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Sample records for millennium personality structure

  1. Creating Information Structures That Work for the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Heather

    This paper discusses the impact of globalization and new information and communication technologies on the structures and practices of higher education. The first section addresses the integration of library and information technology services, focusing on experiences at the University of the Sunshine Coast (Queensland, Australia). The second…

  2. Structural violence: a barrier to achieving the millennium development goals for women.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Joia S; Barry, Donna J; Satti, Hind; Raymonville, Maxi; Marsh, Sarah; Smith-Fawzi, Mary Kay

    2011-04-01

    In 2000, all 191 United Nations member states agreed to work toward the achievement of a set of health and development goals by 2015. The achievement of these eight goals, the Millennium Development goals (MDGs) is highly dependent on improving the status of women, who play a key role in health and education in families and communities around the world. Yet structural violence, defined as the systematic exclusion of a group from the resources needed to develop their full human potential, remains a significant barrier against women's development and threatens the achievement of the MDGs. Although sound evidence has long existed for improving women's survival, the will to address women's health concretely and holistically is only recently gaining the advocacy needed to change policy. Concrete examples of the integration of approaches to mitigate structural violence within the delivery of health services do exist and should be incorporated into global advocacy for women's health. PMID:21438698

  3. Millennium bug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the "millennium bug."

  4. Millennium bug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the “millennium bug.”

  5. STING Millennium: A web-based suite of programs for comprehensive and simultaneous analysis of protein structure and sequence.

    PubMed

    Neshich, Goran; Togawa, Roberto C; Mancini, Adauto L; Kuser, Paula R; Yamagishi, Michel E B; Pappas, Georgios; Torres, Wellington V; Fonseca e Campos, Tharsis; Ferreira, Leonardo L; Luna, Fabio M; Oliveira, Adilton G; Miura, Ronald T; Inoue, Marcus K; Horita, Luiz G; de Souza, Dimas F; Dominiquini, Fabiana; Alvaro, Alexandre; Lima, Cleber S; Ogawa, Fabio O; Gomes, Gabriel B; Palandrani, Juliana F; dos Santos, Gabriela F; de Freitas, Esther M; Mattiuz, Amanda R; Costa, Ivan C; de Almeida, Celso L; Souza, Savio; Baudet, Christian; Higa, Roberto H

    2003-07-01

    STING Millennium Suite (SMS) is a new web-based suite of programs and databases providing visualization and a complex analysis of molecular sequence and structure for the data deposited at the Protein Data Bank (PDB). SMS operates with a collection of both publicly available data (PDB, HSSP, Prosite) and its own data (contacts, interface contacts, surface accessibility). Biologists find SMS useful because it provides a variety of algorithms and validated data, wrapped-up in a user friendly web interface. Using SMS it is now possible to analyze sequence to structure relationships, the quality of the structure, nature and volume of atomic contacts of intra and inter chain type, relative conservation of amino acids at the specific sequence position based on multiple sequence alignment, indications of folding essential residue (FER) based on the relationship of the residue conservation to the intra-chain contacts and Calpha-Calpha and Cbeta-Cbeta distance geometry. Specific emphasis in SMS is given to interface forming residues (IFR)-amino acids that define the interactive portion of the protein surfaces. SMS may simultaneously display and analyze previously superimposed structures. PDB updates trigger SMS updates in a synchronized fashion. SMS is freely accessible for public data at http://www.cbi.cnptia.embrapa.br, http://mirrors.rcsb.org/SMS and http://trantor.bioc.columbia.edu/SMS. PMID:12824333

  6. STING Millennium: a web-based suite of programs for comprehensive and simultaneous analysis of protein structure and sequence

    PubMed Central

    Neshich, Goran; Togawa, Roberto C.; Mancini, Adauto L.; Kuser, Paula R.; Yamagishi, Michel E. B.; Pappas, Georgios; Torres, Wellington V.; Campos, Tharsis Fonseca e; Ferreira, Leonardo L.; Luna, Fabio M.; Oliveira, Adilton G.; Miura, Ronald T.; Inoue, Marcus K.; Horita, Luiz G.; de Souza, Dimas F.; Dominiquini, Fabiana; Álvaro, Alexandre; Lima, Cleber S.; Ogawa, Fabio O.; Gomes, Gabriel B.; Palandrani, Juliana F.; dos Santos, Gabriela F.; de Freitas, Esther M.; Mattiuz, Amanda R.; Costa, Ivan C.; de Almeida, Celso L.; Souza, Savio; Baudet, Christian; Higa, Roberto H.

    2003-01-01

    STING Millennium Suite (SMS) is a new web-based suite of programs and databases providing visualization and a complex analysis of molecular sequence and structure for the data deposited at the Protein Data Bank (PDB). SMS operates with a collection of both publicly available data (PDB, HSSP, Prosite) and its own data (contacts, interface contacts, surface accessibility). Biologists find SMS useful because it provides a variety of algorithms and validated data, wrapped-up in a user friendly web interface. Using SMS it is now possible to analyze sequence to structure relationships, the quality of the structure, nature and volume of atomic contacts of intra and inter chain type, relative conservation of amino acids at the specific sequence position based on multiple sequence alignment, indications of folding essential residue (FER) based on the relationship of the residue conservation to the intra-chain contacts and Cα–Cα and Cβ–Cβ distance geometry. Specific emphasis in SMS is given to interface forming residues (IFR)—amino acids that define the interactive portion of the protein surfaces. SMS may simultaneously display and analyze previously superimposed structures. PDB updates trigger SMS updates in a synchronized fashion. SMS is freely accessible for public data at http://www.cbi.cnptia.embrapa.br, http://mirrors.rcsb.org/SMS and http://trantor.bioc.columbia.edu/SMS. PMID:12824333

  7. Multidimensional Structure of the Hypomanic Personality Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalet, Benjamin D.; Durbin, C. Emily; Revelle, William

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the Hypomanic Personality Scale was explored in a sample of young adults (N = 884); resulting structures were validated on subsamples with measures of personality traits, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing behaviors. Hierarchical cluster analysis and estimates of general factor saturation suggested the presence of a weak…

  8. The structure of phenotypic personality traits.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, L R

    1993-01-01

    This personal historical article traces the development of the Big-Five factor structure, whose growing acceptance by personality researchers has profoundly influenced the scientific study of individual differences. The roots of this taxonomy lie in the lexical hypothesis and the insights of Sir Francis Galton, the prescience of L. L. Thurstone, the legacy of Raymond B. Cattell, and the seminal analyses of Tupes and Christal. Paradoxically, the present popularity of this model owes much to its many critics, each of whom tried to replace it, but failed. In reaction, there have been a number of attempts to assimilate other models into the five-factor structure. Lately, some practical implications of the emerging consensus can be seen in such contexts as personnel selection and classification. PMID:8427480

  9. The Factor Analytic Structure of Personal Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Andrea, Michael; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined dimensions of personal loss from such events as divorce, career change, geographical relocation, illness, institutional change, aging, injury, death, or loss of one's personal dreams among 251 college students. Findings support notion that personal loss is multidimensional human experience involving unique interaction of several important…

  10. The Mars Millennium Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The countdown to a new century provides a unique opportunity to engage America's youth in charting a course for the future. The Mars Millennium Project challenges students across the nation to design a community yet to be imagined for the planet Mars. This interdisciplinary learning project aims to encourage K-12 students in classrooms and youth…

  11. Alemtuzumab (Millennium/ILEX).

    PubMed

    Dumont, F J

    2001-01-01

    Alemtuzumab, a lymphocyte-depleting humanized monoclonal antibody, is being developed by Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc and ILEX Oncology for the potential treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) [274580]. The utility of the compound for treating bone marrow (BM) stem cell transplantation-associated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) [372946] and for ex vivo purging of BM to remove malignant T-cells [244056] is also being investigated. Additional potential therapeutic areas for which clinical trials are planned or ongoing include vasculitis, multiple sclerosis [288762] and organ transplantation [338304]. A Biologics License Application (BLA) was filed with the FDA in December 1999 by ILEX and Millennium [351523], [351524], [373873]. The FDA accepted the application for filing in February 2000 [355775] and returned a complete response letter in June 2000 [372172]. Millennium and ILEX submitted a response to the FDA in August 2000 [379766]. Alemtuzumab has received Fast Track designation [304771] and orphan drug status from the FDA [288762], and the drug was reviewed by the FDA's Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee on 14 December, 2000 [387228]. The committee voted 14 to 1 to recommend accelerated approval of alemtuzumab for patients with CLL who have been treated with alkylating agents and who have failed fludarabine therapy [393778], [393894]. In March 2000, Millennium and ILEX also submitted a Marketing Authorization Application (MAA) for alemtuzumab to the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) [363595]. In October 2000, EMEA accepted the MAA for alemtuzumab under the agency's centralized approval procedure [387228]. Alemtuzumab was originally synthesized by Herman Waldmann and colleagues at Cambridge University and licensed to Burroughs Wellcome (BW) via the British Technology Group (BTG) [162622]. BW conducted phase I and II trials for a broad range of indications, but then discontinued development because of disappointing results in phase II rheumatoid arthritis trials [326848]. In April 1997, LeukoSite licensed rights to the antibody from BTG for the treatment of CLL and prolymphocytic leukemia, plus an option to develop it for other indications. BW agreed to supply LeukoSite with intellectual property [244056], [326848]. In May 1997, LeukoSite entered into a joint venture with ILEX Oncology for the further development of alemtuzumab [245986]. By the end of 1999, Millennium acquired LeukoSite with commitment to pursue development of the compound through the joint venture Millennium & ILEX Partners LP [351523], [370237]. In August 1999, Schering AG and its US affiliate Berlex Laboratories obtained exclusive worldwide marketing rights for alemtuzumab, excluding Japan and East Asia. In the US, Berlex, Millennium and ILEX will divide profits from alemtuzumab sales equally [337702], [338837]. PMID:11527007

  12. The Hierarchical Personality Structure of Aspiring Creative Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslej, Marta M.; Rain, Marina; Fong, Katrina; Oatley, Keith; Mar, Raymond A.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies of personality traits in creative writers have demonstrated mixed findings, perhaps due to issues of sampling, measurement, and the reporting of statistical information. The goal of this study is to quantify the personality structure of aspiring creative writers according to a modern hierarchal model of trait personality. A…

  13. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  14. State Effect of Traumatic Experience on Personality Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong-seock; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Heung-Pyo

    2012-01-01

    Objective Personality is defined as the trait-like qualities of a person. However, it has been recently suggested that the state effect of a situation leads to changes in scores on personality assessments. We predicted that traumatic experiences would induce changes not only in personality scores but also in the factor structures of personality assessments. Methods MethodsaaWe conducted a cross-sectional, case-controlled study using two data sets: a traumatized adolescent sample (n=71) and a non-traumatized adolescent sample (n=296). Personality factor structures were compared between the two samples using exploratory factor analyses for 25 lower-ordered subscales of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). In the non-traumatized sample, evaluation of the scree plot suggested a five-factor solution supporting TCI's original seven-factor model. Results The traumatized sample showed a three-factor structure representing a biological factor, a social factor and an existential factor. This decrease in number of personality factors was caused by strengthened correlations among personality subscales related to coping with traumatic situations. Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality (i.e., temperament-character) was adequate in capturing personality traits of non-traumatized adolescents, but the tripartite view of existential psychology (i.e., body-mind-spirit) clearly corresponded to the factor structure of the traumatized adolescents. Conclusion The three-factor solution of the present traumatized group is consistent with the tripartite model of personality (i.e., body-mind-spirit), while the five-factor solution of the non-traumatized group corresponds to Cloninger's seven-factor model. This is the first study to describe the state effects of traumatic experiences on personality structure. PMID:23251200

  15. The Structuring of Personal Example Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Nathalie; Watson, Anne; Zazkis, Rina; Mason, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates the notion of a personal example space as the set of mathematical objects and construction techniques that a learner has access to as examples of a concept while working on a given task. This is different from the conventional space of examples that is represented by the worked examples and exercises in textbooks. We refer to…

  16. Identifying Psychopathy Subtypes on the Basis of Personality Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Brian M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Krueger, Robert F.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2004-01-01

    The authors used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of criminal psychopaths on the basis of differences in personality structure. Participants included 96 male prisoners diagnosed as psychopathic, using the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). Personality was assessed using the brief form of the Multidimensional…

  17. [Treatment procrastination time in breast cancer and personality structure].

    PubMed

    Lütgemeier, I; Rössler, J; Lütgemeier, J; Hörst, M

    1979-08-01

    Sixty patients with mammary cancer were studied in order to determine whether a connection between the tendency to delay medical treatment and a neurotic personality structure exists. The results are based on different personality factors that were investigated by means of the 16-PF test by Cattell. It could be shown that for patients who had delayed treatment (D2) the personality traits "limited inner tension" and "slightly inhibited" were present. On the other hand patients who had not delayed treatment (K1) displayed the personality traits "higher inner tension" and "free of inhibitions". PMID:392383

  18. Factorial Structure of Pathological Personality as Evaluated by Peers

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Cannon; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how individuals apply features of personality disorders (PDs) to peers. Members of groups nominated peers who exhibited symptoms for each of the 10 PDs in the DSM–IV. Data were gathered in 2 samples: 1st-year college students (n = 1,440) and Air Force recruits (n = 2,075). The peer method reliably identified group members exhibiting specific PD features. Factor analyses identified a clearly interpretable structure relevant to the pathological personality constructs being assessed. The structure replicated well across samples and showed expected relationships to broader models of normal personality. However, cross-method correlations of factor scores were only moderate, suggesting that peer reports are reliably different from self-reports regarding the presence of pathological personality traits. PMID:12653416

  19. Taxonomy and structure of Persian personality-descriptive trait terms.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Mohammad N; De Raad, Boele; Farzad, Valiolla; Fotoohie, Mahmood

    2016-04-01

    We described the development of a taxonomy of Persian personality-descriptive terms in two studies. In Study 1, judges scanned Persian dictionaries and several Persian novels for person-descriptive terms. The resulting set of person-descriptive terms was classified into different categories of description, including the category of dispositional trait-descriptive adjectives. Of the 544 most familiar traits, 126 traits were selected to collect self-ratings. In Study 2, self-ratings were provided by 2400 students. Ratings were factor analysed (Principal Components Analysis) followed by Varimax rotation. Factor structures with two to six factors were discussed. The two-factor structure and the three-factor structure confirm the Big Two and the Big Three, respectively. Of the structures with five and six factors, the five-factor structure appears to be the more appropriate choice, with the factors labelled Morality, Positive versus Negative Emotionality, Achievement, Thoughtfulness and Affection. Gender differences were measured on both the five-factor structure and the six-factor structure. The discussion section emphasised both cross-cultural commonalities and cultural deviations in reference to the Big Five. PMID:25534020

  20. Coping with Unemployment: Personality, Role Demands, and Time Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lootens, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Time structure has been found to be an important coping mechanism for dealing with the negative effects of unemployment on psychological well-being. This study extends the literature by investigating personality (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and proactivity) and role demands (marital status, being the only

  1. The Wellbeing of the Self's Personality: A Structural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Shlomit; Sabbagh, Clara

    2008-01-01

    Leaning on the formal faceted definition of wellbeing (Levy and Guttman (1975) "Social Indicators Research," 2, 361-388), a mapping sentence is provided for defining the universe of observations of the wellbeing of the self-expanding on personality aspects. The structure of the interrelationships among the variables of the expanded…

  2. Coping with Unemployment: Personality, Role Demands, and Time Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lootens, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Time structure has been found to be an important coping mechanism for dealing with the negative effects of unemployment on psychological well-being. This study extends the literature by investigating personality (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and proactivity) and role demands (marital status, being the only…

  3. Interrater reliability for Kernberg's structural interview for assessing personality organization.

    PubMed

    Ingenhoven, Theo J M; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Brogtrop, Janneke; Lindenborn, Anne; van den Brink, Wim; Passchier, Jan

    2009-10-01

    Interrater reliability is considered a precondition for the validity of theoretical models and their corresponding diagnostic instruments. Studies have documented good interrater reliability for structured interviews measuring personality characteristics on a descriptive-phenomenological level but there is little research on reliability of assessment procedures on a structural level. The current study investigated the interrater reliability of the structural interview (SI) designed to assess neurotic, borderline, and psychotic personality organization according to Kernberg. Videotaped SIs of 69 psychiatric patients were randomly and independently rated by two out of three trained psychologists. Agreement between rater pairs was expressed as square weighted kappa (K(sw), 95% CI). Results indicate satisfactory interrater reliability with respect to Kernberg's tripartite classification (K(sw) = 0.42, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.77). Subdivision of the borderline category or introduction of intermediate subcategories to the tripartite system did not significantly affect reliability (K(sw) = 0.55, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.80; K(sw) = 0.59, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.84, respectively). The conclusion is that trained clinicians can reliably assess structural personality organization using the SI. Refining the nosological system adding subcategories did not reduce reliability. PMID:19817632

  4. Personality Structure among Centenarians: The Georgia Centenarian Study

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Adam; Siegler, Ilene C.; Martin, Peter; Costa, Paul T.; Poon, Leonard W.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that observer-rated factor structure of personality in centenarians is congruent with the normative structure. Prevalence of cognitive impairment, which has previously been linked to changes in personality in younger samples, is high in this age group, requiring observer ratings to obtain valid data in a population-based context. Likewise, the broad range of cognitive functioning necessitates synthesis of results across multiple measures of cognitive performance. Data from 161 participants in the Georgia Centenarian Study (GCS, MAge = 100.3 years, 84% women, 20% African American, 40% community-dwelling, 30% low cognitive functioning) support strong overall correspondence with reference structure (full sample: .94; higher cognitive functioning: .94; lower cognitive functioning: .90). Centenarians with lower cognitive functioning are higher on neuroticism and lower on openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Facet-level differences (higher N1–N6: anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, vulnerability to stress; lower E1: warmth, lower O4–O6: actions, ideas, values; lower A1, A3, A4: trust, altruism, compliance; C1, C5: competence, self-discipline) are also observed. Multivariate factor-level models indicate only neuroticism of the five broad factors predicts membership in cognitively impaired group; facet-level models showed that lower-order scales from three of the five domains were significant. Centenarians with: higher self-consciousness (N4), impulsiveness (N5), and deliberation (C6), but lower ideas (O5), compliance (A4), and self-discipline (C5) were more likely to be in the lower cognitive functioning category. Results present first normative population-based data for personality structure in centenarians and offer intriguing possibilities for the role of personality in cognitive impairment centered on neuroticism. PMID:26214097

  5. Item Selection, Evaluation, and Simple Structure in Personality Data

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Erik; Turkheimer, Eric

    2010-01-01

    We report an investigation of the genesis and interpretation of simple structure in personality data using two very different self-reported data sets. The first consists of a set of relatively unselected lexical descriptors, whereas the second is based on responses to a carefully constructed instrument. In both data sets, we explore the degree of simple structure by comparing factor solutions to solutions from simulated data constructed to have either strong or weak simple structure. The analysis demonstrates that there is little evidence of simple structure in the unselected items, and a moderate degree among the selected items. In both instruments, however, much of the simple structure that could be observed originated in a strong dimension of positive vs. negative evaluation. PMID:20694168

  6. Cluster Scaling Relations from the Millennium Gas Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Scott; Thomas, Peter; Short, Chris; Pike, Simon; Newton, Richard; l Peel, Michae; Battye, Richard; Young, Owain; Liddle, Andrew; Pearce, Frazer; XMM Cluster Survey Collaboration

    2012-09-01

    The Millennium Gas simulations are a series of large cosmological N-body+hydrodynamic simulations, based on the Millennium Simulation. The large (500 Mpc/h) box contains thousands of galaxy clusters and therefore allows robust statistical conclusions to be drawn regarding their structure and scaling properties. In this talk I will present some of the key results from these simulations, including results from our latest simulation, where feedback from stars and AGN is included. Particular attention will be paid to the relationship between X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich properties of the simulated clusters.

  7. The New Millennium Program power technology

    SciTech Connect

    Chmielewski, A.B.; Das, A.; Cassapakis, C.

    1996-12-31

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) has been established to accelerate the infusion of breakthrough technologies into NASA space science missions. The goal of this technology infusion is to fulfill the NASA vision of frequent, low-cost missions to deep space and to plant Earth. Power is one of the most important keys to cost-effective space science missions. The power subsystem comprises over 25 percent of the mass of a typical space orbiter type spacecraft. The problems of power will become even more acute in the new millennium as deep space missions are asked to go farther from the Sun and get to their destinations faster. Several power technology proposals were submitted to the NMP through its Modular and Multifunctional Systems Integrated Product Development Team (IPDT). The proposals described in this paper received the most consideration and in several cases resulted in the technology being selected for flight on one of the NMP missions. The technologies discussed here are: SCARLET array, Light Flexible array, lithium ion battery, cold temperature battery, inflatable concentrators and a related technology -- Multifunctional Structures.

  8. [Health, equity, and the Millennium Development Goals].

    PubMed

    Torres, Cristina; Mjica, Oscar J

    2004-06-01

    In September 2000 representatives of 189 countries met for the Millennium Summit, which the United Nations convened in New York City, and adopted the declaration that provided the basis for formulating the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The eight goals are part of a long series of initiatives that governments, the United Nations system, and international financial institutions have undertaken to reduce world poverty. Three of the eight goals deal with health, so the health sector will be responsible for implementing, monitoring, and evaluating measures proposed to meet targets that have been formulated: to reduce by two-thirds the mortality rate in children under 5 years of age between 1990 and 2015; to reduce by three-quarters the maternal mortality rate between 1990 and 2015; and to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by the year 2015, as well as to halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria, tuberculosis, and other major diseases. The health sector must also work with other parties to achieve targets connected with two other of the goals: to improve access to affordable essential drugs, and to reduce the proportion of persons who do not have safe drinking water. Adopting a strategy focused on the most vulnerable groups-ones concentrated in locations and populations with the greatest social exclusion-would make possible the largest total reduction in deaths among children, thus reaching the proposed target as well as producing greater equity. In the Region of the Americas the principal challenges in meeting the MDGs are: improving and harmonizing health information systems; designing health programs related to the MDGs that bring together the set of services and interventions that have the greatest impact, according to the special characteristics of the populations who are intended to be the beneficiaries; strengthening the political will to support the MDGs; and guaranteeing funding for the measures undertaken to attain the MDGs. PMID:15272989

  9. Bioengineering in the millennium.

    PubMed

    Ranu, H S

    1998-10-01

    This symposium identified the major challenges in biomedical research that will benefit from bioengineering applications. Attention was focused on the important role that bioengineers will play in future advances in biomedical research. There was considerable discussion about how to integrate bioengineering with biological research in meeting the challenges of the twenty-first century. Symposium presenters showcased the accomplishments of NIH-funded bioengineering researches and increased the visibility of bioengineering to NIH leaders, staff, and members of the intramural and extramural research community. Recommendations were also made for future NIH-funded research projects. Attention was also placed on how basic bioengineering research can lead to commercialization of new health care technology and therefore maintain the nation's leadership in this important area. New products, from biotechnology and novel devices for diagnosis and treatment, are marketed through interactions between universities, medical centers, small start-up firms, and larger, more established companies. In the United States the gross revenue of the bioengineering private sector industry involved in the manufacture of health care products already exceeds $40 billion. More then 750 persons attended this bioengineering symposium. Over 110 scientific posters and exhibits relating to biology and medicine were presented. They provided a forum for showcasing NIH-funded bioengineering projects and fostered future collaboration among academic investigators, industry, and members of the small business community. The contributions of Pugwash bioengineer, Maciej Natecz, a member of the Polish Academy of Sciences, was recognized by the Conference Planning Committee. He was honored for his work in nuclear disarmament. Indian medical scientists should note that this symposium provided a framework for the development of technology in biomedical sciences during the Twenty-First Century. Major concentrations in interdisciplinary research should occur at all of the premier research institutions in India. PMID:9777462

  10. Personalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca Martin

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a typical high school in Huntington Beach, California, curbed disruptive student behavior by personalizing the school experience for "problem" students. Through mostly volunteer efforts, an adopt-a-kid program was initiated that matched kids' learning styles to adults' personality styles and resulted in fewer suspensions and numerous…

  11. Personalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca Martin

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a typical high school in Huntington Beach, California, curbed disruptive student behavior by personalizing the school experience for "problem" students. Through mostly volunteer efforts, an adopt-a-kid program was initiated that matched kids' learning styles to adults' personality styles and resulted in fewer suspensions and numerous

  12. A Neural Network Model of the Structure and Dynamics of Human Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Stephen J.; Monroe, Brian M.; Brownstein, Aaron L.; Yang, Yu; Chopra, Gurveen; Miller, Lynn C.

    2010-01-01

    We present a neural network model that aims to bridge the historical gap between dynamic and structural approaches to personality. The model integrates work on the structure of the trait lexicon, the neurobiology of personality, temperament, goal-based models of personality, and an evolutionary analysis of motives. It is organized in terms of two…

  13. Personal Attitudes or Structural Factors? A Contextual Analysis of Breastfeeding Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, Nita Mary; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2004-01-01

    A personal attitudes model (i.e., infant feeding choices are based on personal attitudes primarily) and a structural factors model (i.e., feeding choices are shaped by the structural contexts of women's lives, as much as personal attitudes) of women's breastfeeding behavior were tested by surveying a longitudinal sample of 548 mostly European

  14. Personal Attitudes or Structural Factors? A Contextual Analysis of Breastfeeding Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, Nita Mary; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2004-01-01

    A personal attitudes model (i.e., infant feeding choices are based on personal attitudes primarily) and a structural factors model (i.e., feeding choices are shaped by the structural contexts of women's lives, as much as personal attitudes) of women's breastfeeding behavior were tested by surveying a longitudinal sample of 548 mostly European…

  15. The millennium development goals and tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Collishaw, Neil E

    2010-03-01

    The eight Millennium Development Goals were proposed by the UN Secretary-General in 2001. They are goals with measurable targets to be achieved by 2015 or earlier. The Goals were distilled from the 2000 United Nations Millennium Declaration, a sweeping statement of development values, principles, objectives and proposed actions. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is a demonstrable translation of some of the ideas in the Millennium Declaration into reality. With 165(i) Parties, the FCTC does more than just improve global tobacco control: * The FCTC contributes to achievement of many of the Millennium Development Goals, and benefits from success in implementation of the Goals in other sectors. * The treaty itself is a demonstration of strengthened international and national rule of law, central tenets of the Millennium Declaration. * The FCTC expands international law into the health sector and provides better balance of international law among economic, environmental, social and health sectors. The Millennium Declaration calls for a more equitable distribution of the benefits of globalization, and the FCTC delivers this result. * The FCTC provides a model for addressing other unsolved global problems through greater use of international law. Alcohol control and dietary improvements including greater control of empty calories in manufactured foods are examples of problems that may benefit from greater governance by international law. Were that to come to pass, those new treaties would also improve implementation of the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:20595354

  16. Deep Space 1: Into the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varghese, Philip; Rayman, Marc D.; Lehman, David H.; Livesay, Leslie L.; Nelson, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents Deep Space 1: Into the New Millennium in viewgraph form. The topics include: 1) NASA's New Millennium Program; 2) Deep Space 1 (DS1) Project Overview; 3) Technology/Science Payload; 4) Mission Objectives and Status; 5) Extended Mission Opportunities; and 6) Summary.

  17. Personality Structure as Revealed in Questionnaire Responses at the Preschool Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cattell, Raymond B.; Dreger, Ralph M.

    1974-01-01

    Personality structure, as measured by the Preschool Personality Questionnaire, was studied in preschool children. Two studies are reported which discuss factor analysis, including the ability factors of the PSPQ. (ST)

  18. Borderline personality organization, structural diagnosis and the structural interview. A pilot study of interview analysis.

    PubMed

    Bauer, S F; Hunt, H F; Gould, M; Goldstein, E G

    1980-01-01

    Kernberg has related the level of integration of the personality to the level of integration (and "structuring") of internalized object relations. He has designated three levels of personality organization: neurotic, borderline, and psychotic, and has developed a specially focused clinical interview designed to reveal intrapsychic structural characteristics--a "structural interview"--as a diagnostic instrument to differentiate the three types of personality organization. This study presents a method of analysis of the structural interview. Interviews of ten hospitalized psychiatric patients were studied to determine whether indicators could be retrieved from the typescripts of the interviews consonant with the diagnoses made by clinicians utilizing Kernberg's structural theory. Results indicate that scores generated from the typescripts are consistent with the hypothesis that the interviews did contain the indicators called for by structural theory and differentiate borderline from psychotic structures better than chance. In addition, this method of analysis of contingencies of interaction in the interview may have broader application to the study of psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. PMID:7403382

  19. A Fairbairnian structural analysis of the narcissistic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Celani, David P

    2014-06-01

    Fairbairn's structural theory is based on the developing child's need to dissociate actual events between himself or herself and his or her objects that are excessively rejecting in order to contine an uninterrupted, pristine attachment to them. This eventuates in three selves in relation to three objects: One pair is conscious (the central ego which relates to the ideal object), while the other two pairs (the antilibidinal ego, which relates to the rejecting object, and the libidinal ego, which relates to the exciting object) are mostly held in the unconscious. Fairbairn saw the fluid relationship between the two split-off pairs of unconscious part selves and the conscious central ego as the primary dynamic of the human personality. The author proposes a specific variation in Fairbairn's structural theory to account for the development of narcissism. Specifically, this disorder is viewed as the result of a developmental history in which the child finds himself or herself in an exceedingly hostile interpersonal environment that precludes the child from using an idealized version either of his or her parental objects as the "exciting object." The child therefore substitutes a grandiose view of himself or herself as the exciting object. This defense deflects external influences and replaces relationships with external objects with a closed internal world that is comprised of an admiring part-self basking in reflected love from its relationship with an exciting part-object. PMID:24866161

  20. Ethnicity and population structure in personal naming networks.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Pablo; Longley, Paul A; O'Sullivan, David

    2011-01-01

    Personal naming practices exist in all human groups and are far from random. Rather, they continue to reflect social norms and ethno-cultural customs that have developed over generations. As a consequence, contemporary name frequency distributions retain distinct geographic, social and ethno-cultural patterning that can be exploited to understand population structure in human biology, public health and social science. Previous attempts to detect and delineate such structure in large populations have entailed extensive empirical analysis of naming conventions in different parts of the world without seeking any general or automated methods of population classification by ethno-cultural origin. Here we show how 'naming networks', constructed from forename-surname pairs of a large sample of the contemporary human population in 17 countries, provide a valuable representation of cultural, ethnic and linguistic population structure around the world. This innovative approach enriches and adds value to automated population classification through conventional national data sources such as telephone directories and electoral registers. The method identifies clear social and ethno-cultural clusters in such naming networks that extend far beyond the geographic areas in which particular names originated, and that are preserved even after international migration. Moreover, one of the most striking findings of this approach is that these clusters simply 'emerge' from the aggregation of millions of individual decisions on parental naming practices for their children, without any prior knowledge introduced by the researcher. Our probabilistic approach to community assignment, both at city level as well as at a global scale, helps to reveal the degree of isolation, integration or overlap between human populations in our rapidly globalising world. As such, this work has important implications for research in population genetics, public health, and social science adding new understandings of migration, identity, integration and social interaction across the world. PMID:21909399

  1. Ethnicity and Population Structure in Personal Naming Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mateos, Pablo; Longley, Paul A.; O'Sullivan, David

    2011-01-01

    Personal naming practices exist in all human groups and are far from random. Rather, they continue to reflect social norms and ethno-cultural customs that have developed over generations. As a consequence, contemporary name frequency distributions retain distinct geographic, social and ethno-cultural patterning that can be exploited to understand population structure in human biology, public health and social science. Previous attempts to detect and delineate such structure in large populations have entailed extensive empirical analysis of naming conventions in different parts of the world without seeking any general or automated methods of population classification by ethno-cultural origin. Here we show how ‘naming networks’, constructed from forename-surname pairs of a large sample of the contemporary human population in 17 countries, provide a valuable representation of cultural, ethnic and linguistic population structure around the world. This innovative approach enriches and adds value to automated population classification through conventional national data sources such as telephone directories and electoral registers. The method identifies clear social and ethno-cultural clusters in such naming networks that extend far beyond the geographic areas in which particular names originated, and that are preserved even after international migration. Moreover, one of the most striking findings of this approach is that these clusters simply ‘emerge’ from the aggregation of millions of individual decisions on parental naming practices for their children, without any prior knowledge introduced by the researcher. Our probabilistic approach to community assignment, both at city level as well as at a global scale, helps to reveal the degree of isolation, integration or overlap between human populations in our rapidly globalising world. As such, this work has important implications for research in population genetics, public health, and social science adding new understandings of migration, identity, integration and social interaction across the world. PMID:21909399

  2. The Structure of Informal Social Networks of Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persons with less severe disabilities are able to express their needs and show initiatives in social contacts, persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), however, depend on others for this. This study analysed the structure of informal networks of persons with PIMD. Materials and Methods: Data concerning the…

  3. Drugs for a new millennium.

    PubMed

    Snyder, S H

    1999-12-29

    A millennium, a century, even a decade is a long time-frame for speculation about anything. Advances in biomedical research in the last few decades have been so extraordinary and escalating at an ever-accelerating pace that any prophecy is a risky proposition. However, it is possible to divine the big, unanswered questions and envisage ways in which they might reasonably be approached in the next few decades, a task which I will try to essay. So many drugs treat so many different medical conditions that a detailed and comprehensive coverage would probably be tiresome. Instead, I will address certain broad themes and diseases that offer both immense challenges and great potential for advances. Rather than review detailed experimental issues, I will confine myself to the 'big picture' issues, providing examples of specific research only in a few instances drawing largely from areas I know best. PMID:10670019

  4. Every Year Begins a Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Jerry A.

    2000-09-01

    Every year is another year to consider experimenting with new ideas, challenges, and opportunities in our classrooms and laboratories. Many of us have learned what we think are effective teaching strategies by such experimentation. In my case, these lessons learned have included activity-based learning in many settings, emphasis on depth of understanding of basic concepts, making many connections among experiences, and adaptations to the learners. This article outlines a series of demonstrations and their contexts, that trace my pathway to learning these lessons. What I learned along the way leads to recommendations about what we teach and how we teach. Every new idea we pursue or challenge we take on has the potential to have long term consequences. Every year begins a millennium.

  5. Bifactor structure of the schizotypal personality questionnaire (SPQ).

    PubMed

    Preti, Antonio; Siddi, Sara; Vellante, Marcello; Scanu, Rosanna; Muratore, Tamara; Gabrielli, Mersia; Tronci, Debora; Masala, Carmelo; Petretto, Donatella Rita

    2015-12-30

    The schizotypal personality questionnaire (SPQ) is used to characterize schizotypy, a complex construct helpful for the investigation of schizophrenia-related psychopathology and putative endophenotypes. The SPQ factor structure at item level has been rarely replicated and no study had tested a bifactor model of the SPQ so far. The unidimensional, the correlated, the second-order and the bifactor models of the SPQ were tested to evaluate whether the items converge into a major single factor defining the schizotypy-proneness of the participants, to be used for grouping purpose. Parallel principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to determine the optimal number of factors and components in a cross-sectional, survey design involving 649 college students (males: 47%). The first-order, nine-subscale model was confirmed by CFA in the whole sample. The best evidence from parallel PCA in the training set was in favor of a two-factor model; the bifactor implementation of this model showed good fit in the subsequent CFA. Two main dimensions of positive and negative symptoms underlie schizotypy in non-clinical samples, entailing specific risk of psychosis. On a measurement level, the study provided support for the use of the total scores of the SPQ to characterize schizotypy. PMID:26607431

  6. Intelligence and the Factorial Structure of Person Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Thomas D.; Barnard, James W.

    Person perception is used in this study to refer to the behavioral domain which is also called interpersonal or social perception. This domain typically consists of judgments of other persons' actions, expressions, or intentions. Three groups of 10 children differing on IQ and CA comprised the subject population. One group was gifted, one average,…

  7. The Latent Personality Structure of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberg, James W.; O'Brien, Karen M.

    Among the more recent personality assessment tools used by counseling psychologists is Millon's Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI). This instrument was created, in part, to reflect the changes that had occurred in psychologists' understanding of personality, psychopathology, and diagnostic assessment. The MCMI is derived from Millon's biosocial…

  8. Empathy in the Structure of Personality of Special Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klis, Maria; Kossewska, Joanna

    Empathy is a personality attribute involving the capacity to respond emotionally, cognitively, and communicatively to other persons without loss of objectivity and identity. Empathy is linked with helping behavior and with more effective professional functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate relations between empathy and personality…

  9. Personality Structure in Brown Capuchin Monkeys: Comparisons with Chimpanzees, Orangutans, and Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Morton, F. Blake; Lee, Phyllis C.; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M.; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Thierry, Bernard; Paukner, Annika; de Waal, Frans B. M.; Widness, Jane; Essler, Jennifer L.; Weiss, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Species comparisons of personality structure (i.e. how many personality dimensions and the characteristics of those dimensions) can facilitate questions about the adaptive function of personality in nonhuman primates. Here we investigate personality structure in the brown capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella), a New World primate species, and compare this structure to those of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Brown capuchins evolved behavioral and cognitive traits that are qualitatively similar to those of great apes, and individual differences in behavior and cognition are closely associated with differences in personality. Thus, we hypothesized that brown capuchin personality structure would overlap more with great apes than with rhesus macaques. We obtained personality ratings from seven sites on 127 brown capuchin monkeys. Principal-components analysis identified five personality dimensions (Assertiveness, Openness, Neuroticism, Sociability, and Attentiveness), which were reliable across raters and, in a subset of subjects, significantly correlated with relevant behaviors up to a year later. Comparisons between species revealed that brown capuchins and great apes overlapped in personality structure, particularly chimpanzees in the case of Neuroticism. However, in some respects (i.e. capuchin Sociability and Openness) the similarities between capuchins and great apes were not significantly greater than those between capuchins and rhesus macaques. We discuss the relevance of our results to brown capuchin behavior, and the evolution of personality structure in primates. PMID:23668695

  10. Radiocarbon dating and wiggle matching of wooden poles forming circular structures in the 1st Millennium BC at the Mawaki archaeological site, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshio; Takada, Hideki

    2010-04-01

    Wooden circular structures, presumed archaeologically as a structure related with ritual of ancient people in the Final Jomon period, are specific to archaeological sites excavated mainly in the coastal region around Noto peninsula, central Japan. So far, only few attempts have been made at chronological studies on these wooden structures. 14C dating has been attempted to wooden poles forming the structures, which had been excavated at the Mawaki archaeological site, Ishikawa prefecture, central Japan, to examine construction period of the structures. It was revealed that these structures were constructed in the Final Jomon period, most probably within 900-400 cal BC. In addition, we have tried wiggle matching of 14C ages for several annual rings separated from three and two poles that were constituting two circular structures, the oldest and the newest ones. 14C dates of annual rings measured with AMS were wiggle-matched to IntCal04 data sets by Bayesian statistics. The results indicated that the construction period of these wooden structures can be placed within ca. 820-680 cal BC, being narrowed by about 350 calendar years successfully.

  11. Spinoff 2001: Special Millennium Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    For the past 43 years, NASA has devoted its facilities, labor force, and expertise to sharing the abundance of technology developments used for its missions with the nation's industries. These countless technologies have not only successfully contributed to the growth of the U.S. economy, but also to the quality of life on Earth. For the past 25 years, NASA's Spinoff publication has brought attention to thousands of technologies, products, and services that were developed as a direct result of commercial partnerships between NASA and the private business sector. Many of these exciting technologies included advances in ceramics, computer technology, fiber optics, and remote sensing. New and ongoing research at the NASA field centers covers a full spectrum of technologies that will provide numerous advantages for the future, many of which have made significant strides in the commercial market. The NASA Commercial Technology Network plays a large role in transferring this progress. By applying NASA technologies such as data communication, aircraft de-icing technologies, and innovative materials to everyday functions, American consumers and the national economy benefit. Moving forward into the new millennium, these new technologies will further advance our country's position as the world leader in scientific and technical innovation. These cutting-edge innovations represent the investment of the U.S. citizen in the Space Program. Some of these technologies are highlighted in Spinoff 2001, an example of NASA's commitment to technology transfer and commercialization assistance. This year's issue spotlights the commercial technology efforts of NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center. Kennedy's extensive network of commercial technology opportunities has enabled them to become a leader in technology transfer outreach. This kind of leadership is exemplified through Kennedy's recent partnership with the State of Florida, working toward the development of the Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory. The new laboratory is the first step toward the development of a proposed 400-acre Space Commerce Park, located at Kennedy Space Center. Spinoff, once again, successfully showcases the variety of commercial successes and benefits resulting from the transfer of NASA technology to private industry. It is with great pride and pleasure that we present Spinoff 2001 with a Special Millennium Feature. With help from U.S. industry and commercial technology programs, NASA will continue to assist in the presentation of innovative new products to our nation.

  12. Use of structured personality survey techniques to indicate operator response to stressful situations

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Under given circumstances, a person will tend to operate in one of four dominant orientations: (1) to perform tasks; (2) to achieve consensus; (3) to achieve understanding, or (4) to maintain structure. Historically, personality survey techniques, such as the Myers-Briggs type indicator, have been used to determine these tendencies. While these techniques can accurately reflect a person's orientation under normal social situations, under different sets of conditions, the same person may exhibit other tendencies, displaying a similar or entirely different orientation. While most do not exhibit extreme tendencies or changes of orientation, the shift in personality from normal to stressful conditions can be rather dramatic, depending on the individual. Structured personality survey techniques have been used to indicate operator response to stressful situations. These techniques have been extended to indicate the balance between orientations that the control room team has through the various levels of cognizance.

  13. The smart house for older persons and persons with physical disabilities: structure, technology arrangements, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stefanov, Dimitar H; Bien, Zeungnam; Bang, Won-Chul

    2004-06-01

    Smart houses are considered a good alternative for the independent life of older persons and persons with disabilities. Numerous intelligent devices, embedded into the home environment, can provide the resident with both movement assistance and 24-h health monitoring. Modern home-installed systems tend to be not only physically versatile in functionality but also emotionally human-friendly, i.e., they may be able to perform their functions without disturbing the user and without causing him/her any pain, inconvenience, or movement restriction, instead possibly providing him/her with comfort and pleasure. Through an extensive survey, this paper analyzes the building blocks of smart houses, with particular attention paid to the health monitoring subsystem as an important component, by addressing the basic requirements of various sensors implemented from both research and clinical perspectives. The paper will then discuss some important issues of the future development of an intelligent residential space with a human-friendly health monitoring functional system. PMID:15218937

  14. New Satellite Services for the Next Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakeling, J.

    There are many new satellite communication systems that are either on the verge of commercial service or in the advanced planning and design stages for launch in the next millennium. Many will address what are considered to be new markets for satellites, using services and applications originally developed for terrestrial networks. Many of these services are network oriented and this will require a step change in the way that the satellite resource is managed if these systems are to succeed. This paper discusses these issues and offers some thoughts on what additional future services this change in approach may generate in the next millennium.

  15. Empirical, theoretical, and practical advantages of the HEXACO model of personality structure.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Michael C; Lee, Kibeom

    2007-05-01

    The authors argue that a new six-dimensional framework for personality structure--the HEXACO model--constitutes a viable alternative to the well-known Big Five or five-factor model. The new model is consistent with the cross-culturally replicated finding of a common six-dimensional structure containing the factors Honesty-Humility (H), Emotionality (E), eExtraversion (X), Agreeableness (A), Conscientiousness (C), and Openness to Experience (O). Also, the HEXACO model predicts several personality phenomena that are not explained within the B5/FFM, including the relations of personality factors with theoretical biologists' constructs of reciprocal and kin altruism and the patterns of sex differences in personality traits. In addition, the HEXACO model accommodates several personality variables that are poorly assimilated within the B5/FFM. PMID:18453460

  16. Training the Person of the Therapist in Structural Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aponte, Harry J.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that Structural Family Therapy needs a training model that integrates the existential, human mutuality of the therapeutic relationship with its technical elements. Offers a theoretical foundation for training structural family therapists in the use of self, discusses a model for training, and gives a case example illustrating personal…

  17. Professional Counseling: Transitioning into the Next Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Charlotte G., Ed.; Emener, William G., Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to attempt to forecast the future of professional counseling as it transitions into the next millennium. It is designed to help professional counselors understand and prepare for future changes in the profession of counseling. Understanding the rationale and observable predictors of anticipated changes meaningfully…

  18. Voting Rights Issues in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This publication examines ways to teach about law in the liberal arts. This issue focuses on future voting rights issues by exploring the 2000 presidential election. Articles included are: "Voting Rights in the New Millennium" (Jason F. Kirksey); "Legal and Political Lessons from 'Bush v. Gore'" (David Schultz); "The Ford-Carter Commission and…

  19. Professional Counseling: Transitioning into the Next Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Charlotte G., Ed.; Emener, William G., Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to attempt to forecast the future of professional counseling as it transitions into the next millennium. It is designed to help professional counselors understand and prepare for future changes in the profession of counseling. Understanding the rationale and observable predictors of anticipated changes meaningfully

  20. Voting Rights Issues in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This publication examines ways to teach about law in the liberal arts. This issue focuses on future voting rights issues by exploring the 2000 presidential election. Articles included are: "Voting Rights in the New Millennium" (Jason F. Kirksey); "Legal and Political Lessons from 'Bush v. Gore'" (David Schultz); "The Ford-Carter Commission and

  1. 41 CFR 102-75.170 - What happens to the related personal property in a structure scheduled for demolition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration should be given to designating items having possible historical or artistic value as personal... related personal property in a structure scheduled for demolition? 102-75.170 Section 102-75.170 Public... As Personal Property § 102-75.170 What happens to the related personal property in a...

  2. Assessment of personality organization in couple relationships: factorial structure of the inventory of personality organization and incremental validity over neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Verreault, Melissa; Sabourin, Stéphane; Lussier, Yvan; Normandin, Lina; Clarkin, John F

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on a sample of 372 French-Canadian couples, this study examined the factorial structure of a 20-item abbreviated version of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO) across a sample of couples and tested if identity diffusion, primitive defenses, and reality testing explain additional variance in couple distress when controlling for neuroticism. The IPO is based on Kernberg's conceptualization of personality organization (Kernberg, 1976 ). Gender differences were also studied through an examination of the value of both self-reported and partner-reported personality in the prediction of each partner's couple satisfaction. Results of confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the tripartite model of the short version of the IPO provided an acceptable fit and proved invariant when tested on couples. Actor-Partner Interdependence Model analyses (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006 ) showed that elevated neuroticism predicted higher endorsement of primitive defenses, which in turn predict couple dissatisfaction. There was also a direct, negative path from neuroticism to dyadic adjustment. Finally, self-reported neuroticism scores predicted high utilization of primitive defenses by the partner, and low partner-reported couple satisfaction. Furthermore, high self-reported utilization of primitive defenses predicted low couple satisfaction. PMID:22906020

  3. Brain Emotion Systems, Personality, Hopelessness, Self/Other Perception, and Gambling Cognition: A Structural Equation Model.

    PubMed

    Iliceto, Paolo; D'Antuono, Laura; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Giovani, Eleni; Giacolini, Teodosio; Candilera, Gabriella; Sabatello, Ugo; Panksepp, Jaak

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relations between gambling, brain emotion systems, personality, self/other perception, and hopelessness in an Italian community. Dimensions of gambling, positive and negative emotions, self/other perception, personality and hopelessness were assessed in a community sample of 235 adults aged 19-59 years. Two structural models were tested. We found a significant correlation between problem gambling and impulsivity, which in association with aggressivity and negative personality dimensions may help explain the psychopathology factor, i.e. a latent variable involving neurotic personality, hopelessness, high sensation seeking, low metacognitive responsiveness, and disorganized patterns of interpersonal relationships. These results contribute to develop a theoretical framework of gambling in relation with personality factors and provide a new approach for clinical intervention of problem gambling that relies on a solid multidimensional perspective. PMID:25894294

  4. Buckling of structures with uncertain imperfections - Personal perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elishakoff, Isaac

    1998-01-01

    The previous review on stochastic buckling of structures was written by Amazigo in 1976. This review summarizes some of the developments which took place in recent two decades. A brief overview is given of the effect on uncertainty in the initial geometric imperfections, elastic moduli, applied forces, and thickness variation. For the benefit of the thinking reader, the review has a critical nature. It should be noted that this manuscript has yet to be completed.

  5. The study of virus structure and function: a personal history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossmann, Michael G.

    2014-09-01

    I describe my gradually evolving role as a scientist from my birth in Frankfurt (Germany) to my education in the UK, my post-doc years and my experiences as an independent investigator at Purdue University1. I discuss the significance of my post-doctoral work in Minnesota where I had my first encounter with an electronic computer and subsequently in Cambridge where I participated in the first structure determination of proteins. After six years back in England my family moved to Indiana (USA) where my home remains to this day. At Purdue University I first studied the structure of enzymes and in the process I discovered the organization and slow evolution of protein domains, each with a specific function. With this success I started what had been on my mind already for a long time, namely the structural analysis of viruses. Initially we studied plant viruses but then switched to small RNA animal viruses, discovering that some plant and animal RNA viruses have closely similar structures and therefore presumably had a common evolutionary origin. Next I became interested in somewhat larger viruses that had lipid membrane envelopes. In turn that has led to the study of very large dsDNA viruses as big as small bacteria as well as studies of bacterial viruses that require complex molecular motors for different parts of their life cycle. While developing crystallographic techniques for the study of viruses it has become progressively more apparent that electron microscopy is an important new tool that is likely to eclipse x-ray crystallography in the next decade.

  6. Feminist Music Theory into the Millennium: A Personal History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hisama, Ellie M.

    2000-01-01

    Retraces the professional footsteps of a female professor of music theory in order to exemplify how a woman with feminist sensibilities interested in pursuing a Ph.D. in music theory was able to successfully navigate a course through graduate school and into the profession. Attests to the burgeoning richness of feminist work in music. (SM)

  7. Personality Functioning and the Cortical Midline Structures – An Exploratory fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Cornelius; Hinrichs, Jens; Bahmer, Judith; Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Objective Recent neuroscience studies explored the neuronal mechanisms underlying our sense of self. Thereby the cortical midline structures and their anterior and posterior regions have been shown to be central. What remains unclear though is how both, self and cortical midline structures, are related to the identity of the self which is of central importance in especially personality disorders. Methods Conducting an exploratory study with a dimensional approach, we here compared subjects with high and low level of personality functioning and identity integration as measured in a standardized way in fMRI during both, emotion- and reward-related tasks. Results Low levels of personality functioning and identity integration were predicted by significantly decreased degrees of deactivation in the anterior and posterior cortical midline structures. Conclusions Though exploratory our results show for the first time direct relationship between cortical midline structures and personality functioning in terms of identity integration. This does not only contribute to our understanding of the neuronal mechanism underlying self and identity but carries also major implications for the treatment of patients with personality disorders. PMID:23189175

  8. Galaxy Zoo: multimergers and the Millennium Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darg, D. W.; Kaviraj, S.; Lintott, C. J.; Schawinski, K.; Silk, J.; Lynn, S.; Bamford, S.; Nichol, R. C.

    2011-09-01

    We present a catalogue of 39 multiple mergers, found using the mergers catalogue of the Galaxy Zoo project for z < 0.1, and compare them to corresponding semi-analytical galaxies from the Millennium Simulation. We estimate the (volume-limited) multimerger fraction of the local Universe using our sample and find it to be at least 2 orders of magnitude less than binary mergers - in good agreement with the simulations (especially the Munich group). We then investigate the properties of galaxies in binary mergers and multimergers (morphologies, colours, stellar masses and environment) and compare these results with those predicted by the semi-analytical galaxies. We find that multimergers favour galaxies with properties typical of elliptical morphologies and that this is in qualitative agreement with the models. Studies of multimergers thus provide an independent (and largely corroborating) test of the Millennium semi-analytical models.

