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Sample records for mimosa scabrella benth

  1. Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant

    PubMed Central

    Monção, Nayana Bruna Nery; Costa, Luciana Muratori; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Araújo, Bruno Quirino; Lustosa, Maria do Carmo Gomes; Rodrigues, Klinger Antônio da França; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim; Costa, Amilton Paulo Raposo; Lopes Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae) is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation), as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia was submitted to derivatization by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identification of chemical constituents. In vitro toxicological evaluation was performed by MTT assay in murine macrophages and by Artemia salina lethality assay, and the in vivo acute oral toxicity and androgenic evaluation in rats. Results: Totally, 32 components were detected: Phytol-TMS (11.66%), lactic acid-2TMS (9.16%), α-tocopherol-TMS (7.34%) and β-sitosterol-TMS (6.80%) were the major constituents. At the concentrations analyzed, the ethanol extract showed low cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and murine macrophages. In addition, the extract did not exhibit any toxicological effect or androgenic activity in rats. Conclusions: The derivatization by silylation allowed a rapid identification of chemical compounds from the M. caesalpiniifolia leaves extract. Besides, this species presents a good safety profile as observed in toxicological studies, and possess a great potential in the production of herbal medicines or as for food consumption. PMID:25298660

  2. Influence of Removal of a Non-native Tree Species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. on the Regenerating Plant Communities in a Tropical Semideciduous Forest Under Restoration in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Podadera, Diego S; Engel, Vera L; Parrotta, John A; Machado, Deivid L; Sato, Luciane M; Durigan, Giselda

    2015-11-01

    Exotic species are used to trigger facilitation in restoration plantings, but this positive effect may not be permanent and these species may have negative effects later on. Since such species can provide a marketable product (firewood), their harvest may represent an advantageous strategy to achieve both ecological and economic benefits. In this study, we looked at the effect of removal of a non-native tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) on the understory of a semideciduous forest undergoing restoration. We assessed two 14-year-old plantation systems (modified "taungya" agroforestry system; and mixed plantation using commercial timber and firewood tree species) established at two sites with contrasting soil properties in São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental design included randomized blocks with split plots. The natural regeneration of woody species (height ≥0.2 m) was compared between managed (all M. caesalpiniifolia trees removed) and unmanaged plots during the first year after the intervention. The removal of M. caesalpiniifolia increased species diversity but decreased stand basal area. Nevertheless, the basal area loss was recovered after 1 year. The management treatment affected tree species regeneration differently between species groups. The results of this study suggest that removal of M. caesalpiniifolia benefited the understory and possibly accelerated the succession process. Further monitoring studies are needed to evaluate the longer term effects on stand structure and composition. The lack of negative effects of tree removal on the natural regeneration indicates that such interventions can be recommended, especially considering the expectations of economic revenues from tree harvesting in restoration plantings. PMID:26105971

  3. Influence of Removal of a Non-native Tree Species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. on the Regenerating Plant Communities in a Tropical Semideciduous Forest Under Restoration in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podadera, Diego S.; Engel, Vera L.; Parrotta, John A.; Machado, Deivid L.; Sato, Luciane M.; Durigan, Giselda

    2015-11-01

    Exotic species are used to trigger facilitation in restoration plantings, but this positive effect may not be permanent and these species may have negative effects later on. Since such species can provide a marketable product (firewood), their harvest may represent an advantageous strategy to achieve both ecological and economic benefits. In this study, we looked at the effect of removal of a non-native tree species ( Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) on the understory of a semideciduous forest undergoing restoration. We assessed two 14-year-old plantation systems (modified "taungya" agroforestry system; and mixed plantation using commercial timber and firewood tree species) established at two sites with contrasting soil properties in São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental design included randomized blocks with split plots. The natural regeneration of woody species (height ≥0.2 m) was compared between managed (all M. caesalpiniifolia trees removed) and unmanaged plots during the first year after the intervention. The removal of M. caesalpiniifolia increased species diversity but decreased stand basal area. Nevertheless, the basal area loss was recovered after 1 year. The management treatment affected tree species regeneration differently between species groups. The results of this study suggest that removal of M. caesalpiniifolia benefited the understory and possibly accelerated the succession process. Further monitoring studies are needed to evaluate the longer term effects on stand structure and composition. The lack of negative effects of tree removal on the natural regeneration indicates that such interventions can be recommended, especially considering the expectations of economic revenues from tree harvesting in restoration plantings.

  4. Japanese at Mimosa Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchihara, Azusa

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Japanese program at Mimosa Elementary School in Roswell, Georgia. The success of the program has been aided by collaborative team teaching, a spiraled curriculum, creative teaching methods, Teacher -made materials, and communication among teachers, parents, and administrators. he challenges are also discussed. (Author/VWL)

  5. Ultrasound stimulated release of mimosa medicine from cellulose hydrogel matrix.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huixin; Tovar-Carrillo, Karla; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound (US) drug release system using cellulose based hydrogel films was developed as triggered to mimosa. Here, the mimosa, a fascinating drug to cure injured skin, was employed as the loading drug in cellulose hydrogel films prepared with phase inversion method. The mimosa hydrogels were fabricated from dimethylacetamide (DMAc)/LiCl solution in the presence of mimosa, when the solution was exposed to ethanol vapor. The US triggered release of the mimosa from the hydrogel matrix was carried out under following conditions of US powers (0-30W) and frequencies (23, 43 and 96kHz) for different mimosa hydrogel matrix from 0.5wt% to 2wt% cellulose solution. To release the drug by US trigger from the matrix, the better medicine release was observed in the matrix prepared from the 0.5wt% cellulose solution when the 43kHz US was exposed to the aqueous solution with the hydrogel matrix. The release efficiency increased with the increase of the US power from 5 to 30W at 43kHz. Viscoelasticity of the hydrogel matrix showed that the hydrogel became somewhat rigid after the US exposure. FT-IR analysis of the mimosa hydrogel matrixes showed that during the US exposure, hydrogen bonds in the structure of mimosa-water and mimosa-cellulose were broken. This suggested that the enhancement of the mimosa release was caused by the US exposure. PMID:27150786

  6. Molecular electronics in pinnae of Mimosa pudica

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Justin C; Markin, Vladislav S

    2010-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical circuits operate in all plants including the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica Linn. The activation of biologically closed circuits with voltage gated ion channels can lead to various mechanical, hydrodynamical, physiological, biochemical and biophysical responses. Here the biologically closed electrochemical circuit in pinnae of Mimosa pudica is analyzed using the charged capacitor method for electrostimulation at different voltages. Also the equivalent electrical scheme of electrical signal transduction inside the plant's pinna is evaluated. These circuits remain linear at small potentials not exceeding 0.5 V. At higher potentials the circuits become strongly non-linear pointing to the opening of ion channels in plant tissues. Changing the polarity of electrodes leads to a strong rectification effect and to different kinetics of a capacitor. These effects can be caused by a redistribution of K+, Cl−, Ca2+ and H+ ions through voltage gated ion channels. The electrical properties of Mimosa pudica were investigated and equivalent electrical circuits within the pinnae were proposed to explain the experimental data. PMID:20448476

  7. Mimosa caesalpiniifolia rhizobial isolates from different origins of the Brazilian Northeast.

    PubMed

    Martins, Paulo Geovani Silva; Junior, Mario Andrade Lira; Fracetto, Giselle Gomes Monteiro; da Silva, Maria Luiza Ribeiro Bastos; Vincentin, Rayssa Pereira; de Lyra, Maria do Carmo Catanho Pereira

    2015-04-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation from the legume-rhizobia symbiosis is one of the main sources of fixed nitrogen on land environments. Diazotrophic bacteria taxonomy has been substantially modified by the joint use of phenotypic, physiological and molecular aspects. Among these molecular tools, sequencing and genotyping of genomic regions such as 16S rDNA and repetitive conserved DNA regions have boosted the accuracy of species identification. This research is a phylogenetic study of diazotrophic bacteria from sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.), inoculated with soils from five municipalities of the Brazilian Northeast. After bacterial isolation and morphophysiological characterization, genotyping was performed using REP, ERIC and BOX oligonucleotides and 16S rDNA sequencing for genetic diversity identification. A 1.5b Kb fragment of the 16S rDNA was amplified from each isolate. Morphophysiological characterization of the 47 isolates created a dendrogram, where isolate PE-GR02 formed a monophyletic branch. The fingerprinting conducted with BOX, ERIC and REP shows distinct patterns, and their compilation created a dendrogram with diverse groups and, after blasting in GenBank, resulted in genetic identities ranging from 77 to 99 % with Burkholderia strains. The 16S rDNA phylogenetic tree constructed with these isolates and GenBank deposits of strains recommended for inoculant production confirm these isolates are distinct from the previously deposited strains, whereas isolates PE-CR02, PE-CR4, PE-CR07, PE-CR09 and PE-GE06 were the most distinct within the group. Morphophysiological characterization and BOX, ERIC and REP compilation enhanced the discrimination of the isolates, and the 16S rDNA sequences compared with GenBank confirmed the preference of Mimosa for Burkholderia diazotrophic bacteria. PMID:25564362

  8. Pharmacognosy of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret.

    PubMed

    Anton, R; Jiang, Y; Weniger, B; Beck, J P; Rivier, L

    1993-03-01

    A chemical investigation of the bark of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret, performed in our laboratory, allowed the isolation and identification of three new triterpenoid saponins (mimonosides A, B and C), three steroid saponins (3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl campesterol, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl stigmasterol and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl beta-sitosterol) together with lupeol, campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. The three new triterpenoid saponins were subjected to in vitro biological tests (immunomodulation and proliferation) using different animal and human cells in culture. The results of these tests contribute to explain the traditional use of this plant material. PMID:8510463

  9. Endemic Mimosa species from Mexico prefer alphaproteobacterial rhizobial symbionts.

    PubMed

    Bontemps, Cyril; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Wiechmann, Anja; Mussabekova, Assel; Moody, Sarah; Simon, Marcelo F; Moulin, Lionel; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Lacercat-Didier, Laurence; Dasilva, Cindy; Grether, Rosaura; Camargo-Ricalde, Sara L; Chen, Weimin; Sprent, Janet I; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Young, J Peter W; James, Euan K

    2016-01-01

    The legume genus Mimosa has > 500 species, with two major centres of diversity, Brazil (c. 350 spp.) and Mexico (c. 100 spp.). In Brazil most species are nodulated by Burkholderia. Here we asked whether this is also true of native and endemic Mexican species. We have tested this apparent affinity for betaproteobacteria by examining the symbionts of native and endemic species of Mimosa in Mexico, especially from the central highlands where Mimosa spp. have diversified. Nodules were tested for betaproteobacteria using in situ immunolocalization. Rhizobia isolated from the nodules were genetically characterized and tested for their ability to nodulate Mimosa spp. Immunological analysis of 25 host taxa suggested that most (including all the highland endemics) were not nodulated by betaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA, nodA, nodC and nifH genes from 87 strains isolated from 20 taxa confirmed that the endemic Mexican Mimosa species favoured alphaproteobacteria in the genera Rhizobium and Ensifer: this was confirmed by nodulation tests. Host phylogeny, geographic isolation and coevolution with symbionts derived from very different soils have potentially contributed to the striking difference in the choice of symbiotic partners by Mexican and Brazilian Mimosa species. PMID:26214613

  10. Learning in Plants: Lessons from Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Charles I; Chicas-Mosier, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the early Mimosa pudica literature; much of which is in journals not easily accessible to the reader. In contrast to the contemporary plant learning literature which is conducted primarily by plant biologists, this early literature was conducted by comparative psychologists whose goal was to search for the generality of learning phenomena such as habituation, and classical conditioning using experimental designs based on animal conditioning studies. In addition to reviewing the early literature, we hope to encourage collaborations between plant biologists and comparative psychologists by familiarizing the reader with issues in the study of learning faced by those working with animals. These issues include no consistent definition of learning phenomena and an overreliance on the use of cognition. We suggested that greater collaborative efforts be made between plant biologists and comparative psychologists if the study of plant learning is to be fully intergraded into the mainstream behavior theory. PMID:27065905

  11. Learning in Plants: Lessons from Mimosa pudica

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Charles I.; Chicas-Mosier, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the early Mimosa pudica literature; much of which is in journals not easily accessible to the reader. In contrast to the contemporary plant learning literature which is conducted primarily by plant biologists, this early literature was conducted by comparative psychologists whose goal was to search for the generality of learning phenomena such as habituation, and classical conditioning using experimental designs based on animal conditioning studies. In addition to reviewing the early literature, we hope to encourage collaborations between plant biologists and comparative psychologists by familiarizing the reader with issues in the study of learning faced by those working with animals. These issues include no consistent definition of learning phenomena and an overreliance on the use of cognition. We suggested that greater collaborative efforts be made between plant biologists and comparative psychologists if the study of plant learning is to be fully intergraded into the mainstream behavior theory. PMID:27065905

  12. Mimosa pudica L. (Laajvanti): An overview

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Hafsa; Sehgal, Sakshi; Mishra, Anurag; Gupta, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Mimosa pudica L. (Mimosaceae) also referred to as touch me not, live and die, shame plant and humble plant is a prostrate or semi-erect subshrub of tropical America and Australia, also found in India heavily armed with recurved thorns and having sensitive soft grey green leaflets that fold and droop at night or when touched and cooled. These unique bending movements have earned it a status of ‘curiosity plant’. It appears to be a promising herbal candidate to undergo further exploration as evident from its pharmacological profile. It majorly possesses antibacterial, antivenom, antifertility, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, aphrodisiac, and various other pharmacological activities. The herb has been used traditionally for ages, in the treatment of urogenital disorders, piles, dysentery, sinus, and also applied on wounds. This work is an attempt to explore and compile the different pharmacognostic aspects of the action plant M. pudica reported till date. PMID:23055637

  13. Mechanical and electrical anisotropy in Mimosa pudica pulvini

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Justin C; Baker, Kara D; Markin, Vladislav S

    2010-01-01

    Thigmonastic or seismonastic movements in Mimosa pudica, such as the response to touch, appear to be regulated by electrical, hydrodynamical and chemical signal transduction. The pulvinus of Mimosa pudica shows elastic properties, and we found that electrically or mechanically induced movements of the petiole were accompanied by a change of the pulvinus shape. As the petiole falls, the volume of the lower part of the pulvinus decreases and the volume of the upper part increases due to the redistribution of water between the upper and lower parts of the pulvinus. This hydroelastic process is reversible. During the relaxation of the petiole, the volume of the lower part of the pulvinus increases and the volume of the upper part decreases. Redistribution of ions between the upper and lower parts of a pulvinus causes fast transport of water through aquaporins and causes a fast change in the volume of the motor cells. Here, the biologically closed electrochemical circuits in electrically and mechanically anisotropic pulvini of Mimosa pudica are analyzed using the charged capacitor method for electrostimulation at different voltages. Changing the polarity of electrodes leads to a strong rectification effect in a pulvinus and to different kinetics of a capacitor discharge if the applied initial voltage is 0.5 V or higher. The electrical properties of Mimosa pudica's pulvini were investigated and the equivalent electrical circuit within the pulvinus was proposed to explain the experimental data. The detailed mechanism of seismonastic movements in Mimosa pudica is discussed. PMID:20855975

  14. Pharmacognostical studies of the plant drug Mimosae tenuiflorae cortex.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Arce, E; Gattuso, M; Alvarado, R; Zárate, E; Agüero, J; Feria, I; Lozoya, X

    2007-09-25

    The bark of the Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret (Leguminoseae) tree, known as tepescohuite in Mexico, is commonly used in this country and in Central America to elaborate different products for the treatment of skin burns and lesions. The cicatrizing properties of extracts obtained from this bark have been scientifically studied, attributing the main biological activity to its tannin and saponin content. Studies include clinical trials of phytodrugs based on Mimosae tenuiflora bark extracts for treatment of venous leg ulcerations. Recent commercialization of the plant drug Mimosae tenuiflorae cortex requires pharmacognostical information to develop quality-control methods for raw materials and extracts produced with this plant drug. The present paper reports a group of ethnobotanical, morphological, chemical, and molecular studies performed with Mimosae tenuiflora materials obtained by collection in the southeastern Mexican state of Chiapas. Macro- and micro-morphological parameters were established to authenticate the genuine drug that allowed detection of adulterants usually found in commercial samples of this plant material. These morphological characteristics can be used for rapid identification of the drug and are particularly useful in the case of powdered materials. The chemical studies performed demonstrated that tannins represent the major component group in the bark. Its content in genuine tepescohuite is 16% and is mainly composed of proanthocyanidins, a condition permitting a tannin-based chemical-control method for fingerprinting the plant drug. Contrariwise, the saponin concentration in Mimosae tenuiflora bark is extremely low, and its isolation and content evaluation represent a complex procedure that is unsuitable for routine control purposes. Finally, random amplified DNA (RAPD) analysis results a useful tool for obtaining DNA specific markers of Mimosae tenuiflora species which should be useful in future studies involving raw material

  15. Two diterpene rhamnosides, mimosasides B and C, from Mimosa hostilis.

    PubMed

    Ohsaki, Ayumi; Yokoyama, Ritsuko; Miyatake, Haruka; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu

    2006-12-01

    Two new diterpene rhamnosides, mimosasides B and C (1, 2) were isolated together with mimosaside A (3), a known diterpene rhamnoside (4), four known flavones (5-8), five known flavanones (9-13), and four known chalcones (14-17) from the leaves and twigs of a Brazilian medicinal plant, Mimosa hostilis. PMID:17139112

  16. Memory elements in the electrical network of Mimosa pudica L.

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexander G; Reedus, Jada; Mitchell, Colee M; Tuckett, Clayton; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    The fourth basic circuit element, a memristor, is a resistor with memory that was postulated by Chua in 1971. Here we found that memristors exist in vivo. The electrostimulation of the Mimosa pudica by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induce electrical responses with fingerprints of memristors. Uncouplers carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone and carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decrease the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic electrostimulating waves. Memristive behavior of an electrical network in the Mimosa pudica is linked to the properties of voltage gated ion channels: the channel blocker TEACl reduces the electric response to a conventional resistor. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K+ channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the modeling and understanding of electrical phenomena in plants. PMID:25482796

  17. The effect of radiation on the thermal properties of chitosan/mimosa tenuiflora and chitosan/mimosa tenuiflora/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel-Estrada, S. A.; Santos-Rodríguez, E.; Olivas-Armendáriz, I.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Martínez-Pérez, C. A.

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of gamma radiation and UV radiation on the microstructure, chemical structure and thermal stability of Chitosan/Mimosa Tenuiflora and Chitosan/Mimosa Tenuiflora/MWCNT composites scaffolds produced by thermally induced phase separation. The composites were irradiated and observed to undergo radiation-induced degradation through chain scission. Morphology, thermal properties and effects on chemical and semi-crystalline structures were obtained by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), FT-IR analysis and X-ray Diffraction. A relationship between radiation type and the thermal stability of the composites, were also established. This relationship allows a more accurate and precise control of the life span of Chitosan/Mimosa Tenuiflora and Chitosan/Mimosa Tenuiflora/MWCNT composites through the use of radiation in materials for use in tissue engineering.

  18. Triterpenoid glycosides from the bark of Mimosa tenuiflora.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y L; Massiot, G; Lavaud, C; Teulon, J M; Guéchot, C; Haag-Berrurier, M; Anton, R

    1991-01-01

    Two new saponins were isolated from Mimosa tenuiflora and their structures established as 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1----2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1----3]-(alp ha-L- arabinopyranosyl-(1----4]-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1----2)]-[beta-D- xylopyranosyl-(1----4)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-28-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyrano syl oleanolic acid and 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1----3]-(al pha- L-arabinopyranosyl-(1----4]beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1----2)]-[beta-D- xylopyranosyl-(1----4)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl) oleanolic acid. PMID:1367651

  19. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil. PMID:17607468

  20. Teratogenicity of Mimosa tenuiflora seeds to pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, R M T; de Figueiredo, A P M; Benício, T M A; Dantas, F P M; Riet-Correa, F

    2008-02-01

    Bone and other malformations caused by the ingestion of Mimosa tenuiflora are common in ruminants in the Brazilian semiarid. The aim of this research was to study the teratogenic effects of M. tenuiflora in Wistar rats (Rattus novergicus). The experimental group had 15 females and was fed, from the 6th to the 21st day of pregnancy, with a ration containing 10% of M. tenuiflora seeds. The control group, with 10 females, was fed with the same ration without seeds. There were no differences in weight gains, and food and water consumption between treated and control rats. Ninety bone malformations were observed in 40 of the 101 fetuses born in the experimental group, and four malformations were observed in three of the 58 fetuses born in the control group (p<0.05). The weight and number of ossification centers of the fetuses from the experimental group were higher than those from the control group (p<0.05). It is concluded that the seeds of M. tenuiflora are teratogenic to rat fetuses. PMID:18078971

  1. Current Status of Mimosa pigra L. Infestation in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Asyraf; Crawley, Micheal J.

    2011-01-01

    The status and distribution of Mimosa pigra L., a semi-aquatic invasive species in Peninsular Malaysia, were continuously assessed between 2004 and 2007. This assessment investigated its population stand density and related weed management activities. In total, 106 sites of 6 main habitat types i.e., construction site (CS), dam/ reservoir (DM), forest reserve (FR), plantation (PL), river bank/waterway (RB) and roadside (RD) were assessed, and 55 sites were recorded with M. pigra populations. A CS is the most likely habitat to be infested with M. pigra (16 out of 18 assessed sites have this weed), whereas none of the FR visited were found to harbour M. pigra. In terms of population stand density, 41 populations were in the low range of stand density (individual plant of ≤5 m−2), compared to only 9 populations in the high range of stand density (individual plant of >10 m−2). In general, the current impact of M. pigra infestation on natural habitats is relatively low, as its distribution is only confined to disturbed areas. However, continuous monitoring of this weed species is highly recommended, especially in the riparian zone and wetland habitats. PMID:24575208

  2. An invasive Mimosa in India does not adopt the symbionts of its native relatives

    PubMed Central

    Gehlot, Hukam Singh; Tak, Nisha; Kaushik, Muskan; Mitra, Shubhajit; Chen, Wen-Ming; Poweleit, Nicole; Panwar, Dheeren; Poonar, Neetu; Parihar, Rashmita; Tak, Alkesh; Sankhla, Indu Singh; Ojha, Archana; Rao, Satyawada Rama; Simon, Marcelo F.; dos Reis Junior, Fabio Bueno; Perigolo, Natalia; Tripathi, Anil K.; Sprent, Janet I.; Young, J. Peter W.; James, Euan K.; Gyaneshwar, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The large monophyletic genus Mimosa comprises approx. 500 species, most of which are native to the New World, with Central Brazil being the main centre of radiation. All Brazilian Mimosa spp. so far examined are nodulated by rhizobia in the betaproteobacterial genus Burkholderia. Approximately 10 Mya, transoceanic dispersal resulted in the Indian subcontinent hosting up to six endemic Mimosa spp. The nodulation ability and rhizobial symbionts of two of these, M. hamata and M. himalayana, both from north-west India, are here examined, and compared with those of M. pudica, an invasive species. Methods Nodules were collected from several locations, and examined by light and electron microscopy. Rhizobia isolated from them were characterized in terms of their abilities to nodulate the three Mimosa hosts. The molecular phylogenetic relationships of the rhizobia were determined by analysis of 16S rRNA, nifH and nodA gene sequences. Key Results Both native Indian Mimosa spp. nodulated effectively in their respective rhizosphere soils. Based on 16S rRNA, nifH and nodA sequences, their symbionts were identified as belonging to the alphaproteobacterial genus Ensifer, and were closest to the ‘Old World’ Ensifer saheli, E. kostiensis and E. arboris. In contrast, the invasive M. pudica was predominantly nodulated by Betaproteobacteria in the genera Cupriavidus and Burkholderia. All rhizobial strains tested effectively nodulated their original hosts, but the symbionts of the native species could not nodulate M. pudica. Conclusions The native Mimosa spp. in India are not nodulated by the Burkholderia symbionts of their South American relatives, but by a unique group of alpha-rhizobial microsymbionts that are closely related to the ‘local’ Old World Ensifer symbionts of other mimosoid legumes in north-west India. They appear not to share symbionts with the invasive M. pudica, symbionts of which are mostly beta-rhizobial. PMID:23712450

  3. Mimosa tenuiflora as a Cause of Malformations in Ruminants in the Northeastern Brazilian Semiarid Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Craniofacial anomalies, eye malformations, and permanent flexures of the forelimbs are common malformations seen in ruminants grazing semiarid rangelands of Northeastern Brazil. To investigate the cause of these malformations, we fed 2 suspected plants, Mimosa tenuiflora or Prosopis juliflora, to gr...

  4. [Effect produced by the alkaloid fraction of Mimosa tenuiflora (tepescohuite) on the peristaltic reflex of the guinea pig ileum].

