, ice cores, speleothems, and other sources can all contribute to an understanding of SASM variability prior to instrumental period. Here, we develop an optimal information extraction (OIE) method, which we use to reconstruct the SASM index (SASMI) over the last millennium using 15 tree-ring chronologies. The record generated is significantly correlated (r = 0.7, p < 0.01) with the instrumental SASMI record on annual timescales; this correlation is higher than that obtained in any previous study. The reconstructed SASMI captures 18 of 26 (69%) reordered historical famine events in India over the last millennium; notably, 11 of 16 short events with durations of 1-3 years are accurately depicted in our reconstruction. Moreover, the reconstructed SASMI is positively correlated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on multi-decadal timescales implying that variations in solar activity may influence the SASM. Based on the response of SASM to 34 significant volcanic events using the superposed epoch analysis, the volcanic forcing may drive a weak SASM in the second year of an eruption.

Shi, Feng; Li, Jianping; Wilson, Rob J. S.

2014-10-01

385

A tree-ring reconstruction of the South Asian summer monsoon index over the past millennium.  

PubMed

The South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) is a major atmospheric synoptic climate system affecting nearly a quarter of the human population. Climate proxy data derived from tree rings, ice cores, speleothems, and other sources can all contribute to an understanding of SASM variability prior to instrumental period. Here, we develop an optimal information extraction (OIE) method, which we use to reconstruct the SASM index (SASMI) over the last millennium using 15 tree-ring chronologies. The record generated is significantly correlated (r = 0.7, p < 0.01) with the instrumental SASMI record on annual timescales; this correlation is higher than that obtained in any previous study. The reconstructed SASMI captures 18 of 26 (69%) reordered historical famine events in India over the last millennium; notably, 11 of 16 short events with durations of 1-3 years are accurately depicted in our reconstruction. Moreover, the reconstructed SASMI is positively correlated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on multi-decadal timescales implying that variations in solar activity may influence the SASM. Based on the response of SASM to 34 significant volcanic events using the superposed epoch analysis, the volcanic forcing may drive a weak SASM in the second year of an eruption. PMID:25338702

Shi, Feng; Li, Jianping; Wilson, Rob J S

2014-01-01

386

Thinking Outside of the Box: First Light of the Millennium Run Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will introduce the Millennium Run Observatory (MRO), a unique project that is narrowing the gap between cosmological simulations and real observations. Key to this project is a new post-processing method applied to the Millennium Run dark matter simulations and semi-analytic galaxy models that allows us to generate highly realistic multi-wavelength data sets in the observer's frame. Different from most model-data comparisons performed in the literature today, the MRO produces data analogous to real telescope data. These virtual observations can be analyzed using the exact same methods and tools that are typically applied to real data, leading to a much better understanding of both the observations and simulations. We will demonstrate the power of this true "virtual observatory" by analyzing detailed simulated and real data sets probing the evolution of galaxy populations in, e.g., the UDF and the on-going multicycle HST treasury program CANDELS and in galaxy clusters at high redshift. * This work was supported by Advanced Grant 246797 "GALFORMOD" from the European Research Council.

Overzier, Roderik; Lemson, G.; Henriques, B.; Angulo, R.

2012-01-01

387

A tree-ring reconstruction of the South Asian summer monsoon index over the past millennium  

PubMed Central

The South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) is a major atmospheric synoptic climate system affecting nearly a quarter of the human population. Climate proxy data derived from tree rings, ice cores, speleothems, and other sources can all contribute to an understanding of SASM variability prior to instrumental period. Here, we develop an optimal information extraction (OIE) method, which we use to reconstruct the SASM index (SASMI) over the last millennium using 15 tree-ring chronologies. The record generated is significantly correlated (r = 0.7, p < 0.01) with the instrumental SASMI record on annual timescales; this correlation is higher than that obtained in any previous study. The reconstructed SASMI captures 18 of 26 (69%) reordered historical famine events in India over the last millennium; notably, 11 of 16 short events with durations of 1–3 years are accurately depicted in our reconstruction. Moreover, the reconstructed SASMI is positively correlated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on multi-decadal timescales implying that variations in solar activity may influence the SASM. Based on the response of SASM to 34 significant volcanic events using the superposed epoch analysis, the volcanic forcing may drive a weak SASM in the second year of an eruption. PMID:25338702

Shi, Feng; Li, Jianping; Wilson, Rob J. S.

2014-01-01

388

ENSO-driven flooding events in East Java, Indonesia during the past Millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent severe El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have highlighted the importance of understanding the mechanisms driving ENSO variability and how ENSO relates to extreme precipitation anomalies. Expanding the record of ENSO-driven precipitation anomalies over the last millennium through paleoclimate reconstructions illuminates how ENSO has varied in the past through periods of relatively enhanced and reduced radiative forcing, namely the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). Modern precipitation anomalies in East Java, Indonesia are strongly correlated to variations in ENSO, where La Niña events correspond to positive precipitation anomalies (Hendon, 2003, Journal of Climate). We present the first record of runoff events from lake sediment deposits in East Java, Indonesia spanning the last millennium, which historically occur during strong La Niña events. Our record reveals significant variations in East Java flooding frequency, with more frequent floods occurring from 850 to 1350 CE and after 1800 CE. This pattern is also observed in surface runoff records from the eastern tropical Pacific (Moy et al., 2002, Nature; Conroy et al., 2008, Quaternary Science Reviews), which lie in a region where modern positive precipitation anomalies are closely tied to El Niño events. Extreme rainfall events occurring on both sides of the tropical Pacific on centennial timescales may indicate that both El Niño and La Niña activity were higher during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the most recent two centuries, when radiative forcing was high, and that ENSO activity was reduced during the Little Ice Age, when radiative forcing was weak.

Rodysill, J. R.; Russell, J. M.; Vuille, M. F.; Lunghino, B.; Bijaksana, S.

2013-12-01

389

The Mass Assembly of Fossil Groups of Galaxies in the Millennium Simulation  

E-print Network

The evolution of present-day fossil galaxy groups is studied in the Millennium Simulation. Using the corresponding Millennium gas simulation and semi-analytic galaxy catalogues, we select fossil groups at redshift zero according to the conventional observational criteria, and trace the haloes corresponding to these groups backwards in time, extracting the associated dark matter, gas and galaxy properties. The space density of the fossils from this study is remarkably close to the observed estimates and various possibilities for the remaining discrepancy are discussed. The fraction of X-ray bright systems which are fossils appears to be in reasonable agreement with observation, and the simulations predict that fossil systems will be found in significant numbers (3-4% of the population) even in quite rich clusters. We find that fossils assemble a higher fraction of their mass at high redshift, compared to non-fossil groups, with the ratio of the currently assembled halo mass to final mass, at any epoch, being about 10 to 20% higher for fossils. This supports the paradigm whereby fossils represent undisturbed, early-forming systems in which large galaxies have merged to form a single dominant elliptical.

Ali Dariush; Habib G. Khosroshahi; Trevor J. Ponman; Frazer Pearce; Somak Raychaudhury; Will Hartley

2008-05-22

390

Antisocial Personality Disorder Subscale (Chinese Version) of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II disorders: validation study in Cantonese-speaking Hong Kong Chinese.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a risk factor for violence and is associated with poor treatment response when it is a co-morbid condition with substance abuse. It is an under-recognised clinical entity in the local Hong Kong setting, for which there are only a few available Chinese-language diagnostic instruments. None has been tested for its psychometric properties in the Cantonese-speaking population in Hong Kong. This study therefore aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the ASPD subscale of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) in Hong Kong Chinese. METHODS. This assessment tool was modified according to dialectal differences between Mainland China and Hong Kong. Inpatients in Castle Peak Hospital, Hong Kong, who were designated for priority follow-up based on their assessed propensity for violence and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the study, were recruited. To assess the level of agreement, best-estimate diagnosis made by a multidisciplinary team was compared with diagnostic status determined by the SCID-II ASPD subscale. The internal consistency, sensitivity, and specificity of the subscale were also calculated. RESULTS. The internal consistency of the subscale was acceptable at 0.79, whereas the test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability showed an excellent and good agreement of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. Best-estimate clinical diagnosis-SCID diagnosis agreement was acceptable at 0.76. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 0.91, 0.86, 0.83, and 0.93, respectively. CONCLUSION. The Chinese version of the SCID-II ASPD subscale is reliable and valid for diagnosing ASPD in a Cantonese-speaking clinical population. PMID:23807628

Tang, D Y Y; Liu, A C Y; Leung, M H T; Siu, B W M

2013-06-01

391

Personality Processes: Mechanisms by which Personality Traits “Get Outside the Skin”  

PubMed Central

It is time to better understand why personality traits predict consequential outcomes, which calls for a closer look at personality processes. Personality processes are mechanisms that unfold over time to produce the effects of personality traits. They include reactive and instrumental processes that moderate or mediate the association between traits and outcomes. These mechanisms are illustrated here by a selection of studies of traits representing the three broad domains of personality and temperament: negative emotionality, positive emotionality, and constraint. Personality processes are studied over the short-term, as in event-sampling studies, and over the long-term, as in lifespan research. Implications of findings from the study of processes are considered for resolving issues in models of personality structure, improving and extending methods of personality assessment, and identifying targets for personality interventions. PMID:21740225

Hampson, Sarah E.