  9. The Joint Hierarchical Structure of Adolescent Personality Pathology: Converging Evidence from Two Approaches to Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Shauna C.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; De Clercq, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the joint hierarchical structure of two measures of adolescent personality pathology within a community sample of Canadian adolescents. Method: Self-reported data on demographic information and pathological personality traits were obtained from 144 youth (Mage = 16.08 years, SD = 1.30). Personality pathology was measured using the youth-version of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP-Y; Linde, Stringer, Simms, & Clark, in press) and the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI; De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006). Lower-order scales were subjected to structural hierarchical analyses. Results: Scales from the two measures were complementary in defining higher-order traits. Traits at the 4-factor level of the hierarchy (Need for Approval, Disagreeableness, Detachment, and Compulsivity) showed similarities and differences with previous results in adults. Conclusions: The current investigation integrated top-down and bottom-up measures for a comprehensive account of the higher-order hierarchy of adolescent personality pathology. Results are discussed in the context of convergence across approaches and in comparison with previous findings in adult samples. PMID:23970908

  10. Space Transportation in the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Preston

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of Space Transportation in the New Millennium. Pictures are shown of the space shuttle lift Off, rocket motion, the space shuttle main engine, the space shuttle external tank, the space shuttle solid rocket booster, the X-33, X-34, X-37, X-38, magnetic levitation, the rbcc, nuclear thermal propulsion, anti-matter propulsion system, the NTP or anti-matter concept vehicles, and the Space Elevator.

  11. Reliability and validity of the German version of the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The assessment of personality organization and its observable behavioral manifestations, i.e. personality functioning, has a long tradition in psychodynamic psychiatry. Recently, the DSM-5 Levels of Personality Functioning Scale has moved it into the focus of psychiatric diagnostics. Based on Kernberg’s concept of personality organization the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO) was developed for diagnosing personality functioning. The STIPO covers seven dimensions: (1) identity, (2) object relations, (3) primitive defenses, (4) coping/rigidity, (5) aggression, (6) moral values, and (7) reality testing and perceptual distortions. The English version of the STIPO has previously revealed satisfying psychometric properties. Methods Validity and reliability of the German version of the 100-item instrument have been evaluated in 122 psychiatric patients. All patients were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and were assessed by means of the STIPO. Moreover, all patients completed eight questionnaires that served as criteria for external validity of the STIPO. Results Interrater reliability varied between intraclass correlations of .89 and 1.0, Crohnbach’s α for the seven dimensions was .69 to .93. All a priori selected questionnaire scales correlated significantly with the corresponding STIPO dimensions. Patients with personality disorder (PD) revealed significantly higher STIPO scores (i.e. worse personality functioning) than patients without PD; patients cluster B PD showed significantly higher STIPO scores than patients with cluster C PD. Conclusions Interrater reliability, Crohnbach’s α, concurrent validity, and differential validity of the STIPO are satisfying. The STIPO represents an appropriate instrument for the assessment of personality functioning in clinical and research settings. PMID:23941404

  12. Personal need for structure and creative performance: the moderating influence of fear of invalidity.

    PubMed

    Rietzschel, Eric F; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Nijstad, Bernard A

    2007-06-01

    Previous research has suggested that personal need for structure (PNS) is negatively related to creative performance. In this article, it is argued that this relation, in fact, depends on another personality variable: personal fear of invalidity (PFI). When PFI is high, PNS should indeed be negatively associated with creativity. However, PNS should be positively associated with creativity when PFI is low, because this combination enables people to take a structured approach to creative tasks and this can be helpful to overcome their reliance on conventional and accessible task strategies. In four studies, this hypothesis is tested using different measures of creative performance. The expected interaction effect is found for measures of ideational fluency and measures of originality but not for measures of flexibility. Moreover, it is shown that the interaction effect between PNS and PFI is mediated by perseverance within thought categories. PMID:17478610

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF A STRUCTURED PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM ON ADOLESCENT PERSONALITY. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TRIMBLE, W.E.; UNTERSEHER, RICHARD

    A STRUCTURED PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM CONSISTING MOSTLY OF BODY BUILDING EXERCISES AND WEIGHT LIFTING WAS USED TO GIVE PHYSICALLY UNDERDEVELOPED BOYS A SENSE OF PERSONAL ACCOMPLISHMENT. JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL BOYS FROM GRADES SEVEN, EIGHT, AND NINE, CLASSIFIED ON THE BASIS OF LACK OF ATHLETIC ABILITY, WERE GIVEN THE CALIFORNIA PSYCHOLOGICAL…

  14. A Structural Model-Based Optimal Person-Fit Procedure for Identifying Faking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a two-stage procedure aimed at identifying faking in personality tests. The procedure, which can be considered as an extension and refinement of previous item response theory (IRT)-based proposals, combines the information provided by a structural equation model (SEM) in the first stage with that provided by an IRT-based…

  15. The Effects of Conceptual Structure and Personal Quality of Feedback on Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuempfig, Daniel W.; Maehr, Martin L.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how subjects (high school students) of varying conceptual structure (Harvey, Hunt, and Schroder, 1961) would respond to personal and impersonal feedback on a performance task. It was predicted that whereas abstract subjects would show no difference in motivation under the two feedback conditions, concrete…

  16. A Structural and Correlational Analysis of Two Common Measures of Personal Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laster, Bonnie Bost

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The current inquiry is a factor analytic study which utilizes first and second order factor analytic methods to examine the internal structures of two measurements of personal epistemological beliefs: the Schommer Epistemological Questionnaire (SEQ) and Epistemic Belief Inventory (EBI). The study also examines the…

  17. Structure of the DSM-IV personality disorders as revealed in clinician ratings.

    PubMed

    Blais, Mark A; Malone, Johanna C

    2013-05-01

    The revisions proposed for the DSM-5 would greatly alter how personality pathology is conceptualized, assessed, and diagnosed. One aspect of the proposed changes, elimination of four current personality disorders, has raised considerable controversy. The present study attempts to inform this debate by exploring clinicians' views of the structure of Personality Disorders using the current diagnostic system, the DSM-IV. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the DSM-IV Personality Disorder criteria using clinician ratings for 280 patients. The factor analysis revealed eight clear and meaningful factors. The eight factors contained all six personality disorders proposed for retention in DSM-5 but also contained clear representations of two disorders (Paranoid and Schizoid) identified for removal from the system. These conditions appear to have clinical utility and their removal may have unintended negative consequences in clinical practice. Dependent and Avoidant criteria also merged to form a new construct with interesting clinical implications. These findings provide new insights into the complex typologies clinicians employ when applying the DSM-IV system to personality disordered patients. Lastly we argue that successful refinement of clinically significant constructs, like diagnostic systems, requires a balanced appraisal of evidence for clinical utility as well as external and internal validity. PMID:23219361

  18. Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO): preliminary psychometrics in a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Stern, Barry L; Caligor, Eve; Clarkin, John F; Critchfield, Kenneth L; Horz, Susanne; MacCornack, Verna; Lenzenweger, Mark F; Kernberg, Otto F

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we describe the development and preliminary psychometric properties of the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO), a semistructured interview designed for the dimensional assessment of identity, primitive defenses, and reality testing, the three primary content domains in the model of personality health and disorder elaborated by Kernberg (1984; Kernberg & Caligor, 2005). Results of this investigation, conducted in a clinical sample representing a broad range of personality pathology, indicate that identity and primitive defenses as operationalized in the STIPO are internally consistent and that interrater reliability for all 3 content domains is adequate. Validity findings suggest that the assessment of one's sense of self and significant others (Identity) is predictive of measures of positive and negative affect, whereas the maladaptive ways in which the subject uses his or her objects for purposes of regulating one's self experience (Primitive Defenses) is predictive of measures of aggression and personality disorder traits associated with cluster B personality disorders. We discuss implications of these findings in terms of the theory-driven and trait-based assessment of personality pathology. PMID:20013454

  19. A Basic Bivariate Structure of Personality Attributes Evident Across Nine Languages.

    PubMed

    Saucier, Gerard; Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Payne, Doris L; Carlson, Robert; Sanogo, Lamine; Ole-Kotikash, Leonard; Church, A Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S; Somer, Oya; Szarota, Piotr; Szirmák, Zsofia; Zhou, Xinyue

    2013-01-01

    Here, two studies seek to characterize a parsimonious common-denominator personality structure with optimal cross-cultural replicability. Personality differences are observed in all human populations and cultures, but lexicons for personality attributes contain so many distinctions that parsimony is lacking. Models stipulating the most important attributes have been formulated by experts or by empirical studies drawing on experience in a very limited range of cultures. Factor analyses of personality lexicons of nine languages of diverse provenance (Chinese, Korean, Filipino, Turkish, Greek, Polish, Hungarian, Maasai, and Senoufo) were examined, and their common structure was compared to that of several prominent models in psychology. A parsimonious bivariate model showed evidence of substantial convergence and ubiquity across cultures. Analyses involving key markers of these dimensions in English indicate that they are broad dimensions involving the overlapping content of the interpersonal circumplex, models of communion and agency, and morality/warmth and competence. These "Big Two" dimensions-Social Self-Regulation and Dynamism-provide a common-denominator model involving the two most crucial axes of personality variation, ubiquitous across cultures. The Big Two might serve as an umbrella model serving to link diverse theoretical models and associated research literatures. PMID:23301793

  20. Exploring the personality structure in the 11 languages of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nel, Jan Alewyn; Valchev, Velichko H; Rothmann, Sebastiaan; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Meiring, Deon; de Bruin, Gideon P

    2012-08-01

    The present study, part of the development of the South African Personality Inventory (SAPI), explores the implicit personality structure in the 11 official language groups of South Africa by employing a mixed-method approach. In the first, qualitative part of the study, semistructured interviews were conducted with 1,216 participants from the 11 official language groups. The derived personality-descriptive terms were categorized and clustered based on their semantic relations in iterative steps involving group discussions and contacts with language and cultural experts. This analysis identified 37 subclusters, which could be merged in 9 broad clusters: Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Facilitating, Integrity, Intellect, Openness, Relationship Harmony, and Soft-Heartedness. In the second, quantitative part, the perceived relations between the 37 subclusters were rated by 204 students from different language groups in South Africa and 95 students in the Netherlands. The outcomes generally supported the adequacy of the conceptual model, although several clusters in the domain of relational and social functioning did not replicate in detail. The outcomes of these studies revealed a personality structure with a strong emphasis on social-relational aspects of personality. PMID:22091948

  1. Characterizing the best cosmic telescopes with the millennium simulations

    SciTech Connect

    French, K. Decker; Wong, Kenneth C.; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Ammons, S. Mark; Keeton, Charles R.; Angulo, Raul E.

    2014-04-10

    Certain configurations of massive structures projected along the line of sight (LOS) maximize the number of detections of gravitationally lensed z ∼ 10 galaxies. We characterize such LOSs with the étendue σ{sub μ}, the area in the source plane magnified over some threshold μ. We use the Millennium I and Millennium XXL cosmological simulations to determine the frequency of high σ{sub μ} beams on the sky, their properties, and efficient selection criteria. We define the best beams as having σ{sub μ>3} > 2000 arcsec{sup 2}, for a z ∼ 10 source plane, and predict 477 ± 21 such beams on the sky. The total mass in the beam and σ{sub μ>3} are strongly correlated. After controlling for total mass, we find a significant residual correlation between σ{sub μ>3} and the number of cluster-scale halos (>10{sup 14} M {sub ☉} h {sup –1}) in the beam. Beams with σ{sub μ>3} > 2000 arcsec{sup 2}, which should be best at lensing z ∼ 10 galaxies, are 10 times more likely to contain multiple cluster-scale halos than a single cluster-scale halo. Beams containing an A1689-like massive cluster halo often have additional structures along the LOS, including at least one additional cluster-scale (M {sub 200} > 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉} h {sup –1}) halo 28% of the time. Selecting beams with multiple, massive structures will lead to enhanced detection of the most distant and intrinsically faint galaxies.

  2. Nuclear energy for the third millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.

    1997-10-01

    The major energy sources of today are expected to last for only a small fraction of the millennium starting three years hence. In the plans of most people, nuclear energy has been ruled out for four separate reasons: 1. The danger of radioactivity from a reactor accident or from reactor products during a long period after reactor shutdown; 2. The proposed fuels, U-235 and also Pu-239, as obtained by presently available procedures will serve only for a limited duration; 3. Energy from nuclear reactors will be more expensive than costs of present alternatives; 4. The possibility of misusing the products for military purposes is an unacceptable danger. The development described below 1 attempts to meet all four objections. Specifically, we propose a structure as an example of future reactors that is deployed two hundred meters underground in loose and dry earth. The reactor is designed to function for thirty years, delivering electrical power on demand up to a level of thousand electrical megawatts. From the time that the reactor is started to the time of its shutdown thirty years later, the functioning is to be completely automatic. This is an obviously difficult condition to fulfill. The most important factor in making it possible is to design and operate the reactor without moving mechanical parts. At the start, the reactor functions on thermal neutrons within a structure containing uranium enriched in U-235 or having an addition of plutonium. That part of the reactor is to deliver energy for approximately one year after which a neighboring portion of the reactor containing thorium has been converted into Th-233 which rather rapidly decays into fissile U-233. This part of the assembly works on fission by fast neutrons. It will heat-up if insufficient thermal energy is withdrawn from the reactor`s core, under the negative feedback action of engineered-in thermostats. Indeed, these specifically designed thermostatic units absorb neutrons if excessive reactor core heating occurs in order to decrease heat generation and to act like automatic control rods. These units will be described below. After the thorium in a given volume of the reactor`s fuel charge is depleted, an adjacent thorium-containing portion of the fuel charge will have been converted bred into fissile material and is ready to continue the reaction. A schematic representation of this concept is shown in Figure 1. Actually, the thorium `reactors` in this Figure will be merged together into a single reactor system with the nuclear fuel-burning reactions propagating down to the ultimate `reactor` U. (In practice, we consider placing the fuel-igniting charge in the middle of the reactor system`s `fuel stick` and arrange breeding regions on both sides, shown in Figure 3.) After all the thorium in the reactor`s fuel charge has been used up, the reactor is shut down by the first positive action of the operators in thirty years. The residual radioactivity will be sealed within the reactor`s core and thereafter allowed to decay in place. The initially intense radioactivity will leave the reactor products inaccessible and unusable for military purposes except if complicated, expensive and easily observed large-scale operations are performed. Having thereby avoided transportation of fission products and reprocessing significantly reduces cost and hazards.

  3. Limitations of the Millennium Development Goals: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Fehling, Maya; Nelson, Brett D.; Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    With the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) showing uneven progress, this review identifies possible limitations arising from the MDG framework itself rather than extrinsic issues. A multidisciplinary literature review was conducted with a focus on limitations in the formulation of the MDGs, their structure, content and implementation. Of 1837 MDG-related articles, 90 met criteria for analysis. Articles describe MDGs as being created by only a few stakeholders without adequate involvement by developing countries and overlooking development objectives previously agreed upon. Others claim MDGs are unachievable and simplistic, not adapted to national needs, do not specify accountable parties and reinforce vertical interventions. While MDGs have promoted increased health and well-being in many countries by recognising and deliberating on the possible constraints of the MDG framework, the post-2015 agenda may have even greater impact. Complex problems have simple, easy to understand, wrong answers (Henry Louis Mencken) PMID:24266508

  4. Traits in transition: the structure of parent-reported personality traits from early childhood to early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Soto, Christopher J; John, Oliver P

    2014-06-01

    The present research was conducted to map the hierarchical structure of youths' personality traits, to identify the foundational level of this structure, and to test whether the meanings of some youth personality dimensions shift with age. We addressed these issues by analyzing personality parent reports describing a cross-sectional sample of 16,000 children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 3 to 20). These parent reports were made using a broadband measure of youths' personal characteristics, the common-language California Child Q-Set. Analyses of the full sample and comparisons of 16 age groups supported three main conclusions. First, the hierarchical structure of youths' personality traits both resembles and differs from the adult personality hierarchy in important ways. Second, a set of six dimensions--Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Activity--may constitute the foundational level of the youth personality hierarchy from middle childhood through adolescence. This "Little Six" structure represents a union of the most prominent personality and temperament dimensions. Third, the meanings of some youth personality dimensions (e.g., Activity, Conscientiousness) shift systematically with age. These findings advance our understanding of when and how personality structure develops during the first two decades of life. PMID:23734942

  5. Water resources in the next millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Warren

    As pressures from an exponentially increasing population and economic expectations rise against a finite water resource, how do we address management? This was the main focus of the Dubai International Conference on Water Resources and Integrated Management in the Third Millennium in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2-6 February 2002. The invited forum attracted an eclectic mix of international thinkers from five continents. Presentations and discussions on hydrology policy/property rights, and management strategies focused mainly on problems of water supply, irrigation, and/or ecosystems.

  6. Millennium Modem/Channelizer Special Test Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1995-01-01

    A broadband modem/channelizer test set developed by NASA Lewis Research Center is discussed. The test set is a fully programmable, bit-error-rate (BER) test set designed for broadband modem-only and multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator characterization. It is currently configured for testing a multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator and was developed for the Advanced Research and Projects Agency under a Technology Reinvestment Program Cooperative Agreement entitled 'Millennium: 21st Century Broadband Digital Telecommunications Technology.' The test set can easily be modified to provide testing of other modems and multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator systems and is available to industry for such testing.

  7. Millennium modem/channelizer special test equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1995-11-01

    A broadband modem/channelizer test set developed by NASA Lewis Research Center is discussed. The test set is a fully programmable, bit-error-rate (BER) test set designed for broadband modem-only and multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator characterization. It is currently configured for testing a multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator and was developed for the Advanced Research and Projects Agency under a Technology Reinvestment Program Cooperative Agreement entitled 'Millennium: 21st Century Broadband Digital Telecommunications Technology.' The test set can easily be modified to provide testing of other modems and multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator systems and is available to industry for such testing.

  8. Dimensions of personality structure among patients with substance use disorders and co-occurring personality disorders: a comparison with psychiatric outpatients and healthy controls.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Di Pierro R; Preti E; Vurro N; Madeddu F

    2014-08-01

    BACKGROUND: Although dual diagnosis has been a topic of great scientific interest for a long time, few studies have investigated the personality traits that characterize patients suffering from substance use disorders and co-occurring personality disorders through a dimensional approach. The present study aimed to evaluate structural personality profiles among dual-diagnosis inpatients to identify specific personality impairments associated with dual diagnosis.METHODS: The present study involved 97 participants divided into three groups: 37 dual-diagnosis inpatients, 30 psychiatric outpatients and 30 nonclinical controls. Dimensions of personality functioning were assessed and differences between groups were tested using Kernberg's dimensional model of personality.RESULTS: Results showed that dual diagnosis was associated with the presence of difficulties in three main dimensions of personality functioning. Dual-diagnosis inpatients reported a poorly integrated identity with difficulties in the capacity to invest, poorly integrated moral values, and high levels of self-direct and other-direct aggression.CONCLUSIONS: The present study highlighted that a dimensional approach to the study of dual diagnosis may clarify the personality functioning of patients suffering from this pathological condition. The use of the dimensional approach could help to advance research on dual diagnosis, and it could have important implications on clinical treatment programs for dual-diagnosis inpatients.

  9. From Domination to Partnership: Meeting the UN Millennium Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisler, Riane; Corral, Thais

    2005-01-01

    The UN Millennium goals envision a more just and sustainable future. This article explains why there is a need to shift from domination model to a partnership model in meeting the UN Millennium goals. The domination model is a configuration based on top-down rankings of control, while the partnership model is a configuration that can support a…

  10. Critical Issues around the Millennium Development Goals and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David

    2005-01-01

    At the UN Millennium Assembly in 2000 global leaders committed themselves to eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Seven of these goals were set for achievement in 2015, including the achievement of universal primary education. Only one goal was set for 2005: the achievement of gender parity in primary and secondary education. There was good…

  11. Will man wish to prevail? Some fundamental choices facing humanity early in the Third Millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.L.

    1994-10-01

    With the subtle but occasionally vital exception of vaccination-induced immunity to many of the major infectious diseases, no human today is other than virtually identical biologically to those who greeted the dawn of the Second Millennium, nearly 1000 years ago. Culturally, however, we of the West are quite highly evolved from our ancestors of a millennium ago, primarily due to the advent of means for communicating with ever smaller latencies and ever higher bandwidths over ever greater distances in space and time: printed documents have been supplemented in succession by telephony, radio, video and, just now, the first personal communications sets. Also, within a fraction of a human lifetime from the present moment, the first prosthesis for the human brain has appeared and just very recently has become quite ubiquitous: digital computing systems. We are hardly members of the same species, culturally speaking; people of 1000 years ago would be truly and utterly lost in our communications-intensive civilization, and even a highly educated person from those times would swear that a personal computer equipped with a wireless communications module was as at least a familiar, if not a golem. Conversely, a computer-using person from our own times somehow translated back to 1000 A.D. would likely find the profound isolation and the ``informational slowness`` of life then to be acutely intolerable, certainly to a far greater extent than would a citizen of the High Middle Ages translated back to Augustus Caesar`s Rome.

  12. Water recycling at the Millennium Dome.

    PubMed

    Hills, S; Smith, A; Hardy, P; Birks, R

    2001-01-01

    Thames Water is working with the New Millennium Experience Company to provide a water recycling system for the Millennium Dome which will supply 500 m3/d of reclaimed water for WC and urinal flushing. The system will treat water from three sources: rainwater--from the Dome roof greywater--from handbasins in the toilet blocks groundwater--from beneath the Dome site The treatment technologies will range from "natural" reedbeds for the rainwater, to more sophisticated options, including biological aerated filters and membranes for the greywater and groundwater. Pilot scale trials were used to design the optimum configuration. In addition to the recycling system, water efficient devices will be installed in three of the core toilet blocks as part of a programme of research into the effectiveness of conservation measures. Data on water usage and customer behaviour will be collected via a comprehensive metering system. Information from the Dome project on the economics and efficiency of on-site recycling at large scale and data on water efficient devices, customer perception and behaviour will be of great value to the water industry. For Thames Water, the project provides vital input to the development of future water resource strategies. PMID:11436793

  13. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  14. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-08-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  15. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854–2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851–2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773–2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  16. Examining the impact of gender on the factor structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Joye C; Caron, Kelly M; Carbonell, Joyce L

    2011-09-01

    Research on the factor structure of psychopathy has yielded mixed results, supporting anywhere from one to three factors. Additionally, most of this research has used all-male samples, and the possibility of structural invariance across gender has not been examined. Using a mixed-gender sample of 360 undergraduates, the factor structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised was examined using confirmatory factor analysis and multiple group analysis. One-, two-, and three-factor models were tested and compared with each other. When males and females were combined, none of the three models provided adequate fit to the data. Multiple group analyses revealed partial invariance across gender for all three models. Model comparison criteria supported use of both the one- and two-factor models, taking into account variable factor structure across gender. The importance of considering structural differences based on biological sex when assessing psychopathic traits is discussed. PMID:21490056

  17. Cognitive ability, acquiescence, and the structure of personality in a sample of older adults.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Clemens M; Rammstedt, Beatrice

    2015-12-01

    Acquiescence, or the tendency to respond to descriptions of conceptually distinct personality attributes with agreement/affirmation, constitutes a major challenge in personality assessment. The aim of this study was to shed light on cognitive ability as a potential source of individual differences in acquiescent responding. We hypothesized that respondents with lower cognitive ability exhibit stronger acquiescent response tendencies than respondents with higher cognitive ability and that this leads to problems in establishing the Big Five structure by means of principal component analyses (exploratory factor analysis was not applicable to these data) in the former group. Further, we hypothesized that after controlling for acquiescence by using mean-corrected instead of raw item scores, the Big Five structure holds even among respondents with lower cognitive ability. Analyses in a sample of 1,071 German adults aged 56 to 75 years using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test as a measure of cognitive ability and the BFI-10, a 10-item abbreviated version of the Big Five Inventory, as a measure of personality, corroborated these hypotheses. These findings suggest that lower cognitive ability and age-related declines in cognitive functioning more specifically are associated with higher acquiescence, which in turn leads to problems in establishing the Big Five structure among individuals with lower cognitive ability that should be addressed by controlling for acquiescence. PMID:26011482

  18. European climate of the last millennium: results of the 'Millennium project'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarroll, Danny

    2010-05-01

    Many of the climate reconstructions of the last millennium have tended to rely heavily upon tree-ring archives (typically ring width and density) where the strongest signal is summer temperature. In the Millennium project we have produced new palaeoclimate reconstructions based not only on dendrochronological but also on many sources ranging from documentary sources to climate proxies' from lakes, mires, ice cores, marine sediments and annually-banded sea shells. The approaches have been innovative and the result is a comprehensive suite of palaeoclimate reconstructions covering different seasons and including changes in sunshine and precipitation estimates as well as temperature. This allows a more synoptic view of the evolution of European climate to be taken, which includes the modulating effects of changes in the North Atlantic. These climate reconstructions will be used to score' an ensemble of GCM model runs, with the aim of reducing the uncertainty in climate sensitivity estimates and in the subsequent predictions of future climate change.

  19. Millennium Global Village-Net: bringing together Millennium Villages throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Andrew S; Negin, Joel; Olayo, Bernard; Bukachi, Frederick; Johnson, Edward; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich

    2009-12-01

    The Millennium Villages Project (MVP), based at The Earth Institute at Columbia University, is a bottom-up, community led approach to show how villages in developing countries can get out of the poverty trap that afflicts more than a billion people worldwide. With well-targeted, practical inputs can help the community invest in a path leading to self-sustaining development. There are 80 Millennium Villages clustered in 10 countries throughout sub-Saharan Africa. MVP is an important development process for empowering communities to invest in a package of integrated interventions aiming to increase food production, improve access to safe water, health care, education and infrastructure. The process benefits from synergies of the integrated approach and relies on community leadership as empowered by proven technological inputs. MVP is committed to a science-based approach to assess and monitor the progress of the communities towards clear objectives; the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and to do so with mechanisms that are scalable and sustainable. This approach offers much more than simply collecting and analyzing data since the mechanism used for recording progress would provide a bridge over the divide which separates the haves and the have-nots (by facilitating the sharing of solutions from one community to another bidirectionally). By so doing, it allows people to enhance their own futures in a sustainable manner. Solutions found in one community are transferable to similar communities in other MVP villages. To achieve this goal, the MVP requires an information and communication system which can provide both necessary infrastructure for monitoring and evaluation, and tools for communicating among the villages, cities and countries. This system is called the Millennium Global Village-Net (MGV-Net). It takes advantage of the latest in open source software (OpenMRS), databases (MySQL), interface terminology, a centralized concept dictionary, and uses appropriate technology locally for data entry. PMID:19766532

  20. Imaging the structure of the human anxious brain: a review of findings from neuroscientific personality psychology.

    PubMed

    Montag, Christian; Reuter, Martin; Jurkiewicz, Magdalena; Markett, Sebastian; Panksepp, Jaak

    2013-01-01

    The emotion of anxiety represents one of the most studied topics in the neurosciences, in part due to its relevance for understanding the evolutionary development of the human brain and its role in the pathogenesis of psychopathological conditions. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) has enabled mapping of the anxious human brain and has contributed substantially to the understanding of anxiety. Alongside the fields of clinical psychology/psychiatry, personality psychology aims to support the research endeavor of mapping the anxious brain and has found that individual differences in anxiety-related personality dimensions such as Neuroticism or Harm Avoidance (measured by self-report) are correlated with gray and white matter volumes in different areas of the human brain. This review reveals that structures including parts of the frontal cortex (e.g., the orbitofrontal cortex) and the temporal lobe (e.g., the hippocampus) are often associated with trait anxiety, and it points out the inconsistencies that exist in the personality-sMRI literature on human anxiety. Consequently, we suggest new research strategies to overcome the inconsistencies. This review outlines how results from animal research can guide scientists in developing testable hypotheses in search of the anxious brain. Moreover, genetic imaging is presented as an interesting approach to mapping the anxious brain. PMID:23585212

  1. Modeling walker synchronization on the Millennium Bridge.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward; Strogatz, Steven H; Abrams, Daniel M; McRobie, Allan

    2007-02-01

    On its opening day the London Millennium footbridge experienced unexpected large amplitude wobbling subsequent to the migration of pedestrians onto the bridge. Modeling the stepping of the pedestrians on the bridge as phase oscillators, we obtain a model for the combined dynamics of people and the bridge that is analytically tractable. It provides predictions for the phase dynamics of individual walkers and for the critical number of people for the onset of oscillations. Numerical simulations and analytical estimates reproduce the linear relation between pedestrian force and bridge velocity as observed in experiments. They allow prediction of the amplitude of bridge motion, the rate of relaxation to the synchronized state and the magnitude of the fluctuations due to a finite number of people. PMID:17358316

  2. Modeling walker synchronization on the Millennium Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward; Strogatz, Steven H.; Abrams, Daniel M.; McRobie, Allan

    2007-02-01

    On its opening day the London Millennium footbridge experienced unexpected large amplitude wobbling subsequent to the migration of pedestrians onto the bridge. Modeling the stepping of the pedestrians on the bridge as phase oscillators, we obtain a model for the combined dynamics of people and the bridge that is analytically tractable. It provides predictions for the phase dynamics of individual walkers and for the critical number of people for the onset of oscillations. Numerical simulations and analytical estimates reproduce the linear relation between pedestrian force and bridge velocity as observed in experiments. They allow prediction of the amplitude of bridge motion, the rate of relaxation to the synchronized state and the magnitude of the fluctuations due to a finite number of people.

  3. Employee assistance programs in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Masi, Dale A

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an overall view of Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs). Beginning with the history, this article describes various models and essential ingredients of EAPs. It then discusses current trends including integration with Work/Life, web-based services, EAP accreditation, and the growth of international programs. Several issues are discussed including the need for licensing done nationally rather than by states and the effect the lack of substance abuse and brief counseling education has had on the delivery of EAP services. Future directions for EAPs emphasize the importance of quality assurance and the development of performance measurements, performance guarantees, and outcome measurements. The formation of the Alliance for Employee Assistance Advancement, an organization of organizations, completes the description and shows a new direction for EAPs in the next millennium. PMID:16265971

  4. Malaria and the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Owens, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Malaria, as a key disease of poverty, was singled out for special attention in the Millennium Project of 2000. Recent data suggest that malaria incidence and mortality are now declining all over the world. While these figures are cause for celebration, they must be interpreted carefully and with caution, particularly in relation to Africa. There are daunting challenges ahead for those working to achieve malaria eradication, not least of which is the poor quality of the data on which the work is based. In the absence of an affordable and fully effective vaccine, international funding for malaria control needs to be escalated still further. The money is essential to pay for universal access to a set of simple and proven interventions which would save the lives of millions of children over the next 15 years. PMID:25613970

  5. Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel.

    The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. Basic mechanisms for the new millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Dressendorfer, P.V.

    1998-09-01

    This part of the Short Course will review the basic mechanisms for radiation effects in semiconductor devices. All three areas of radiation damage will be considered -- total dose, displacement effects, and single event effects. Each of these areas will be discussed in turn. First an overview and background will be provided on the historical understanding of the damage mechanism. Then there will be a discussion of recent enhancements to the understanding of those mechanisms and an up-to-date picture provided of the current state of knowledge. Next the potential impact of each of these damage mechanisms on devices in emerging technologies and how the mechanisms may be used to understand device performance will be described, with an emphasis on those likely to be of importance in the new millennium. Finally some additional thoughts will be presented on how device scaling expected into the next century may impact radiation hardness.

  7. Global self-esteem in relation to structural models of personality and affectivity.

    PubMed

    Watson, David; Suls, Jerry; Haig, Jeffrey

    2002-07-01

    Three studies examined global self-esteem in relation to structural models of personality and affectivity. In every study, self-esteem was strongly negatively correlated with Neuroticism/Negative Affectivity and moderately to strongly related to Extraversion/Positive Affectivity. Additional findings, however, revealed that self-esteem is better viewed at the lower order level. For instance, global self-esteem correlated -.79 with the Depression facet of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa, Jr., & R. R. McCrae, 1992) in Study 3. Moreover, confirmatory factor analyses produced very strong correlations between self-esteem and depression in both Study 2 (r = -.82) and Study 3 (r = -.86). Taken together, the data suggest that global self-esteem measures define one end of a bipolar continuum, with trait indicators of depression defining the other. PMID:12088125

  8. The do re mi's of everyday life: the structure and personality correlates of music preferences.

    PubMed

    Rentfrow, Peter J; Gosling, Samuel D

    2003-06-01

    The present research examined individual differences in music preferences. A series of 6 studies investigated lay beliefs about music, the structure underlying music preferences, and the links between music preferences and personality. The data indicated that people consider music an important aspect of their lives and listening to music an activity they engaged in frequently. Using multiple samples, methods, and geographic regions, analyses of the music preferences of over 3,500 individuals converged to reveal 4 music-preference dimensions: Reflective and Complex, Intense and Rebellious, Upbeat and Conventional, and Energetic and Rhythmic. Preferences for these music dimensions were related to a wide array of personality dimensions (e.g., Openness), self-views (e.g., political orientation), and cognitive abilities (e.g., verbal IQ). PMID:12793587

  9. The Validity and Structure of Culture-Level Personality Scores: Data From Ratings of Young Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; Gelfand, Michele J.; Costa, Paul T.; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Blatný, Marek; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R.; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T.; de Lima, Margarida P.; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; de Figueroa, Nora Leibovich; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Martin, Thomas A.; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    We examined properties of culture-level personality traits in ratings of targets (N = 5,109) aged 12 to 17 in 24 cultures. Aggregate scores were generalizable across gender, age, and relationship groups and showed convergence with culture-level scores from previous studies of self-reports and observer ratings of adults, but they were unrelated to national character stereotypes. Trait profiles also showed cross-study agreement within most cultures, eight of which had not previously been studied. Multidimensional scaling showed that Western and non-Western cultures clustered along a dimension related to Extraversion. A culture-level factor analysis replicated earlier findings of a broad Extraversion factor, but generally resembled the factor structure found in individuals. Continued analysis of aggregate personality scores is warranted. PMID:20573127

  10. The structure of personality disorders in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Erika J; Miller, Mark W; Brown, Timothy A

    2011-10-01

    Research on the structure of personality disorders (PDs) has relied primarily on exploratory analyses to evaluate trait-based models of the factors underlying the covariation of these disorders. This study used confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate whether a model that included both PD traits and a general personality dysfunction factor would account for the comorbidity of the PDs better than a trait-only model. It also examined if the internalizing/externalizing model of psychopathology, developed previously through research on the structure of Axis I disorders, might similarly account for the covariation of the Axis II disorders in a sample of 245 veterans and nonveterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Results indicated that the best fitting model was a modified bifactor structure composed of nine lower-order common factors. These factors indexed pathology ranging from aggression to dependency, with the correlations among them accounted for by higher-order Internalizing and Externalizing factors. Further, a general factor, reflecting a construct that we termed boundary disturbance, accounted for additional variance and covariance across nearly all the indicators. The Internalizing, Externalizing, and Boundary Disturbance factors evidenced differential associations with trauma-related covariates. These findings suggest continuity in the underlying structure of psychopathology across DSM-IV Axes I and II and provide empirical evidence of a pervasive, core disturbance in the boundary between self and other across the PDs. PMID:22448802

  11. Volcanoes and ENSO over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile-Geay, J.; Seager, R.; Cane, M.; Cook, E.; Haug, G.

    2007-05-01

    We reassess the controversial claim that (El Nio) events might be partially caused by radiative forcing due to volcanic aerosols. Building on the work of Mann et al. (2005), we use estimates of volcanic forcing over the past millennium (Crowley 2000) and a climate model of intermediate complexity (Zebiak and Cane 1987), to draw a diagram of El Nio likelihood as a function of the intensity of volcanic forcing. We show that in the context of this model, only eruptions larger than that of Mt Pinatubo (1991, peak dimming of about 4 W/m2) can shift the likelihood and amplitude of an El Nio event above the level of the model's internal variability. This reconciles, on one hand, the demonstration by Adams et al. (2003) of a relationship between explosive volcanism and El Nio; and, on the other hand, the ability to predict El Nio events of the last 148 years without knowledge of volcanic forcing (Chen et al. 2004). We then focus on the strongest eruption of the millennium (1258 A.D.), and show that it is likely to have triggered a moderate-to-strong El Nio event in the midst of prevailing La Nia conditions induced by increased solar activity during the well-documented Medieval Climate Anomaly. Compiling paleoclimate data from a wide array of sources, we document a number of important hydroclimatic consequences for neighboring areas. We propose, in particular, that the event briefly interrupted a solar-induced megadrought in the Southwestern US. Most of the time, however, volcanic eruptions are too small to significantly affect ENSO statistics.

  12. Structural and Dialectal Characteristics of the Fictional and Personal Narratives of School-Age African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural and dialectal characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method: Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, generated a fictional narrative and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a…

  13. An alternative "description of personality": the big-five factor structure.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, L R

    1990-12-01

    In the 45 years since Cattell used English trait terms to begin the formulation of his "description of personality," a number of investigators have proposed an alternative structure based on 5 orthogonal factors. The generality of this 5-factor model is here demonstrated across unusually comprehensive sets of trait terms. In the first of 3 studies, 1,431 trait adjectives grouped into 75 clusters were analyzed; virtually identical structures emerged in 10 replications, each based on a different factor-analytic procedure. A 2nd study of 479 common terms grouped into 133 synonym clusters revealed the same structure in 2 samples of self-ratings and in 2 samples of peer ratings. None of the factors beyond the 5th generalized across the samples. In the 3rd study, analyses of 100 clusters derived from 339 trait terms suggest their potential utility as Big-Five markers in future studies. PMID:2283588

  14. Testing Predictions From Personality Neuroscience: Brain Structure and the Big Five

    PubMed Central

    DeYoung, Colin G.; Hirsh, Jacob B.; Shane, Matthew S.; Papademetris, Xenophon; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Gray, Jeremy R.

    2011-01-01

    We used a new theory of the biological basis of the Big Five personality traits to generate hypotheses about the association of each trait with the volume of different brain regions. Controlling for age, sex, and whole-brain volume, results from structural magnetic resonance imaging of 116 healthy adults supported our hypotheses for four of the five traits: Extraversion, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Extraversion covaried with volume of medial orbitofrontal cortex, a brain region involved in processing reward information. Neuroticism covaried with volume of brain regions associated with threat, punishment, and negative affect. Agreeableness covaried with volume in regions that process information about the intentions and mental states of other individuals. Conscientiousness covaried with volume in lateral prefrontal cortex, a region involved in planning and the voluntary control of behavior. These findings support our biologically based, explanatory model of the Big Five and demonstrate the potential of personality neuroscience (i.e., the systematic study of individual differences in personality using neuroscience methods) as a discipline. PMID:20435951

  15. Mars Mania: Internet Resources for the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Bob; Davis, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Mars Millennium Project that challenges elementary and secondary school students across the nation to design communities on Mars. Lists the sponsoring organizations, explains how to participate in the project, and suggests appropriate books and Web sites. (LRW)

  16. The structure of personality pathology: Both general ('g') and specific ('s') factors?

    PubMed

    Sharp, Carla; Wright, Aidan G C; Fowler, J Christopher; Frueh, B Christopher; Allen, Jon G; Oldham, John; Clark, Lee Anna

    2015-05-01

    Recent editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) conceptualize personality disorders (PDs) as categorical constructs, but high PD co-occurrence suggests underlying latent dimensions. Moreover, several borderline PD criteria resemble Criterion A of the new DSM-5 Section III general criteria for personality pathology (i.e., self and interpersonal dysfunction). We evaluated a bifactor model of PD pathology in which a general factor and several specific factors of personality pathology (PD 'g' and 's' factors, respectively) account for the covariance among PD criteria. In particular, we examined the extent to which the borderline PD criteria would load exclusively onto the g-factor versus on both the g- and one or more s-factors. A large (N = 966) sample of inpatients were interviewed for six DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) PDs using the (Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders (SCID-II; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, Williams, & Benjamin, 1994) with no skip-outs. We ran a series of confirmatory, exploratory, and bifactor exploratory factor analyses on the rated PD criteria. The confirmatory analysis largely replicated the DSM PDs, but with high factor correlations. The "standard" exploratory analysis replicated four of the DSM PDs fairly well, but nearly half the criteria cross-loaded. In the bifactor analysis, borderline PD criteria loaded only on the general factor; the remaining PDs loaded either on both the general and a specific factor or largely only on a specific factor. Results are interpreted in the context of several possibilities to define the nature of the general factor. PMID:25730515

  17. How Secondary Level Teachers and Students Impose Personal Structure on Fractional Expressions and Equations--An Expert-Novice Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruede, Christian

    2013-01-01

    While an algebraic expression is typically assigned a regular structure, this article introduces the concept of personal structure ("Strukturierung"); here, the structuring of an algebraic expression is understood as the act of forming relationships between its parts. This concept is used for the analysis of interviews in which experts and novices…

  18. Self-assembly and structural-functional flexibility of oxygenic photosynthetic machineries: personal perspectives.

    PubMed

    Garab, Győző

    2016-01-01

    This short review, with a bit of historical aspect and a strong personal bias and emphases on open questions, is focusing on the (macro-)organization and structural-functional flexibilities of the photosynthetic apparatus of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms at different levels of the structural complexity-selected problems that have attracted most my attention in the past years and decades. These include (i) the anisotropic organization of the pigment-protein complexes and photosynthetic membranes-a basic organizing principle of living matter, which can, and probably should be adopted to intelligent materials; (ii) the organization of protein complexes into chiral macrodomains, large self-assembling highly organized but structurally flexible entities with unique spectroscopic fingerprints-structures, where, important, high-level regulatory functions appear to 'reside'; (iii) a novel, dissipation-assisted mechanism of structural changes, based on a thermo-optic effect: ultrafast thermal transients in the close vicinity of dissipation of unused excitation energy, which is capable of inducing elementary structural changes; it makes plants capable of responding to excess excitation with reaction rates proportional to the overexcitation above the light-saturation of photosynthesis; (iv) the 3D ultrastructure of the granum-stroma thylakoid membrane assembly and other multilamellar membrane systems, and their remodelings-associated with regulatory mechanisms; (v) the molecular organization and structural-functional plasticity of the main light-harvesting complex of plants, in relation to their crystal structure and different in vivo and in vitro states; and (vi) the enigmatic role of non-bilayer lipids and lipid phases in the bilayer thylakoid membrane-warranting its high protein content and contributing to its structural flexibility. PMID:26494196

  19. Toward a Unified Framework for the Study of Between-Person and Within-Person Structures: Building a Bridge Between Two Research Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Voelkle, Manuel C; Brose, Annette; Schmiedek, Florian; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of empirical research in the behavioral sciences is based on the analysis of between-person variation. In contrast, much of applied psychology is concerned with the analysis of variation within individuals. Furthermore, the mechanisms specified by psychological theories generally operate within, rather than across, individuals. This disconnect between research practice, applied demands, and psychological theories constitutes a major threat to the conceptual integrity of the field. Following groundbreaking earlier work, we propose a conceptual framework that distinguishes within-person (WP) and between-person (BP) sources of variation in psychological constructs. By simultaneously considering both sources of variation, it is shown how to identify possible reasons for nonequivalence of BP and WP structures as well as establishing areas of convergence. For this purpose, we first introduce the concept of conditional equivalence as a way to study partial structural equivalence of BP and WP structures in the presence of unconditional nonequivalence. Second, we demonstrate the construction of likelihood planes to explore the causes of structural nonequivalence. Third, we examine 4 common causes for unconditional nonequivalence-autoregression, subgroup differences, linear trends, and cyclic trends-and demonstrate how to account for them. Fourth, we provide an empirical example on BP and WP differences in attentiveness. PMID:26735189

  20. Building Structured Personal Health Records from Photographs of Printed Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Hu, Gang; Teng, Xiaofei; Xie, Guotong

    2015-01-01

    Personal health records (PHRs) provide patient-centric healthcare by making health records accessible to patients. In China, it is very difficult for individuals to access electronic health records. Instead, individuals can easily obtain the printed copies of their own medical records, such as prescriptions and lab test reports, from hospitals. In this paper, we propose a practical approach to extract structured data from printed medical records photographed by mobile phones. An optical character recognition (OCR) pipeline is performed to recognize text in a document photo, which addresses the problems of low image quality and content complexity by image pre-processing and multiple OCR engine synthesis. A series of annotation algorithms that support flexible layouts are then used to identify the document type, entities of interest, and entity correlations, from which a structured PHR document is built. The proposed approach was applied to real world medical records to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability. PMID:26958219

  1. An examination of the factor structure of DSM-IV Narcissistic Personality Disorder Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joshua D.; Hoffman, Brian J.; Campbell, W. Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    A growing body of research has suggested that narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) contains two factors or types: overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable. A recent factor analysis of DSM-IV NPD symptoms supported a similar two-factor model. The present research tested this proposed two-factor solution against a one-factor solution (N = 298; 72% patients) using both confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and an examination of associations between the resultant factors and theoretically relevant criteria (other PDs; depression, anxiety). The results of the CFA supported a one-factor solution. Likewise, the two factors each yielded a similar pattern of correlations with relevant criteria. Together, these results argue against a two-factor structure for the current DSM-IV NPD symptoms. Given the broader research literature suggesting a two-factor structure of narcissism, strategies for assessing both overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable forms of narcissism in DSM-V are discussed. PMID:18243885

  2. Examination of the Factor Structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire among British and Trinidadian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Barron, David; Swami, Viren; Hutchinson, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Much debate in schizotypal research has centred on the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), with research variously showing higher-order dimensionality consisting of two to seven dimensions. In addition, cross-cultural support for the stability of those factors remains limited. Here, we examined the factor structure of the SPQ among British and Trinidadian adults. Participants from a White British subsample (n = 351) resident in the UK and from an African Caribbean subsample (n = 284) resident in Trinidad completed the SPQ. The higher-order factor structure of the SPQ was analysed through confirmatory factor analysis, followed by multiple-group analysis for the model of best fit. Between-group differences for sex and ethnicity were investigated using multivariate analysis of variance in relation to the higher-order domains. The model of best-fit was the four-factor structure, which demonstrated measurement invariance across groups. Additionally, these data had an adequate fit for two alternative models: (a) 3-factor and (b) modified 4-factor model. The British subsample had significantly higher scores across all domains than the Trinidadian group, and men scored significantly higher on the disorganised domain than women. The four-factor structure received confirmatory support and, importantly, support for use with populations varying in ethnicity and culture. PMID:25699263

  3. Maintenance for the Millennium: Another Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sculthorpe, Barruy R.

    2002-07-01

    Nuclear units nationwide are struggling to increase plant reliability and availability while at the same time reduce their operating and maintenance costs. Some very costly investments have been made in programs such as Reliability Centered Maintenance [RCM]. Florida Power and Light's approach at the St. Lucie Nuclear Plant has taken a slightly different approach. Building on our knowledge of the RCM process and an already existing 'World Class' Predictive Maintenance Program, a 'Condition-Based' Maintenance Program that takes advantage of the RCM philosophy and our toolbox full of advanced and highly successful predictive maintenance technologies. These tools currently consist of vibration analysis, lubricant analysis (both physical property and wear metals analysis, thermographic analysis, motor current signature analysis, tribology and process parameter trending. All employed with the intent to evaluate a machines health. This machine health check allows the forecasting of future preventative maintenance [PM's] tasks and the revision of existing PM's to maximize machine performance and eliminate 'no-value-added' maintenance activities/costs. Within the last year, the Condition-Based Maintenance Program has produced a cost saving of approximately $1.5 million dollars. As the program matures, these cost savings will accumulate well into the millennium. (authors)

  4. Cohort profile: UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS).

    PubMed

    Connelly, Roxanne; Platt, Lucinda

    2014-12-01

    The UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) is an observational, multidisciplinary cohort study that was set up to follow the lives of children born at the turn of the new century. The MCS is nationally representative and 18 552 families (18 827 children) were recruited to the cohort in the first sweep. There have currently been five main sweeps of data collection, at ages 9 months and 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. A further sweep of data collection is planned for age 14 years. A range of health-related data have been collected as well as measures concerning child development, cognitive ability and educational attainment. The data also include a wealth of information describing the social, economic and demographic characteristics of the cohort members and their families. In addition, the MCS data have been linked to administrative data resources including health records. The MCS provides a unique and valuable resource for the analysis of health outcomes and health inequalities. The MCS data are freely available to bona fide researchers under standard access conditions via the UK Data Service (http://ukdataservice.ac.uk) and the MCS website provides detailed information on the study (http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/mcs). PMID:24550246

  5. Immobile Robots: AI in the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian C.; Nayak, P. Pandurang

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of sensor rich, massively distributed, autonomous systems are being developed that have the potential for profound social, environmental, and economic change. These include networked building energy systems, autonomous space probes, chemical plant control systems, satellite constellations for remote ecosystem monitoring, power grids, biosphere-like life support systems, and reconfigurable traffic systems, to highlight but a few. To achieve high performance, these immobile robots (or immobots) will need to develop sophisticated regulatory and immune systems that accurately and robustly control their complex internal functions. To accomplish this, immobots will exploit a vast nervous system of sensors to model themselves and their environment on a grand scale. They will use these models to dramatically reconfigure themselves in order to survive decades of autonomous operations. Achieving these large scale modeling and configuration tasks will require a tight coupling between the higher level coordination function provided by symbolic reasoning, and the lower level autonomic processes of adaptive estimation and control. To be economically viable they will need to be programmable purely through high level compositional models. Self modeling and self configuration, coordinating autonomic functions through symbolic reasoning, and compositional, model-based programming are the three key elements of a model-based autonomous systems architecture that is taking us into the New Millennium.

  6. Millennium development goals and eye health

    PubMed Central

    Faal, Hannah B

    2012-01-01

    In September 2000, world leaders made a commitment to build a more equitable, prosperous and safer world by 2015 and launched the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In the previous year, the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness in partnership launched the global initiative to eliminate avoidable blindness by the year 2020VISION 2020 the Right to Sight. It has focused on the prevention of a disability-blindness and recognized a health issuesight as a human right. Both global initiatives have made considerable progress with synergy especially on MDG 1the reduction of poverty and the reduction in numbers of the blind. A review of the MDGs has identified the need to address disparities within and between countries, quality, and disability. Noncommunicable diseases are emerging as a challenge to the MDGs and Vision 2020:0 the Right to Sight. For the future, up to and beyond 2015, there will be need for both initiatives to continue to work in synergy to address present and emerging challenges. PMID:22944751

  7. Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott

    2001-01-01

    The "Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium" project tackles the issue of reengineering and extension of validated physics-based modeling capabilities ("legacy" computer codes) to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. While the design and architecture layouts are in terms of general particle distributions involved in scattering, impact, and reactive interactions, initial Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT) implementations are aimed at construction and evaluation of photochemical transport models with rapid execution for use in remote sensing data analysis activities in distributed systems. Current focus is on the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data acquired during the CASSINI flyby of Jupiter. Overall, the project has stayed on the development track outlined in the Year 1 annual report and most Year 2 goals have been met. The issues that have required the most attention are: implementation of the core photochemistry algorithms; implementation of a functional Java Graphical User Interface; completion of a functional CORBA Component Model framework; and assessment of performance issues. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Work to be carried out in the next year center on: completion of testing of the initial operational implementation; its application to analysis of the CASSINI/CIRS Jovian flyby data; extension of the PPMT to incorporate additional phenomenology algorithms; and delivery of a mature operational implementation.

  8. Assessment of identity disturbance: Factor structure and validation of the Personality Structure Questionnaire in an Italian sample.