    PubMed

    Meckes-Lozoya, M; Lozoya, X; González, J L; Martínez, M

    1990-01-01

    An alkaloidal fraction was obtained from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir (tepescohuite) trunk bark. The product contained mainly an indolealkylamine and three minor alkaloids. This fraction inhibited the peristaltic reflex in the guinea-pig isolated ileum in vitro. PMID:2103706

  5. Extracts of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. attenuate the inflammatory response in a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    XU, WEI; HUANG, MINGQING; ZHANG, YUQIN; LI, HUANG; ZHENG, HAIYIN; YU, LISHUANG; CHU, KEDAN; LIN, YU; CHEN, LIDIAN

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is considered a serious public health problem, which is commonly treated with traditional Chinese or herbal medicine. The present study evaluated the effects of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. extraction (BCBE) on a type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. Wistar rats with CIA received either 125 or 500 mg/kg BCBE, after which, paw swelling was markedly suppressed compared with in the model group. In addition, BCBE significantly ameliorated pathological joint alterations, including synovial hyperplasia, and cartilage and bone destruction. The protein and mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-κB in synovial tissue were determined by immunohistochemical staining, western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that the expression levels of these factors were significantly downregulated in the BCBE-treated group compared with in the model group. These results indicated that BCBE may exert an inhibitory effect on the CIA rat model, and its therapeutic potential is associated with its anti-inflammatory action. PMID:27035125

  6. Proof that Burkholderia Strains Form Effective Symbioses with Legumes: a Study of Novel Mimosa-Nodulating Strains from South America

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Ming; de Faria, Sergio M.; Straliotto, Rosângela; Pitard, Rosa M.; Simões-Araùjo, Jean L.; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Chou, Yi-Ju; Barrios, Edmundo; Prescott, Alan R.; Elliott, Geoffrey N.; Sprent, Janet I.; Young, J. Peter W.; James, Euan K.

    2005-01-01

    Twenty Mimosa-nodulating bacterial strains from Brazil and Venezuela, together with eight reference Mimosa-nodulating rhizobial strains and two other β-rhizobial strains, were examined by amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis. They fell into 16 patterns and formed a single cluster together with the known β-rhizobia, Burkholderia caribensis, Burkholderia phymatum, and Burkholderia tuberum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 15 of the 20 strains were determined, and all were shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia; four distinct clusters could be discerned, with strains isolated from the same host species usually clustering very closely. Five of the strains (MAP3-5, Br3407, Br3454, Br3461, and Br3469) were selected for further studies of the symbiosis-related genes nodA, the NodD-dependent regulatory consensus sequences (nod box), and nifH. The nodA and nifH sequences were very close to each other and to those of B. phymatum STM815, B. caribensis TJ182, and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG19424 but were relatively distant from those of B. tuberum STM678. In addition to nodulating their original hosts, all five strains could also nodulate other Mimosa spp., and all produced nodules on Mimosa pudica that had nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activities and structures typical of effective N2-fixing symbioses. Finally, both wild-type and green fluorescent protein-expressing transconjugant strains of Br3461 and MAP3-5 produced N2-fixing nodules on their original hosts, Mimosa bimucronata (Br3461) and Mimosa pigra (MAP3-5), and hence this confirms strongly that Burkholderia strains can form effective symbioses with legumes. PMID:16269788

  7. In vitro propagation ofMimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret, a Mexican medicinal tree.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, M L; Rojas, G

    1996-11-01

    Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret (Leguminosae) was micropropagated throughin vitro culture of axillary buds on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Shoot formation was achieved when the media were supplemented with 0.1 mg.L(-1) IAA + 3 mg.L(-1) KN.In vitro rooting of regenerated shoots was achieved when 0.1 mg.L(-1) KN was combined with 1 mg.L(-1) IBA in the absence of IAA. Ninety-four percent of the rooted plants were succesfully adapted to field conditions and grown in the soil. A total of 180 trees grown under these conditions were obtained over a one-year period. PMID:24178660

  8. Tenuiflorins A-C: new 2-phenoxychromones from the leaves of Mimosa tenuiflora.

    PubMed

    León, Leticia; Maldonado, Emma; Cruz, Adela; Ortega, Alfredo

    2004-06-01

    Five 2-phenoxychromones, the new tenuiflorin A [5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenoxy)-6-methoxychromone], tenuiflorin B [5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenoxy)-6-methoxychromone] and tenuiflorin C [5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenoxy)chromone], along with the known 6-demethoxycapillarisin and 6-demethoxy-4'- O-methylcapillarisin were isolated from leaves of Mimosa tenuiflora. Structures of these compounds were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. A single-crystal diffraction analysis of 6-demethoxy-4'- O-methylcapillarisin was performed in order to confirm the proposed structures. PMID:15229805

  9. [Pharmacological properties in vitro of various extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora (tepescohuite)].

    PubMed

    Meckes-Lozoya, M; Lozoya, X; González, J L

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro biological effects of polar extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. trunk bark (tepescohuite) were studied. Ethyl acetate extract, with a high tannin content, inhibited the growth of different microorganisms. Alkaloids were particularly abundant in the butanol extract and this product strongly inhibited the intestinal peristalsis and produced contraction of uterine and gastric strips of rat and guinea pig. Saponins were detected in butanol and methanol extracts producing hemolysis. The screenings performed showed the diversity of bioactive compounds present in this plant product. PMID:2103705

  10. Effects of Mimosa tenuiflora bark extracts on WI38 and KB human cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, M L; Nicasio, P; Alonso-Cortés, D

    1991-01-01

    The effects of three extracts from barks of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd) Poir, Leguminosae, on the growth rate of two human cell lines were investigated. The plant material was extracted with petroleum ether, ethylacetate and butanol, and the obtained products were evaluated in their ability to modify growth of WI38 normal embryonic fibroblasts, and KB cells from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma in tissue culture conditions. The ethylacetate and butanol extracts produced growth rate inhibition with a different pattern depending on the cell line studied; in contrast, the petroleum ether extract markedly increased proliferation of the same cells in vitro. PMID:1819991

  11. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the acacia-ant Crematogaster mimosae.

    PubMed

    Rubin, B E; Makarewich, C A; Talaba, A L; Stenzler, L; Bogdanowicz, S M; Lovette, I J

    2009-07-01

    We describe 10 microsatellite loci developed from Crematogaster mimosae, an ant species that nests mutualistically in Acacia drepanolobium trees in east Africa. Polymorphism ranged from 4 to 16 alleles per locus (mean = 7.3). Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.485 to 0.813 (mean 0.626), and from 0.502 to 0.894 (mean 0.674), respectively. These markers will foster studies of the population structure, colony structure, and reproductive strategies of these ants. PMID:21564879

  12. Wood growth patterns of Macrolobium acaciifolium (Benth.) Benth. (Fabaceae) in Amazonian black-water and white-water floodplain forests.

    PubMed

    Schöngart, Jochen; Piedade, Maria Teresa F; Wittmann, Florian; Junk, Wolfgang J; Worbes, Martin

    2005-09-01

    Macrolobium acaciifolium (Benth.) Benth. (Fabaceae) is a dominant legume tree species occurring at low elevations of nutrient-poor black-water (igapó) and nutrient-rich white-water floodplain forests (várzea) of Amazonia. As a consequence of the annual long-term flooding this species forms distinct annual tree rings allowing dendrochronological analyses. From both floodplain types in Central Amazonia we sampled cores from 20 large canopy trees growing at identical elevations with a flood-height up to 7 m. We determined tree age, wood density (WD) and mean radial increment (MRI) and synchronized ring-width patterns of single trees to construct tree-ring chronologies for every study site. Maximum tree age found in the igapó was more than 500 years, contrary to the várzea with ages not older than 200 years. MRI and WD were significantly lower in the igapó (MRI=1.52+/-0.38 mm year(-1), WD=0.39+/-0.05 g cm(-3)) than in the várzea (MRI=2.66+/-0.67 mm year(-1), WD=0.45+/-0.03 g cm(-3)). In both floodplain forests we developed tree-ring chronologies comprising the period 1857-2003 (n=7 trees) in the várzea and 1606-2003 (n=13 trees) in the igapó. The ring-width in both floodplain forests was significantly correlated with the length of the terrestrial phase (vegetation period) derived from the daily recorded water level in the port of Manaus since 1903. In both chronologies we found increased wood growth during El Niño events causing negative precipitation anomalies and a lower water discharge in Amazonian rivers, which leads to an extension of the terrestrial phase. The climate signal of La Niña was not evident in the dendroclimatic proxies. PMID:16025354

  13. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Li, Feng-sen; Pang, Nan-nan; Tian, Ge; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Hong-ping; Ding, Jian-bing

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration of eosinophil and neutrophil. Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract also contributed to the rebalance of Th17/Treg cell via decreasing the Th17 cell and increasing the Treg, which was corresponding with the inhibited Th17 cytokine response and increased IL-10 level. Moreover, the reduced TGF-β level and Smad2/3 protein level also suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract could inhibit TGF-β mediated airway remodelling as well. Taken together, these data suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. may be a novel candidate for future antiasthma drug development. PMID:27073403

  14. Standardization in the field of medical image management: the contribution of the MIMOSA model.

    PubMed

    Gibaud, B; Garfagni, H; Aubry, F; Pokropek, A T; Chameroy, V; Bizais, Y; Di Paola, R

    1998-02-01

    This paper deals with the development of standards in the field of medical imaging and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS's), and notably concerning the interworking between PACS's and hospital information systems (HIS). It explains, in detail, how a conceptual model of the management of medical images, such as the medical image management in an open system architecture (MIMOSA) model, can contribute to the development of standards for medical image management and PACS's. This contribution is twofold: 1) Since the model lists and structures the concepts and resources involved to make the images available to the users when and where they are required, and describes the interactions between PACS components and HIS, the MIMOSA work helps by defining a reference architecture which includes an external description of the various components of a PACS, and a logical structure for assembling them. 2) The model and the implementation of a demonstrator based on this model allow the relevance of the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard with respect to image management issues to be assessed, highlighting some current limitations of this standard and proposing extensions. Such a twofold action is necessary in order both to bring solutions, even partial, in the short term, and to allow for the convergence, in the long term, of the standards developed by independent standardization groups in medical informatics (e.g., those within Technical Committee 251 of CEN: Comité Européen de Normalisation). PMID:9617908

  15. Neutralizing effects of Mimosa tenuiflora extracts against inflammation caused by Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Bitencourt, Mariana Angélica Oliveira; de Souza Lima, Maira Conceição Jerônimo; Torres-Rêgo, Manoela; Fernandes, Júlia Morais; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; Tambourgi, Denise Vilarinho; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion bite represents a significant and serious public health problem in certain regions of Brazil, as well as in other parts of the world. Inflammatory mediators are thought to be involved in the systemic and local immune response induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenomation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora on model envenomation. In mice, the envenomation model is induced by Tityus serrulatus venom. Previous treatment of mice with fractions from M. tenuiflora was able to suppress the cell migration to the peritoneal cavity. The treatment of mice with M. tenuiflora extracts also decreased the levels of IL-6, IL-12, and IL-1β. We concluded that the administration of the extract and fractions resulted in a reduction in cell migration and showed a reduction in the level of proinflammatory cytokines. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract from the Mimosa tenuiflora plant on T. serrulatus venom. PMID:25013776

  16. Neutralizing Effects of Mimosa tenuiflora Extracts against Inflammation Caused by Tityus serrulatus Scorpion Venom

    PubMed Central

    Bitencourt, Mariana Angélica Oliveira; Lima, Maira Conceição Jerônimo de Souza; Torres-Rêgo, Manoela; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; Tambourgi, Denise Vilarinho; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion bite represents a significant and serious public health problem in certain regions of Brazil, as well as in other parts of the world. Inflammatory mediators are thought to be involved in the systemic and local immune response induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenomation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora on model envenomation. In mice, the envenomation model is induced by Tityus serrulatus venom. Previous treatment of mice with fractions from M. tenuiflora was able to suppress the cell migration to the peritoneal cavity. The treatment of mice with M. tenuiflora extracts also decreased the levels of IL-6, IL-12, and IL-1β. We concluded that the administration of the extract and fractions resulted in a reduction in cell migration and showed a reduction in the level of proinflammatory cytokines. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract from the Mimosa tenuiflora plant on T. serrulatus venom. PMID:25013776

  17. Treatment with aqueous extract from Croton cajucara Benth reduces hepatic oxidative stress in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Graziella Ramos; Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Porawski, Marilene; Marcolin, Eder; Kretzmann, Nélson Alexandre; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Richter, Marc Francois; Marroni, Cláudio Augusto; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2012-01-01

    Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusion of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidative stress as well as the therapeutic effect of Croton cajucara Benth (1.5 mL of the C. cajucara extract i.g.) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Croton cajucara Benth was tested as an aqueous extract for its phytochemical composition, and its antioxidant activity in vitro was also evaluated. Lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities were measured in the hepatic tissue, as well as the presence activation of p65 (NF-κB), through western blot. Phytochemical screening of Croton cajucara Benth detected the presence of flavonoids, coumarins and alkaloids. The extract exhibited a significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH-scavenging and the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assays. Liver lipid peroxidation increased in diabetic animals followed by a reduction in the Croton-cajucara-Benth-treated group. There was activation of p65 nuclear expression in the diabetic animals, which was attenuated in the animals receiving the Croton cajucara Benth aqueous extract. The liver tissue in diabetic rats showed oxidative alterations related to the streptozotocin treatment. In conclusion the Croton cajucara Benth aqueus extract treatment effectively reduced the oxidative stress and contributed to tissue recovery. PMID:22811599

  18. A new triterpenoid saponin from Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Kuntze.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Biao; Liu, Guang-Da; Zhang, Bao-Bao; Wang, Shan-Shan; Ma, Rui; Zhong, Bei-Shan; He, Bai-Qiu; Liang, Yan; Wu, Fei-Hua

    2016-05-01

    A new triterpene saponin, 3β,16β,23α,28β,30β-pentahydroxyl-olean-11,13(18)-dien-3β-yl-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-fucopyranoside, was named Clinoposaponin D (1), together with six known triterpene saponins, buddlejasaponin IVb (2), buddlejasaponin IVa (3), buddlejasaponin IV (4), clinopodisides D (5), 11α,16β,23,28-Tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-3β-yl-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-fucopyranoside (6) and prosaikogenin A (7), and two known triterpenes, saikogenin A (8) and saikogenin F (9) were isolated from Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Kuntze. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR and MS analysis. Meanwhile, the effects of all compounds on rabbit platelet aggregation and thrombin time (TT) were investigated in vitro. Compounds 4 and 7 had significant promoting effects on platelet aggregation with EC50 value at 53.4 and 12.2 μM, respectively. In addition, the highest concentration (200 μM) of compounds 2 and 9 shortened TT by 20.6 and 25.1%, respectively. PMID:26511166

  19. Terpenes From the Root of Salvia hypoleuca Benth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Salvia, with nearly 900 species, is one of the largest members of Lamiaceae family. In the Flora of Iran, the genus Salvia is represented by 58 species of which 17 species are endemic. Salvia hypoleuca Benth., is one of these species growing wildly in northern and central parts of Iran. Salvia species are well known in folk medicine and widely used for therapeutic purposes. Literature review shows that there is no report on phytochemical investigation of the roots of S. hypoleuca. Results The separation and purification process were carried out using various chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis of NMR and MS data, in comparison with those reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were identified as sitosteryl oleate (1), β-sitosterol (2), stigmasterol (3), manool (4), 7α-acetoxy royleanone (5), ursolic acid (6), oleanolic acid (7), 3-epicorosolic acid (8), 3-epimaslinic acid (9) and coleonolic acid (10). Conclusions In the present study, three sterols, two diterpenes and five triterpenes were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the roots of S. hypoleuca. As the chemotaxonomic significance, some of the isolated compounds (1–7, 9) have not been previously reported from the species S. hypoleuca, while the triterpenes 8 and 10 are now documented from Salvia genus for the first time. PMID:23351362

  20. Chemical evaluation of waste from Thaumatococcus danielli (Benth) processing.

    PubMed

    Elemo, B O; Oladimeji, O S; Adu, O B; Olayeye, O I

    1999-01-01

    Three different batches of Thaumatococcus danielli (Benth) fruits were collected at different fruiting seasons. The proximate compositions of the pericarp and seeds were determined on a dry weight basis. Partial characterization of the lipid extract was carried out and tannin content determined. The average moisture, ash and lipid contents of the pericarp were higher (89.2+/-4.17%, 20.7+/-1.10% and 11.6+/-1.23%, respectively) than those of the seed (31.2+/-4.66%, 9.1+/-0.71% and 8.2+/-1.64%, respectively). Crude protein and total carbohydrate were, however, higher in the seed (9.5+/-4.38% and 69.4+/-11.52%, respectively) than in the pericarp (4.5+/-2.21% and 6.3+/-3.94%, respectively). The dietary fiber contents of both pericarp and seed were high. Starch content was very low in the pericarp (0.4+/-0.0%) compared to the seed (66.28+/-9.21%). Tannin content in the pericarp and seeds was 12.1+/-1.52 mg/g and 21.9+/-2.28 mg/g, respectively. The oil extracted from both pericarp and seeds was light-yellow in color and slightly solid at room temperature. Unsaturation level of T. danielli oil was low, while free fatty acids were high. The results obtained suggested that T. danielli waste could potentially be a raw material in livestock feed formulation. PMID:10646557

  1. Multifunctional properties of polysaccharides from Dalbergia sissoo, Tectona grandis and Mimosa diplotricha.

    PubMed

    Rana, Vikas; Das, Manuj K; Gogoi, Satyabrat; Kumar, Vineet

    2014-02-15

    Three water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated and purified from the leaves of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (DSLP), bark of Tectona grandis L. f (TGBP) and seeds of Mimosa diplotricha var. diplotricha Sauvalle (MDSP). Antioxidant and moisture preserving activities of these three polysaccharides were investigated using in vitro methods. The antioxidant activities studied include superoxide (O2(*-)), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(*+)), hydroxyl (OH(-)), nitric oxide (NO*), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD(+)) radical scavenging activities, ferric ion (Fe(3+)) reducing ability, ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating and lipid peroxidation activities. The study revealed higher activity of TGBP in all antioxidant assays than DSLP and MDSP. Further, the three polysaccharides showed effective moisture retention properties in comparison with hyaluronic acid and glycerol. PMID:24507290

  2. Genome sequence of Burkholderia mimosarum strain LMG 23256T, a Mimosa pigra microsymbiont from Anso, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Anne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia mimosarum strain LMG 23256T is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Mimosa pigra (giant sensitive plant). LMG 23256T was isolated from a nodule recovered from the roots of the M. pigra growing in Anso, Taiwan. LMG 23256T is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with M. pigra. Here we describe the features of B. mimosarum strain LMG 23256T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 8,410,967 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 268 scaffolds of 270 contigs containing 7,800 protein-coding genes and 85 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197434

  3. New adduct of abietane-type diterpene from Salvia leriifolia Benth.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Amjad; Adhikari, Achyut; Iqbal Choudhary, M; Ayatollahi, Syed Abdulmajid; Atta-Ur-Rahman

    2016-07-01

    A new adduct of abietane-type diterpene, salvialeriicone (1), was isolated from Salvia leriifolia Benth., along with a new chemical entity nor-abietane diterpene, 2-isopropyl-8,8-dimethyl-7,8-dihydrophenanthrene-1,4,5(6H)-trione (2). Their structures were determined using mass spectrometry, and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:27266891

  4. Would Sacaca, Croton cajucara Benth (Euphorbiaceae) be an hepatotoxic plant like Germander, Teucrium chamaedrys L. (Labiatae)?

    PubMed

    Soares, Manoel do Carmo Pereira

    2004-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies have consistently incriminated the medicinal plant germander (Teucrium chamaedrys L.) in epidemic and sporadic cases of liver diseases. The sacaca (Croton cajucara Benth), a common plant in Brazilian Amazon region also comes being incriminated in similar clinical cases. Of both plants were isolated diterpenoid compounds with similar chemical structures. PMID:15586905

  5. Triterpenoids from Gutenbergia nigritana(Benth). Oliv and Hiern.

    PubMed

    Ahmadu, Augustine A; Tarimaledei, Pondei; Onanuga, A

    2013-01-01

    Gutenbergia nigritana (Benth). Oliv and Hein (Asteraceae) is a Nigerian ethnomedicinal plant which has long being used medicinally in traditional systems of medicine. The plant has diverse ethnomedicinal uses which include: The Plant is used in the Ijaw area of Niger Delta region of Nigeria to treat Malaria, convulsion, diarrhea and as a remedy for skin infection. The antibacterial study on dichloromethane extract and chromatographic fractions:dichloromethane soluble part(DC1), ethyl acetate soluble part(E1) and N-butanol soluble portions of methanolic extract were investigated using agar diffusion assay method by measuring the zone of inhibition against clinical isolates: Bacillus subtillis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extensive Chromatographic separation and preparative TLC were employed in the isolation steps. Column chromatograpy of the dichloromethane extract, gel filteration on sephadex and preparative TLC led to the isolation of two triterpenoids: Lupenol(1) and Lupenol acetate(2). The structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and compared with literature. The dichloromethane extract exhibited antibacterial activity against all the test microorganisms with zones of inhibition ranging between 12-26mm. The chromatographic fraction (Fr-6) exhibited activity against E. coli, Ps. aeruginosa and S. aureus but in-active against B. subtilis, while the methanol soluble portions: dichloromethane and ethyl acetate showed weak activity while the n-butanol portion was in active. Dichloromethane extract of Gutenbergia nigritana leaves exhibited anti-bacterial activity, though the compounds isolated did not show activity, it is likely that the activity might reside in other components present in the dichloromethane extract. PMID:24146466

  6. Experimental evaluation of mimosa tenuiflora (willd.) poir. (Tepescohuite) I. Screening of the antimicrobial properties of bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Lozoya, X; Navarro, V; Arnason, J T; Kourany, E

    1989-01-01

    Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir, is a tree from the south areas of Mexico. This bark is popularly used as remedy to treat different skin lesions. The present study demonstrates the in vitro antimicrobial properties of the water and ethanolic extracts prepared with the dried and powdered bark of this plant. A clear inhibition growth effect was observed in all the gram positive and gram negative organisms, yeasts and dermatophytes used. PMID:2764672

  7. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Mimosa asperata - nodulating Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6

    SciTech Connect

    De Meyer, Sofie E.; Parker, Matthew; Van Berkum, Peter; Tian, Rui; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B. K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos; Howieson, John; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-10-16

    Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Mimosa asperata collected in Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, in 2005. Mimosa asperata is the only legume described so far to exclusively associates with Cupriavidus symbionts. Furthermore, strain AMP6 represents an early-diverging lineage within the symbiotic Cupriavidus group and has the capacity to develop an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with three other species of Mimosa. Here, we describe the genome of Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6 which enables comparative analyses of symbiotic trait evolution in this genus; the general features, together with sequence and annotation are further discussed. Finally, the 7,579,563 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 260 scaffolds of 262 contigs, contains 7,033 protein-coding genes and 97 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.