2011-01-01

392

Are persons with physical disabilities who participate in society healthier and happier? Structural equation modelling of objective participation and subjective well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many countries, governments pursue a policy of offering persons with disabilities greater opportunities for participation\\u000a in society, based on the assumption that this will also improve their subjective well-being. Currently, however, it is not\\u000a known whether this assumption is valid. In this study we relate the objective participation and the subjective well-being\\u000a aspects of both disabled and non-disabled persons

Cretien van Campen; Jurjen Iedema

2007-01-01

393

Does Curriculum Matter?: Revisiting Women's Access and Rights to Education in the Context of the UN Millennium Development Targets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the relevance of curriculum to current UN Millennium targets to extend access to education and equality in education for women. It argues, firstly, that it is contradictory to be concerned about women's access to education but leave curriculum out of the discussion; secondly, that curriculum is not adequately seen as a…

Yates, Lyn

2006-01-01

394

Assessing the Progress of Gender Parity in Education through Achieving Millennium Development Goals: A Case Study of Quetta District Balochistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using secondary data of Government Schools and literacy department for 10 years that is 2000-2010, this paper assesses the progress on the issue of gender equality within the framework of education related Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in district Quetta. The assessment is based on the selected indicators of goals by applying descriptive…

Rashid, Abdul; Bibi, Zainab; Din, Siraj ud

2012-01-01

395

Sakiko Fukuda-Parr - Millennium Development Goal 8: Indicators for International Human Rights Obligations? - Human Rights Quarterly 28:4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millennium Development Goal 8 is arguably the most significant step since the Covenant on Economic Social Rights in taking the idea of global solidarity and international responsibilities for development from a statement of principle to international policy. It commits the international community to strengthen partnership for poverty reduction, and defines benchmark targets and indicators of progress. This article examines this

Sakiko Fukuda-Parr

396

The Millennium Development Goals: the pledge of world leaders to end poverty will not be met with business as usual  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the prospects for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. It argues that these goals will not be achieved by the target date of 2015 unless new action is taken by both rich and poor countries. It shows that current trends sharply contrast countries on their way to meeting the goals and those in a poverty trap. Crisis proportions

Sakiko Fukuda-Parr

2004-01-01

397

ICG 2000 Amsterdam Glass in the new Millennium Absorption Spectra of Iron and Water in Silicate Glasses  

E-print Network

]. This glass composition is similar to the standard float glass used in the glass industry, mol.%: 13Na2O-10Ca as sodium nitrate or oxygen was bubbled through the liquid glass in the furnace. Absorption spectra wereICG 2000 Amsterdam ­ Glass in the new Millennium Absorption Spectra of Iron and Water in Silicate

Glebov, Leon

398

Impact of climate and CO2 on a millennium-long tree-ring carbon isotope record  

E-print Network

Impact of climate and CO2 on a millennium-long tree-ring carbon isotope record Kerstin S. Treydte a for changes in anthropogenic CO2. We hypothesize that these high-elevation trees show a response to both annually resolved d13 C tree-ring chronologies from ecologically varying Juniperus stands in the Karakorum

Esper, Jan

399

Area and Family Effects on the Psychopathology of the Millennium Cohort Study Children and Their Older Siblings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To model and compare contextual (area and family) effects on the psychopathology of children nested in families nested in areas. Method: Data from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study were used. The final study sample was 9,630 children clustered in 6,052 families clustered in 1,681 Lower-layer Super Output Areas.…

Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos

2010-01-01

400

77 FR 31161 - Designation of Officers of the Millennium Challenge Corporation To Act as Chief Executive Officer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...officers of the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), in the order listed, shall act as and perform...of the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the MCC during any period in which the CEO of the MCC has died, resigned, or otherwise becomes...

2012-05-25

401

The Millennium Galaxy Catalogue: the local supermassive black hole mass function in early- and late-type galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a new estimate of the local supermassive black hole mass function using (i) the empirical relation between supermassive black hole mass and the Sérsic index of the host spheroidal stellar system and (ii) the measured (spheroid) Sérsic indices drawn from 10k galaxies in the Millennium Galaxy Catalogue. The observational simplicity of our approach, and the direct measurements of

Alister W. Graham; Simon P. Driver; Paul D. Allen; Jochen Liske

2007-01-01

402

Challenges in the New Millennium: Product Discovery and Design, Enterprise and Supply Chain Optimization, Global Life Cycle Assessment  

E-print Network

1 Challenges in the New Millennium: Product Discovery and Design, Enterprise and Supply Chain of the financial state of the process industry, major issues it currently faces, and job placement of chemical challenges need to be addressed: Product Discovery and Design, Enterprise and Supply Chain Optimization

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

403

Private Schools and the Millennium Development Goal of Universal Primary Education: A Census and Comparative Survey in Hyderabad, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development literature suggests that private schools serving the poor are not part of the solution to meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of universal primary education. The study conducted a census and survey of schools in notified slums of Hyderabad, India, to contribute to the sparse literature on the nature and extent of private…

Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Gomathi, S. V.

2007-01-01

404

Off-grid energy services for the poor: Introducing LED lighting in the Millennium Villages Project in Malawi  

E-print Network

Off-grid energy services for the poor: Introducing LED lighting in the Millennium Villages Project 2009 Keywords: Solar Lighting Development a b s t r a c t Lanterns that use light-emitting diodes (LEDs the introduction of solar LED lanterns in rural Malawi. We discuss a market-based program using new and existing

Modi, Vijay

405

The Future of Small Telescopes In The New Millennium. Volume III - Science in the Shadows of Giants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An invaluable reference for any student, scientist or administrator, using small telescopes for research. An essential collection of data and opinions for those charged with setting scientific and funding priorities. This three-volume set, The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium details the essential roles that small telescopes should play in 21st century science and how their future productivity

T. D. Oswalt

2003-01-01

406

Emerging economic sectors in the third millennium: leisure time era begins to dominate US economy by 2015  

Microsoft Academic Search

This second article in a series of six focuses on leisure as one of the impending waves of economic activity projected to dominate the advanced economies over the course of the new millennium. Leisure will begin to dominate jobs and economic activity in the USA around 2015, the date when “free time” will occupy over half of total individual lifetime

Grahm T. T. Molitor

2000-01-01

407

Subjective Well-Being Approach to the Valuation of International Development: Evidence for the Millennium Development Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The subjective well-being approach to the valuation of international development is applied to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Results indicate that the rich countries have particular preference for education, healthcare, and housing; they are willing to accept compensation for a failure to meet the three targets by 2015. The poor…

Beja, Edsel L., Jr.

2013-01-01

408

Dendroarchaeology of the mid-first millennium AD in Constantinople Charlotte L. Pearson a,d,*, Carol B. Griggs a  

E-print Network

a a The Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronology, B48 Goldwin Smith Hall Keywords: Dendrochronology Constantinople Istanbul Yenikapi Hagia Sophia First millennium AD a b s t r a c in time by dendrochronology and supported by radiocarbon analysis and historical documentation

Manning, Sturt

409

Prevalence of Parent-Reported ASD and ADHD in the UK: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The UK prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were estimated from the Millennium Cohort Study. Case definition was if a doctor or health care professional had ever told parents that their child had ASD and/or ADHD. Data were collected in 2008/2009 for 14,043 children. 1.7%…

Russell, Ginny; Rodgers, Lauren R.; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Ford, Tamsin

2014-01-01

410

Survivor Millennium!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will discover the importance of scientific replication by performing an investigation requiring them to write, and then follow, step-by-step instructions. The scenario will be based on the show Survivor and will involve making peanut butter and jelly sandwiches.

Jasmine SeeramOwens

2012-08-02

411

Coherent anti-phasing between solar forcing and tropical Pacific climate over the past millennium: derivation and implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a compilation of the most recent, high-resolution proxy data from the tropics, and a state-of-the-art climate reconstruction technique (RegEM iTTLS; Emile-Geay et al, submitted), we reconstruct sea-surface temperature (SST) in the central equatorial Pacific (NINO3.4 region) over the past millennium. Using frozen network experiments and pseudoproxy validation, the reconstruction is found skillful back to 1150 C.E., with inevitable amplitude reduction before 1500 C.E. due to the paucity of proxy predictors. Despite this caveat, wavelet coherency analysis reveals a marked anticorrelation between solar forcing (as estimated from cosmogenic isotope concentrations; Bard et al., 2007; Steinhilber et al., 2009) and the reconstructed NINO3.4 in the ~sim205-year spectral range (DeVries cycle). The phase angle between both signals is 156 ± 33o in this range, indicating that periods of high solar irradiance coincide with cool conditions in the NINO3.4 region, with time lag of 14 ± 19 years. We find this result robust to the reconstruction method, estimate of solar forcing, or analysis method used to estimate the phasing. We then discuss the implication of this result for the response of tropical Pacific climate to radiative forcing. While the anti-phasing seems to favor the ``ocean dynamical thermostat'' hypothesis of Clement et al [1996], this feedback appears subdued in most IPCC-class coupled general circulation models (CGCMs), where it is almost completely compensated by changes in the Pacific trade winds, linked to changes in the vertical structures of atmospheric moisture and temperature (Knutson & Manabe 1995; Held & Soden 2006; Vecchi et al. 2006). If the reconstruction is correct that past NINO3.4 SSTs have varied out of phase with solar irradiance on bicentennial scales, this would pose a new challenge both for CGCM simulations and for our understanding of the equatorial Pacific response to radiative forcing Clement, A. C., Seager, R., Cane, M. A., and Zebiak, S. E. (1996). An ocean dynamical thermostat. J. Clim., 9(9):2190-2196. Emile-Geay, J., K. Cobb, M. Mann, and A. T. Wittenberg, Estimating Tropical Pacific SST variability over the Past Millennium. Part 1: Methodology and Validation. J. Clim., submitted. available at: http://college.usc.edu/labs/jeg/publications/. Held, Isaac M., Brian J. Soden, 2006: Robust Responses of the Hydrological Cycle to Global Warming. J. Climate, 19, 5686-5699. doi: 10.1175/JCLI3990.1 Steinhilber, F., Beer, J., and Fröhlich, C. (2009). Total solar irradiance during the Holocene. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36:L19704. Vecchi, G. A., Soden, B. J., Wittenberg, A. T., Held, I. M., Leetmaa, A., and Harrison, M. J. (2006). Weakening of tropical Pacific atmospheric circulation due to anthropogenic forcing. Nature, 441:73-76.

Emile-Geay, J.; Cobb, K.; Mann, M. E.; Wittenberg, A. T.

2011-12-01

412

Antisocial personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder - antisocial ... Cause of antisocial personality disorder is unknown. Genetic factors and environmental factors, such as child abuse, are believed to contribute to the development of ...

413

Dependent personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Dependent personality disorder is a mental health condition in which people depend too much on others to meet their emotional ... Cause of dependent personality disorder is unknown. The disorder usually ... is one of the most common personality disorders and is ...

414

Schizotypal personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Schizotypal personality disorder is a mental health condition in which a person has trouble with relationships and ... Cause of schizotypal personality disorder is unknown. Genes are thought to be involved because this condition is more common in relatives ...