    PubMed

    Berrios, Raul; Kellett, Stephen; Fiorani, Christina; Poggioli, Marisa

    2016-04-01

    There are few brief measures of identity disturbance for use in clinical practice that have been subject to any cross-cultural validation. This study investigated the construct validity of the Personality Structure Questionnaire (PSQ) in Italian clinical (N = 237) and community (N = 296) samples. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to investigate the internal structure of the PSQ. A 3-factor structure (i.e., differing self-states, mood variability, and behavioral loss of control) including a second-order factor provided the best fit to the data. This structure was demonstrated to be invariant across sex and clinical diagnosis, with clinical diagnosis significantly predicting increased PSQ scores. A global PSQ score of between 26 and 28 was found to be an appropriate cutoff for assisting in diagnostic processes. The clinical implication of the study is that quantitative assessment of identity disturbance can be rapidly achieved via the PSQ, usefully supplementing necessary diagnostic and formulation work. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26389598

  9. The composite first person narrative: Texture, structure, and meaning in writing phenomenological descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Wertz, Marcia Stanley; Nosek, Marcianna; McNiesh, Susan; Marlow, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of composite first person narrative interpretive methods, as described by Todres, across a range of phenomena. This methodology introduces texture into the presently understood structures of phenomena and thereby creates new understandings of the phenomenon, bringing about a form of understanding that is relationally alive that contributes to improved caring practices. The method is influenced by the work of Gendlin, Heidegger, van Manen, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty. The method's applicability to different research topics is demonstrated through the composite narratives of nursing students learning nursing practice in an accelerated and condensed program, obese female adolescents attempting weight control, chronically ill male parolees, and midlife women experiencing distress during menopause. Within current research, these four phenomena have been predominantly described and understood through quantified articulations that give the reader a structural understanding of the phenomena, but the more embodied or “contextual” human qualities of the phenomena are often not visible. The “what is it like” or the “unsaid” aspects of such human phenomena are not clear to the reader when proxies are used to “account for” a variety of situated conditions. This novel method is employed to re-present narrative data and findings from research through first person accounts that blend the voices of the participants with those of the researcher, emphasizing the connectedness, the “we” among all participants, researchers, and listeners. These re-presentations allow readers to develop more embodied understandings of both the texture and structure of each of the phenomena and illustrate the use of the composite account as a way for researchers to better understand and convey the wholeness of the experience of any phenomenon under inquiry. PMID:21499448

  10. Common and distinct structural network abnormalities in major depressive disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Depping, Malte S; Wolf, Nadine D; Vasic, Nenad; Sambataro, Fabio; Thomann, Philipp A; Wolf, R Christian

    2016-02-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) show substantial overlap in both affective symptom expression and in regional brain volume reduction. To address the specificity of structural brain change for the respective diagnostic category, we investigated structural networks in MDD and BPD to identify shared and distinct patterns of abnormal brain volume associated with these phenotypically related disorders. Using magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T, we studied 22 females with MDD, 17 females with BPD and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder, and 22 age-matched female healthy controls. We used “source-based morphometry” (SBM) to investigate naturally grouping patterns of gray matter volume variation (i.e. “structural networks”) and the magnitude of their expression between groups. SBM identified three distinct structural networks which showed a significant group effect (p b 0.05, FDR-corrected). A bilateral frontostriatal network showed reduced volume in MDD compared to both controls and BPD patients. A medial temporal/medial frontal network was found to be significantly reduced in BPD compared to both controls and MDD patients. Decreased cingulate and lateral prefrontal volume was found in both MDD and BPD when compared to healthy individuals. In MDD significant relationships were found between depressive symptoms and a cingulate/lateral prefrontal structural pattern. In contrast, overall BPD symptoms and impulsivity scores were significantly associated with medial temporal/medial frontal network volume. The data suggest both distinct and common patterns of abnormal brain volume in MDD and BPD. Alterations of distinct structural networks differentially modulate clinical symptom expression in these disorders. PMID:26382757

  11. Personality in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): exploring the hierarchical structure and associations with the vasopressin V1A receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Hopkins, William D; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Young, Larry J

    2014-01-01

    One of the major contributions of recent personality psychology is the finding that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy. To date, however, researchers have yet to investigate this hierarchy in nonhuman primates. Such investigations are critical in confirming the cross-species nature of trait personality helping to illuminate personality as neurobiologically-based and evolutionarily-derived dimensions of primate disposition. Investigations of potential genetic polymorphisms associated with hierarchical models of personality among nonhuman primates represent a critical first step. The current study examined the hierarchical structure of chimpanzee personality as well as sex-specific associations with a polymorphism in the promoter region of the vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A), a gene associated with dispositional traits, among 174 chimpanzees. Results confirmed a hierarchical structure of personality across species and, despite differences in early rearing experiences, suggest a sexually dimorphic role of AVPR1A polymorphisms on hierarchical personality profiles at a higher-order level. PMID:24752497

  12. Personality in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Exploring the Hierarchical Structure and Associations with the Vasopressin V1A Receptor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Latzman, Robert D.; Hopkins, William D.; Keebaugh, Alaine C.; Young, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the major contributions of recent personality psychology is the finding that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy. To date, however, researchers have yet to investigate this hierarchy in nonhuman primates. Such investigations are critical in confirming the cross-species nature of trait personality helping to illuminate personality as neurobiologically-based and evolutionarily-derived dimensions of primate disposition. Investigations of potential genetic polymorphisms associated with hierarchical models of personality among nonhuman primates represent a critical first step. The current study examined the hierarchical structure of chimpanzee personality as well as sex-specific associations with a polymorphism in the promoter region of the vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A), a gene associated with dispositional traits, among 174 chimpanzees. Results confirmed a hierarchical structure of personality across species and, despite differences in early rearing experiences, suggest a sexually dimorphic role of AVPR1A polymorphisms on hierarchical personality profiles at a higher-order level. PMID:24752497

  13. Morphometric differences in central stress-regulating structures between women with and without borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlmann, Andrea; Bertsch, Katja; Schmidinger, Ilinca; Thomann, Philipp A.; Herpertz, Sabine C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Experiences of early life stress, increased psychological arousal and the body’s physiologic stress response seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis and maintenance of borderline personality disorder (BPD). In the present study, we investigated alterations in grey matter of central stress-regulating structures in female patients with BPD. Methods We examined T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of unmedicated, right-handed female patients with BPD (according to DSM-IV criteria) and healthy controls matched for age, intelligence and education using fully automated DARTEL voxel-based morphometry. Our regions of interest analyses included the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and hypothalamus. Results We enrolled 30 patients and 33 controls in our study. The grey matter of patients with BPD was reduced in the hippocampus, but increased in the hypothalamus compared with healthy participants. Hypothalamic volume correlated positively with the history of traumatization in patients with BPD. No significant alterations were found in the amygdala and ACC. Limitations This study is limited by the lack of measures of corticotropin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels. Furthermore, moderate sample size and comorbid disorders need to be considered. Conclusion Our findings provide new evidence for grey matter alterations in the hypothalamus and replicate previously reported decrements in hippocampal volume in patients with BPD. Understanding the role of the hypothalamus and other central stress-regulating structures could help us to further understand the neurobiological underpinnings of this complex disorder. PMID:22909445

  14. New Space Industries for the Next Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, D. V., Jr. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    New Space Industries For the Next Millennium is a final report of the findings from the New Space Industries Workshop held in Washington, DC, in February 1998. The primary purpose of this workshop was to identify what must be done to develop new markets, and to generate plans, milestones and new organizational relationships designed to facilitate the goal of space development. This document provides a summary report on the results of that workshop and is not intended as a statement of NASA or government policy. Previous studies had shown great potential for the development of new markets in space (e.g., travel and entertainment, space solar power, satellite and space transfer services, research and development in space, space manufacturing, and space resources), and a great need for coordination and formation of infrastructures (e.g., space transportation, space business parks, and space utilities), to facilitate the growth of new space businesses. The New Space Industries Workshop brought together government, academia, and industry participants from several previous studies and other professionals interested in the development of space for commercial purposes. Their participation provided input into the role of government and industry in space development as well as the technology needs that will enable space development. The opening of the frontier of space, not just to government missions but to private individuals and commercial business, is a challenge of overarching importance. It is our hope that the workshop and this final report continue in earnest the process of identifying and overcoming the barriers to large-scale public access and development of space in the early years of the next century.

  15. Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. E.

    1999-05-01

    Smith College has recently established the Louise B. and Edmund J. Kahn Liberal Arts Institute to foster interdisciplinary scholarship among the faculty. In the 1999-2000 academic year, the Kahn Institute is sponsoring a project entitled "Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium." The project will explore the impact of the astronomical discoveries of Galileo and his contemporaries on the Renaissance world-view and also use Galileo's experience as a lens for examining scientific and cultural developments at the symbolic juncture represented by the year 2000. Seven faculty fellows and 10-12 student fellows will participate in a year-long colloquium pursuing these themes, aided by the participation of some five Visiting Fellows. The inaugural public event will be a symposium on the historical Galileo, with presentation by three noted scholars, each of whom will return to campus for a second meeting with the Kahn colloquium. Additional events will include an exhibit of prints, artifacts, and rare books related to Galileo and his time, an early music concert featuring music composed by Galileo's father, and a series of other events sponsored by diverse departments and programs, all related to the broad themes of the Galileo project. The culminating events will be the premiere of a new music theater work, which will encapsulate the insights of the colloquium about human reactions to novel insights about the world, and a symposium presenting the research results of faculty and student fellows. The symposium will feature a capstone lecture by an visionary scholar projecting the implication of historical and contemporary trends into the future.

  16. Effects of Personality on Conflict Resolution in Student Teams: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, William R; Tashchian, Armen

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports results of a study of the effects of five personality dimensions on conflict resolution preferences in student teams. Two hundred and sixteen students provided self-reports of personality dimensions and conflict styles using the Neo-FFI and ROCI-II scales. Simultaneous effects of five personality dimensions on five conflict…

  17. Psychometric and Structural Analysis of the MMPI-2 Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Facet Subscales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilty, Lena C.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) is a model of personality psychopathology assessed in adult populations with a set of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scales. The authors examine the reliability and validity of recently developed lower-order facet subscales for each of these five domains, with an emphasis on…

  18. Effects of Personality on Conflict Resolution in Student Teams: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, William R; Tashchian, Armen

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports results of a study of the effects of five personality dimensions on conflict resolution preferences in student teams. Two hundred and sixteen students provided self-reports of personality dimensions and conflict styles using the Neo-FFI and ROCI-II scales. Simultaneous effects of five personality dimensions on five conflict

  19. Factor Structure of the Primary Scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization in a Nonclinical Sample Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, William D.; Levy, Kenneth N.

    2012-01-01

    Using exploratory structural equation modeling and multiple regression, we examined the factor structure and criterion relations of the primary scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO; Kernberg & Clarkin, 1995) in a nonclinical sample. Participants (N = 1,260) completed the IPO and measures of self-concept clarity, defenses,

  20. Factor Structure of the Primary Scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization in a Nonclinical Sample Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, William D.; Levy, Kenneth N.

    2012-01-01

    Using exploratory structural equation modeling and multiple regression, we examined the factor structure and criterion relations of the primary scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO; Kernberg & Clarkin, 1995) in a nonclinical sample. Participants (N = 1,260) completed the IPO and measures of self-concept clarity, defenses,…

  1. Factor Structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI): Findings from a Large Incarcerated Sample

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Craig S.; Malterer, Melanie B.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld, 1990) with a community sample suggested that the PPI subscales may be comprised of two higher-order factors (Benning et al., 2003). However, little research has examined the PPI structure in offenders. The current study attempted to replicate the Benning et al. two-factor solution using a large (N=1224) incarcerated male sample. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of this model with the full sample resulted in poor model fit. Next, to identify a factor solution that would summarize the offender data, EFA was conducted using a split-half of the total sample, followed by an attempt to replicate the EFA solution via CFA with the other split-half sample. Using the recommendations of Prooijen and van der Kloot (2001) for recovering EFA solutions, model fit results provided some evidence that the EFA solution could be recovered via CFA. However, this model involved extensive cross-loadings of the subscales across three factors, suggesting item overlap across PPI subscales. In sum, the two-factor solution reported by Benning et al. (2003) was not a viable model for the current sample of offenders, and additional research is needed to elucidate the latent structure of the PPI. PMID:18557694

  2. Identifying with fictive characters: structural brain correlates of the personality trait ‘fantasy’

    PubMed Central

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Jancke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The perception of oneself as absorbed in the thoughts, feelings and happenings of a fictive character (e.g. in a novel or film) as if the character’s experiences were one’s own is referred to as identification. We investigated whether individual variation in the personality trait of identification is associated with individual variation in the structure of specific brain regions, using surface and volume-based morphometry. The hypothesized regions of interest were selected on the basis of their functional role in subserving the cognitive processing domains considered important for identification (i.e. mental imagery, empathy, theory of mind and merging) and for the immersive experience called ‘presence’. Controlling for age, sex, whole-brain volume and other traits, identification covaried significantly with the left hippocampal volume, cortical thickness in the right anterior insula and the left dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and with gray matter volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings show that trait identification is associated with structural variation in specific brain regions. The findings are discussed in relation to the potential functional contribution of these regions to identification. PMID:24464847

  3. Towards Structural Systems Pharmacology to Study Complex Diseases and Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lei; Ge, Xiaoxia; Tan, Hepan; Xie, Li; Zhang, Yinliang; Hart, Thomas; Yang, Xiaowei; Bourne, Philip E.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS), whole genome sequencing, and high-throughput omics techniques have generated vast amounts of genotypic and molecular phenotypic data. However, these data have not yet been fully explored to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of drug discovery, which continues along a one-drug-one-target-one-disease paradigm. As a partial consequence, both the cost to launch a new drug and the attrition rate are increasing. Systems pharmacology and pharmacogenomics are emerging to exploit the available data and potentially reverse this trend, but, as we argue here, more is needed. To understand the impact of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors on drug action, we must study the structural energetics and dynamics of molecular interactions in the context of the whole human genome and interactome. Such an approach requires an integrative modeling framework for drug action that leverages advances in data-driven statistical modeling and mechanism-based multiscale modeling and transforms heterogeneous data from GWAS, high-throughput sequencing, structural genomics, functional genomics, and chemical genomics into unified knowledge. This is not a small task, but, as reviewed here, progress is being made towards the final goal of personalized medicines for the treatment of complex diseases. PMID:24830652

  4. Roe v. Wade. Into the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Sanger, A C

    1998-01-01

    In order to take the fight for reproductive rights into the next millennium, women in the US must be reminded of what life was like for women when contraception and abortion were illegal, and the silent majority of women who accept that abortion is a private decision must be marshalled to express their views politically. In the US, abortion was allowed until the mid- to late-1800s when Protestant leaders feared that Protestant births were being outnumbered by births to Irish Roman Catholic immigrants. There was only minimal organized opposition to abortion during the period when it was illegal and millions of women were dying as a result. An estimated 30,000 women died each year of illegal abortion in the US, and by the 1960s, illegal abortion was the greatest killer of women of reproductive age. Organized medicine, which witnessed these tragedies, never rallied to assure women quality reproductive health care. In fact, one of the first projects of the American Medical Association (AMA) was an anti-abortion campaign designed to put competitors out of business. The AMA waited until 1937 to endorse contraception and until the late 1960s to make efforts to legalize abortion. In 1997, the AMA again abandoned women by supporting the ban on late-term abortions. Pro-choice forces should prioritize the promotion of technological advances that will allow women to control conception and abortion. The means of achieving medical abortion and emergency contraception should be available in every physician's office and should be covered by every health insurance scheme. Reproductive health advocates must also work to inspire honesty about sex and sexuality in our sexually-obsessed, sexually-repressed society. Sex education in Denmark has nearly obliterated adolescent pregnancy and led to an 80% decline in the abortion rate over 30 years. In the US, nearly half of women have an abortion, and anti-abortion advocates should face the reality that their wives, daughters, mothers, and sisters have been affected by the right to choose. It is time to claim the moral high ground in the effort to secure safe, quality reproductive health care for all women. PMID:12178889

  5. Radiology system evolution in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Nauert, R C

    2001-01-01

    For many decades the practice of radiology grew slowly in America and was largely a secondary function under the control of hospitals. In more recent times it has vastly expanded its array of diagnostic, interventional, and therapeutic abilities. There is increasing consumer logic for direct access. Motivations have grown to create large independent entities with broadly diverse capabilities in order to succeed in the new millennium. Most regional markets are evolving rapidly in terms of managed care penetration, health system formation, physician practice consolidation and aggressive purchaser behavior by employers and consumers. To understand the enormity of healthcare evolution, it is useful to look at the industry's paradigm shifts in recent decades. Virtually every aspect of organizational infrastructure, delivery approaches, and the business environment has evolved markedly during the past fifty years. These changes will accelerate. To succeed financially, radiology groups must strengthen their market positions, technical capabilities, continuums of care and geographic dominance. Equally important is the wisdom of diversifying incomes into related services and businesses that provide additional related revenues. Key factors for successful development include facility market growth, full coverage of managed care contracts, high efficiency and aggressive diversification. A fully evolved system generates significant revenues and profitability by protecting and strengthening its financial position in this environment. That is accomplished through the development of strategically located radiology groups, aggressive alliances with medical practices in allied disciplines, and managed radiology departments and facilities for partner health systems. Organizational success ultimately depends on the ability to accept capitated payments under risk-bearing arrangements. The strategic business plan should be organized with the appropriate levels of detail needed to establish executive focus and priorities. These should be woven into operational and capital budgets to reflect expectations of the revenues, expenses and investments tied to the plan. While formidable, all of these objectives are realistic and can be accomplished if the right decisions are made. Initially, the entity's principle business objective is to formulate and begin implementation of methodical yet aggressive strategies for growth that are sensitive to sustaining high levels of quality patient care. The next phase features mergers with large, independent radiology practices in key geographic areas and successful acquisition of smaller practices. The objective of the final phase is to aggressively expand into select metropolitan areas with regional coverage and full teleradiology capabilities. High levels of market strength and financial performance are necessary to succeed. Passive limitations to small geographic areas and narrow practices will undermine their market position and dissolve financial strength with no hope of recovery. Only the dominant systems will survive and prosper. PMID:11499080

  6. SCARLET: Design of the Fresnel concentrator array for New Millennium Deep Space 1

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, D.M.; Eskenazi, M.I.

    1997-12-31

    The primary power for the JPL New Millennium Deep Space 1 spacecraft is a 2.6 kW concentrator solar array. This paper surveys the design and analysis employed to combine line-focus Fresnel lenses and multijunction (GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs/Ge) solar cells in the second-generation SCARLET (Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology) system. The array structure and mechanisms are reviewed. Discussion is focused on the lens and receiver, from the optimizations of optical efficiency and thermal management, to the design issues of environmental extremes, reliability, producibility, and control of pointing error.

  7. 77 FR 53917 - Notice of the September 13, 2012, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION Notice of the September 13, 2012, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. TIME AND DATE: 3 p.m. to 5 p.m.,...

  8. 75 FR 10822 - Notice of the March 24, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION Notice of the March 24, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. Time and Date: 10 a.m. to 12 p.m.,...

  9. 76 FR 74077 - Notice of the December 15, 2011, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION Notice of the December 15, 2011, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. TIME AND DATE: 3 p.m. to 5 p.m.,...

  10. 75 FR 71465 - Notice of the December 15, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION Notice of the December 15, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. TIME AND DATE: 10 a.m. to 12 p.m.,...

  11. 75 FR 52990 - Notice of the September 15, 2010, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION Notice of the September 15, 2010, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. Time and Date: 10 a.m. to 12 p.m.,...

  12. 76 FR 12134 - Notice of the March 23, 2011 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION Notice of the March 23, 2011 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. ] TIME AND DATE: 10 a.m. to 12 p.m.,...

  13. 77 FR 75198 - Notice of the December 19, 2012, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION Notice of the December 19, 2012, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. TIME AND DATE: 10:00 a.m. to 12:00...

  14. 77 FR 68115 - Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 1, 2012, Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Millennium), One Blue Hill Plaza, Seventh... Gas Transmission, L.L.C. in Ramapo, New York and points further east. In addition, depending...

  15. At the Threshold of the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R., Ed.

    This volume of essays was written as a tribute to the ideals of Phi Delta Kappa and to the fraternity's retiring executive director, Lowell C. Rose, who led the international professional fraternity in education from 1971 to 1995. Each contributor was invited to reflect on his or her personal experiences in education and life and to speculate on

  16. Unofficial Technology Marvel of the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricart, Glenn

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the impact of the Internet, particularly on higher education. Highlights include a history of the development of the Internet; a leadership plan for higher education; authentication of personal identity; security; information quality; the concept of Internet time; and future possibilities. (LRW)

  17. The Community College Presidency at the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, George B.; Weisman, Iris M.

    Based on a 1996 national study of community college presidents, this monograph presents a snapshot of presidents' personal and professional characteristics. A preface describes the purpose of the study and reviews methodology, indicating that the Career and Lifestyle Survey (CLS) was sent to 926 presidents, resulting in 680 responses, and that…

  18. At the Threshold of the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R., Ed.

    This volume of essays was written as a tribute to the ideals of Phi Delta Kappa and to the fraternity's retiring executive director, Lowell C. Rose, who led the international professional fraternity in education from 1971 to 1995. Each contributor was invited to reflect on his or her personal experiences in education and life and to speculate on…

  19. Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for Ukraine.

  20. Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for Ukraine.…

  1. Interpersonal Perceptions of the Five-Factor Model of Personality: An Examination Using the Structural Summary Method for Circumplex Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansell, Emily B.; Pincus, Aaron L.

    2004-01-01

    Research investigating the structural convergence of the Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC; Wiggins, 1979, 1995) with the Five Factor Model (FFM; Costa & McCrae, 1992) of personality has predominantly focused on the traits of Agreeableness and Extraversion. The characteristics of the other three FFM traits: Neuroticism, Openness, and Conscientiousness…

  2. Structural Relations of Personal and Collective Self-Esteem to Subjective Well-Being: Attachment as Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Omer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    A model indicating that the relationship between collective self-esteem and indicators of subjective well-being, happiness and life satisfaction, was mediated by personal self-esteem was tested by structural equation modeling. The model, including all participants, fitted well to the data. The results suggested that the relationship of collective…

  3. Structural Relations of Personal and Collective Self-Esteem to Subjective Well-Being: Attachment as Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Omer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    A model indicating that the relationship between collective self-esteem and indicators of subjective well-being, happiness and life satisfaction, was mediated by personal self-esteem was tested by structural equation modeling. The model, including all participants, fitted well to the data. The results suggested that the relationship of collective

  4. Cross-Validation of the Factor Structure of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist for Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bihm, Elson M.; Poindexter, Ann R.

    1991-01-01

    The original factor structure of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist was cross-validated with a U.S. sample of 470 persons with moderate to profound mental retardation (27 percent nonambulatory). Results replicated previous findings, suggesting that the original five factors (irritability, lethargy, stereotypic behavior, hyperactivity, and…

  5. Exploring the underlying structure of personal Web usage in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Anandarajan, Murugan; Simmers, Claire A; D'Ovidio, Rob

    2011-10-01

    Personal Web usage (PWU) represents a tension between employers and employees as employers generally regard employees' PWU as negative and employees see many PWU behaviors as acceptable. Employers attempt to limit PWU primarily through electronic monitoring and Internet usage policies. Employees, however, find PWU not only permissible, but also useful and rationalize these workplace behaviors. While researchers identified many PWU behaviors, the underlying structure of the phenomenon is not clearly understood. In this article, we offer a comprehensive new definition of PWU, and develop an empirically grounded classification of PWU framed by psychological contract theory and based on two studies. Using multidimensional scaling techniques and cluster analysis, we identified four clusters of PWU behaviors-work/family, hedonic, self-development, and citizenship. The results provide information as to what constitutes the domain of PWU, and how various usages are related to one another via the dimensions of individual and organizational benefits. We offer directions for future work and suggest how our work might be useful to practitioners. PMID:21728817

  6. Personality assessment inventory internalizing and externalizing structure in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: associations with aggression.

    PubMed

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Paul A; Elbogen, Eric B; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n's = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges. PMID:25131806

  7. Personality Assessment Inventory Internalizing and Externalizing Structure in Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Associations with Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Dennis, Paul A.; Elbogen, Eric B.; Clancy, Carolina P.; Hertzberg, Michael A.; Beckham, Jean C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n’s = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges. PMID:25131806

  8. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act and Other Egregious Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2002-01-01

    Argues that 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act, providing increased protection against unauthorized access to copyrighted electronic media, and the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, extending the term of most copyrighted books, unduly burden users of electronic media and books. Discusses the negative impact of recent federal laws to…

  9. A Guide for Education in the Third Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiddon, Tom; Wirth, Rex; Pool, Harbison

    This paper examines the philosophical approaches to knowledge that have governed education and concludes that a new paradigm is needed for the new millennium. Education is subdivided into a three-level hierarchy, including: (1) the accumulation of factoids as knowledge; (2) the development of knowledge into theories and models for the purpose of…

  10. Developing an Educational Performance Indicator for New Millennium Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Jo, Il-Hyun; Shin, Jongho; Seo, Jeonghee

    2012-01-01

    Educational performance based on the learning outcomes of formal schooling in a future knowledge society could be significantly different from that of today. This study investigates the possibilities of developing an educational performance indicator for new-millennium learners (NMLs). The researchers conducted literature reviews, a meeting of…

  11. Where Are You Going in the Next Millennium?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, LeRoy E.

    1999-01-01

    Public education should no longer reflect agricultural or industrial era learning modes. Third-millennium administrators must recognize certain societal trends: the "net generation" of students, predominance of technology, electronic schools, the information deluge and the democratization of information, the age of convenience and flexibility, and…

  12. Higher Education in Transition: The Challenges of the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losco, Joseph, Ed.; Fife, Brian L., Ed.

    This collection of papers records the current state of higher education and outlines the challenges higher education will face in the new millennium. The nine chapters are as follows: (1) "The American College Student: Three Decades of Change" (Alexander W. Astin); (2) "The Changing Role of Faculty" (Gary Rhoades); (3) "Higher Education Spending:…

  13. Inventing Childhood: Children's Literature in the Last Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodelman, Perry

    2000-01-01

    Asks various people knowledgeable about children's literature what they saw as the major accomplishments of the millennium. Notes that the first two people asked immediately announced the same thing: multiculturalism. Argues that multiculturalism is less an achievement of children's literature in our time than a goal. (SG)

  14. "Never as Gods": Lessons from a Millennium of Icons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrame, Anton C.

    2003-01-01

    The Orthodox Christian experience with sacred art--icons--serves as a guide to the present consideration of the potential and challenges of the icon and iconic in our visual age. This article considers contemporary understandings of the icon in light of a millennium of living with icons in the Orthodox tradition. Three basic questions are asked…

  15. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 1: Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

  16. Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Terrence A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter features innovations in resource management and information technology to support New York State government. The newsletter contains the following six sections: (1) "Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium" -- examining the need for government involvement in electronic commerce policy and partnership; (2)…

  17. Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Terrence A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter features innovations in resource management and information technology to support New York State government. The newsletter contains the following six sections: (1) "Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium" -- examining the need for government involvement in electronic commerce policy and partnership; (2)

  18. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 1: Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.

  19. Developing an Educational Performance Indicator for New Millennium Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Jo, Il-Hyun; Shin, Jongho; Seo, Jeonghee

    2012-01-01

    Educational performance based on the learning outcomes of formal schooling in a future knowledge society could be significantly different from that of today. This study investigates the possibilities of developing an educational performance indicator for new-millennium learners (NMLs). The researchers conducted literature reviews, a meeting of

  20. Copyright Dot Com: The Digital Millennium in Copyright.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diotalevi, Robert N.

    This paper examines copyright issues vital to education. It explores copyright in terms of both statutory and case law, and in particular in relation to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), which is a complex set of rules and regulations that affects anyone involved in copyright. Among the new issues are the impact of technology and the…

  1. Notes from Girl X: Anne Frank at the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitsky, Holli

    2002-01-01

    Considers if Anne Frank's diary is still viable or if it has been too far removed from its original author or its original context. Concludes that the book "Anne Frank and Me" offers historical accuracies about the Holocaust while placing its readers squarely at the millennium. (SG)

  2. Racial Disparities in New Millennium Schools: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBeauf, Ireon

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the role of race in new millennium schools and its impact on students. Multicultural, psycho-social, and academic issues are addressed, and interventions for school counselors are discussed. Racially correlated disparities in K-12 education are apparent in: test scores, grades, retention and drop-out rates, identification for…

  3. Skills for the New Millennium. Paper Presentations: Session G.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains 14 papers from the skills for the new millennium section of an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Research on Vocational Education and Training as a Field for Knowledge Development--Starting Points for the…

  4. Factor Structure and Construct Validity of the Counselor Skills Personal Development Rating Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Rivera, Edil; Wilbur, Michael P.; Maddux, Cleborne D.; Smaby, Marlowe H.; Phan, Loan T.; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice

    2002-01-01

    Presents an exploratory factor analysis of the scores of 248 counselors-in-training on the Counselor Skills Personal Development Rating Form (CSPD-RF). Authors of the test hypothesized that the CPSD-RF measured 2 factors, personal development and skills development. Factor analysis revealed 4 factors accounting for 58.4% of the total variance,…

  5. Pervasive multidecadal variations in productivity within the Peruvian Upwelling System over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, S.; Martinez, P.; Crosta, X.; Charlier, K.; Billy, I.; Hanquiez, V.; Blanz, T.; Schneider, R. R.

    2015-10-01

    There is no agreement on the pluri-decadal expression of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Pacific over the last millennium. Marine records from the Peruvian margin indicate humid conditions (El Niño-like mean conditions) over the Little Ice Age, while precipitation records from the eastern equatorial Pacific infer arid conditions (La Niña-like mean conditions) for the same period. We here studied diatom assemblages, nitrogen isotopes, and major and minor elements at the lamination level in three laminated trigger cores located between 11°S and 15°S on the Peruvian shelf within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) to reconstruct precipitation and ocean productivity at the multiannual to multidecadal timescales over the last millennium. We respected the sediment structure, thus providing the first records of the mean climatic conditions at the origin of the lamination deposition, which ones represent several years. Light laminations were deposited under productive and dry conditions, indicative of La Niña-like mean conditions in the system, while dark laminations were deposited under non-productive and humid conditions, representative of El Niño-like mean conditions. La Niña-like mean conditions were predominant during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP; 1000-600 years BP) and Current Warm Period (CWP; 150 years BP to present), while El Niño-like mean conditions prevailed over the Little Ice Age (LIA; 600-150 years BP). We provide evidence for persistent multidecadal variations in productivity over the last millennium, which were disconnected from the mean climate state. Multidecadal variability has been stronger over the last 450 years concomitantly to increased variability in the NAO index. Two intervals of strong multidecadal variability were also observed over the MWP, congruent to decreased solar irradiance and increased volcanic activity.

  6. A chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) analogue of cross-national generalization of personality structure: zoological parks and an African sanctuary.

    PubMed

    King, James E; Weiss, Alexander; Farmer, Kay H

    2005-04-01

    Six personality factors, including five resembling the human Big Five, had previously been identified in a separate group of zoo-housed chimpanzees. Comparability of chimpanzee personality factor structure was examined in two highly contrasting habitats: zoos and a large African sanctuary. Questionnaires for the zoo chimpanzees were in English, while most for the chimpanzees in the sanctuary were in French. Differences between the two settings were sufficiently extensive to make them analogous to cross-national human personality studies. Internal consistencies for five of the six factors did not differ between the two samples. The patterns of correlations between the unit-weighted factors were also similar for the two samples. Data from these two samples were pooled and factor analyzed. The resulting factor structure was then rotated to the factor structure described in the original study of chimpanzee personality. Dominance, Extraversion, Dependability, and Agreeableness had high congruences. Emotionality and Openness did not, but the items that had the highest loadings were consistent with the factors' definitions. Finally, sex and age effects for all factors generalized across habitats. PMID:15745435

  7. The Neo Personality Inventory-Revised: Factor Structure and Gender Invariance from Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in a High-Stakes Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Guenole, Nigel; Levine, Stephen Z.; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study presents new analyses of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) responses collected from a large British sample in a high-stakes setting. The authors show the appropriateness of the five-factor model underpinning these responses in a variety of new ways. Using the recently developed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM)…

  8. A check on hypothetical personality structures and their theoretical interpretation at 14-16 years in T-data.

    PubMed

    Cattell, R B; Klein, T W

    1975-05-01

    Basing hypotheses on interpretations of 12 personality factors most replicated in 10 past researches with children, this experiment sets up about eight subtests as specific markers for each. Ninety-five tests, taking eight hours in all, were administered to 394 14-16-year olds. A majority of the personality pattern hypotheses were sustained factor analytically by evidence on number of factors, significance of unique simple structure reached, and goodness of identifying match (chi-square test). Concept validities can be obtained for some six of the factors rivalling those for intelligence tests. A brief discussion is given of the bearing of the present results upon theoretical explanations of the given source traits, including extraversion, and it is pointed out that the psychological meaning of most, for personality research, is as important, in variance terms, as for the one or two, such as anxiety and extraversion, which have tended to monopolize discussion. PMID:1156736

  9. The role of visual markers in police victimization among structurally vulnerable persons in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pinedo, Miguel; Burgos, Jose Luis; Ojeda, Adriana Vargas; FitzGerald, David; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Law enforcement can shape HIV risk behaviours and undermine strategies aimed at curbing HIV infection. Little is known about factors that increase vulnerability to police victimization in Mexico. This study identifies correlates of police or army victimization (i.e., harassment or assault) in the past 6 months among patients seeking care at a free clinic in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods From January to May 2013, 601 patients attending a binational student-run free clinic completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Eligible participants were: (1) ≥18 years old; (2) seeking care at the clinic; and (3) spoke Spanish or English. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified factors associated with police/army victimization in the past 6 months. Results More than one-third (38%) of participants reported victimization by police/army officials in the past 6 months in Tijuana. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, males (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 3.68; 95% CI: 2.19–6.19), tattooed persons (AOR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.04–2.33) and those who injected drugs in the past 6 months (AOR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.29–3.43) were significantly more likely to report past 6-month police/army victimization. Recent feelings of rejection (AOR: 3.80; 95% CI: 2.47–5.85) and being denied employment (AOR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.50–3.32) were also independently associated with police/army victimization. Conclusion Structural interventions aimed at reducing stigma against vulnerable populations and increasing social incorporation may aid in reducing victimization events by police/army in Tijuana. Police education and training to reduce abusive policing practices may be warranted. PMID:25281235

  10. The lagoon at Caroline/Millennium atoll, Republic of Kiribati: natural history of a nearly pristine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Barott, Katie L; Caselle, Jennifer E; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Friedlander, Alan M; Maragos, James E; Obura, David; Rohwer, Forest L; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Zgliczynski, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A series of surveys were carried out to characterize the physical and biological parameters of the Millennium Atoll lagoon during a research expedition in April of 2009. Millennium is a remote coral atoll in the Central Pacific belonging to the Republic of Kiribati, and a member of the Southern Line Islands chain. The atoll is among the few remaining coral reef ecosystems that are relatively pristine. The lagoon is highly enclosed, and was characterized by reticulate patch and line reefs throughout the center of the lagoon as well as perimeter reefs around the rim of the atoll. The depth reached a maximum of 33.3 m in the central region of the lagoon, and averaged between 8.8 and 13.7 m in most of the pools. The deepest areas were found to harbor large platforms of Favia matthaii, which presumably provided a base upon which the dominant corals (Acropora spp.) grew to form the reticulate reef structure. The benthic algal communities consisted mainly of crustose coralline algae (CCA), microfilamentous turf algae and isolated patches of Halimeda spp. and Caulerpa spp. Fish species richness in the lagoon was half of that observed on the adjacent fore reef. The lagoon is likely an important nursery habitat for a number of important fisheries species including the blacktip reef shark and Napoleon wrasse, which are heavily exploited elsewhere around the world but were common in the lagoon at Millennium. The lagoon also supports an abundance of giant clams (Tridacna maxima). Millennium lagoon provides an excellent reference of a relatively undisturbed coral atoll. As with most coral reefs around the world, the lagoon communities of Millennium may be threatened by climate change and associated warming, acidification and sea level rise, as well as sporadic local resource exploitation which is difficult to monitor and enforce because of the atoll's remote location. While the remote nature of Millennium has allowed it to remain one of the few nearly pristine coral reef ecosystems in the world, it is imperative that this ecosystem receives protection so that it may survive for future generations. PMID:20539746

  11. Adolf Hitler's Parkinson's disease and an attempt to analyse his personality structure.

    PubMed

    Gerstenbrand, F; Karamat, E

    1999-03-01

    It has been proved that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic Parkinson's disease. No indication for postencephalitic parkinsonism was found in the clinical symptoms or the case history. Professor Max de Crinis established his diagnosis of Parkinson's disease in Hitler early in 1945 and informed the SS leadership, who decided to initiate treatment with a specially prepared 'antiparkinsonian mixture' to be administered by a physician. However, Hitler never received the mixture, this implies that the SS intended to remove the severely diseased 'Leader'. Two different character traits can be analysed in Hitler's personality: on the one hand the typical premorbid personality of parkinsonian patients with uncorrectable mental rigidity, extreme inflexibility and insupportable pedantry. On the other an antisocial personality disorder with lack of ethical and social values, a deeply rooted tendency to betray others and to deceive himself and uncontrollable emotional reactions. This special combination in Hitler's personality resulted in the uncritical conviction of his mission and an enormous driving for recognition. The neuropsychiatric analysis of Hitler's personality could lead to a better explanation of the pathological traits of one of the most conspicuous historical personalities. PMID:10053222

  12. Organizational (role structuring) and personal (organizational commitment and job involvement) factors: do they predict interprofessional team effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Freund, Anat; Drach-Zahavy, Anat

    2007-06-01

    Teamwork in community clinics was examined to propose and test a model that views the different kinds of commitment (job involvement and organizational commitment) and the potential conflict between them, as mediators between personal and organizational factors (mechanistic structuring and organic structuring) and the effectiveness of interprofessional teamwork. Differences among the professional groups became evident with regard to their views of the goals of teamwork and the ways to achieve them. As for mechanistic structuring, although the clinic members saw their mechanistic structuring in a more bureaucratic sense, the combination of mechanistic structuring and organic structuring led to effective teamwork. In terms of commitment, while staff members were committed primarily to their job and not the organization, commitment to the organization produced effective teamwork in the clinics. PMID:17487709

  13. Exploring the hierarchical structure of the MMPI-2-RF Personality Psychopathology Five in psychiatric patient and university student samples.

    PubMed

    Bagby, R Michael; Sellbom, Martin; Ayearst, Lindsay E; Chmielewski, Michael S; Anderson, Jaime L; Quilty, Lena C

    2014-01-01

    In this study our goal was to examine the hierarchical structure of personality pathology as conceptualized by Harkness and McNulty's (1994) Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) model, as recently operationalized by the MMPI-2-RF (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2011) PSY-5r scales. We used Goldberg's (2006) "bass-ackwards" method to obtain factor structure using PSY-5r item data, successively extracting from 1 to 5 factors in a sample of psychiatric patients (n = 1,000) and a sample of university undergraduate students (n = 1,331). Participants from these samples had completed either the MMPI-2 or the MMPI-2-RF. The results were mostly consistent across the 2 samples, with some differences at the 3-factor level. In the patient sample a factor structure representing 3 broad psychopathology domains (internalizing, externalizing, and psychoticism) emerged; in the student sample the 3-factor level represented what is more commonly observed in "normal-range" personality models (negative emotionality, introversion, and disconstraint). At the 5-factor level the basic structure was similar across the 2 samples and represented well the PSY-5r domains. PMID:24004403

  14. Molecular biology and neurosurgery in the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Rutka, J T; Taylor, M; Mainprize, T; Langlois, A; Ivanchuk, S; Mondal, S; Dirks, P

    2000-05-01

    The application of techniques in molecular biology to human neurosurgical conditions has led to an increased understanding of disease processes that affect the brain and to novel forms of therapy that favorably modify the natural history of many of these conditions. Molecular strategies are currently being either used or sought for brain tumors, stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, vascular malformations, spinal degenerative diseases, and congenital malformations of the central nervous system. Considering that the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid was ascertained by Watson and Crick as recently as 1953, the progress that has been made to implement molecular medicine in clinical practice has been meteoric. More than 2000 patients have been treated in approved gene therapy trials throughout the world. Many of these patients have been treated for neurological diseases for which conventional medical therapies have been of limited utility. As part of this continuing series on advances in neurosurgery in the third millennium, we first reflect on the history of the nascent field of molecular biology. We then describe the powerful techniques that have evolved from knowledge in this field and have been used in many publications in Neurosurgery, particularly within the past decade. These methods include commonly used techniques such as advanced cytogenetics, differential display, microarray technology, molecular cell imaging, yeast two-hybrid assays, gene therapy, and stem cell utilization. We conclude with a description of the rapidly growing field of bioinformatics. Because the Human Genome Project will be completed within 5 years, providing a virtual blueprint of the human race, the next frontier (and perhaps our greatest challenge) will involve the development of the field of "proteomics," in which protein structure and function are determined from the deoxyribonucleic acid blueprint. It is our conviction that neurosurgeons will continue to be at the forefront of the treatment of patients with neurological diseases using molecular strategies, by performing essential research leading to increased understanding of diseases, by conducting carefully controlled studies to test the effects of treatments on disease processes, and by directly administering (by neurosurgical, endovascular, endoscopic, or stereotactic means) the treatments to patients. PMID:10807235

  15. Hierarchical Structure of the Eysenck Personality Inventory in a Large Population Sample: Goldberg's Trait-Tier Mapping Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Weiss, Alexander; Barrett, Paul; Duberstein, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The structure of the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) is poorly understood, and applications have mostly been confined to the broad Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Lie scales. Using a hierarchical factoring procedure, we mapped the sequential differentiation of EPI scales from broad, molar factors to more specific, molecular factors, in a UK population sample of over 6500 persons. Replicable facets at the lowest tier of Neuroticism included emotional fragility, mood lability, nervous tension, and rumination. The lowest order set of replicable Extraversion facets consisted of social dynamism, sociotropy, decisiveness, jocularity, social information seeking, and impulsivity. The Lie scale consisted of an interpersonal virtue and a behavioral diligence facet. Users of the EPI may be well served in some circumstances by considering its broad Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Lie scales as multifactorial, a feature that was explicitly incorporated into subsequent Eysenck inventories and is consistent with other hierarchical trait structures. PMID:25983361

  16. The Big Five of Personality and structural imaging revisited: a VBM - DARTEL study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Yin; Weber, Bernd; Reuter, Martin; Markett, Sebastian; Chu, Woei-Chyn; Montag, Christian

    2013-05-01

    The present study focuses on the neurostructural foundations of the human personality. In a large sample of 227 healthy human individuals (168 women and 59 men), we used MRI to examine the relationship between personality traits and both regional gray and white matter volume, while controlling for age and sex. Personality was assessed using the German version of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory that measures individual differences in the 'Big Five of Personality': extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. In contrast to most previous studies on neural correlates of the Big Five, we used improved processing strategies: white and gray matter were independently assessed by segmentation steps before data analysis. In addition, customized sex-specific diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra templates were used. Our results did not show significant correlations between any dimension of the Big Five and regional gray matter volume. However, among others, higher conscientiousness scores correlated significantly with reductions in regional white matter volume in different brain areas, including the right insula, putamen, caudate, and left fusiformis. These correlations were driven by the female subsample. The present study suggests that many results from the literature on the neurostructural basis of personality should be reviewed carefully, considering the results when the sample size is larger, imaging methods are rigorously applied, and sex-related and age-related effects are controlled. PMID:23531766

  17. Challenges for physician executives in the millennium marketplace.

    PubMed

    Coile, R C

    1999-01-01

    There will be fundamental change in the Millennium, but not enacted in Washington, D.C. American health care is entering the "post-Managed Care" era in which payers, providers, plans, and patients reconstruct a new, more efficient, and, ultimately, more satisfying health care delivery system. The Millennium landscape of this evolving marketplace will be characterized by the following trends: (1) The "Age Wave" will boost demand: (2) There will be a push from technology; (3) Public/private health reform will be enacted; (4) Employers will use clout; (5) Direct provider contracting will prevail; (6) Government will regulate managed care organizations; (7) Managed Medicare/Medicaid will be restructured; (8) There will be a health plan shakeout; (9) Providers will "push back"; (10) Doctors will get organized; (11) Providers will assume risk; (12) "Report cards" will be widespread; (13) Managing clinical performance will be the core business of providers; and (14) Health consumers will be informed and Internet savvy. PMID:10387279

  18. The professional structure of Soviet medical care: the relationship between personal characteristics, medical education, and occupational setting for Estonian physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Using the Estonian example, this study provides data to describe the ways in which personal, educational, and occupational factors interacted to determine the professional structure of the Soviet health care system. METHODS. The study analyzes data gathered from a survey of 20% of the physicians in Estonia. It measures the frequencies of pertinent personal and occupational factors, and uses multivariate analysis to explore relationships between these factors. RESULTS. Most physicians in Estonia are women and work in urban settings. About half of the physicians work in hospitals, and one third work in large outpatient clinics called polyclinics. About one third work in primary care. Gender affects education, specialty, type of workplace, and administrative duties; nationality affects education and administrative duties. CONCLUSIONS. The Soviet system of health care derived its professional structure from a combination of personal and occupational factors. Those considering options for reform of the health care systems of the newly independent states that once constituted the Soviet Union should appreciate the nature of these structural forces. PMID:7892922

  19. Achieving Millennium Development Goal 5, the improvement of maternal health.

    PubMed

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Edwards, Joan E

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the progress made toward the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 5, the improvement of maternal health. Maternal mortality rates (MMR) remain high globally, and in the United States there have been recent increases in MMR. Interventions to improve global maternal health are described. Nurses should be aware of the enduring epidemic of global maternal mortality, advocate for childbearing women, and contribute to implementing effective interventions to reduce maternal mortality. PMID:20673318

  20. Health in the developing world: achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals depend critically on scaling up public health investments in developing countries. As a matter of urgency, developing-country governments must present detailed investment plans that are sufficiently ambitious to meet the goals, and the plans must be inserted into existing donor processes. Donor countries must keep the promises they have often reiterated of increased assistance, which they can easily afford, to help improve health in the developing countries and ensure stability for the whole world. PMID:15654410

  1. Health in the developing world: achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Jeffrey D

    2004-12-01

    The Millennium Development Goals depend critically on scaling up public health investments in developing countries. As a matter of urgency, developing-country governments must present detailed investment plans that are sufficiently ambitious to meet the goals, and the plans must be inserted into existing donor processes. Donor countries must keep the promises they have often reiterated of increased assistance, which they can easily afford, to help improve health in the developing countries and ensure stability for the whole world. PMID:15654410

  2. Factor Structure and Construct Validity of the Interaction with Disabled Persons Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Adrian; Palmer, Jerry K.; Coker-Juneau, Carla J.; Williams, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the psychometric properties of the Interaction with Disabled Persons Scale (IDP; L. Gething, 1991). Exploratory factor analysis with 358 undergraduates and confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of 272 undergraduates suggest that the IDP may provide a reasonable measurement of multidimensional attitudes toward individuals with…

  3. Factor Structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI): Findings from a Large Incarcerated Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Craig S.; Malterer, Melanie B.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; S. O. Lilienfeld, 1990; S. O. Lilienfeld & B. P. Andrews, 1996) with a community sample has suggested that the PPI subscales may comprise 2 higher order factors (S. D. Benning, C. J. Patrick, B. M. Hicks, D. M. Blonigen, & R. F. Krueger, 2003). However, substantive…

  4. Support Structures for Facilitators of Student Personal Development Planning: Lessons from Two Departmental Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, Claire; Lisewski, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    In the UK, following guidelines set out by the Quality Assurance Agency, personal development planning (PDP) is now operational across all higher education (HE) awards. Like many policy initiatives, PDP requires change, and vital to its implementation are those who facilitate PDP at the grassroots level. Staff given the task of implementing PDP…

  5. The Effects of Structured Team Meetings and Performance Feedback on Person-Centered Planning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatland, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    The period of transition from high school is challenging for most adolescents. There are a substantial number of life-changing decisions that transpire during this time. Choices must be made regarding career paths, continued education, future residence, and avenues for social activities and general integration in the community. Person-centered…

  6. Personality Traits and General Intelligence as Predictors of Academic Performance: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosander, Pia; Backstrom, Martin; Stenberg, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, after controlling for general intelligence, predict academic performance in different school subjects. Upper secondary school students in Sweden (N=315) completed the Wonderlic IQ test (Wonderlic, 1992) and the IPIP-NEO-PI test (Goldberg, 1999). A series of…

  7. Brain structure in narcissistic personality disorder: a VBM and DTI pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nenadic, Igor; Güllmar, Daniel; Dietzek, Maren; Langbein, Kerstin; Steinke, Johanna; Gaser, Christian

    2015-02-28

    We analysed T1-weighted MRI scans using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBBS) on diffusion tensor images (DTI) in narcissistic personality disorder (NaPD) patients and healthy controls. Grey matter deficits include right prefrontal and bilateral medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortices, and decreased fractional anisotropy in right frontal lobe white matter. PMID:25492857

  8. Gender differences in brain structure and resting-state functional connectivity related to narcissistic personality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjing; Cun, Lingli; Du, Xue; Yang, Junyi; Wang, Yanqiu; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Although cognitive and personality studies have observed gender differences in narcissism, the neural bases of these differences remain unknown. The current study combined the voxel-based morphometry and resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) analyses to explore the sex-specific neural basis of narcissistic personality. The VBM results showed that the relationship between narcissistic personality and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) differed between sexes. Narcissistic scores had a significant positive correlation with the rGMV of the right SPL in females, but not in males. Further analyses were conducted to investigate the sex-specific relationship between rsFC and narcissism, using right SPL/frontal eye fields (FEF) as the seed regions (key nodes of the dorsal attention network, DAN). Interestingly, decreased anticorrelations between the right SPL/FEF and areas of the precuneus and middle frontal gyrus (key nodes of the the default mode network, DMN) were associated with higher narcissistic personality scores in males, whereas females showed the opposite tendency. The findings indicate that gender differences in narcissism may be associated with differences in the intrinsic and dynamic interplay between the internally-directed DMN and the externally-directed TPN. Morphometry and functional connectivity analyses can enhance our understanding of the neural basis of sex-specific narcissism. PMID:26109334

  9. An Examination of the Higher-Order Structure of Psychopathology and Its Relationship to Personality.

    PubMed

    Uliaszek, Amanda A; Zinbarg, Richard E

    2016-04-01

    This study compared a series of higher-order models encompassing symptoms of both clinical and personality disorders. The final model was then correlated with a latent variable model of normal personality traits. A total of 420 undergraduates completed a battery of self-report symptom and personality questionnaires, with informant-reports and diagnostic interviews provided by overlapping subsamples. A three-level model with two factors at the highest level and four factors at the second level was the best fitting model. The higher-order internalizing and externalizing factors were then correlated with 30 latent personality facets. Results demonstrate an elevation on the neuroticism facets for the higher-order internalizing factor, along with low positive emotions, low actions, and low competence. The higher-order externalizing factor was negatively associated with most conscientiousness and agreeableness factors, while showing an elevation on excitement-seeking, impulsivity, and angry hostility. Future studies should replicate these models with the inclusion of more low base-rate disorders (i.e., psychosis). PMID:25893555

  10. Work Engagement Accumulation of Task, Social, Personal Resources: A Three-Wave Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigl, Matthias; Hornung, Severin; Parker, Sharon K.; Petru, Raluca; Glaser, Jurgen; Angerer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on Conservation of Resources Theory and previous research on work engagement, the present study investigates gain spirals between employees' engagement and their task, social, and personal resources. It focuses on the key resources of job control, positive work relationships, and active coping behavior. In a three-wave design, work…

  11. Investigating the structure of semantic networks in low and high creative persons

    PubMed Central

    Kenett, Yoed N.; Anaki, David; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    According to Mednick's (1962) theory of individual differences in creativity, creative individuals appear to have a richer and more flexible associative network than less creative individuals. Thus, creative individuals are characterized by “flat” (broader associations) instead of “steep” (few, common associations) associational hierarchies. To study these differences, we implement a novel computational approach to the study of semantic networks, through the analysis of free associations. The core notion of our method is that concepts in the network are related to each other by their association correlations—overlap of similar associative responses (“association clouds”). We began by collecting a large sample of participants who underwent several creativity measurements and used a decision tree approach to divide the sample into low and high creative groups. Next, each group underwent a free association generation paradigm which allowed us to construct and analyze the semantic networks of both groups. Comparison of the semantic memory networks of persons with low creative ability and persons with high creative ability revealed differences between the two networks. The semantic memory network of persons with low creative ability seems to be more rigid, compared to the network of persons with high creative ability, in the sense that it is more spread out and breaks apart into more sub-parts. We discuss how our findings are in accord and extend Mednick's (1962) theory and the feasibility of using network science paradigms to investigate high level cognition. PMID:24959129

  12. Gender differences in brain structure and resting-state functional connectivity related to narcissistic personality

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wenjing; Cun, Lingli; Du, Xue; Yang, Junyi; Wang, Yanqiu; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Although cognitive and personality studies have observed gender differences in narcissism, the neural bases of these differences remain unknown. The current study combined the voxel-based morphometry and resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) analyses to explore the sex-specific neural basis of narcissistic personality. The VBM results showed that the relationship between narcissistic personality and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) differed between sexes. Narcissistic scores had a significant positive correlation with the rGMV of the right SPL in females, but not in males. Further analyses were conducted to investigate the sex-specific relationship between rsFC and narcissism, using right SPL/frontal eye fields (FEF) as the seed regions (key nodes of the dorsal attention network, DAN). Interestingly, decreased anticorrelations between the right SPL/FEF and areas of the precuneus and middle frontal gyrus (key nodes of the the default mode network, DMN) were associated with higher narcissistic personality scores in males, whereas females showed the opposite tendency. The findings indicate that gender differences in narcissism may be associated with differences in the intrinsic and dynamic interplay between the internally-directed DMN and the externally-directed TPN. Morphometry and functional connectivity analyses can enhance our understanding of the neural basis of sex-specific narcissism. PMID:26109334

  13. Brief Report: Structure of Personal Narratives of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Allyssa; Hillier, Ashleigh; Shapiro, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Young adults with High Functioning Autism and a matched comparison group told personal narratives using a standard conversational procedure. Longest narratives were determined (i.e., number of propositions included) and scored using an analysis that looks at the organization of a narrative around a highpoint. The group with Autism Spectrum…

  14. Factor structure of the primary scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization in a nonclinical sample using exploratory structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Ellison, William D; Levy, Kenneth N

    2012-06-01

    Using exploratory structural equation modeling and multiple regression, we examined the factor structure and criterion relations of the primary scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO; Kernberg & Clarkin, 1995) in a nonclinical sample. Participants (N = 1,260) completed the IPO and measures of self-concept clarity, defenses, affect and emotion regulation, and risky and self-injurious behavior. In contrast to that of Lenzenweger, Clarkin, Kernberg, and Foelsch (2001), a 4-factor measurement model was derived with factors representing instability of sense of self and other, instability of goals, instability of behaviors, and psychosis. The 1st of these factors related most strongly to external measures of self-concept clarity, defenses, and affect, whereas the 3rd factor related most strongly to measures of risky behavior and self-injury. These results suggest that the IPO's factor structure does not conform to the hypothesized 3-factor model, although it does capture important elements of Kernberg's (1996) theory of personality organization, especially the central construct of representations of self and others. The results point to several areas in which the IPO might be refined to provide a more comprehensive and theoretically appropriate measure of the borderline personality organization construct. PMID:22103552

  15. Toward a tripartite factor structure of mental health: subjective well-being, personal growth, and religiosity.

    PubMed

    Compton, W C

    2001-09-01

    According to recent research findings, the domain of psychological well-being may be represented by 2 basic factors: subjective well-being (e.g., happiness, life satisfaction) and personal growth (e.g., self-actualization, a sense of meaningfulness). This study tested the hypothesis that in addition to those 2 factors, a 3rd basic factor is necessary to adequately describe the ways in which people search for well-being. That factor is a type of religiosity that is based on other-centeredness and self-renunciation. A sample of 242 undergraduate and graduate students completed 10 measures of psychological well-being that resulted in 21 scales and subscales. Principal components analyses provided initial support for a tripartite model of psychological well-being. Results also suggested that current measures of personal growth may measure either the autonomy or mature social relationships components of the construct. PMID:11804003

  16. How Older Persons Structure Information in the Decision to Seek Medical Care

    PubMed Central

    Veazie, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Typical models of the decision to seek care consider information as a single conceptual object. This paper presents an alternative that allows multiple objects. For older persons seeking care, results support this alternative. Older decision-makers that segregate information into multiple conceptual objects assessed separately are characterized by socio-demographic (younger age, racial category, non-Hispanic, higher education, higher income, and not married), health status (better general health for men and worse general health for women, fewer known illnesses), and neuropsychological (less memory loss for men, trouble concentrating and trouble making decisions for men) factors. Results of this study support the conclusion that older persons are more likely to integrate information, and individuals with identifiable characteristics are more likely to do so than others. The theory tested in this study implies a potential explanation for misutilization of care (either over or under-utilization). PMID:26973941

  17. Assessing the Universal Structure of Personality in Early Adolescence: The NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years from 24 cultures. Replacement…

  18. Assessing the Universal Structure of Personality in Early Adolescence: The NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years from 24 cultures. Replacement

  19. A THOUSAND SHADOWS OF ANDROMEDA: ROTATING PLANES OF SATELLITES IN THE MILLENNIUM-II COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Ibata, Neil G.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Conn, Anthony; Elahi, Pascal; Arias, Veronica; Fernando, Nuwanthika

    2014-03-20

    In a recent contribution, Bahl and Baumgardt investigated the incidence of planar alignments of satellite galaxies in the Millennium-II simulation and concluded that vast, thin planes of dwarf galaxies, similar to that observed in the Andromeda galaxy (M31), occur frequently by chance in Λ-cold dark matter cosmology. However, their analysis did not capture the essential fact that the observed alignment is simultaneously radially extended, yet thin, and kinematically unusual. With the caveat that the Millennium-II simulation may not have sufficient mass resolution to identify confidently simulacra of low-luminosity dwarf galaxies, we re-examine that simulation for planar structures, using the same method as employed by Ibata et al. on the real M31 satellites. We find that 0.04% of host galaxies display satellite alignments that are at least as extreme as the observations, when we consider their extent, thickness, and number of members rotating in the same sense. We further investigate the angular momentum properties of the co-planar satellites, and find that the median of the specific angular momentum derived from the line-of-sight velocities in the real M31 structure (1.3 × 10{sup 4} km s{sup –1} kpc) is very high compared to systems drawn from the simulations. This analysis confirms that it is highly unlikely that the observed structure around the Andromeda galaxy is due to a chance occurrence. Interestingly, the few extreme systems that are similar to M31 arise from the accretion of a massive sub-halo with its own spatially concentrated entourage of orphan satellites.