  8. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Mimosa asperata - nodulating Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6

    DOE PAGESBeta

    De Meyer, Sofie E.; Parker, Matthew; Van Berkum, Peter; Tian, Rui; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B. K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; et al

    2015-10-16

    Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Mimosa asperata collected in Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, in 2005. Mimosa asperata is the only legume described so far to exclusively associates with Cupriavidus symbionts. Furthermore, strain AMP6 represents an early-diverging lineage within the symbiotic Cupriavidus group and has the capacity to develop an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with three other species of Mimosa. Here, we describe the genome of Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6 which enables comparative analyses of symbiotic trait evolution in this genus; the general features, together withmore » sequence and annotation are further discussed. Finally, the 7,579,563 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 260 scaffolds of 262 contigs, contains 7,033 protein-coding genes and 97 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.« less

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir from Brazilian semi-arid.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Tancredo Augusto Feitosa; Rodriguez-Echeverría, Susana; de Andrade, Leonaldo Alves; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Many plant species from Brazilian semi-arid present arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in their rhizosphere. These microorganisms play a key role in the establishment, growth, survival of plants and protection against drought, pathogenic fungi and nematodes. This study presents a quantitative analysis of the AMF species associated with Mimosa tenuiflora, an important native plant of the Caatinga flora. AMF diversity, spore abundance and root colonization were estimated in seven sampling locations in the Ceará and Paraíba States, during September of 2012. There were significant differences in soil properties, spore abundance, percentage of root colonization, and AMF diversity among sites. Altogether, 18 AMF species were identified, and spores of the genera Acaulospora, Claroideoglomus, Dentiscutata, Entrophospora, Funneliformis, Gigaspora, Glomus, Racocetra, Rhizoglomus and Scutellospora were observed. AMF species diversity and their spore abundance found in M. tenuiflora rhizosphere shown that this native plant species is an important host plant to AMF communities from Brazilian semi-arid region. We concluded that: (a) during the dry period and in semi-arid conditions, there is a high spore production in M. tenuiflora root zone; and (b) soil properties, as soil pH and available phosphorous, affect AMF species diversity, thus constituting key factors for the similarity/dissimilarity of AMF communities in the M. tenuiflora root zone among sites. PMID:26991277

  10. Early membrane events induced by salicylic acid in motor cells of the Mimosa pudica pulvinus.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Saed; Rocher, Françoise; Bonmort, Janine; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Roblin, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Salicylic acid (o-hydroxy benzoic acid) (SA) induced a rapid dose-dependent membrane hyperpolarization (within seconds) and a modification of the proton secretion (within minutes) of Mimosa pudica pulvinar cells at concentrations higher than 0.1mM. Observations on plasma membrane vesicles isolated from pulvinar tissues showed that SA acted directly at the membrane level through a protonophore action as suggested by the inhibition of the proton gradient and the lack of effect on H(+)-ATPase catalytic activity. Comparative data obtained with protonophores (carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone and 2,4-dinitrophenol) and inhibitors of ATPases (vanadate, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and diethylstilbestrol) corroborated this conclusion. Consequently, the collapse of the proton motive force led to an impairment in membrane functioning. This impairment is illustrated by the inhibition of the ion-driven turgor-mediated seismonastic reaction of the pulvinus following SA treatment. SA acted in a specific manner as its biosynthetic precursor benzoic acid induced much milder effects and the m- and p-OH benzoic acid derivatives did not trigger similar characteristic effects. Therefore, SA may be considered both a membrane signal molecule and a metabolic effector following its uptake in the cells. PMID:23487303

  11. Embryonic death in goats caused by the ingestion of Mimosa tenuiflora.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Antônio Flávio M; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Lopes, José Radmácyo; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip; Mota, Rinaldo A

    2012-04-01

    To determine the teratogenic effect of Mimosa tenuiflora, the green fresh plant was administered ad libitum to 12 goats (Group 1) from day 1 to day 30 of gestation. Upon ultrasonographic examination, on day 30, not one of these goats was pregnant, demonstrating that M. tenuiflora causes embryonic death. Six goats (Group 2) ingested M. tenuiflora from day 30 to day 60 of pregnancy. Four goats delivered seven healthy kids and two were not pregnant based on ultrasonographic examination on day 45 suggesting late embryonic death. Three other groups of six goats each received the plant on days 60-90 (Group 3), 90-120 (Group 4), and 120-150 (Group 5) of gestation and a control group (Group 6) all delivered normal kids, except one goat in Group 4 that aborted and one adult goat from Group 5 that was found dead. It is concluded that M. tenuiflora causes embryonic death. The failure to induce malformations might have resulted from a high dose of an unknown active principle of the plant causing fetal death. PMID:22178006

  12. Indoleamines and calcium channels influence morphogenesis in in vitro cultures of Mimosa pudica L.

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, Akula; Giridhar, Parvatam

    2009-01-01

    The present article reports the interplay of indoleamine neurohormones viz. serotonin, melatonin and calcium channels on shoot organogenesis in Mimosa pudica L. In vitro grown nodal segments were cultured on MS medium with B5 vitamins containing Serotonin (SER) and Melatonin (MEL) at 100 µM and indoleamine inhibitors viz. serotonin to melatonin conversion inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA) at 40 µM, serotonin reuptake inhibitor (Prozac) 20 µM. In another set of experiment, calcium at 5 mM, calcium ionophore (A23187) 100 µM, and calcium channel blocker varapamil hydrochloride (1 mM) a calcium chelator EGTA (100 µM) were administered to the culture medium. The percentage of shoot multiplication, endogenous MEL and SER were monitored during shoot organogenesis. At 100 µM SER and MEL treatment 60% and 70% explants responded for shoot multiplication respectively. Medium supplemented with either SER or MEL along with calcium (5 mM) 75%–80% explants responded for organogenesis. SER or MEL along with calcium ionophore (A23187) at 100 µM 70% explants responded for shoot multiplication. p-CPA, prozac, verapamil and EGTA, shoot multiplication was reduced and endogenous pools of SER, MEL decreased by 40–70%. The results clearly demonstrated that indoleamines and calcium channels positively influenced shoot organogenesis in M. pudica L. PMID:20514228

  13. Mimosa tenuiflora as a cause of malformations in ruminants in the northeastern Brazilian semiarid rangelands.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, L A; Correa, F Riet; Gardner, D; Panter, K E; Dantas, A F M; Medeiros, R M T; Mota, R A; Araújo, J A S

    2007-11-01

    Craniofacial anomalies, eye malformations, and permanent flexures of the forelimbs are common malformations seen in ruminants grazing semiarid rangelands of Northeastern Brazil. To investigate the cause of these malformations, we fed 2 suspected plants, Mimosa tenuiflora or Prosopis juliflora, to groups of 4 pregnant goats each. Fresh green M. tenuiflora was collected daily and fed ad libitum to 4 goats in group 1 throughout pregnancy. This treatment group also received a supplemental feed concentrate equivalent to 1% body weight. Four goats in group 2 received a ration with 70% of P. juliflora pods and 30% hay throughout pregnancy. Four control goats were fed supplemental feed concentrate (1% body weight) and hay ad libitum throughout pregnancy. Goats treated with P. juliflora pods and the control goats delivered 9 normal kids. The four goats that were fed M. tenuiflora during pregnancy delivered 4 kids, 3 of which had abnormalities similar to those observed in field cases, including cleft lip, unilateral corneal opacity, ocular bilateral dermoids, buphthalmos with a cloudy brownish appearance of the anterior chamber due to an iridal cyst, and segmental stenosis of the colon. Malformations induced experimentally by M. tenuiflora were similar to those observed in field cases, suggesting that M. tenuiflora is a cause of the field cases observed in the Brazilian semiarid rangelands. PMID:18039908

  14. Therapeutic effectiveness of a Mimosa tenuiflora cortex extract in venous leg ulceration treatment.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Arce, Erika; Chávez-Soto, Marco Antonio; Herrera-Arellano, Armando; Arzate, Silvia; Agüero, Juan; Feria-Romero, Iris Angélica; Cruz-Guzmán, Angélica; Lozoya, Xavier

    2007-02-12

    The cortex of Mimosa tenuiflora is a popular remedy utilized in Mexico for the treatment of skin lesions. Modern studies support the existence in this cortex of compounds with cicatrizing properties. In the present study the therapeutic effectiveness of an extract elaborated with this bark in the treatment of venous leg ulceration disease was explored. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted with ambulatory patients distributed into two groups, one receiving a hydrogel containing 5% of a crude extract standardized in its tannin concentration (1.8%), while the control group, was administered the same hydrogel but without addition of the extract. In both aseptic washings were performed initially followed by topical application of the corresponding hydrogel and dressing. Follow-up lasted 13 weeks and ulcer healing was determined through measurement of the lesion area by digital-photographic parameters. Therapeutic effectiveness occurred in all patients of the extract group; after the 8th treatment week, ulcer size was reduced by 92% as mean value in this group, whereas therapeutic effectiveness was observed only in one patient of the control group (chi(2), p=0.0001). No side effects were observed in any patient in either group. PMID:17088036

  15. Mechanosensitivity below Ground: Touch-Sensitive Smell-Producing Roots in the Shy Plant Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Musah, Rabi A; Lesiak, Ashton D; Maron, Max J; Cody, Robert B; Edwards, David; Fowble, Kristen L; Dane, A John; Long, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    The roots of the shy plant Mimosa pudica emit a cocktail of small organic and inorganic sulfur compounds and reactive intermediates into the environment, including SO2, methanesulfinic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, ethanesulfinic acid, propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, phenothiazine, and thioformaldehyde, an elusive and highly unstable compound that, to our knowledge, has never before been reported to be emitted by a plant. When soil around the roots is dislodged or when seedling roots are touched, an odor is detected. The perceived odor corresponds to the emission of higher amounts of propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, and phenothiazine. The mechanosensitivity response is selective. Whereas touching the roots with soil or human skin resulted in odor detection, agitating the roots with other materials such as glass did not induce a similar response. Light and electron microscopy studies of the roots revealed the presence of microscopic sac-like root protuberances. Elemental analysis of these projections by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed them to contain higher levels of K(+) and Cl(-) compared with the surrounding tissue. Exposing the protuberances to stimuli that caused odor emission resulted in reductions in the levels of K(+) and Cl(-) in the touched area. The mechanistic implications of the variety of sulfur compounds observed vis-à-vis the pathways for their formation are discussed. PMID:26661932

  16. Phytoremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon (PHC) Contaminated Soil by Using Mimosa pudica L. .

    PubMed

    Budhadev, Basumatary; Rubul, Saikia; Sabitry, Bordoloi; Hari Prasad, Sarma

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Mimosa pudica L. that could be effective in phytoremediation of PHC-contaminated soil. Experiments were conducted in net house to determine the tolerance of this species to a heavy crude oil contaminated soil under the application of two fertilizer levels and reduction of PHC was monitored for 180 days. Assessment of plant growth, biomass and Total Oil and Grease (TOG) degradation were carried out at an interval of 60 days. In the presence of contaminants, biomass and plant height were reduced up to 27% and 10.4% respectively. Experiments with different percentages of crude oil showed that M. pudica could tolerate crude-oil contamination up to 6.2% (w/w). The estimation of TOG in soil of the tested plants revealed that M. pudica could decrease 31.7% of crude oil contaminants in low fertilizer level (200N, 100P, 100K) and 24.7% in high fertilizer level (240N, 120P, 120K). In case of unplanted pots, the reduction of TOG was 13.7% in low fertilizer level and 11.2% in high fertilizer level. This experiment has identified the suitability of a native candidate plant species for further investigation of their phytoremediation potential. PMID:26563085

  17. Complete Genome sequence of Burkholderia phymatum STM815T, a broad host range and efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa species

    PubMed Central

    Moulin, Lionel; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Caroline, Bournaud; Booth, Kristina; Vriezen, Jan A.C.; Melkonian, Rémy; James, Euan K.; Young, J. Peter W.; Bena, Gilles; Hauser, Loren; Land, Miriam; Kyrpides, Nikos; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick; Copeland, Alex; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle; Bristow, Jim; Riley, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia phymatum is a soil bacterium able to develop a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with species of the legume genus Mimosa, and is frequently found associated specifically with Mimosa pudica. The type strain of the species, STM 815T, was isolated from a root nodule in French Guiana in 2000. The strain is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, and is a highly competitive strain for nodulation compared to other Mimosa symbionts, as it also nodulates a broad range of other legume genera and species. The 8,676,562 bp genome is composed of two chromosomes (3,479,187 and 2,697,374 bp), a megaplasmid (1,904,893 bp) and a plasmid hosting the symbiotic functions (595,108 bp). PMID:25197461

  18. Complete Genome sequence of Burkholderia phymatum STM815, a broad host range and efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa species

    SciTech Connect

    Moulin, Lionel; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Caroline, Bournaud; Booth, Kristina; Vriezen, Jan A.C.; Melkonian, Remy; James, Euan; Young, Peter W.; Bena, Gilles; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Copeland, A; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle; Bristow, James; Riley, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia phymatum is a soil bacterium able to develop a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with species of the legume genus Mimosa, and is frequently found associated specifically with Mimosa pudica. The type strain of the species, STM 815T, was isolated from a root nodule in French Guiana in 2000. The strain is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, and is a highly competitive strain for nodulation compared to other Mimosa symbionts, as it also nodulates a broad range of other legume genera and species. The 8,676,562 bp genome is composed of two chromosomes (3,479,187 and 2,697,374 bp), a megaplasmid (1,904,893 bp) and a plasmid hosting the symbiotic functions (595,108 bp).

  19. Thermodynamic characterization of metal dissolution and inhibitor adsorption processes in the low carbon steel/mimosa tannin/sulfuric acid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Sanja; Stern, Ivica

    2002-10-01

    The corrosion rates in the presence of mimosa tannin as a low carbon steel corrosion inhibitor in sulfuric acid media, were measured by the weight loss method, in the range of temperatures from 20 to 60 °C. The Temkin, Frumkin and Freundlich isotherms were tested for their fit to the experimental data. The free energies and enthalpies for the adsorption process and the apparent activation energies, enthalpies and entropies of the dissolution process were determined. The fundamental thermodynamic functions were used to glean important information about the mimosa tannin inhibitory behavior. The results were explained in terms of chemical thermodynamics.

  20. Extracts of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. attenuate the inflammatory response in a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Huang, Mingqing; Zhang, Yuqin; Li, Huang; Zheng, Haiyin; Yu, Lishuang; Chu, Kedan; Lin, Yu; Chen, Lidian

    2016-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is considered a serious public health problem, which is commonly treated with traditional Chinese or herbal medicine. The present study evaluated the effects of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. extraction (BCBE) on a type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. Wistar rats with CIA received either 125 or 500 mg/kg BCBE, after which, paw swelling was markedly suppressed compared with in the model group. In addition, BCBE significantly ameliorated pathological joint alterations, including synovial hyperplasia, and cartilage and bone destruction. The protein and mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑8, tumor necrosis factor‑α and nuclear factor‑κB in synovial tissue were determined by immunohistochemical staining, western blot analysis and reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that the expression levels of these factors were significantly downregulated in the BCBE‑treated group compared with in the model group. These results indicated that BCBE may exert an inhibitory effect on the CIA rat model, and its therapeutic potential is associated with its anti-inflammatory action. PMID:27035125

  1. A Mathematical Model on Water Redistribution Mechanism of the Seismonastic Movement of Mimosa Pudica

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, K.W.; Ye, Z.W.; Chye, M.L.; Ngan, A.H.W.

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical model based on the water redistribution mechanism is proposed to predict the volumetric strain of motor cells in Mimosa pudica during the seismonastic movement. The model describes the water and ion movements following the opening of ion channels triggered by stimulation. The cellular strain is related to the angular velocity of the plant movement, and both their predictions are in good agreement with experimental data, thus validating the water redistribution mechanism. The results reveal that an increase in ion diffusivity across the cell membrane of <15-fold is sufficient to produce the observed seismonastic movement. PMID:23823246

  2. Uptake and metabolic effects of salicylic acid on the pulvinar motor cells of Mimosa pudica L.

    PubMed

    Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Saeedi, Saed; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Roblin, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the salicylic acid (o-hydroxy benzoic acid) (SA) uptake by the pulvinar tissues of Mimosa pudica L. pulvini was shown to be strongly pH-dependent, increasing with acidity of the assay medium. This uptake was performed according to a unique affinity system (K(m) = 5.9 mM, V(m) = 526 pmol mgDW(-1)) in the concentration range of 0.1-5 mM. The uptake rate increased with increasing temperature (5-35 °C) and was inhibited following treatment with sodium azide (NaN3) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), suggesting the involvement of an active component. Treatment with p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS) did not modify the uptake, indicating that external thiol groups were not necessary. KCl, which induced membrane depolarization had no significant effect, and fusicoccin (FC), which hyperpolarized cell membrane, stimulated the uptake, suggesting that the pH component of the proton motive force was likely a driving force. These data suggest that the SA uptake by the pulvinar tissues may be driven by two components: an ion-trap mechanism playing a pivotal role and a putative carrier-mediated mechanism. Unlike other benzoic acid derivatives acting as classical respiration inhibitors (NaN3 and KCN), SA modified the pulvinar cell metabolism by increasing the respiration rate similar to CCCP and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). Furthermore, SA inhibited the osmoregulated seismonastic reaction in a pH dependent manner and induced characteristic damage to the ultrastructural features of the pulvinar motor cells, particularly at the mitochondrial level. PMID:24292275

  3. Effects of Mimosa tenuiflora on larval establishment of Haemonchus contortus in sheep.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, L M B; Macedo, I T F; Vieira, L S; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Tomé, A R; Sampaio, R A; Louvandini, H; Bevilaqua, C M L

    2013-09-23

    Anthelmintic resistance has limited the ability to control the gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants and has therefore awakened an interest in the study of tanniferous plants as a source of anthelmintics. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Mimosa tenuiflora intake, a tanniferous plant that is fed to small ruminants in northeastern Brazil, on the larval establishment of Haemonchus contortus in sheep. In this experiment, 18 nematode-free sheep were divided into three groups (n=6) according to live weight. Group 1 was fed M. tenuiflora leaves; Group 2 was fed M. tenuiflora stems; Group 3 served as the control group and was fed Cynodon dactylon, a plant with low levels of tannins. The animals consumed the plants for 13 days (Day -7 to Day 5). On Day 0, the sheep were experimentally infected with 4500 third-stage H. contortus each. Five days after infection (Day 5), the sheep were slaughtered to count the worm burden and perform a histological analysis of the abomasum. The daily plant intake and the live weight gain of the animals were recorded. The groups that ingested M. tenuiflora leaves and stems consumed less dry matter than did those that ingested C. dactylon (P<0.05). The consumption of M. tenuiflora leaves did not reduce the L3 establishment of H. contortus compared to the control (P>0.05). The intake of M. tenuiflora stems tended toward decreasing larval establishment, but the reduction was not significant (P>0.05). No significant differences were observed in the mucosal cellular response and live weight gain among the groups. These data demonstrated that, with the protocol used, M. tenuiflora has no effect on larval establishment of H. contortus in sheep. PMID:23643453

  4. Development of an Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation method for the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Mano, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Sumikawa, Naomi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium). We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum). The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements. PMID:24533121

  5. Development of an Agrobacterium-Mediated Stable Transformation Method for the Sensitive Plant Mimosa pudica

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Sumikawa, Naomi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium). We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum). The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements. PMID:24533121

  6. Teratogenic effects of Mimosa tenuiflora in a rat model and possible role of N-methyl and N,N-dimethyltryptamine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mimosa tenuiflora is a shrub/tree found in northeastern Brazil sometimes eaten by livestock and believed to be responsible for malformations observed in many animals from that region. The teratogenic compounds in M. tenuif lora are not known. This study used pregnant rats fed M. tenuif lora and comp...

  7. [Description, distribution, anatomy, chemical composition and uses of Mimosa tenuiflora(Fabaceae-Mimosoideae) in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Camargo-Ricalde, S L

    2000-12-01

    Because of some catastrophic events which occurred in Mexico during the 1980 decade, the utilization of "tepescohuite" bark against skin wounds and burns was popularized. The media manipulated the lack of available information about its medical properties and gave erroneous information to the society propagating a lot of myths. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine its taxonomic identity and to study the distribution, bark and wood anatomy of this species, and to determine its actual and historic uses, and the compilation of the information about bark pharmacology and toxicity. Its taxonomic identity is established as Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae). It blooms and fructifies from November to June, occurring in Mexico (the states of Oaxaca and Chiapas), Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil, at altitudes of 0-1110 (-1520) m. In Mexico, it is found in dry forests, thorny thickets, Pinus and Pinus-Quercus forests, and in M. tenuiflora pure thickets, along roads and in resting or abandoned culture lands. This species has an aggregate distribution in the forests and a uniform one in the thickets. It presents a mean density of 9 individuals per m2, with 0.45 of frequency per quadrat and 1.69 m2 of mean coverture, and it has a wide range of tolerance to climatic and edaphic factors, confirming their invasive character. Regionally, the wood is used as fuel and fence construction, and against skin wounds and burns (bark tea, powder and/or ointment), and diverse products, such as shampoos, creams, capsules, soaps, etc., are commercialized. The bark is wrinkled, reddish-brown to grey, fibrous texture, 0.5-1.5 mm thick, resinous and with an astringent odor and flavor, and with a great quantity of tannins. The wood presents extremely short vessel elements, with alternate areolate punctuations, and simple perforated plates, vasicentric axial parenchima, confluent stripes, uniseriated rays, extremely

  8. A new triterpenoid saponin from the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zheng-Hong; Ning, De-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Lei; Pan, Bo; Li, Dian-Peng

    2014-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl spathodic acid (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth., together with four known compounds. These compounds were characterised on the basis of their spectral data and compatible with values in the literature. Compound 1 was the first triterpenoid glucoside isolated from the genus Croton. The known compound myriaboric acid (2) showed cytotoxic activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cell line with an IC50 value of 42.2 μM. PMID:24047122

  9. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils from Leaves of Edible (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Perennial (Arachis glabrata Benth.) Peanut Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts or groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are a valuable oilseed crop, but other than the seed, the rest of the plant is of minimal value. Plant material including the leaves is used as mulch or as animal feed. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth) known as forage or rhizoma peanut produces...

  10. Induction of nodD Gene in a Betarhizobium Isolate, Cupriavidus sp. of Mimosa pudica, by Root Nodule Phenolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Chakraborty, Dipjyoti; Dutta, Suhrid R; Ghosh, Ananta K; Pati, Bikas R; Korpole, Suresh; Paul, Debarati

    2016-06-01

    A range of phenolic acids, viz., p-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid have been isolated and identified by LC-MS analysis in the roots and root nodules of Mimosa pudica. The effects of identified phenolic acids on the regulation of nodulation (nod) genes have been evaluated in a betarhizobium isolate of M. pudica root nodule. Protocatechuic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were most effective in inducing nod gene, whereas caffeic acid had no significant effect. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase activities were estimated, indicating regulation and metabolism of phenolic acids in root nodules. These results showed that nodD gene expression of betarhizobium is regulated by simple phenolic acids such as protocatechuic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid present in host root nodule and sustains nodule organogenesis. PMID:26897126

  11. Nutritional benefits of Crematogaster mimosae ants and Acacia drepanolobium gum for patas monkeys and vervets in Laikipia, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Lynne A; Rothman, Jessica M; Young, Peter J; Rudolph, Kathleen

    2013-02-01

    Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) are midsized primates that feed extensively on the gum of Acacia drepanolobium and the ants are housed in swollen thorns of this Acacia. Their diet resembles that expected more of smaller bodied primates. Patas monkeys are also more like smaller bodied primates in reproducing at high rates. We sought to better understand the convergence of patas monkeys with smaller bodied primates by comparing their feeding behavior on ants and gum with that of closely related, sympatric vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), and analyzing the nutrient content of the gum of A. drepanolobium and of Crematogaster mimosae, the most common ant species eaten by patas monkeys in Laikipia, Kenya. All occurrences of feeding and moving during focal animal sampling revealed that 1) patas monkeys seek A. drepanolobium gum but vervets avoid it; 2) both species open swollen thorns most often in the morning when antsare less active; 3) patas monkeys continually feed onswollen thorns and gum while moving quickly throughout the day, whereas vervets reduce their consumption of these items and their travel rate at mid-day, and; 4) vervets eat young swollen thorns at a higher rate than patas monkeys. Patas monkeys are able to spend little time acquiring substantial amounts of energy, protein, and minerals from A. drepanolobium gum and C. mimosae ants each day. These findings, when coupled with evidence of causes of infant and adult female mortality, suggest that reproductive success of female patas monkeys is more immediately affected by illness, disease, interactions between adults and infants, and access to water than by food. PMID:23280312

  12. Clarifying the Dioscorea buchananii Benth. species complex: a new potentially extinct subspecies for South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wilkin, Paul; Muasya, A. Muthama

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Dioscorea buchananii complex is shown to comprise three species, one of which is divided into two subspecies, based on morphological data. Two species, Dioscorea rupicola Kunth and Dioscorea multiloba Kunth, are endemic or subendemic to South Africa and of widespread occurrence in KwaZulu Natal. They differ markedly from each other in inflorescence and floral morphology and appear to be ecologically differentiated. The third species, Dioscorea buchananii Benth., is primarily found in southeastern tropical Africa, but a small number of specimens collected in South Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries are placed in an endemic subspecies, Dioscorea buchananii subsp. undatiloba (Baker) Wilkin. The latter taxon is a high priority in terms of rediscovery and conservation. Keys, descriptions, supporting information and illustrations are provided and made available online through eMonocot biodiversity informatics tools. Three nomenclatural acts are undertaken: two names are placed in synonymy and a new combination made. PMID:25931973

  13. Antimicrobial effects of the stem bark extracts of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. on Shigellae.