415

Can computer personalities be human personalities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study demonstrates that (1) computer personalities can be easily created using a minimal set of cues, and (2) that people will respond to these personalities in the same way they would respond to similar human personalities. The present study focuses on the “simikirityattraction hypothesis,” which predicts that people will prefer to interact with others who are similar in

Clifford Nass; Youngme Moon; B. J. Fogg; Byron Reeves; Chris Dryer

1995-01-01

416

Structural adjustment, governance, economic growth and social progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the interconnection between social achievement, structural adjustment, governance and economic performance. It does this by developing indices to measure social progress, measured by achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, and structural adjustment, measured by achieving the goals specified in the Washington consensus. These indices are constructed using the technique pioneered by Nagar & Basu, which uses the

Manmohan Agarwal; Sayan Samanta

2006-01-01

417

High-Resolution Reconstructions of Temperature and Precipitation During the Last Millennium from Lake Tanganyika, Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though numerous syntheses of high-resolution paleoclimate data have documented temperature changes associated with the Medieval Period, the Little Ice Age, and the Industrial era in north temperate regions, few records of temperature variability exist for the Southern Hemisphere (Mann and Jones, 2003, GRL doi: 10.1029/2003GL017814). Here, we present a new, high-resolution record of terrestrial temperature and rainfall from southeast tropical Africa, based upon organic geochemical analyses of annually laminated sediment cores from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa, providing the first millennium-long, high-resolution record of temperature from the East African tropics. Extending to 700CE with decadal resolution, the record uses the TEX86 paleothermometer and hydrogen stable isotope ratios (dD) of leaf waxes, which have been shown to reflect temperature and hydrologic conditions in Tanganyika, respectively (Tierney 2008, Science). The TEX86-based temperature reconstruction shows that Tanganyika temperatures were relatively warm at 700CE, cooler from 800-1000CE, and then warmer again between approximately 1050-1300CE. The latter warm interval is coincident with periods of warmer temperatures documented in the Northern Hemisphere. Yet temperatures are highly variable within the Little Ice Age (~1450-1800CE) and do not cool substantially relative to older time periods, in contrast to north temperate regions. Pronounced warming from approximately 1850 to the present is unprecedented in comparison to patterns of temperature variability during the previous centuries. The temperature variability documented here does not seem to correspond strongly to lake level fluctuations in Tanganyika over the past millennium (Cohen et al., 2005, JoPL, doi 10.1007/s10933-005- 2422-4), suggesting that Southeast African climate variability is more complex than alternating cycles of warm/wet and cool/dry conditions. dD analyses document considerable hydrologic variability over the past millennium, with temporal patterns that may be consistent with previous precipitation reconstructions from central East Africa. Overall, our records show that climate, particularly temperature, has changed abruptly during the past thousand years in southeast tropical Africa.

Mayes, M.; Tierney, J.; Huang, Y.; Russell, J.

2008-12-01

418

THE HALO MERGER RATE IN THE MILLENNIUM SIMULATION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OBSERVED GALAXY MERGER FRACTIONS  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a new method to extract halo merger rates from the Millennium Simulation. First, by removing superfluous mergers that are artifacts of the standard friends-of-friends (FOF) halo identification algorithm, we find a lower merger rate compared to previous work. The reductions are more significant at lower redshifts and lower halo masses, and especially for minor mergers. Our new approach results in a better agreement with predictions from the extended Press-Schechter model. Second, we find that the FOF halo finder overestimates the halo mass by up to 50% for halos that are about to merge, which leads to an additional {approx}20% overestimate of the merger rate. Therefore, we define halo masses by including only particles that are gravitationally bound to their FOF groups. We provide new best-fitting parameters for a global formula to account for these improvements. In addition, we extract the merger rate per progenitor halo, as well as per descendant halo. The merger rate per progenitor halo is the quantity that should be related to observed galaxy merger fractions when they are measured via pair counting. At low-mass/redshift, the merger rate increases moderately with mass and steeply with redshift. At high enough mass/redshift (for the rarest halos with masses a few times the 'knee' of the mass function), these trends break down, and the merger rate per progenitor halo decreases with mass and increases only moderately with redshift. Defining the merger rate per progenitor halo also allows us to quantify the rate at which halos are being accreted onto larger halos, in addition to the minor and major merger rates. We provide an analytic formula that converts any given merger rate per descendant halo into a merger rate per progenitor halo. Finally, we perform a direct comparison between observed merger fractions and the fraction of halos in the Millennium Simulation that have undergone a major merger during the recent dynamical friction time, and find a fair agreement, within the large uncertainties of the observations. Our new halo merger trees are available at http://www.mpe.mpg.de/ir/MillenniumMergerTrees/.

Genel, Shy; Genzel, Reinhard; Bouche, Nicolas [Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching, Germany. (Germany); Naab, Thorsten [Universitaets-Sternwarte Muenchen, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen, Germany. (Germany); Sternberg, Amiel [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel. (Israel)], E-mail: shy@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: nbouche@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: naab@usm.uni-muenchen.de, E-mail: amiel@wise.tau.ac.il

2009-08-20

419

Paranoid personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Personality disorder - paranoid ... Cause of paranoid personality disorder is unknown. The disorder appears to be more common in families with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and delusional ...

420

Borderline personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Personality disorder - borderline ... Cause of borderline personality disorder is unknown. Genetic, family, and social factors are thought to play roles. Risk factors for BPD include: Abandonment in ...

421

Chronic urticaria in adults: state-of-the-art in the new millennium*  

PubMed Central

Chronic urticaria has been explored in several investigative aspects in the new millennium, either as to its pathogenesis, its stand as an autoimmune or auto-reactive disease, the correlation with HLA-linked genetic factors, especially with class II or its interrelation with the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. New second-generation antihistamines, which act as good symptomatic drugs, emerged and were commercialized over the last decade. Old and new drugs that may interfere with the pathophysiology of the disease, such as cyclosporine and omalizumab have been developed and used as treatments. The purpose of this article is to describe the current state of knowledge on aspects of chronic urticaria such as, pathophysiology, diagnosis and the current therapeutic approach proposed in the literature. PMID:25672302

Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Criado, Roberta Facchini Jardim; Maruta, Celina Wakisaka; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva

2015-01-01

422

On rates of supernovae strongly lensed by galactic haloes in Millennium Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We make use of publicly available results from N-body Millennium Simulation to create mock samples of lensed supernovae Type Ia and core-collapse. Simulating galaxy-galaxy lensing we derive the rates of lensed supernovae and find that at redshifts higher than 0.5 about 0.06 per cent of supernovae will be lensed by a factor of 2 or more. Future wide-field surveys like Gaia or Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) should be able to detect lensed supernovae in their unbiased sky monitoring. Gaia (from 2013) will detect at least 2 cases, whereas LSST (from 2018) will see more than 500 a year. Large number of future lensed supernovae will allow us to verify results of cosmological simulations. The strong galaxy-galaxy lensing gives an opportunity to reach high-redshift supernovae Type Ia and extend the Hubble diagram sample.

Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Wyrzykowski, ?ukasz; Jaroszy?ski, Micha?

2013-03-01

423

Millennium Development Goals progress: a perspective from sub-Saharan Africa.  

PubMed

Sub-Saharan Africa is a highly diverse geo-political region. Any brief discussion of the progress made over the last 15 years towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will therefore not do justice to the true complexity of context and events. Our focus will be MDG4-to reduce child mortality by 66% from 1990 levels. We will touch briefly on MDG1, to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, MDG2, to achieve universal primary education, and MDG5, to improve maternal health, which are inextricably linked with child well-being. We will also draw on an eclectic mix of additional global indicators. Acknowledging the limitations of this approach, we first offer a summary of expected progress and then point to debates on future goals. PMID:25613971

English, Mike; English, Rex; English, Atti

2015-02-01

424

Implications of high amplitude atmospheric CO2 fluctuations on past millennium climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stomatal frequency analysis of leaves of land plants preserved in peat and lake deposits can provide a proxy record of pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration complementary to measurements in Antarctic ice cores. Stomatal frequency based CO2 trends from the USA and NW European support the presence of significant CO2 variability during the first half of the last millennium (Kouwenberg et al., 2005; Wagner et al., 2004; van Hoof et al., 2008). The timing of the most significant perturbation in the stomata records (1200 AD) is in agreement with an observed CO2 fluctuation in the D47 Antarctic ice-core record (Barnola et al., 1995; van Hoof et al., 2005). The amplitude of the stomatal frequency based CO2 changes (> 34ppmv) exceeds the maximum amplitude of CO2 variability in the D47 ice core (< 10 ppmv). A modelling experiment taking into account firn-densification based smoothing processes in the D47 ice core proved, however, that the amplitude difference between the stomata record and the D47 ice-core can be explained by natural smoothing processes in the ice (van Hoof et al., 2005). This observation gives credence to the existence of high-amplitude CO2 fluctuations during the last millennium and suggests that high resolution ice core CO2 records should be regarded as a smoothed representation of the atmospheric CO2 signal. In the present study, potential marine and terrestrial sources and sinks associated with the observed atmospheric CO2 perturbation will be discussed. The magnitude of the observed CO2 variability implies that inferred changes in CO2 radiative forcing are of a similar magnitude as variations ascribed to other forcing mechanisms (e.g. solar forcing and volcanism), therefore challenging the IPCC concept of CO2 as an insignificant preindustrial climate forcing factor. References Barnola J.M., M. Anklin, J. Porcheron, D. Raynaud, J. Schwander and B. Stauffer 1995. CO2 evolution during the last millennium as recorded by Antarctic and Greenland ice. Tellus, v 47B, p. 264-272 Kouwenberg L.L.R., F. Wagner, W.M. Kürschner and H. Visscher 2005. Atmospheric CO2 fluctuations during the last Millennium reconstructed by stomatal frequency analysis of Tsuga heterophylla needles. Geology, v. 33, no.1, pp. 33-36 van Hoof T.B., K.A. Kaspers, F. Wagner, R.S.W. van de Wal, W.M. Kürschner and H. Visscher 2005. Atmospheric CO2 during the 13th century AD: reconciliation of data from ice core measurements and stomatal frequency analysis. Tellus B, v. 57, pp. 351-355 van Hoof T.B., F. Wagner-Cremer, W.M. K Kürschner and H. Visscher 2008. A role for atmospheric CO2 in preindustrial climate forcing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, v. 105, no. 41, pp. 15815-15818 Wagner F., L.L.R. Kouwenberg, T.B. van Hoof and H. Visscher 2004. Reproducibility of Holocene atmospheric CO2 records based on stomatal frequency. Quartenary Science Reviews. V. 23, pp. 1947-1954

van Hoof, Thomas; Kouwenberg, Lenny; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Visscher, Henk

2010-05-01

425

Sutherland's Legacy in the New Millennium: The Osteopathic Cranial Model and Modern Osteopathy.  