  20. Examining the Impact of Gender on the Factor Structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory--Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anestis, Joye C.; Caron, Kelly M.; Carbonell, Joyce L.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the factor structure of psychopathy has yielded mixed results, supporting anywhere from one to three factors. Additionally, most of this research has used all-male samples, and the possibility of structural invariance across gender has not been examined. Using a mixed-gender sample of 360 undergraduates, the factor structure of the…

  1. Structural and Dialectal Characteristics of the Fictional and Personal Narratives of School-age African American Children

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method Forty-three children, grades two through five, generated a fictional and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a story-prompt task, respectively. Narratives produced in these two contexts were characterized for macrostructure, microstructure, and dialect density. Differences across narrative type and grade level were examined. Results Statistically significant differences between the two types of narratives were found for both macrostructure and microstructure but not for dialect density. There were no grade-related differences in macrostructure, microstructure, or dialect density. Conclusion The results demonstrate the complementary role of fictional and personal narratives for describing young children's narrative skills. Use of both types of narrative tasks and descriptions of both macrostructure and macrostructure may be particularly useful for characterizing the narrative abilities of young school-age African American children, for whom culture-fair methods are scarce. Further study of additional dialect groups is warranted. PMID:23633645

  2. Inter-hemispheric temperature variability over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukom, Raphael; Gergis, Joëlle; Karoly, David J.; Wanner, Heinz; Curran, Mark; Elbert, Julie; González-Rouco, Fidel; Linsley, Braddock K.; Moy, Andrew D.; Mundo, Ignacio; Raible, Christoph C.; Steig, Eric J.; van Ommen, Tas; Vance, Tessa; Villalba, Ricardo; Zinke, Jens; Frank, David

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's climate system is driven by a complex interplay of internal chaotic dynamics and natural and anthropogenic external forcing. Recent instrumental data have shown a remarkable degree of asynchronicity between Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere temperature fluctuations, thereby questioning the relative importance of internal versus external drivers of past as well as future climate variability. However, large-scale temperature reconstructions for the past millennium have focused on the Northern Hemisphere, limiting empirical assessments of inter-hemispheric variability on multi-decadal to centennial timescales. Here, we introduce a new millennial ensemble reconstruction of annually resolved temperature variations for the Southern Hemisphere based on an unprecedented network of terrestrial and oceanic palaeoclimate proxy records. In conjunction with an independent Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstruction ensemble, this record reveals an extended cold period (1594-1677) in both hemispheres but no globally coherent warm phase during the pre-industrial (1000-1850) era. The current (post-1974) warm phase is the only period of the past millennium where both hemispheres are likely to have experienced contemporaneous warm extremes. Our analysis of inter-hemispheric temperature variability in an ensemble of climate model simulations for the past millennium suggests that models tend to overemphasize Northern Hemisphere-Southern Hemisphere synchronicity by underestimating the role of internal ocean-atmosphere dynamics, particularly in the ocean-dominated Southern Hemisphere. Our results imply that climate system predictability on decadal to century timescales may be lower than expected based on assessments of external climate forcing and Northern Hemisphere temperature variations alone.

  3. Worker personality and its association with spatially structured division of labor.

    PubMed

    Pamminger, Tobias; Foitzik, Susanne; Kaufmann, Katharina C; Schtzler, Natalie; Menzel, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Division of labor is a defining characteristic of social insects and fundamental to their ecological success. Many of the numerous tasks essential for the survival of the colony must be performed at a specific location. Consequently, spatial organization is an integral aspect of division of labor. The mechanisms organizing the spatial distribution of workers, separating inside and outside workers without central control, is an essential, but so far neglected aspect of division of labor. In this study, we investigate the behavioral mechanisms governing the spatial distribution of individual workers and its physiological underpinning in the ant Myrmica rubra. By investigating worker personalities we uncover position-associated behavioral syndromes. This context-independent and temporally stable set of correlated behaviors (positive association between movements and attraction towards light) could promote the basic separation between inside (brood tenders) and outside workers (foragers). These position-associated behavior syndromes are coupled with a high probability to perform tasks, located at the defined position, and a characteristic cuticular hydrocarbon profile. We discuss the potentially physiological causes for the observed behavioral syndromes and highlight how the study of animal personalities can provide new insights for the study of division of labor and self-organized processes in general. PMID:24497911

  4. Worker Personality and Its Association with Spatially Structured Division of Labor

    PubMed Central

    Pamminger, Tobias; Foitzik, Susanne; Kaufmann, Katharina C.; Schützler, Natalie; Menzel, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Division of labor is a defining characteristic of social insects and fundamental to their ecological success. Many of the numerous tasks essential for the survival of the colony must be performed at a specific location. Consequently, spatial organization is an integral aspect of division of labor. The mechanisms organizing the spatial distribution of workers, separating inside and outside workers without central control, is an essential, but so far neglected aspect of division of labor. In this study, we investigate the behavioral mechanisms governing the spatial distribution of individual workers and its physiological underpinning in the ant Myrmica rubra. By investigating worker personalities we uncover position-associated behavioral syndromes. This context-independent and temporally stable set of correlated behaviors (positive association between movements and attraction towards light) could promote the basic separation between inside (brood tenders) and outside workers (foragers). These position-associated behavior syndromes are coupled with a high probability to perform tasks, located at the defined position, and a characteristic cuticular hydrocarbon profile. We discuss the potentially physiological causes for the observed behavioral syndromes and highlight how the study of animal personalities can provide new insights for the study of division of labor and self-organized processes in general. PMID:24497911

  5. Theoretical mechanics: Crowd synchrony on the Millennium Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strogatz, Steven H.; Abrams, Daniel M.; McRobie, Allan; Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward

    2005-11-01

    Soon after the crowd streamed on to London's Millennium Bridge on the day it opened, the bridge started to sway from side to side: many pedestrians fell spontaneously into step with the bridge's vibrations, inadvertently amplifying them. Here we model this unexpected and now notorious phenomenon - which was not due to the bridge's innovative design as was first thought - by adapting ideas originally developed to describe the collective synchronization of biological oscillators such as neurons and fireflies. Our approach should help engineers to estimate the damping needed to stabilize other exceptionally crowded footbridges against synchronous lateral excitation by pedestrians.

  6. Theoretical mechanics: crowd synchrony on the Millennium Bridge.

    PubMed

    Strogatz, Steven H; Abrams, Daniel M; McRobie, Allan; Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward

    2005-11-01

    Soon after the crowd streamed on to London's Millennium Bridge on the day it opened, the bridge started to sway from side to side: many pedestrians fell spontaneously into step with the bridge's vibrations, inadvertently amplifying them. Here we model this unexpected and now notorious phenomenon--which was not due to the bridge's innovative design as was first thought--by adapting ideas originally developed to describe the collective synchronization of biological oscillators such as neurons and fireflies. Our approach should help engineers to estimate the damping needed to stabilize other exceptionally crowded footbridges against synchronous lateral excitation by pedestrians. PMID:16267545

  7. Vision-21: Space Travel for the Next Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The papers from this symposium, that was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on April 3-4, 1990, are presented. The theme selected for the symposium was space travel for the next millennium. It was hoped that the participants would allow their focus to consider possible advances in technologies for space travel not just for currently envisioned projects, but for possibilities beyond the next generation and the next thousand years. About half of the contributed papers focussed on propulsion and the other half on other issues related to space travel.

  8. 78 FR 13904 - Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meetings AGENCY...: Meeting will be closed to the public. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: The Board of Directors (the ``Board'')...

  9. 77 FR 14835 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors; March 22, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors; March 22, 2012 AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. TIME AND DATE: 3 p.m. to 5 p.m., Wednesday, March 22, 2012. PLACE... the meeting may be obtained from Melvin F. Williams, Jr., Vice President, General Counsel...

  10. A Millennium Learning Goal for Education Post-2015: A Question of Outcomes or Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Angeline M.

    2011-01-01

    As the target year for the current Millennium Development Goal of universal completion of primary education approaches, three World Bank economists have proposed its replacement with a Millennium Learning Goal. This is part of a trend of increased privileging of learning outcomes. The proposal is assessed from the perspective of human rights-based…

  11. Innovative Approaches to Funding the Millennium Development Goals. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief, No. 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisen, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which set targets for reducing poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women by 20151. The need for additional development funding, if the MDGs are to be achieved by 2015, is…

  12. Personal protection: vicarious liability as applied to the various business structures.

    PubMed

    Winrow, Brian; Winrow, Amanda R

    2008-01-01

    Within the field of midwifery, the issue of vicarious liability has become an emerging issue. The doctrine of respondeat superior imputes liability to an employer without direct negligence. While the issue of vicarious liability has been explored in the past, those studies were focused on the vicarious liability of certified nurse-midwives/certified midwives (CNMs/CMs) for the negligence of their employees. This article explores the issue of vicarious liability under the doctrine of respondeat superior as applied within a practice consisting of two or more co-owners. This issue is of heightened importance, because CNMs/CMs increasingly enter into ventures with other CNMs/CMs in order to pool their resources. Many CNMs/CMs unsuspectingly assume the risks for the malpractice of their colleagues. This increased risk can be minimized by forming their practice as a limited liability entity, thus avoiding personal liability for the malpractice of their co-owner(s). PMID:18308265

  13. Southeast Asian perspectives on nutrition needs for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Tee, E S

    2001-06-01

    Over the last three decades, there has been significant changes in the lifestyles of commmunities, including food habits, and food purchasing and consumption patterns in the Southeast Asian region. As a result, there is a definite change in the food and nutrition issues in the region. Nutritional deficiencies in many of these countries are slowly being decreased in magnitude. On the other hand, the significant proportions of the population are now faced with the other facet of the malnutrition problem, namely diet-related chronic diseases. However, because of the different stages of socio-economic development, the extent of each of these extremes of the malnutrition problems varies considerably between the different countries in Southeast Asia. Nutrition needs in the new millennium would necessarily differ somewhat among these countries while at the same time, there would be a considerable amount of similarities. This presentation highlights several macro issues that countries in the region may focus on in the near future. Various intervention programmes have been undertaken by authorities to tackle the co-existence of twin faces of malnutrition in many developing countries. It would be desirable to have a blue print of such programmes and activities in the National Plans of Action for Nutrition (NPANs) . The NPAN should be more than a framework or a descriptive document. It should be a tool for action, an operational plan that sets out priorities; identifies projects and activities, with details of implementation such as what, how and when; designates responsibilities and accountability for the activities; identifies resource requirements and their source; and sets out the plan for monitoring and evaluation. One of the main obstacles in the formulation and effective implementation of intervention programmes in developing countries is the lack of comprehensive data on the extent of the problems in many cases and the causes of such problems specificy to the communities concerned. It is thus imperative to identify appropriate research priorities and conduct relevant studies. It is also important to have basic baseline data collected at regular intervals such as nutritional status of communities and dietary intake. To conduct all these activities, it is vital to ensure adequate funding, preferably through establishing a dedicated fund for research. There should be closer collaboration between countries in the region in all nutrition activities to enable sharing of resources, experiences and learn from the mistakes of others. One existing mechanism is through the ASEAN structure. The other existing mechanisms are through WHO and FAO. One other mechanism is through the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Southeast Asian Branch. Closely related to this need for networking is the need for continuing harmonization of approaches to nutrition activities in the region. Current efforts in harmonisation include RDA, nutritional status assessment methodologies and dietary guidelines. Other areas of harmonisation in the near future include nutrition labelling and claims. PMID:11594483

  14. Separating forced from chaotic climate variability over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurer, A. P.; Hegerl, G. C.; Mann, M. E.; Tett, S. F.; Phipps, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Reconstructions of past climate show substantial temperature variability over the last millennium, with relatively warm conditions during the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly' (MCA) and a cold 'Little Ice Age' (LIA). Here we use multi-model simulations of the last millennium run with general circulation models (GCMs) together with a wide range of available reconstructions of annual northern hemispheric temperature to attribute causes to the temperature variability from 850 to 1950. Our results show that external forcing contributed significantly to the long-term temperature variability irrespective of reconstruction used. The residual, unexplained variability provides a new estimate of internal climate variability that is independent from climate model control simulations. The recent 50-year trend is far outside the range of variability estimated from all reconstructions used, confirming the highly unusual nature of the recent warming. Many reconstructions show a smaller forced response than the models. This mismatch may be explained by non-linearities in the response of tree-ring proxies. The response to variations in solar input and explosive volcanism is the main driver of pre-industrial climate change from 1400-1900. For the first time we also detect the response to greenhouse gas variations over this period, which significantly contributed to the cold conditions during the period 1600-1800.

  15. Simulation of Drought in Central Asia during the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallah, Bijan; Polanski, Stefan; Prasad, Sushma; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Within the Central Asian Climate Dynamics project (CADY), we aim to apply multiproxy reconstructions and climate models to analyse and (semi)quantify the Last Millennium climate variability and regional hydrology in Central Asia. In this context, we have used simulations of the uncoupled atmosphere version of global COSMOS Model (ECHAM5) in T31L19 spatial resolution within the Last Millennium; Medieval Warm Period (MWP; 900-1100 AD), the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1515-1715 AD) and after industrialization (REC; 1800-2000 AD) to drive the COSMO-CLM regional climate model at its lateral boundaries for 30 year time-slices based on the definition of extreme spells in the past climate. The Palmer Drought Severity Index over Central Asia has been calculated for both global and regional simulations. The simulated PDSI from COSMO-CLM driven by ERA-INTERIM data shows very good agreements compared to observations (PDSI from Dai et al., 2004) in space-time-frequency. Based on the EOF analysis, the simulated drought patterns are well captured compared to the reconstructed PDSI from Cook et al., 2010 ( pattern correlation = 0.68 (0.83) for LIA(REC) at a 99% significance level). Further, historical droughts can be identified by the simulated PDSI (e.g. Ming Dynasty Drought and The Great Drought). The Principal Components of simulated PDSI also show significant correlations with SST anomalies for the period from 1856 to 2000.

  16. Millennium Development Goal 5 and adolescents: looking back, moving forward

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Joshua P; Pileggi-Castro, Cynthia; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Pileggi, Vicky Nogueira; Souza, João Paulo; Chou, Doris; Say, Lale

    2015-01-01

    Since the Millennium Declaration in 2000, unprecedented progress has been made in the reduction of global maternal mortality. Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG 5; improving maternal health) includes two primary targets, 5A and 5B. Target 5A aimed for a 75% reduction in the global maternal mortality ratio (MMR), and 5B aimed to achieve universal access to reproductive health. Globally, maternal mortality since 1990 has nearly halved and access to reproductive health services in developing countries has substantially improved. In setting goals and targets for the post-MDG era, the global maternal health community has recognised that ultimate goal of ending preventable maternal mortality is now within reach. The new target of a global MMR of <70 deaths per 100 000 live births by 2030 is ambitious, yet achievable and to reach this target a significantly increased effort to promote and ensure universal, equitable access to reproductive, maternal and newborn services for all women and adolescents will be required. In this article, as we reflect on patterns, trends and determinants of maternal mortality, morbidity and other key MDG5 indicators among adolescents, we aim to highlight the importance of promoting and protecting the sexual and reproductive health and rights of adolescents as part of renewed global efforts to end preventable maternal mortality. PMID:25613967

  17. Millennium Development Goal 5 and adolescents: looking back, moving forward.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Joshua P; Pileggi-Castro, Cynthia; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Pileggi, Vicky Nogueira; Souza, João Paulo; Chou, Doris; Say, Lale

    2015-02-01

    Since the Millennium Declaration in 2000, unprecedented progress has been made in the reduction of global maternal mortality. Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG 5; improving maternal health) includes two primary targets, 5A and 5B. Target 5A aimed for a 75% reduction in the global maternal mortality ratio (MMR), and 5B aimed to achieve universal access to reproductive health. Globally, maternal mortality since 1990 has nearly halved and access to reproductive health services in developing countries has substantially improved. In setting goals and targets for the post-MDG era, the global maternal health community has recognised that ultimate goal of ending preventable maternal mortality is now within reach. The new target of a global MMR of <70 deaths per 100 000 live births by 2030 is ambitious, yet achievable and to reach this target a significantly increased effort to promote and ensure universal, equitable access to reproductive, maternal and newborn services for all women and adolescents will be required. In this article, as we reflect on patterns, trends and determinants of maternal mortality, morbidity and other key MDG5 indicators among adolescents, we aim to highlight the importance of promoting and protecting the sexual and reproductive health and rights of adolescents as part of renewed global efforts to end preventable maternal mortality. PMID:25613967

  18. 75 FR 30440 - Notice of the June 16, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION Notice of the June 16, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. TIME AND DATE: 10 a.m. to 12 p.m.,...

  19. 76 FR 57765 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice of the September 28, 2011, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice of the September 28, 2011, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. TIME AND DATE: 10 a.m. to 12 p.m.,...

  20. 75 FR 80544 - Change of Date for December 15, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION Change of Date for December 15, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. TIME AND DATE: 10 a.m. to 12 p.m.,...

  1. Filipino personality structure and the big five model: a lexical approach.

    PubMed

    Church, A T; Reyes, J A; Katigbak, M S; Grimm, S D

    1997-09-01

    In lexically based studies, we derived Filipino personality dimensions and related them to the Big Five model. In Study 1, Filipino high-school and college students (N = 629) rated themselves on a near-comprehensive list of 861 Filipino (Tagalog) trait adjectives. In Study 2, Filipino high-school and college students (N = 1,531) rated 280 markers of dimensions identified in Study 1. Some students (n = 473) also completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Seven comparable Filipino dimensions were identified in factor analyses in the two studies. We concluded that the dimensions we labeled Concern for Others (vs. Egotism), Conscientiousness, Gregariousness, and Intellect were quite similar to Big Five Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Intellect, respectively. The Filipino Self-Assurance dimension was most similar to Big Five Neuroticism. The Filipino Temperamentalness dimension was more complex in Big Five terms, overlapping Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism. A final Filipino factor resembled a Negative Valence or Infrequency dimension. More than five factors had to be extracted to obtain Philippine dimensions resembling all of the Big Five. PMID:9327587

  2. Reduced deactivation in reward circuitry and midline structures during emotion processing in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Enzi, Bjoern; Doering, Stephan; Faber, Cornelius; Hinrichs, Jens; Bahmer, Judith; Northoff, Georg

    2013-02-01

    OBJECTIVES. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a pervasive affective dysregulation. While recent imaging studies demonstrated the neural correlates of abnormal emotion processing in BPD and recently one study reported alterations of the reward circuit in this patient group, the exact neural mechanisms underlying the impact of abnormal emotion on reward behavior remain unclear. METHODS. We therefore conducted an fMRI study in healthy controls and BPD patients to investigate the modulation of the anticipation of reward by simultaneously presented emotional pictures. RESULTS. BPD patients revealed a disturbed differentiation between reward and non-reward anticipation in the bilateral pregenual anterior cingulate cortex if a positive or negative emotional picture is presented simultaneously. In the ventral striatum and the bilateral ventral tegmental area, BPD patients and healthy controls are able to differentiate between reward and non-reward even under emotional stimulation, but BPD patients show a reduced deactivation in the above mentioned regions compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS. Altered emotion processing in BPD patients is likely to affect the reward system. More basic deficits in reward circuitry and other midline regions' level of resting state activity may contribute to this effect. PMID:21732733

  3. STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSITY PERSONALITY INVENTORY FOR CHINESE COLLEGE STUDENTS1,2

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JIETING; LANZA, STEPHANIE; ZHANG, MINQIANG; SU, BINYUAN

    2016-01-01

    Summary The University Personality Inventory, a mental health instrument for college students, is frequently used for screening in China. However, its unidimensionality has been questioned. This study examined its dimensions to provide more information about the specific mental problems for students at risk. Four subsamples were randomly created from a sample (N = 6,110; M age = 19.1 yr.) of students at a university in China. Principal component analysis with Promax rotation was applied on the first two subsamples to explore dimension of the inventory. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the third subsample to verify the exploratory dimensions. Finally, the identified factors were compared to the Sympton Checklist–90 (SCL–90) to support validity, and sex differences were examined, based on the fourth subsample. Five factors were identified: Physical Symptoms, Cognitive Symptoms, Emotional Vulnerability, Social Avoidance, and Interpersonal Sensitivity, accounting for 60.3% of the variance. All the five factors were significantly correlated with the SCL–90. Women significantly scored higher than men on Cognitive Symptoms and Interpersonal Sensitivity. PMID:25933045

  4. Physician adoption of personal digital assistants (PDA): testing its determinants within a structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Vishwanath, Arun; Brodsky, Linda; Shaha, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Research has begun to explore the determinants of personal digital assistant (PDA) adoption in health care. Much of this research has, however, been inconsistent in its treatment of key constructs and its methodological approaches. The current study takes a stricter approach and tracks the pre- and postadoption beliefs of physicians provided with an actual PDA within a single health care facility in the United States. Results show that age, position in hospital, beliefs about health IT, and cluster ownership are significant, direct predictors of the physician's preadoption beliefs about PDAs. Contrary to prior research findings, both ease of use and usefulness perceptions significantly influenced the physician's intent to adopt PDAs. More important, results show that physicians focus on a broader range of PDA factors during preadoption assessment of the technology, while actual use is based solely on the PDA's ease of use. Moreover, the preadoption usefulness perceptions do not influence postadoption usefulness. Hence, the cognitive and affective determinants of intent to use are seemingly different from those used to evaluate PDA use. PMID:19180373

  5. Long-term use of psychedelic drugs is associated with differences in brain structure and personality in humans.

    PubMed

    Bouso, José Carlos; Palhano-Fontes, Fernanda; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Sanches, Rafael; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Hallak, Jaime E C; de Araujo, Draulio B; Riba, Jordi

    2015-04-01

    Psychedelic agents have a long history of use by humans for their capacity to induce profound modifications in perception, emotion and cognitive processes. Despite increasing knowledge of the neural mechanisms involved in the acute effects of these drugs, the impact of sustained psychedelic use on the human brain remains largely unknown. Molecular pharmacology studies have shown that psychedelic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)2A agonists stimulate neurotrophic and transcription factors associated with synaptic plasticity. These data suggest that psychedelics could potentially induce structural changes in brain tissue. Here we looked for differences in cortical thickness (CT) in regular users of psychedelics. We obtained magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of the brains of 22 regular users of ayahuasca (a preparation whose active principle is the psychedelic 5HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT)) and 22 controls matched for age, sex, years of education, verbal IQ and fluid IQ. Ayahuasca users showed significant CT differences in midline structures of the brain, with thinning in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a key node of the default mode network. CT values in the PCC were inversely correlated with the intensity and duration of prior use of ayahuasca and with scores on self-transcendence, a personality trait measuring religiousness, transpersonal feelings and spirituality. Although direct causation cannot be established, these data suggest that regular use of psychedelic drugs could potentially lead to structural changes in brain areas supporting attentional processes, self-referential thought, and internal mentation. These changes could underlie the previously reported personality changes in long-term users and highlight the involvement of the PCC in the effects of psychedelics. PMID:25637267

  6. Learning about Persons: The Effects of Text Structure and Executive Capacity on Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baadte, Christiane; Dutke, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the supportive effects of conceptual change texts documented in science education (1) can also be demonstrated in the domain of social cognition and (2) are moderated by the structure of the text and the learner's central executive capacity. In two experiments, participants were presented

  7. Family Structure and Functions Identified by Persons Living with HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong-Wylie, Gina; Doherty-Poirier, Maryanne; Kieren, Dianne

    1999-01-01

    A study looked at the structural and functional aspects of family from the perspective of six people living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Results showing how HIV/AIDS affects all members of the sufferer's family have implications for family practitioners. (Author/JOW)

  8. Interactive 3D visualization of structural changes in the brain of a person with corticobasal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hänel, Claudia; Pieperhoff, Peter; Hentschel, Bernd; Amunts, Katrin; Kuhlen, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    The visualization of the progression of brain tissue loss in neurodegenerative diseases like corticobasal syndrome (CBS) can provide not only information about the localization and distribution of the volume loss, but also helps to understand the course and the causes of this neurodegenerative disorder. The visualization of such medical imaging data is often based on 2D sections, because they show both internal and external structures in one image. Spatial information, however, is lost. 3D visualization of imaging data is capable to solve this problem, but it faces the difficulty that more internally located structures may be occluded by structures near the surface. Here, we present an application with two designs for the 3D visualization of the human brain to address these challenges. In the first design, brain anatomy is displayed semi-transparently; it is supplemented by an anatomical section and cortical areas for spatial orientation, and the volumetric data of volume loss. The second design is guided by the principle of importance-driven volume rendering: A direct line-of-sight to the relevant structures in the deeper parts of the brain is provided by cutting out a frustum-like piece of brain tissue. The application was developed to run in both, standard desktop environments and in immersive virtual reality environments with stereoscopic viewing for improving the depth perception. We conclude, that the presented application facilitates the perception of the extent of brain degeneration with respect to its localization and affected regions. PMID:24847243

  9. Factor Validation of the Addiction Severity Index Scale Structure in Persons With Concurrent Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Shawn R.; el-Guebaly, Nady; Coulson, Ronaye; Hodgins, David; Mansley, Chrystal

    2004-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the scale structure of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) in a sample of 1,802 substance abusers (43% alcohol dependent) with a concurrent psychiatric disorder (46% with mood disorders). The fit of the original composite score model based on the work of P. L. McGahan, J. A. Griffith, R. Parente, & A.…

  10. Learning about Persons: The Effects of Text Structure and Executive Capacity on Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baadte, Christiane; Dutke, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the supportive effects of conceptual change texts documented in science education (1) can also be demonstrated in the domain of social cognition and (2) are moderated by the structure of the text and the learner's central executive capacity. In two experiments, participants were presented…

  11. Personality, negative affect coping, and drinking alone: a structural equation modeling approach to examine correlates of adolescent solitary drinking

    PubMed Central

    Creswell, Kasey G.; Chung, Tammy; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Clark, Duncan B.; Black, Jessica J.; Martin, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study examined the personality traits of negative emotionality and constraint and the ability to resist drinking during negative affective states as correlates of solitary drinking in adolescence. We hypothesized that higher levels of negative emotionality and lower levels of constraint would predict solitary drinking and that these relationships would be mediated by the ability to resist drinking in response to negative emotions. Design Structural equation modeling was used to fit a path model from the personality traits of negative emotionality and constraint to solitary drinking status through intermediate effects on the ability to resist drinking during negative emotions using cross-sectional data. Setting Clinical and community settings in Pennsylvania, USA. Participants The sample included 761 adolescent drinkers (mean age = 17.1). Measurements Adolescents completed the Lifetime Drinking History, the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Constructive Thinking Inventory and the Situational Confidence Questionnaire. Findings The path model provided a good fit to the data. The association between trait negative emotionality and solitary drinking was fully mediated by adolescents' ability to resist drinking during negative affective states (b = 0.05, P = 0.01). In contrast, constraint had a direct effect on solitary drinking (odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, b = –0.23, P<0.01), as well as an indirect effect through the ability to resist drinking during negative affective states (b = –0.03, P = 0.02). Conclusions The ability to resist drinking while experiencing negative feelings or emotions may be an important underlying mechanism linking trait negative emotionality (a tendency toward depression, anxiety and poor reaction to stress) and constraint (lack of impulsiveness) to adolescent solitary drinking. PMID:25664806

  12. Neurobiology of the structure of personality: dopamine, facilitation of incentive motivation, and extraversion.

    PubMed

    Depue, R A; Collins, P F

    1999-06-01

    Extraversion has two central characteristics: (1) interpersonal engagement, which consists of affiliation (enjoying and valuing close interpersonal bonds, being warm and affectionate) and agency (being socially dominant, enjoying leadership roles, being assertive, being exhibitionistic, and having a sense of potency in accomplishing goals) and (2) impulsivity, which emerges from the interaction of extraversion and a second, independent trait (constraint). Agency is a more general motivational disposition that includes dominance, ambition, mastery, efficacy, and achievement. Positive affect (a combination of positive feelings and motivation) is closely associated with extraversion. Extraversion is accordingly based on positive incentive motivation. Parallels between extraversion (particularly its agency component) and a mammalian behavioral approach system based on positive incentive motivation implicate a neuroanatomical network and modulatory neurotransmitters in the processing of incentive motivation. A corticolimbic-striatal-thalamic network (1) integrates the salient incentive context in the medial orbital cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus; (2) encodes the intensity of incentive stimuli in a motive circuit composed of the nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, and ventral tegmental area dopamine projection system; and (3) creates an incentive motivational state that can be transmitted to the motor system. Individual differences in the functioning of this network arise from functional variation in the ventral tegmental area dopamine projections, which are directly involved in coding the intensity of incentive motivation. The animal evidence suggests that there are three neurodevelopmental sources of individual differences in dopamine: genetic, "experience-expectant," and "experience-dependent." Individual differences in dopamine promote variation in the heterosynaptic plasticity that enhances the connection between incentive context and incentive motivation and behavior. Our psychobiological threshold model explains the effects of individual differences in dopamine transmission on behavior, and their relation to personality traits is discussed. PMID:11301519

  13. Factor structure of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire and its relationship with the revised NEO personality inventory in a Japanese sample.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Toshimasa; Yamate, Taketo; Iimori, Makio; Kato, Masaaki; Livesley, W John

    2006-01-01

    The Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology, Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) was developed to assess 18 personality traits that provide a systematic representation of personality disorder. This study investigates the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the DAPP-BQ and the relationship between the DAPP-BQ and Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) in a heterogeneous general population sample (n = 1485). Internal consistency (coefficient alpha) and test-retest reliability over a 3-week period was satisfactory for all scales. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors labeled "emotional dysregulation," "dissocial behavior," "inhibition," and "compulsivity" that accounted for 76.0% of the total variance. Subsequently, we investigated the relationships between the 18 dimensions and the 5 dimensions of the NEO-PI-R in a second heterogeneous general population sample (n = 717). Combined factor analysis of the 2 scales again yielded 4 factors accounting for 70.4% of the total variance. Finally, we used multiple regression analyses to examine the extent to which the 5 NEO-PI-R scales could be used to predict individual DAPP-BQ scales. These indicated that the NEO-PI-R does not have content that covers some DAPP-BQ dimensions, especially conduct problems, narcissism, and stimulus seeking. PMID:17067879

  14. Early experience, structural dissociation, and emotional dysregulation in borderline personality disorder: the role of insecure and disorganized attachment.

    PubMed

    Mosquera, Dolores; Gonzalez, Anabel; Leeds, Andrew M

    2014-01-01

    Persistent problems in emotional regulation and interpersonal relationships in borderline patients can be understood as developing from difficulties in early dyadic regulation with primary caregivers. Early attachment patterns are a relevant causal factor in the development of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Links between attachment issues, early history of neglect, and traumatic experiences, and symptoms observed in patients with BPD as per the DSM-5 classification (American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (Fifth ed.). Washington, D.C; (2013)) are described in this article, while delineating possible pathways from attachment disruptions to the specific symptomatology of these patients. The theory of structural dissociation of the personality (TSDP) provides an essential framework for understanding the processes that may lead from insecure early attachment to the development and maintenance of BPD symptoms. Dyadic parent-child interactions and subsequent modulation of emotion in the child and future adult are considered closely related, but other factors in the development of BPD, such as genetic predisposition and traumatic experiences, should also be considered in conceptualizing and organizing clinical approaches based on a view of BPD as a heterogeneous disorder. PMID:26401299

  15. Amobarbital treatment of multiple personality. Use of structured video tape interviews as a basis for intensive psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hall, R C; LeCann, A F; Schoolar, J C

    1978-09-01

    The case of a 30-year-old woman with five distinct personalities is presented. The patient was treated, using a system of structured video taped sodium amobarbital interviews, in which areas to be explored were developed in psychotherapy. Tapes were played for the patient after each session. The taped material was used as the basis for psychotherapeutic investigation. The patient evidenced many of the features previously reported in cases of multiple personality, specifically: being the product of an unwanted pregnancy in a repressively rigid family; emotional distancing by one parent; strong sibling rivalry with an adopted sib; family history of mental illness; a traumatic first sexual experience (rape); a marriage to a maladjusted individual in an attempt to escape the parental home; a high internalized standard of performance and an inability to display anger or negative feelings toward the parents. In the course of treatment, the patient's personalties fused and she was able to accept each component as part of herself. No further fragmentation has occurred during the year following discharge. The therapy technique minimized dependency, and the possiblity of addiction to amobarbital interviews permitted more active patient therapy involvement, and set clear-cut goals and expectations for improvement before further amobarbital interviews could be conducted. PMID:690626

  16. Increasing habilitative services for persons with profound handicaps: an application of structural analysis to staff management.

    PubMed Central

    Green, C W; Reid, D H; Perkins, L I; Gardner, S M

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated a structural analysis methodology for enhancing the utility of a staff management program. In Experiment 1, a structural analysis of direct-care staff behavior in a mental retardation facility revealed differences in work patterns over time. Specific times were identified when few basic care duties were necessary and staff engaged in nonwork activity. In Experiment 2, a management program was implemented to increase staff members' training activities during periods identified through the structural analysis. The program was accompanied by increases in training activities and decreases in nonwork behavior. The improvements were maintained during a 43-week period while the most labor-intensive component of the program was withdrawn. Staff acceptability measures indicated a positive response to the management intervention, although responses varied across components within the multifaceted program. The increased training was accompanied by beneficial changes among clients with profound handicaps. Results are discussed regarding practical considerations for improving staff performance and for adopting innovations resulting from applied research. PMID:1752837

  17. [Responses to "The Congruence Myth: An Analysis of the Efficacy of the Person-Environment Fit Model."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawis, Rene V.; Gati, Itamar; Hesketh, Beryl; Prediger, Dale J.; Rounds, James; McKenna, Molly C.; Hubert, Lawrence; Day, Susan X.; Tracey, Terence J. G.; Darcy, Maria; Kovalski, Theresa M.

    2000-01-01

    Includes "P-E [Person-Environment] Fit as Paradigm" (Dawis); "Pitfalls of Congruence Research" (Gati); "The Next Millennium of 'Fit' Research" (Hesketh); "Holland's Hexagon Is Alive and Well--Though Somewhat out of Shape" (Prediger); "Tinsley on Holland: A Misshapen Argument" (Rounds, McKenna, Hubert, Day); and "A Closer Look at Person-Environment…

  18. Behavioral Health Providers for Persons Who Are Deaf, Deafblind, or Hard-of-Hearing: A National Survey of the Structural and Process Domains of Care.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Beth A D; Mathos, Kimberly; Fusco, Laura E; Post, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests higher prevalence of mental health problems for those with hearing problems than in the general population. Despite barriers, mental health services for persons who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (HOH) have developed to meet the cultural and communication needs of this population. The authors conducted a national survey of mental health service providers to persons who are deaf, deafblind, or HOH, to learn about their structural and process domains of care. Results indicate that services for persons who are deaf, deafblind, or HOH are inadequate for consumers with serious mental illness. Results also uncovered unique pathways to care and practitioners. PMID:26156401

  19. The person in the mirror: using the enfacement illusion to investigate the experiential structure of self-identification.

    PubMed

    Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Longo, Matthew R; Coleman, Rosie; Tsakiris, Manos

    2012-12-01

    How do we acquire a mental representation of our own face? Recently, synchronous, but not asynchronous, interpersonal multisensory stimulation (IMS) between one's own and another person's face has been used to evoke changes in self-identification (enfacement illusion). We investigated the conscious experience of these changes with principal component analyses (PCA) that revealed that while the conscious experience during synchronous IMS focused on resemblance and similarity with the other's face, during asynchronous IMS it focused on multisensory stimulation. Analyses of the identified common factor structure revealed significant quantitative differences between synchronous and asynchronous IMS on self-identification and perceived similarity with the other's face. Experiment 2 revealed that participants with lower interoceptive sensitivity experienced stronger enfacement illusion. Overall, self-identification and body-ownership rely on similar basic mechanisms of multisensory integration, but the effects of multisensory input on their experience are qualitatively different, possibly underlying the face's unique role as a marker of selfhood. PMID:23123685

  20. Waking and dreaming: related but structurally independent. Dream reports of congenitally paraplegic and deaf-mute persons.

    PubMed

    Voss, Ursula; Tuin, Inka; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Hobson, Allan

    2011-09-01

    Models of dream analysis either assume a continuum of waking and dreaming or the existence of two dissociated realities. Both approaches rely on different methodology. Whereas continuity models are based on content analysis, discontinuity models use a structural approach. In our study, we applied both methods to test specific hypotheses about continuity or discontinuity. We contrasted dream reports of congenitally deaf-mute and congenitally paraplegic individuals with those of non-handicapped controls. Continuity theory would predict that either the deficit itself or compensatory experiences would surface in the dream narrative. We found that dream form and content of sensorially limited persons was indifferent from those of non-handicapped controls. Surprisingly, perceptual representations, even of modalities not experienced during waking, were quite common in the dream reports of our handicapped subjects. Results are discussed with respect to feedforward mechanisms and protoconsciousness theory of dreaming. PMID:21147002

  1. On-line structural health and fire monitoring of a composite personal aircraft using an FBG sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, K.; Ferguson, S.; Graver, T.; Csipkes, A.; Mendez, A.

    2008-03-01

    We report in this paper on the design and development of a novel on-line structural health monitoring and fire detection system based on an array of optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and interrogation system installed on a new, precommercial compact aircraft. A combined total of 17 FBG sensors - strain, temperature and high-temperature - were installed at critical locations in an around the wings, fuselage and engine compartment of a prototype, Comp Air CA 12 all-composite, ten-passenger personal airplane powered by a 1,650 hp turbine engine. The sensors are interrogated online and in real time by a swept laser FBG interrogator (Micron Optics sm125-700) mounted on board the plane. Sensors readings are then combined with the plane's avionics system and displayed on the pilot's aviation control panel. This system represents the first of its kind in commercial, small frame, airplanes and a first for optical fiber sensors.

  2. Doctoral Theses from Nursing Postgraduate Programs in Brazil and their Association with the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Fernandes, Josicélia Dumet; de Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Millennium Development Goals are centered around combatting poverty and other social evils all over the world. Thus, this study seeks to identify the Millennium Development Goals as an object of study in theses from Postgraduate Nursing Programs in Brazil scoring 5 (national excellence) and 6 or 7 (international excellence), and evaluate the association between the score for the program and achieving the Millennium Development Goals. METHOD: Exploratory descriptive document research. Data were collected from the Notes on Indicators/Coordination for Higher Education Personnel Improvement for the 15 Postgraduate Nursing Courses scoring between 5 and 7 in the three-year-period of 2010/2012. RESULTS: of the 8 Millennium Development Objectives, 6 were dealt with in the theses. There was an association (Fisher's exact test p-value=0.0059) between the distribution of the theses and the program scores in relation to the Millennium Development Objectives (p-valor=0.0347) CONCLUSION: the doctoral theses were slightly related to the Millennium Development Objectives, covering the population's economic development, health conditions and quality of life. It is recommended that Postgraduate Programs in Nursing pay closer attention to the Millennium Development Objectives.. PMID:26312631

  3. Optimal design of structures with multiple design variables per group and multiple loading conditions on the personal computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, D. T.; Rogers, J. L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A finite element based programming system for minimum weight design of a truss-type structure subjected to displacement, stress, and lower and upper bounds on design variables is presented. The programming system consists of a number of independent processors, each performing a specific task. These processors, however, are interfaced through a well-organized data base, thus making the tasks of modifying, updating, or expanding the programming system much easier in a friendly environment provided by many inexpensive personal computers. The proposed software can be viewed as an important step in achieving a 'dummy' finite element for optimization. The programming system has been implemented on both large and small computers (such as VAX, CYBER, IBM-PC, and APPLE) although the focus is on the latter. Examples are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the code. The present programming system can be used stand-alone or as part of the multilevel decomposition procedure to obtain optimum design for very large scale structural systems. Furthermore, other related research areas such as developing optimization algorithms (or in the larger level: a structural synthesis program) for future trends in using parallel computers may also benefit from this study.

  4. Personal evaluation structure of environmental sounds: experiments of subjective evaluation using subjects' own terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Keiji; Kojima, Takaya; Hirate, Kotaroh; Yasuoka, Masahito

    2004-10-01

    In this study, we conducted an experiment to investigate the evaluation structure that lies at the basis of peoples' psychological evaluation of environmental sounds. In the experiment, subjects were given cards on each of which a name of one of the environmental sounds in the specified context is written. Then they did the following three tasks: (1) to sort the cards into groups by the similarity of their impressions of the imagined sounds; (2) to name each group with the word that best represented their overall impression of the group; and (3) to evaluate all sounds on the cards using the words obtained in the previous task. These tasks were done twice: once assuming they heard the sounds at ease inside their homes and once while walking outside in a resort theme park. We analysed the similarity of imagined impression between the sounds with a cluster analysis and clusters of sounds were produced, namely, sounds labelled "natural," "transportation," and so on. A principal component analysis revealed the three major factors of the evaluation structure for both contexts and they were interpreted as preference, activity and sense of daily life.

  5. Tuberculosis elimination in the post Millennium Development Goals era.

    PubMed

    Wejse, Christian

    2015-03-01

    The Millennium Development Goal for tuberculosis (TB) is to stop the increase in incidence and halve the mortality of TB between 1990 and 2015. This goal has now been reached on a global scale, although not in the most affected region of Africa. The new target is TB elimination, defined as one case of active TB per one million population per year, which is to be reached before 2050. This review will discuss the main tools in play, namely case-finding and new diagnostics, increased access and effectiveness of anti-TB therapy (directly observed therapy, short course (DOTS)), preventive therapy for latent infection, and vaccination. Each approach is discussed and a way forward in research and management is suggested. PMID:25809772

  6. The New Millennium Program Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Evan H.; Carlisle, Candace C.; Slavin, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Project is part of NASA's New Millennium Program. ST-5 will consist of a constellation of three 25kg microsatellites. The mission goals are to demonstrate the research-quality science capability of the ST-5 spacecraft; to operate the three spacecraft as a constellation; and to design, develop and flight-validate three capable microsatellites with new technologies. ST-5 will be launched by a Pegasus XL into an elliptical polar (sun-synchronous) orbit. The three-month flight demonstration phase, beginning in March 2006, will validate the ability to perform science measurements, as well as the technologies and constellation operations. ST-5's technologies and concepts will enable future microsatellite science missions.

  7. The last total solar eclipse of the millennium in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozguc, A.; Atac, T.; Altas, L.

    1999-03-01

    The last total solar eclipse of the millennium will be observed from Turkey which bridges two continents and has been the cradle of so many past civilizations. Wouldn't you like to witness this magnificent event in the mystic ambiance of central Anatolia which offers its guests Turkish hospitality and a lot of historical examples of paganism, Christianity and Islam. Among the countries from which the eclipse will be visible, Turkey seems to be one of the most suitable countries in terms of its climate and observational facilities. Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute has arranged fieldwork on the eclipse path to determine the suitable points for the observations. The shadow of the moon will be first seen from the Black Sea coast at 14:20 L.T. It will then pass through central Anatolia and will leave Turkey from south-east at 14:42 L.T.

  8. Revisiting Public Health Challenges in the New Millennium

    PubMed Central

    Anish, TS; Sreelakshmi, PR

    2013-01-01

    Positive Health of the communities could only be brought out through the interrelationship between conventional health sector and other development sectors. It was a dream that came true when World Health Organization (WHO) accepted Primary Health Care (PHC) as the major tool to achieve its proposed goal of Health For All (HFA) by 2000 A.D., but we could not succeed as expected. Now we have the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which place health at the heart of development but the achievements in health is still challenging. The literature search in this article has been conducted in Pub Med and Google scholar, with the aim to draw references to discuss the major health issues and ways to tackle them. The current article briefly narrates the burden and complexities of challenges faced by the present global health. Revisiting the concept of PHC and reaffirming our solidarity to this philosophy is the need of this hour. PMID:24116303

  9. Personality and support for universal human rights: a review and test of a structural model.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Sam

    2010-12-01

    All individual differences that predict support for international human rights are first reviewed: support for human rights is linked most positively to "globalism" (other international and environmental concerns), "identification with all humanity," principled moral reasoning, benevolence, and dispositional empathy. It is related most negatively to ethnocentrism and its root dispositions, the social dominance orientation, and authoritarianism. Other correlates are also noted. Secondly, a structural model of the effects of authoritarianism, social dominance, ethnocentrism and identification with all humanity upon commitment to human rights is presented and tested. Across 2 studies (Study 1, N=218 nonstudent adults; Study 2, N=102 university students), ethnocentrism and identification with all humanity directly predicted human rights commitment. The effects of authoritarianism upon this commitment were fully mediated through enhanced ethnocentrism and reduced identification with all humanity. The effects of social dominance were similar, but its direct effect upon human rights commitment remained significant and was not, in the second study, mediated by reduced dispositional empathy. PMID:21039530

  10. Methods of Studying Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Shontz, Franklin C.

    Conventional research strategies typically emphasize behavior-determining tendencies so strongly that the person as a whole is ignored. Research strategies for studying whole persons focus on symbolic structures, formulate specific questions in advance, study persons one at a time, use individualized measures, and regard participants as expert…

  11. Person Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, James

    1977-01-01

    Person changes can be of three kinds: developmental trends, swells, and tremors. Person unreliability in the tremor sense (momentary fluctuations) can be estimated from person characteristic curves. Average person reliability for groups can be compared from item characteristic curves. (Author)

  12. How Much Is Personality Structure Affected If One or More Highest-Level Factors Are First Removed? A Sequential Factors Approach

    PubMed Central

    Loehlin, John C.; Goldberg, Lewis R.