    PubMed

    Millogo-Kone, H; Guissou, Ip; Nacoulma, O; Traore, A S

    2007-01-01

    Total and hydroalcoholic extracts of the stem barks of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth. (Mimosaceae) were tested on strains belonging to three species of Shigellae: S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri and S. boydii collected from hospitals in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The results showed that both extracts were active against Shigellae. The hydroalcoholic extract was more active than the decoction (aqueous one) prescribed by the traditional healer. Both extracts were particularly effective against S. dysenteriae, the most virulent of the three pathogenic species. The effects of the extracts have been compared to that of gentamicin. The phytochemical screening on the extracts revealed the presence of sterols, triterpenes, polyphenolic compounds including tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, anthocyanidins. Other components are saponosides and reducing sugars. PMID:20161907

  14. Insecticidal activity and chemical composition of volatile oils from Hyptis martiusii Benth.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Edigênia C C; Silveira, Edilberto R; Lima, Mary Anne S; Neto, Manoel Andrade; de Andrade, Israel L; Lima, Marcos Aurélio A; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Mesquita, Antonio Lindemberg M

    2003-06-18

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Hyptis martiusii Benth were analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-six compounds representing 93.2% of the essential oil of leaves were characterized; Delta-3-carene (22.5%), 1,8-cineole (24.27%), beta-caryophyllene (6.15%), and bicyclogermacrene (6.32%) were found as the major components. In the essential oil of inflorescences 27 compounds representing 87.7% of the oil were identified. The major components were Delta-3-carene (13.5%), alpha-pinene (5.78%), beta-caryophyllene (6.59%), viridiflorene (8.25%), and germacrene B (5.21%). The essential oil of leaves and 1,8-cineole showed pronounced insecticidal effect against Aedes aegypti larvae and Bemisia argentifolii, the vectors of dengue fever and white fly fruit plague, respectively. PMID:12797740

  15. Effects of Pithecellobium clypearia Benth extract and its main components on inflammation and allergy.

    PubMed

    Bao, Li; Yao, Xinsheng; Xu, Jiekun; Guo, Xiaoyu; Liu, Hongwei; Kurihara, Hiroshi

    2009-09-01

    The ethanol extract of Pithecellobium clypearia Benth (PCE) was characterized to be rich in polyphenols by HPLC analysis, and investigated for its anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities. In our assay, PCE showed anti-inflammatory activity in both acute and auto-immune inflammation animal models. Administration of PCE can effectively inhibit the croton oil-induced ear edema and capillary permeability, the carrageenin-induced paw edema, and the liver injury caused by propionibacterium acnes plus lipopolysaccharide. PCE was also found to possess anti-allergic activity in inhibiting the DNFB-induced delayed hypersensitivity reaction. Meanwhile, seven main components (1-7) from PCE were studied for their effect on histamine release stimulated by compound 48/80 from rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro. Compound 2 ((-)-epigallocatechin-7-gallate), 3 ((-)-5, 7, 3', 4', 5'-pentahydroxyflavan), and 5 ((-)-tetra hydroxyflavan-7-gallate) showed significant inhibition effect on histamine release. PMID:19427894

  16. In vitro and In vivo Antioxidant Evaluation and Estimation of Total Phenolic, Flavonoidal Content of Mimosa pudica L

    PubMed Central

    Patro, Ganesh; Bhattamisra, Subrat Kumar; Mohanty, Bijay Kumar; Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae) is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat various ailments including convulsions, alopecia, diarrhea, dysentery, insomnia, tumor, wound healing, snake bite, etc., Here, the study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of M. pudica leaves extract against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (in vitro) and its modulatory effect on rat brain enzymes. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and in vitro antioxidant potential against DPPH radical were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. In addition, ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica leaves (EAMP) in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day were administered orally for 7 consecutive days to albino rats and evaluated for the oxidative stress markers as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) from rat brain homogenate. Results: The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content among other extracts of M. pudica leaves. The percentage inhibition and IC50 value of all the extracts were followed dose-dependency and found significant (P < 0.01) as compared to standard (ascorbic acid). The oxidative stress markers as SOD, CAT, and GSH were increased significantly (P < 0.01) at 200 and 400 mg/kg of EAMP treated animals and decreased significantly the TBARS level at 400 mg/kg of EAMP as compared to control group. Conclusion: These results revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of M. pudica exhibits both in vitro antioxidant activity against DPPH and in vivo antioxidant activity by modulating brain enzymes in the rat. This could be further correlated with its potential to neuroprotective activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic contents in the extract. SUMMARY Total phenolic, flavonoid contents and in-vitro antioxidant potential were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. Again, in

  17. Rapid hydropassive opening and subsequent active stomatal closure follow heat-induced electrical signals in Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Hartmut; Grams, Thorsten E E

    2006-01-01

    In Mimosa pudica L., heat stimulation triggers leaflet folding in local, neighbouring and distant leaves. Stomatal movements were observed microscopically during this folding reaction and electrical potentials, chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf CO(2)/H(2)O-gas exchange were measured simultaneously. Upon heat stimulation of a neighbouring pinna, epidermal cells depolarized and the stomata began a rapid and pronounced transient opening response, leading to an approximately 2-fold increase of stomatal aperture within 60 s. At the same time, net CO(2) exchange showed a pronounced transient decrease, which was followed by a similar drop in photochemical quantum yield at photosystem (PS) II. Subsequently, CO(2)-gas exchange and photochemical quantum yield recovered and stomata closed partly or completely. The transient and fast stomatal opening response is interpreted as a hydropassive stomatal movement caused by a sudden loss of epidermal turgor. Thus, epidermal cells appear to respond in a similar manner to heat-induced signals as the pulvinar extensor cells. The subsequent closing of the stomata confirms earlier reports that stomatal movements can be induced by electrical signals. The substantial delay (several minutes) of guard cell turgor loss compared with the immediate response of the extensor and epidermal cells suggests a different, less direct mechanism for transmission of the propagating signal to the guard cells. PMID:16698819

  18. Mechanosensitivity below Ground: Touch-Sensitive Smell-Producing Roots in the Shy Plant Mimosa pudica1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Musah, Rabi A.; Lesiak, Ashton D.; Maron, Max J.; Edwards, David; Fowble, Kristen L.; Long, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The roots of the shy plant Mimosa pudica emit a cocktail of small organic and inorganic sulfur compounds and reactive intermediates into the environment, including SO2, methanesulfinic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, ethanesulfinic acid, propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, phenothiazine, and thioformaldehyde, an elusive and highly unstable compound that, to our knowledge, has never before been reported to be emitted by a plant. When soil around the roots is dislodged or when seedling roots are touched, an odor is detected. The perceived odor corresponds to the emission of higher amounts of propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, and phenothiazine. The mechanosensitivity response is selective. Whereas touching the roots with soil or human skin resulted in odor detection, agitating the roots with other materials such as glass did not induce a similar response. Light and electron microscopy studies of the roots revealed the presence of microscopic sac-like root protuberances. Elemental analysis of these projections by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed them to contain higher levels of K+ and Cl− compared with the surrounding tissue. Exposing the protuberances to stimuli that caused odor emission resulted in reductions in the levels of K+ and Cl− in the touched area. The mechanistic implications of the variety of sulfur compounds observed vis-à-vis the pathways for their formation are discussed. PMID:26661932

  19. Involvement of respiratory processes in the transient knockout of net CO2 uptake in Mimosa pudica upon heat stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lautner, Silke; Stummer, Michaela; Matyssek, Rainer; Fromm, Jörg; Grams, Thorsten E E

    2014-01-01

    Leaf photosynthesis of the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica displays a transient knockout in response to electrical signals induced by heat stimulation. This study aims at clarifying the underlying mechanisms, in particular, the involvement of respiration. To this end, leaf gas exchange and light reactions of photosynthesis were assessed under atmospheric conditions largely eliminating photorespiration by either elevated atmospheric CO2 or lowered O2 concentration (i.e. 2000 μmol mol(-1) or 1%, respectively). In addition, leaf gas exchange was studied in the absence of light. Under darkness, heat stimulation caused a transient increase of respiratory CO2 release simultaneously with stomatal opening, hence reflecting direct involvement of respiratory stimulation in the drop of the net CO2 uptake rate. However, persistence of the transient decline in net CO2 uptake rate under illumination and elevated CO2 or 1% O2 makes it unlikely that photorespiration is the metabolic origin of the respiratory CO2 release. In conclusion, the transient knockout of net CO2 uptake is at least partially attributed to an increased CO2 release through mitochondrial respiration as stimulated by electrical signals. Putative CO2 limitation of Rubisco due to decreased activity of carbonic anhydrase was ruled out as the photosynthesis effect was not prevented by elevated CO2 . PMID:23763645

  20. Suppression of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammatory responses in a mouse model of asthma by Mimosa pudica extract.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun Ju; Lee, Ji-Sook; Yun, Chi-Young; Ryang, Yong Suk; Kim, Jong-Bae; Kim, In Sik

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory airway disease. The pathogenic mechanisms of asthma include the infiltration of leukocytes and release of cytokines. Mimosa pudica (Mp) has been used traditionally for the treatment of insomnia, diarrhea and inflammatory diseases. Although Mp extract has various therapeutic properties, the effect of this extract on asthma has not yet been reported. This study investigated the suppressive effects of Mp extract on asthmatic responses both in vitro and in vivo. Mp extract was acquired from dried and powdered whole plants of M. pudica using 80% ethanol. BALB/c mice were used for the mouse model of asthma induced by ovalbumin. Mp extract significantly inhibited the HMC-1 cell migration induced by stem cell factor and blocked the release of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in EoL-1 cells. Leukocytosis, eosinophilia and mucus hypersecretion in asthmatic lung were significantly suppressed by Mp extract. The release of ovalbumin-specific IgE in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum was also decreased. Mp extract treatment resulted in no liver cytotoxicity. The Mp extract has inhibitory properties on asthma and may be used as a potent therapeutic agent for allergic lung inflammation. PMID:20623591

  1. Labellar anatomy and secretion in Bulbophyllum Thouars (Orchidaceae: Bulbophyllinae) sect. Racemosae Benth. & Hook. f.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kevin L.; Stpiczyńska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Floral secretions are common in Bulbophyllum Thouars, and the labella of a number of Asian species are said to produce secretions rich in lipids that act as food rewards for insect pollinators. Although some of these reports are based on simple histochemical tests, a much greater number are anecdotal and, hitherto, neither the ultrastructure of the labellum nor the secretory process has been investigated in detail. Furthermore, sophisticated histochemical approaches have generally not been applied. Here, both the labellar structure and the secretory process are investigated for four species of Asian Bulbophyllum sect. Racemosae Benth. & Hook. f., namely Bulbophyllum careyanum (Hook.) Spreng., B. morphologorum Kraenzl., B. orientale Seidenf. and B. wangkaense Seidenf., and compared with those of unequivocal lipid-secreting orchids. Methods Labellar, secretory tissue was investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and histochemistry. Key Results The adaxial median longitudinal groove of the labellum contained secretory tissue comprising palisade-like epidermal cells, similar to those of certain lipid-secreting Oncidiinae Benth. However, these cells and their secretions gave positive results mainly for protein and mucilage, and their organelle complement was consistent with that of cells involved in protein and mucilage synthesis. Sub-cuticular accumulation of secretion resulted in cuticular distension and blistering. The sub-epidermal layer of isodiametric parenchyma contained starch and, like the epidermal cells, ultrastructure consistent with mucilage synthesis. Lipids were mainly confined to the cuticle, and hardly any intracellular lipid droplets were observed. Conclusions It is proposed that mucilage is produced by dictyosomes present in the palisade-like epidermal cells. Mucilage precursors may also be produced by these same organelles in sub-epidermal cells and are thought to pass

  2. Protective effect of Mimosa pudica L. in an L-arginine model of acute necrotising pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jagdeep; Sidhu, Shabir; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Khan, M U

    2016-07-01

    Mimosa pudica is used in traditional medicine for treating various disorders such as inflammatory conditions, diarrhoea, insomnia, alopecia, urogenital infections and wounds. The present study investigated the effect of M. pudica extract (MPE) on L-arginine-induced acute necrotising pancreatitis in rats. The ethanolic extract of M. pudica leaves was studied for the presence of quercetin and gallic acid using high-performance liquid chromatography. Four groups were employed-normal control rats, L-arginine control rats (two intraperitoneal [i.p.] injections of 2 g/kg at an interval of 1 h), MPE-treated rats (400 mg/kg orally) and melatonin-treated rats (positive control 10 mg/kg i.p.), which were further divided into subgroups according to time points (24 h, 3 days and 14 days). Serum amylase, lipase, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), pancreatic amylase, nucleic acid content, protein, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), thiobarbituric reactive substances, glutathione, nitrite/nitrate, collagen content and histopathological examination were carried out. MPE significantly improved acute necrotising pancreatitis by modulating diagnostic markers of pancreatitis such as serum lipase and pancreatic amylase, inflammation (TNF-α), and oxidative and nitrosative stress. Moreover, MPE administration induced regenerative changes in the pancreas evidenced by increased levels of pancreatic proteins, nucleic acid content and histopathology report. In addition, MPE improved TGF-β1 and collagen levels thereby preventing fibrosis. The current investigation indicates the novel role of MPE in reducing the severity of acute necrotising pancreatitis by plausible mechanisms such as anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activity and by promoting repair and regeneration of the pancreas. PMID:27164910

  3. Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera (Leguminosae), jointly influence plant diversity and soil fertility of a Mexican semiarid ecosystem.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Rosalva; Camargo-Ricalde, Sara Lucía; García-Moya, Edmundo; Luna-Cavazos, Mario; Romero-Manzanares, Angélica; Montaño, Noé Manuel

    2012-03-01

    Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera are frequently found in arid and semiarid shrublands, but scarce information is available about their influence on plant community structure and soil fertility. We compared plant community structure, diversity and soil nutrients of three semiarid shrubland sites located in Mezquital Valley, Mexico. These sites differ in their dominant species: Site 1 (Bingu) P. laevigata, Site 2 (González) M. biuncifera, and Site 3 (Rincón) with the presence of both legumes. The results showed that the plant community with P. laevigata and M. biuncifera (Site 3) had more cover, taller plants and higher plant diversity than sites with only one legume (Site 1 and Site 2). Soil organic matter (SOM), soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus-Olsen (P) and C mineralization were higher in the soil under the canopy of both legumes than in bare soil. In contrast, soil cation concentrations were lower under the canopy of P. laevigata, but not for M. biuncifera. In addition, the density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores was higher within the soil under the canopy of M. biuncifera than in the soil under the canopy of P. laevigata. Thus, resource islands (RI) created by P. laevigata increased the amounts of SOC, TN and P when compared with the RI of M. biuncifera. This study provided evidences about the importance of species identity in order to expand the niche availability for the establishment of other plants, and highlights that P. laevigata and M. biuncifera jointly influencing plant colonization within semiarid ecosystems. PMID:22458211

  4. Antitrypanosomal Activities and Mechanisms of Action of Novel Tetracyclic Iridoids from Morinda lucida Benth.

    PubMed

    Kwofie, Kofi D; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Suzuki-Ohashi, Mitsuko; Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Adegle, Richard; Sakyiamah, Maxwell M; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffour-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Frempong, Kwadwo K; Anyan, William K; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Yamashita, Taizo; Aboagye, Frederic; Appiah, Alfred A; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yamaguchi, Yasuchika; Edoh, Dominic; Koram, Kwadwo A; Yamaoka, Shoji; Boakye, Daniel A; Ohta, Nobuo; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Ayi, Irene

    2016-06-01

    Trypanosoma brucei parasites are kinetoplastid protozoa that devastate the health and economic well-being of millions of people in Africa through the disease human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). New chemotherapy has been eagerly awaited due to severe side effects and the drug resistance issues plaguing current drugs. Recently, there has been an emphasis on the use of medicinal plants worldwide. Morinda lucida Benth. is a popular medicinal plant widely distributed in Africa, and several research groups have reported on the antiprotozoal activities of this plant. In this study, we identified three novel tetracyclic iridoids, molucidin, ML-2-3, and ML-F52, from the CHCl3 fraction of M. lucida leaves, which possess activity against the GUTat 3.1 strain of T. brucei brucei The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of molucidin, ML-2-3, and ML-F52 were 1.27 μM, 3.75 μM, and 0.43 μM, respectively. ML-2-3 and ML-F52 suppressed the expression of paraflagellum rod protein subunit 2, PFR-2, and caused cell cycle alteration, which preceded apoptosis induction in the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma parasites. Novel tetracyclic iridoids may be promising lead compounds for the development of new chemotherapies for African trypanosomal infections in humans and animals. PMID:26953191

  5. Micromorphological traits and essential oil contents of Micromeria kerneri Murb. and M. juliana (L.) Benth. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Kremer, Dario; Dunkić, Valerija; Ruščić, Mirko; Matevski, Vlado; Ballian, Dalibor; Bogunić, Faruk; Eleftheriadou, Eleni; Stešević, Danijela; Kosalec, Ivan; Bezić, Nada; Stabentheiner, Edith

    2014-02-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil (analysed by GC and GC-MS), the types and distribution of trichomes and pollen morphology (analysed by scanning electron microscopy) were investigated in two closely related species, Micromeria kerneri Murb. and Micromeria juliana (L.) Benth. (Lamiaceae) from Southeast Europe as a contribution to their taxonomy. The essential oil of M. kerneri was characterized by a high concentration of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, with caryophyllene-oxide as the major compound. Caryophyllene-oxide was also the major component of the essential oil of M. juliana from all localities, except from Mt Krivošije (Montenegro), where piperitone oxide was the major constituent. Non-glandular trichomes, peltate trichomes, and two types of capitate trichomes (type 1 composed of one basal epidermal cell, and one head cell with subcuticular space; type 2 composed of one basal epidermal cell, two stalk cells, and one head cell with subcuticular space) were observed on leaves, the calyx and on the stem. Pollen of both species had six apertures (hexacolpate) set in the equatorial pollen belt (zonocolpate) and showed medium reticulate ornamentation. Multivariate analysis (PCA and UPGMA) of essential oil components clearly separated the investigated M. kerneri and M. juliana populations, and confirmed the opinion that they are different taxa. On the other hand, micromorphological traits between these species were the same. Nevertheless, definitive conclusions about the taxonomic relationships among these species will require genetic analysis. PMID:24388062

  6. The antiulcer effect of Croton cajucara Benth in normoproteic and malnourished rats.

    PubMed

    De Paula, Ana Claudia B; Gracioso, Juliano S; Toma, Walber; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia A; Carneiro, Everardo M; Brito, Alba R M Souza

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the antiulcerogenic effects of the essential oil (EO) of Croton cajucara Benth in rats fed with a normal protein (NP) and low-protein diet (MN). NP and MN rats were treated with the essential oil for 15 days after chronic ulceration was induced. The EO accelerated healing of acetic acid-induced gastric lesions in NP and MN rats (p<0.05). In a similar experiment on chronic ulceration, Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) mRNA expression increased in NP rats but not in MN rats. In assays of acute antiulcerogenic activity, C. cajucara increased somatostatin plasma levels and decreased gastrin plasma levels in both animal groups. The EO significantly prevented ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in NP and MN rats (p<0.001). Histological examination showed initial regeneration, formation of inflammatory infiltrate and angiogenesis in the epithelium surface of acetic acid-induced ulcers in NP and MN rats. C. cajucara prevented gastric lesions in both animal groups when ethanol methodology was used. We concluded that the EO showed an antiulcerogenic activity mediated by increased somatostatin secretion and EGF mRNA expression. PMID:18434121

  7. Seasonal variability of the essential oil of Hesperozygis ringens (Benth.) Epling.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C G; Machado, C M; Amaral, L P; Silva, D T; Almeida, C A A; Longhi, S J; Mallmann, C A; Heinzmann, B M

    2016-02-01

    This study was developed to evaluate the effect of seasonality on the yield and chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) of Hesperozygis ringens (Benth.) Epling, a native species from the Brazilian Pampa. Leaves were collected from four specimens of a single population in each of the four seasons for a year and were extracted in triplicate by hydro-distillation for 2 hours. The yield of EO (% w/w) was calculated on fresh weight basis (FWB), and the 16 oil samples were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used as statistical tools to evaluate differences in chemical composition. The highest yields were obtained in autumn, spring and summer (2.32-4.38%), while the lowest yields were detected in winter, ranging from 1.15 to 1.91%. Oxygenated monoterpenoids were the predominant class of chemical constituents in the EO obtained in all seasons, showing the highest contents in autumn and summer, and pulegone was identified as a major compound, whose contents varied between 54.13 and 81.17%. The EO samples were divided into three chemical groups by HCA and PCA and were assigned to the same group, except for the three samples gathered in winter. The results showed a seasonal influence on the yield and chemical composition of the EO. PMID:26871746

  8. Chemical investigation of the medicinal and ornamental plant Angelonia angustifolia Benth. reveals therapeutic quantities of lupeol.

    PubMed

    Deyrup, Stephen T; Asghar, Khush B; Chacko, Ann; Hebert, Jakob M; Samson, Eric; Talone, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Angelonia angustifolia Benth. is a small herbaceous plant with documented use as an anti-inflammatory remedy by indigenous cultures in Latin America. It has subsequently been developed as an ornamental annual widely available in nurseries in the United States. Chemical investigation led to the discovery that lupeol is the major organic soluble constituent in the roots, and is present in large quantities in the aerial structures of the plant. Lupeol was identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and quantified by HPLC-MS. The concentration of lupeol (9.14 mg/g in roots) in A. angustifolia is approximately 3 times higher than any previously reported sources. Therefore, the amount of lupeol in the roots of a single individual of A. angustifolia greatly exceeds the previously determined topical threshold for significant reduction of inflammation. The presence of topically therapeutic levels of lupeol in A. angustifolia provides chemical rationale for its indigenous use. In addition, the established cultivation of A. angustifolia could allow this plant to be used as a source of the important bioactive molecule lupeol, or to be developed as a nutraceutical without damaging wild populations. PMID:25111011

  9. Growth, chemical composition and soil properties of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings irrigated with sewage effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Hayssam M.; Khamis, Mohamed H.; Hassan, Fatma A.

    2012-06-01

    This study was carried out at a greenhouse of Sabahia Horticulture Research Station, Alexandria, Egypt, to study the effect of sewage effluent on the growth and chemical composition of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings as well as on soil properties for three stages. The irrigation treatments were primary-treated wastewater and secondary-treated wastewater, in addition to tap water as control. Therefore, the treated wastewater was taken from oxidation ponds of New Borg El-Arab City. Results of these study revealed that the primary effluent treatment explored the highest significant values for vegetative growth and biomass, compared to the other treatments. In addition, the higher significant concentration and uptake of chemical composition in different plant parts were obtained from the primary effluent treatment during the three stages of irrigation. It was found that the concentration of heavy metals in either plant or soil was below as compared to the world-recommended levels. These findings suggested that the use of sewage effluent in irrigating T. speciosa seedlings grown in calcareous soil was beneficial for the improvement of soil properties and production of timber trees, and also important for the safe manner of disposal of wastewater.

  10. Ultrasound as pretreatment to convective drying of Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth).

    PubMed

    Romero J, Carlos A; Yépez V, Byron D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the use of ultrasound as a pretreatment for convective drying of Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth). For this, a Box-Behnken experimental design was used to study the effect of ultrasound vibration amplitude (0-90μm), time of sonication (10-30min) and air temperature (40-60°C) on the retention of antioxidant compounds and on the kinetics of convective drying. The results showed that the antioxidant activity on fruit was reduced as the vibration amplitude and time of sonication increased, while was found that vibration amplitude ultrasound and air drying temperature were the variables that more affect the drying rate of blackberries. The drying rate increased by almost five times when samples were treated with ultrasound at 90μm for 20min. They were then dried using air at 60°C. It is concluded that the application of ultrasound in blackberry processing allows to obtain a dehydrated product with better functional quality and shows to be effective in reducing the time necessary to achieve a given value of moisture during convective drying. PMID:25023827

  11. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Photosynthetic and Nonphotosynthetic Tissues of Variegated Leaves of Coleus blumei Benth. 1

    PubMed Central

    Madore, Monica A.