PubMed

The concept of cranial osteopathy was introduced by W. G. Sutherland, DO, and became the foundation for setting the rules for use of skull palpation and many other techniques in the many types of dysfunctional patterns that craniosacral therapy treats. Sutherland's theories enabled modern osteopathy to develop and improve. The mechanism of primary respiration as well as the motion of neurocranial and viscerocranial sutures are phenomena intrinsic to the field and can be found in every living organism, independent of thoracic breathing and cardiac impulse. The sphenobasilar synchondrosis (ie, the joint between the base of the occiput and the body of the sphenoid bone) is the pillar supporting the concepts of craniosacral therapy. This article compares the cranial model devised by Sutherland with the present, relevant scientific research, aiming at clarifying the possibility of applying the craniosacral model in the new millennium. PMID:25831430

Bordoni, Bruno; Zanier, Emiliano

2015-01-01

426

The Indian Ocean Zonal Mode over the past millennium in observed and modeled precipitation isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian Ocean Zonal Mode (IOZM) has gained considerable attention in the past decade due to its role in causing widespread flooding and droughts in the continents and islands surrounding the Indian Ocean. The IOZM has also been observed to vary on a low-frequency (multi-decadal) basis, making its behavior important to understand both for mid-range 21st century climate prediction and for paleoclimate studies. Despite efforts to reconstruct the IOZM using corals and other high-resolution proxies, nonstationarities in the response of paleoclimate proxies to the IOZM have also been noted, raising the possibility that the IOZM may be difficult to reconstruct or to predict in the long-term. It is therefore critical to assess the low-frequency component of the IOZM in observed, modeled, and paleoclimate data from the Indian Ocean region in order to identify nonstationary behavior and to assess its role in low-frequency climate variations. We present an analysis of low-frequency and nonstationary behavior in the IOZM on multi-decadal to centennial timescales using a combination of modeled, observed, and proxy reconstructions of ?18O/?Dprecip. In order to assess multiple timescales of low-frequency variability, we focus on two key time periods: the historical period (1870-2003), and the past millennium (1000 C.E.-present). We find significant nonstationarities in the relationships between the IOZM, precipitation amount, and ?18Oprecip/?Dprecip during the historical period. These relationships vary on a multi-decadal basis in our model and in observed/reanalysis datasets. Air-sea interactions in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool and teleconnections to the Pacific Ocean, as well as the phase of the IOZM itself, may contribute to this nonstationary behavior. We examine the potential ramifications of nonstationary IOZM behavior using a synthesis of spatially distributed proxy archives of ?18Oprecip/?Dprecip from both sides of the IOZM region spanning the past millennium. Our findings indicate that during the past millennium, a strong IOZM-like connection exists in the proxy data network, with anti-correlation between East Africa and Indonesia. However, the links are spatially limited and in some cases timescale-dependent. Nonlinear behaviors in these links suggest that the IOZM may be difficult to detect on a consistent basis in proxy records from the past millennium. Based on our modeling results, the inconsistent links in the IOZM proxy network may arise from temporally and spatially variable relationships between the IOZM, precipitation, and ?18Oprecip/?Dprecip. We conclude that the IOZM's potential to influence the climate of the Indian Ocean region is inconsistently reflected in proxy data, and that due to the changing strength of the IOZM/?18Oprecip/?Dprecip relationship, its spatial “footprint” may be restricted on multi-decadal to multi-centennial timescales.

Konecky, Bronwen; Russell, James; Vuille, Mathias; Rehfeld, Kira

2014-11-01

427

Surface changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last millennium.  

PubMed

Despite numerous investigations, the dynamical origins of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age remain uncertain. A major unresolved issue relating to internal climate dynamics is the mode and tempo of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability, and the significance of decadal-to-centennial scale changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation strength in regulating the climate of the last millennium. Here we use the time-constrained high-resolution local radiocarbon reservoir age offset derived from an absolutely dated annually resolved shell chronology spanning the past 1,350 years, to reconstruct changes in surface ocean circulation and climate. The water mass tracer data presented here from the North Icelandic shelf, combined with previously published data from the Arctic and subtropical Atlantic, show that surface Atlantic meridional overturning circulation dynamics likely amplified the relatively warm conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the relatively cool conditions during the Little Ice Age within the North Atlantic sector. PMID:22692542

Wanamaker, Alan D; Butler, Paul G; Scourse, James D; Heinemeier, Jan; Eiríksson, Jón; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Richardson, Christopher A

2012-01-01

428

Violence against women and the Millennium Development Goals: facilitating women's access to support.  

PubMed

Violence against women is a serious health and development concern, as well as a violation of women's human rights. Violence against women has a devastating effect on women's sexual and reproductive health, as well as the health of their children, and is rooted in gender inequality. Reducing violence against women is therefore a key strategy for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Key lessons have emerged from more than two decades of experiences dealing with violence against women within the health sector. Interventions must go beyond training and curricula reform and utilize a system-wide approach, including changes in policies, procedures and attention to privacy and confidentiality. Providers must work together with other sectors, particularly at a community level, to strengthen local networks for support of survivors of violence. Prevention activities are critical, particularly those that seek to change cultural norms and laws that encourage violence and discriminate against women and girls. PMID:16842792

Ellsberg, M

2006-09-01

429

Indian Monsoon and its Variability during the last Millennium - a Model-Proxy-Intercomparison Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last Millennium is the best documented climate period affected by variations in external forcing and internal dynamics in a highly nonlinear climate system. According to that the Indian Monsoon and its high variability on different time scales plays an important role, studied in the interdisciplinary HIMPAC project (Himalaya - Modern and Past Climates). In order to understand the driving mechanisms, feedbacks and amplifiers regarding the monsoon variability of the last 1.200 years, the five ensemble members of the full forced simulation of the Millennium experiment (Jungclaus et al., 2010), using the coupled COSMOS Earth System Model (ECHAM5/JSBACH-MPIOM/HAMOCC) in a T31L19 spatial resolution, have been statistically analysed to detect strong wet and dry periods of monsoon rainfall within the All India Monsoon Rainfall Region. Later the selected periods of extreme rainfall events have been simulated in a higher spatial resolution with the atmosphere-only model ECHAM5 in a T63L31 spatial resolution. The focus is on the monsoon variability of the selected 200-years long time slices within the Medieval Climate Optimum (MWP; 900-1100 AD), the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1515-1715 AD) and the Preindustrial (PI; 1800-2000 AD). The relative annual rainfall anomalies simulated by ECHAM5 model show drier (wetter) conditions over India during the MWP (LIA) compared to the PI. The spatial EOF variance patterns of the summer monsoon rainfall in the MWP are more pronounced in the lower resolved T31L19 Millennium simulation according to the higher amount of simulated rainfall whereas the differentiation of the patterns is better in the T63L31 ECHAM5 simulation especially in the Himalayas due to the better representation of the mountains. Furthermore the simulations have been also compared with paleoclimatic reconstructions based on proxy data from different archives (Bhattacharya et al., 2007, Chauhan et al., 2000, Denniston et al., 2000, Ely et al., 1999, Kar et al., 2002, Ponton et al., 2012, Prasad et al. (unpublished) and Sinha et al., 2011). The reconstructions help to verify the model results and the model has been also used to check the consistency of the proxy data. A good agreement between the reconstructed relative moisture signal based on the different sites and the ECHAM5 simulated relative annual rainfall anomalies is shown for "MWP minus PI" whereas the other periods demonstrate more opposite signals between both. Due to the less spatial density of proxy data over India and their relative low temporal resolution more proxy data with a higher temporal resolution for that region are needed for a) to get a more realistic verification of the rainfall changes between the different climatic periods within the last Millennium and b) to achieve a more detailed study of extreme events on very short time scales and a high spatial resolution especially in comparison with results of regional climate simulations, which will be done in the next step of the analysis with the COSMO-CLM Regional Climate Model.

Polanski, S.; Fallah, B.; Leckebusch, G. C.; Cubasch, U.

2012-12-01

430

Chronic urticaria in adults: state-of-the-art in the new millennium.  

PubMed

Chronic urticaria has been explored in several investigative aspects in the new millennium, either as to its pathogenesis, its stand as an autoimmune or auto-reactive disease, the correlation with HLA-linked genetic factors, especially with class II or its interrelation with the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. New second-generation antihistamines, which act as good symptomatic drugs, emerged and were commercialized over the last decade. Old and new drugs that may interfere with the pathophysiology of the disease, such as cyclosporine and omalizumab have been developed and used as treatments. The purpose of this article is to describe the current state of knowledge on aspects of chronic urticaria such as, pathophysiology, diagnosis and the current therapeutic approach proposed in the literature. PMID:25672302

Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Criado, Roberta Facchini Jardim; Maruta, Celina Wakisaka; Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva Dos

2015-01-01

431

Surface changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last millennium  

PubMed Central

Despite numerous investigations, the dynamical origins of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age remain uncertain. A major unresolved issue relating to internal climate dynamics is the mode and tempo of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability, and the significance of decadal-to-centennial scale changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation strength in regulating the climate of the last millennium. Here we use the time-constrained high-resolution local radiocarbon reservoir age offset derived from an absolutely dated annually resolved shell chronology spanning the past 1,350 years, to reconstruct changes in surface ocean circulation and climate. The water mass tracer data presented here from the North Icelandic shelf, combined with previously published data from the Arctic and subtropical Atlantic, show that surface Atlantic meridional overturning circulation dynamics likely amplified the relatively warm conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the relatively cool conditions during the Little Ice Age within the North Atlantic sector. PMID:22692542

Wanamaker, Alan D.; Butler, Paul G.; Scourse, James D.; Heinemeier, Jan; Eiríksson, Jón; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Richardson, Christopher A.

2012-01-01

432

The World Bank: An Online Atlas of the Millennium Development Goals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank established a set of Millennium Development Goals as both a challenge to poor countries to demonstrate "good governance" and to wealthy nations as a spur that would hopefully encourage them to support economic and social development. Recently, the World Bank created this visually engaging and sophisticated interactive atlas to track those eight goals, which include the promotion of gender equality, combating disease, and reducing child mortality. Visitors can click on any of these eight goals and they will be able to view maps of the world that document the progress that has been made in each nation. Clicking on each nation individually brings up clear and easy-to-read tables that chart additional changes within each separate goal. Visitors can export the data for their own use, and they can also resize the map to demonstrate the changes made over the past few years.