    2014-01-01

    Rotations of 1 to 12 factors were compared by Goldberg's “bass-ackward” method, with or without initially holding constant one or more principal components. Two sets of data were employed: ratings by 320 undergraduates using 435 personality-descriptive adjectives, and 512 Oregon community members' responses to 184 scales from 8 personality inventories. Holding constant none or one or three initial factors made relatively little difference to the resulting structure. On the whole, that structure was not strongly hierarchical: allowing an additional dimension usually resulted in a new substantive dimension rather than in the splitting of an old one. PMID:25197156

  13. The NEO Personality Inventory-Revised: factor structure and gender invariance from exploratory structural equation modeling analyses in a high-stakes setting.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Guenole, Nigel; Levine, Stephen Z; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-02-01

    This study presents new analyses of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) responses collected from a large British sample in a high-stakes setting. The authors show the appropriateness of the five-factor model underpinning these responses in a variety of new ways. Using the recently developed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) technique, the authors show that model fits improve markedly over conventional confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of the same data set, but that (a) factor interpretations do not change under ESEM analyses, (b) ESEM factor scores, just like CFA factors scores, correlate at near unity with sums of observed scores, (c) NEO-PI-R facets under ESEM analyses are invariant across gender, and (d) ESEM highlights the inappropriateness of alpha and beta as a higher order representation of NEO-PI-R facets, whereas a CFA approach might lead researchers to believe in the appropriateness of these higher order factors. These results, coupled with the existing validity evidence for the NEO-PI-R, suggest that the five-factor structure is the most parsimonious structure for summarizing NEO-PI-R responses from high-stakes settings in the United Kingdom. PMID:22837539

  14. 75 FR 24943 - Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...-approved maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) on its Hickory Grove Lateral Line from 1072 pounds per.... CP98-150, et al; however, in Millenniums application the MAOP of the pipeline is listed at 1072...

  15. A Guatemalan Speleothem Record Of Climate Of The Past Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, T.; Winter, A.; Burnett, A.; Haug, G. H.; Kelly, M. J.; Edwards, R.

    2012-12-01

    A 32-cm active stalagmite collected in 2007 in eastern Guatemala near the Belize border began growing in ~1000 AD, and provides a near continuous record of the past 1000 years. The cave was at 350 m asl, and 23C. 15 U/Th MC ICPMS dates were used to establish the growth model, and almost 1000 δ18O stable isotope samples have been analyzed at sub-annual resolution. The GUXI-1 speleothem grew at a rate of 0.35mm/y from ~1000 to ~1450, when it tilted 25 mm/ 11 degrees from its original axis, possibly related to seismic events of the Motagua River plate margin to the south. Growth continued on the angled upside as a transparent calcite, but with restricted deposition rates from ~1460 to 1650: this reduction was likely due to the time to re-create a more suitable site for deposition, but also to environmental conditions on the surface. After 1660 to the present, GUXI-1 grew steadily along a new axis, much faster at 0.58mm/yr than its pre-tilt rate. The δ18 oxygen isotopes of the deposited calcite are construed as a rainfall proxy, influenced by the amount effect of the tropics. The values range from -4 ‰ to -2.75‰, showing four major regimes over the millennium, and indicating several periods of drought [less-negative δ18O]. Prior to tilting, the Guatemala stalagmite displayed a trend of increasing precipitation following its inception, until it was tilted. Average δ18O was -3.4‰. The record during the ~1450-1660 tilt suggests a period of aridity, but from 1700-1800 precipitation was increasing again as δ18O reached its most negative mean values of ~ -3.6‰, and growth rate was also at its highest. A very abrupt drop in δ18O [0.2 ‰] occurred in 1816 (the year of a major nearby earthquake and a year after the Tambora mega-eruption), and continued as a long-term drying trend to the present, though with a sharp central peak and 2 troughs. This drying trend was also accompanied by a 1/3 decrease in growth rate. A new δ18O mean of -3.1‰ is higher than that during the tilt interval. Other nearby climate records include stalagmites from Belize. The closest (Macal Chasm) speleothem record 30 km to the north reported a coarse δ18O resolution of 50 years, and suggest a long arid period ending about 1150 AD, and another centered about 1500 [mean δ18O -4‰]. The luminescence record [organic acid concentration indicating greater rainfall] of this speleothem supports the presence of the first long arid period, but not that of about 1500; a long modern drying began about 1800. A second stalagmite [Yok Balum] a similar distance to the south also recorded its "most pronounced dry period" between 1000-1100 AD, with elevated rainfall in about half of the subsequent millennium. The final years from 1840 to the present have been drier. A wider Caribbean comparison is possible with speleothem from the northern Yucatan and one as far east as Puerto Rico. Like that of GUXI-1, the period from 1100-1550 appears relatively wetter than preceding centuries, declining to a minimum about 1600, recovering by 1750, then dropping rapidly after 1800. Each of the three also experienced a brief wet interval about 1900. In summary, Central America and the Caribbean appeared to be recovering from dry conditions in the first centuries of the past millennium, encountered a deep rainfall decline in the middle followed by wetter conditions until ~1800, and since then have been experiencing increasing dryness.

  16. Assessing the universal structure of personality in early adolescence: The NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 cultures.

    PubMed

    De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T

    2009-09-01

    The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years from 24 cultures. Replacement items in the PI-3 showed on average stronger item-total correlations and slightly improved facet reliabilities compared with the NEO-PI-R in both English- and non-English-speaking samples. NEO-PI-3 replacement items did not substantially affect scale means compared with the original scales. Analyses across and within cultures confirmed the intended factor structure of both versions when used to describe young adolescents. The authors discuss implications of these cross-cultural findings for the advancement of studies in adolescence and personality development across the lifespan. PMID:19419953

  17. Design and integration of small RTPV generators with new millennium spacecraft for outer solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schock, A.; Or, C.; Kumar, V.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's recently inaugurated New Millennium program, with its emphasis on miniaturized spacecraft, has generated interest in a low-power (10-30 W), low-mass, high-efficiency RTPV (Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic) power system. This led to a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored design study of such a system, which was assigned to OSC (formerly Fairchild) personnel, who have been conducting similar studies of a 75 W RTPV system for the Pluto Express Mission, with very encouraging results. The 75 W design employed two 250 W general purpose heat source (GPHS) modules that DOE had previously developed and safety-qualified for various space missions. These modules were too large for the small RTPVs described in this paper. To minimize the need for new development and safety verification studies, OSC generated derivative designs for 125 W and 62.5 W heat source modules containing identical fuel pellets, clads, impact shell and thermal insulation. OSC also generated a novel heat source support scheme to reduce the heat losses through the structural supports, and a new and much simpler radiator structure, eliminating the need for honeycombs and heat pipes. OSCs previous RTPV study had been based on the use of GaSb PV cells and spectrally selective IR filters that had been partially developed and characterized by Boeing (now EDTEK) personnel. They had supplied us with spectral data on filter reflectivities and cell quantum efficiencies. Two sets of data were furnished: one based on actual measurements made in 1993, and a more optimistic set based on projected performance improvements. Even the measured data set yielded significantly better system performance than present thermoelectric systems, but the projected data yielded much better system performance. Because of these encouraging results, OSC in the fall of 1994 initiated an experimental program at EDTEK to develop improved filters and cells, to demonstrate how much improvement can actually be achieved. OSC requested that first priority be given to filter improvements, because our system studies indicated that improved filters would have a much greater effect on system performance than cell improvements. By July 1995 EDTEK had achieved about 90% of the filter performance improvement projected in 1993. Work on further filter and cell improvements is continuing at EDTEK, as part of a joint effort with OSC and with DOE's Mound Laboratory to develop and test a prototypic RTPV generator, with both an electrical heater and a radioisotope heat source. The improved filter performance data have been applied to the design of low-power (10-30 W) RTPV power systems, for possible application to new millennium spacecraft for missions to the outer solar system, where solar power generation is impractical. The results reported in this paper indicate that such systems can yield very attractive performance with the RTPV generator integrated with the miniaturized new millennium spacecraft.

  18. [Primary health care and the millennium development goals].

    PubMed

    Faye, A; Bob, M; Fall, A; Fall, C

    2012-01-01

    Member countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) met in Alma Ata (8-12 September 1978) to define and advocate the implementation of primary health care (PHC) worldwide, above all, in developing countries, which had a real need to review their strategies for meeting the health needs of their populations. They did not suspect that 20 years later the vision they displayed would remain undeniably relevant. Here we examine the similarities and points of convergence of their declaration about PHC with the Millennium Development Goals that seek today to reduce poverty across the world. An exhaustive and analytic literature review was conducted to collect those similarities. Further analysis of the definitions, objectives, principles and recommendations of the Alma Ata Declaration and the Millennium Declaration reveals multiple dependencies and fundamental points of similarity between these two representations. Almost all states have pledged to achieve the eight MDG by 2015: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as essential health care, based on practical methods and techniques that are both scientifically sound and socially acceptable, universally accessible to all individuals and all families of the community, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and countries can afford at all stages of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It is an integral part of economic and social development. The following principles are involved in the achievement of both primary health care and the MDG: social equity, community participation, and intersectorality. Public health is an essential condition of poverty eradication and MDG achievement. Public health issues are central to the problem of sustainable development and must therefore remain the focus of attention. It is increasingly urgent to break the vicious circle created by the close correlation between environmental degradation, poor health, and poverty. PMID:22868717

  19. [Human person and personalism].

    PubMed

    Sgreccia, Elio

    2013-01-01

    The first part of this article is an analysis of the historical and philosophical evolution of the concept of human person, from antiquity to present times, including an outline of its major developments. The second part deals critically with reductionist and empiricist positions -particularly Engelhardt's and of utilitarianism- exposing some of its practical implications in the realm of Bioethics. Finally the author concludes with an enunciation of what would constitute a conceptual basis for the ontological foundation of Personal Bioethics derived from the initial framework of intuitive ideas first outlined by Sgreccia in the eighties. PMID:23745824

  20. On the Structure of Personality Disorder Traits: Conjoint Analyses of the CAT-PD, PID-5, and NEO-PI-3 Trait Models

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Simms, Leonard J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the relations among contemporary models of pathological and normal range personality traits. Specifically, we report on (a) conjoint exploratory factor analyses of the Computerized Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder static form (CAT-PD-SF) with the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012) and NEO Personality Inventory-3 First Half (NEI-PI-3FH; McCrae & Costa, 2007), and (b) unfolding hierarchical analyses of the three measures in a large general psychiatric outpatient sample (N = 628; 64% Female). A five-factor solution provided conceptually coherent alignment among the CAT-PD-SF, PID-5, and NEO-PI-3FH scales. Hierarchical solutions suggested that higher-order factors bear strong resemblance to dimensions that emerge from structural models of psychopathology (e.g., Internalizing and Externalizing spectra). These results demonstrate that the CAT-PD-SF adheres to the consensual structure of broad trait domains at the five-factor level. Additionally, patterns of scale loadings further inform questions of structure and bipolarity of facet and domain level constructs. Finally, hierarchical analyses strengthen the argument for using broad dimensions that span normative and pathological functioning to scaffold a quantitatively derived phenotypic structure of psychopathology to orient future research on explanatory, etiological, and maintenance mechanisms. PMID:24588061

  1. Personal Best (PB) Goal Structure, Individual PB Goals, Engagement, and Achievement: A Study of Chinese- and English-Speaking Background Students in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Collie, Rebecca J.; Mok, Magdalena M. C.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior cross-cultural research with students in different national contexts (Australia and China) has shown consistency in the extent to which individual personal best (PB) goals are associated with engagement at school. Aims: This study extends this work to a multicultural context, assessing perceived PB goal structure in school and…

  2. Global connectivity of hub residues in Oncoprotein structures encodes genetic factors dictating personalized drug response to targeted Cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Venky; Aravamudan, Murali

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy and mechanisms of therapeutic action are largely described by atomic bonds and interactions local to drug binding sites. Here we introduce global connectivity analysis as a high-throughput computational assay of therapeutic action – inspired by the Google page rank algorithm that unearths most “globally connected” websites from the information-dense world wide web (WWW). We execute short timescale (30 ps) molecular dynamics simulations with high sampling frequency (0.01 ps), to identify amino acid residue hubs whose global connectivity dynamics are characteristic of the ligand or mutation associated with the target protein. We find that unexpected allosteric hubs – up to 20Å from the ATP binding site, but within 5Å of the phosphorylation site – encode the Gibbs free energy of inhibition (ΔGinhibition) for select protein kinase-targeted cancer therapeutics. We further find that clinically relevant somatic cancer mutations implicated in both drug resistance and personalized drug sensitivity can be predicted in a high-throughput fashion. Our results establish global connectivity analysis as a potent assay of protein functional modulation. This sets the stage for unearthing disease-causal exome mutations and motivates forecast of clinical drug response on a patient-by-patient basis. We suggest incorporation of structure-guided genetic inference assays into pharmaceutical and healthcare Oncology workflows. PMID:25465236

  3. Global connectivity of hub residues in Oncoprotein structures encodes genetic factors dictating personalized drug response to targeted Cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soundararajan, Venky; Aravamudan, Murali

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy and mechanisms of therapeutic action are largely described by atomic bonds and interactions local to drug binding sites. Here we introduce global connectivity analysis as a high-throughput computational assay of therapeutic action - inspired by the Google page rank algorithm that unearths most ``globally connected'' websites from the information-dense world wide web (WWW). We execute short timescale (30 ps) molecular dynamics simulations with high sampling frequency (0.01 ps), to identify amino acid residue hubs whose global connectivity dynamics are characteristic of the ligand or mutation associated with the target protein. We find that unexpected allosteric hubs - up to 20Å from the ATP binding site, but within 5Å of the phosphorylation site - encode the Gibbs free energy of inhibition (ΔGinhibition) for select protein kinase-targeted cancer therapeutics. We further find that clinically relevant somatic cancer mutations implicated in both drug resistance and personalized drug sensitivity can be predicted in a high-throughput fashion. Our results establish global connectivity analysis as a potent assay of protein functional modulation. This sets the stage for unearthing disease-causal exome mutations and motivates forecast of clinical drug response on a patient-by-patient basis. We suggest incorporation of structure-guided genetic inference assays into pharmaceutical and healthcare Oncology workflows.

  4. Factorial structure and diagnostic efficiency of DSM-IV criteria for avoidant personality disorder in patients with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Grilo, Carlos M

    2004-10-01

    This study examined the factorial structure and diagnostic efficiency of the DSM-IV criteria for avoidant personality disorder (AVPD). Two hundred and twenty-eight consecutive outpatients (181 females and 47 males) with a primary diagnosis of binge eating disorder were reliably assessed with diagnostic interviews. Internal consistency of AVPD criteria was good, as suggested by coefficient alpha of 0.87, the pattern of inter-item correlations (range 0.41 to 0.64), and the lack of changes in alpha if any criteria are deleted. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a one-factor solution (56% of variance) supporting the unidimensionality of the AVPD criteria. Diagnostic efficiency indices (conditional probabilities, total predictive power, and kappa coefficients) were calculated for each AVPD criterion, for the entire study group and separately by gender. Overall, the best inclusion criterion was 'fears being ridiculed,' which was also the best predictor overall. These psychometric findings did not differ by gender. The findings support certain important aspects of the AVPD diagnosis. PMID:15350855

  5. Structured interviews examining the burden, coping, self-efficacy, and quality of life among family caregivers of persons with dementia in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tay, Kay Chai Peter; Seow, Chuen Chai Dennis; Xiao, Chunxiang; Lee, Hui Min Julian; Chiu, Helen Fk; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi

    2016-03-01

    Dementia is a global health issue and the effects on caregivers are substantial. The study aimed to examine the associations of burden, coping, self-efficacy with quality of life among family caregivers of persons with dementia in Singapore. Structured interviews were conducted in a convenience sample of 84 family caregivers caring and seeking clinical care for the persons with dementia in an outpatient clinic of a public hospital in Singapore. The outcome measures included the Family Burden Interview Schedule, Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scale, General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale - Brief Version. In general, significant correlations were observed between the quality of life scores with coping strategy and family burden scores, but not between the coping strategy and family burden scores. Compared to demographic factors such as caregiver age and household income, psychosocial factors including family burden, coping strategies, and self-efficacy demonstrated greater association with quality of life in the participants. However, the dynamics of these associations will change with an increasing population of persons with dementia, decreasing nuclear family size, and predicted changes in family living arrangements for the persons with dementia in future. As such, it necessitates continuous study examining the needs and concerns of family caregivers and the relevance of ongoing interventions specific to caregivers of persons with dementia. PMID:24535819

  6. A multilevel structural equation model of within- and between-person associations among subjective responses to alcohol, craving, and laboratory alcohol self-administration.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Ramchandani, Vijay A; Hendershot, Christian S

    2015-11-01

    Subjective responses to alcohol are important determinants of drinking behavior and have been linked with risk for alcohol use disorders. However, few attempts have been made to examine proximal within-person associations among state changes in subjective responses and ongoing alcohol self-administration in the laboratory. This study disaggregated within- and between-person associations among subjective responses and alcohol self-administration, while also examining the mediating role of craving and the moderating role of trait impaired control over alcohol. Sixty young heavy drinkers (mean age = 19.90, SD = 0.86) completed self-report measures including the Impaired Control Scale, then participated in a 2-hr intravenous alcohol self-administration session using the Computer-Assisted Self-infusion of Ethanol (CASE) paradigm. Repeated assessments of subjective stimulation, subjective sedation, and craving were examined in relation to ongoing in-session self-administration, as indexed by breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) assessed 15 min later. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to isolate within-person and between-person associations. The results showed few significant associations at the between-person level, except for a direct negative association between sedation and BrAC. At the within-person level, state fluctuations in stimulation were positively associated with both craving and subsequent BrAC, whereas state changes in sedation were negatively associated with craving and positively associated with BrAC. Within-person indirect associations from subjective stimulation and sedation to subsequent BrAC mediated via craving were statistically significant. Also, participants higher on impaired control showed stronger within-person associations between craving and greater subsequent BrAC. The results suggest that subjective responses to alcohol and craving have proximal associations with self-administration behavior, the strength of which is linked with trait impaired control over alcohol. PMID:26595481

  7. The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next.

    PubMed

    Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

  8. Alpine Glaciation on Baffin Island over the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, N. E.; Briner, J. P.; Schaefer, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    In the Northern Hemisphere, moraines deposited by mountain glaciers during the Little Ice Age (LIA) typically represent the largest extent of glaciers during the late Holocene. Yet in some settings, pre-LIA moraines are preserved offering a unique opportunity to develop longer chronologies of late Holocene glacier change; in turn these chronologies can be used to assess spatio-temporal patterns of glaciation and their associated climatic driving mechanisms. Unfortunately, determining absolute ages for late Holocene moraines in the Arctic has proven difficult. Lichenometry has often been used to 1) broadly constrain the timing of moraine abandonment, and 2) correlate moraines between valleys, whereas in other cases fresh (unvegetated) moraines are casually ascribed to the LIA. Although fresh moraines fronting modern glacier snouts were undoubtedly deposited sometime during the last few hundred years, direct and precise ages for these moraines are scarce. However, recent advancements in 10Be surface exposure dating now allow for robust late Holocene glacier chronologies in some Arctic settings. We present a well-resolved 10Be-based record of glaciation from north-central Baffin Island and combine this chronology with a previously published record of ice-cap expansion to develop a holistic view of glaciation on Baffin Island over the last millennium. A prominent feature of our record is the extended state of glaciers during the Medieval Warm Period.

  9. Cyber disorders: the mental health concern for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Young, K; Pistner, M; O'Mara, J; Buchanan, J

    1999-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence has suggested that mental health practitioners' report increased caseloads of clients whose primary complaint involves the Internet. However, little is known about the incidence, associated behaviors, attitudes of practitioners, and interventions involved related to this relatively new phenomenon. Therefore, this study surveyed therapists who have treated clients suffering from cyber-related problems to gather such outcome information. Respondents reported an average caseload of nine clients who they classified as Internet-addicted, with a range between 2 and 50 clients treated within the past year. Five general subtypes of Internet addiction were categorized based on the most problematic types of online applications, and they include addictions to Cybersex, Cyber-relationships, online stock trading or gambling, information surfing, and computer games. Treatment strategies included cognitive-behavioral approaches, sexual offender therapy, marital and family therapy, social skills training, and pharmacological interventions. Based on their client encounters, efforts to initiate support groups and recovery programs specializing in the treatment of Internet addiction were being considered. Finally, based upon the findings, this article examines the impact of cyberdisorders on future research, treatment, and public policy issues for the new millennium. PMID:19178220

  10. Inborn errors of metabolism at the turn of the millennium.

    PubMed

    Bari?, I; Fumi?, K; Hoffmann, G F

    2001-08-01

    Great progress has been made in the field of hereditary metabolic diseases since the beginning of the past century, when metabolic disorders were not really understood and could only be clinically described. Due to the development of basic sciences and advances in technology, we gained insight in the biochemical and molecular basis of hereditary metabolic diseases. It opened possibilities for their treatment, and also led to the discovery of more metabolic diseases, so today, there are more than 500 inborn errors of metabolism known. Although each of these diseases is quite rare, as a group, however, they affect about 1-2% of newborns and therefore pose a significant health problem. The realization about 50 years ago that some hereditary diseases are curable if timely diagnosed led to the introduction of newborn screening in most countries. Modern technologies in this field allow early diagnosis of more than 30 inborn errors of metabolism. Nevertheless, to diagnose most patients correctly, both selective screening involving teamwork and proper use of current technology are required. In addition to considerable development of diagnostic possibilities, the past decade was marked by advances in the therapy of inborn errors of metabolism. A number of clinical trials are currently underway, promising new and more effective approaches in the treatment of these patients. Thus, the field of inborn errors of metabolism at the beginning of the new millennium continues to be a scientific challenge to modern medicine. PMID:11471189

  11. Science for managing ecosystem services: Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Stephen R.; Mooney, Harold A.; Agard, John; Capistrano, Doris; DeFries, Ruth S.; Díaz, Sandra; Dietz, Thomas; Duraiappah, Anantha K.; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred; Pereira, Henrique Miguel; Perrings, Charles; Reid, Walter V.; Sarukhan, José; Scholes, Robert J.; Whyte, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) introduced a new framework for analyzing social–ecological systems that has had wide influence in the policy and scientific communities. Studies after the MA are taking up new challenges in the basic science needed to assess, project, and manage flows of ecosystem services and effects on human well-being. Yet, our ability to draw general conclusions remains limited by focus on discipline-bound sectors of the full social–ecological system. At the same time, some polices and practices intended to improve ecosystem services and human well-being are based on untested assumptions and sparse information. The people who are affected and those who provide resources are increasingly asking for evidence that interventions improve ecosystem services and human well-being. New research is needed that considers the full ensemble of processes and feedbacks, for a range of biophysical and social systems, to better understand and manage the dynamics of the relationship between humans and the ecosystems on which they rely. Such research will expand the capacity to address fundamental questions about complex social–ecological systems while evaluating assumptions of policies and practices intended to advance human well-being through improved ecosystem services. PMID:19179280

  12. The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

  13. Drug therapy in asthma bronchiale in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Szelenyi, I; Pahl, A

    2002-02-01

    Asthma bronchiale represents a major health issue in industrialized countries and will likely remain so for decades. The drug treatment of asthma demonstrates certain peculiarities: revolutionary new drug introductions happen almost each quarter century. With improved understanding of asthma pathogenesis and drug metabolism, the potential for specific targeted and constructed therapies has become evident. Monoclonal antibodies to IgE and certain cytokines such IL-4 and IL-5 are being investigated as possible treatments for asthma. Similarly, preliminary studies of selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors in asthmatic patients have been encouraging. Other potential therapies include for example inhibitors of cytokine synthesis, promoters of Th2-Th1 switch, adenosine receptor agonists or antagonists, etc.. A new way is represented by a modified retrometabolic drug design resulting in so-called soft drugs. The first representative of this new drug class is loteprednol etabote (LE), a non-fluorinated glucocorticoid approved for the allergic ophthalmological indications and now in clinical trial for the treatment of allergic airway diseases. Today's intensive search for new treatments should ensure a greater diversity of therapeutic possibilities for the management of asthma in the new millennium. PMID:11878194

  14. Asian monsoon extremes and humanity's response over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, B. M.; Lieberman, V. B.; Zottoli, B.

    2012-12-01

    The first decade of the 21st century has seen significant development in the production of paleo proxies for the Asian monsoon, exemplified by the Monsoon Asian Drought Atlas that was comprised of more than 300 tree ring chronologies. Noteworthy among them is the Vietnamese cypress tree-ring record which reveals that the two worst droughts of the past 7 centuries, each more than a decade in length, coincided with the demise of the Khmer civilization at Angkor in the early 15th century CE. The 18th century was nearly as tumultuous a period across Southeast Asia, where several polities fell against a backdrop of epic decadal-scale droughts. At this time all of the region's charter states saw rapid realignment in the face of drought, famine, disease and a raft of related and unrelated social issues. Several other droughts, some more extreme but of lesser duration, punctuate the past millennium, but appear to have had little societal impact. Historical documentation is being used not only to provide corroborative evidence of tree-ring reconstructed climate extremes, but to attempt to understand the dynamics of the coupled human-natural systems involved, and to define what kinds of thresholds need to be reached before societies respond. This paleo perspective can assist our analyses of the role of climate extremes in the collapse or disruption of regional societies, a subject of increasing concern given the uncertainties surrounding projections for future climate across the highly populated areas of Asia.

  15. Nursing case management in the millennium. Two perspectives.

    PubMed

    Coile, R C; Matthews, P

    1999-01-01

    To prepare case managers for the next millennium, Russell Coile, a noted healthcare futurist, and Pamela Matthews, a respected clinician and consultant, participate in a dialogue. Coile takes a broad view of millennial issues, while Matthews responds to those issues with her clinician's perspective. Case management will face challenges and opportunities as a result of internal and external pressures to the healthcare community. These pressures, both near- and far-term, will simultaneously strengthen and tax the case manager's responsibilities. Developments in technology and demands for more and better access to high-quality patient information will require nursing case managers to expand their knowledge of, and influence over, the application of technology and information systems. Case managers will need to participate in advocating, planning, and deploying these systems. Technological challenges will not change case managers' fundamental roles within an organization, but they will strengthen and support those roles by harnessing the information necessary to allow more efficient outcomes, create standards of care, and increase patient satisfaction. PMID:10855148

  16. Personality disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorders are a group of mental conditions in which a person has a long-term pattern of ... Causes of personality disorders are unknown. Genetic and ... a role. Mental health professionals categorize these disorders ...

  17. Archaeomagnetic data for a reference Geomagnetic Curve in Italy during the first Millennium BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrighi, S.; Principe, C.; Tanguy, J. C.; Ducci, S.; Vezzoli, L.; Pallecchi, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Direction of the geomagnetic field over the last 2000 years has been determined in Europe, including Italy, from a number of archaeomagnetic studies. However, such a variation curve for the first Millennium BC is still uncertain. Here we present new data on Italian archaeological fired materials, attributed to the Etruscan period (IV to VIII century BC), and also on volcanics from the island of Ischia, that have been historically and archeologically dated between circa AD 300 and the VIIth century BC. The results on a first set of ovens pointed out that furnaces for the reduction of metal suffer a magnetic distortion that leads to rather high semi-angles of the confidence cone at the 95% level (alpha95). The data obtained on ovens devoted to the production of ceramics are better constrained (alpha95 from 1 to 1.5°). A recurrent problem when working on large and well preserved furnaces is that they have often been used several times until the recent epoch. This is particularly the case for some structures of the Elba island. Regarding volcanic deposits of Ischia, ten sites have been sampled going from historically dated eruptive centres to older lavas from the past few thousand years, leading to a total of 167 archaeomagnetic analyses. The results are in general agreement with earlier age attributions, although discrepancies exist in some cases between archeological/historical and archaeomagnetic data.

  18. The New Millennium Program: Validating Advanced Technologies for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minning, Charles P.; Luers, Philip

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews the activities of the New Millennium Program (NMP) in validating advanced technologies for space missions. The focus of these breakthrough technologies are to enable new capabilities to fulfill the science needs, while reducing costs of future missions. There is a broad spectrum of NMP partners, including government agencies, universities and private industry. The DS-1 was launched on October 24, 1998. Amongst the technologies validated by the NMP on DS-1 are: a Low Power Electronics Experiment, the Power Activation and Switching Module, Multi-Functional Structures. The first two of these technologies are operational and the data analysis is still ongoing. The third program is also operational, and its performance parameters have been verified. The second program, DS-2, was launched January 3 1999. It is expected to impact near Mars southern polar region on 3 December 1999. The technologies used on this mission awaiting validation are an advanced microcontroller, a power microelectronics unit, an evolved water experiment and soil thermal conductivity experiment, Lithium-Thionyl Chloride batteries, the flexible cable interconnect, aeroshell/entry system, and a compact telecom system. EO-1 on schedule for launch in December 1999 carries several technologies to be validated. Amongst these are: a Carbon-Carbon Radiator, an X-band Phased Array Antenna, a pulsed plasma thruster, a wideband advanced recorder processor, an atmospheric corrector, lightweight flexible solar arrays, Advanced Land Imager and the Hyperion instrument

  19. Public juridic person offers flexibility. Structuring and writing statutes for this model is simple in theory, complex in practice.

    PubMed

    Amos, J R

    1996-01-01

    Public juridic person is an alternative sponsorship arrangement that allows various Church entities to share resources, thus strengthening their competitive position. Creating a public juridic person is simple in theory but can be complicated in practice. The 1983 Code of Canon Law states that public juridic persons are ¿aggregates of persons or things¿ constituted by the ¿competent ecclesiastical authority¿ to ¿fulfill a proper function given them in view of the common good.¿ The canon law further indicates that public juridic persons require statutes. The code provides a list of items to be included in the statutes, such as a purpose, constitution, governance, operations, and conditions of membership. Writing these items can be complex, depending on the makeup of the public juridic person. After writing the statutes, the entities' leaders take them to the competent ecclesiastical authority, who approves them and thereby founds the public juridic person. But it is not always easy to determine who the competent authority is. Statutes can be tricky to formulate and therefore should contain provisions for modifications. They should be written as simply as possible. Bylaws should be used as much as possible for detailed provisions. Still, the most important safeguards of Catholic identity will be the makeup of the board, provisions for monitoring its activities, and the implementation of ethical directives issued by Church authority. PMID:10154458

  20. Psychometric Properties of the HEXACO Personality Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kibeom; Ashton, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a personality inventory designed to measure six major dimensions of personality derived from lexical studies of personality structure. The HEXACO Personality Inventory (HEXACO-PI) consists of 24 facet-level personality trait scales that define the six personality factors named Honesty-Humility (H), Emotionality (E), Extraversion (X),…

  1. Downscaling GCM-simulated precipitation for the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Jonathan; Widmann, Martin; Smith, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Climate variability in the pre-instrumental period can be estimated either from climate proxy data or from numerical simulations. Both approaches still have considerable uncertainties and consistency tests are crucial for identifying robust features. One of the problems when comparing simulations with proxy-based reconstructions are potential scale mismatches. If the proxy-based reconstructions represent regional climate a direct comparison with simulated variables from global climate models, which in palaeoclimate applications are run with coarse resolutions, can lead to misleading results for two reasons: (i) the climate model might be biased even on large spatial scales, and (ii) small-scale spatial variability cannot be represented by the climate model. This problem can be expected to be particularly relevant for precipitation because of its high spatial variability. One way of addressing this problem is by applying downscaling techniques to the simulations. We have applied a statistical downscaling and correction method to precipitation from a simulation for the last millennium with the MPI for Meteorology Earth System Model, which uses ECHAM5-T31 as the atmosphere component. Our downscaling method, which is based on model output statistics (MOS), has been shown to outperform more standard (so-called perfect-prog) statistical downscaling methods when applied to simulated precipitation from the second half of the twentieth century, but it has not yet been applied to palaeoclimate simulations. Our aim is two-fold: to assess (a) whether downscaling using MOS yields additional information about long-term changes in regional climate and (b) to what extent the downscaled simulations may be in greater agreement with proxy-based reconstructions than raw model output. Two MOS downscaling methods, based on local scaling and principal component regression, are calibrated 'event-wise' (i.e. between contemporaneous sequences of simulated and observed events) using precipitation from a simulation of ECHAM5 (nudged to ERA-40) and gridded observations. Both methods are then applied to simulated precipitation for the last millennium. Our findings show that, under cross-validation for the period 1958-2001, downscaling with MOS from the T31 resolution to a 0.5 x 0.5 target grid produces precipitation estimates that generally match the temporal variability of the observed record in large parts of Europe. MOS also shows good skill in estimating monthly precipitation amounts at small scales that are more realistic than raw model output. In comparison with a multi-proxy gridded reconstruction (Pauling et al., 2006) it is shown that reconstructed precipitation falls within the range of the downscaled ensemble spread in some parts of Europe. However, in many areas MOS fails to produce downscaled estimates that are in agreement with either the temporal evolution or magnitude indicated by the proxy record. Ultimately, this inconsistency limits the potential for such a comparison to be used as a validation tool except in individual cases.

  2. The Papua New Guinea medical supply system - documenting opportunities and challenges to meet the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Limited human resources are widely recognised as an impediment to achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals in Pacific Island Countries, with the availability of medical supplies and suitably trained health personnel crucial to ensuring a well-functioning medical supply chain. This paper presents our findings as we seek to answer the research question ‘What factors influence the availability of medical supplies within the health facilities of Papua New Guinea?’ Methods We used a qualitative, triangulated strategy using semi-structured interviews, workplace observation and semi-structured focus groups. The parallel use of the interview tool and workplace observation tool allowed identification of ‘know-do’ gaps between what the interviewee said they did in their work practices, and the actual evidence of these practices. Focus groups provided further opportunities for raising and elaborating issues. Results During 2 weeks of data collection we conducted 17 interviews and 15 observational workplace surveys in 15 facilities. Sixteen health personnel participated in 3 focus groups across 2 provinces and one district. An array of medical supply issues across all levels of the medical supply chain were revealed, including standard operating procedures, facilities, transport, emergency medical kits, the cold chain and record keeping. The influence of health worker training and competency was found to be common across all of these issues. Conclusion The factors influencing the availability of medical supplies in PNG consist of a range of interrelating issues, consisting of both simple and complex problems involving the different levels and cadres of workers within the medical supply chain. Health systems sustainability theory suggests that a coordinated approach which addresses the inter-related nature of these issues, led by the PNG government and supported by suitable development partners, will be required for sustainable health systems change to occur. These changes are necessary for PNG to meet the health-related Millennium Development Goals. PMID:25848545

  3. Personality in Bonobos.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Alexander; Staes, Nicky; Pereboom, Jeffrey J M; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Eens, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    To better understand human and chimpanzee personality evolution, we obtained trait ratings of personality for 154 captive bonobos (~80% of the U.S. and European population). We found factors that we labeled Assertiveness, Conscientiousness, Openness, Agreeableness, Attentiveness, and Extraversion. The interrater reliabilities and test-retest reliabilities for these factors were comparable to those found in humans and other species. Using orthogonal targeted Procrustes rotations, we compared the bonobo dimensions with those of three samples of captive chimpanzees. Overall congruence coefficients indicated a fair degree of similarity; at the factor level, there was good evidence for Assertiveness, Conscientiousness, Openness, and Agreeableness in the chimpanzee samples; evidence for Attentiveness and Extraversion was poor. These findings suggest that, as expected given their close phylogenetic relationship, bonobo personality structure resembles chimpanzee personality structure in some respects. However, divergent evolution, perhaps as a result of socioecological differences between bonobos and chimpanzees, also appears to have shaped personality structure in these species. PMID:26209530

  4. Measuring the internalized stigma of parents of persons with a serious mental illness: the factor structure of the parents' internalized stigma of mental illness scale.

    PubMed

    Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Levy-Frank, Itamar; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Kravetz, Shlomo; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Roe, David

    2013-03-01

    Research has revealed that approximately one third of persons with a serious mental illness (SMI) experience elevated internalized stigma, which is associated with a large number of negative outcomes. Family members of persons with SMI are also often subject to stigma, but the degree to which these experiences are internalized and lead to self-stigma has rarely been studied. The present study investigated the factor structure of a modification of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale by Ritsher, Otilingam, and Grajales (Psychiatry Res 121:31-49, 2003). A central assumption of this investigation was that the factor structure of the Parents' Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (PISMI) scale would be similar to the factor structure of the ISMI scale. A total of 194 parents of persons with SMI completed the PISMI scale. The results revealed that the PISMI scale has high internal consistency and that it is made up of three distinctive factors: discrimination experience, social withdrawal and alienation, and stereotype endorsement. These factors are similar, but not identical, to the factors that underlie the ISMI scale. This study's findings also indicate that parents' prominent reaction to self-stigma is stereotype endorsement. PMID:23443038

  5. Comet and Asteroid Missions in NASA's New Millennium Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is designed to develop, test, and flight validate new, advanced technologies for planetary and Earth exploration missions, using a series of low cost spacecraft. Two of NMP's current missions include encounters with comets and asteroids. The Deep Space 1 mission was launched on October 24, 1998 and will fly by asteroid 1992 KD on July 29, 1999, and possibly Comet Wilson-Harrington and/or Comet Borrelly in 2001. The Space Technology 4/Champollion mission will be launched in April, 2003 and will rendezvous with, orbit and land on periodic Comet Tempel 1 in 2006. ST-4/Champollion is a joint project with CNES, the French space agency. The DS-1 mission is going well since launch and has already validated several major technologies, including solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar concentrator arrays, a small deep space transponder, and autonomous navigation. The spacecraft carries two scientific instruments: MICAS, a combined visible camera and UV and IR spectrometers, and PEPE, an ion and electron spectrometer. Testing of the science instruments is ongoing. Following the asteroid encounter in July, 1999, DS-1 will go on to encounters with one or both comets if NASA approves funding for an extended mission. The ST-4/Champollion mission will use an advanced, multi-engine SEP system to effect a rendezvous with Comet P/Tempel 1 in February, 2006, after a flight time of 2.8 years. After orbiting the comet for several months in order to map its surface and determine its gravity field, ST-4/Chainpollion will descend to the comet's surface and will anchor itself with a 3-meter long harpoon. Scientific experiments include narrow and wide angle cameras for orbital mapping, panoramic and near-field cameras for landing site mapping, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, a combined microscope and infrared spectrometer, and physical properties probes. Cometary samples will be obtained from depths up to 1.4 meters. The spacecraft is solar powered with rechargeable batteries, thus allowing a long duration mission on the nucleus surface. At the time of this writing, the ST-4/Champollion spacecraft was undergoing a major redesign to fit within NASA cost constraints, and approval of the mission is pending.

  6. North Atlantic sea-level variability during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, Roland; Long, Antony; Saher, Margot; Barlow, Natasha; Blaauw, Maarten; Haigh, Ivan; Woodworth, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Climate modelling studies have demonstrated that spatial and temporal sea-level variability observed in North Atlantic tide-gauge records is controlled by a complex array of processes, including ice-ocean mass exchange, freshwater forcing, steric changes, changes in wind fields, and variations in the speed of the Gulf Stream. Longer records of sea-level change, also covering the pre-industrial period, are important as a 'natural' and long-term baseline against which to test model performance and to place recent and future sea-level changes and ice-sheet change into a long-term context. Such records can only be reliably and continuously reconstructed from proxy methods. Salt marshes are capable of recording decimetre-scale sea-level variations with high precision and accuracy. In this paper we present four new high-resolution proxy records of (sub-) decadal sea-level variability reconstructed from salt-marsh sediments in Iceland, Nova Scotia, Maine and Connecticut that span the past 400 to 900 years. Our records, based on more than 100 new radiocarbon analyses, Pb-210 and Cs-137 measurements as well as other biological and geochemical age markers, together with hundreds of new microfossil observations from contemporary and fossil salt marshes, capture not only the rapid 20th century sea-level rise, but also small-scale (decimetre, multi-decadal) sea-level fluctuations during preceding centuries. We show that in Iceland three periods of rapid sea-level rise are synchronous with the three largest positive shifts of the reconstructed North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Along the North American east coast we compare our data with salt-marsh records from New Jersey, North Carolina and Florida and observe a trend of increased pre-industrial sea-level variability from south to north (Florida to Nova Scotia). Mass changes and freshwater forcing cannot explain this pattern. Based on comparisons with instrumental sea-level data and modelling studies we hypothesise that multi-decadal to centennial changes in wind and air pressure are more important than mass flux from land-based ice as drivers of North Atlantic sea-level variability during the last millennium.

  7. The "Interaction with Disabled Persons" Scale: Revisiting Its Internal Consistency and Factor Structure, and Examining Item-Level Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacono, Teresa; Tracy, Jane; Keating, Jenny; Brown, Ted

    2009-01-01

    The "Interaction with Disabled Persons" scale (IDP) has been used in research into baseline attitudes and to evaluate whether a shift in attitudes towards people with developmental disabilities has occurred following some form of intervention. This research has been conducted on the assumption that the IDP measures attitudes as a multidimensional…

  8. A Structural Model of Parental Alcoholism, Family Functioning, and Psychological Health: The Mediating Effects of Hardiness and Personal Growth Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robitschek, Christine; Kashubeck, Susan

    1999-01-01

    This study sought to: (a) determine whether personal-growth orientation and hardiness mediated the relations of parental alcoholism and family functioning to psychological well-being and distress; (b) determine whether this model was invariant across men and women; and (c) examine the role of parental alcoholism in a model that included family…

  9. Reviewing the Differences in Size, Composition and Structure between the Personal Networks of High-and Low-Performing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casquero, Oskar; Ovelar, Ramn; Romo, Jess; Benito, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    An interesting aspect in the current literature about learning networks is the shift of focus from the understanding of the "whole network" of a course to the examination of the "personal networks" of individual students. This line of research is relatively new, based on small-scale studies and diverse analysis techniques,

  10. The Structure of the Biblioblogosphere: An Examination of the Linking Practices of Institutional and Personal Library Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, S. Craig; Hank, Carolyn; Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Johnson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The biblioblogosphere is comprised of the institutional publication of blogs of libraries and the personal, professionally-oriented publication of blogs by librarians. Since introduction of this neologism in 2004, a number of researchers have examined this particular class of bloggers and blogging. However, there is limited investigation into the…

  11. Reviewing the Differences in Size, Composition and Structure between the Personal Networks of High-and Low-Performing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casquero, Oskar; Ovelar, Ramón; Romo, Jesús; Benito, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    An interesting aspect in the current literature about learning networks is the shift of focus from the understanding of the "whole network" of a course to the examination of the "personal networks" of individual students. This line of research is relatively new, based on small-scale studies and diverse analysis techniques,…

  12. Can School Structures Improve Teacher-Student Relationships? The Relationship between Advisory Programs, Personalization and Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Larry; Yonezawa, Susan; Jones, Makeba

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the relationships between student-perceived levels of personalization, students' opinions about advisory period, and academic outcomes. Surveys were administered to 10,044 students over three consecutive years at 14 redesigned small schools and survey responses were linked to students' weighted single-year grade point…

  13. The Structure of the Biblioblogosphere: An Examination of the Linking Practices of Institutional and Personal Library Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, S. Craig; Hank, Carolyn; Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Johnson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The biblioblogosphere is comprised of the institutional publication of blogs of libraries and the personal, professionally-oriented publication of blogs by librarians. Since introduction of this neologism in 2004, a number of researchers have examined this particular class of bloggers and blogging. However, there is limited investigation into the

  14. A Structural Model of Parental Alcoholism, Family Functioning, and Psychological Health: The Mediating Effects of Hardiness and Personal Growth Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robitschek, Christine; Kashubeck, Susan

    1999-01-01

    This study sought to: (a) determine whether personal-growth orientation and hardiness mediated the relations of parental alcoholism and family functioning to psychological well-being and distress; (b) determine whether this model was invariant across men and women; and (c) examine the role of parental alcoholism in a model that included family

  15. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. ...

  16. Cybercounseling and Cyberlearning: Strategies and Resources for the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, John W.; Walz, Garry R.

    This book is designed to assist counselors in becoming better informed about cybercounseling so that they can decide for themselves what their personal opinion is on its worth and use. It describes current practices that will give a glimpse as to the behavioral health professions in the future. The book contains the following chapters: (1)…

  17. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: a treatment review. What have we learned since the beginning of the millennium?

    PubMed Central

    Baslet, Gaston

    2012-01-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) can significantly affect an individual’s quality of life, the health care system, and even society. The first decade of the new millennium has seen renewed interest in this condition, but etiological understanding and evidence-based treatment availability remain limited. After the diagnosis of PNES is established, the first therapeutic step includes a presentation of the diagnosis that facilitates engagement in treatment. The purpose of this review is to present the current evidence of treatments for PNES published since the year 2000 and to discuss further needs for clinical treatment implementation and research. This article reviews clinical trials that have evaluated the efficacy of structured, standardized psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological interventions. The primary outcome measure in clinical trials for PNES is event frequency, although it is questionable whether this is the most accurate indicator of functional recovery. Cognitive behavioral therapy has evidence of efficacy, including one pilot randomized, controlled trial where cognitive behavioral therapy was compared with standard medical care. The antidepressant sertraline did not show a significant difference in event frequency change when compared to placebo in a pilot randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, but it did show a significant pre- versus posttreatment decrease in the active arm. Other interventions that have shown efficacy in uncontrolled trials include augmented psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy, group psychodynamic psychotherapy, group psychoeducation, and the antidepressant venlafaxine. Larger clinical trials of these promising treatments are necessary, while other psychotherapeutic interventions such as hypnotherapy, mindfulness-based therapies, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing may deserve exploration. Flexible delivery of treatment that considers the heterogeneous backgrounds of patients is emphasized as necessary for successful outcomes in clinical practice. PMID:23251092

  18. Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa's children and women of childbearing age live?

    PubMed

    Tatem, Andrew J; Garcia, Andres J; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Gaughan, Andrea E; Gilbert, Marius; Linard, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments.Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation.Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the distribution of key vulnerable groups, and that doing so has substantial impacts on derived metrics through accounting for spatial demographic heterogeneities that exist within nations across Africa. PMID:23875684

  19. Current Evaluation of the Millennium Phytomedicine- Ginseng (I): Etymology, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Market and Regulations

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing

    2009-01-01

    The dawning of this millennium broke new ground in life science and technology, presented us genomic and proteomic revolution, nanotechnology innovation, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) used for separating and identifying new chemical entities at pico-, or even femto-concentrations. Applications of these high technologies to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) opened a new chapter in the ancient medicine, and prompted us to re-evaluate the thousand-year-old phytomedicine–ginseng from current perspectives. We, therefore, collected the latest information (mostly within 10 years) on ginseng, and condensed the information into two parts of this review serial. The present part covers etymology of ginseng, its pharmacognosy (natural origin, physical appearance, chemical properties, and specie identification), its cultivation and processing-related metabolic changes in active ingredients, standardized analytical methods used for quality control of various ginseng products, modern analytical methods used to identify and classify more than 100 chemical entities (many were recently unfolded) derived from ginseng species and their metabolites. The global markets and production of ginseng and relevant government regulations are herein updated to exchange information and understandings about current people’s uses and cultivation of ginseng. The second part of the review serial will classify all these 100 chemical entities separated from various ginseng species into different groups based on their structural similarities, and summarize bioactivities of these entities. The second part of the review serial will also focus on recent findings of ginseng pharmacology and its clinical trials for various diseases, and brief side effects of ginseng. PMID:19601793

  20. Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa’s children and women of childbearing age live?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments. Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation. Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the distribution of key vulnerable groups, and that doing so has substantial impacts on derived metrics through accounting for spatial demographic heterogeneities that exist within nations across Africa. PMID:23875684

  1. The influence of tropical volcanic eruptions on the climate of South America during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colose, C. M.; LeGrande, A. N.; Vuille, M.

    2015-07-01

    Currently, little is known on how volcanic eruptions impact large-scale climate phenomena such as paleo-ITCZ position or South American summer monsoon behavior. In this paper, an analysis of observations and model simulations is employed to assess the influence of large volcanic eruptions on the climate of South America. This problem is considered both for historically recent volcanic episodes, for which more comprehensive global observations exist, as well as reconstructed volcanic events for the period 850 C.E. to present that are incorporated into the NASA GISS ModelE2-R simulation of the Last Millennium. An advantage of this model is its ability to explicitly track water isotopologues throughout the hydrologic cycle and simulating the isotopic imprint following a large eruption. This effectively removes a degree of uncertainty associated with error-prone conversion of isotopic signals into climate variables, and allows for a direct comparison between GISS simulations and paleoclimate proxy archives. Our analysis reveals that both precipitation and oxygen isotope variability respond with a distinct seasonal and spatial structure across South America following an eruption. During austral winter, the heavy oxygen isotope in precipitation is enriched, likely due to reduced moisture convergence in the ITCZ domain and reduced rainfall over northern South America. During austral summer, however, precipitation is depleted in heavy isotopes over Amazonia, despite reductions in rainfall, suggesting that the isotopic response is not a simple function of the "amount effect". During the South American monsoon season, the amplitude of the temperature response to volcanic forcing is larger than the rather weak and spatially less coherent precipitation signal, potentially masking the isotopic response to changes in the hydrologic cycle.

  2. Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being made available for the RWSS sector.

  3. The NASA New Millennium Program: Space Flight Validation of Advanced Technologies for Future Science Missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, D.; Raymond, C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of advanced technologies are needed to support NASA's ambitious plans for planetary exploration during the next decade. To address these needs, the NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) identifies breakthrough spacecraft and instrument technologies and validates them in space to reduce their cost and risk. The first NMP Deep Space mission, DS1, was launched on October 24, 1998. Since then, it has successfully validated a solar-powered ion propulsion system, a miniaturized deep space transponder, autonomous operations and navigation software, multifunctional structures, low-power microelectronics and 2 instruments: the Miniature Integrated Camera and Spectrometer (MICAS), and the Plasma Experiment for Planetary Exploration (PEPE). To validate these technologies in a realistic environment, DS1's trajectory includes a close (<10km) flyby of asteroid 1992KD. An extended mission will allow encounters with comets Wilson-Harrington and Borrelly. The second NMP mission, DS2, consists of a pair of micro penetrators that are targeted near the Martian South Pole (71 to 76 S). DS2 was launched on January 3, 1999 as a piggyback payload on the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander cruise stage. After crashing into the Martian surface at greater than 200 m/s on December 3, 1999, these probes will validate technologies that will enable future Mars penetrator networks. These technologies include a single-stage, passive atmospheric entry system and a high-impact landing system designed to deliver a payload up to 1 meter below the Martian surface. This mission will also validate a miniaturized telecom system, low-temperature batteries, a suite of miniaturized in-situ scientific instruments, and other innovative packaging technologies. The next 2 NMP space science missions are currently being planned. If approved, Space Technology 3 (ST3) will validate technologies for separated spacecraft optical interferometry, to enable the ambitious Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission. The ST5 mission will validate advanced technologies needed by the space physics and astrophysics communities.