    1990-01-01

    Mature, variegated leaves of Coleus blumei Benth. contained stachyose and other raffinose series sugars in both green, photosynthetic and white, nonphotosynthetic tissues. However, unlike the green tissues, white tissues had no detectable level of galactinol synthase activity and a low level of sucrose phosphate synthase indicating that stachyose and possibly sucrose present in white tissues may have originated in green tissues. Uptake of exogenously supplied [14C]stachyose or [14C]sucrose into either tissue type showed conventional kinetic profiles indicating combined operation of linear first-order and saturable systems. Autoradiographs of white discs showed no detectable minor vein labelling with [14C]stachyose, but some degree of vein labeling with [14C]sucrose. Autoradiographs of green discs showed substantial vein loading with either sugar. In both tissues, p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid had no effect on the linear component of sucrose or stachyose uptake but inhibited the saturable component. Both tissues contained high levels of invertase, sucrose synthase and α-galactosidase and extensively metabolized exogenously supplied 14C-sugars. In green tissues, label from exogenous sugars was recovered as raffinose-series sugars. In white tissues, exogenous sugars were hydrolysed and converted to amino acids and organic acids. The results indicate that variegated Coleus leaves may be useful for studies on both phloem loading and phloem unloading processes in stachyose-transporting species. Images Figure 4 PMID:16667512

  12. Antitrypanosomal Activities and Mechanisms of Action of Novel Tetracyclic Iridoids from Morinda lucida Benth.

    PubMed Central

    Kwofie, Kofi D.; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Adegle, Richard; Sakyiamah, Maxwell M.; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffour-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Frempong, Kwadwo K.; Anyan, William K.; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Yamashita, Taizo; Aboagye, Frederic; Appiah, Alfred A.; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K.; Yamaguchi, Yasuchika; Edoh, Dominic; Koram, Kwadwo A.; Yamaoka, Shoji; Boakye, Daniel A.; Ohta, Nobuo; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Ayi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei parasites are kinetoplastid protozoa that devastate the health and economic well-being of millions of people in Africa through the disease human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). New chemotherapy has been eagerly awaited due to severe side effects and the drug resistance issues plaguing current drugs. Recently, there has been an emphasis on the use of medicinal plants worldwide. Morinda lucida Benth. is a popular medicinal plant widely distributed in Africa, and several research groups have reported on the antiprotozoal activities of this plant. In this study, we identified three novel tetracyclic iridoids, molucidin, ML-2-3, and ML-F52, from the CHCl3 fraction of M. lucida leaves, which possess activity against the GUTat 3.1 strain of T. brucei brucei. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of molucidin, ML-2-3, and ML-F52 were 1.27 μM, 3.75 μM, and 0.43 μM, respectively. ML-2-3 and ML-F52 suppressed the expression of paraflagellum rod protein subunit 2, PFR-2, and caused cell cycle alteration, which preceded apoptosis induction in the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma parasites. Novel tetracyclic iridoids may be promising lead compounds for the development of new chemotherapies for African trypanosomal infections in humans and animals. PMID:26953191

  13. Effect of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. fruit extract on cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Megala, Jayaraman; Geetha, Arumugam

    2015-10-01

    The edible fruits of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. are traditionally used for various gastric complications in India. Here, we investigated the antiulcer activity of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of P. dulce (HAEPD) by applying cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer model in rats. Duodenal ulcer was induced in male albino Wistar rats by oral administration of cysteamine @ 420 mg/kg body wt. as a single dose. The rats were pre-administered orally with HAEPD @ 200 mg/kg body wt. for 30 days prior to ulcer induction. Rats pre-administered with ranitidine @ 30 mg/kg body wt. served as reference drug control. Ulcer score, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glycoproteins, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were measured in the duodenum. Rats pre-administered with the HAEPD showed significantly reduced ulcer score comparable to that of ranitidine pretreated rats. The co-administration of HAEPD lowered the TBARS level and also restored the levels of glycoproteins, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Histopathological observations confirmed the presence of inflammation, necrosis and hemorrhagic spots in the duodenum of ulcer control rats which were significantly reduced due to HAEPD treatment. No abnormal alterations were observed in normal rats treated with HAEPD at the dosage studied. The results demonstrated antioxidant and cytoprotective nature of P. dulce, and thereby its significant anti ulcer property. PMID:26665296

  14. Isoiridomyrmecin rich essential oil from Nepeta erecta Benth. and its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Dinesh S; Joshi, Subhash C; Padalia, Rajendra C; Mathela, Chandra S

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil composition of the aerial parts of Nepeta erecta Benth. (Family: Lamiaceae) from Uttarakhand, India was analysed by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 34 constituents were identified representing 94.6% of the oil composition. Oxygenated monoterpenes (74.0%) constituted the major proportion of the oil, dominated by isoiridomyrmecin (70.6%) as a single major constituent. Other significant constituents were caryophyllene oxide (9.6%), β-Bourbonene (2.0%), humulene epoxide II (1.7%) and linalool (1.0%). The in vitro antioxidant activity (AOA) was assessed using β-Carotene bleaching assay, reducing power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation methods. The oil was found to exhibit AOA by inhibiting β-Carotene bleaching (54.6 ± 2.52%) and by scavenging DPPH free radical (IC(50) = 0.74 ± 0.12 mg mL(-1)). The AOA of the essential oil of N. erecta and its major compound isoiridomyrmecin has not been reported so far. PMID:21756190

  15. Genotoxic effects of catmint (Nepeta meyeri Benth.) essential oils on some weed and crop plants.

    PubMed

    Kekeç, Güzin; Mutlu, Salih; Alpsoy, Lokman; Sakçali, M Serdal; Atici, Ökkes

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates the genotoxicity of the essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of catmint (Nepeta meyeri Benth.) against two weeds (Bromus danthoniae and Lactuca serriola) and two crop plants (Brassica napus and Zea mays). The essential oils of N. meyeri analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry contained 14 compounds, with 4aα, 7α, 7aβ-nepetalactone (83.4%), 4aα, 7α, and 7aα-nepetalactone (8.83%) as the major components. The oils were diluted (25, 50, 100, and 150 ppm) and the solutions were applied to seeds or leaves of these plants. The study compared the germination percentage and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) results with the control group. The results showed that the oils had a strong inhibitory activity and caused a change in RAPD profiles in terms of variation in band intensity, loss of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control group. The results suggested that RAPD analysis could be applied as a suitable biomarker assay for the detection of genotoxic effects of plant allelochemicals. This study indicates the genotoxical potential of N. meyeri essential oils on weed and crop plants. PMID:22434692

  16. GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of Nepeta cilicica Boiss. ex Benth. from Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides; Piozzi, Franco; Senatore, Felice

    2013-01-01

    The hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Nepeta cilicica Boiss. ex Benth., collected in Lebanon in the Horsh Ehden reserve, yielded 0.13% (w/w) of essential oil. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectroscopy analysis enabled the identification of 75 compounds representing 96.8% of the total oil. The most abundant compounds were spathulenol (15.1%), hexadecanoic acid (14%), δ-cadinene (5.5%) and α-copaene (4.5%). On the whole, the oil was constituted mainly by sesquiterpenes (45.9%), among which sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (27.6%) slightly prevailed over oxygenated sesquiterpenes (18.3%). PMID:23772712

  17. Micromorphology of the Labellum and Floral Spur of Cryptocentrum Benth. and Sepalosaccus Schltr. (Maxillariinae: Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kevin L.; Stpiczyńska, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Gross vegetative and floral morphology, as well as modern molecular techniques, indicate that Cryptocentrum Benth. and Sepalosaccus Schltr. are related to Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. However, they differ from Maxillaria in their possession of floral spurs and, in this respect, are atypical of Maxillariinae. The labellar micromorphology of Maxillaria, unlike that of the other two genera, has been extensively studied. In the present report, the labellar micromorphology of Cryptocentrum and Sepalosaccus is compared with that of Maxillaria and, for the first time, the micromorphology of the floral spur as found in Maxillariinae is described. Methods Labella and dissected floral spurs of Cryptocentrum and Sepalosaccus were examined using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Key Results In each case, the labellum consists of a papillose mid-lobe (epichile), a cymbiform region (hypochile) and, proximally, a spur, which is pronounced in Cryptocentrum but short and blunt in Sepalosaccus. The inner epidermal surface of the spur of Cryptocentrum is glabrous or pubescent, and the bicellular hairs, where present, are unlike any hitherto described for Maxillariinae. Similar but unicellular hairs also occur in the floral spur of Sepalosaccus, whereas the glabrous epidermis lining the spur of C. peruvianum contains putative nectar pores. Conclusions The labellar micromorphology of Cryptocentrum and Sepalosaccus generally resembles that of Maxillaria. The floral spur of Cryptocentrum displays two types of organization in that the epidermal lining may be glabrous (possibly with nectar pores) or pubescent. This may have taxonomic significance and perhaps reflects physiological differences relating to nectar secretion. The trichomes found within the spurs of Cryptocentrum and Sepalosaccus more closely resemble the hairs of certain unrelated, nectariferous orchid taxa than those found in the largely nectarless genus Maxillaria, and this further

  18. New anti-trypanosomal active tetracyclic iridoid isolated from Morinda lucida Benth.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mitsuko; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Kwofie, Kofi D; Adegle, Richard; Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Sakyiamah, Maxwell; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffour-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Frempong, Kwadwo Kyereme; Anyan, William K; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Yamashita, Taizo; Aboagye, Frederic; Appiah, Alfred Ampomah; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yamaoka, Shoji; Yamaguchi, Yasuchika; Edoh, Dominic; Koram, Kwadwo; Ohta, Nobuo; Boakye, Daniel A; Ayi, Irene; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2015-08-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), commonly known as sleeping sickness has remained a serious health problem in many African countries with thousands of new infected cases annually. Chemotherapy, which is the main form of control against HAT has been characterized lately by the viewpoints of toxicity and drug resistance issues. Recently, there have been a lot of emphases on the use of medicinal plants world-wide. Morinda lucida Benth. is one of the most popular medicinal plants widely distributed in Africa and several groups have reported on its anti-protozoa activities. In this study, we have isolated one novel tetracyclic iridoid, named as molucidin, from the CHCl3 fraction of the M. lucida leaves by bioassay-guided fractionation and purification. Molucidin was structurally elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR including HMQC, HMBC, H-H COSY and NOESY resulting in tetracyclic iridoid skeleton, and its absolute configuration was determined. We have further demonstrated that molucidin presented a strong anti-trypanosomal activity, indicating an IC50 value of 1.27 μM. The cytotoxicity study using human normal and cancer cell lines indicated that molucidin exhibited selectivity index (SI) against two normal fibroblasts greater than 4.73. Furthermore, structure-activity relationship (SAR) study was undertaken with molucidin and oregonin, which is identical to anti-trypanosomal active components of Alnus japonica. Overlapping analysis of the lowest energy conformation of molucidin with oregonin suggested a certain similarities of aromatic rings of both oregonin and molucidin. These results contribute to the future drug design studies for HAT. PMID:26048790

  19. Gastroprotective and ulcer healing effects of essential oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Caldas, Germana Freire Rocha; Oliveira, Alisson Rodrigo da Silva; Araújo, Alice Valença; Quixabeira, Dafne Carolina Alves; Silva-Neto, Jacinto da Costa; Costa-Silva, João Henrique; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Ferreira, Fabiano; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Hyptis martiusii Benth. is an aromatic plant found in abundance in northeastern Brazil that is used in ethnomedicine to treat gastric disorders. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of action involved in the gastroprotection of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM) and to evaluate its healing capacity. Wistar rats were exposed to different protocols and subsequently were treated with 1% Tween-80 aqueous solution (negative control), pantoprazole, carbenoxolone, N-acetylcysteine (depending on the specificity of each model) or EOHM. The antisecretory activity (basal or stimulated) was determined using the pyloric ligature method. The gastroprotective action of nitric oxide and sulphydryl groups (-SH groups), as well as the quantification of adherent mucus and the levels of malondialdehyde and -SH groups in gastric mucosa, were evaluated using ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. The healing ability was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer model and histological and immunohistochemical analysis (HE, PAS and PCNA). EOHM (400 mg/kg) reduced the volume and acidity of gastric secretion stimulated by histamine and pentagastrin. The gastroprotective effect of EOHM involves the participation of endogenous sulfhydryl groups. EOHM increased mucus production (54.8%), reduced levels of MDA (72.5%) and prevented the depletion of -SH groups (73.8%) in the gastric mucosa. The treatment with EOHM reduced in 70.3% the gastric lesion area, promoting significant regeneration of the gastric mucosa, as confirmed by histological analysis and analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The results show that gastroprotective effect of EOHM is mediated by cytoprotective and antioxidant mechanisms and by their antisecretory activity, and suggest that the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii is a promising candidate for the treatment of gastric ulcers. PMID:24454726

  20. Antiplasmodial activity of sesquiterpene lactones and a sucrose ester from Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Toyang, Ngeh J.; Krause, Michael A.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Tane, Pierre; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Aqueous preparations of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) are used in Cameroonian folk medicine as a general stimulant and to treat various illnesses and conditions including malaria, bacterial infections and helminthic infestations. Materials and methods 10-g samples of the leaf and tuber powders of V. guineensis were extracted separately using dichloromethane, methanol and distilled water. The extracts were dried in vacuo and used in bioassays. These extracts and three compounds previously isolated from V. guineensis [vernopicrin (1), vernomelitensin (2) and pentaisovalerylsucrose (3)] were screened for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (Hb3) and CQ-resistant (Dd2) Plasmodium falciparum lines. Results Crude extracts and pure compounds from V. guineensis showed antiplasmodial activity against both Hb3 and Dd2. The IC50 values of extracts ranged from 1.64 – 27.2 μg/ml for Hb3 and 1.82 – 30.0 μg/ml for Dd2; those for compounds 1, 2 and 3 ranged from 0.47 – 1.62 μg/ml (1364 – 1774 nM) for Hb3 and 0.57 – 1.50 μg/ml (1644 – 2332 nM) for Dd2. None of the crude extracts or pure compounds was observed to exert toxic effects on the erythrocytes used to cultivate the P. falciparum lines. Conclusion In Cameroonian folk medicine, V. guineensis may be used to treat malaria in part due to the antiplasmodial activity of sesquiterpene lactones (1, 2), a sucrose ester (3) and perhaps other compounds present in crude plant extracts. Exploring the safety and antiplasmodial efficacy of these compounds in vivo requires further study. PMID:23542146

  1. Fatty acid profile of gamma-irradiated and cooked African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth).

    PubMed

    Olotu, Ifeoluwa; Enujiugha, Victor; Obadina, Adewale; Owolabi, Kikelomo

    2014-11-01

    The safety and shelf-life of food products can be, respectively, ensured and extended with important food-processing technologies such as irradiation. The joint effect of cooking and 10 kGy gamma irradiation on the fatty acid composition of the oil of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth was evaluated. Oils from the raw seed, cooked seeds, irradiated seeds (10 kGy), cooked, and irradiated seeds (10 kGy) were extracted and analyzed for their fatty acid content. An omega-6-fatty acid (linoleic acid) was the principal unsaturated fatty acid in the bean seed oil (24.6%). Cooking significantly (P < 0.05) increased Erucic acid by 3.3% and Linolenic acid by 23.0%. Combined treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased C18:2, C6:0, C20:2, C18:3, C20:3, C24:0, and C22:6 being linoleic, caproic, eicosadienoic, linolenic, eicosatrienoic, ligoceric, and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively, and this increase made the oil sample to have the highest total fatty acid content (154.9%), unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (109.6), and unsaturated fatty acid content (153.9%). 10 kGy irradiation induces the formation of C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic), while cooking induced the formation of C20:4 (arachidic acid), C22:6 (Heneicosanoic acid), and C22:2 (docosadienoic acid). Combined 10 kGy cooking and irradiation increased the susceptibility of the oil of the African oil bean to rancidity. PMID:25493197

  2. Patchouli alcohol: in vitro direct anti-influenza virus sesquiterpene in Pogostemon cablin Benth.

    PubMed

    Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Ichino, Chikara; Kawamura, Yuka; Nagai, Takayuki; Sato, Noriko; Yamada, Haruki

    2012-01-01

    During the screening of anti-influenza virus substances from traditional herbal medicines, the methanol extract from the leaves of Pogostemon cablin Benth. showed potent in vitro antiviral activity (99.8% inhibition at a concentration of 10 μg/mL) against influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). The anti-influenza virus principle was isolated from the hexane-soluble fraction, through solvent fractionation, repeated silica gel column chromatography, and reversed-phase HPLC. The major active principle was a volatile substance that was identified as a sesquiterpene, patchouli alcohol (1), on the basis of its spectral analyses. When anti-influenza virus activity against A/PR/8/34 was evaluated by the plaque forming assay, patchouli alcohol reduced the number of plaques by 75% at 2 μg/mL and 89% at 10 μg/mL. Patchouli alcohol showed dose-dependent anti-influenza virus activity, and its IC(50) value was estimated to be 2.635 μM. Although 11 different sesquiterpenes were tested for antiviral activity against influenza virus A/PR/8/34, no or negligible activity was observed except for patchouli alcohol. Patchouli alcohol did not show anti-influenza virus activity against A/Guizhou/54/89 (H3N2), but showed weak activity against B/Ibaraki/2/85 (IC(50) = 40.82 μM). Patchouli alcohol did not show inhibitory activity against influenza virus neuraminidase. PMID:21671149

  3. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze Cultivated in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2016-03-01

    In Tunisia, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is an exotic tree, which was introduced many years ago and planted as ornamental street, garden, and park tree. The present work reported, for the first time, the chemical composition and evaluates the allelopathic effect of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the different parts of this tree, viz., roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and pods gathered in the area of Sousse, a coastal region, in the East of Tunisia. In total, 86 compounds representing 89.9 - 94.9% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was clearly distinguished for its high content in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (β-caryophyllene, 1 (44); 24.1% and germacrene D, 2 (53); 20.0%), while those obtained from pods, leaves, stems, and flowers were dominated by non-terpene hydrocarbons. The most important ones were n-tetradecane (41, 16.3%, pod oil), 1,7-dimethylnaphthalene (43, 15.6%, leaf oil), and n-octadecane (77, 13.1%, stem oil). The leaf oil was rich in the apocarotene (E)-β-ionone (4 (54); 33.8%), and the oil obtained from flowers was characterized by hexahydrofarnesylacetone (5 (81); 19.9%) and methyl hexadecanoate (83, 10.2%). Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into three groups and two subgroups, each characterized by the major oil constituents. Contact tests showed that the germination of lettuce seeds was totally inhibited by the root essential oil tested at 1 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect on the shoot and root elongation varied from -1.6% to -32.4%, and from -2.5% to -64.4%, respectively. PMID:26916976

  4. Rothia endophytica sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from Dysophylla stellata (Lour.) Benth.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Jin-Li; Zhang, Dao-Feng; Zhou, Zhi-Li; Liu, Min-Jiao; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Zhao, Li-Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-11-01

    A novel endophytic actinobacterium, designated strain YIM 67072(T), was isolated from healthy roots of Dysophylla stellata (Lour.) Benth. Cells of this aerobic, cream-yellow-coloured strain occurred singly, in pairs or in tetrads, were Gram-stain-positive and ovoid- to spherical-shaped. Strain YIM 67072(T) grew at 4-45 °C, pH 5.0-10.0 and in the presence of 0-7 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 67072(T) belonged to the genus Rothia. The isolate contained MK-7 as the major component of the quinone system. The peptidoglycan type was A3α. The polar lipid profile consisted predominantly of diphosphatidylglycerol and glycolipids. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 53.2 mol%. However, strain YIM 67072(T) differed from its closest relatives Rothia nasimurium CCUG 35957(T) (98.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Rothia amarae JCM 11375(T) (97.6 %) and Rothia terrae L-143(T) (97.3 %) in many phenotypic characteristics. Moreover, the levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between the novel isolate and the three above-mentioned type strains were 28.7±1.3 %, 36.5±1.2 %, 46.8±1.5 %, respectively. Based on comparative analysis of physiological and chemotaxonomic data, strain YIM 67072(T) represents a novel species of the genus Rothia, for which the name Rothia endophytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 67072(T) ( = DSM 26247(T) = JCM 18541(T)). PMID:23710050

  5. Antinoceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions and Flavones Isolated from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir (Leguminosae)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Mariluze P.; Andrade, Cassya M. F.; Silva, Kelle O.; de Souza, Erika P.; Yatsuda, Regiane; Marques, Lucas M.; David, Juceni P.; David, Jorge M.; Napimoga, Marcelo H.; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana T.

    2016-01-01

    The bark of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret (Leguminosae family), popularly known as “jurema preta” in Brazil, is used by the population of Contendas of Sincorá (Bahia State, Brazil) for the treatment of coughs and wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the bark ethanol extract (EEMT) and solvent soluble fractions (hexane—H, DCM—D, EtOAc—E and BuOH—B) of the extract in vivo. Additionally, we synthesized 5,7-dihidroxy-4’-methoxyflavanone (isosakuranetin) and isolated the compound sakuranetin, and both compounds were also tested. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive assays performed were: writhing test; nociception induced by intraplantar formalin injection; leukocyte recruitment to the peritoneal cavity; evaluation of vascular permeability (Evans blue test); and evaluation of mechanical hypernociception (von Frey test). Production of TNF-α, IL-10, myeloperoxidase and the expression of ICAM-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test (n = 8), with P < 0.05. The EEMT showed antinociceptive activities in writhing test (100–200 mg/kg), in the second phase of the formalin test (50–200 mg/kg), and in mechanical hypernociception (100 mg/kg). EEMT showed an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity and in the plantar tissue detected by the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity (100 mg/kg), reduction of IL-10 levels and expression of ICAM-1 in the peritoneal exudate and the mesentery (100 mg/kg), respectively. The four soluble EEMT fractions showed good results in tests for antinociceptive (H, D, E, B) and anti-inflammation (H, D, E). Only sakuranetin showed reduction of the writhing and neutrophil migration (200 mg/kg). Thus, the EEMT and soluble fractions of M. tenuiflora bark demonstrated great antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, as also sakuranetin

  6. Antinoceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions and Flavones Isolated from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, Mariluze P; Andrade, Cassya M F; Silva, Kelle O; de Souza, Erika P; Yatsuda, Regiane; Marques, Lucas M; David, Juceni P; David, Jorge M; Napimoga, Marcelo H; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana T

    2016-01-01

    The bark of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret (Leguminosae family), popularly known as "jurema preta" in Brazil, is used by the population of Contendas of Sincorá (Bahia State, Brazil) for the treatment of coughs and wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the bark ethanol extract (EEMT) and solvent soluble fractions (hexane-H, DCM-D, EtOAc-E and BuOH-B) of the extract in vivo. Additionally, we synthesized 5,7-dihidroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone (isosakuranetin) and isolated the compound sakuranetin, and both compounds were also tested. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive assays performed were: writhing test; nociception induced by intraplantar formalin injection; leukocyte recruitment to the peritoneal cavity; evaluation of vascular permeability (Evans blue test); and evaluation of mechanical hypernociception (von Frey test). Production of TNF-α, IL-10, myeloperoxidase and the expression of ICAM-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test (n = 8), with P < 0.05. The EEMT showed antinociceptive activities in writhing test (100-200 mg/kg), in the second phase of the formalin test (50-200 mg/kg), and in mechanical hypernociception (100 mg/kg). EEMT showed an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity and in the plantar tissue detected by the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity (100 mg/kg), reduction of IL-10 levels and expression of ICAM-1 in the peritoneal exudate and the mesentery (100 mg/kg), respectively. The four soluble EEMT fractions showed good results in tests for antinociceptive (H, D, E, B) and anti-inflammation (H, D, E). Only sakuranetin showed reduction of the writhing and neutrophil migration (200 mg/kg). Thus, the EEMT and soluble fractions of M. tenuiflora bark demonstrated great antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, as also sakuranetin. More studies

  7. Gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves against acute gastric lesion models in rodents.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Hélio B; Silva, Francilene V; Passos, Flávia Franceli B; Bezerra, Roosevelt D S; Chaves, Mariana H; Oliveira, Francisco A; Oliveira, Rita C Meneses

    2010-01-01

    Parkia platycephala Benth. (Leguminosae--Mimosoideae), popularly known as "visgueira", fava bean tree or "fava-de-bolota", is widely found in the Northern and Northeastern regions of Brazil. Its pods are used as cattle food supplement in the drought period. Compounds with a gastroprotective activity were obtained from the genus Parkia. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves (Pp-EtOH), as well as evaluating its possible mechanisms of action in experimental ulcer induction models. Lesions were induced by absolute ethanol, ethanol-HCl, ischemia-reperfusion and indomethacin in rodents. Pp-EtOH showed a protective effect in the lesion models (66, 48 and 52%, respectively), but it was not able to protect gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced lesions. Results show a possible participation of the NO-synthase pathway in the gastroprotection and an antioxidant activity, by the increase of the catalase activity. The participation of prostaglandins and potassium channels sensitive to ATP in the gastroprotective effect of Pp-EtOH seems less likely to occur. More comprehensive studies, therefore, should be carried out to elucidate the antiulcerative effects of this promising natural product against this gastrointestinal disorder. PMID:21526272

  8. Teratogenic effects of Mimosa tenuiflora in a rat model and possible role of N-methyl- and N,N-dimethyltryptamine.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Dale; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Lemos, Danilo; Welch, Kevin; Pfister, James; Panter, Kip

    2014-07-30

    Mimosa tenuiflora is a shrub/tree found in northeastern Brazil sometimes eaten by livestock and believed to be responsible for malformations observed in many animals from that region. The teratogenic compounds in M. tenuiflora are not known. This study used pregnant rats fed M. tenuiflora and components therefrom for bioassay and fractionation of possible teratogenic compounds. Rat pups were examined for cranial-facial defects and skeletal malformations. Experimental diets included M. tenuiflora leaf and seed material, extracts of leaf and seed, alkaloid extracts of leaf and seed, and N-methyltryptamine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Pups from mothers who received M. tenuiflora plant material, methanol extracts, alkaloid extracts, and purified N-methyltryptamines had a higher incidence of soft tissue cleft palate and skeletal malformations. Results are summarized as to the frequency of observed cleft palate and other noted malformations for each diet versus control. PMID:24689494

  9. Variation in the accumulation levels of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in micropropagated trees and in in vitro cultures of Mimosa tenuiflora.