433

The worst North American drought year of the last millennium: 1934  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer of 1934, over 70% of western North America experienced extreme drought, placing this summer far outside the normal range of drought variability and making 1934 the single worst drought year of the last millennium. Strong atmospheric ridging along the West Coast suppressed cold season precipitation across the Northwest, Southwest, and California, a circulation pattern similar to the winters of 1976-1977 and 2013-2014. In the spring and summer, the drying spread to the Midwest and Central Plains, driven by severe precipitation deficits downwind from regions of major dust storm activity, consistent with previous work linking drying during the Dust Bowl to anthropogenic dust aerosol forcing. Despite a moderate La Niña, contributions from sea surface temperature forcing were small, suggesting that the anomalous 1934 drought was primarily a consequence of atmospheric variability, possibly amplified by dust forcing that intensified and spread the drought across nearly all of western North America.

Cook, Benjamin I.; Seager, Richard; Smerdon, Jason E.

2014-10-01

434

Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This catalog is a supplement to the "Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses." It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original 648-page publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Lunar Eclipse parameter, gamma, eclipse magnitude, geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse (latitude and longitude), and the circumstances at greatest eclipse (i.e., Sun altitude and azimuth, path width, and central line duration). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

2008-01-01

435

Five Millennium Catalog of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This catalog is a supplement to the "FiveMillenniumCanonofLunarEclipses." It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Solar Eclipse parameter, gamma, penumbral and umbral eclipse magnitudes, durations of penumbral, partial and total eclipse phases, and geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse (latitude and longitude). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

2009-01-01

436

Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)-Revised  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This catalog is a supplement to the "Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses. "It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Solar Eclipse parameter, gamma, penumbral and umbral eclipse magnitudes, durations of penumbral, partial and total eclipse phases, and geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse(latitude and longitude). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

2009-01-01

437

A tree-ring field reconstruction of Fennoscandian summer hydroclimate variability for the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroclimatological extremes, such as droughts and floods, are expected to increase in frequency and intensity with global climate change. An improved knowledge of its natural variability and the underlying physical mechanisms for changes in the hydrological cycle will help understand the response of extreme hydroclimatic events to climate warming. This study presents the first gridded hydroclimatic reconstruction (0.5° × 0.5° grid resolution), as expressed by the warm season Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), for most of Fennoscandia. A point-by-point regression approach is used to develop the reconstruction from a network of moisture sensitive tree-ring chronologies spanning over the past millennium. The reconstruction gives a unique opportunity to examine the frequency, severity, persistence, and spatial characteristics of Fennoscandian hydroclimatic variability in the context of the last 1,000 years. The full SPEI reconstruction highlights the seventeenth century as a period of frequent severe and widespread hydroclimatic anomalies. Although some severe extremes have occurred locally throughout the domain over the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the period is surprisingly free from any spatially extensive anomalies. The twentieth century is not anomalous in terms of the number of severe and spatially extensive hydro climatic extremes in the context of the last millennium. Principle component analysis reveals that there are two dominant modes of spatial moisture variability across Fennoscandia. The same patterns are evident in the observational record and in the reconstructed dataset over the instrumental era and two paleoperiods. The 500 mb pressure patterns associated with the two modes suggests the importance of the summer North Atlantic Oscillation.

Seftigen, Kristina; Björklund, Jesper; Cook, Edward R.; Linderholm, Hans W.

2014-05-01

438

Preliminary multiproxy surface air temperature field reconstruction for China over the past millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first millennial-length gridded field reconstruction of annual temperature for China, and analyze the reconstruction for spatiotemporal changes and associated uncertainties, based on a network of 415 well-distributed and accurately dated climatic proxy series. The new reconstruction method is a modified form of the point-by-point regression (PPR) approach. The main difference is the incorporation of the "composite plus scale" (CPS) and "Regularized errors-in-variables" (EIV) algorithms to allow for the assimilation of various types of the proxy data. Furthermore, the search radius is restricted to a grid size; this restriction helps effectively exclude proxy data possibly correlated with temperature but belonging to a different climate region. The results indicate that: 1) the past temperature record in China is spatially heterogenic, with variable correlations between cells in time; 2) the late 20th century warming in China probably exceeds mean temperature levels at any period of the past 1000 years, but the temperature anomalies of some grids in eastern China during the Medieval climate anomaly period are warmer than during the modern warming; 3) the climatic variability in the eastern and western regions of China was not synchronous during much of the last millennium, probably due to the influence of the Tibetan Plateau. Our temperature reconstruction may serve as a reference to test simulation results over the past millennium, and help to finely analyze the spatial characteristics and the driving mechanism of the past temperature variability. However, the lower reconstruction skill scores for some grid points underline that the present set of available proxy data series is not yet sufficient to accurately reconstruct the heterogeneous climate of China in all regions, and that there is the need for more highly resolved temperature proxies, particularly in the Tibetan Plateau.

Shi, Feng; Yang, Bao; Von Gunten, Lucien

2013-04-01

439

Issues of maternal health in Pakistan: trends towards millennium development goal 5.  

PubMed

Pakistan has third highest burden of maternal and children mortality across the globe. This grim situation is further intensified by flaws of planning and implementation set forth in health sector. Natural calamities (earth quakes, floods), disease outbreaks and lack of awareness in different regions of country also further aggravate this situation. Despite of all these limitations, under the banner of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) a special focus and progress in addressing maternal health issue (set as goal 5) has been made over the last decade. In this review, improvement and short falls pertaining to Goal 5 Improve maternal health have been analyzed in relation to earlier years. A decline in maternal mortality ratio (MMR) (490 maternal deaths in 1990 to 260 maternal deaths per 100,000 women in 2010) is observed. Reduction in MMR by three quarters was not achieved but a decline from very high mortality to high mortality index was observed. Increase usage of contraceptives (with contraceptive prevalence rate of 11.8 in 1990 to 37 in 2013) also shed light on women awareness about their health and social issues. Based on progress level assessment (WHO guidelines),access of Pakistani women to universal reproductive health unit falls in moderate category in 2010 as compared to earlier low access in 1990. From the data it looks that still a lot of effort is required for achieving the said targets. However, keeping in view all challenges, Pakistan suffered in the said duration, like volatile peace, regional political instability, policy implementation constrains, population growth, this slow but progressive trend highlight a national resilience to address the havoc challenge of maternal health. These understandings and sustained efforts will significantly contribute a best possible accomplishment in Millennium Development Goal 5 by 2015. PMID:25252492

Malik, Muhammd Faraz Arshad; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar

2014-06-01

440

Earliest evidence for cheese making in the sixth millennium BC in northern Europe.  

PubMed

The introduction of dairying was a critical step in early agriculture, with milk products being rapidly adopted as a major component of the diets of prehistoric farmers and pottery-using late hunter-gatherers. The processing of milk, particularly the production of cheese, would have been a critical development because it not only allowed the preservation of milk products in a non-perishable and transportable form, but also it made milk a more digestible commodity for early prehistoric farmers. The finding of abundant milk residues in pottery vessels from seventh millennium sites from north-western Anatolia provided the earliest evidence of milk processing, although the exact practice could not be explicitly defined. Notably, the discovery of potsherds pierced with small holes appear at early Neolithic sites in temperate Europe in the sixth millennium BC and have been interpreted typologically as 'cheese-strainers', although a direct association with milk processing has not yet been demonstrated. Organic residues preserved in pottery vessels have provided direct evidence for early milk use in the Neolithic period in the Near East and south-eastern Europe, north Africa, Denmark and the British Isles, based on the ?(13)C and ?(13)C values of the major fatty acids in milk. Here we apply the same approach to investigate the function of sieves/strainer vessels, providing direct chemical evidence for their use in milk processing. The presence of abundant milk fat in these specialized vessels, comparable in form to modern cheese strainers, provides compelling evidence for the vessels having being used to separate fat-rich milk curds from the lactose-containing whey. This new evidence emphasizes the importance of pottery vessels in processing dairy products, particularly in the manufacture of reduced-lactose milk products among lactose-intolerant prehistoric farming communities. PMID:23235824

Salque, Mélanie; Bogucki, Peter I; Pyzel, Joanna; Sobkowiak-Tabaka, Iwona; Grygiel, Ryszard; Szmyt, Marzena; Evershed, Richard P

2013-01-24

441

Web mining for web personalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web personalization is the process of customizing a Web site to the needs of specific users, taking advantage of the knowledge acquired from the analysis of the user's navigational behavior (usage data) in correlation with other information collected in the Web context, namely, structure, content, and user profile data. Due to the explosive growth of the Web, the domain of

Magdalini Eirinaki; Michalis Vazirgiannis

2003-01-01

442

Managing Your Personal Brand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyone has a personal brand. To ensure success at work you need to manage your personal brand which is made up of your tangible and intangible attributes. This paper reviews the literature around personal branding, looks at some of the attributes and discusses ways you can reflect and begin to build your personal brand in a higher education…

Gander, Michelle

2014-01-01

443

The Structural Validity of Holland's R-I-A-S-E-C Model of Vocational Personality Types for Young Black South African Men and Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of Holland's personality types model was tested with 932 young black men and women from Northwestern Province and 386 form Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A randomization test of hypothesized order relations and multidimensional scaling analyses showed that data from all groups fit the circular order model poorly. (Contains 48…

du Toit, Renette; de Bruin, Gideon P.

2002-01-01

444

Personality and dementia.  

PubMed

Personality describes persistent human behavioral responses to broad classes of environmental stimuli. Change in personality may be an early sign of dementia. Our goal was to review scientific literature on the association between personality and dementia. Medline and Google Scholar searches were conducted for relevant articles, chapters, and books published since 1980. Search terms used included personality, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies. People with dementia commonly exhibit changes in personality that sometimes precede the other early clinical manifestations of the condition, such as cognitive impairment. Premorbid personality might be a determining factor so that caricature or exaggeration of original personality emerges as dementia progresses. Although it is generally accepted that these personality changes reflect the impact of progressive brain damage, there are several possible patterns of personality alterations with dementia. Early identification of personality modifications might assist with the timely diagnosis of dementia. PMID:25714255

Cipriani, Gabriele; Borin, Gemma; Del Debbio, Alessandro; Di Fiorino, Mario

2015-03-01

445

Early childhood nutritional status in CARICOM countries: an overview with respect to five nutrition related millennium development goals.  