  4. Examining the structure, reliability, and validity of the Chinese personal growth initiative scale-II: evidence for the importance of intentional self-change among Chinese.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongfei; Chang, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    We examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Chinese version of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II (CPGIS-II) using data from a sample of 927 Chinese university students. Consistent with previous findings, confirmatory factor analyses supported a 4-factor model of the CPGIS-II. Reliability analyses indicated that the 4 CPGIS-II subscales, namely Readiness for Change, Planfulness, Using Resources, and Intentional Behavior, demonstrated good internal consistency reliability and adequate test-retest reliability across a 4-week period. In addition, evidence for convergent and incremental validity was found in relation to measures of positive and negative psychological adjustment. Finally, results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the 4 personal growth initiative dimensions, especially planfulness, accounted for additional unique variance in psychological adjustment beyond resilience. Some implications for using the CPGIS-II in Chinese are discussed. PMID:24579722

  5. Explaining the Role of Personal, Social and Physical Environment Factors on Employed Women's Physical Activity: A Structural Equation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aghdam, Fatemeh Bakhtari; Baghiani Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Nikookheslat, Saeed Dabagh; Nourizadeh, Roghaiyeh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: PA is a multi-factorial behavior that is affected by interpersonal, intra personal, environmental and social factors. In this study we applied explanatory model to determine the total, indirect and direct impact of physical environment, personal factors and social support on PA among employed women. Methods: This study was a correlational cross-sectional study which was conducted to model total, indirect and direct impact of environmental, psychological and social factors on PA. A total of 200 women were chosen from Tabriz University by using convenience sampling method. Data about demographic characteristics, psychological variables, social and physical environment were gathered by using self-reported questionnaire and also the PA was measured by using the International PA Questionnaire and pedometer. Results: personal factors, physical and social environment, showed direct effects on PA. Social factors could be seen to have indirect effects on PA through their influence on personal factors such as pros, cons and self-efficacy; also physical environment had indirect effects on PA through social environment. The total effects of physical and social environment on PA type were respectively 0.17, 0.16 on walking, 0.05, 0.07 on moderate activity and 0.15, 0.18 on vigorous activity. Conclusions: Findings from this study indicated that social factors had indirect effects on walking, moderate and vigorous activity, especially through the effects on these factors of self-efficacy, physical environment, pros and cons, and the interactive role of individual, environmental and social impacts on PA. The current study identifies that psychological, physical and social factors could be shown to have direct and indirect influences on all forms of activity. The barriers of PA were the most predictor of this behavior, and based on results, it can be concluded that decreasing the barriers along with improving social and physical environment can lead to increasing PA and health promotion. PMID:23777735

  6. Implications for Art Education in the Third Millennium: Art Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Most would agree that today's art education is far more complex than art activities such as making pumpkin paintings in October. For one, art education continually evolves in response to arts technology integration. What exactly are the implications for art education in the new millennium? In this article, the author presents and shows some of the…

  7. 77 FR 21111 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... set forth in full below and updates the report published November 8, 2011 (76 FR 69291). \\1\\ The... Year 2012 and Countries That Would Be Candidates but for Legal Prohibitions AGENCY: Millennium... That Would Be Candidates but for Legal Prohibitions Summary This report to Congress is provided...

  8. 77 FR 19360 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... set forth in full below and updates the report published November 8, 2011 (76 FR 69291). \\1\\ The... Year 2012 and Countries That Would Be Candidates but for Legal Prohibitions AGENCY: Millennium... That Would Be Candidates but for Legal Prohibitions Summary This report to Congress is provided...

  9. Learning for Development: The Commonwealth of Learning and the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth of Learning, 2011

    2011-01-01

    World leaders, meeting at the United Nations in 2000, set eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that aim to transform the condition of humankind in the 21st century. These Goals now guide the policies of governments and the priorities of development agencies. These eight goals are: (1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2) Achieve

  10. Is the Millennium Goal on Education Tackling the Ethical Requirements of a Diverse and Multicultural World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosquera, Katia Ximena Mosquera; Mosquera, Maura Nasly Mosquera

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an invitation to reflect on the ethical foundations underlying the Millennium Declaration of September 2000, approved by the 189 member states of the United Nations, in which they committed themselves to improve the living conditions of humanity, with special focus on developing countries. It is noteworthy that this proposal, which…

  11. Women at the Millennium, Accomplishments and Challenges Ahead. Facts on Working Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    To benefit from new millennium opportunities, women should take advantage of the burgeoning information technology revolution and growth in other mathematics- and science-based occupations. Among occupations, professional jobs will increase the fastest and add the most employment. Among industries, the computer and data processing services…

  12. Education Finance in the New Millennium. Yearbook of the American Education Finance Association, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaikind, Stephen, Ed.; Fowler, William J., Ed.

    This yearbook reaffirms the connections between the field of education finance and the wider education community. Among the topics it examines are curricula reform, outcome assessment, accountability, community control, and privatization. Twelve chapters include: (1) "Education Finance in the New Millennium: Overview and Summary" (Stephen Chaikind

  13. School Environmental Health Programs and the Challenges of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ana, Godson R. E. E.; Shendell, Derek G.

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) mandate of achieving healthful living for all by the year 2015 through the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is facing several challenges. In the school environment, and particularly in less developed countries (LDCs), the situation is further strained by both relatively weak infrastructure and competing governmental…

  14. Implementation of the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria through Non-Formal Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpama, Simon Ibor; Asor, Love Joseph; Erim, Costly M.; Adekola, G.

    2012-01-01

    Nigeria is a signatory to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) declaration but till now she has not made any significant milestones in actualizing these human development goals. In spite of the coordinated efforts towards mobilizing those in the formal education system to partially address its implementation challenges, serious gaps still exit…

  15. Efficiency in Reaching the Millennium Development Goals. World Bank Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayasuriya, Ruwan, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide clear targets and areas of focus for international organizations such as the World Bank. At a conceptual level, to reduce poverty and hunger, to improve education and health indicators, and to promote gender equality and sustainable development, countries can either increase the resources they…

  16. Nothing but the Truth? The United Nations and the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations established eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, with the target for achievement set at 2015. On the UN website a special section is devoted to the MDGs. In this article the website as it was presented in late 2013 is examined. Although the website was easy to negotiate, it was difficult to ascertain any

  17. 78 FR 52984 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... achieve lasting economic growth and poverty reduction. The Act requires the Millennium Challenge...) economic freedom, and (iii) investments in its people; and (b) considering the opportunity to reduce poverty and generate economic growth in the country. These steps include the submission of reports to...

  18. Accelerating the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Ghana: Literacy, the Missing Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagoe, Michael Ayitey

    2011-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals launched in 2001 provide a worldwide agenda to reduce poverty by 2015. Though the eight goals provide synergies for the rapid reduction of poverty, the MDGs have come under criticism for being too narrow and sometimes leaving out critical aspects of human development and well-being. Although the MDGs address some…

  19. Schooling Entrepreneurs: Entrepreneurship, Governmentality and Education Policy in Sweden at the Turn of the Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlstedt, Magnus; Hertzberg, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Departing from Michel Foucault's concept of governmentality, the focus of this article is the introduction of entrepreneurial education in Swedish education policy at the turn of the millennium. We analyze the various meanings attached to the concepts of "entrepreneur" and "entrepreneurship" in education policy documents,

  20. Schooling Entrepreneurs: Entrepreneurship, Governmentality and Education Policy in Sweden at the Turn of the Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlstedt, Magnus; Hertzberg, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Departing from Michel Foucault's concept of governmentality, the focus of this article is the introduction of entrepreneurial education in Swedish education policy at the turn of the millennium. We analyze the various meanings attached to the concepts of "entrepreneur" and "entrepreneurship" in education policy documents,…

  1. The Challenges of Attaining Millennium Development Goals in Education in Africa by 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojogwu, C. N.

    2009-01-01

    Millennium Development Goals were established by the United Nations to help underdeveloped countries to overcome problems of illiteracy, poverty, low health status and quality of life. Much emphasis was placed on the attainment of MDG targets in education because of its pivotal role in national development. The targets include education for all…

  2. Poverty, Education, Gender and the Millennium Development Goals: Reflections on Boundaries and Intersectionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The article considers the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) concerned with poverty, education and gender (MDG 1, MDG 2 and MDG 3). Despite considerable achievements associated with the MDG approach, which entails international and national target setting and monitoring, a sharp distinction between areas of social policy is entailed. In addition

  3. Education Finance in the New Millennium. Yearbook of the American Education Finance Association, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaikind, Stephen, Ed.; Fowler, William J., Ed.

    This yearbook reaffirms the connections between the field of education finance and the wider education community. Among the topics it examines are curricula reform, outcome assessment, accountability, community control, and privatization. Twelve chapters include: (1) "Education Finance in the New Millennium: Overview and Summary" (Stephen Chaikind…

  4. Toward an Essential Ethic for Teaching Science in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Irene de la Bretonne

    The purpose of this study was to identify and explore values and views that might underlie an essential ethic for teaching science in the new millennium. With such an ethic, teachers may be better able to prepare young people to form and fully participate in communities that restore and sustain Earth. Reviewed in the literature for this study were…

  5. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 4: Adult Literacy. Praeger Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

  6. The Use of ICT in Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaino, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the contribution of higher education institutions in achieving these have been emphasized. This study sought to find out the extent to which university-based researches on ICTs addressed and impacted the three MDGs of gender…

  7. The Impact of ICT Use on New Millennium Learners' Educational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Kim, Minjeong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) use on the educational performance of new millennium learners (NMLs). Even though many factors might influence individual performance besides ICT use itself, the research focus was on the relationship between the behavioral patterns of…

  8. The New Millennium and an Education That Captures the Basic Spirit of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    This document discusses reflections of the old and new millennium on education that capture the basic spirit of science. The explanation includes basic scientific ideas in physical sciences, earth systems, solar system and space; living systems; basic scientific thinking; the basic distinction between science and technology; basic connections…

  9. Nothing but the Truth? The United Nations and the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations established eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, with the target for achievement set at 2015. On the UN website a special section is devoted to the MDGs. In this article the website as it was presented in late 2013 is examined. Although the website was easy to negotiate, it was difficult to ascertain any…

  10. Behind the Public Face of Kew: Education and Conservation in the Millennium Seed Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Angela

    2010-01-01

    At its Wakehurst Place garden in West Sussex, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, has established the UK home of one of the world's largest conservation projects, the Millennium Seed Bank (MSB) partnership, a global project to conserve biodiversity by collecting and preserving seeds. This article describes what the MSB partnership does, how seeds are

  11. Learning for Development: The Commonwealth of Learning and the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth of Learning, 2011

    2011-01-01

    World leaders, meeting at the United Nations in 2000, set eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that aim to transform the condition of humankind in the 21st century. These Goals now guide the policies of governments and the priorities of development agencies. These eight goals are: (1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2) Achieve…

  12. Family-Centered Early Intervention: Clarifying Our Values for the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruder, Mary Beth

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses why the universal adoption of family-centered values and practice in early intervention is problematic in the context of the current state of early intervention. Recommendations are provided for the new millennium, including participatory research in family-centered early intervention and personnel preparation based on…

  13. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 3: Adolescent Literacy. Praeger Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.

  14. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 2: Childhood Literacy. Praeger Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.

  15. The Impact of Streaming on Attainment at Age Seven: Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Samantha; Hallam, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between stream placement and the academic progress made by children in England in Year 2 of primary school, drawing on data from the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). The MCS is a sample of 19,000 children born across the UK around the turn of the century and their families. Academic progress was…

  16. Behind the Public Face of Kew: Education and Conservation in the Millennium Seed Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Angela

    2010-01-01

    At its Wakehurst Place garden in West Sussex, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, has established the UK home of one of the world's largest conservation projects, the Millennium Seed Bank (MSB) partnership, a global project to conserve biodiversity by collecting and preserving seeds. This article describes what the MSB partnership does, how seeds are…

  17. Poverty, Education, Gender and the Millennium Development Goals: Reflections on Boundaries and Intersectionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The article considers the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) concerned with poverty, education and gender (MDG 1, MDG 2 and MDG 3). Despite considerable achievements associated with the MDG approach, which entails international and national target setting and monitoring, a sharp distinction between areas of social policy is entailed. In addition…

  18. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 3: Adolescent Literacy. Praeger Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

  19. Global Inequality, Capabilities, Social Justice: The Millennium Development Goal for Gender Equality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, E.

    2005-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for gender equality in education by 2005 has been criticised for its grandiose ambition, its failure to adequately conceptualise the nature of gender inequality or the diverse forms this takes, the inadequate policies developed to put the goal into practice and the limited measurements used for monitoring. The…

  20. 75 FR 63503 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Solar Millennium, Amargosa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... project in the Federal Register (75 FR 13301). The BLM held four public meetings and allowed the public to...] Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Solar Millennium, Amargosa Farm Road Solar Power Project, Nye County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  1. 75 FR 13301 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Solar Millennium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ...: 14X5017] Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Solar Millennium Amargosa Farm Road Solar Power Project, Nye County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... (EIS) for the Amargosa Farm Road Solar Power Project, Nye County, Nevada, and by this Notice...

  2. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Impact of the Gates Millennium Scholars Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation began an innovative scholarship program that provides full financial support to low-income minority students across the United States. The Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) program has already awarded more than 10,000 scholarships to exceptional students, with the ultimate goal of funding at least 20,000…

  3. Knowledge of Millennium Development Goals among University Faculty in Uganda and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Nabachwa, Mary Sonko; Chamberlain, Jean; Nakalembe, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the level of knowledge of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) among university faculty. The assessment is based on data from 197 academic unit or faculty heads randomly selected from universities in Uganda and Kenya. Frequency distributions and logistic regression were used for analysis. Slightly more than one in three…

  4. Radiocarbon Variability in the Tropical Pacific During the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Cobb, K. M.; Druffel, E. R.; Griffin, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    The strength of upwelling in the tropical Pacific strongly influences global climate, as demonstrated during El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) extremes. Understanding the causes of past variability in tropical Pacific upwelling will help to predict how future climate may evolve under radiative forcing caused by the increase in greenhouse gases. We measured radiocarbon (14C) records in corals collected from Palmyra (6°°N, 162°°W) and Christmas (2°°N, 157°°W) Islands, located in the central tropical Pacific, to reconstruct high-resolution variations in tropical Pacific upwelling over the last millennium. Corals incorporate 14C/12C ratios equal to those in the dissolved inorganic carbon of surrounding seawater, and thus provide monthly-resolved records of surface ocean radiocarbon concentrations back through time. Surface ocean waters are more enriched with radiocarbon than deep waters, owing to the atmospheric source for radiocarbon. Upwelled waters are depleted in radiocarbon because significant radioactive decay has occurred during their isolation in the deeper ocean. Previous work with central tropical Pacific corals has determined that upwelled waters are approximately -55‰° to -65‰° in this region, while currents flowing from the west Pacific to the east Pacific carry waters with a higher 14C signature, roughly -38‰, and waters from the east have a value of -72‰° (Konishi et. al, 1981, Druffel, 1981). Therefore, variations in 14C in the Palmyra and Christmas corals reflect the mixing of the cool, radiocarbon-depleted, waters associated with equatorial upwelling and the warm, radiocarbon-enriched waters advected from the western tropical Pacific. Oxygen isotopic (δ18O) analyses of the Palmyra and Christmas fossil corals reveal a rich climatic history of interannual to centennial variability (Cobb et al., 2003). Our approach targets specific time intervals associated with strong interannual to centennial δ18O anomalies for high-resolution radiocarbon analysis. We compare seasonally-resolved radiocarbon measurements from the Palmyra and Christmas modern corals to their fossil counterparts. The 1941 El Niño event is not associated with a significant radiocarbon departure, despite significant changes in upwelling and horizontal advection inferred from sea-surface temperature records and coral δ18O data. Indeed, high-resolution radiocarbon sampling of the 10th, 15th, and 17th century fossil corals reveals no significant radiocarbon variations associated with ENSO activity. Decadal to centennial-scale variations in radiocarbon variability are resolved by annually-averaged samples during the 10%th, 15th and 17th centuries. These analyses indicate that during active ENSO periods, the corals are more enriched in 14C than during suppressed ENSO activity. Coral radiocarbon from the 17th century, when ENSO was very prominent, averaged -51‰°, compared to -57‰° and -60‰° during the 15th and 10th centuries, respectively. Discussion of the mechanisms that would allow low variability in 14C, and large changes in δ18O, including the variations in response times of the corals to incorporating temperature differences versus radiocarbon will be presented.

  5. Diagnostic Efficiency among Psychiatric Outpatients of a Self-Report Version of a Subset of Screen Items of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders (SCID-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germans, Sara; Van Heck, Guus L.; Masthoff, Erik D.; Trompenaars, Fons J. W. M.; Hodiamont, Paul P. G.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the identification of a 10-item set of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) items, which proved to be effective as a self-report assessment instrument in screening personality disorders. The item selection was based on the retrospective analyses of 495 SCID-II interviews. The…

  6. Diagnostic Efficiency among Psychiatric Outpatients of a Self-Report Version of a Subset of Screen Items of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders (SCID-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germans, Sara; Van Heck, Guus L.; Masthoff, Erik D.; Trompenaars, Fons J. W. M.; Hodiamont, Paul P. G.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the identification of a 10-item set of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) items, which proved to be effective as a self-report assessment instrument in screening personality disorders. The item selection was based on the retrospective analyses of 495 SCID-II interviews. The

  7. A Structural Analysis of Glycosaminoglycans from Lethal and Nonlethal Breast Cancer Tissues: Toward a Novel Class of Theragnostics for Personalized Medicine in Oncology?

    PubMed Central

    Weyers, Amanda; Yang, Bo; Yoon, Dae Sung; Park, Jong-Hwan; Zhang, Fuming

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is one of the leading noncommunicable diseases that vastly impacts both developed and developing countries. Truly innovative diagnostics that inform disease susceptibility, prognosis, and/or response to treatment (theragnostics) are seriously needed for global public health and personalized medicine for patients with cancer. This study examined the structure and content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in lethal and nonlethal breast cancer tissues from six patients. The glycosaminoglycan content isolated from tissue containing lethal cancer tumors was approximately twice that of other tissues. Molecular weight analysis showed that glycosaminoglycans from cancerous tissue had a longer weight average chain length by an average of five disaccharide units, an increase of approximately 15%. Dissacharide analysis found differences in sulfation patterns between cancerous and normal tissues, as well as sulfation differences in GAG chains isolated from patients with lethal and nonlethal cancer. Specifically, cancerous tissue showed an increase in sulfation at the “6S” position of CS chains and an increase in the levels of the HS disaccharide NSCS. Patients with lethal cancer showed a decrease in HS sulfation, with lower levels of “6S” and higher levels of the unsulfated “0S” disaccharide. Although these findings come from a limited sample size, they indicate that structural changes in GAGs exist between cancerous and noncancerous tissues and between tissues from patients with highly metastatic cancer and cancer that was successfully treated by chemotherapy. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that (1) there are putative changes in the body's construction of GAGs as tissue becomes cancerous; (2) there may be innate structural person-to-person variations in GAG composition that facilitate the metastasis of tumors in some patients when they develop cancer. PMID:22401653

  8. The Effect of Response Format on the Psychometric Properties of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory: Consequences for Item Meaning and Factor Structure.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Robert A; Donnellan, M Brent; Roberts, Brent W; Fraley, R Chris

    2016-04-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is currently the most widely used measure of narcissism in social/personality psychology. It is also relatively unique because it uses a forced-choice response format. We investigate the consequences of changing the NPI's response format for item meaning and factor structure. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 40 forced-choice items (n = 2,754), 80 single-stimulus dichotomous items (i.e., separate true/false responses for each item; n = 2,275), or 80 single-stimulus rating scale items (i.e., 5-point Likert-type response scales for each item; n = 2,156). Analyses suggested that the "narcissistic" and "nonnarcissistic" response options from the Entitlement and Superiority subscales refer to independent personality dimensions rather than high and low levels of the same attribute. In addition, factor analyses revealed that although the Leadership dimension was evident across formats, dimensions with entitlement and superiority were not as robust. Implications for continued use of the NPI are discussed. PMID:25616401

  9. The role of personal self-regulation and regulatory teaching to predict motivational-affective variables, achievement, and satisfaction: a structural model

    PubMed Central

    De la Fuente, Jesus; Zapata, Lucía; Martínez-Vicente, Jose M.; Sander, Paul; Cardelle-Elawar, María

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation examines how personal self-regulation (presage variable) and regulatory teaching (process variable of teaching) relate to learning approaches, strategies for coping with stress, and self-regulated learning (process variables of learning) and, finally, how they relate to performance and satisfaction with the learning process (product variables). The objective was to clarify the associative and predictive relations between these variables, as contextualized in two different models that use the presage-process-product paradigm (the Biggs and DEDEPRO models). A total of 1101 university students participated in the study. The design was cross-sectional and retrospective with attributional (or selection) variables, using correlations and structural analysis. The results provide consistent and significant empirical evidence for the relationships hypothesized, incorporating variables that are part of and influence the teaching–learning process in Higher Education. Findings confirm the importance of interactive relationships within the teaching–learning process, where personal self-regulation is assumed to take place in connection with regulatory teaching. Variables that are involved in the relationships validated here reinforce the idea that both personal factors and teaching and learning factors should be taken into consideration when dealing with a formal teaching–learning context at university. PMID:25964764

  10. The role of personal self-regulation and regulatory teaching to predict motivational-affective variables, achievement, and satisfaction: a structural model.

    PubMed

    De la Fuente, Jesus; Zapata, Lucía; Martínez-Vicente, Jose M; Sander, Paul; Cardelle-Elawar, María

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation examines how personal self-regulation (presage variable) and regulatory teaching (process variable of teaching) relate to learning approaches, strategies for coping with stress, and self-regulated learning (process variables of learning) and, finally, how they relate to performance and satisfaction with the learning process (product variables). The objective was to clarify the associative and predictive relations between these variables, as contextualized in two different models that use the presage-process-product paradigm (the Biggs and DEDEPRO models). A total of 1101 university students participated in the study. The design was cross-sectional and retrospective with attributional (or selection) variables, using correlations and structural analysis. The results provide consistent and significant empirical evidence for the relationships hypothesized, incorporating variables that are part of and influence the teaching-learning process in Higher Education. Findings confirm the importance of interactive relationships within the teaching-learning process, where personal self-regulation is assumed to take place in connection with regulatory teaching. Variables that are involved in the relationships validated here reinforce the idea that both personal factors and teaching and learning factors should be taken into consideration when dealing with a formal teaching-learning context at university. PMID:25964764

  11. A study of structural differences between TBM patients' and non-TBM persons' CSF using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fangcheng; Wang, Xin; Xu, Huajia; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a very common infectious disease in the central nervous system. The delay of diagnosing and treating TBM will lead to high disability and mortality of TBM. Hence, it is very important to promptly diagnose TBM early. In this work, we proposed a new method for diagnosing TBM with CSF samples by using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. CSF samples from TBM patients and non-TBM persons were compared, and the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value reached 83.6%, 69.8%, 77.2%, 76.1% respectively. Our work indicated investigation of CSF using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy might become a potentially useful method for TBM diagnosis.

  12. Mystery Person

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this coordination.…

  13. Personal Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, June G.

    2003-01-01

    This newsletter presents four articles designed to help business educators educate learners in grades K-12 about personal finance. "Now More Than Ever: The Need for Financial Literacy" examines the following topics: evidence that the United States is becoming a nation of debtors; the plummeting personal savings rate; the increasing complexity of…

  14. Schizotypal personality questionnaire - brief revised (updated): An update of norms, factor structure, and item content in a large non-clinical young adult sample.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Charlie A; Hoffman, Lesa; Spaulding, William D

    2016-04-30

    This study updates and provides evidence for the dimensionality, reliability, and validity of a standard instrument for detection and measurement of schizotypy in non-clinical young adults. Schizotypy represents a set of traits on which both nonclinical and schizophrenia-spectrum populations vary meaningfully. These traits are linked to biological, cognitive, and social dimensions of serious mental illness (SMI), to clinical and subclinical variation in personal and social functioning, and to risk for SMI. Reliable and valid identification of schizotypal traits has important implications for clinical practice and research. Four consecutive independent samples of undergraduates were administered the SPQ-BR (N=2552). Confirmatory factor analyses suggested a minor item wording change improved reliability, and this Updated questionnaire was implemented for three-quarters of the sample (SPQ-BRU). A, single-order, nine-factor structure had acceptable psychometric properties. The best fitting second-order structure included four higher-order factors that distinguished Social Anxiety and Interpersonal factors. This differentiation was supported by differential relationships with treatment history. The Disorganized factor had the greatest unique relationship with personal and family treatment history. With few exceptions, factor loadings showed stability across samples. Overall, the higher-order and lower-order factors of schizotypy demonstrated reliability and convergent and discriminant validity; detailed psychometric data are presented in a supplement. PMID:27086255

  15. A cross-setting study of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) personality structure and development: zoological parks and Yerkes National Primate Research Center.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Alexander; King, James E; Hopkins, William D

    2007-11-01

    This study addressed whether personality ratings using a 43 adjective questionnaire based on the Five-Factor Model generalized from a sample of 202 zoo-housed chimpanzees to a sample of 175 chimpanzees housed in Yerkes National Primate Research Center. Mean interrater reliabilities of adjectival ratings were lower for the chimpanzees housed in Yerkes. In addition, rank order of the interrater reliabilities of items differed between settings. To compare factor structure, we first examined whether we could replicate the original six factor structure found in an earlier study of 100 zoo chimpanzees using principal factors analysis in the Yerkes sample and 102 new zoo chimpanzees. The dominance, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness factors were clearly replicated in the Yerkes sample and the 102 new zoo chimpanzees. The Neuroticism and Openness factors did not replicate in the Yerkes sample, but they also did not replicate in the new zoo chimpanzees. These findings suggest the need to sample more adjectives representing neuroticism and openness in future versions of the questionnaire. We next sought to determine whether factor structure, as determined by principal components analysis, remained invariant across the two settings. This analysis revealed dominance, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness factors in both settings and a high level of congruence between the zoo and Yerkes samples for these factors. Finally, we tested whether factor scores in the two samples were similarly related to age and sex. With the exception of differences in age effects for dominance and agreeableness, age, and sex effects were consistent across samples. These findings suggest that, whereas there may be differences in the ease with which ratings are made, personality structure, and development are largely consistent across widely differing settings. PMID:17397036

  16. Age-related changes in the structure of myocardial collagen network of auricle of the right atrium in healthy persons and ischemic heart disease patients.

    PubMed

    Burkauskiene, Ausra

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine and evaluate morphometrically age-related changes in the structure of myocardium collagen network of auricle of the right atrium in control group persons, who were not diagnosed with cardiac pathology leading to heart lesion or overload, and in ischemic heart disease patients. Material of 56 persons of both genders aged 20-94 years was used for study purposes. Biopsy material of 17 healthy persons (control group, average age 60.53+/-9.89 years) and autopsy material of 39 ischemic heart disease patients (average age 63.83+/-15.67 years) taken from the basis of auricle of the right atrium (specimen size--2 mm x 2 mm) were examined. Morphometric analysis of collagen network was performed using histologic and video morphometric methods. After this investigation we evaluated quantitative parameters of the bundles of collagen net--namely area, number, perimeter. The percentile occupied area of bundles in control group was 17.6+/-2.5%; ischemic heart disease patients group--26.8+/-2.9%; number of bundles was 4179+/-1073 and 2523+/-867; perimeter--24163+/-3308 mm and 23426+/-409 mm, respectively. After investigation of age-related changes of collagen network in control group and ischemic heart disease patients' group, which did not statistically significantly differed by age, we determined that collagen network area in auricle of the right atrium increased with age in both groups, however, spatial distribution of collagen network was different. Collagen network area enlarged with lengthening of its fibers along cardiomyocytes in control group. In ischemic heart disease group, it enlarged both in parallel to cardiomyocytes and by separate collagen fibers merging into bigger bundles. Fibrillar collagen network area and its total perimeter of healthy persons increased with age, and number of fibers did not change. Consequently, collagen fiber area of one location increased with age; its shape, judging by in parallel increasing total perimeter, became branchier, i.e. proliferated in endomysium in parallel with cardiomyocytes. In ischemic heart disease group fibrillar collagen network percentage area increased with age, however, total perimeter and number of separate fibers in visual field decreased. Consequently, in ischemic heart disease group separate collagen fibers merged, their locations enlarged, taking an integral structure, which allowed assuming development of interstitial fibrosis. PMID:15758582

  17. Financing the Millennium Development Goals for health and beyond: sustaining the 'Big Push'

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Many of the Millennium Development Goals are not being achieved in the world's poorest countries, yet only five years remain until the target date. The financing of these Goals is not merely insufficient; current evidence indicates that the temporary nature of the financing, as well as challenges to coordinating its delivery and directing it to the most needy recipients, hinder achievement of the Goals in countries that may benefit most. Traditional approaches to providing development assistance for health have not been able to address both prevalent and emergent public health challenges captured in the Goals; these challenges demand sustained forms of financial redistribution through a coordinated mechanism. A global social health protection fund is proposed to address recurring failures in the modern aid distribution mechanism. Such a Fund could use established and effective strategies for aid delivery to mitigate many financial problems currently undermining the Millennium Development Goals initiative. PMID:20932274

  18. An annually resolved bristlecone pine carbon isotope chronology for the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bale, Roderick J.; Robertson, Iain; Salzer, Matthew W.; Loader, Neil J.; Leavitt, Steven W.; Gagen, Mary; Harlan, Thomas P.; McCarroll, Danny

    We present the first near millennium-length, annually resolved stable isotope record from bristlecone pines ( Pinus longaeva, D.K Bailey). The carbon isotope ratios from the cellulose of seven trees from the White Mountains of California, corrected for anthropogenic changes in atmospheric chemistry, are used to reconstruct growing season (June through August) precipitation back to AD 1085. Extremely negative isotope results are strongly correlated with proposed severest El Niño events over the last 500 yr, and similar values in the first half of the millennium are used to reconstruct a further 13 strong El Niño events, concentrated in the 12th Century and the mid 13th and 14th Centuries. Ring-width chronologies from adjacent sites in the White Mountains demonstrate a high degree of decadal covariance with the δ 13C series, although there are several periods of notable divergence.

  19. Personal Competencies in Personalized Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Personal competencies--cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, and social/emotional--are applied by students in learning (mastery of knowledge and skills). These competencies are both acquired through learning and applied in the learning process. Personalized learning--a promising approach to education made practical by advances in…

  20. Mastering the value chain. An interview with Mark Levin of Millennium Pharmaceuticals. Interview by David Champion.

    PubMed

    Levin, M

    2001-06-01

    As today's business leaders are all too aware, a new scientific or technological break-through can quickly transform an industry's competitive landscape. The upheaval is often traumatic for the companies involved, forcing them to rethink their strategies and redefine their boundaries. But an industry in flux also creates vast opportunities. To seize them, companies must see how the current upheavals will affect the future distribution of profits--and then reinvent themselves to capitalize on the new sources of value. In this interview with HBR senior editor David Champion, Mark Levin, the founder and CEO of Millennium Pharmaceuticals, describes his vision of the future of the pharmaceutical industry in the wake of the genetics revolution and new technologies that have altered the economics of drug development. No company, he argues, will create serious long-term value by staying in just one or two stages of the value of chain. That's why Millennium, which started out doing basis research into genes and proteins and selling its findings to pharmaceutical giants, has moved downstream - toward the patients who actually use and pay for the drugs. He explains why the research end has become less lucrative than the more mechanical tasks of identifying, testing, and manufacturing molecules. Levin talks about the changes Millennium has undergone since its inception in 1993-from 30 workers to more than 1,000, and from one end of the value chain to the other. He discusses the company's cultural transformations as well as the partnerships and acquisitions that have helped millennium become involved in every stage of the chain-from gene to patient. Levin's vigorous approach to balancing long-term strategy with short-term tactics offers important lessons to any executive facing an industry upheaval. PMID:11408971

  1. New Millennium Deep Space One: A Technology Demonstration Flight to an Asteroid and a Comet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. M.; Stofan, E. R.; Raymond, C. A.; Rayman, M. D.

    1996-09-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program will launch a series of space flights to validate the technologies required for future deep space and Earth orbiting science missions. The first flight of the New Millennium series, Deep Space One, will be launched on 1 July 1998. It will fly by asteroid 3352 McAuliffe on 26 Jan 1999 and periodic comet West-Kohoutek-Ikemura on 1 June 2000. Thirteen technologies will be validated on Deep Space One including two scientific instruments, the Miniature Integrated Camera Spectrometer (MICAS) and the Plasma Experiment for Planetary Exploration (PEPE). The flight will also validate a solar powered electric ion propulsion system, a small deep space transponder, and a Ka-band solid state power amplifier. MICAS has two visible imaging channels, an ultraviolet imaging spectrometer, and an infrared imaging spectrometer. The wavelength range that is spanned by the instrument is 0.08-0.185, 0.5-1.0 and 1.3-2.6 micron. In addition to its scientific measurements, MICAS will also provide spatial referencing support to the Deep Space One autonomous onboard navigation capability. PEPE will measure electron and ion energies with ranges from 3 eV to 30 keV and ion masses from 1-135 amu. Along with its scientific measurements PEPE will study the effect of the effluents from the ion propulsion system on the spacecraft itself as well as the space environment, thus testing the applicability of ion propulsion to future space missions. Technology validation is the principal goal of the New Millennium program. However, each New Millennium flight is expected, in addition, to return a meaningful scientific result. Therefore, NASA will select a small science team to ensure that high quality data products will be available to the community for analysis. An Announcement of Opportunity for participation by selected members of the science community in the Deep Space One mission is expected be released early in 1997.

  2. A model-tested North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction for the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Pablo; Lehner, Flavio; Swingedouw, Didier; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Raible, Christoph C.; Casado, Mathieu; Yiou, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the major source of variability in winter atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere, with large impacts on temperature, precipitation and storm tracks, and therefore also on strategic sectors such as insurance, renewable energy production, crop yields and water management. Recent developments in dynamical methods offer promise to improve seasonal NAO predictions, but assessing potential predictability on multi-annual timescales requires documentation of past low-frequency variability in the NAO. A recent bi-proxy NAO reconstruction spanning the past millennium suggested that long-lasting positive NAO conditions were established during medieval times, explaining the particularly warm conditions in Europe during this period; however, these conclusions are debated. Here, we present a yearly NAO reconstruction for the past millennium, based on an initial selection of 48 annually resolved proxy records distributed around the Atlantic Ocean and built through an ensemble of multivariate regressions. We validate the approach in six past-millennium climate simulations, and show that our reconstruction outperforms the bi-proxy index. The final reconstruction shows no persistent positive NAO during the medieval period, but suggests that positive phases were dominant during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The reconstruction also reveals that a positive NAO emerges two years after strong volcanic eruptions, consistent with results obtained from models and satellite observations for the Mt Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines.

  3. A model-tested North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction for the past millennium.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Pablo; Lehner, Flavio; Swingedouw, Didier; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Raible, Christoph C; Casado, Mathieu; Yiou, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the major source of variability in winter atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere, with large impacts on temperature, precipitation and storm tracks, and therefore also on strategic sectors such as insurance, renewable energy production, crop yields and water management. Recent developments in dynamical methods offer promise to improve seasonal NAO predictions, but assessing potential predictability on multi-annual timescales requires documentation of past low-frequency variability in the NAO. A recent bi-proxy NAO reconstruction spanning the past millennium suggested that long-lasting positive NAO conditions were established during medieval times, explaining the particularly warm conditions in Europe during this period; however, these conclusions are debated. Here, we present a yearly NAO reconstruction for the past millennium, based on an initial selection of 48 annually resolved proxy records distributed around the Atlantic Ocean and built through an ensemble of multivariate regressions. We validate the approach in six past-millennium climate simulations, and show that our reconstruction outperforms the bi-proxy index. The final reconstruction shows no persistent positive NAO during the medieval period, but suggests that positive phases were dominant during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The reconstruction also reveals that a positive NAO emerges two years after strong volcanic eruptions, consistent with results obtained from models and satellite observations for the Mt Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines. PMID:26135450

  4. A wiggle-match age for the Millennium eruption of Tianchi Volcano at Changbaishan, Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jinhui; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Burr, George S.; Zheng, Yonggang

    2012-07-01

    The Tianchi Volcano, located on the border between China and North Korea, produced a massive Plinian eruption of Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) 7 around 1000 AD, which is referred to as "the Millennium eruption of Tianchi Volcano". Until now, this volcanic eruption has not been well dated. In this paper, we report a series of new calibrated dates using wiggle-match dating from carbonized logs collected from fallout deposits on the southern and northern flanks of the Tianchi crater. Fifty AMS 14C ages of tree rings from two logs were obtained for the Hengshan site, south of the Tianchi crater (Fig. 1). These yielded a high-precision wiggle-match date of 921-941 cal AD (95.4%) for the Millennium eruption. Thirty-two AMS 14C ages of tree rings of other two logs from the Dongfanghong site, north of Tianchi crater (Fig. 1), produced an age range for the volcanic eruption from 921 to 942 cal AD (95.4%). A combined date for the four carbonized logs produced an age of 923-939 cal AD (95.4%) for the Millennium eruption. Moreover, an exact date of late autumn, 938 AD or early spring, 939 AD is suggested based on the impact of the Tianchi Volcano on global climate, especially East Asian climate, and the complete outermost rings of these four trees killed in the eruption.

  5. Low Non-structured Antiretroviral Therapy Interruptions in HIV-Infected Persons Who Inject Drugs Receiving Multidisciplinary Comprehensive HIV Care at an Outpatient Drug Abuse Treatment Center.

    PubMed

    Vallecillo, Gabriel; Mojal, Sergio; Roquer, Albert; Samos, Pilar; Luque, Sonia; Martinez, Diana; Martires, Paula Karen; Torrens, Marta

    2016-05-01

    Continuous HIV treatment is necessary to ensure successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of patient-initiated non-structured treatment interruptions in HIV-infected persons who inject drugs and who received a multidisciplinary comprehensive program, including medical HIV care, drug-dependence treatment and psychosocial support, at a drug outpatient addiction center. Non-structured treatment interruptions were defined as ≥30 consecutive days off cART without medical indication. During a median follow-up of 53.8 months, 37/132 (28 %) patients experienced the first non-structured treatment interruptions. The cumulative probability of cART interruption at 5 years was 31.2 % (95 % CI 22.4-40.0). Current drug use injection ≥1/day (HR 14.77; 95 % CI 5.90-36.96) and cART naive patients (HR 0.35, 95 % CI 0.14-0.93) were predictive factors for non-structured treatment interruptions. HIV care provided at a drug addiction center is a useful strategy to sustain continuous cART, however, drug abstinence is essential for the long-term maintenance of cART. PMID:26427376

  6. Measurement Structure of the Trait Hope Scale in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Pfaller, Joseph; Moser, Erin; Tu, Wei-Mo; Chan, Fong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the measurement structure of the Trait Hope Scale (THS) among individuals with spinal cord injury. Design: Confirmatory factor analysis and reliability and validity analyses were performed. Participants: 242 individuals with spinal cord injury. Results: Results support the two-factor measurement model for the THS with agency…

  7. Are Low-Income Canadians Financially Literate? Placing Financial Literacy in the Context of Personal and Structural Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that financial literacy varies across socioeconomic groups and their neighborhoods, in part because of the adult learning that occurs within a local context. The study begins by explaining that financial literacy needs vary across socioeconomic groups and that there are important structural factors affecting the financial

  8. Children's Prosocial Conduct in Structured Situations and as Viewed by Others: Consistency, Convergence, and Relationships with Person Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Frank D.

    1980-01-01

    A sample of 41 fourth- through sixth-grade children participated in structured situations and were rated by themselves and their teachers on the same four facets of prosocial conduct (donating, helping, sharing, and cooperating). Among the results, the relationship between need for approval and prosocial conduct varied inversely with the…

  9. Are Low-Income Canadians Financially Literate? Placing Financial Literacy in the Context of Personal and Structural Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that financial literacy varies across socioeconomic groups and their neighborhoods, in part because of the adult learning that occurs within a local context. The study begins by explaining that financial literacy needs vary across socioeconomic groups and that there are important structural factors affecting the financial…

  10. Personal Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toong, Hoo-min D.; Gupta, Amar

    1982-01-01

    Describes the hardware, software, applications, and current proliferation of personal computers (microcomputers). Includes discussions of microprocessors, memory, output (including printers), application programs, the microcomputer industry, and major microcomputer manufacturers (Apple, Radio Shack, Commodore, and IBM). (JN)

  11. Removal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products during Water Recycling: Microbial Community Structure and Effects of Substrate Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Onesios-Barry, Kathryn M.; Berry, David; Proescher, Jody B.; Sivakumar, I. K. Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been shown to be biotransformed in water treatment systems. However, little research exists on the effect of initial PPCP concentration on PPCP biotransformation or on the microbial communities treating impacted water. In this study, biological PPCP removal at various concentrations was assessed using laboratory columns inoculated with wastewater treatment plant effluent. Pyrosequencing was used to examine microbial communities in the columns and in soil from a soil aquifer treatment (SAT; a method of water treatment prior to reuse) site. Laboratory columns were supplied with different concentrations (0.25, 10, 100, or 1,000 μg liter−1) of each of 15 PPCPs. Five PPCPs (4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol [biosol], p-chloro-m-xylenol, gemfibrozil, ketoprofen, and phenytoin) were not removed at any tested concentrations. Two PPCPs (naproxen and triclosan) exhibited removals independent of PPCP concentration. PPCP removal efficiencies were dependent on initial concentrations for biphenylol, p-chloro-m-cresol, chlorophene, diclofenac, 5-fluorouracil, ibuprofen, and valproic acid, showing that PPCP concentration can affect biotransformation. Biofilms from sand samples collected from the 0.25- and 10-μg liter−1 PPCP columns were pyrosequenced along with SAT soil samples collected on three consecutive days of a wetting and drying cycle to enable comparison of these two communities exposed to PPCPs. SAT communities were similar to column communities in taxonomy and phylotype composition, and both were found to contain close relatives of known PPCP degraders. The efficiency of biological removal of PPCPs was found to be dependent on the concentration at which the contamination occurs for some, but not all, PPCPs. PMID:24509919

  12. Secular variation in Western Europe during the first millennium BC New full vector data and comparison with geomagnetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervé, G.; Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.

    2011-12-01

    Archaeological structures in Western Europe are the most-used material to estimate the secular variation of the geomagnetic field during the last millennia. However there is still a lack of data especially for archaeointensities beyond the transition BC/AD, whereas already published data suggest very strong secular variation during the first millennium BC. This study presents 37 new archaeodirections and 18 new archaeointensities from France for the last 1500 years BC. Studied materials are kilns, hearths and two sets of pottery collections. Usual rock magnetism methods have been carried out to characterize magnetic grains. Archaeodirections were obtained by thermal and alternating fields demagnetization and they were corrected for thermal remanent magnetization anisotropy effects. Archaeointensities were determined with the classical Thellier-Thellier protocol with pTRM checks and take account of anisotropy and cooling rate effects. New Bayesian Western Europe secular variation curves for archaeodirection and archaeointensity were built with this new dataset and previously published data selected following reliability criteria. New curves present small variations of inclination during the last 1500 years BC. However for declination a very sharp maximum is observed around 800-750BC. Our new high-quality data set reveals also a regular decrease of archaeointensity between 800BC and the end of the first millennium BC. Our secular variation curves for France are very coherent with predicted directions computed with ARCH3K_cst.1 constrained model (Korte et al., 2009), but we note some discrepancies for archaeointensity between data and predicted values. ARCH3K_cst.1 constrained model built with archaeomagnetic and volcanic data seems more efficient than CALS3k.4 model (Korte & Constable, 2011), which includes archaeomagnetic, volcanic and sedimentary records. This study demonstrates consequently the central part of high-quality archaeomagnetic and volcanic data in the geomagnetic modelling. Moreover, thanks to the strong variation of declination and archaeointensity, archaeomagnetism is now a very useful archaeological dating tool in Western Europe for the last 1500 years. Korte, M., Donadini, F., Constable, C.G., 2009. Geomagnetic field for 0-3 ka: 2. A new series of time-varying global models, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 10, 6, Q06008, doi:10.1029/2008GC002297 Korte, M., Constable, C., 2011. Improving geomagnetic field reconstructions for 0-3ka, Phys. Earth planet. Int., doi:10.1016/j.pepi.2011.06.017, in press

  13. Balancing food and population in Nepal in the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Chitrakar, P L

    1997-07-01

    This article discusses the future need to balance population growth with the food supply in Nepal. Current efforts to meet food needs are hampered by steadily deteriorating environmental conditions. Nepal is both an agricultural country and a food exporting country. The recent declines in food production make it a low-income, food deficit country. In 1994-95, there were 16 districts in the mountains, 33 districts in the hills, and 6 districts in the terai that had food deficits. 73.3% of the 75 districts had food deficits in 1994-95. Deficits are caused by low production and high growth of population in food growing districts. Population may reach 23.3 million persons by the year 2000. As population pressure increases, all potentially cultivable land may be brought under cultivation, including forested areas. Soil degradation and other environmental deficits in the natural resource base will be further exacerbated. In addition to stress on the natural resource base and population growth, an additional problem is malnutrition caused by insufficient food consumption. The most vulnerable groups affected by malnutrition and undernourishment are preschool children and pregnant or lactating women. The challenge is to increase food production without diminishing the available resources. By 2011, Nepal will need 5.6 tons of food, or an increase of 66% in food production. 3.3 million tons were produced in 1994-95. The old development strategies have not worked. New ones are needed that include multilevel planning. Integrated regional planning is included in the new 9th 5-Year Plan to increase food production and reduce population growth. PMID:12293768

  14. From Millennium Development Goals to post-2015 sustainable development: sexual and reproductive health and rights in an evolving aid environment.

    PubMed

    Hill, Peter S; Huntington, Dale; Dodd, Rebecca; Buttsworth, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Using research from country case studies, this paper offers insights into the range of institutional and structural changes in development assistance between 2005 and 2011, and their impact on the inclusion of a sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda in national planning environments. At a global level during this period, donors supported more integrative modalities of aid - sector wide approaches, poverty reduction strategy papers, direct budgetary support - with greater use of economic frameworks in decision-making. The Millennium Development Goals brought heightened attention to maternal mortality, but at the expense of a broader sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda. Advocacy at the national planning level was not well linked to programme implementation; health officials were disadvantaged in economic arguments, and lacked financial and budgetary controls to ensure a connection between advocacy and action. With increasing competency in higher level planning processes, health officials are now refocusing the post-2015 development goals. If sexual and reproductive health and rights is to claim engagement across all its multiple elements, advocates need to link them to the key themes of sustainable development: inequalities in gender, education, growth and population, but also to urbanisation, migration, women in employment and climate change. PMID:24315068

  15. The person in the mirror: using the enfacement illusion to investigate the experiential structure of self-identification

    PubMed Central

    Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Longo, Matthew R.; Coleman, Rosie; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-01-01

    How do we acquire a mental representation of our own face? Recently, synchronous, but not asynchronous, interpersonal multisensory stimulation (IMS) between one’s own and another person’s face was used to evoke changes in self-identification (enfacement illusion). We investigated the conscious experience of these changes with principal component analyses (PCA) that revealed that while the conscious experience during synchronous IMS focused on resemblance and similarity with the other’s face, during asynchronous IMS it focused on multisensory stimulation. Analyses on the identified common factor structure revealed significant quantitative differences between synchronous and asynchronous IMS on self-identification and perceived similarity with the other’s face. Experiment 2 revealed that participants with lower interoceptive sensitivity experienced stronger enfacement illusion. Overall, self-identification and body-ownership rely on similar basic mechanisms of multisensory integration, but the effects of multisensory input on their experience are qualitatively different, possibly underlying the face’s unique role as a marker of selfhood. PMID:23123685

  16. DSM-IV Antisocial Personality Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Evidence for Taxonic Structures Among Individuals With and Without Substance Use Disorders in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Saha, Tulshi D; Hasin, Deborah S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The categorical-dimensional status of DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) conduct disorder (CD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a source of controversy. This study examined whether the underlying structure of DSM-IV CD and ASPD was dimensional or categorical (taxonic) among individuals with and without substance use disorders. Method: Using a national large representative survey of U.S. adults (n = 43,093), taxometric analyses of DSM-IV CD and ASPD diagnostic criteria were conducted on the total sample and among those with and without substance use disorders. Results: Results of three taxometric procedures were consistent in showing that the structures underlying DSM-IV CD and ASPD were clearly taxonic in the total sample and among individuals with and without substance use disorders. Comparison curve fit indices exceeded 0.57 for each model. Conclusions: Taxonic findings of the present study were in contrast to the dimensional results of prior taxometric research among incarcerated samples with substantial comorbidity of antisocial syndromes and substance use disorders. Results supported the categorical representation and diagnostic thresholds of ASPD and CD as defined in DSM-IV and DSM-5. That the structure of ASPD and CD may be taxonic suggests that further research on these disorders use group comparative designs in which samples with and without these disorders are compared in terms of sociodemographic and clinical correlates, comorbidity, and treatment utilization. The taxonic structure of ASPD and CD may contribute to future research on causal processes through which these antisocial syndromes develop. PMID:24766762

  17. The learning network. Leadership development for the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, J

    1995-02-01

    The complex process of creating a learning organization demands new methods for development and learning. Individuals need to find new ways of working together by increasing self-knowledge and changing their behavior. Learning networks, a simple but profound approach to learning, offer participants an opportunity to exchange experiences in a safe and supportive environment. Participants review their most important and difficult work and develop their interpersonal skills and self-awareness to new heights. In the spirit of empowerment and creating a learning culture, colleagues learn to listen and observe as well as ask helpful questions and offer alternative perspectives and practical ideas. They also give and receive feedback. The author explores the concepts, experiences, structures, and results of learning networks that allow readers the opportunity to contemplate a new form of development for themselves and their staffs. PMID:7844629

  18. The Extratropical Northern Hemisphere Temperature Reconstruction during the Last Millennium Based on a Novel Method.

    PubMed

    Xing, Pei; Chen, Xin; Luo, Yong; Nie, Suping; Zhao, Zongci; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Shaowu

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale climate history of the past millennium reconstructed solely from tree-ring data is prone to underestimate the amplitude of low-frequency variability. In this paper, we aimed at solving this problem by utilizing a novel method termed "MDVM", which was a combination of the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and variance matching techniques. We compiled a set of 211 tree-ring records from the extratropical Northern Hemisphere (30-90°N) in an effort to develop a new reconstruction of the annual mean temperature by the MDVM method. Among these dataset, a number of 126 records were screened out to reconstruct temperature variability longer than decadal scale for the period 850-2000 AD. The MDVM reconstruction depicted significant low-frequency variability in the past millennium with evident Medieval Warm Period (MWP) over the interval 950-1150 AD and pronounced Little Ice Age (LIA) cumulating in 1450-1850 AD. In the context of 1150-year reconstruction, the accelerating warming in 20th century was likely unprecedented, and the coldest decades appeared in the 1640s, 1600s and 1580s, whereas the warmest decades occurred in the 1990s, 1940s and 1930s. Additionally, the MDVM reconstruction covaried broadly with changes in natural radiative forcing, and especially showed distinct footprints of multiple volcanic eruptions in the last millennium. Comparisons of our results with previous reconstructions and model simulations showed the efficiency of the MDVM method on capturing low-frequency variability, particularly much colder signals of the LIA relative to the reference period. Our results demonstrated that the MDVM method has advantages in studying large-scale and low-frequency climate signals using pure tree-ring data. PMID:26751947

  19. The Extratropical Northern Hemisphere Temperature Reconstruction during the Last Millennium Based on a Novel Method

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Pei; Chen, Xin; Luo, Yong; Nie, Suping; Zhao, Zongci; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Shaowu

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale climate history of the past millennium reconstructed solely from tree-ring data is prone to underestimate the amplitude of low-frequency variability. In this paper, we aimed at solving this problem by utilizing a novel method termed “MDVM”, which was a combination of the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and variance matching techniques. We compiled a set of 211 tree-ring records from the extratropical Northern Hemisphere (30–90°N) in an effort to develop a new reconstruction of the annual mean temperature by the MDVM method. Among these dataset, a number of 126 records were screened out to reconstruct temperature variability longer than decadal scale for the period 850–2000 AD. The MDVM reconstruction depicted significant low-frequency variability in the past millennium with evident Medieval Warm Period (MWP) over the interval 950–1150 AD and pronounced Little Ice Age (LIA) cumulating in 1450–1850 AD. In the context of 1150-year reconstruction, the accelerating warming in 20th century was likely unprecedented, and the coldest decades appeared in the 1640s, 1600s and 1580s, whereas the warmest decades occurred in the 1990s, 1940s and 1930s. Additionally, the MDVM reconstruction covaried broadly with changes in natural radiative forcing, and especially showed distinct footprints of multiple volcanic eruptions in the last millennium. Comparisons of our results with previous reconstructions and model simulations showed the efficiency of the MDVM method on capturing low-frequency variability, particularly much colder signals of the LIA relative to the reference period. Our results demonstrated that the MDVM method has advantages in studying large-scale and low-frequency climate signals using pure tree-ring data. PMID:26751947

  20. Stability of ENSO and its tropical Pacific teleconnections over the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, S. C.; LeGrande, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    Determining past changes in the amplitude, frequency and teleconnections of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is important for understanding its potential sensitivity to future anthropogenic climate change. Palaeo-reconstructions from proxy records can provide long-term information of ENSO interactions with the background climatic state through time. However, it remains unclear how ENSO characteristics have changed on long timescales, and precisely which signals proxies record. Proxy interpretations are typically underpinned by the assumption of stationarity in relationships between local and remote climates, and often utilise archives from single locations located in the Pacific Ocean to reconstruct ENSO histories. Here, we investigate the long-term characteristics of ENSO and its teleconnections using the Last Millennium experiment of CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5; Taylor et al., 2012). We show that the relationship between ENSO conditions (NINO3.4) and local climates across the Pacific basin differs significantly for 100-year epochs defining the Last Millennium and the historical period 1906-2005. Furthermore, models demonstrate decadal- to centennial-scale modulation of ENSO behaviour during the Last Millennium. Overall, results suggest that the stability of teleconnections may be regionally dependent and that proxy climate records may reveal complex changes in teleconnected patterns, rather than large-scale changes in base ENSO characteristics. As such, proxy insights into ENSO may require evidence to be considered over large spatial areas in order to deconvolve changes occurring in the NINO3.4 region from those relating to local climatic variables. To obtain robust histories of the ENSO and its remote impacts, we recommend interpretations of proxy records should be considered in conjunction with palaeo-reconstructions from within the central Pacific.