    PubMed

    Nicasio, María Del Pilar; Villarreal, María Luisa; Gillet, Françoise; Bensaddek, Lamine; Fliniaux, Marc-André

    2005-01-01

    The present article reports the accumulation of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and its metabolic precursors (tryptophan, tryptamine) in different organs of micropropagated Mimosa tenuiflora trees (leaves, flowers and bark) subjected to seasonal variations (January and June), as well as in in vitro cultures (plantlets and calluses) of this plant species. The accumulation of all the tested compounds varied according to the organ, the month of collection, and age of the plant material. In all cases, the neurotoxic compound N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) was detected with the lowest concentration 0.01% dry weight (DW) in flowers, and the highest 0.33% DW in bark. For the in vitro cultures, DMT was present in high yields in plantlets (0.1-0.2% DW), while in calluses this compound was initially detected but its concentration decreased significantly in the subsequent subcultures. PMID:15700647

  10. Modulation of the Antibiotic Activity by Extracts from Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Brenan

    PubMed Central

    Figueredo, Fernando G.; Ferreira, Emerson O.; Lucena, Bruno F. F.; Torres, Cícero M. G.; Lucetti, Daniel L.; Lucetti, Elaine C. P.; Silva, João Marcos F. L.; Santos, Francisco A. V.; Medeiros, Cássio R.; Oliveira, Gardênia M. M.; Colares, Aracélio V.; Costa, José G. M.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Silva, Júlio C. F.; Kerntopf, Marta R.; Figueiredo, Patrícia R. L.; Matias, Edinardo F. F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the possible interactions between ethanol extracts of Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Brenan, combined with six antimicrobial drugs against multiresistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated from humans. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The microdilution assay was performed to verify the interactions between the natural products and the antibiotics using a subinhibitory concentration. The activity of amikacin associated with the extract of Anadenanthera macrocarpa against EC 27 was enhanced, demonstrating an MIC reduction from 128 to 4 μg/mL. Among the β-lactams, no potentiation on its activity was observed, with exception to the antagonism of the natural products with ampicillin against S. aureus 358. PMID:23509756

  11. Antifungal, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activities of three varieties of labisia pumila benth: from microwave obtained extracts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Labisia pumila, locally known as Kacip Fatimah, is a forest-floor plant that has tremendous potential in the herbal industry. It is one of the five herbal plants identified by the government as one of the national key economic areas to be developed for commercial purposes. There are three varieties of L. pumila namely, L. pumila var. pumila, L. pumila var. alata and L. pumila var. lanceolata and each has its own use. Methods The leaves and roots of the three varieties of L. pumila Benth. were extracted using microwave assisted extraction (MAE). Antifungal activity of all plant extracts were characterized against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc. Anti-inflammatory assays were performed using NO production by macrophage RAW 264.7 cell lines induced by LPS/IFN-g and cytotoxic activity was determined using several cancer cell lines and one normal cell line. Results The overall result demonstrated that leaf and root extracts of all three varieties of L. pumila exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activity against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor compared to streptomycin used as positive control. Leaf and root extracts of all varieties significantly decreased NO release. However, the root extracts showed higher activity compared to the leaf extracts. Cytotoxic activity against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and Chang cell lines were observed with all extracts. Conclusions These findings suggest the potential use of L. pumila Benth. as a natural medicine and indicated the possible application of this medicinal plant such anti inflammatory activity and cytotoxic agents. PMID:23347830

  12. [Influence of anthropic habits in the dispersion of Triatoma pseudomaculata Corrêa & Espínola, 1964 through Mimosa tenuiflora (Willdenow) (Mimosaceae) in the State of Ceará, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Simone Patrícia Carneiro; Freitas, Assilon Lindoval Carneiro; Prazeres, Severino do Monte; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte

    2004-01-01

    Triatoma pseudomaculata was captured in the phloem of the black acacia bush (Mimosa tenuiflora) in seven municipalities in the State of Ceará, Brazil. This bush is widespread in the caatinga (scrub forest) and is used extensively by the rural population for kindling. Peridomiciliary presence of triatomines in the Cariri region may be associated with the use of infested M. tenuiflora wood by the population, thus facilitating the triatomines' mobilization and dispersion. PMID:15029337

  13. Target guided isolation, in-vitro antidiabetic, antioxidant activity and molecular docking studies of some flavonoids from Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. bark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. is traditionally important plant and is reported to possess a variety of pharmacological actions. The present research exertion was undertaken to isolate and characterized the flavonoids from the extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. and to evaluate the efficacy of the isolated flavonoids on in-vitro models of type-II diabetes. Furthermore, the results of in-vitro experimentation inveterate by the molecular docking studies of the isolated flavonoids on α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. Methods Isolation of the flavonoids from the methanolic extract of stem bark of A. Lebbeck Benth was executed by the Silica gel (Si) column chromatography to yield different fractions. These fractions were then subjected to purification to obtain three important flavonoids. The isolated flavonoids were then structurally elucidated with the assist of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and Mass spectroscopy. In-vitro experimentation was performed with evaluation of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and DPPH inhibition capacity. Molecular docking study was performed with GLIDE docking software. Results Three flavonoids, (1) 5-deoxyflavone (geraldone), (2) luteolin and (3) Isookanin were isolated from the EtOAc fraction of the methanolic extract of Albizzia lebbeck Benth bark. (ALD). All the compounds revealed to inhibit the α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes in in-vitro investigation correlating to reduce the plasma glucose level. Molecular docking study radically corroborates the binding affinity and inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. Conclusion The present research exertion demonstrates the anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of the important isolated flavonoids with inhibition of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and DPPH which is further supported by molecular docking analysis. PMID:24886138

  14. Determination of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in Mimosa tenuiflora inner barks by matrix solid-phase dispersion procedure and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Gaujac, Alain; Aquino, Adriano; Navickiene, Sandro; de Andrade, Jailson Bittencourt

    2012-01-15

    N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a potent hallucinogen found in beverages consumed in religion rituals and neo-shamanic practices over the world. Two of these religions, Santo Daime and União do Vegetal (UDV), are represented in countries including Australia, the United States and several European nations. In some of this countries there have been legal disputes concerning the legalization of ayahuasca consumption during religious rituals, a beverage rich in DMT. In Brazil, even children and pregnant women are legally authorized to consume ayahuasca in a religious context. A simple and low-cost method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) has been optimized for the determination of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in Mimosa tenuiflora inner bark. The experimental variables that affect the MSPD method, such as the amounts of solid-phase and herbal sample, solvent nature, eluate volume and NaOH concentration were optimized using an experimental design. The method showed good linearity (r = 0.9962) and repeatability (RSD < 7.4%) for DMT compound, with detection limit of 0.12 mg/g. The proposed method was used to analyze 24 samples obtained locally. The results showed that concentrations of the target compound in M. tenuiflora barks, ranged from 1.26 to 9.35 mg/g for these samples. PMID:22209595

  15. Early changes in membrane permeability, production of oxidative burst and modification of PAL activity induced by ergosterol in cotyledons of Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Rossard, Stéphanie; Luini, Estelle; Pérault, Jean-Michel; Bonmort, Janine; Roblin, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Ergosterol (a fungal membrane component) was shown to induce transient influx of protons and membrane hyperpolarization in cotyledonary cells of Mimosa pudica L. By contrast, chitosan (a fungal wall component with known elicitor properties) triggered membrane depolarization. In the processes induced by ergosterol, a specific desensitization was observed, since cells did not react to a second ergosterol application but did respond to a chitosan treatment. This comparative study correspondingly shows that ergosterol and chitosan were perceived in a distinct manner by plant cells. Generation of O2*-, visualized by infiltration with nitroblue tetrazolium, was displayed in organs treated with ergosterol and chitosan. This AOS production was preceded by an increase in activity of NADPH oxidase measured in protein extracts of treated cotyledons. In all the previously described processes, cholesterol had no effect, thereby indicating that ergosterol specifically induced these physiological changes known to participate in the reaction chain activated by characteristic elicitors. Contrary to chitosan, ergosterol did not greatly activate secondary metabolism as shown by the small change in content of free phenolics and by the low modification in activity of PAL, the key enzyme of this metabolic pathway. Therefore, future studies have to clarify the signalling cascade triggered by ergosterol recognition. PMID:16510520

  16. Cytomictic Anomalous Male Meiosis and 2n Pollen Grain Formation in Mertensia echioides Benth. (Boraginaceae) from Kashmir Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Reyaz Ahmad; Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Kumari, Santosh; Malik, Akhtar Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Presently Mertensia echioides Benth. (Boraginaceae) collected from Kashmir Himalaya, India, is cytologically analyzed for the first time revealing 2n = 2x = 24 (diploid). Interestingly we found 4.3–6.2% syncytic meiocytes/PMCs with 2n = 4x = 48 (tetraploid) in addition to normal meiocytes (2n = 24) during male meiosis. These comparatively larger PMCs (pollen mother cells) lead to the formation of fertile giant 2n pollen grains. A frequency of 6.4–13.3% PMCs shows transfer of chromatin material at prophase-I and, therefore, results in aneuploid meiocytes. Whole chromatin transfer by the process of cytomixis could also have led to the formation of tetraploid cells. Translocation heterozygosity is also evident in the form of multivalents in 12–17% diploid (2x) meiocytes at diakinesis and metaphase-I and is reported for the first time in this species. The syncytes formed depict open chain hexavalent and quadrivalent formation in the three populations with different frequencies. Moreover chromatin stickiness at metaphase-I is observed in 45% of PMCs in population-1 (P-1). Syncyte or unreduced PMC formation leading to unreduced fertile gametes is here speculated to act as a possible way out for infraspecific polyploidization in the species. PMID:25544950

  17. Total Flavonoids from Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Ktze Protect against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong Chang; Xu, Xu Dong; Zhi Liu, Xue; Sun, Gui Bo; Zhu, Yin Di; Dong, Xi; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Hai Jing; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Xiao Bo

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin has cardiotoxic effects that limit its clinical benefit in cancer patients. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of the total flavonoids from Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Ktze (TFCC) against doxorubicin- (DOX-) induced cardiotoxicity. Male rats were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of DOX (3 mg/kg) every 2 days for three injections. Heart samples were collected 2 weeks after the last DOX dose and then analyzed. DOX delayed body and heart growth and caused cardiac tissue injury, oxidative stress, apoptotic damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and Bcl-2 expression disturbance. Similar experiments in H9C2 cardiomyocytes showed that doxorubicin reduced cell viability, increased ROS generation and DNA fragmentation, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced apoptotic cell death. However, TFCC pretreatment suppressed all of these adverse effects of doxorubicin. Signal transduction studies indicated that TFCC suppressed DOX-induced overexpression of p53 and phosphorylation of JNK, p38, and ERK. Studies with LY294002 (a PI3K/AKT inhibitor) demonstrated that the mechanism of TFCC-induced cardioprotection also involves activation of PI3K/AKT. These findings indicated the potential clinical application of TFCC in preventing DOX-induced cardiac oxidative stress. PMID:25784945

  18. Influence of root-knot nematode infestation on antioxidant enzymes, chlorophyll content and growth in Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.

    PubMed

    Bhau, B S; Borah, Bitupon; Ahmed, Reshma; Phukon, P; Gogoi, Barbi; Sarmah, D K; Lal, M; Wann, S B

    2016-04-01

    Plants adapt themselves to overcome adverse environmental conditions, and this involves a plethora of concurrent cellular activities. Physiological experiments or metabolic profiling can quantify this response. Among several diseases of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli), root-knot nematode infection caused by Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood causes severe damage to the plant and hence, the oil production. In the present study, we identified M. incognita morphologically and at molecular level using sequenced characterized amplified region marker (SCAR). M. incognita was artificially inoculated at different levels of second stage juveniles (J₂) to examine the effect on Patchouli plant growth parameters. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity and changes in the total phenol and chlorophyll contents in M. incognita was also evaluated in response to infection. The results have demonstrated that nematode infestation leads to increased peroxidase activities in the leaves of the patchouli plants and thereby, increase in phenolic content as a means of defence against nematode infestation. Chlorophyll content was also found decreased but no changes in polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity. PMID:27295922

  19. Croton cajucara Benth. leaf extract scavenges the stable free radical DPPH and protects against oxidative stress induced by paraquat.

    PubMed

    Tieppo, Marcelo; Porawski, Marilene; Salvador, Mirian; Moreira, Andrea Janz; Collado, Pilar Sanzchez; González-Gallego, Javier; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2006-01-01

    Antioxidant effects of extracts from Croton cajucara BENTH. leaves was investigated in different in vitro and in vivo models. Extracts showed inhibitory radical scavenging activity against the stable radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (75%, 43% and 25% of the standard trolox at 1, 10 and 100 mg/ml, respectively; IC50 218 mg/ml). Percentage survival of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells treated with 10 mM paraquat increased by 21% and 55%, when 1 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml concentrations of the extract, respectively, were added. The cytosolic concentration of TBARS increased in animals treated with paraquat (+283%), while values did not significantly differ from the controls in rats additionally receiving the leaf extract. Paraquat administration also induced a significant increase in hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminiscence (+76%), that was partially prevented by the leaf extract (+31%). Liver SOD activity was a 158% higher in animals receiving paraquat as compared to the controls. This effect was abolished by administration of the leaf extract. Paraquat administration did not significantly modify the activity of GPx or catalase. Croton cajucara extract increased GPx and catalase activities in paraquat treated-animals by 342% and 70%, respectively. Our results confirm that Croton cajucara leaf extract present radical scavenging activity and reduce oxidative stress induced by paraquat, suggesting the beneficial use as a potential source of antioxidant agents of natural origin. PMID:16394531

  20. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb. PMID:24013410

  1. HPLC and GC-MS determination of bioactive compounds in microwave obtained extracts of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2011-01-01

    Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the need for small samples and reagent volumes are some of the attractive features of this new promising microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique. The aims of the present research were to determine the foliar phenolics and flavonoids contents of extracts of three varieties of L. pumila obtained by a microwave extraction method while flavonoid, isoflavonoid and phenolic compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were measured by the DPPH and FRAP methods and finally, the chemical composition of the crude methanolic extracts of the leaves of all three varieties were analyzed by GS-MS. PMID:21829154

  2. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds for “Ugba” Production

    PubMed Central

    Nwokeleme, C. O.; Ugwuanyi, J. Obeta

    2015-01-01

    Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis. PMID:26904664

  3. Repeated-Doses Toxicity Study of the Essential Oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae) in Swiss Mice

    PubMed Central

    Freire Rocha Caldas, Germana; Araújo, Alice Valença; Albuquerque, Giwellington Silva; Silva-Neto, Jacinto da Costa; Costa-Silva, João Henrique; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae) is found in abundance in Northeastern Brazil where it is used in traditional medicine to treat gastric disorders. Since there are no studies reporting the toxicity and safety profile of this species, we investigated repeated-doses toxicity of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM). Swiss mice of both sexes were orally treated with EOHM (100 and 500 mg/kg) for 30 days, and biochemical, hematological, and morphological parameters were determined. No toxicity signs or deaths were recorded during the treatment with EOHM. The body weight gain was not affected, but there was an occasional variation in water and food consumption among mice of both sexes treated with both doses. The hematological and biochemical profiles did not show significant differences except for a decrease in the MCV and an increase in albumin, but these variations are within the limits described for the species. The microscopic analysis showed changes in liver, kidneys, lungs, and spleen; however, these changes do not have clinical relevance since they varied among the groups, including the control group. The results indicate that the treatment of repeated-doses with the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii showed low toxicity in mice. PMID:24151521

  4. Anti-allodynic and neuroprotective effects of koumine, a Benth alkaloid, in a rat model of diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Ling, Qian; Liu, Ming; Wu, Min-Xia; Xu, Ying; Yang, Jian; Huang, Hui-Hui; Yu, Chang-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is characterized by progressive degeneration of nerve fibers associated with diabetes mellitus. Antidepressants and anticonvulsants are the mainstay of pharmacological treatment, but are often limited in effectiveness against the core clinical feature of pain. In the current study, we examined the potential effects of koumine, a Gelsemium elegans Benth alkaloid, using a rat model of diabetic neuropathy. Rats were administered intraperitoneally a single dose of streptozocin (60 mg/kg) to induce type 1 diabetes. Koumine was given at a dose range of 0.056-7 mg/kg subcutaneously for one week starting 3 weeks after streptozocin adminstration. Behavioral responses to mechanical stimuli were evaluated every day after streptozocin injection. At 4 weeks after streptozocin injection, sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) and morphological alternation of sciatic nerves were assessed by electron microscopy. Diabetic rats developed mechanical hyperalgesia within 3 weeks after streptozocin injection and exhibited reduced SNCV and impaired myelin/axonal structure. Koumine treatment of diabetic rats decreased neuropathic pain behavior as early as after the first administration. At a dose of 7 mg/kg, koumine was more effective than gabapentin (100 mg/kg), and decreased mechanical sensitivity threshold to a level comparable to healthy control. Repeated treatment of koumine significantly reduced the damage to axon and myelin sheath of the sciatic nerve and increased SNCV, without affecting body weight and blood glucose. These findings encourage the use of koumine in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:24790009

  5. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds for "Ugba" Production.

    PubMed

    Nwokeleme, C O; Ugwuanyi, J Obeta

    2015-01-01

    Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis. PMID:26904664

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Croton cajucara Benth linalool-rich essential oil on artificial biofilms and planktonic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Alviano, W S; Mendonça-Filho, R R; Alviano, D S; Bizzo, H R; Souto-Padrón, T; Rodrigues, M L; Bolognese, A M; Alviano, C S; Souza, M M G

    2005-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated that a linalool-rich essential oil from Croton cajucara Benth presents leishmanicidal activity. In the present study, we demonstrate that this essential oil inhibits the growth of reference samples of Candida albicans, Lactobacillus casei, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sobrinus, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans cell suspensions, all of them associated with oral cavity disease. The purified linalool fraction was only inhibitory for C. albicans. Microbes of saliva specimens from human individuals with fixed orthodontic appliances, as well as the reference strains, were used to construct an artificial biofilm which was exposed to linalool or to the essential oil. As in microbial suspensions, the essential oil was toxic for all the microorganisms, while the purified linalool fraction mainly inhibited the growth of C. albicans. The compounds of the essential oil were separated by thin layer chromatography and exposed to the above-cited microorganisms. In this analysis, the proliferation of the bacterial cells was inhibited by still uncharacterized molecules, and linalool was confirmed as the antifungal component of the essential oil. The effects of linalool on the cell biology of C. albicans were evaluated by electron microscopy, which showed that linalool induced a reduction in cell size and abnormal germination. Neither the crude essential oil nor the purified linalool fraction is toxic to mammalian cells, which suggests that the essential oil or its purified components may be useful to control the microbial population in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. PMID:15720570

  7. Antidiabetic, renal/hepatic/pancreas/cardiac protective and antioxidant potential of methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark (ALEx) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypoglycemic and/or anti-hyperglycemic activities have been recorded with numerous plants, many of which are used as traditional herbal treatments of diabetes. Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark have been used in traditional medicine along with some preliminary reports on its hypoglycemic action. The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods The powdered stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth.. was extracted with methanol (MeOH) using soxhlation method and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. (ALEx) was concentrated to dryness using Rotary Evaporator. Diabetes was experimentally induced in the rats by single intraperitoneal administration of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). They glycemic control was measured by the blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and plasma insulin. The oxidative stress was evaluated in the liver and kidney by level of antioxidant markers and various biochemical parameters were assessed in diabetic control and extract treated rats. Results Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats depicted the increased blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), diminished level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) level and perturb level of antioxidant markers. Oral administration of MeAL at a concentration of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg b.w daily for 30 days results a momentous decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and enhancement of plasma insulin level as compared with STZ induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, it significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the level of TC, TG, and LDL-c, VLDL-c. While it increases the level of HDL-c to a significant (p < 0.05) level. The treatment also resulted in a marked increase in reduced glutathione

  8. Cytotoxic activity of acyl phloroglucinols isolated from the leaves of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. cultivated in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Fathy M.; Fathy, Magda M.; Salama, Maha M.; Al-Abd, Ahmed M.; Saber, Fatema R.; El-Halawany, Ali M.

    2014-01-01

    Two acyl phloroglucinol compounds namely; Sideroxylonal B (1) and Macrocarpal A (2) were isolated from the Sideroxylonal-Rich Extract (SRE) of the juvenile leaves of Eucalyptus cinerea; F. Muell. ex Benth cultivated in Egypt. Identification of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of physico-chemical properties and spectral analysis (1D & 2D NMR). The two compounds were isolated for the first time from this species. The SRE alongside with the isolated compounds were tested against three human cancer cell lines; MCF7 (breast carcinoma cell line), HEP2 (laryngeal carcinoma), CaCo (colonic adenocarcinoma) and one type of normal human cell line;10 FS (fibroblast cells). The SRE, (1), and (2) showed cytotoxic activity with IC50 13.6 ± 0.62, 7.2 ± 0.5, 14.8 ± 0.55 μg mL−1 against HEP2 respectively, 11.6 ± 0.47, 4 ± 0.36, 11.4 ± 0.45 μg mL−1 against CaCo, respectively, and 8.6 ± 0.29, 4.4 ± 0.25, and 7.8 ± 0.3 μg mL−1 against MCF7, respectively. Meanwhile, the (SRE) together with (1) and (2) exhibited low cytotoxicity against normal cell line 10 FS, with IC50 55.4 ± 1.4, 43 ± 0.8 and 50.1 ± 1.12 μg mL−1, respectively. The antiprofilerative activity of the tested compounds was evaluated. The cell cycle profile of cells treated with Sideroxylonal-B and Macrocarpal-A indicates possible S-phase specific effects. PMID:24986654

  9. Mesona Chinensis Benth extract prevents AGE formation and protein oxidation against fructose-induced protein glycation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesona chinensis Benth (Chinese Mesona), an economically significant agricultural plant, is the most widely consumed as an herbal beverage in Southeast Asia and China. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory activity of Mesona chinensis (MC) extract on the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and protein oxidation in an in vitro model of fructose-mediated protein glycation. Methods The content of total polyphenolic compounds was measured by using Folin–Ciocalteu assay. Antiglycation activity was determined using the formation of AGE fluorescence intensity, Nϵ-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), the level of fructosamine, and the formation of amyloid cross β-structure. The protein oxidation was examined using the level of protein carbonyl content and thiol group. Results Our results revealed that the content of total polyphenolic compound in MC extract was 212.4 ± 5.6 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried extract. MC extract (0.25-1.00 mg/mL) significantly inhibited the formation of fluorescence AGEs in fructose-glycated bovine serum albumin (BSA) during 4 weeks of study. Furthermore, MC extract also decreased the level of Nϵ-CML, fructosamine, and amyloid cross β-structure in fructose-glycated BSA. While the total thiol group was elevated and the protein carbonyl content was decreased in BSA incubated with fructose and MC extract. Conclusions The extract of MC inhibits fructose-mediated protein glycation and protein oxidation. This edible plant could be a natural rich source of antiglycation agent for preventing AGE-mediated diabetic complication. PMID:24708679

  10. Antiapoptotic and Antioxidant Properties of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (Cat's Whiskers): Intervention in the Bcl-2-Mediated Apoptotic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Mohan, Syam; Mohamed Elhassan, Manal; Al-Mekhlafi, Nabil; Mariod, Abdelbasit Adam; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Alkharfy, Khalid M.

    2011-01-01

    Antiapoptotic and antioxidant activities of aqueous-methanolic extract (CAME) of Orthosiphonstamineus Benth(OS), and its hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), n-butanol (NBF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and water (WF) fractions were investigated. Antioxidant properties were evaluated using the assays of Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminiumtrichloride, β-carotene bleaching and DPPH. The role of OS against hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis on MDA-M231 epithelial cells was examined using MTT assay, phase contrast microscope, colorimetric assay of caspase-3, western blot and quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that EAF showed the highest total phenolic content followed by CAME, NBF, WF, CF and HF, respectively. Flavonoid content was in the order of the CF > EAF > HF > CAME > NBF > WF. The IC50 values on DPPH assay for different extract/fractions were 126.2 ± 23, 31.25 ± 1.2, 15.25 ± 2.3, 13.56 ± 1.9, 23.0 ± 3.2, and 16.66 ± 1.5 μg/ml for HF, CF, EAF, NBF, WF and CAME, respectively. OSreduced the oxidation of β-carotene by hydroperoxides. Cell death was dose-dependently inhibited by pretreatment with OS. Caspase-3 and distinct morphological features suggest the anti-apoptotic activities of OS. This plant not only increased the expression of Bcl-2, but also decreased Bax expression, and ultimately reduced H2O2-induced apoptosis. The current results showed that phenolics may provide health and nutritional benefits. PMID:21234328

  11. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root from different varieties of Labisa pumila Benth.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ahmad, Sahida

    2011-01-01

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol) were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol) was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431) and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96) pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control. PMID:21623314

  12. Serological and molecular studies of a novel virus isolate causing yellow mosaic of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth].