PubMed

Previous reviews of nutritional status in children under 5 years describe the Caribbean grouped with Latin America. This paper focuses specifically on the Caribbean and the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration that have bearing on childhood development. The results indicate that CARICOM countries have made progress in terms of child health as assessed by gross health indicators. Yet, the millennium generation experiences coexistence of undernutrition and overweight in early childhood. The associations of GNI with markers such as poverty indices are somewhat inconsistent with traditional findings and highlight a need to reassess the causes of infant mortality and low birth weight. However, a lack of systematic local data has hampered progress on an individual country basis. Interventions that deal more pointedly with country specific needs are required including those targeting obesity if the MDGs are to be attained by all member states. PMID:24899905

Gaskin, Pamela S; Nielsen, Anders L; Willie, Douladel; Durant, Tara C

2014-01-01

446

Early Childhood Nutritional Status in CARICOM Countries: An Overview with respect to Five Nutrition Related Millennium Development Goals  

PubMed Central

Previous reviews of nutritional status in children under 5 years describe the Caribbean grouped with Latin America. This paper focuses specifically on the Caribbean and the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration that have bearing on childhood development. The results indicate that CARICOM countries have made progress in terms of child health as assessed by gross health indicators. Yet, the millennium generation experiences coexistence of undernutrition and overweight in early childhood. The associations of GNI with markers such as poverty indices are somewhat inconsistent with traditional findings and highlight a need to reassess the causes of infant mortality and low birth weight. However, a lack of systematic local data has hampered progress on an individual country basis. Interventions that deal more pointedly with country specific needs are required including those targeting obesity if the MDGs are to be attained by all member states. PMID:24899905

Gaskin, Pamela S.; Nielsen, Anders L.; Willie, Douladel; Durant, Tara C.

2014-01-01

447

Some personality traits converge gradually by long-term partnership through the lifecourse - Genetic and environmental structure of Cloninger's temperament and character dimensions.  

PubMed

Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a comprehensive personality inventory that is widely used in behavioral genetics. The original theory suggested that temperament traits were under genetic influences, whereas character traits were gradually built by an interaction between temperaments and environment until early adulthood. This study attempted to evaluate TCI by examining the genetic and environmental contributions to personality with particular attention to spousal effects. From 687 families, a total of 3459 Korean adult individuals completed the survey. Among them, there were 542 Monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs and 122 Dizygotic twin pairs. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and heritability were calculated to examine the genetic and shared environmental contributions to personality. Moderate genetic contributions (0.17-0.43) were found for all TCI traits along with the evidence of shared environment (0.11-0.31) for harm avoidance (HA) and all characters. The ICCs of TCI in MZ pairs ranged 0.36-0.46. Spouses' had little resemblance for temperament, whereas for character dimensions, spouses (0.27-0.38) were more similar than first degree relatives (0.10-0.29). Resemblance between spouses increased with duration of marriage for most characters and HA. When the growing similarities between spouses were compared with their MZ cotwins' for subgroup of 81 trios, self-directedness (SD) of character showed even more similarities toward their spouses than cotwins as partnership duration increased (r = 0.32). Our findings with regard to change in SD into late adulthood support the psychobiological theory of temperament and character, which suggests that both personality domains have distinct developmental trajectories despite equally large genetic influences. PMID:25748752

Yang, Sarah; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Ji-Hae; Song, Yun-Mi; Lee, Kayoung; Kim, Han-Na; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Cloninger, C Robert

2015-04-01

448

[The self concept and personality structure of alcohol intoxicated drivers: how do they see themselves, and how are they judged by others?].  

PubMed

Assessing the problem of "alcohol in road traffic" it becomes apparent that most offenders have high BACs (in excess of 1.6 per mille) and that they are repeating offenders. It can therefore be assumed that those people are drink-drivers, which means that, when assessing the offence, the offender's personality as a whole has to be taken into consideration. The DUI offenders themselves usually justify the offence by balming it on the circumstances of a given situation. On the basis of this discrepancy, the published study deals with the question of whether there are any differences between the way DUI offenders judge their personality and self concept and the way other people do. This also leads to the questions of whether the number of offences play a role or not. The self image of 60 male DUI offenders was rated by means of the Giessen test and the Frankfurt self concept scales "problem solving", "confidence in behaviour and decision making", as well as "judgement by others". For the outside judgement, 60 male volunteers were asked to judge DUI convicted drivers. It showed that the DUI convicted drivers assessed their personality to be no different than that of the average person. Their self concept was characterised by positive attributes. However, the outside judgement showed them to be less socially responsive, lacking self control, as well as rather dominant, depressive, reserved and rather inhibited in heterosexual relationships. The self judgement changes with an increasing number of offences, as does the outside judgement to an even greater extend. The latter turns into a more negative judgement. Regarding the self concepts, only the outside judgement proved to be more negative. The number of convictions didn't influence the DUI offenders' self estimation. PMID:7880490

Bauer, M; Baab, R

1995-01-01

449

Personality and Fibromyalgia Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objectives: We aimed to review how personality characteristics contribute to the onset, maintenance or modulation of fibromyalgia. Method: The databases Medline and PsychINFO were examined from 1967 to 2012 to identify studies that investigated associations between fibromyalgia and personality. Search terms included fibromyalgia and personality, trait psychology, characteristics and individual differences. Results: Numerous studies indicate that patients with fibromyalgia experience psychological distress. Various instruments have been used to evaluate distress and related psychological domains, such as anxiety or depression, in fibromyalgia. In many cases, these same instruments have been used to study personality characteristics in fibromyalgia with a subsequent blurring of cause and effect between personality and psychological distress. In addition, the symptoms of fibromyalgia may change pre-illness personality characteristics themselves. These issues make it difficult to identify specific personality characteristics that might influence the fibromyalgia process. Despite this inherent problem with the methodologies used in the studies that make up this literature review, or perhaps because of it, we found no defined personality profile specific to fibromyalgia. However, many patients with fibromyalgia do show personality characteristics that facilitate psychological responses to stressful situations, such as catastrophising or poor coping techniques, and these in turn associate with mechanisms contributing to fibromyalgia. Conclusion: No specific fibromyalgia personality is defined but it is proposed that personality is an important filter that modulates a person’s response to psychological stressors. Certain personalities may facilitate translation of these stressors to physiological responses driving the fibromyalgia mechanism. PMID:23002409

Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey O

2012-01-01

450

Impact of climate and CO 2 on a millennium-long tree-ring carbon isotope record  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present one millennium-long (1171-year), and three 100 year long annually resolved ?13C tree-ring chronologies from ecologically varying Juniperus stands in the Karakorum Mountains (northern Pakistan), and evaluate their response to climatic and atmospheric CO2 changes. All ?13C records show a gradual decrease since the beginning of the 19th century, which is commonly associated with a depletion of atmospheric ?13C

Kerstin S. Treydte; David C. Frank; Matthias Saurer; Gerhard Helle; Gerhard H. Schleser; Jan Esper

2009-01-01

451

The Millennium Galaxy Catalogue: The local supermassive black hole mass function in early- and late-type galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a new estimate of the local supermassive black hole mass function\\u000ausing (i) the empirical relation between supermassive black hole mass and the\\u000aSersic index of the host spheroidal stellar system and (ii) the measured\\u000a(spheroid) Sersic indices drawn from 10k galaxies in the Millennium Galaxy\\u000aCatalogue. The observational simplicity of our approach, and the direct\\u000ameasurements of

Alister W. Graham; Simon P. Driver; Paul D. Allen; Jochen Liske

2007-01-01

452

Enhanced 20th century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanic heat transport variations, carried by the northward flowing Atlantic Water, strongly influence Arctic sea-ice distribution, ocean-atmosphere exchanges, and pan-Arctic temperatures. Paleoceanographic reconstructions from marine sediments near Fram Strait have documented a dramatic increase in Atlantic Water temperatures over the 20th century, unprecedented in the last millennium. Here we present results from Earth system model simulations over the last millennium that reproduce and explain reconstructed integrated quantities such as pan-Arctic temperature evolution during the pre-industrial millennium as well as the exceptional Atlantic Water warming in Fram Strait in the 20th century. The associated increase in ocean heat transfer to the Arctic can be traced back to changes in the ocean circulation in the sub-polar North Atlantic. An interplay between a weakening overturning circulation and a strengthening sub-polar gyre as a consequence of 20th century global warming is identified as driving mechanism for the pronounced warming along the Atlantic Water path toward the Arctic. Simulations covering the late Holocene provide a reference frame that allows us to conclude that the changes during the last century are unprecedented in the last 1150 years and that they cannot be explained by internal variability or natural forcing alone.

Jungclaus, J. H.; Lohmann, K.; Zanchettin, D.

2014-07-01

453

A comparison of model simulations of Asian mega-droughts during the past millennium with proxy reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two PMIP3/CMIP5 climate model ensemble simulations of the past millennium have been analysed to identify the occurrence of Asian mega-droughts. The Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) is used as the key metric for the data comparison of hydro-climatological conditions. The model results are compared with the proxy data of the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA). Our study shows that global circulation models (GCMs) are capable of capturing the majority of historically recorded Asian monsoon failures at the right time and with a comparable spatial distribution. The simulations indicate that El Niño-like events lead, in most cases, to these droughts. Both model simulations and proxy reconstructions point to fewer monsoon failures during the Little Ice Age. The results suggest an influential impact of volcanic forcing on the atmosphere-ocean interactions throughout the past millennium. During historic mega-droughts of the past millennium, the monsoon convection tends to assume a preferred regime described as a "break" event in Asian monsoon. This particular regime is coincident with a notable weakening in the Pacific trade winds and Somali Jet.

Fallah, B.; Cubasch, U.

2015-02-01

454

Personal identity, multiple personality, and hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of multiple personality ia critically examined in the light of its historical development. Various conceptions of multiple personality are considered: aa a diagnostic fashion; aa a product of shaping in therapy; as a product of hypnotic suggestion; as simulation; and aa an extension of characteristica found in “normal” personslitiea. These considerations lead to the conclusion that the significant

J. P. Sutcliffe; Jean Jones

1962-01-01

455

Simulated cold events in the northern North Atlantic during the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoceanographic data show large inter-decadal cold excursions in sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the western subpolar gyre region and north of Iceland throughout the last millennium. A series of such events could have contributed to demise the Norse settlements over Greenland during the 13th to the 15th century due to associated deteriorating environmental conditions in the region. However, spatial extent, attribution and mechanism(s) of these cold events are not known. In this contribution, we use climate model simulations to clarify the role of the ocean and of coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics in triggering these cold events, and to assess whether they can be explained by internal climate variability alone. Specifically, we investigate the North Atlantic-Arctic climate variability in a 1000-year control run describing an unperturbed pre-industrial climate, and in a 3-member ensemble of full-forcing transient simulations of the last millennium. Simulations are performed with the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model for paleo-applications. In the control and transient simulations, we identified cold events of similar amplitude and duration to the reconstructed data. Spatial patterns and temporal evolutions of simulated cold events are similar in both simulation types. In the transient runs, furthermore, they do not robustly coincide with periods of strong external forcing (e.g. of major volcanic eruptions). We therefore conclude that such events can emerge because of internally-generated regional climate variability alone. Local ocean-atmosphere coupled processes in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region appear as key part of the mechanism of simulated cold events. In particular, they are typically associated with the onset of prolonged positive sea-level pressure anomalies over the North Atlantic and associated weaker and south-eastward displaced subpolar gyre. The salt transport reduction by the Irminger Current together with an intensification of the southward fresh water transport through the Denmark Strait reduce the sea-surface salinity and trigger reduced deep ocean mixing in the Labrador Sea. The consequent weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation peaks well after the minimum of SST anomalies, allowing us to exclude, in contrast to former suggestions, the overturning circulation as a major triggering factor of such cold events. Cold SSTs and the weakened atmospheric circulation over the Labrador Sea force reduced ocean heat losses in the ocean basin, being the main cause of the cold anomalies over Greenland. The simulated climatic anomaly further entails sea-ice expansion along the eastern coast of Greenland. This would have reduced the trade and fishery in the region, thus increasing the stress on the Norse society during the time of its settlement demise over Greenland.

Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo; Zanchettin, Davide; Lohmann, Katja; Jungclaus, Johann

2014-05-01

456

A climate simulation of the first millennium AD using a comprehensive Earth System Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of past climate using fully coupled comprehensive Earth System Models are restricted by the large computational costs of these simulations. Here we present first results from an on-going simulation with the MPI-ESM-P starting in year 100 BC. The simulation is forced with changes in orbital forcing and long-term solar variations augmented by a synthetic 11-year cycle including an interactive ozone cycle. For the first time also changes in volcanic activity are implemented based on the reconstruction method by Crowley and Unterman (2012). The basis of the extended volcanic forcing in terms of aerosol optical depth and effective radius are new sulfate estimations from ice cores from Greenland (NEEM) and Antarctica (WAIS) presented by Sigl et al. (2013). Because the NEEM record only reaches back as far as 79 AD, the time until 100 BC was filled by earlier information contained in the Dye 3 and GRIP record (Clausen et al., 1997). Compared to the 2nd millennium AD, the first millennium does however show a considerably reduced amount of large explosive tropical eruptions. On hemispheric and global scale the large outbreaks around the years 530 and 740 AD are well reflected as negative temperature anomalies. The 79 AD Vesuvius eruption does not however produce a pronounced hemispheric signal. The amount of sulphate ejected into the stratosphere may have been too low for a sustained hemispheric-scale cooling. The large eruption of 530 AD (so called 'mystic cloud') is however well reflected within the temperature evolution and is more pronounced over the northern hemisphere during summertime. On longer, multi-centennial, time scales, global temperatures show a slight decrease. This decrease is more pronounced over the NH hemisphere during JJA and is caused by the decline in the TOA short wave incoming radiation. Over the extratropical SH changes in orbital forcing are not reflected in temperature trends as clearly as over the NH due to the larger oceanic and ice-covered areas. Future investigations will concentrate on the analyses of additional modes of variability, such as the AO and AAO, and ENSO as well as changes in ocean circulation, for instance related to the variability of the North Atlantic.

Wagner, Sebastian; Zorita, Eduardo

2014-05-01

457

Determining temperature changes in Western Iceland over the last millennium: issues and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution multi-proxy studies of a core from Baulárvallavatn, western Iceland provide a record of climatic changes since the deposition of the Landnám tephra deposited in AD870±2. Derivation of the climate record has encountered a series of issues relating both to chronology and to proxy interpretation; but a millennial sequence of chironomid-based temperature change has been produced. Chronologically problems relate both to radiocarbon dating and tephrochronology. The lake is surrounded by loessial soils that have suffered from erosion, especially following settlement (the sedimentation rate in the lake has increased from 0.014mm yr-1 pre-settlement to 0.05mm yr-1 post-settlement). This has involved redeposition of both old carbon and tephra shards from earlier eruptions into the sediment. Thus post-Landnám radiocarbon dates are all relatively uniform between 2405-2155±30 BP. The high background levels of tephra made determination of specific post-Landnám horizons extremely difficult. Following over 550 individual shard analyses, and coupled with 137Cs dating of the uppermost sediments an age depth model was produced for the last millennium to provide a chronology for the climate proxies. Chironomid analyses at a resolution of c.10 yrs per sample showed a climatic response that is seen in the first axis of the PCA, rather than the Icelandic chironomid-July air temperature transfer function. The PCA axis correlates with winter/spring and autumn temperatures, possibly reflecting a response to summer season length rather than the expected response to July temperature. However, this has yet to be calibrated in more specific quantitative terms. The core was also subjected to ITRAX scanning; which identified key tephra horizons and reflected the relative consistency of sediment deposition over the last millennium. Oxygen isotope analyses of a limited number of diatom samples have also been undertaken and are the subject of continued research, as is diatom analysis being undertaken by Anna Dada? and Christian Bigler at the University of Umeå.

Caseldine, Chris; Langdon, Peter; Holmes, Naomi; Thompson, Gareth; Wastegard, Stefan; Larsen, Gudrun; Davies, Siwan; Leng, Melanie; Croudace, Ian

2010-05-01

458

Assessing ENSO variability over the past millennium: a western tropical Pacific perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a reconstruction of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability for the last millennium using stable oxygen and carbon isotope data obtained by analyzing samples from a marine sediment core (core MD98-2177) collected in the Indonesian Seas, at the edge the western Pacific warm pool. At this location the ?18O of calcite produced by thermocline-dwelling planktonic foraminifers reflect the temperature and salinity variability that accompanies both eastern as well as central Pacific types of ENSO. Changes in ENSO variability have been inferred from the spread and symmetry of distributions in oxygen isotope (?18O) values within a sample population of individual Pulleniatina obliquiloculata. The individual isotopic values document monthly subsurface temperatures and salinities that accompanied the seasonal cycle, changes in the range of calcification depths, and interannual variability, including ENSO. Changes in the range of calcification depths were differentiated from changes in ENSO variability by comparing the spread and symmetry of the ?18O distributions with their ?13C counterparts. In contrast to previous studies, we use robust and resistant statistics to quantify the moments of the ?18O and ?13C distributions; an approach motivated by the relatively small sample size and the presence of outliers. We applied this technique to 16 depth horizons in core MD98-2177, corresponding to the 20th century, Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), and Little Ice Age (LIA) sections of the core. Our results indicate that ENSO variability during the late 20th century was lower than during any other sampled intervals over the past millennium. There is no systematic difference in variability associated with warmer climatic conditions during the MCA or cooler climatic conditions of the LIA. ENSO variability at the peak of the Northern Hemisphere MCA was similar to that of the early 20th century but intensified between the 13th and 14th century, reaching a maximum at ~1400 A.D. These results agree with a recent reconstruction of El Niño and La Niña frequency from the eastern tropical Pacific. The MCA was also characterized by decades of stronger/more frequent La Niñas, in agreement with the relatively cooler conditions in the eastern and central tropical Pacific during this time period observed in other records. These decades also correspond, within age model uncertainty, to the medieval megadroughts in Western North America reconstructed from a network of drought-sensitive trees.

Khider, D.; Stott, L. D.; Emile-Geay, J.; Thunell, R.

2010-12-01

459

Personal memory telling and personality development.  

PubMed

Although personal memories have been appreciated by psychologists for nearly a century, their significance for personality development has tended to be relegated to internalized representations of early childhood experiences. Recent research, however, suggests that adolescence and early adulthood are the most memorable parts of the life span and perhaps the broadest period of memory telling. This article integrates recent work in cognitive and developmental psychology into a framework for studying how and why tellers proffer and make sense of momentous emotional events, and how families and friends collude in self-making. Promising areas for future research include individual differences in readiness for memory telling, gendered ecologies of memory telling, the developmental significance of parents' stories, and reconciling personal memories and personality traits. Personal memory telling is not just for fun and entertainment, but, more important, drives social and emotional development in concrete moments of social life. PMID:15710560

Thorne, A

2000-01-01

460

Persons, imposters, and monsters  

E-print Network

This dissertation is about person features, their representation and interpretation in natural language. I will argue that there are several ways in which person features can be represented and interpreted. Most importantly, ...

Podobryaev, Alexander

2014-01-01

461

Personal Health History Name: _____________________________________________________________________________________________  

E-print Network

_________________________________________________ __________ _________________________________________________ __________ Mental illnesses Year diagnosedActivity 2 Personal Health History Name: ________________________________________ Ethnicity: _________________________________ Medical History: Previous operations Year Hospital

Goodman, Robert M.

462

Visualizing a Personal Timeline by Adding Multiple Social Contexts  

E-print Network

or in- teresting tweets while showing community structures. Our prototype design shows how our multiple, we introduce how we can identify key persons and interesting tweets within a personal timeline timeline by alloting community membership, identifying key persons, and recognizing in- teresting tweets

Moon, Sue B.

463

Meeting targets or saving lives: maternal health policy and Millennium Development Goal 5 in Nicaragua.  

PubMed

In support of maternal health, disease-specific and target-oriented global policy initiatives, such as in Millennium Development Goal 5, have led to a prioritisation of narrow indicators at the expense of more comprehensive approaches. In line with global policy, Nicaragua has made skilled attendants and institutionalised delivery central to its efforts to achieving MDG5 on maternal health. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in Nicaragua, involving participant observation and interviews with hospital and community health workers, and women and their families, this paper critically discusses how target-oriented maternal health strategies were manifested in local realities. It shows that Nicaragua's brigadistas (community health workers) and parteras (traditional birth attendants) have been driven to narrowing their own roles to identifying pregnant women and advocating that they have an institutional delivery as one their most important tasks, making them agents of MDG 5 target achievement. This has engendered fear among brigadistas and parteras of being held individually responsible in the event of a maternal death, creating dissatisfaction with their role and reducing their motivation. While intended to improve maternal health, the pressure to reach targets has unintended negative implications for the relationship between women, the local volunteers and the formal health system, which needs to be addressed. PMID:24315060

Kvernflaten, Birgit

2013-11-01

464

Beyond the Millennium Development Goals: public health challenges in water and sanitation.  