  1. European summer heatwaves and North Atlantic weather regimes in the last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez Castro, Maria del Carmen; Trasancos, Romain; Yiou, Pascal

    2015-04-01

    The European summer heatwaves have been increasing in frequency and magnitude in the past decades. A higher confidence in future changes in such extremes necessitates to have a better knowledge about extremes behavior in the past climate. The last millennium is well documented in terms of climate forcings. Modelling efforts have provided a wealth of climate simulations covering the last millennium. We want to exploit such data in order to assess how models simulate extreme summer heatwaves. The surface temperature and precipitation are closely related to atmospheric patterns. It has been shown that rainy winter/spring seasons reduce the frequency of hot summer days whereas dry seasons can be followed by summers with high or low frequency of hot days. In this poster, we show the relation between winter/spring precipitation with the frequency of hot days in the 10 hottest summers in Europe and Southern Europe during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP 1150-1250), the Little Ice Age (LIA 1650-1750), and the historical-present period (1850-2005). We first focus on a millennium simulations with the IPSL model (IPSL-CM5). We use daily temperature, precipitation, and SLP data from CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) and a couple of IPSL simulations with diferents forcings. Summer weather regimes has been computed as well for NCEP sea level pressure data in order to compare observations with the same period (1948-2005) in CMIP5 and IPSL simulations outputs. We discuss and present the results comparing the effects of hydrological deficits in the preceding season, and the occurrence of specific weather regimes, during the hottest summers over Europe and SouthWestern Europe. This analysis compares differents climate forcings simulations.

  2. Palaeoceanographic changes in Hornsund Fjord (Spitsbergen, Svalbard) over the last millennium: new insights from ancient DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawłowska, J.; Zajączkowski, M.; Łącka, M.; Lejzerowicz, F.; Esling, P.; Pawlowski, J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the reconstruction of climate-driven environmental changes of the last millennium from Hornsund Fjord (Svalbard) based on sedimentological and micropalaeontological records. Our palaeo-investigation was supported by the analysis of foraminiferal ancient DNA (aDNA), focusing on non-fossilised monothalamous species. The main climatic fluctuations over the last millennium were the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, 1000-1600 AD), the Little Ice Age (LIA, 1600-1900 AD), and the Modern Warming (MW, 1900 AD-present). Our study indicated that environmental conditions in Hornsund during the MWP and the early LIA (before ~ 1800 AD) were relatively stable, resulting from the distant position of glaciers. The beginning of the LIA (~ 1600 AD) was poorly evidenced by the micropalaeontological record, but well marked in the aDNA data, by an increased proportion of monothalamous foraminifera, especially Bathysiphon sp. The early LIA (~ 1600- ~ 1800 AD) was marked by the increase in abundance of sequences of Hippocrepinella hirudinea and Cedhagenia saltatus. In the late LIA (after ~ 1800 AD), conditions in the fjord became glacier-proximal, characterised by increased meltwater outflows, high sedimentation and a high calving rate. This coincided with an increase in the percentages of sequences of Micrometula sp. and Vellaria pellucidus. During the MW, major glaciers fronts retreated rapidly to the inner bays, limiting the iceberg discharge to the fjord centre and causing the shift in the foraminiferal community reflected in both fossil and aDNA records. Palaeoceanographic changes in the Hornsund Fjord over the last millennium were driven mainly by the inflow of shelf-originated water masses and glaciers' activity. However, the environmental changes were poorly evidenced in the micropalaeontological record, but well documented in our aDNA data. We considerably increased the number of potential proxy species by including monothalamous foraminifera in the palaeoecological studies.

  3. Achieving Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5: a snapshot of life in rural India.

    PubMed

    Mullick, S S; Serle, E

    2011-09-01

    The case studies presented here illustrate the poignant reality of life for mothers and children in rural India. We highlight the challenges of achieving millennium development goals (MDGs) 4 and 5, by exploring the reasons behind maternal and childhood mortality using the three-delays model as a framework. Gender disparities, lack of empowerment of women, poor understanding of life-threatening illness, the inability to know when and where to seek help, security issues, deficiencies in understanding cultural perceptions, poorly equipped health facilities and a lack of skilled personnel are all highlighted. PMID:21951510

  4. Climate Forcing Reconstructions for Use in PMIP Simulations of the Last Millennium (v1.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.; Jungclaus, J.H.; Steinhilber, F.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Ammann, C. M.; Bard, E.; Braconnot, P.; Crowley, T. J.; Delayque, G.; Joos, F.; Krivova, N. A.; Muscheler, R.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Pongratz, J.; Shindell, D. T.; Solanki, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Simulations of climate over the Last Millennium (850-1850 CE) have been incorporated into the third phase of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3). The drivers of climate over this period are chiefly orbital, solar, volcanic, changes in land use/land cover and some variation in greenhouse gas levels. While some of these effects can be easily defined, the reconstructions of solar, volcanic and land use-related forcing are more uncertain. We describe here the approach taken in defining the scenarios used in PMIP3, document the forcing reconstructions and discuss likely implications.

  5. Holding a country countdown to 2015 conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – the Zambian experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Initiatives such as the Country Countdown to 2015 Conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided countries with high maternal and child deaths like Zambia a platform to assess progress, discuss challenges and share lessons learnt as a conduit for national commitment to reaching and attaining the MDGs four and five. This paper discusses and highlights the process of holding a successful country countdown conference and shares Zambia’s experience with other countries planning to organise country countdown to 2015 Conferences on MDGs. PMID:24447509

  6. The impact of globalisation, free trade and technology on food and nutrition in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    McMichael, P

    2001-05-01

    The millennium promises a dramatic politicisation of the food question. In addition to the prominent issues of food security, hunger and nutrition, bioengineering, food safety and quality, there are related issues of environmental sustainability, power, sovereignty and rights. All these issues are deeply implicated in the current corporate form of globalisation, which is transforming historic global arrangements by subordinating public institutions and the question of food security to private solutions. The present paper questions the self-evident association between globalisation and nutritional improvement. PMID:11681637

  7. The new millennium--what will health benefits be for the small employer?

    PubMed

    DePalma, J

    1997-01-01

    With the impending approach of the year 2000, the author considers the evolution of health benefits over the last few decades and the forces that are bound to affect health benefits for the small employer in the next millennium. This article suggests that it will be necessary to spread the cost of health care as well as other reform initiatives in order to make it possible for small businesses to have a greater voice as well as an equal share in health benefits, particularly considering that the majority of Americans work for small employers. PMID:10166971

  8. New millennium program ST6: autonomous technologies for future NASA spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, Arthur B.; Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert; Wyman, William; Brady, T.; Buckley, S.; Tillier, C.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is to validate advanced technologies in space and thus lower the risk for the first mission user. The focus of NMP is only on those technologies which need space environment for proper validation. The ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on spacecraft of the future. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve spacecraft's ability to: make decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground, determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing.

  9. Personal Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The MicroPLB (personal locator beacon) is a search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) transmitter. When activated it emits a distress signal to a constellation of internationally operated satellites. The endangered person's identity and location anywhere on Earth is automatically forwarded to central monitoring stations around the world. It is accurate to within just a few meters. The user uses the device to download navigation data from a global positioning satellite receiver. After the download is complete, the MicroPLB functions as a self-locating beacon. Also, it is the only PLB to use a safe battery. In the past, other PLB devices have used batteries that have enough volatility to explode with extreme force. It was developed by Microwave Monolithic, Inc. through SBIR funding from Glenn Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center.

  10. Personality Disorders in Persons with Gender Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Duišin, Dragana; Batinić, Borjanka; Barišić, Jasmina; Djordjevic, Miroslav L.; Vujović, Svetlana; Bizic, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Background. Investigations in the field of gender identity disorder (GID) have been mostly related to psychiatric comorbidity and severe psychiatric disorders, but have focused less on personality and personality disorders (PDs). Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of PDs in persons with GID as compared to cisgendered (a cisgender person is a person who is content to remain the gender they were assigned at birth) heterosexuals, as well as to biological sex. Methods. The study sample consisted of 30 persons with GID and 30 cisgendered heterosexuals from the general population. The assessment of PDs was conducted by application of the self-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PDs (SCID-II). Results. Persons with GID compared to cisgender heterosexuals have higher presence of PDs, particularly Paranoid PD, avoidant PDs, and comorbid PDs. In addition, MtF (transwomen are people assigned male at birth who identify as women) persons are characterized by a more severe psychopathological profile. Conclusions. Assessment of PDs in persons with GID is of great importance as it comprises a key part of personalized treatment plan tailoring, as well as a prognostic factor for sex-reassignment surgery (SRS) outcome. PMID:24959629

  11. Forced response of the East Asian summer rainfall over the past millennium: results from a coupled model simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Bin; Wang, Hongli; Kuang, Xueyuan; Ti, Ruyuan

    2011-01-01

    The centennial-millennial variation of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) precipitation over the past 1000 years was investigated through the analysis of a millennium simulation of the coupled ECHO-G model. The model results indicate that the centennial-millennial variation of the EASM is essentially a forced response to the external radiative forcing (insolation, volcanic aerosol, and green house gases). The strength of the response depends on latitude; and the spatial structure of the centennial-millennial variation differs from the interannual variability that arises primarily from the internal feedback processes within the climate system. On millennial time scale, the extratropical and subtropical precipitation was generally strong during Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and weak during Little Ice Age (LIA). The tropical rainfall is insensitive to the effective solar radiation forcing (insolation plus radiative effect of volcanic aerosols) but significantly responds to the modern anthropogenic radiative forcing. On centennial time scale, the variation of the extratropical and subtropical rainfall also tends to follow the effective solar radiation forcing closely. The forced response features in-phase rainfall variability between the extratropics and subtropics, which is in contrast to the anti-correlation on the interannual time scale. Further, the behavior of the interannual-decadal variation in the extratropics is effectively modulated by change of the mean states on the millennial time scale, suggesting that the structure of the internal mode may vary with significant changes in the external forcing. These findings imply that on the millennial time scale, (a) the proxy data in the extratropical EA may more sensitively reflect the EASM rainfall variations, and (b) the Meiyu and the northern China rainfall provide a consistent measure for the EASM strength.

  12. Emerging diseases and implications for Millennium Development Goals in Africa by 2015 - an overview.

    PubMed

    Aluwong, Tagang; Bello, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Emerging zoonotic diseases have assumed increasing fundamental importance in both public and animal health, as the last few years have seen a steady increase of new cases, each emerging from an unsuspected geographic area and causing serious problems, often leading to mortalities among animals and humans. The reasons for disease emergence or re-emergence are multiple and include certain major factors, such as expansion of the human population, climate change and globalisation of trade. Further contributing issues, such as the increased movement of animal species, microbial evolution, ecological disruption, changes in human behaviour, all imply that emerging diseases will not only continue to occur, but the rate of their emergence will also increase. These will constitute constraints for the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals by African Governments by 2015. There is no doubt that the current trend calls for more and stronger partnerships between national and international organisations, veterinary and medical communities, environmentalists, academics and policy-makers of various governments on the continent within the context of the global 'One Health' movement. This article attempts to analyse the impact of emerging diseases and the implications for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Africa by the year 2015. PMID:20560123

  13. The South American Monsoon Variability over the Last Millennium in CMIP5/PMIP3 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, M.; Arias, P. A.; Flores-Aqueveque, V.; Seth, A.; Vuille, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we assess South American Monsoon System (SAMS) variability throughout the Last Millennium as depicted by the Coupled Modelling Intercomparison Project version 5/Paleo Modelling Intercomparison Project version 3 (CMIP5/PMIP3) simulations. High-resolution proxy records for the South American monsoon over this period show a coherent regional picture of a weak monsoon during the Medieval Climate Anomaly period and a stronger monsoon during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Due to the small forcing during the past 1000 years, CMIP5/PMIP3 model simulations do not show very strong temperature anomalies over these two specific periods, which in turn do not translate into clear precipitation anomalies, as suggested by rainfall reconstructions in South America. However, with an ad-hoc definition of these two periods for each model simulation, several coherent large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies were identified. The models feature a stronger Monsoon during the LIA associated with: (i) an enhancement of the rising motion in the SAMS domain in austral summer, (ii) a stronger monsoon-related upper-troposphere anticyclone, (iii) activation of the South American dipole, which results to a certain extent in a poleward shift in the South Atlantic Convergence Zone and (iv) a weaker upper-level sub tropical jet over South America, this providing important insights into the mechanisms of these climate anomalies over South America during the past millennium.

  14. A tree-ring reconstruction of the South Asian summer monsoon index over the past millennium.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Li, Jianping; Wilson, Rob J S

    2014-01-01

    The South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) is a major atmospheric synoptic climate system affecting nearly a quarter of the human population. Climate proxy data derived from tree rings, ice cores, speleothems, and other sources can all contribute to an understanding of SASM variability prior to instrumental period. Here, we develop an optimal information extraction (OIE) method, which we use to reconstruct the SASM index (SASMI) over the last millennium using 15 tree-ring chronologies. The record generated is significantly correlated (r = 0.7, p < 0.01) with the instrumental SASMI record on annual timescales; this correlation is higher than that obtained in any previous study. The reconstructed SASMI captures 18 of 26 (69%) reordered historical famine events in India over the last millennium; notably, 11 of 16 short events with durations of 1-3 years are accurately depicted in our reconstruction. Moreover, the reconstructed SASMI is positively correlated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on multi-decadal timescales implying that variations in solar activity may influence the SASM. Based on the response of SASM to 34 significant volcanic events using the superposed epoch analysis, the volcanic forcing may drive a weak SASM in the second year of an eruption. PMID:25338702

  15. Impact of Uncertainty of Boundary Conditions on Simulations of the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeGrande, A. N.; Tsigaridis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS)-E2-R sampled the broadest range of boundary conditions for simulations of the last millennium, with a dozen different experiments sampling three different volcanic forcing scenarios, three anthropogenic land use change scenarios, and three different solar (TSI) scenarios. This suite of experiment yields 15,000 years of simulations for the last millennium. Here the forcings of these experiments are distilled down into basic fingerprints of each type of change - volcanic, solar, and, anthropogenic land use - to test whether it is feasible to detect these climate changes in various proxy archives. I will illustrate the difficulty in the detection of any of these changes in individual proxy archives, and establish the minimum critieria (given a perfect simulation) to identify solar minima, volcanic eruptions, and large changes in land use. Further, preliminary new results to illustrate the impact of various degrees of sophistication in applying volcanic forcing on the resultant climate signal will be presented. We will also study the impact of atmospheric composition on climate, by presenting results from atmosphere-only model simulations with the GISS-E2 model, which includes interactive gas-phase chemistry and aerosols at decadal-scale time slices, driven by the millennial-length coupled atmosphere-ocean simulations.

  16. Millennium tree-ring reconstruction of drought variability in the eastern Qilian Mountains, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Xiaohua; Deng, Yang; Gao, Linlin; Chen, Fahu; Cook, Edward; Yang, Meixue; Zhang, Fen

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of natural long-term drought variability is essential for water resource management and planning, especially in arid and sub-arid regions of the world. In the eastern Qilian Mountains of China, long-term drought variability based on high-resolution proxy records such as tree-ring data are still scarce to date. Here we present a new tree-ring chronology from the eastern Qilian Mountains which provides a valuable 1,002-year record (1009-2010 CE) of drought variability. The new reconstruction of June-July 5-month scale standardized precipitation and evapotranspiration index is the first millennium tree-ring estimate of past climate developed in the eastern Qilian Mountains. The record shows that this region has experienced several persistent droughts and pluvials over the past millennium, with significantly drier climate during the fifteenth century and dramatic wetting since the nineteenth century. The low frequency generally agrees with other nearby studies based on both tree-ring data and other proxy data.

  17. The Possible Role of ENSO in Persistent Pluvial Events over Eastern China during the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.; Cheng, H.

    2014-12-01

    The role of the large-scale background in driving the pluvial over eastern China during the last millennium is assessed by using the model data and paleo- proxy records. The Eastern China pluvial events during 1376-1427 and 1547-1549 as existing paleoclimatic archives are shown to be part of a global hydroclimatic regime linked to persistent La Niña-like conditions in the tropical Pacific, while which causes the other two pluvial events of 1725-1770 and 1816-1856 is not clear. The model could not produce these pluvials over eastern China during the last millennium except the events occurred in the 18th century. The AOGCM simulations of climate for the first two events are shown to reproduce many aspects of hydroclimate found in paleo-proxy records for much of the Eastern Hemisphere, northern Eurasia, with the noticeable exception of North and South America, which both strongly linked to ENSO. These results suggest that many features of global hydroclimate changes during these periods could be explained by changes in the tropical interdecadal variability centered over the central and eastern Pacific.

  18. Achieving Millennium Development Goals for Health: Building Understanding, Trust and Capacity to Respond

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Heidi J.

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical interventions promise achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals provided social-, capacity- and knowledge-based constraints to scaling up and reaching marginalized people at risk, are addressed, and balance between prevention and treatment is struck. We argue for a new approach: multi-stakeholder capacity building and learning for empowerment: MuSCLE. MuSCLE is used as a way to frame three systemic weaknesses in traditional health science and policy approaches: 1) a lack of engagement with people at risk to build a collective understanding of the contexts of health problems; 2) a lack of multi-criteria evaluation of alternative interventions; and 3) a lack of attention paid to integrated capacity building. The MuSCLE framework responds in three ways: 1) Participatory assessment of the ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political contexts of health, identifying priorities using risk and vulnerability science, and modeling drivers; 2) Selection among intervention alternatives that makes ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political tradeoffs transparent; and 3) Integrated capacity building for sustainable and adaptive interventions. Literature and field lessons support the argument, and guidelines are set down. A MuSCLE approach argues for a transformation in health science and policy in order to achieve Millennium Development Goals for health. PMID:17399849

  19. [Regionalisation of the Millennium Development Goals: markers for assessing child health in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Bedrouni, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) include measurable, quantifiable objectives that facilitate the monitoring of their progress and help focus the work of local authorities intended to improve the living conditions of their populations. Since the adoption of the Declaration of the Millennium in September 2000, Algeria has made considerable progress, with excellent scores for some objectives but substantial delays for others. We also note that even when national averages provide a satisfactory impression, they often hide striking inequalities. This work is thus an attempt to evaluate progress for one of the eight objectives on a less aggregate scale that should permit a more realistic assessment. We thus restrict this article to a single aspect child health. Successive surveys have all confirmed substantial achievements on a national scale. These improvements nonetheless remain insufficient in light of the available resources. For example, the infant mortality rate, one of the most valuable child health indicators, decreased from 46.8 per thousand in 1990 to 25.5 per thousand in 2008. Nonetheless, the same studies showed the persistence of inequalities between geographic areas, urban and rural areas, and between sexes. Additional efforts are thus necessary if we are to reach the objective of reducing the mortality rate of children under 5 years by two-thirds. Results will also be more effective if healthy policy is regionalized, especially through the promotion of the implementation of this goal at the local level. PMID:20185391

  20. The millennium water vapour drop in the stratosphere in chemistry-climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkop, Sabine; Dameris, Martin; Joeckel, Patrick; Garny, Hella; Lossow, Stefan; Stiller, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the millennium water vapour drop, the abrupt and severe water vapour decline in the stratosphere beginning in year 2000, by means of various simulations using the Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM) EMAC. Since the beginning 1980s, balloon borne stratospheric water vapour measurements and corresponding satellite measurements starting in the early 1990s indicated a long-term steady increase of water vapour concentrations. However, the multi-year data sets also show significant fluctuations on different time scales. In the year 2000, an extraordinary sudden drop of stratospheric water vapour concentration has been observed followed by persistent low values for several years. Solomon et al. (2010) showed that this drop slowed down the rate of increase in global surface temperature over the following decade by about 25%. So far, the stratospheric water vapour variations observed by satellite from 1992 to 2012 are not reproduced by CCM simulations forced by observed changes in sea surface temperatures, greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances (Gettelman et al., 2010, Randel and Jensen, 2013). However, the CCM EMAC is able to reproduce the signature and pattern of the water vapour disturbances in agreement with those derived from observations. In this paper we present results of a hierarchy of simulations with the CCM EMAC, demonstrating that it is possible to retrace the observed water vapour fluctuations in the stratosphere (incl. the millennium drop), if suitable inner and outer boundary conditions are applied.

  1. A tree-ring reconstruction of the South Asian summer monsoon index over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Feng; Li, Jianping; Wilson, Rob

    2015-04-01

    The South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) is a major atmospheric synoptic climate system affecting nearly a quarter of the human population. Climate proxy data derived from tree rings, ice cores, speleothems, and other sources can all contribute to an understanding of SASM variability prior to instrumental period. Here, we develop an optimal information extraction (OIE) method, which we use to reconstruct the SASM index (SASMI) over the last millennium using 15 tree-ring chronologies. The record generated is significantly correlated (r=0.7, p>0.01) with the instrumental SASMI record on annual timescales; this correlation is higher than that obtained in any previous study. The reconstructed SASMI captures 18 of 26 (69%) reordered historical famine events in India over the last millennium; notably, 11 of 16 short events with durations of 1-3 years are accurately depicted in our reconstruction. Moreover, the reconstructed SASMI is positively correlated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on multi-decadal timescales implying that variations in solar activity may influence the SASM. Based on the response of SASM to 34 significant volcanic events using the superposed epoch analysis, the volcanic forcing may drive a weak SASM in the second year of an eruption.

  2. Solar Imprints on Asian Inland Moisture Fluctuations over the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, M.; Zhou, A.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, C.; He, Y.; Yang, W.; Liu, W.; Li, S. H.; Liu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Solar irradiance changes are thought to play an important role in natural climate variability. How solar activities affected hydrological changes in westerly-controlled arid central Asia (ACA) on decadal/centennial timescales remains poorly investigated, due to lack of high-quality records. Here we present high-resolution multi-proxy records of lake level changes, and thus effective moisture fluctuations, over the last millennium, from a shoreline sediment core retrieved from Lake Manas, northwestern China. Besides generally confirmed relatively wet conditions during the cool Little Ice Age, records of the geophysical and geochemical indicators, including lightness, calcium counts, and C37 alkenone contents, consistently show substantial and frequent lake level fluctuations, and more importantly, resemble solar irradiance changes. Further, the ~11-year Schwabe cycle, ~70-100-year Gleissberg cycle, and relatively weak spectral power in between, as characters in the sunspot number record, together with the ~200-year Suess-de Vries cycle revealed in the reconstructed total solar irradiance records, are all evident in the higher-resolution calcium and lightness records. Together, our records clearly demonstrate solar imprints on effective moisture fluctuations in ACA over the last millennium, and the occurrence of the Schwabe cycle even during the solar minima.

  3. Chagas disease: an impediment in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Von, Anna; Hidron, Alicia; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Tellez, Ildefonso; Barragán, Maribel; Jones, Danielle; Náquira, Cesar G; Mendez, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Background Achieving sustainable economic and social growth through advances in health is crucial in Latin America within the framework of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Discussion Health-related Millennium Development Goals need to incorporate a multidimensional approach addressing the specific epidemiologic profile for each region of the globe. In this regard, addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease of American trypanosomiasis, will play a key role to enable the most impoverished populations in Latin America the opportunity to achieve their full potential. Most cases of Chagas disease occur among forgotten populations because these diseases persist exclusively in the poorest and the most marginalized communities in Latin America. Summary Addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with T. cruzi infection will contribute to improve the health of the most impoverished populations in Latin America and will ultimately grant them with the opportunity to achieve their full economic potential. PMID:17725836

  4. Coupling Between Atmospheric [CO2] and Temperature During the last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hoof, T. B.; Kuerschner, W.; Wagner, F.; Visscher, H.

    2002-12-01

    The Little Ice Age climate deterioration is the most recent cool pulse of a series of recurrent climate fluctuations throughout the Holocene. Within the ongoing discussion on the coupling of CO2 and temperature, documentation of both parameters on a high temporal resolution is needed. Recent Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstructions based on tree-ring chronologies reveal a higher amplitude for temperature fluctuations during the last millennium than proposed so far. Ice core atmospheric [CO2] records already demonstrate low amplitude fluctuations associated with the Little Ice Age. In this study an alternative high resolution CO2 record is obtained by means of stomatal frequency analysis of (sub-) fossil oak (Quercus robur) leaves. The leaf material is derived from a four meter long sediment core consisting of laminated clayey gyttja taken in an oxbow lake in the southern Netherlands. The derived CO2 reconstructions show a series of distinct shifts of higher amplitude than documented in Antarctic ice core records. The stomatal frequency based CO2 record for the last millennium suggests a dynamic atmospheric CO2 regime parallelling the temperature deviations during the last millenium referred to as the Little Ice Age and the late Medieval Warm Period.

  5. North Pacific decadal variability in the CMIP5 last millennium simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Laura E.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.

    2016-02-01

    The Pacific ocean-atmosphere system exerts an important influence on the climate of Asia and North America, but the limited length of the observational record prevents a complete understanding of its bidecadal and multidecadal time scales. Paleoclimate reconstructions provide one source of information on longer time scales, although they differ in their estimation of the behavior of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) prior to the instrumental period. Forced general circulation model simulations offer complementary long-term perspectives on both the history and dynamics of this important mode of variability. Here, we analyze the PDO in the ensemble of CMIP5/PMIP3 last millennium (past1000 + historical) simulations. We evaluate the modeled spatial, temporal, and spectral characteristics of this mode, as well as teleconnections between North Pacific variability and global climate. All models produce a mode of North Pacific variability over the last millennium with spatial patterns and spectral power density similar to observations. CCSM, FGOALS, and IPSL best reproduce observed spatial patterns, spectral characteristics, and teleconnections to terrestrial regions used in paleoclimate proxy reconstructions. In these simulations, the PDO shows no consistent response to solar or volcanic forcing.

  6. Evaluating the ENSO Impact on Last Millennium Megadroughts Using Improved Coral Forward Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, S. L.; Powell, B.; Cobb, K. M.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Merrifield, M. A.; Noone, D. C.; Nusbaumer, J. M.; Brady, E. C.; Fasullo, J.; Mai, A.; Rosenbloom, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme "megadroughts" of decadal or longer duration are observed in the proxy record, and the persistence/severity of such events are thought to be influenced by the cold phase of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). But the magnitude of this effect is difficult to quantify, both because of intrinsic atmospheric variability and because of limitations in the record of ENSO variability during megadrought epochs. Here a new, isotope-enabled version of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (isoROMS) is used to develop improved 'forward model' translations between ENSO variability and the oxygen isotopic signal (delta-18O) recorded in tropical coral skeletons over the 1940-2009 period. These forward models are nonlinear, and additionally vary with spatial resolution: at Palmyra Atoll, the action of tropical instability waves is shown to significantly impact temperature and seawater delta-18O variability in the near-reef environment. The isoROMS forward models are applied to coral records spanning the past millennium, and the resulting ENSO estimates compared with a new suite of Last Millennium simulations performed with the NCAR Community Earth System Model. Implications for identifying megadroughts forced by the tropical Pacific are discussed.

  7. A tree-ring reconstruction of the South Asian summer monsoon index over the past millennium

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng; Li, Jianping; Wilson, Rob J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) is a major atmospheric synoptic climate system affecting nearly a quarter of the human population. Climate proxy data derived from tree rings, ice cores, speleothems, and other sources can all contribute to an understanding of SASM variability prior to instrumental period. Here, we develop an optimal information extraction (OIE) method, which we use to reconstruct the SASM index (SASMI) over the last millennium using 15 tree-ring chronologies. The record generated is significantly correlated (r = 0.7, p < 0.01) with the instrumental SASMI record on annual timescales; this correlation is higher than that obtained in any previous study. The reconstructed SASMI captures 18 of 26 (69%) reordered historical famine events in India over the last millennium; notably, 11 of 16 short events with durations of 1–3 years are accurately depicted in our reconstruction. Moreover, the reconstructed SASMI is positively correlated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on multi-decadal timescales implying that variations in solar activity may influence the SASM. Based on the response of SASM to 34 significant volcanic events using the superposed epoch analysis, the volcanic forcing may drive a weak SASM in the second year of an eruption. PMID:25338702

  8. Written Discourse and Acquired Brain Impairment: Evaluation of Structural and Semantic Features of Personal Letters from a Systemic Functional Linguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortensen, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated written discourse in the form of personal letters written by ten people with aphasia following stroke and ten people with cognitive-language disorder as a consequence of traumatic brain injury, and compared their performance with 15 non brain-damaged writers. Personal letters perform the dual function of…

  9. The Number of Mentally Retarded--A Result of Steps Taken by Society? Changes in the Age Structure among Mentally Retarded Persons in Sweden 1973-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallner, Teut

    1988-01-01

    From 1973 to 1983 the number and proportion of mentally retarded persons in the total population of Sweden has not changed, but there are fewer children and young persons and more adults. The changes are hypothetically attributed to prenatal diagnosis, improved obstetrical techniques, and the introduction of antibiotics in 1948. (Author/VW)

  10. The redshift-space cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function - I. Modelling galaxy infall on to Millennium simulation clusters and SDSS groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Ying; Weinberg, David H.

    2013-06-01

    The large-scale infall of galaxies around massive clusters provides a potentially powerful diagnostic of structure growth, dark energy and cosmological deviations from General Relativity. We develop and test a method to recover galaxy infall kinematics (GIK) from measurements of the redshift-space cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function ? s_cg(r_p,r_? ). Using galaxy and halo samples from the Millennium simulation, we calibrate an analytic model of the galaxy kinematic profiles comprising a virialized component with an isotropic Gaussian velocity distribution and an infall component described by a skewed 2D t-distribution with a characteristic infall velocity vr, c and separate radial and tangential dispersions. We show that convolving the real-space cross-correlation function with this velocity distribution accurately predicts the redshift-space ? s_cg, and we show that measurements of ? s_cg can be inverted to recover the four distinct elements of the GIK profiles. These in turn provide diagnostics of cluster mass profiles, and we expect the characteristic infall velocity vr, c(r) in particular to be insensitive to galaxy formation physics that can affect velocity dispersions within haloes. As a proof of concept we measure ? s_cg for rich galaxy groups in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and recover GIK profiles for groups in two bins of central galaxy stellar mass. The higher mass bin has a vr, c(r) curve very similar to that of 1014 h-1 M? haloes in the Millennium simulation, and the recovered kinematics follow the expected trends with mass. GIK modelling of cluster-galaxy cross-correlations can be a valuable complement to stacked weak lensing analyses, allowing novel tests of modified gravity theories that seek to explain cosmic acceleration.

  11. Sensitivity of Asian climate change to radiative forcing during the last millennium in a multi-model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhengguo; Xu, Tingting; Wang, Hongli

    2016-04-01

    The outputs of last millennium (A.D. 850-1850) experiments from seven climate models of the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project 3, have been used to analyze decadal to centennial climatic variations over Asia, including the Indian monsoon, the East Asian monsoon and the westerly jet. In particular, the differences between the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, A.D. 901-1200) and the Little Ice Age (LIA, A.D. 1551-1850) are focused on. Statistically, significant temperature contrasts between the MWP and LIA are simulated by all of the models, and larger temperature deviations occur during colder periods. Although discrepancies exist, stronger Indian and East Asian summer monsoon circulations, as well as a stronger Asian westerly jet stream in winter, are found during the MWP compared to the LIA, in most of the models. These changes primarily originate from different atmospheric thermal structures over the two periods, which occur in response to the external radiative forcings. However, the monsoon-associated precipitation is quite complicated, with distinctly different patterns simulated among the models. There are phase differences in the multi-decadal variability of precipitation among the models, which consistently fail to detect a weakening in the precipitation at the minima of the radiative forcings. Only limited models are able to simulate the quasi-100-year solar cycles in the changes of precipitation over India and East Asia. Thus, although the climate system is certainly affected by external radiative forcings, our results imply that the natural forcings may not exert such a substantial influence on the Asian monsoon rainfall, or the models may underestimate the response.

  12. 76 FR 34273 - Notice of the June 22, 2011 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... CORPORATION Notice of the June 22, 2011 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine..., June 22, 2011. PLACE: Department of State, 2201 C Street, NW., Washington, DC 20520. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Information on the meeting may be obtained from Melvin F. Williams, Jr., Vice...

  13. Does Curriculum Matter?: Revisiting Women's Access and Rights to Education in the Context of the UN Millennium Development Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Lyn

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the relevance of curriculum to current UN Millennium targets to extend access to education and equality in education for women. It argues, firstly, that it is contradictory to be concerned about women's access to education but leave curriculum out of the discussion; secondly, that curriculum is not adequately seen as a…

  14. Public Perception of the Millennium Development Goals on Access to Safe Drinking Water in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eni, David D.; Ojong, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the public perception of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of environmental sustainability with focus on the MDG target which has to do with reducing the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water in Cross River State, Nigeria. The stratified and systematic sampling techniques were adopted for the study,…

  15. 77 FR 41779 - Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Hancock Compressor Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting...

  16. 78 FR 14787 - Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Hancock Compressor Project The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC or Commission)...

  17. Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium. American Council on Education/Oryx Press Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Werner Z., Ed.; Weber, Luc E., Ed.

    This collection of 17 essays focuses on the major changes that higher education needs to make so that it can effectively pursue teaching and research and significantly contribute public service in a rapidly changing world. The essays include: (1) "Survey of the Main Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium" (Luc E. Weber); (2) "Meeting…

  18. Community College Leadership in the New Millennium. New Expeditions: Charting the Second Century of Community Colleges. Issues Paper No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockaday, Jeff; Puyear, Donald E.

    In the most basic terms, the skills and attributes that produced success for the first two generations of community college leaders will be the skills and attributes required of those leading community colleges into the new millennium. The issues and the goals to be attained, however, will be somewhat different. This paper looks at the leadership…

  19. Flight Software Implementation of the Beacon Monitor Expreiment On the NASA New Millennium Deep Space 1 (DS-1) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, R.; Schlutsmeyer, A.

    1997-01-01

    A new technology that can lower the cost of mission operations on future spacecraft will be tested on the NASA New Millennium Deep Space 1 (DS-1) Mission. This technology, the Beacon Monitor Experiment (BMOX), can be used to reduce the Deep Space Network (DSN) tracking time and its associated costs on future missions.

  20. Subjective Well-Being Approach to the Valuation of International Development: Evidence for the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beja, Edsel L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The subjective well-being approach to the valuation of international development is applied to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Results indicate that the rich countries have particular preference for education, healthcare, and housing; they are willing to accept compensation for a failure to meet the three targets by 2015. The poor…

  1. Prevalence of Parent-Reported ASD and ADHD in the UK: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Ginny; Rodgers, Lauren R.; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Ford, Tamsin

    2014-01-01

    The UK prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were estimated from the Millennium Cohort Study. Case definition was if a doctor or health care professional had ever told parents that their child had ASD and/or ADHD. Data were collected in 2008/2009 for 14,043 children. 1.7%…

  2. Area and Family Effects on the Psychopathology of the Millennium Cohort Study Children and Their Older Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    Background: To model and compare contextual (area and family) effects on the psychopathology of children nested in families nested in areas. Method: Data from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study were used. The final study sample was 9,630 children clustered in 6,052 families clustered in 1,681 Lower-layer Super Output Areas.…

  3. Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium. American Council on Education/Oryx Press Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Werner Z., Ed.; Weber, Luc E., Ed.

    This collection of 17 essays focuses on the major changes that higher education needs to make so that it can effectively pursue teaching and research and significantly contribute public service in a rapidly changing world. The essays include: (1) "Survey of the Main Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium" (Luc E. Weber); (2) "Meeting

  4. Developing a Model of Compulsory Basic Education Completion Acceleration in Support of Millennium Development Goals in Magelang, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukarno; Haryati, Sri

    2015-01-01

    This article reports Year One of a two-year study to develop a model to accelerate compulsory basic education completion toward Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Magelang, Indonesia. The study focuses on five issues: (1) profile of MDGs in Magelang, (2) achievement of MDGs, (3) problems in MDGs implementation, (4) model of compulsary basic…

  5. Private Schools and the Millennium Development Goal of Universal Primary Education: A Census and Comparative Survey in Hyderabad, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Gomathi, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Development literature suggests that private schools serving the poor are not part of the solution to meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of universal primary education. The study conducted a census and survey of schools in notified slums of Hyderabad, India, to contribute to the sparse literature on the nature and extent of private…

  6. Assessing the Progress of Gender Parity in Education through Achieving Millennium Development Goals: A Case Study of Quetta District Balochistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashid, Abdul; Bibi, Zainab; Din, Siraj ud

    2012-01-01

    Using secondary data of Government Schools and literacy department for 10 years that is 2000-2010, this paper assesses the progress on the issue of gender equality within the framework of education related Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in district Quetta. The assessment is based on the selected indicators of goals by applying descriptive…

  7. 77 FR 16838 - Notice to All Interested Parties of the Termination of the Receivership of 10079-Millennium State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION Notice to All Interested Parties of the Termination of the Receivership of 10079--Millennium State Bank of Texas, Dallas, TX Notice is hereby given that the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation...

  8. 75 FR 71144 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Solar Millennium, LLC, Amargosa Farm Road...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... impacts of the proposed project was published in the Federal Register on March 19, 2010 (75 FR 13301) for... the Final EIS was published in the Federal Register on October 15, 2010 (75 FR 63503). The Final EIS... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Solar Millennium,...

  9. Deforestation fire carbon emissions for the last millennium simulated with the global vegetation model JSBACH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, Jessica; Kloster, Silvia; Wilkenskjeld, Stiig

    2013-04-01

    Humankind has fundamentally modified the Earth's terrestrial surface to secure food and other resources by conversion of natural ecosystems to managed areas. Until today, these anthropogenic changes in land cover have resulted in an extent of conversion from natural land cover by human activities to managed areas between one-third and one-half of the total Earth's land cover (Vitousek (1997)). Large parts of this conversion take place in the form of deforestation fires, which release atmospheric trace gases and aerosols into the atmosphere. These deforestation fires are climate dependent and follow a strong seasonal cycle, which is important for atmospheric chemistry. In the present study, the offline version of the JSBACH carbon pool model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) is used to simulate climate dependent deforestation fire carbon emissions over the last millennium (800-2010). For this, the standard carbon allocation scheme is extended by four additional anthropogenic carbon pools. These pools separate the carbon amount released due to anthropogenic land cover change from the carbon amount released due to natural processes to the atmosphere. The climate dependent deforestation fire emissions are simulated in the model by a linear dependency on the soil moisture. This new carbon allocation scheme results in land cover change carbon emissions, which accumulate between 800 and 2010 to 239.8 PgC. Thereby, the climate dependent deforestation fire carbon emissions accumulate over the last millennium to 182.6 PgC yr-1 in the year 2010, which accounts for 76% of the total land cover change carbon emissions. Compared to present day satellite based observational data sets (GFED3) the simulated mean deforestation fire carbon emissions (1422.5 TgC yr-1) averaged over the time period 1997-2009 are about a factor of 4 higher than the observed carbon emissions (386.4 TgC yr-1) on a global scale. However, compared to a field-observational based estimate, the simulations underestimate deforestation fire carbon emissions by around 54% for the time period 1990-2007. Generally, the simulations performed for the present study capture the observed peak fire months of deforestation fire carbon emissions. However, the length of the burning season is slightly overestimated, and the range between the maximum and minimum deforestation fire carbon emissions within a year is underestimated in the model. This study provides a consistent modelling estimate of monthly mean deforestation fire emissions for the last millennium that resolve the seasonal dependent nature of the deforestation process, which can be applied in atmospheric chemistry modelling studies.

  10. Weather and extremes in the last Millennium - a challenge for climate modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raible, Christoph C.; Blumer, Sandro R.; Gomez-Navarro, Juan J.; Lehner, Flavio

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the climate mean state are expected to influence society, but the socio-economic sensitivity to extreme events might be even more severe. Whether or not the current frequency and severity of extreme events is a unique characteristic of anthropogenic-driven climate change can be assessed by putting the observed changes in a long-term perspective. In doing so, early instrumental series and proxy archives are a rich source to investigate also extreme events, in particular during the last millennium, yet they suffer from spatial and temporal scarcity. Therefore, simulations with coupled general circulation models (GCMs) could fill such gaps and help in deepening our process understanding. In this study, an overview of past and current efforts as well as challenges in modelling paleo weather and extreme events is presented. Using simulations of the last millennium we investigate extreme midlatitude cyclone characteristics, precipitation, and their connection to large-scale atmospheric patterns in the North Atlantic European region. In cold climate states such as the Maunder Minimum, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is found to be predominantly in its negative phase. In this sense, simulations of different models agree with proxy findings for this period. However, some proxy data available for this period suggests an increase in storminess during this period, which could be interpreted as a positive phase of the NAO - a superficial contradiction. The simulated cyclones are partly reduced over Europe, which is consistent with the aforementioned negative phase of the NAO. However, as the meridional temperature gradient is increased during this period - which constitutes a source of low-level baroclincity - they also intensify. This example illustrates how model simulations could be used to improve our proxy interpretation and to gain additional process understanding. Nevertheless, there are also limitations associated with climate modeling efforts to simulate the last millennium. In particular, these models still struggle to properly simulate atmospheric blocking events, an important dynamical feature for dry conditions during summer times. Finally, new and promising ways in improving past climate modelling are briefly introduced. In particular, the use of dynamical downscaling is a powerful tool to bridge the gap between the coarsely resolved GCMs and characteristics of the regional climate, which is potentially recorded in proxy archives. In particular, the representation of extreme events could be improved by dynamical downscaling as processes are better resolved than GCMs.

  11. Simulated and reconstructed winter temperature in the eastern China during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Chen, X.; Storch, H. V.; Zorita, E.

    2006-12-01

    The reconstructed temperature anomalies in the eastern China were compared with the output from a 1000- year model simulation in an attempt to evaluate the model's regional simulation skills and to understand the causes of climate change in China over the last millennium. The reconstructed data are the winter half-year temperature anomalies in the central region of eastern China (25°-40'N, east of 105°E) for the last 1000 years with a 30-year resolution. The model used is the global atmosphere-ocean coupled climate model, ECHO-G, which was driven by time-varying external forcings including solar radiation, volcanic eruptions, and greenhouse gas concentrations (CO2 and CH4) for the same period. The correlation coefficient between the simulated and reconstructed time series is 0.37, which is statistically significant at a confidence level of 97.5%. The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) during 1000£­1300 A.D., the Little Ice Age (LIA) during 1300£­1850 A.D. and the modern warming period after 1900 A.D. are all recognizable from both the simulated and reconstructed temperatures. The anomalies associated with the LIA and the modern warming simulated by the model is in good consistency with the reconstructed counterpart. In particular during the Maunder sun-spot minimum (1670£­1710 A.D.), both the simulated and reconstructed temperature anomalies reach their minima without any phase difference. But in the earlier MWP, significant discrepancies exist between the simulation and the reconstruction, which might reflect the degrading quality of the reconstruction data. The range of the simulated anomalies (1.62 K) is comparable with that of reconstructed (2.0 K). Diagnosis of the model results indicates that, during the last millennium, variations in solar radiation and volcanic activity are the main controlling factors on regional temperature change, while in the recent 100 years, the change of the concentration of greenhouse gases plays most important role in explaining the rapid temperature rising. Keywords: last millennium climate, paleoclimate simulation, reconstruction, eastern China.

  12. THE HALO MERGER RATE IN THE MILLENNIUM SIMULATION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OBSERVED GALAXY MERGER FRACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Genel, Shy; Genzel, Reinhard; Bouche, Nicolas; Naab, Thorsten; Sternberg, Amiel E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: naab@usm.uni-muenchen.de

    2009-08-20

    We have developed a new method to extract halo merger rates from the Millennium Simulation. First, by removing superfluous mergers that are artifacts of the standard friends-of-friends (FOF) halo identification algorithm, we find a lower merger rate compared to previous work. The reductions are more significant at lower redshifts and lower halo masses, and especially for minor mergers. Our new approach results in a better agreement with predictions from the extended Press-Schechter model. Second, we find that the FOF halo finder overestimates the halo mass by up to 50% for halos that are about to merge, which leads to an additional {approx}20% overestimate of the merger rate. Therefore, we define halo masses by including only particles that are gravitationally bound to their FOF groups. We provide new best-fitting parameters for a global formula to account for these improvements. In addition, we extract the merger rate per progenitor halo, as well as per descendant halo. The merger rate per progenitor halo is the quantity that should be related to observed galaxy merger fractions when they are measured via pair counting. At low-mass/redshift, the merger rate increases moderately with mass and steeply with redshift. At high enough mass/redshift (for the rarest halos with masses a few times the 'knee' of the mass function), these trends break down, and the merger rate per progenitor halo decreases with mass and increases only moderately with redshift. Defining the merger rate per progenitor halo also allows us to quantify the rate at which halos are being accreted onto larger halos, in addition to the minor and major merger rates. We provide an analytic formula that converts any given merger rate per descendant halo into a merger rate per progenitor halo. Finally, we perform a direct comparison between observed merger fractions and the fraction of halos in the Millennium Simulation that have undergone a major merger during the recent dynamical friction time, and find a fair agreement, within the large uncertainties of the observations. Our new halo merger trees are available at http://www.mpe.mpg.de/ir/MillenniumMergerTrees/.

  13. Personalization in Historical Descriptions and Explanations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallden, Ola

    1998-01-01

    Aspects of personalization in historical descriptions and explanations are explored, considering conceptualizations of great leaders, the personification of institutions, and the tendency of students to transform structural explanations into personalization. It is argued that personalization is central to a common-sense concept of history. (SLD)

  14. Borderline Personality

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2004-01-01

    BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER (BPD) IS A COMPLEX AXIS II Phenomenon that is typically described in a psychological or psychiatric context. In this article, we translate the various aspects of BPD to the primary care setting. Previous work in this area has explored specific relationships between BPD and individual medical disorders or between BPD and general somatic symptoms, but the synthesis of these findings and their augmentation with cogent psychological theory is new to the field. Specifically, we highlight the prevalence rate of BPD in the primary care setting, the effects on healthcare utilization, the themes of somatic preoccupation and somatization disorder, several medical syndromes that illustrate the dynamics of the disorder in the medical setting, and the relationship of BPD to disability. We believe that the BPD concept needs to extend beyond its traditional psychological/psychiatric borders to include the subset of BPD patients with somatic symptoms who are seen in primary care settings. PMID:21197375

  15. Portable Detection of Melamine in Milk Using a Personal Glucose Meter Based on an in Vitro Selected Structure-Switching Aptamer.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chunmei; Lan, Tian; Shi, Hanchang; Lu, Yi

    2015-08-01

    Melamine detection in milk and other foods has attracted much attention since the discovery that melamine-adulterated food causes severe kidney damage. Although many methods have been developed to detect melamine, few methods can provide quantitative results using an affordable and portable device that is suitable for home use or field application. To achieve this goal, we herein report the first in vitro selection of a melamine responsive aptamer using a structure-switching method. A personal glucose meter (PGM) based melamine sensor was designed and subsequently tested using the newly isolated aptamer. Conversion of melamine concentration to glucose amount was achieved by including an invertase-conjugated DNA that is complementary to part of the aptamer. Melamine binding triggers the release of the invertase-DNA conjugate, which hydrolyzes sucrose into glucose. The glucose produced is then measured directly using an off-the-shelf PGM. The described sensor shows high selectivity for melamine against several closely related melamine analogues, such as cyanuric acid, ammeline, and ammelide, and has low detection limits of 0.33 μM (or 41.1 ppb) in buffer and 0.53 μM (or 67.5 ppb) in 80% whole milk without any pretreatment. The detection limits meet the threshold of 2.5 ppm for non-infant-formula products and 1 ppm for melamine in infant milk products as defined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition to the PGM sensor demonstrated here, the same aptamer can be converted into other types of sensors with different signal outputs, allowing portable detection of melamine under a variety of conditions. PMID:26200202

  16. Antisocial Personality Disorder Subscale (Chinese Version) of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II disorders: validation study in Cantonese-speaking Hong Kong Chinese.