    PubMed

    Zaim, Mohammad; Ali, Ashif; Joseph, Jomon; Khan, Feroz

    2013-01-01

    Here we have identified and characterized a devastating virus capable of inducing yellow mosaic on the leaves of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth]. The diagnostic tools used were host range, transmission studies, cytopathology, electron microscopy, serology and partial coat protein (CP) gene sequencing. Evidence from biological, serological and sequence data suggested that the causal virus belonged to genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae. The isolate, designated as Patchouli Yellow Mosaic Virus (PaYMV), was transmitted through grafting, sap and the insect Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Flexuous rod shaped particles with a mean length of 800 nm were consistently observed in leaf-dip preparations from natural as well as alternate hosts, and in purified preparation. Cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions, pinwheels and laminar aggregates were observed in ultra-thin sections of infected patchouli leaves. The purified capsid protein has a relative mass of 43 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against the coat protein separated on SDS - PAGE; which were used in ELISA and western blotting. Using specific antibodies in ELISA, PaYMV was frequently detected at patchouli plantations at Lucknow and Bengaluru. Potyvirus-specific degenerate primer pair (U335 and D335) had consistently amplified partial CP gene from crude preparations of infected tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparison of the PCR product sequence (290 bp) with the corresponding regions of established potyviruses showed 78-82% and 91-95% sequence similarity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The results clearly established that the virus under study has close homology with watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in the coat protein region and therefore could share a common ancestor family. Further studies are required to authenticate the identity of PaYMV as a distinct virus or as an isolate of WMV. PMID:24386278

  13. Serological and Molecular Studies of a Novel Virus Isolate Causing Yellow Mosaic of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth

    PubMed Central

    Zaim, Mohammad; Ali, Ashif; Joseph, Jomon; Khan, Feroz

    2013-01-01

    Here we have identified and characterized a devastating virus capable of inducing yellow mosaic on the leaves of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth]. The diagnostic tools used were host range, transmission studies, cytopathology, electron microscopy, serology and partial coat protein (CP) gene sequencing. Evidence from biological, serological and sequence data suggested that the causal virus belonged to genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae. The isolate, designated as Patchouli Yellow Mosaic Virus (PaYMV), was transmitted through grafting, sap and the insect Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Flexuous rod shaped particles with a mean length of 800 nm were consistently observed in leaf-dip preparations from natural as well as alternate hosts, and in purified preparation. Cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions, pinwheels and laminar aggregates were observed in ultra-thin sections of infected patchouli leaves. The purified capsid protein has a relative mass of 43 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against the coat protein separated on SDS – PAGE; which were used in ELISA and western blotting. Using specific antibodies in ELISA, PaYMV was frequently detected at patchouli plantations at Lucknow and Bengaluru. Potyvirus-specific degenerate primer pair (U335 and D335) had consistently amplified partial CP gene from crude preparations of infected tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparison of the PCR product sequence (290 bp) with the corresponding regions of established potyviruses showed 78–82% and 91–95% sequence similarity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The results clearly established that the virus under study has close homology with watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in the coat protein region and therefore could share a common ancestor family. Further studies are required to authenticate the identity of PaYMV as a distinct virus or as an isolate of WMV. PMID:24386278

  14. Methanol Extract of Croton Pycnanthus Benth. Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation by Suppressing the MAPK and NF-κB Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiyeon

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoclasts are differentiated from monocytes/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL). Croton pycnanthus Benth. (CPB) is a herbal plant that belongs to Euphorbiaceae family. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CPB on osteoclastogenesis and RANKL-dependent signaling pathways. Methods Methanol extract of CPB was obtained from International Biological Material Research Center. Osteoclast differentiation was achieved by culturing mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) with M-CSF and RANKL. Osteoclast numbers were evaluated by counting multinuclear cells positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. The activation of signaling molecules were assessed after acute stimulation of cells with high dose of RANKL by Western blotting with phospho-specific antibodies. Results CPB reduced the generation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB signaling pathways. The induction of the expression of c-Fos, nuclear factor-activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) by RANKL was also suppressed. Conclusions CPB exerts negative effects on osteoclast differentiation in response to the RANKL. The inhibitory mechanism involves the suppression of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and subsequently the down-regulation of c-Fos and NFATc1 transcription factors. PMID:25489576

  15. Chemical Composition, Modulatory Bacterial Resistance and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil the Hyptis martiusii Benth by Direct and Gaseous Contact

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Allan Demetrius Leite; Galvao Rodrigue, Fabiola Fernandes; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; da Costa, Jose Galberto Martins; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown that species of the genus Hyptis, have promising antimicrobial and antifungal effects. Objectives: Identify of chemical constituents of essential oil from leaves of Hyptis martiusii and evaluate its effect against bacterial strains by direct and gaseous contact. Materials and Methods: Essential oil was extracted from leaves of Hyptis martiusii Benth using hydro-distillation, and its composition was determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Chemical analysis showed that there was a predominance of sesquiterpenes. The leaf essential oil was screened for its minimal inhibitory concentration and modulatory effect of aminoglycoside by the direct (MIC) and gaseous (MID) micro-dilution assays for various pathogenic microorganisms. The essential oil remarkably inhibited the growth of all of the tested bacteria (MIC < 512 μg/mL) except S. aureus (SA358) multidrug resistant (MRSA) by direct contact. Results: Twenty-four compounds representing 92.13% of the essential oil of leaves were characterized; δ -3-carene (6.88%), 1, 8-cineole (7.01%), trans-caryophyllene (9.21%), Cariophyllene oxide (7.47%) and bicyclogermacrene (10.61%) were found as the major components. Modulatory aminoglycoside effect, by direct contact, was showed antagonistic relationship with antimicrobial activity. The gaseous component of the oil inhibited the bacterial growth of all of the tested bacteria in 50% and 25% of oil concentration and demonstrated synergistic interactions can be attributed to the constituting the oil compounds. Conclusions: These results show that this oil influences the activity of the antibiotic and may be used as an adjuvant in the antibiotic therapy of respiratory tract bacterial pathogens. PMID:25237640

  16. In-vitro cytotoxicity study of methanolic fraction from Ajuga Bracteosa wall ex. benth on MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma and hep-2 larynx carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Akiriti; Toppo, Fedelic Aahish; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K.; Singour, Pradeep K.; Pawar, Rajesh S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth (Labiatae) is popularly known in India as Neelkanthi. A decoction of the leaves, flowers, and barks is used in India for the treatment of cancer including diabetes, malaria, and inflammation etc. The main objective of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic potential of Ajuga bracteosa. Materials and Methods: Successive solvent extraction of Ajuga bracteosa in petroleum ether, methanol, and water extracts was done. These extracts were tested against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and larynx carcinoma (Hep-2) tumor cell lines, using the thiazolyl blue test (MTT) assay. Results: The methanolic fraction of Ajuga bracteosa had shown the significant results against MCF-7 and Hep-2 tumor cell lines. The methanolic, petroleum ether and aqueous extract from Ajuga bracteosa, presented an IC50 value at 24 h of 10, 65, 70 μg/ml and 5, 30, 15 μg/ml on MCF-7 and Hep-2 cells, respectively. Steroids compounds namely β-sitosterol and unknown constituents were identified in the most active methanol extract of Ajuga bracteosa wall ex Benth. These known and unknown compounds exhibited cytotoxic potential against MCF-7 and Hep-2 cancer cells. Conclusion: Among all the tested extracts, methanolic extract can be considered as potential sources of anti-cancer compounds. Further studies are necessary for more extensive biological evaluations. PMID:24497749

  17. Impact of soil field water capacity on secondary metabolites, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), maliondialdehyde (MDA) and photosynthetic responses of Malaysian kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Mohamad Fakri, Nur Farhana

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%; well watered), (75%, moderate water stress), (50%; high water stress) and (25%; severe water stress). The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100%) ER L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement) compared to severe water stress (25% ER). From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth. PMID:22695235

  18. A randomised comparative trial on the use of a hydrogel with tepescohuite extract (Mimosa tenuiflora cortex extract-2G) in the treatment of venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Lammoglia-Ordiales, Lorena; Vega-Memije, Maria Elisa; Herrera-Arellano, Armando; Rivera-Arce, Erika; Agüero, Juan; Vargas-Martinez, Felipe; Contreras-Ruiz, José

    2012-08-01

    Tepescohuite is an extract obtained from the bark of the Mimosa tenuiflora tree and is used as an empirical treatment in wounds for its healing and antiseptic properties. Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are a common health care problem in most countries with a high rate of morbidity. The standard of care is moist interactive healing and compression; however, the ideal topical treatment is yet to be established. This study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of M. tenuiflora cortex extract (MTC-2G) in the treatment of VLUs in an Interdisciplinary Wound and Ostomy Care Center (IWOCC). A randomised, placebo-controlled, double blind clinical trial was conducted to compare the use of a hydrogel containing MTC-2G with the hydrogel alone in VLUs. The study included all patients with venous ulcers referred to the IWOCC. Laboratory tests and tissue biopsies were performed at the beginning and at the end of the study. The patients were instructed to daily cleansing followed by topical application of the hydrogel and compression. Forty-one patients were included, 22 patients received the MTC-2G and 19 patients received the hydrogel only. Of the 41 patients, 32 completed the study, 18 in the experimental arm and 14 in the control group, 19 were women and 13 men. The mean age of the subjects was 60 years. The mean time from presentation was 38 months. The mean surface reduction was 6·29 cm(2) [confidence interval (IC) 95%: 3·28-9·29] (P = 0·0001) in the MTC-2G group and 5·85 cm(2) (95% CI: 3·58-8·12) (P = 0·001) in the hydrogel group. There was no significant difference between the groups (P = 0·815). No changes in the laboratory parameters were noted. In the histology, there were not any differences between groups either. A hydrogel containing MTC-2G was not superior to a hydrogel alone in the treatment of VLUs. PMID:22128789

  19. In vivo antiprostate tumor potential of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) tuber extract (VGDE) and the cytotoxicity of its major compound pentaisovaleryl sucrose

    PubMed Central

    Toyang, Ngeh J.; Ateh, Eugene N.; Davis, Harry; Tane, Pierre; Sondengam, Luc B.; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) root decoction is used in folk medicine in Cameroon to treat some ailments including prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to validate the claimed antiprostate cancer activity of Vernonia guineensis Benth. in vivo and to investigate the cytotoxicity of a pentaisovaleryl sucrose isolated from Vernonia guineensis on some cancer cell lines. Materials and methods A crude dichloromethane extract of Vernonia guineensis (VGDE) was used for this study. For in vivo antiprostate cancer efficacy, nude mice (n = 16) were injected subcutaneously with prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Upon the formation of the xenograft tumors, the mice were divided into two equal groups with approximately the same mean tumor volume per group. One group was treated with VGDE orally (500 mg/kg) and the other with a vehicle control for 30 days. Body weight and tumor volumes were measured 2 × a week and on the 33rd day, the mice were euthanized and tumors harvested and weighed. For the cytotoxicity study, the WST-1 assay was used to determine the activity of pentaisovaleryl sucrose previously isolated from VGDE. The cancer cell lines used in the cytotoxicity study included breast, colon, leukemia, lung, melanoma, ovarian and prostate. Results Prostate cancer (PC-3) xenograft tumors treated with VGDE showed a significant decrease in tumor size (P = 0.0295) compared to control. Pentaisovaleryl sucrose also demonstrated cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines with IC50 values as follows: MDA-MD-231—6.66 µM; MCF-7—7.50 µM; HCT116—14.12 µM; A549—5.76 µM; HL60—6.43 µM; A375—8.64 µM; OVCAR3—9.53 µM; Capan1—7.13 µM; Mia-Paca 6.47 µM. Conclusion VGDE does possess in vivo activity against prostate tumor and has potential for development into a natural product for the treatment of prostate cancer. This study thus provides preliminary validation for the folk use of Vernonia guineensis against prostate

  20. Influence of Npk inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (benth).

    PubMed

    Osuagwu, G G E; Edeoga, H O

    2013-04-15

    The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (Benth) was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h(-1) treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the dry matter, moisture content, ash, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat contents of the leaves of both plants. On the other hand, fertilizer treatment significantly, (p < 0.05) decreased the carbohydrate and the calorific value of the leaves of the plants. The increase in the concentrations of these substances as a result of fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant's leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures. PMID:24494518

  1. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography method for quantification of xanthorrhizol in roots of Iostephane heterophylla (Cav.) Benth ex Hemsl.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, María Isabel; Osorio, Nadia; Bernal, Israel; Navarrete, Andrés; Bye, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Roots of Iostephane heterophylla (Cav.) Benth ex Hemsl are used mainly in Mexican traditional medicine to heal skin problems. The development of a column high-performance liquid chromatography (LC)-UV detector method for the determination of xanthorrhizol, the major and active component of the roots of I. heterophylla, is described in this paper. The content of this compound was quantitatively determined employing a Symmetry C18 5 microm particle size column with the isocratic mobile phase acetonitrile-water (85 + 15). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min, and UV detection was at 230 nm. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.2 and 0.5 microg/mL, respectively. Quantities of xanthorrhizol measured by this method ranged between 1.8 to 10.94 mg/g of root of the plant in 11 different samples of I. heterophylla. Xanthorrhizol was not detected in a sample of I. madrensis, so xanthorrhizol could be used as a marker compound of I. heterophylla. The LC method described here was shown to be reliable, reproducible, and accurate. PMID:17760325

  2. A Comprehensive Review on the Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Pogostemon cablin Benth.: An Aromatic Medicinal Plant of Industrial Importance.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2015-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli) is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, organic acids, lignins, alkaloids, glycosides, alcohols, aldehydes have been isolated and identified from patchouli. The main phytochemical compounds are patchouli alcohol, α-patchoulene, β-patchoulene, α-bulnesene, seychellene, norpatchoulenol, pogostone, eugenol and pogostol. Modern studies have revealed several biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, antimutagenic, antiemetic, fibrinolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, some of the traditional uses need to be verified and may require standardizing and authenticating the bioactivity of purified compounds through scientific methods. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of essential oil and different plant extracts of patchouli based on the available scientific literature. This information will provide a potential guide in exploring the use of main active compounds of patchouli in various medical fields. PMID:25985355

  3. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71)

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, A. A.; Al-Huqail, A. A.; Shah, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols) and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR). PMID:27597969

  4. The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids production with total non structural carbohydrate and photosynthetic rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under high CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO(2) enrichment (1,200 µmol mol(-1)) combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha(-1)). No varietal differences were observed, however, as the levels of nitrogen increased from 0 to 270 kg N ha(-1), the production of TP and TF decreased in the order leaves>roots>stems. The production of TP and TF was related to increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC), where the increase in starch content was larger than that in sugar concentration. Nevertheless, the regression analysis exhibited a higher influence of soluble sugar concentration (r(2) = 0.88) than starch on TP and TF biosynthesis. Photosynthesis, on the other hand, displayed a significant negative relationship with TP and TF production (r(2) = -0.87). A decrease in photosynthetic rate with increasing secondary metabolites might be due to an increase in the shikimic acid pathway that results in enhanced production of TP and TF. Chlorophyll content exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate. PMID:21191319

  5. Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae) in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae) in the Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Missagia, Caio C C; Verçoza, Fábio C; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar) of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae), endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337). Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened. PMID:25590708

  6. Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae) in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae) in the Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Missagia, Caio C C; Verçoza, Fábio C; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2014-11-11

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar) of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae), endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337). Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened. PMID:25387391

  7. Phloem loading in Coleus blumei in the absence of carrier-mediated uptake of export sugar from the apoplast. [Coleus blumei Benth

    SciTech Connect

    Turgeon, R.; Gowan, E. )

    1990-11-01

    Phloem loading in Coleus blumei Benth. leaves cannot be explained by carrier-mediated transport of export sugar from the apoplast into the sieve element-companion cell complex, the mechanism by which sucrose is thought to load in other species that have been studied in detail. Uptake profiles of the export sugars sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose into leaf discs were composed of two components, one saturable and other other not. Saturable (carrier-mediated) uptake of all three sugars was almost completely eliminated by the inhibitor p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS). However, when PCMBS was introduced by transpiration into mature leaves it did not prevent accumulation of {sup 14}C-photosynthate in minor veins or translocation of labeled photosynthate from green to nonchlorophyllous regions of the leaf following exposure to {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. The efficacy of introducing inhibitor solutions in the transpiration stream was proven by observing saffranin O and calcofluor white movement in the minor veins and leaf apoplast. PCMBS introduced by transpiration completely inhibited phloem loading in tobacco leaves. Phloem loading in C. blumei was also studied in plasmolysis experiments. The carbohydrate content of leaves was lowered by keeping plants in the dark and then increased by exposing them to light. The solute level of intermediary cells increased in the light (phloem loading) in both PCMBS-treated and control tissues. A mechanism of symplastic phloem loading is proposed for species that translocate the raffinose series of oligosaccharides.

  8. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71).

    PubMed

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, E F; Alqarawi, A A; Al-Huqail, A A; Shah, M A

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols) and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR). PMID:27597969

  9. Anti-nociceptive Activity of Ethnomedicinally Important Analgesic Plant Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth: Mechanistic Study and Identifications of Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Zeb, Anwar; Ahmad, Sajjad; Ullah, Farhat; Ayaz, Muhammad; Sadiq, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth. is extensively used as traditional medicine for the management of various types of pain including tooth ache, gastric pain, abdominal pain, ear ache, and generalized body pain. The current study is designed to scientifically verify the purported uses of I. rugosus as analgesic agent and to figure out its possible mechanism of action. Bioactive compounds responsible for analgesic activity were identified using GC and GC-MS analysis. Analgesic potentials were evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate test, and formalin induced paw licking test. In acetic acid induced writhing chloroform fraction (Ir.Chf) exhibited 53% analgesia while formalin test displayed 61% inhibition at phase-I and 45% at phase-II respectively at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Similarly, in hot plate test Ir.Chf displayed average reaction time of 7 min at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min intervals. The possible mechanism of action was found to be the central pathway via opioidergic receptors as the mice showed morphine like analgesic activity at pre-administration of naloxone (opioid antagonist) in hot plate and formalin tests. In GC-MS analysis, 83 compounds were identified among which eight compounds including benzyl alcohol, sebacic acid, myristic acid, phytol, sugiol, Tocopherol, α-Amyrin, and stigmasterol were sorted out as previously reported analgesic compounds. Current study revealed that analgesic potential of I. rugosus can attributed to the presence of analgesic compounds. It may also be concluded that opioids receptors are involved in the analgesic mechanism of I. rugosus due to effective antagonism of nalaxone. PMID:27458379

  10. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaf essential oil and its constituents furanodienone and curzerenone from Lindera pulcherrima (Nees.) Benth. ex hook. f.

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Subhash C.; Mathela, Chandra S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lindera pulcherrima (Nees.) Benth. ex Hook. f. (Family: Lauraceae), an evergreen shrub, is an important medicinal plant distributed in temperate Himalayan regions. The leaves and bark are used as spice in cold, fever, and cough. Materials and Methods: In this study, the terpenoid composition, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of the leaf essential oil and its major constituents are being analyzed. Conclusion: The in vitro antioxidant activity showed a potent free radical scavenging activity for the essential oil as evidenced by a low IC50 value for DPPH radical followed by furanodienone (0.087 ± 0.03 and 1.164 ± 0.58 mg/ml respectively) and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation for the oil and furanodienone also followed the same order (IC50 0.74 ± 0.13 and 2.12 ± 0.49 mg/ml, respectively). The oil and the constituents were also tested against three Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica enterica, and (Pasturella multocida) and one Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. The essential oil was effective against S. aureus (IZ = 19.0 ± 0.34; MIC 3.90 μl/ml) while furanodienone showed potent activity against E. coli and S. enterica enterica (IZ = 18.0 ± 0.14 and 16.0 ± 0.10 respectively). On the other hand, curzerenone was found to be slightly effective against E. coli (IZ = 10.8 ± 0.52). The MIC value of the essential oil was least against S. aureus (MIC = 3.90 μl/ml) and that of furanodienone against E. coli (MIC = 3.90 μl/ml). PMID:22518079

  11. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), intercellular CO2 (Ci), apparent quantum yield (ξ) and lower dark respiration rates (Rd), compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD) were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant. PMID:23203128

  12. Abscisic acid induced changes in production of primary and secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity, antioxidant capability, antioxidant enzymes and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2-, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX)] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA) application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM) for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2-, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC) were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05) and O2- (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05). This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals. PMID:23884129

  13. Primary, secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) exposed to potassium fertilization under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)), intercellular CO(2) (C(i)), apparent quantum yield (ξ) and lower dark respiration rates (R(d)), compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD) were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant. PMID:23203128

  14. Anti-nociceptive Activity of Ethnomedicinally Important Analgesic Plant Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth: Mechanistic Study and Identifications of Bioactive Compounds.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Anwar; Ahmad, Sajjad; Ullah, Farhat; Ayaz, Muhammad; Sadiq, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth. is extensively used as traditional medicine for the management of various types of pain including tooth ache, gastric pain, abdominal pain, ear ache, and generalized body pain. The current study is designed to scientifically verify the purported uses of I. rugosus as analgesic agent and to figure out its possible mechanism of action. Bioactive compounds responsible for analgesic activity were identified using GC and GC-MS analysis. Analgesic potentials were evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate test, and formalin induced paw licking test. In acetic acid induced writhing chloroform fraction (Ir.Chf) exhibited 53% analgesia while formalin test displayed 61% inhibition at phase-I and 45% at phase-II respectively at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Similarly, in hot plate test Ir.Chf displayed average reaction time of 7 min at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min intervals. The possible mechanism of action was found to be the central pathway via opioidergic receptors as the mice showed morphine like analgesic activity at pre-administration of naloxone (opioid antagonist) in hot plate and formalin tests. In GC-MS analysis, 83 compounds were identified among which eight compounds including benzyl alcohol, sebacic acid, myristic acid, phytol, sugiol, Tocopherol, α-Amyrin, and stigmasterol were sorted out as previously reported analgesic compounds. Current study revealed that analgesic potential of I. rugosus can attributed to the presence of analgesic compounds. It may also be concluded that opioids receptors are involved in the analgesic mechanism of I. rugosus due to effective antagonism of nalaxone. PMID:27458379

  15. Direct effects of soil amendments on field emergence and growth of the invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newingham, B.A.; Belnap, J.

    2006-01-01

    Bromus tectorum L. is a non-native, annual grass that has invaded western North America. In SE Utah, B. tectorum generally occurs in grasslands dominated by the native perennial grass, Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth. and rarely where the natives Stipa hymenoides Roem. and Schult. and S. comata Trin. & Rupr. are dominant. This patchy invasion is likely due to differences in soil chemistry. Previous laboratory experiments investigated using soil amendments that would allow B. tectorum to germinate but would reduce B. tectorum emergence without affecting H. jamesii. For this study we selected the most successful treatments (CaCl2, MgCl2, NaCl and zeolite) from a previous laboratory study and applied them in the field in two different years at B. tectorum-dominated field sites. All amendments except the lowest level of CaCl2 and zeolite negatively affected B. tectorum emergence and/or biomass. No amendments negatively affected the biomass of H. jamesii but NaCl reduced emergence. Amendment effectiveness depended on year of application and the length of time since application. The medium concentration of zeolite had the strongest negative effect on B. tectorum with little effect on H. jamesii. We conducted a laboratory experiment to determine why zeolite was effective and found it released large amounts of Na+, adsorbed Ca2+, and increased Zn2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, exchangeable Mg2+, exchangeable K, and NH 4+ in the soil. Our results suggest several possible amendments to control B. tectorum. However, variability in effectiveness due to abiotic factors such as precipitation and soil type must be accounted for when establishing management plans. ?? Springer 2006.