PubMed

Over 1 billion people lack access to improved water sources and 2.6 billion lack access to appropriate sanitation, greatly contributing to the global burden of disease. The international community has committed to reducing by half the proportion of the world's population lacking access to water and sanitation as a part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, the disease burden due to poor access, is borne primarily by the poorest countries and the poorest people within them. Simply reducing the proportion of people without adequate access will not automatically result in proportional reductions in the related disease burden. The public health challenge inherent in meeting the MDG targets is ensuring that improvements result in access to water and sanitation for the critical at-risk populations. Innovative approaches are required to ensure the availability of low-cost, simple, and locally acceptable water and sanitation interventions and integrating these approaches into existing social institutions, such as schools, markets, and health facilities. PMID:19153893

Rheingans, R; Dreibelbis, R; Freeman, M C

2006-01-01

465

E-health in the new millennium: a research and practice agenda.  

PubMed

Advances in telecommunications, automated processes, web technologies and wireless computing are already forcing dramatic changes in a variety of sectors, ranging from business and industry to education and health. Yet, the electronic business space, in a broader sense, is still in a relatively early state of evolution, and it is only recently that policy makers have started looking at the potential of applying the tools and techniques of e-commerce to the tasks of other sectors. The use of the internet as a source of health information and connectivity between healthcare providers and consumers has increased interest in e-health. E-health offers the rich potential of supplementing traditional delivery of services and channels of communication in ways that extend the healthcare organisation's ability to meet the needs of its patients. To date, some e-health applications have improved the quality of healthcare, and later they will lead to substantial cost savings. However, e-health is not simply a technology but a complex technological and relational process. In this sense, practitioners and researchers who want to successfully exploit e-health need to pay attention to various pending issues that have to be addressed. The aim of this paper is to propose a novel taxonomy for e-health research in the new millennium by instantaneously presenting the current status with some major themes of e-health research. PMID:18048218

Metaxiotis, Kostas; Ptochos, Dimitrios; Psarras, John

2004-01-01

466

Driving forces of global wildfires over the past millennium and the forthcoming century.  

PubMed

Recent bursts in the incidence of large wildfires worldwide have raised concerns about the influence climate change and humans might have on future fire activity. Comparatively little is known, however, about the relative importance of these factors in shaping global fire history. Here we use fire and climate modeling, combined with land cover and population estimates, to gain a better understanding of the forces driving global fire trends. Our model successfully reproduces global fire activity record over the last millennium and reveals distinct regimes in global fire behavior. We find that during the preindustrial period, the global fire regime was strongly driven by precipitation (rather than temperature), shifting to an anthropogenic-driven regime with the Industrial Revolution. Our future projections indicate an impending shift to a temperature-driven global fire regime in the 21st century, creating an unprecedentedly fire-prone environment. These results suggest a possibility that in the future climate will play a considerably stronger role in driving global fire trends, outweighing direct human influence on fire (both ignition and suppression), a reversal from the situation during the last two centuries. PMID:20974914

Pechony, O; Shindell, D T

2010-11-01

467

Seasonality change and the third millennium BP rainforest crisis in southern Cameroon (Central Africa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The third millennium BP crisis of the central African rainforest is not sufficiently understood. The low resolution of most pollen profiles and a large plateau of the calibration curve aggravate the exact dating of the event, and its causal climatic parameters are debated. We present a high-resolution pollen profile from the swamp site Nyabessan in the southern Cameroonian rainforest, covering the period 3100-2300 cal yr BP. Between 3100 and 2500 cal yr BP, the climate was favourable for a regional evergreen forest with Caesalpiniaceae and Lophira and a local Raphia swamp forest. Around 2500/2400 cal yr BP, a significant decrease of mature forest and swamp forest taxa and an increase of pioneers indicate that the rain forest was seriously disturbed and replaced by secondary formations. The dominance of Trema orientalis, a pioneer well adapted to seasonal desiccation, points to a much more accentuated seasonality after 2500 cal yr BP, which seems to be linked to a southwards shift of the ITCZ during the northern hemisphere winter months. We propose that the rain forest crisis between 2500 and 2200 cal BP created favourable conditions for farming and paved the way for a major expansion of Bantu speaking populations.

Ngomanda, Alfred; Neumann, Katharina; Schweizer, Astrid; Maley, Jean

2009-05-01

468

Driving forces of global wildfires over the past millennium and the forthcoming century  

PubMed Central

Recent bursts in the incidence of large wildfires worldwide have raised concerns about the influence climate change and humans might have on future fire activity. Comparatively little is known, however, about the relative importance of these factors in shaping global fire history. Here we use fire and climate modeling, combined with land cover and population estimates, to gain a better understanding of the forces driving global fire trends. Our model successfully reproduces global fire activity record over the last millennium and reveals distinct regimes in global fire behavior. We find that during the preindustrial period, the global fire regime was strongly driven by precipitation (rather than temperature), shifting to an anthropogenic-driven regime with the Industrial Revolution. Our future projections indicate an impending shift to a temperature-driven global fire regime in the 21st century, creating an unprecedentedly fire-prone environment. These results suggest a possibility that in the future climate will play a considerably stronger role in driving global fire trends, outweighing direct human influence on fire (both ignition and suppression), a reversal from the situation during the last two centuries. PMID:20974914

Pechony, O.; Shindell, D. T.

2010-01-01

469

Remote Sensing in Geography in the New Millennium: Prospects, Challenges, and Opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing science contributes greatly to our understanding of the Earth's ecosystems and cultural landscapes. Almost all the natural and social sciences, including geography, rely heavily on remote sensing to provide quantitative, and indispensable spatial information. Many geographers have made significant contributions to remote sensing science since the 1970s, including the specification of advanced remote sensing systems, improvements in analog and digital image analysis, biophysical modeling, and terrain analysis. In fact, the Remote Sensing Specialty Group (RSSG) is one of the largest specialty groups within the AAG with over 500 members. Remote sensing in concert with a geographic information systems, offers much value to geography as both an incisive spatial-analytical tool and as a scholarly pursuit that adds to the body of geographic knowledge on the whole. The "power" of remote sensing as a research endeavor in geography lies in its capabilities for obtaining synoptic, near-real time data at many spatial and temporal scales, and in many regions of the electromagnetic spectrum - from microwave, to RADAR, to visible, and reflective and thermal infrared. In turn, these data present a vast compendium of information for assessing Earth attributes and characte6stics that are at the very core of geography. Here we revisit how remote sensing has become a fundamental and important tool for geographical research, and how with the advent of new and improved sensing systems to be launched in the near future, remote sensing will further advance geographical analysis in the approaching New Millennium.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Jensen, John R.; Morain, Stanley A.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Ridd, Merrill K.

1999-01-01

470

Simulated climate variability in the region of Rapa Nui during the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapa Nui, an isolated island in the Southeast Pacific, was settled by the Polynesians most likely around 1200 AD and was discovered by the Europeans in 1722 AD. While the Polynesians presumably found a profuse palm woodland on Rapa Nui, the Europeans faced a landscape dominated by grassland. Scientists have examined potential anthropogenic, biological and climatic induced vegetation changes on Rapa Nui. Here, we analyse observational climate data for the last decades and climate model results for the period 800-1750 AD to explore the potential for a climatic-induced vegetation change. A direct influence of the ENSO phenomenon on the climatic parameters of Rapa Nui could not be found in the model simulations. Furthermore, strong climatic trends from a warm Medieval Period to a Little Ice Age or rapid climatic fluctuations due to large volcanic eruptions were not verifiable for the Rapa Nui region, although they are detectable in the simulations for many regions world wide. Hence, we tentatively conclude that large-scale climate changes in the oceanic region around Rapa Nui might be too small to explain strong vegetation changes on the island over the last millennium.

Junk, C.; Claussen, M.

2011-06-01

471

Simulated climate variability in the region of Rapa Nui during the last millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Easter Island, an isolated island in the Southeast Pacific, was settled by the Polynesians probably between 600 and 1200 AD and discovered by the Europeans in 1722 AD. While the Polynesians presumably found a profuse palm woodland on Easter Island, the Europeans faced a landscape dominated by grassland. Scientists have examined potential anthropogenic, biological and climatic induced vegetation changes on Easter Island. Here, we analyze observational climate data for the last decades and climate model results for the period 800-1750 AD to explore potential causes for a climatic-induced vegetation change. A direct influence of the ENSO phenomenon on the climatic parameters of Easter Island could not be found in the model simulations. Furthermore, strong climatic trends from a warm Medieval Period to a Little Ice Age or rapid climatic fluctuations due to large volcanic eruptions were not verifiable for the Easter Island region, although they are detectable in the simulations for many regions world wide. Hence we tentatively conclude that large-scale climate changes in the oceanic region around Easter Island might be too small to explain strong vegetation changes on the island over the last millennium.

Junk, C.; Claussen, M.

2011-01-01

472

Study Required by Section 104 of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Section 104 of the 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) required the US Copyright Office to conduct a study to begin "an ongoing evaluation by Congress on the relationship between technological change and U.S. copyright law." This report focuses on three areas traditionally handled under copyright law that have changed in the digital world: first sale doctrine and the related issue of digital transmission of copyrighted works, certain temporary incidental copies, such as copies of a work existing in RAM on a computer, and archival copying of computer programs. First sale doctrine allows the purchaser of a copyrighted work to loan or share that work and has a great impact on the functions of libraries. In summary, the report does not recommend amending the DMCA in the area of first sale doctrine; it does argue that copies of a work created in RAM for the purposes of streaming media are probably protected under fair use and that archival back-up copies of computer programs are becoming less necessary for the average consumer. The report includes public commentary from the library community, publishers, and private citizens.

2001-01-01

473

South China Sea hydrological changes and Pacific Walker Circulation variations over the last millennium.  

PubMed

The relative importance of north-south migrations of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) versus El Niño-Southern Oscillation and its associated Pacific Walker Circulation (PWC) variability for past hydrological change in the western tropical Pacific is unclear. Here we show that north-south ITCZ migration was not the only mechanism of tropical Pacific hydrologic variability during the last millennium, and that PWC variability profoundly influenced tropical Pacific hydrology. We present hydrological reconstructions from Cattle Pond, Dongdao Island of the South China Sea, where multi-decadal rainfall and downcore grain size variations are correlated to the Southern Oscillation Index during the instrumental era. Our downcore grain size reconstructions indicate that this site received less precipitation during relatively warm periods, AD 1000-1400 and AD 1850-2000, compared with the cool period (AD 1400-1850). Including our new reconstructions in a synthesis of tropical Pacific records results in a spatial pattern of hydrologic variability that implicates the PWC. PMID:21522137

Yan, Hong; Sun, Liguang; Oppo, Delia W; Wang, Yuhong; Liu, Zhonghui; Xie, Zhouq