    PubMed

    Tang, D Y Y; Liu, A C Y; Leung, M H T; Siu, B W M

    2013-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a risk factor for violence and is associated with poor treatment response when it is a co-morbid condition with substance abuse. It is an under-recognised clinical entity in the local Hong Kong setting, for which there are only a few available Chinese-language diagnostic instruments. None has been tested for its psychometric properties in the Cantonese-speaking population in Hong Kong. This study therefore aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the ASPD subscale of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) in Hong Kong Chinese. METHODS. This assessment tool was modified according to dialectal differences between Mainland China and Hong Kong. Inpatients in Castle Peak Hospital, Hong Kong, who were designated for priority follow-up based on their assessed propensity for violence and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the study, were recruited. To assess the level of agreement, best-estimate diagnosis made by a multidisciplinary team was compared with diagnostic status determined by the SCID-II ASPD subscale. The internal consistency, sensitivity, and specificity of the subscale were also calculated. RESULTS. The internal consistency of the subscale was acceptable at 0.79, whereas the test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability showed an excellent and good agreement of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. Best-estimate clinical diagnosis-SCID diagnosis agreement was acceptable at 0.76. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 0.91, 0.86, 0.83, and 0.93, respectively. CONCLUSION. The Chinese version of the SCID-II ASPD subscale is reliable and valid for diagnosing ASPD in a Cantonese-speaking clinical population. PMID:23807628

  17. Coherent anti-phasing between solar forcing and tropical Pacific climate over the past millennium: derivation and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile-Geay, J.; Cobb, K.; Mann, M. E.; Wittenberg, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    Using a compilation of the most recent, high-resolution proxy data from the tropics, and a state-of-the-art climate reconstruction technique (RegEM iTTLS; Emile-Geay et al, submitted), we reconstruct sea-surface temperature (SST) in the central equatorial Pacific (NINO3.4 region) over the past millennium. Using frozen network experiments and pseudoproxy validation, the reconstruction is found skillful back to 1150 C.E., with inevitable amplitude reduction before 1500 C.E. due to the paucity of proxy predictors. Despite this caveat, wavelet coherency analysis reveals a marked anticorrelation between solar forcing (as estimated from cosmogenic isotope concentrations; Bard et al., 2007; Steinhilber et al., 2009) and the reconstructed NINO3.4 in the ~sim205-year spectral range (DeVries cycle). The phase angle between both signals is 156 ± 33o in this range, indicating that periods of high solar irradiance coincide with cool conditions in the NINO3.4 region, with time lag of 14 ± 19 years. We find this result robust to the reconstruction method, estimate of solar forcing, or analysis method used to estimate the phasing. We then discuss the implication of this result for the response of tropical Pacific climate to radiative forcing. While the anti-phasing seems to favor the ``ocean dynamical thermostat'' hypothesis of Clement et al [1996], this feedback appears subdued in most IPCC-class coupled general circulation models (CGCMs), where it is almost completely compensated by changes in the Pacific trade winds, linked to changes in the vertical structures of atmospheric moisture and temperature (Knutson & Manabe 1995; Held & Soden 2006; Vecchi et al. 2006). If the reconstruction is correct that past NINO3.4 SSTs have varied out of phase with solar irradiance on bicentennial scales, this would pose a new challenge both for CGCM simulations and for our understanding of the equatorial Pacific response to radiative forcing Clement, A. C., Seager, R., Cane, M. A., and Zebiak, S. E. (1996). An ocean dynamical thermostat. J. Clim., 9(9):2190-2196. Emile-Geay, J., K. Cobb, M. Mann, and A. T. Wittenberg, Estimating Tropical Pacific SST variability over the Past Millennium. Part 1: Methodology and Validation. J. Clim., submitted. available at: http://college.usc.edu/labs/jeg/publications/. Held, Isaac M., Brian J. Soden, 2006: Robust Responses of the Hydrological Cycle to Global Warming. J. Climate, 19, 5686-5699. doi: 10.1175/JCLI3990.1 Steinhilber, F., Beer, J., and Fröhlich, C. (2009). Total solar irradiance during the Holocene. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36:L19704. Vecchi, G. A., Soden, B. J., Wittenberg, A. T., Held, I. M., Leetmaa, A., and Harrison, M. J. (2006). Weakening of tropical Pacific atmospheric circulation due to anthropogenic forcing. Nature, 441:73-76.

  18. Cognitive Function and Brain Structure in Persons With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus After Intensive Lowering of Blood Pressure and Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Jeff D.; Launer, Lenore J.; Bryan, R. Nick; Coker, Laura H.; Lazar, Ronald M.; Gerstein, Hertzel C.; Murray, Anne M.; Sullivan, Mark D.; Horowitz, Karen R.; Ding, Jingzhong; Marcovina, Santica; Lovato, Laura; Lovato, James; Margolis, Karen L.; Davatzikos, Christos; Barzilay, Joshua; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Linz, Peter E.; Miller, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk for decline in cognitive function, reduced brain volume, and increased white matter lesions in the brain. Poor control of blood pressure (BP) and lipid levels are risk factors for T2DM-related cognitive decline, but the effect of intensive treatment on brain function and structure is unknown. OBJECTIVE To examine whether intensive therapy for hypertension and combination therapy with a statin plus a fibrate reduces the risk of decline in cognitive function and total brain volume (TBV) in patients with T2DM. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A North American multicenter clinical trial including 2977 participants without baseline clinical evidence of cognitive impairment or dementia and with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels less than 7.5% randomized to a systolic BP goal of less than 120 vs less than 140 mm Hg (n = 1439) or to a fibrate vs placebo in patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels less than 100 mg/dL (n = 1538). Participants were recruited from August 1, 2003, through October 31, 2005, with the final follow-up visit by June 30, 2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Cognition was assessed at baseline and 20 and 40 months. A subset of 503 participants underwent baseline and 40-month brain magnetic resonance imaging to assess for change in TBV and other structural measures of brain health. RESULTS Baseline mean HbA1c level was 8.3%; mean age, 62 years; and mean duration of T2DM, 10 years. At 40 months, no differences in cognitive function were found in the intensive BP-lowering trial or in the fibrate trial. At 40 months, TBV had declined more in the intensive vs standard BP-lowering group (difference, −4.4 [95% CI, −7.8 to −1.1] cm3; P = .01). Fibrate therapy had no effect on TBV compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In participants with long-standing T2DM and at high risk for cardiovascular events, intensive BP control and fibrate therapy in the presence of controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels did not produce a measurable effect on cognitive decline at 40 months of follow-up. Intensive BP control was associated with greater decline in TBV at 40 months relative to standard therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000620 PMID:24493100

  19. [Personality disorders in the DSM-5].

    PubMed

    Kuritrn Szab, Ildik

    2012-01-01

    Significant changes are proposed in the personality disorders section of the 5th. edition of the DSM. The article summarizes the historical background of the personality disorder classification, including personality-types theory, trait-theory, and clinical concepts based upon psychiatric and psychoanalytical traditions. After briefly summarizing concerns on current approach to diagnosing personality disorders in DSM-IV, we summarise the most important features of the newly developed personality disorders classification, including concepts have been modified during long years of investigation. The new system will have modified less than was originally intended, and will be a hybrid model of dimensional categorical approach to diagnosing personality disorders. The ten personality disorder types are reduced to six, and they will have new criteria based on maladaptive trait dimensions. The trait structure model was derived from existing personality and personality disorder trait models, and includes five broad higher-order trait domains, which are negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism. A new set of general criteria are developed for defining personality disorder. Self and interpersonal functioning represent the core impairment in personality functioning central to personality disorder, and the presence of maladaptive personality traits is also required. Severity continuum of personality pathology can be rated on the Levels of Personality Functioning Scale. PMID:23180732

  20. The worst North American drought year of the last millennium: 1934

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Seager, Richard; Smerdon, Jason E.

    2014-10-01

    During the summer of 1934, over 70% of western North America experienced extreme drought, placing this summer far outside the normal range of drought variability and making 1934 the single worst drought year of the last millennium. Strong atmospheric ridging along the West Coast suppressed cold season precipitation across the Northwest, Southwest, and California, a circulation pattern similar to the winters of 1976-1977 and 2013-2014. In the spring and summer, the drying spread to the Midwest and Central Plains, driven by severe precipitation deficits downwind from regions of major dust storm activity, consistent with previous work linking drying during the Dust Bowl to anthropogenic dust aerosol forcing. Despite a moderate La Niña, contributions from sea surface temperature forcing were small, suggesting that the anomalous 1934 drought was primarily a consequence of atmospheric variability, possibly amplified by dust forcing that intensified and spread the drought across nearly all of western North America.

  1. Professional leadership in obstetrics and gynecology and its contribution to Millennium Development Goal 5.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David J

    2012-10-01

    National professional associations of obstetrics and gynecology characteristically begin as learned societies holding regular conferences for the presentation and discussion of new research results, and progress to regulating the activities of their members in the public interest (e.g. admission examinations, setting standards). However, they can offer much more to their nation's health by contributing directly to improvements in health care and influencing governmental decisions in favor of the health of women and babies. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), through the Leadership in Obstetrics and Gynecology for Impact and Change (LOGIC) initiative, is developing the capacity of national professional associations in Africa and Asia, so that they can contribute to improving clinical practice and influence national health policy toward achieving Millennium Development Goal 5. PMID:22884822

  2. Galaxy Number Counts Applied to a Semi-Analytic Galaxy Model in the Millennium Run Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucklein, Brian; Moody, J. W.; Hintz, E. G.

    2010-01-01

    The Millennium Run simulation used more than 10 billion particles to trace the evolution of the dark matter distribution in a ΛCDM cosmology in a cubic region of the Universe over 2 billion light-years on a side. This data was used by Croton et al. as the basis of a semi-analytic galaxy model, allowing the region to be populated with more than 9 million galaxies brighter than Mr = -17.4. We visually analyze this galaxy catalog searching for significant voids and then apply galaxy number count (GNC) analysis to the lines-of-sight to these voids. Using Wolf plots, we investigate whether GNC analysis would allow us to locate voids within the sample without the need to first find them visually.

  3. Sutherland's legacy in the new millennium: the osteopathic cranial model and modern osteopathy.

    PubMed

    Bordoni, Bruno; Zanier, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The concept of cranial osteopathy was introduced by W. G. Sutherland, DO, and became the foundation for setting the rules for use of skull palpation and many other techniques in the many types of dysfunctional patterns that craniosacral therapy treats. Sutherland's theories enabled modern osteopathy to develop and improve. The mechanism of primary respiration as well as the motion of neurocranial and viscerocranial sutures are phenomena intrinsic to the field and can be found in every living organism, independent of thoracic breathing and cardiac impulse. The sphenobasilar synchondrosis (ie, the joint between the base of the occiput and the body of the sphenoid bone) is the pillar supporting the concepts of craniosacral therapy. This article compares the cranial model devised by Sutherland with the present, relevant scientific research, aiming at clarifying the possibility of applying the craniosacral model in the new millennium. PMID:25831430

  4. Climate variability in China during the last millennium based on reconstructions and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Bustamante, E.; Luterbacher, J.; Xoplaki, E.; Werner, J. P.; Jungclaus, J.; Zorita, E.; González-Rouco, J. F.; Fernández-Donado, L.; Hegerl, G.; Ge, Q.; Hao, Z.; Wagner, S.

    2012-04-01

    Multi-decadal to centennial climate variability in China during the last millennium is analysed. We compare the low frequency temperature and precipitation variations from proxy-based reconstructions and palaeo-simulations from climate models. Focusing on the regional responses to the global climate evolution is of high relevance due to the complexity of the interactions between physical mechanisms at different spatio-temporal scales and the potential severity of the derived multiple socio-economic impacts. China stands out as a particularly interesting region, not only due to its complex climatic features, ranging from the semiarid northwestern Tibetan Plateau to the tropical monsoon southeastern climates, but also because of its wealth of proxy data. However, comprehensive assessments of proxy- and model-based information about palaeo-climatic variations in China are, to our knowledge, still lacking. In addition, existing studies depict a general lack of agreement between reconstructions and model simulations with respect to the amplitude and/or occurrence of warmer/colder and wetter/drier periods during the last millennium and the magnitude of the 20th century warming trend. Furthermore, these works are mainly focused on eastern China regions that show a denser proxy data coverage. We investigate how last millennium palaeo-runs compare to independent evidences from an unusual large number of proxy reconstructions over the study area by employing state-of-the-art palaeo-simulations with multi-member ensembles from the CMIP5/PMIP3 project. This shapes an ideal frame for the evaluation of the uncertainties associated to internal and intermodel model variability. Preliminary results indicate that despite the strong regional and seasonal dependencies, temperature reconstructions in China evidence coherent variations among all regions at centennial scale, especially during the last 500 years. The spatial consistency of low frequency temperature changes is an interesting aspect and of relevance for the assessment of forced climatic responses in China. The comparison between reconstructions and simulations from climate models show that, apart from the 20th century warming trend, the variance of the reconstructed mean China temperature lies in the envelope (uncertainty range) spanned by the temperature simulations. The uncertainty arises from the internal (multi-member ensembles) and the inter-model variability. Centennial variations tend to be broadly synchronous in the reconstructions and the simulations. However, the simulations show a delay of the warm period 1000-1300 AD. This warm medieval period both in the simulations and the reconstructions is followed by cooling till 1800 AD. Based on the simulations, the recent warming is not unprecedented and is comparable to the medieval warming. Further steps of this study will address the individual contribution of anthropogenic and natural forcings on climate variability and change during the last millennium in China. We will make use of of models that provide runs including single forcings (fingerprints) for the attribution of climate variations from decadal to multi-centennial time scales. With this aim, we will implement statistical techniques for the detection of optimal signal-to-noise-ratio between external forcings and internal variability of reconstructed temperatures and precipitation. To apply these approaches the uncertainties associated with both reconstructions and simulations will be estimated. The latter will shed some light into the mechanisms behind current climate evolution and will help to constrain uncertainties in the sensitivity of model simulations to increasing CO2 scenarios of future climate change. This work will also contribute to the overall aims of the PAGES 2k initiative in Asia (http://www.pages.unibe.ch/workinggroups/2k-network)

  5. The Indian Ocean Zonal Mode over the past millennium in observed and modeled precipitation isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konecky, Bronwen; Russell, James; Vuille, Mathias; Rehfeld, Kira

    2014-11-01

    The Indian Ocean Zonal Mode (IOZM) has gained considerable attention in the past decade due to its role in causing widespread flooding and droughts in the continents and islands surrounding the Indian Ocean. The IOZM has also been observed to vary on a low-frequency (multi-decadal) basis, making its behavior important to understand both for mid-range 21st century climate prediction and for paleoclimate studies. Despite efforts to reconstruct the IOZM using corals and other high-resolution proxies, nonstationarities in the response of paleoclimate proxies to the IOZM have also been noted, raising the possibility that the IOZM may be difficult to reconstruct or to predict in the long-term. It is therefore critical to assess the low-frequency component of the IOZM in observed, modeled, and paleoclimate data from the Indian Ocean region in order to identify nonstationary behavior and to assess its role in low-frequency climate variations. We present an analysis of low-frequency and nonstationary behavior in the IOZM on multi-decadal to centennial timescales using a combination of modeled, observed, and proxy reconstructions of ?18O/?Dprecip. In order to assess multiple timescales of low-frequency variability, we focus on two key time periods: the historical period (1870-2003), and the past millennium (1000C.E.-present). We find significant nonstationarities in the relationships between the IOZM, precipitation amount, and ?18Oprecip/?Dprecip during the historical period. These relationships vary on a multi-decadal basis in our model and in observed/reanalysis datasets. Air-sea interactions in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool and teleconnections to the Pacific Ocean, as well as the phase of the IOZM itself, may contribute to this nonstationary behavior. We examine the potential ramifications of nonstationary IOZM behavior using a synthesis of spatially distributed proxy archives of ?18Oprecip/?Dprecip from both sides of the IOZM region spanning the past millennium. Our findings indicate that during the past millennium, a strong IOZM-like connection exists in the proxy data network, with anti-correlation between East Africa and Indonesia. However, the links are spatially limited and in some cases timescale-dependent. Nonlinear behaviors in these links suggest that the IOZM may be difficult to detect on a consistent basis in proxy records from the past millennium. Based on our modeling results, the inconsistent links in the IOZM proxy network may arise from temporally and spatially variable relationships between the IOZM, precipitation, and ?18Oprecip/?Dprecip. We conclude that the IOZM's potential to influence the climate of the Indian Ocean region is inconsistently reflected in proxy data, and that due to the changing strength of the IOZM/?18Oprecip/?Dprecip relationship, its spatial "footprint" may be restricted on multi-decadal to multi-centennial timescales.

  6. The Worst North American Drought Year of the Last Millennium: 1934

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin Issac; Seager, Richard; Smerdon, Jason E.

    2014-01-01

    During the summer of 1934, over 70 of Western North America experienced extreme drought, conditions far outside the normal range of drought variability and making 1934 the single worst drought year of the last millennium. Strong ridging along the west coast suppressed cold season precipitation across the Northwest, Southwest, and California, a circulation pattern similar to the winters of 19761977 and 20132014. In the spring and summer, the drying spread to the Mid- west and Central Plains, driven by severe precipitation deficits downwind from regions of major dust storm activity, consistent with previous work linking drying during the Dust Bowl to anthropogenic dust aerosol forcing. Despite a moderate La Nina, contributions from sea surface temperature forcing appear small, suggesting that the anomalous 1934 drought was primarily a consequence of atmospheric variability, amplified by dust forcing that allowed the drought to in- tensify and spread across nearly the entirety of Western North America.

  7. The Worst North American Drought Year of the Last Millennium: 1934

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Seager, Richard; Smerdon, Jason E.

    2014-01-01

    During the summer of 1934, over 70 of Western North America experienced extreme drought, placing this summer far outside the normal range of drought variability and making 1934 the single worst drought year of the last millennium. Strong atmospheric ridging along the West Coast suppressed cold season precipitation across the Northwest, Southwest, and California, a circulation pattern similar to the winters of 1976-1977 and 2013-2014. In the spring and summer, the drying spread tothe Midwest and Central Plains, driven by severe precipitation deficits downwind from regions of major dust storm activity, consistent with previous work linking drying during the Dust Bowl to anthropogenic dust aerosol forcing. Despite a moderate La Nia, contributions from sea surface temperature forcing were small, suggesting that the anomalous 1934 drought was primarily a consequence of atmospheric variability, possibly amplified by dust forcing that intensified and spread the drought across nearly all of Western North America.

  8. The geomagnetic field intensity variations in the Iberian Peninsula during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Akimova, S. V.

    2015-09-01

    The pattern of variations in the intensity of the geomagnetic field starting from the middle of the sixth millennium B.C. is reconstructed from the data about the intensity of the ancient geomagnetic field in the region of the Iberian Peninsula provided by the archaeomagnetic studies of ceramics from archaeological monuments. In this time interval, the intensity of the field widely varies from ~30 to ~90 µT. The smooth variation of the field is superimposed by the variations with characteristic times from thousands to hundreds of years. The intensity variations can be subdivided into two groups: rather sharp variations with a characteristic duration of about 200 years and smooth quasi-harmonic fluctuations with a duration of a few hundred years.

  9. Achieving the health Millennium Development Goals for South Africa: challenges and priorities.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Mickey; Lawn, Joy E; Sanders, David; Barron, Peter; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Bradshaw, Debbie; Jewkes, Rachel; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Flisher, Alan J; Mayosi, Bongani M; Tollman, Stephen M; Churchyard, Gavin J; Coovadia, Hoosen

    2009-09-19

    15 years after liberation from apartheid, South Africans are facing new challenges for which the highest calibre of leadership, vision, and commitment is needed. The effect of the unprecedented HIV/AIDS epidemic has been immense. Substantial increases in mortality and morbidity are threatening to overwhelm the health system and undermine the potential of South Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However The Lancet's Series on South Africa has identified several examples of leadership and innovation that point towards a different future scenario. We discuss the type of vision, leadership, and priority actions needed to achieve such a change. We still have time to change the health trajectory of the country, and even meet the MDGs. The South African Government, installed in April, 2009, has the mandate and potential to address the public health emergencies facing the country--will they do so or will another opportunity and many more lives be lost? PMID:19709737

  10. Millennium Development Goals progress: a perspective from sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    English, Mike; English, Rex; English, Atti

    2015-02-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is a highly diverse geo-political region. Any brief discussion of the progress made over the last 15 years towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will therefore not do justice to the true complexity of context and events. Our focus will be MDG4-to reduce child mortality by 66% from 1990 levels. We will touch briefly on MDG1, to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, MDG2, to achieve universal primary education, and MDG5, to improve maternal health, which are inextricably linked with child well-being. We will also draw on an eclectic mix of additional global indicators. Acknowledging the limitations of this approach, we first offer a summary of expected progress and then point to debates on future goals. PMID:25613971

  11. New joints for the Millennium: wear control in total replacement hip joints.

    PubMed

    Dowson, D

    2001-01-01

    Hip joint replacement is described as the greatest achievement in orthopaedic surgery in the twentieth century. The field has been dominated for some forty years by implants based upon metallic femoral heads and stems and polymeric acetabular cups. At the dawn of the new Millennium, many alternative materials and designs are now being proposed or evaluated. The reasons for these developments and the current contributions of engineering science and tribology to advances in hip replacement are discussed. Illustrations are presented of the significant changes being proposed or introduced. While the new designs of total hip replacements offer exciting engineering contributions to the future of joint replacement, the long-term benefits to patients will depend upon the biological response to the new devices. PMID:11521758

  12. El Niño/Southern Oscillation and tropical Pacific climate during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Kim M; Charles, Christopher D; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence

    2003-07-17

    Any assessment of future climate change requires knowledge of the full range of natural variability in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Here we splice together fossil-coral oxygen isotopic records from Palmyra Island in the tropical Pacific Ocean to provide 30-150-year windows of tropical Pacific climate variability within the last 1,100 years. The records indicate mean climate conditions in the central tropical Pacific ranging from relatively cool and dry during the tenth century to increasingly warmer and wetter climate in the twentieth century. But the corals also document a broad range of ENSO behaviour that correlates poorly with these estimates of mean climate. The most intense ENSO activity within the reconstruction occurred during the mid-seventeenth century. Taken together, the coral data imply that the majority of ENSO variability over the last millennium may have arisen from dynamics internal to the ENSO system itself. PMID:12867972

  13. Development of an Ion Thruster and Power Processor for New Millennium's Deep Space 1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Hamley, John A.; Haag, Thomas W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pencil, Eric J.; Peterson, Todd T.; Pinero, Luis R.; Power, John L.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Anderson, John R.; Bond, Thomas A.; Cardwell, G. I.; Christensen, Jon A.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness Program (NSTAR) will provide a single-string primary propulsion system to NASA's New Millennium Deep Space 1 Mission which will perform comet and asteroid flybys in the years 1999 and 2000. The propulsion system includes a 30-cm diameter ion thruster, a xenon feed system, a power processing unit, and a digital control and interface unit. A total of four engineering model ion thrusters, three breadboard power processors, and a controller have been built, integrated, and tested. An extensive set of development tests has been completed along with thruster design verification tests of 2000 h and 1000 h. An 8000 h Life Demonstration Test is ongoing and has successfully demonstrated more than 6000 h of operation. In situ measurements of accelerator grid wear are consistent with grid lifetimes well in excess of the 12,000 h qualification test requirement. Flight hardware is now being assembled in preparation for integration, functional, and acceptance tests.

  14. Implications of high amplitude atmospheric CO2 fluctuations on past millennium climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hoof, Thomas; Kouwenberg, Lenny; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Visscher, Henk

    2010-05-01

    Stomatal frequency analysis of leaves of land plants preserved in peat and lake deposits can provide a proxy record of pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration complementary to measurements in Antarctic ice cores. Stomatal frequency based CO2 trends from the USA and NW European support the presence of significant CO2 variability during the first half of the last millennium (Kouwenberg et al., 2005; Wagner et al., 2004; van Hoof et al., 2008). The timing of the most significant perturbation in the stomata records (1200 AD) is in agreement with an observed CO2 fluctuation in the D47 Antarctic ice-core record (Barnola et al., 1995; van Hoof et al., 2005). The amplitude of the stomatal frequency based CO2 changes (> 34ppmv) exceeds the maximum amplitude of CO2 variability in the D47 ice core (< 10 ppmv). A modelling experiment taking into account firn-densification based smoothing processes in the D47 ice core proved, however, that the amplitude difference between the stomata record and the D47 ice-core can be explained by natural smoothing processes in the ice (van Hoof et al., 2005). This observation gives credence to the existence of high-amplitude CO2 fluctuations during the last millennium and suggests that high resolution ice core CO2 records should be regarded as a smoothed representation of the atmospheric CO2 signal. In the present study, potential marine and terrestrial sources and sinks associated with the observed atmospheric CO2 perturbation will be discussed. The magnitude of the observed CO2 variability implies that inferred changes in CO2 radiative forcing are of a similar magnitude as variations ascribed to other forcing mechanisms (e.g. solar forcing and volcanism), therefore challenging the IPCC concept of CO2 as an insignificant preindustrial climate forcing factor. References Barnola J.M., M. Anklin, J. Porcheron, D. Raynaud, J. Schwander and B. Stauffer 1995. CO2 evolution during the last millennium as recorded by Antarctic and Greenland ice. Tellus, v 47B, p. 264-272 Kouwenberg L.L.R., F. Wagner, W.M. Kürschner and H. Visscher 2005. Atmospheric CO2 fluctuations during the last Millennium reconstructed by stomatal frequency analysis of Tsuga heterophylla needles. Geology, v. 33, no.1, pp. 33-36 van Hoof T.B., K.A. Kaspers, F. Wagner, R.S.W. van de Wal, W.M. Kürschner and H. Visscher 2005. Atmospheric CO2 during the 13th century AD: reconciliation of data from ice core measurements and stomatal frequency analysis. Tellus B, v. 57, pp. 351-355 van Hoof T.B., F. Wagner-Cremer, W.M. K Kürschner and H. Visscher 2008. A role for atmospheric CO2 in preindustrial climate forcing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, v. 105, no. 41, pp. 15815-15818 Wagner F., L.L.R. Kouwenberg, T.B. van Hoof and H. Visscher 2004. Reproducibility of Holocene atmospheric CO2 records based on stomatal frequency. Quartenary Science Reviews. V. 23, pp. 1947-1954

  15. Five Millennium Catalog of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "FiveMillenniumCanonofLunarEclipses." It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Solar Eclipse parameter, gamma, penumbral and umbral eclipse magnitudes, durations of penumbral, partial and total eclipse phases, and geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse (latitude and longitude). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  16. The largest Last Supper: depictions of food portions and plate size increased over the millennium.

    PubMed

    Wansink, B; Wansink, C S

    2010-05-01

    Portion sizes of foods have been noticably increasing in recent years, but when did this trend begin? If art imitates life and if food portions have been generally increasing with time, we might expect this trend to be reflected in paintings that depict food. Perhaps the most commonly painted meal has been that of Jesus Christ's Last Supper, chronicled in the New Testament of the Bible. A CAD-CAM analysis of the relative food-to-head ratio in 52 representative paintings of the Last Supper showed that the relative sizes of the main dish (entree) (r=0.52, P=0.002), bread (r=0.30, P=0.04), and plates (r=0.46, P=0.02) have linearly increased over the past millennium. PMID:20308996

  17. Violence against women and the Millennium Development Goals: facilitating women's access to support.

    PubMed

    Ellsberg, M

    2006-09-01

    Violence against women is a serious health and development concern, as well as a violation of women's human rights. Violence against women has a devastating effect on women's sexual and reproductive health, as well as the health of their children, and is rooted in gender inequality. Reducing violence against women is therefore a key strategy for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Key lessons have emerged from more than two decades of experiences dealing with violence against women within the health sector. Interventions must go beyond training and curricula reform and utilize a system-wide approach, including changes in policies, procedures and attention to privacy and confidentiality. Providers must work together with other sectors, particularly at a community level, to strengthen local networks for support of survivors of violence. Prevention activities are critical, particularly those that seek to change cultural norms and laws that encourage violence and discriminate against women and girls. PMID:16842792

  18. Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses." It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original 648-page publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Lunar Eclipse parameter, gamma, eclipse magnitude, geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse (latitude and longitude), and the circumstances at greatest eclipse (i.e., Sun altitude and azimuth, path width, and central line duration). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  19. Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)-Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses. "It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Solar Eclipse parameter, gamma, penumbral and umbral eclipse magnitudes, durations of penumbral, partial and total eclipse phases, and geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse(latitude and longitude). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  20. Surface changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Wanamaker, Alan D.; Butler, Paul G.; Scourse, James D.; Heinemeier, Jan; Eiríksson, Jón; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Richardson, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous investigations, the dynamical origins of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age remain uncertain. A major unresolved issue relating to internal climate dynamics is the mode and tempo of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability, and the significance of decadal-to-centennial scale changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation strength in regulating the climate of the last millennium. Here we use the time-constrained high-resolution local radiocarbon reservoir age offset derived from an absolutely dated annually resolved shell chronology spanning the past 1,350 years, to reconstruct changes in surface ocean circulation and climate. The water mass tracer data presented here from the North Icelandic shelf, combined with previously published data from the Arctic and subtropical Atlantic, show that surface Atlantic meridional overturning circulation dynamics likely amplified the relatively warm conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the relatively cool conditions during the Little Ice Age within the North Atlantic sector. PMID:22692542

  1. Chronic urticaria in adults: state-of-the-art in the new millennium*

    PubMed Central

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Criado, Roberta Facchini Jardim; Maruta, Celina Wakisaka; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva

    2015-01-01

    Chronic urticaria has been explored in several investigative aspects in the new millennium, either as to its pathogenesis, its stand as an autoimmune or auto-reactive disease, the correlation with HLA-linked genetic factors, especially with class II or its interrelation with the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. New second-generation antihistamines, which act as good symptomatic drugs, emerged and were commercialized over the last decade. Old and new drugs that may interfere with the pathophysiology of the disease, such as cyclosporine and omalizumab have been developed and used as treatments. The purpose of this article is to describe the current state of knowledge on aspects of chronic urticaria such as, pathophysiology, diagnosis and the current therapeutic approach proposed in the literature. PMID:25672302

  2. Acid sulfate soils and human health--a Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

    PubMed

    Ljung, Karin; Maley, Fiona; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-11-01

    Acid sulfate soils have been described as the "nastiest soils on earth" because of their strong acidity, increased mobility of potentially toxic elements and limited bioavailability of nutrients. They only cover a small area of the world's total problem soils, but often have significant adverse effects on agriculture, aquaculture and the environment on a local scale. Their location often coincides with high population density areas along the coasts of many developing countries. As a result, their negative impacts on ecosystems can have serious implications to those least equipped for coping with the low crop yields and reduced water quality that can result from acid sulfate soil disturbance. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment called on by the United Nations in 2000 emphasised the importance of ecosystems for human health and well-being. These include the service they provide as sources of food and water, through the control of pollution and disease, as well as for the cultural services ecosystems provide. While the problems related to agriculture, aquaculture and the environment have been the focus of many acid sulfate soil management efforts, the connection to human health has largely been ignored. This paper presents the potential health issues of acid sulfate soils, in relation to the ecosystem services identified in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. It is recognised that significant implications on food security and livelihood can result, as well as on community cohesiveness and the spread of vector-borne disease. However, the connection between these outcomes and acid sulfate soils is often not obvious and it is therefore argued that the impact of such soils on human well-being needs to be recognised in order to raise awareness among the public and decision makers, to in turn facilitate proper management and avoid potential human ill-health. PMID:19647876

  3. A tree-ring field reconstruction of Fennoscandian summer hydroclimate variability for the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seftigen, Kristina; Björklund, Jesper; Cook, Edward R.; Linderholm, Hans W.

    2014-05-01

    Hydroclimatological extremes, such as droughts and floods, are expected to increase in frequency and intensity with global climate change. An improved knowledge of its natural variability and the underlying physical mechanisms for changes in the hydrological cycle will help understand the response of extreme hydroclimatic events to climate warming. This study presents the first gridded hydroclimatic reconstruction (0.5° × 0.5° grid resolution), as expressed by the warm season Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), for most of Fennoscandia. A point-by-point regression approach is used to develop the reconstruction from a network of moisture sensitive tree-ring chronologies spanning over the past millennium. The reconstruction gives a unique opportunity to examine the frequency, severity, persistence, and spatial characteristics of Fennoscandian hydroclimatic variability in the context of the last 1,000 years. The full SPEI reconstruction highlights the seventeenth century as a period of frequent severe and widespread hydroclimatic anomalies. Although some severe extremes have occurred locally throughout the domain over the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the period is surprisingly free from any spatially extensive anomalies. The twentieth century is not anomalous in terms of the number of severe and spatially extensive hydro climatic extremes in the context of the last millennium. Principle component analysis reveals that there are two dominant modes of spatial moisture variability across Fennoscandia. The same patterns are evident in the observational record and in the reconstructed dataset over the instrumental era and two paleoperiods. The 500 mb pressure patterns associated with the two modes suggests the importance of the summer North Atlantic Oscillation.

  4. Modeling of severe persistent droughts over eastern China during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.; Shen, C.; Cheng, H.; Xu, Y.

    2014-05-01

    We use proxy data and modeled data from 1000 year model simulations with a variety of climate forcings to examine the occurrence of severe event of persistent drought over eastern China during the last millennium and diagnose the mechanisms. Results show that the model was able to roughly simulate most of these droughts over the study area during the last millennium such as those that occurred during the periods of 1123-1152, 1197-1223, 1353-1363, 1428-1449, 1479-1513, and 1632-1645. Our analyses suggest that these six well-captured droughts may caused by the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) weakening. Study on the wavelet transform and spectral analysis reveals these events occurred all at the statistically significant 15-35-year timescale. A modeled data intercomparison suggests the possibility that solar activity may be the primary driver in the occurrence of the 1129-1144, 1354-1365, 1466-1491 and 1631-1648 droughts as identified by the model. However another possibility that these events may be related to internal variability cannot be excluded. Although the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) plays an important role in monsoon variability, a temporally consistent relationship between the droughts and SST pattern in the Pacific Ocean could not be found either in the modeled or proxy data. Our analyses also indicate that large volcanic eruptions play a role as an amplifier in the drought of 1631-1648 and caused the droughts of 1830-1853 and 1958-1976, which was identified by the model.

  5. Stability of ENSO and Its Tropical Pacific Teleconnections over the Last Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Sophie; Legrande, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Determining past changes in the amplitude, frequency and teleconnections of the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is important for understanding its potential sensitivity to future anthropogenic climate change. Palaeo-reconstructions from proxy records provide long-term information of ENSO interactions with the background climatic state through time. However, it remains unclear how ENSO characteristics have changed through time, and precisely which signals proxies record. Proxy interpretations are underpinned by the assumption of stationarity in relationships between local and remote climates, and often utilise archives from single locations located in the Pacific Ocean to reconstruct ENSO histories. Here, we investigate the stationarity of ENSO teleconnections using the Last Millennium experiment of CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) (Taylor et al., 2012). We show that modelled ENSO characteristics vary on decadal- to centennial-scales, resulting from internal variability and external forcings, such as tropical volcanic eruptions. Furthermore, the relationship between ENSO conditions and local climates across the Pacific basin varies throughout the Last Millennium. Results show the stability of teleconnections is regionally dependent and proxies may reveal complex changes in teleconnected patterns, rather than large-scale changes in base ENSO characteristics. As such, proxy insights into ENSO likely require evidence to be synthesised over large spatial areas in order to deconvolve changes occurring in the NINO3.4 region from those pertaining to proxy-relevant local climatic variables. To obtain robust histories of the ENSO and its remote impacts, we recommend interpretations of proxy records should be considered in conjunction with palaeo-reconstructions from within the Central Pacific

  6. Stability of ENSO and its tropical Pacific teleconnections over the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, S. C.; LeGrande, A. N.

    2015-05-01

    Determining past changes in the amplitude, frequency and teleconnections of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is important for understanding its potential sensitivity to future anthropogenic climate change. Palaeo-reconstructions from proxy records provide long-term information of ENSO interactions with the background climatic state through time. However, it remains unclear how ENSO characteristics have changed through time, and precisely which signals proxies record. Proxy interpretations are underpinned by the assumption of stationarity in relationships between local and remote climates, and often utilise archives from single locations located in the Pacific Ocean to reconstruct ENSO histories. Here, we investigate the stationarity of ENSO teleconnections using the Last Millennium experiment of CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) (Taylor et al., 2012). We show that modelled ENSO characteristics vary on decadal- to centennial-scales, resulting from internal variability and external forcings, such as tropical volcanic eruptions. Furthermore, the relationship between ENSO conditions and local climates across the Pacific basin varies throughout the Last Millennium. Results show the stability of teleconnections is regionally dependent and proxies may reveal complex changes in teleconnected patterns, rather than large-scale changes in base ENSO characteristics. As such, proxy insights into ENSO likely require evidence to be synthesised over large spatial areas in order to deconvolve changes occurring in the NINO3.4 region from those pertaining to proxy-relevant local climatic variables. To obtain robust histories of the ENSO and its remote impacts, we recommend interpretations of proxy records should be considered in conjunction with palaeo-reconstructions from within the Central Pacific.

  7. The Epidemiology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in the US Military: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Mark S; Welsh, Marleen; Porter, Chad K; Nieh, Chiping; Boyko, Edward J; Gackstetter, Gary; Hooper, Tomoko I

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Functional gastrointestinal disorders occur more frequently among deployed veterans, although studies evaluating the relative impact of risk factors, including stress and antecedent infectious gastroenteritis (IGE), are limited. We examined risk factors for new-onset irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) among active duty participants in the military's Millennium Cohort Study. METHODS: Medical encounter data from 2001 to 2009, limited to Cohort members on active duty, were used to identify incident IBS cases (any and highly probable). IGE was identified using medical encounter or self-report. Covariate data were obtained from the Millennium Cohort Study surveys and analyzed using Cox proportional hazards methods. RESULTS: Overall, 41,175 Cohort members met the eligibility criteria for inclusion and 314 new-onset cases of IBS were identified among these. Significant risk factors (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval) included antecedent IGE (2.05, 1.53–2.75), female gender (1.96, 1.53–2.52), number of life stressors (1: 1.82, 1.37–2.41; 2: 2.86, 2.01–4.06; 3+: 6.69, 4.59–9.77), and anxiety syndrome (1.74, 1.17–2.58). Limited to highly probable IBS, a stronger association with antecedent IGE was observed, particularly when based on medical encounter records (any IGE: 2.20, 1.10–4.43; medical encounter IGE only: 2.84, 1.33–6.09). Precedent anxiety or depression and IGE interacted with increased IBS risk compared with IGE alone. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm previous studies on the association between sociodemographic or life stressors and IBS. IGE was significantly associated with IBS risk. Whether deployed or not, US service members often encounter repeated exposure to high levels of stress, which, combined with other environmental factors such as IGE, may result in long-term debilitating functional gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26729548

  8. The CESM Last Millennium Ensemble: Tropical Response to the Samalas, Kuwae and Tambora Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, E. C.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Jahn, A.; Ault, T.; Rosenbloom, N. A.; Mai, A.; Strand, G.

    2014-12-01

    Recent efforts in reconstructing climate variations and forcings for the Common Era have made this period ideal for studying the role of external forcing with numerical models. Large ensembles are needed to best evaluate model capabilities against paleoclimate records, as well as assess uncertainties in the attribution of a regional response to a particular forcing in the presence of intrinsic variability. The CESM Last Millennium Ensemble (CESM-LME) will be used to investigate interannual to multi-centennial scale climate variations in response to natural and anthropogenic forcing. The CESM-LME is performed with the Community Earth System Model (CESM with CAM5) at ~2o horizontal resolution in the atmosphere and land components and ~1oresolution in the ocean and sea-ice components. The CESM-LME is nearly completed, and consists of more than 28 simulations over the period from 850 to 2005CE. Ten members use a full-set of CMIP5/PMIP3 forcings (volcanic aerosols, solar variability, orbital variations, greenhouse gases, and land use changes). The remaining runs consist of smaller sets with single transient forcings. Two pre-industrial controls with constant forcings at 850CE and 1850CE values enable a characterization of unforced variability. Upon release on the Earth System Grid, the CESM-LME will serve as a tremendous community resource, enabling investigations into the relative roles of external forcing and intrinsic climate variability and the impact of recent anthropogenic climate forcing over natural background variability of the Common Era. Results presented will focus on the tropical response to the largest tropical volcanic eruptions of the last millennium: Samalas in 1257-1258, Kuwae in ~1452 and Tambora in 1815. The CESM-LME fully-forced and volcanic-only ensembles demonstrate the impact of these large volcanic eruptions on decadal scale regional climate variations, and help assess the likelihood to trigger an ENSO in the immediate aftermath of the eruption.

  9. Pacific and Atlantic influences on Mesoamerican climate over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, D. W.; Burnette, D. J.; Diaz, J. Villanueva; Heim, R. R.; Fye, F. K.; Paredes, J. Cerano; Soto, R. Acuna; Cleaveland, M. K.

    2012-09-01

    A new tree-ring reconstruction of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for Mesoamerica from AD 771 to 2008 identifies megadroughts more severe and sustained than any witnessed during the twentieth century. Correlation analyses indicate strong forcing of instrumental and reconstructed June PDSI over Mesoamerica from the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Spectral analyses of the 1,238-year reconstruction indicate significant concentrations of variance at ENSO, sub-decadal, bi-decadal, and multidecadal timescales. Instrumental and model-based analyses indicate that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation is important to warm season climate variability over Mexico. Ocean-atmospheric variability in the Atlantic is not strongly correlated with the June PDSI reconstruction during the instrumental era, but may be responsible for the strong multidecadal variance detected in the reconstruction episodically over the past millennium. June drought indices in Mesoamerica are negatively correlated with gridded June PDSI over the United States from 1950 to 2005, based on both instrumental and reconstructed data. Interannual variability in this latitudinal moisture gradient is due in part to ENSO forcing, where warm events favor wet June PDSI conditions over the southern US and northern Mexico, but dryness over central and southern Mexico (Mesoamerica). Strong anti-phasing between multidecadal regimes of tree-ring reconstructed June PDSI over Mesoamerica and reconstructed summer (JJA) PDSI over the Southwest has also been detected episodically over the past millennium, including the 1950-1960s when La Niña and warm Atlantic SSTs prevailed, and the 1980-1990s when El Niño and cold Atlantic SSTs prevailed. Several Mesoamerican megadroughts are reconstructed when wetness prevailed over the Southwest, including the early tenth century Terminal Classic Drought, implicating El Niño and Atlantic SSTs in this intense and widespread drought that may have contributed to social changes in ancient Mexico.

  10. ENSO teleconnections with Australian rainfall in coupled model simulations of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Josephine R.; Hope, Pandora; Gergis, Joelle; Henley, Benjamin J.

    2015-09-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation is the major source of interannual rainfall variability in the Australian region, with the strongest influence over eastern Australia. The strength of this regional ENSO-rainfall teleconnection varies in the observational record. Climate model simulations of the "last millennium" (850-1850 C.E.) can be used to quantify the natural variability of the relationship between ENSO and Australian rainfall on decadal and longer time scales, providing a baseline for evaluating future projections. In this study, historical and last millennium (LM) simulations from six models were obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase 3. All models reproduce the observed negative correlation between September to February (SONDJF) eastern Australian rainfall and the NINO3.4 index, with varying skill. In the LM simulations, all models produce decadal-scale cooling over eastern Australia in response to volcanic forcing, as well as a long-term cooling trend. Rainfall variability over the same region is not strongly driven by external forcing, with each model simulating rainfall anomalies of different phase and magnitude. SONDJF eastern Australian rainfall is strongly correlated with ENSO in the LM simulations for all models, although some models simulate periods when the teleconnection weakens substantially for several decades. Changes in ENSO variance play a role in modulating the teleconnection strength, but are not the only factor. The long-term average spatial pattern of the ENSO-Australian rainfall teleconnection is similar in the LM and historical simulations, although the spatial pattern varies over time in the LM simulations.

  11. Issues of maternal health in Pakistan: trends towards millennium development goal 5.

    PubMed

    Malik, Muhammd Faraz Arshad; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar

    2014-06-01

    Pakistan has third highest burden of maternal and children mortality across the globe. This grim situation is further intensified by flaws of planning and implementation set forth in health sector. Natural calamities (earth quakes, floods), disease outbreaks and lack of awareness in different regions of country also further aggravate this situation. Despite of all these limitations, under the banner of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) a special focus and progress in addressing maternal health issue (set as goal 5) has been made over the last decade. In this review, improvement and short falls pertaining to Goal 5 Improve maternal health have been analyzed in relation to earlier years. A decline in maternal mortality ratio (MMR) (490 maternal deaths in 1990 to 260 maternal deaths per 100,000 women in 2010) is observed. Reduction in MMR by three quarters was not achieved but a decline from very high mortality to high mortality index was observed. Increase usage of contraceptives (with contraceptive prevalence rate of 11.8 in 1990 to 37 in 2013) also shed light on women awareness about their health and social issues. Based on progress level assessment (WHO guidelines),access of Pakistani women to universal reproductive health unit falls in moderate category in 2010 as compared to earlier low access in 1990. From the data it looks that still a lot of effort is required for achieving the said targets. However, keeping in view all challenges, Pakistan suffered in the said duration, like volatile peace, regional political instability, policy implementation constrains, population growth, this slow but progressive trend highlight a national resilience to address the havoc challenge of maternal health. These understandings and sustained efforts will significantly contribute a best possible accomplishment in Millennium Development Goal 5 by 2015. PMID:25252492

  12. Personalized Biochemistry and Biophysics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Whole human genome sequencing of individuals is becoming rapid and inexpensive, enabling new strategies for using personal genome information to help diagnose, treat, and even prevent human disorders for which genetic variations are causative or are known to be risk factors. Many of the exploding number of newly discovered genetic variations alter the structure, function, dynamics, stability, and/or interactions of specific proteins and RNA molecules. Accordingly, there are a host of opportunities for biochemists and biophysicists to participate in (1) developing tools to allow accurate and sometimes medically actionable assessment of the potential pathogenicity of individual variations and (2) establishing the mechanistic linkage between pathogenic variations and their physiological consequences, providing a rational basis for treatment or preventive care. In this review, we provide an overview of these opportunities and their associated challenges in light of the current status of genomic science and personalized medicine, the latter often termed precision medicine. PMID:25856502

  13. An empirical evaluation of the structure of DSM-IV personality disorders in a nationally representative sample: results of confirmatory factor analysis in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Waves 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Cox, Brian J; Clara, Ian P; Worobec, Lydia M; Grant, Bridget F

    2012-12-01

    Individual personality disorders (PD) are grouped into three clusters in the DSM-IV (A, B, and C). There is very little empirical evidence available concerning the validity of this model in the general population. The current study included all 10 of the DSM-IV PD assessed in Wave 1 and Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate three plausible models of the structure of Axis II personality disorders (the current hierarchical DSM-IV three-factor model in which individual PD are believed to load on their assigned clusters, which in turn load onto a single Axis II factor; a general single-factor model; and three independent factors). Each of these models was tested in both the total and also separately for gender. The higher order DSM-IV model demonstrated good fit to the data on a number of goodness-of-fit indices. The results for this model were very similar across genders. A model of PD based on the current DSM-IV hierarchical conceptualization of a higher order classification scheme received strong empirical support through confirmatory factor analysis using a number of goodness-of-fit indices in a nationally representative sample. Other models involving broad, higher order personality domains such as neuroticism in relation to personality disorders have yet to be tested in epidemiologic surveys and represent an important avenue for future research. PMID:23281674

  14. Influence of Teacher Support and Personal Relevance on Academic Self-Efficacy and Enjoyment of Mathematics Lessons: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jill M.; Afari, Ernest; Fraser, Barry J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of two psychosocial features of the classroom environment (teacher support and personal relevance) on college students' academic self-efficacy and enjoyment of mathematics lessons. Data collected from 352 mathematics students attending three higher education institutions in the United Arab…

  15. Early Childhood Nutritional Status in CARICOM Countries: An Overview with respect to Five Nutrition Related Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, Pamela S.; Nielsen, Anders L.; Willie, Douladel; Durant, Tara C.

    2014-01-01

    Previous reviews of nutritional status in children under 5 years describe the Caribbean grouped with Latin America. This paper focuses specifically on the Caribbean and the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration that have bearing on childhood development. The results indicate that CARICOM countries have made progress in terms of child health as assessed by gross health indicators. Yet, the millennium generation experiences coexistence of undernutrition and overweight in early childhood. The associations of GNI with markers such as poverty indices are somewhat inconsistent with traditional findings and highlight a need to reassess the causes of infant mortality and low birth weight. However, a lack of systematic local data has hampered progress on an individual country basis. Interventions that deal more pointedly with country specific needs are required including those targeting obesity if the MDGs are to be attained by all member states. PMID:24899905

  16. Early childhood nutritional status in CARICOM countries: an overview with respect to five nutrition related millennium development goals.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, Pamela S; Nielsen, Anders L; Willie, Douladel; Durant, Tara C

    2014-01-01

    Previous reviews of nutritional status in children under 5 years describe the Caribbean grouped with Latin America. This paper focuses specifically on the Caribbean and the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration that have bearing on childhood development. The results indicate that CARICOM countries have made progress in terms of child health as assessed by gross health indicators. Yet, the millennium generation experiences coexistence of undernutrition and overweight in early childhood. The associations of GNI with markers such as poverty indices are somewhat inconsistent with traditional findings and highlight a need to reassess the causes of infant mortality and low birth weight. However, a lack of systematic local data has hampered progress on an individual country basis. Interventions that deal more pointedly with country specific needs are required including those targeting obesity if the MDGs are to be attained by all member states. PMID:24899905

  17. Glacier variations in the Northern Caucasus compared to climatic reconstructions over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomina, Olga; Bushueva, Irina; Dolgova, Ekaterina; Jomelli, Vincent; Alexandrin, Mikhail; Mikhalenko, Vladimir; Matskovsky, Vladimir

    2016-05-01

    In the Northern Caucasus, glacier and climatic variations over the past centuries remain insufficiently documented. In this review, we summarized the high-resolution information on glacier and climate fluctuations in the region for the past millennium and provided a synthesis of these two lines of evidence with respect to regional climate change. The key areas considered in the paper are the Elbrus area, the Teberda and Arkhyz valleys in the Western Caucasus and the Cherek Bezengiisky and Tsey valleys in the Eastern Caucasus, where the most paleoclimatic evidence has been retrieved. We focused on the fluctuation records of the ten glaciers that are best documented. To reconstruct changes in glacier length in the past, we used aerial photos, optical space images, repeated photographs and old maps. The ages of moraines were defined with the help of instrumental records, historical images, old maps, and tree-ring dating. Lichenometry was used as a supplementary tool to determine the relative ages of glacial landforms. We reviewed the collection of control points used for the lichenometric curves and determined the time limit of potential use of this method in the Caucasus to be up to one millennium. High-resolution tree-ring-based hydroclimatic reconstructions in the Northern Caucasus are presented based on the reconstruction of June-September temperature (1595-2012 CE), the mass balance reconstruction of the Garabashi Glacier (1800-2008 CE) and the runoff of the Teberda River (low-frequency variations) for May, July and August for 1850-2005 CE. The synthesis of all the available paleoclimatic records revealed several distinct climatic periods. Evidence of a warm interval (traditionally referred to as the "Arkhyz break in glaciation") preceding the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the Caucasus is based on archeological, palynological, geochemical and pedological data. However, the conclusions concerning the duration and magnitude of this warming are still vague due to the low resolution of the data available and ambiguous interpretation of the evidence. The first LIA maximum glacier extent in the past millennium is poorly constrained. According to our data, it occurred prior to the year 1598 CE (tree-ring-based minimum age). Two other major phases of advances occurred in the second half of the 17th century CE and the first half of 19th century CE. General glacier retreat in the Northern Caucasus started in the late 1840s CE, with four to five minor readvances in the 1860s-1880s CE and three readvances or steady states in the 20th century CE (1910s, 1920s and 1970s-1980s). Since the last LIA maximum in the middle of the 19th century CE, most glaciers have decreased in length by more than 1000 m, and the rise in the elevation of the glacier fronts has exceeded 200 m. The glacier advances correspond to summer temperature minima and are generally coherent with the reconstructed mass balance of the Garabashi Glacier. A comparison of a tree-ring-based summer temperature reconstruction in the Northern Caucasus with detailed reconstructions of summer temperature and glacier fluctuations in the Alps shows a pronounced agreement between the records and supports the similarity between the patterns of climatic and glacier variations in the two regions.

  18. Dependent personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Dependent personality disorder is a mental condition in which people depend too much on others to meet their emotional and ... Causes of dependent personality disorder are unknown. The disorder ... It is one of the most common personality disorders and is ...

  19. Antisocial personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder - antisocial ... Cause of antisocial personality disorder is unknown. Genetic factors and environmental factors, such as child abuse, are believed to contribute to the development of ...

  20. Narcissistic personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorder - borderline; Narcissism ... A person with narcissistic personality disorder may: React to criticism with rage, shame, or humiliation Take advantage of other people to achieve his or her own ...