  16. Soil amendment effects on the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and facilitation of its growth by the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.; Sherrod, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were undertaken to identify soil factors that curtail growth of the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass) without significantly inhibiting growth of native perennial grasses (here represented by Hilaria jamesii [Torr.] Benth). We grew B. tectorum and H. jamesii alone (monoculture pots) and together (combination pots) in soil treatments that manipulated levels of soil phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. Hilaria jamesii showed no decline when its aboveground biomass in any of the applied treatments was compared to the control in either the monoculture or combination pots. Monoculture pots of B. tectorum showed a decline in aboveground biomass with the addition of Na2HPO4 and K2HPO4. Interestingly, in pots where H. jamesii was present, the negative effect of these treatments was ameliorated. Whereas the presence of B. tectorum generally decreased the aboveground biomass of H. jamesii (comparing aboveground biomass in monoculture versus combination pots), the presence of H. jamesii resulted in an enhancement of B. tectorum aboveground biomass by up to 900%. We hypothesize that B. tectorum was able to obtain resources from H. jamesii, an action that benefited B. tectorum while generally harming H. jamesii. Possible ways resources may be gained by B. tectorum from native perennial grasses include (1) B. tectorum is protected from salt stress by native plants or associated soil biota; (2) when B. tectorum is grown with H. jamesii, the native soil biota is altered in a way that favors B. tectorum growth, including B. tectorum tapping into the mycorrhizal network of native plants and obtaining resources from them; (3) B. tectorum can take advantage of root exudates from native plants, including water and nutrients released by natives via hydraulic redistribution; and (4) B. tectorum is able to utilize some combination of the above mechanisms. In summary, land managers may find adding soil treatments can temporarily suppress B. tectorum

  17. Antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity and cytoprotective effect of Crassocephalum vitellinum (Benth.) S. Moore extract in a rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A decoction of Crassocephallum vitellinum (Benth.) S. Moore (Asteraceae) is used in Kagera Region to treat peptic ulcers. This study seeks to evaluate an aqueous ethanol extract of aerial parts of the plant for safety and efficacy. Methods An 80% ethanolic extract of C. vitellinum at doses of 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body wt was evaluated for ability to protect Sprague Dawley rats from acidified ethanol gastric ulceration in comparison with 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. The extract and its dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions were also evaluated for acute toxicity in mice, brine shrimp toxicity, and antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella typhi (NCTC 8385), Vibrio cholera (clinical isolate), and Streptococcus faecalis (clinical isolate). The groups of phytochemicals present in the extract were also determined. Results The ethanolic extract of C. vitellinum dose-dependently protected rat gastric mucosa against ethanol/HCl insult to a maximum of 88.3% at 800 mg/kg body wt, affording the same level of protection as by 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. The extract also exhibited weak antibacterial activity against S. typhi and E. coli, while its ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and aqueous fractions showed weak activity against K. pneumonia, S.typhi, E. coli and V. cholera. The extract was non-toxic to mice up to 5000 mg/kg body wt, and the total extract (LC50 = 37.49 μg/ml) and the aqueous (LC50 = 87.92 μg/ml), ethyl acetate (LC50 = 119.45 μg/ml) and dichloromethane fractions (88.79 μg/ml) showed low toxicity against brine shrimps. Phytochemical screening showed that the extract contains tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and terpenoids. Conclusion The results support the claims by traditional healers that a decoction of C.vitellinum has antiulcer activity. The mechanism of cytoprotection is yet to be determined but the phenolic compounds present in the

  18. Diversity and symbiotic effectiveness of beta-rhizobia isolated from sub-tropical legumes of a Brazilian Araucaria Forest.

    PubMed

    Lammel, Daniel R; Cruz, Leonardo M; Carrer, Helaine; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2013-12-01

    While the occurrence of Betaproteobacteria occupying the nodules of tropical legumes has been shown, little is known about subtropical areas. Araucaria Forest is a subtropical endangered ecosystem, and a better understanding of the legume-rhizobial symbionts may allow their use in land reclamation. The 16S rRNA gene of bacteria isolated from nine leguminous species was sequenced and their nodulation tested in Mimosa scabrella and Phaseolus vulgaris. 196 isolates were identified as eight genotypes: Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Bradyrhizobium sp1-2, Rhizobium, and Burkholderia sp1-3. The majority of the isolates from native plants (87 %) were taxonomically related to β-rhizobia, namely Burkholderia, however the legumes Galactia crassifolia and Collea speciosa were nodulated by both α and β-rhizobia, and Acacia dealbata, an exotic plant, only by α-rhizobia. The nifH genes of some isolates were sequenced and N-fixing potential shown by the acetylene reduction test. Most of the isolates nodulated the test plants, some were effective in M. scabrella, but all presented low efficiency in the exotic promiscuous legume P. vulgaris. Pantoea and Pseudomonas did not nodulate and probably are endophytic bacteria. The presented data shows diversity of α, β and γ-Proteobacteria in nodules of subtropical legumes, and suggests host specificity with β-rhizobia. Potential isolates were found for M. scabrella, indicating that a high N-fixing strain may be further inoculated in plants for use in reforestation. PMID:23861038

  19. Protective effects of alginate–chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. (Zuojin Pill) against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Zhu, Xiao-Ning; Jiang, Heng-Li; Wang, Gui-Fang; Cui, Yuan-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Zuojin Pill (ZJP), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w) and was first recorded in “Danxi’s experiential therapy” for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids reduce the inflammatory response by decreasing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), downregulating the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, and IL-1β in gastric mucosa. All the results indicate that mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could not only increase the residence time of alkaloids in rat stomach, but also exert gastroprotective effects through reducing the inflammatory response on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Thus

  20. Assessment of the monoterpene, glycidic and triterpene-moieties' contributions to the adjuvant function of the CP05 saponin of Calliandra pulcherrima Benth during vaccination against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Nico, D; Santos, F N; Borja-Cabrera, G P; Palatnik, M; Palatnik de Sousa, C B

    2007-01-01

    The CP05 saponin from Calliandra pulcherrima Benth, shows remarkable similarities to the QS21 saponin of Quillaja saponaria Molina. Both shared a monoterpene hydrophobic moiety, a glycidic chain attached to the triterpene C28, and three sugars attached to C3. Different from QS21, the CP05 does not show the aldehyde group in triterpene C4 involved in TH1 response. Balb/c mice were immunized either intact saponin (CP05), the monoterpene-deprived (BS), the C28 carbohydrate-deprived (HS) or the sapogenin fraction, in formulation with the FML antigen of Leishmania donovani and challenged with 2 x 10(8) amastigotes of L. chagasi. While the CP05 induced 90% survival and 92.1% parasite reduction, a 100% survival and 94.1% protection were detected after the BS-vaccine treatment, indicating that the monoterpene acylated moiety, absent in the BS vaccine, is not necessary for the induction of a protective global TH1 response. Only the DTH response of BS vaccines was mildly lower than that of CP05 vaccinees. Maximal anti-FML antibody, CD4(+) and CD8(+) Leishmania specific lymphocytes, IFN-gamma splenocyte secretion, reduction in parasite load and survival was also detected for the BS vaccine. The HSFML vaccine showed diminished responses in all tested variables, except for IFN-gamma secretion, indicating that the integrity of the carbohydrate moiety attached to C28 is mandatory for the these functions. No protection was induced by the sapogenin-FML indicating that the CP05 triterpene which lacks the C4 aldehyde group, is not a immunostimulating compound. No contribution to protection was detected in the CP05 saponin treated control group supporting the specificity of the FML antigenic preparation. PMID:17014936

  1. Rheological characterization of O/W emulsions incorporated with neutral and charged polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Vianna-Filho, Ricardo Padilha; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia Oliveira; Silveira, Joana Léa Meira

    2013-03-01

    The effects of polysaccharides, including xyloglucan from Hymenaea courbaril (XG), galactomannans from Schizolobium parahybae (GMSP) and Mimosa scabrella (GMMS), xanthan gum (XT), sodium hyaluronate (HNa) and Fucogel(®) (FG), on the rheological behavior of cosmetic emulsions were evaluated. These incorporations gave rise to six emulsified systems, denoted XGE, GMSPE, GMMSE, XTE, HNaE and FGE, respectively. The emulsion consistency was found to follow the trend GMSPE>XGE>HNaE>FGE>XTE>GMMSE. In general, the addition of polysaccharides increased the viscoelastic properties of the emulsions and decreased the creep compliance. The neutral polysaccharides (GMSPE, GMMSE) led to better stability of the emulsions after storing for 20 days relative to charged polymers. It was found that polysaccharides XG, GMSP and GMMS, which come from the seeds of native Brazilian plant species, might be used to modify the flow properties and stabilities of oil-water emulsions. PMID:23465929

  2. Alkaloid profiles of Mimosa tenuiflora and associated methods of analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alkaloid contents of the leaves and seeds of M. tenuiflora collected from northeastern Brazil were studied. Alkaloids were isolated by classical acid/base extraction procedures and by cation exchange solid phase extraction. The crude alkaloid fractions were then analysed by thin layer chromatogr...

  3. Characterization of indigenous rhizobia from caatinga

    PubMed Central

    Pires e Teixeira, Fernanda Cíntia; Borges, Wardsson Lustrino; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvêa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize rhizobial isolates from Cratylia mollis Mart. ex Benth, Calliandra depauperata Benth. and Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. by means of rhizobial colonies morphology and restriction analysis of the 16S ribosomal gene (16S rDNA-ARDRA). Nodules were collected in the field and from plants cultivated in a greenhouse experiment using Caatinga soil samples. Sixty seven isolates were described by morphological analysis. Forty seven representative isolates were used for ARDRA analysis using seven restriction enzymes. We observed high diversity of both slow and fast-growing rhizobia that formed three morpho-physiological clusters. A few fast-growing isolates formed a group of strains of the Bradyrhizobium type; however, most of them diverged from the B. japonicum and B. elkanii species. Cratylia mollis nodule isolates were the most diverse, while all Mimosa tenuiflora isolates displayed fast growth with no pH change and were clustered into groups bearing 100% similarity, according to ARDRA results. PMID:24031482

  4. Characterization of indigenous rhizobia from caatinga.

    PubMed

    Pires E Teixeira, Fernanda Cíntia; Borges, Wardsson Lustrino; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvêa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize rhizobial isolates from Cratylia mollis Mart. ex Benth, Calliandra depauperata Benth. and Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. by means of rhizobial colonies morphology and restriction analysis of the 16S ribosomal gene (16S rDNA-ARDRA). Nodules were collected in the field and from plants cultivated in a greenhouse experiment using Caatinga soil samples. Sixty seven isolates were described by morphological analysis. Forty seven representative isolates were used for ARDRA analysis using seven restriction enzymes. We observed high diversity of both slow and fast-growing rhizobia that formed three morpho-physiological clusters. A few fast-growing isolates formed a group of strains of the Bradyrhizobium type; however, most of them diverged from the B. japonicum and B. elkanii species. Cratylia mollis nodule isolates were the most diverse, while all Mimosa tenuiflora isolates displayed fast growth with no pH change and were clustered into groups bearing 100% similarity, according to ARDRA results. PMID:24031482

  5. Floristic evolution in an agroforestry system cultivation in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís C R; Machado, Sebastião A; Galvão, Franklin; Figueiredo, Afonso

    2016-06-01

    Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) is an important pioneer tree species in Ombrophylous Mixed Forest of Brazil and is widely used as an energy source. In traditional agroforestry systems, regeneration is induced by fire, then pure and dense stands known as bracatinga stands (bracatingais) are formed. In the first year, annual crops are intercalated with the seedlings. At that time the seedlings are thinned, then the stands remain at a fallow period and cut at seven years old. The species is very important mainly for small landowners. We studied the understory species that occur naturally during the succession over several years in order to manage them rationally in the future and maintain the natural vegetation over time. Three to 20 year-old Bracatinga stands were sampled between 1998 and 2011. All tree species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were measured.The floristic evolution was assessed with respect to Sociability Index, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index. Graphs of rank/abundance over different age groups were evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We identified 153 species dispersed throughout the understory and tend to become aggregated over time. PMID:27276374

  6. Bioinspired total synthesis and structural revision of yuremamine, an alkaloid from the entheogenic plant Mimosa tenuiflora.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Matthew B; Sperry, Jonathan

    2015-04-11

    Guided by a biosynthetic hypothesis, a serendipitous total synthesis of yuremamine has resulted in its structural revision from the putative pyrroloindole (1) to the flavonoidal indole (2), which was initially proposed as a biosynthetic intermediate. PMID:25756921

  7. Yield Components and Nutritive Value of Black Locust and Mimosa in Arkansas.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ranchers need to provide alternative livestock feeds when herbaceous forages become limiting in summer. We determined foliar yield components and nutritive value (in vitro digestibility [IVDMD], total nonstructural carbohydrate [TNC], N, robinin, and mimosine) of transplanted Robinia pseudoacacia (b...

  8. Suppressive effects of Mimosa pudica (L.) constituents on the production of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neeraj K.; Bhutani, Kamlesh K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the isolation of fourteen compounds from the active ethyl acetate (MPE) extract of M. pudica (L.) whole plant and their subsequent evaluation for the nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) inhibitory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 cells. Among the tested compounds, L-mimosine (12; IC50 = 19.23 to 21.15 µM), crocetin (4; IC50 = 23.45 to 25.57 µM), crocin (14; IC50 = 27.16 to 31.53 µM) and jasmonic acid (11; IC50 = 21.32 to 29.42 µM) were identified as potent NO inhibitor when tested on the macrophages. Similarly, towards TNF-α and IL-1ß inhibition, including these four compounds, and ethyl gallate (3), gallic acid (10) and caffeic acid (7) were found to be more active with half maximal concentration, 17.32 to 62.32 µM whereas the other compounds depicted moderate and mild effects (IC50 = 59.32 to 95.01 µM). Also, at a dose of 40 mg/Kg, L-mimosine (12), jasmonic acid (11), crocin (14) and its de-esterified form, crocetin (4) were found to significantly (p < 0.05 and 0.001) reduce 60.7 %, 48.9 %, 48.4 % and 43.6 % respectively of TNF-de-esterified production in female Sprague Dawley rats. However, in case of IL-1ß, with the same dose (40 mg/Kg), jasmonic acid (11) exhibited significant reduction with 54.2 % followed by crocin (14) (50.2 %) and crocetin (4) (39.8 %) while L-mimosine (12) was found to reduce only 16.3 %. Based on the results, it can be estimated that these compounds imparting greatly to anti-inflammatory effects of M. pudica in vitro as well as in vivo through reduction of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators which affirm the ethno-pharmacological use of this plant for prevention of inflammatory-related disorders. PMID:26417317

  9. Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Fetotoxicity, and Teratogenicity of Plathymenia reticulata Benth Barks Aqueous Extract

    PubMed Central

    de Barros Leite Albuquerque, Lia; dos Santos, Marcio Galdino; Lopes, Patricia Santos; Oshima-Franco, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Scientific assessment of harmful interactions of chemicals over the entire reproductive cycle are divided into three segments based on the period: from premating and mating to implantation (I), from implantation to major organogenesis (II), and late pregnancy and postnatal development (III). We combined the segments I and II to assess Plathymenia reticulata aqueous extract safety. In order to investigate reproductive toxicity (segment I), pregnant rats received orally 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg of extract, daily, during 18 days. These concentrations were determined by a preliminary in vitro LD50 test in CHO-k1 cells. A control group received deionized water. The offspring was removed at the 19th day, by caesarean, and a teratology study (segment II) was carried out. The corpora lutea, implants, resorptions, live, and dead fetuses were then counted. Placenta and fetuses were weighted. External and visceral morphology were provided by the fixation of fetuses in Bouin, whereas skeletal analysis was carried out on the diaphanizated ones. The increase in the weights of placenta and fetuses was the only abnormality observed. Since there was no sign of alteration on reproduction parameters at our experimental conditions, we conclude that P. reticulata aqueous extract is safe at 0.5 to 1.0 g/kg and is not considered teratogenic. PMID:24455668

  10. Characteristics and Composition of African Oil Bean Seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhuoria, Esther U.; Aiwonegbe, Anthony E.; Okoli, Peace; Idu, Macdonald

    The African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) seed was analyzed for its proximate composition. The seed oil was also analyzed for mineral content and physicochemical characteristics. Proximate analysis revealed that the percentage crude protein, crude fibre, moisture and carbohydrate were 9.31, 21.66, 39.05 and 38.95%, respectively. The percentage oil content was 47.90% while the ash content was 3.27%. Results of minerals analysis showed that calcium had the highest concentration of all the elements analyzed and were found to be of the order: Ca > Mg > Pb > Fe > Mn > P > Cu. The low iodine value of the seed oil showed that it can be classified as non-drying oil and thus not suitable for paint and polish production. However, the low acid and free fatty acid values suggest its utilization as edible oil.

  11. 'Insect aquaplaning' on a superhydrophilic hairy surface: how Heliamphora nutans Benth. pitcher plants capture prey.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Ulrike; Scharmann, Mathias; Skepper, Jeremy; Federle, Walter

    2013-02-22

    Trichomes are a common feature of plants and perform important and diverse functions. Here, we show that the inward-pointing hairs on the inner wall of insect-trapping Heliamphora nutans pitchers are highly wettable, causing water droplets to spread rapidly across the surface. Wetting strongly enhanced the slipperiness and increased the capture rate for ants from 29 to 88 per cent. Force measurements and tarsal ablation experiments revealed that wetting affected the insects' adhesive pads but not the claws, similar to the 'aquaplaning' mechanism of (unrelated) Asian Nepenthes pitcher plants. The inward-pointing trichomes provided much higher traction when insects were pulled outwards. The wetness-dependent capture mechanisms of H. nutans and Nepenthes pitchers present a striking case of functional convergence, whereas the use of wettable trichomes constitutes a previously unknown mechanism to make plant surfaces slippery. PMID:23256197

  12. NGS Transcriptomes and Enzyme Inhibitors Unravel Complexity of Picrosides Biosynthesis in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth.

    PubMed

    Shitiz, Kirti; Sharma, Neha; Pal, Tarun; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder S

    2015-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is an important medicinal herb valued for iridoid glycosides, Picroside-I (P-I) and Picroside-II (P-II), which have several pharmacological activities. Genetic interventions for developing a picroside production platform would require knowledge on biosynthetic pathway and key control points, which does not exist as of today. The current study reports that geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) moiety is mainly contributed by the non-mevalonate (MEP) route, which is further modified to P-I and P-II through phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways, in total consisting of 41 and 35 enzymatic steps, respectively. The role of the MEP pathway was ascertained through enzyme inhibitors fosmidomycin and mevinolin along with importance of other integrating pathways using glyphosate, aminooxy acetic acid (AOA) and actinomycin D, which overall resulted in 17%-92% inhibition of P-I accumulation. Retrieval of gene sequences for enzymatic steps from NGS transcriptomes and their expression analysis vis-à-vis picrosides content in different tissues/organs showed elevated transcripts for twenty genes, which were further shortlisted to seven key genes, ISPD, DXPS, ISPE, PMK, 2HFD, EPSPS and SK, on the basis of expression analysis between high versus low picrosides content strains of P. kurroa so as to eliminate tissue type/ developmental variations in picrosides contents. The higher expression of the majority of the MEP pathway genes (ISPD, DXPS and ISPE), coupled with higher inhibition of DXPR enzyme by fosmidomycin, suggested that the MEP route contributed to the biosynthesis of P-I in P. kurroa. The outcome of the study is expected to be useful in designing a suitable genetic intervention strategy towards enhanced production of picrosides. Possible key genes contributing to picroside biosynthesis have been identified with potential implications in molecular breeding and metabolic engineering of P. kurroa. PMID:26658062

  13. Antidiarrheal activity of 19-deoxyicetexone isolated from Salvia ballotiflora Benth in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Zavala-Mendoza, Daniel; Hernández-Munive, Abigail; Mendoza-Martínez, Angel; Pérez-González, Cuauhtemoc; Sánchez-Mendoza, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    The antidiarrheal properties of 19-deoxyicetexone, a diterpenoid isolated from Salvia ballotiflora were evaluated on castor oil-, arachidonic acid (AA)- and prostaglandin (PGE₂)-induced diarrhea in rodent models. The structure of 19-deoxyicetexone was determined by X-ray crystallography, mass spectrometry (EI-MS), as well as ultraviolet (UV-Vis), infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. This compound significantly and dose-dependently reduced frequency of stooling in castor oil-induced diarrhea, and at dose of 25 mg/kg it also inhibited diarrhea induced with AA, while it had no effect on PGE₂-induced diarrhea. This compound at doses of 25 mg/kg also diminished castor oil-induced enteropooling and intestinal motility, and inhibited the contraction of the rats' ileum induced by carbachol chloride at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. 19-Deoxyicetexone did not present acute toxicity at doses of 625 mg/kg. Its antidiarrheal activity may be due to increased reabsorption of NaCl and water and inhibition of the release of prostaglandins, gastrointestinal motility and fluid accumulation in the intestinal tracts of rats. These findings suggest that 19-deoxyicetexone may be used in the treatment of diarrhea, although more studies must be carried out to confirm this. PMID:23896615

  14. Antimalarial and cytotoxic properties of Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss and Turraea vogelii Hook F. Ex. Benth.

    PubMed

    Ogbole, Omonike O; Saka, Yusuf A; Fasinu, Pius S; Fadare, Adenike A; Ajaiyeoba, Edith O

    2016-04-01

    Malaria, caused by plasmodium parasite, is at the moment the highest cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropics. Recently, there is increasing efforts to develop more potent antimalarials from plant sources that will have little or no adverse effects. This study is aimed at investigating the in vivo mice antimalarial and in vitro antiplasmodial effects of two Meliaceae plants commonly used in Nigerian ethnomedicine as part of recipe for treating malaria infection: Chukrasia tabularis and Turraea vogelii. Hot water decoction and methanol extract of both plants were evaluated for their antimalarial activity in vivo using the mice model assay and in vitro using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay. The extracts were also assessed for toxicity with brine shrimp lethality assay and in mammalian cell lines using the neural red assay. The in vivo mice model antimalarial study showed that the methanol extract of the stem bark of C. tabularis exhibited the highest % chemosuppression (83.65 ± 0.66) at the highest dosage administered (800 mg/kg) when compared with chloroquine diphosphate, the standard reference drug which had a % suppression of 90.36 ± 0.04 (p < 0.05). The in vitro antiplasmodial study indicated that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of C. tabularis displayed good activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive (D6) strain (IC50 of 10.739 μg/mL) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strain. Chloroquine and artemisinin had <0.163 and <0.0264, respectively. PMID:26911147

  15. Phenolic contents and bioactivities of pericarp and seeds of Pleiogynium solandri (Benth.) Engl. (Anacardiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Said, Ataa; Abuotabl, Elsayed A; Raoof, Gehan Fawzy Abdel; Huefner, Antje; Nada, Somaia A

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): This study aimed to develop drugs from natural sources to overcome the side effects of many of synthetic drugs. Methanol extracts of both pericarp and seeds of Pleiogynium solandri were used to investigate antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and renal function protective, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects and to determine the chemical composition of the extract responsible for bioactivity. Materials and Methods: Methanol (70%) extracts of the seeds and pericarps of P. solandri were prepared. Hot plate method was used to test analgesic activity, carrageenan-induced paw inflammation method was used to test anti-inflammatory activity, and colorimetric methods were used to test antioxidant, hepatoprotective (by determination of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities), and renal function protective effects (by measuring uric acid and creatinine levels). Chromatographic methods and means of 1H-NMR, 13C –NMR, and UV spectra were used for isolation and identification of the responsible compounds. Results: In this study for the first time, four phenolic compounds were isolated from the pericarp of P. solandri which were identified as catechin, quercetin, quercetrin and rutin. Methanolic extract of both seeds and pericarp of P. solandri showed strong antioxidant effect, hepatoprotective, renal function protective, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, seed extract had lower effect than pericarp in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion This study showed that methanol extract of pericarp of P. solandri is more powerful than that of the seed regarding its antioxidant, hepato-protective; renal function protective, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The phenolic compounds isolated from the methanol extract of pericarp were responsible for bioactivity. PMID:25810891

  16. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of 7-hydroxy-calamenene-rich essential oils from Croton cajucara Benth.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Mariana M B; Chaves, Francisco C M; Almeida, Catia A; Bizzo, Humberto R; Duarte, Rafael S; Campos-Takaki, Galba M; Alviano, Celuta S; Alviano, Daniela S

    2013-01-01

    Croton cajucara is a shrub native to the Amazon region locally known as "sacaca". Two morphotypes are known: white and red "sacaca". The essential oils (EO) obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of the red morphotype were, in general, rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene (28.4%-37.5%). The effectiveness of these EO regarding the antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms was initially investigated by the drop test method, showing significant inhibition zones. Among the microorganisms tested, the essential oils rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene were more effective against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus oryzae. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the oils were determined using the broth dilution assay. It was possible to observe that 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich oils presented high antimicrobial activity, with MIC of 4.76 × 10⁻³ μg/mL for MRSA, 4.88 μg/mL for M. tuberculosis, 39.06 μg/mL for M. smegmatis, and 0.152 μg/mL for R. oryzae and 3.63 × 10⁻⁸ μg/mL for M. circinelloides. The antioxidant activity of this EO suggests that 7-hydroxycalamenene provides more antioxidant activity according with EC(50) less than 63.59 μg/mL. Considering the bioactive potential of EOs and 7-hydroxycalamenene could be of great interest for development of antimicrobials for therapeutic use in treatment of bacterial and fungal infections in humans and/or veterinary practice. PMID:23325101

  17. Separation and Purification of Two Flavone Glucuronides from Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl.) Benth with Macroporous Resins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yuan; Luo, Pei; Zhang, Hao

    2009-01-01

    Scutellarein-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (SG) and apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (AG) are two major bioactive constituents with known pharmacological effects in Erigeron multiradiatus. In this study, a simple method for preparative separation of the two flavone glucuronides was established with macroporous resins. The performance and adsorption characteristics of eight macroporous resins including AB-8, HPD100, HPD450, HPD600, D100, D101, D141, and D160 have been evaluated. The results confirmed that D141 resin offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities and the highest desorption ratio for the two glucuronides among the tested resins. Sorption isotherms were constructed for D141 resin under optimal ethanol conditions and fitted well to the Freundlich and Langmuir models (R2 > 0.95). Dynamic adsorption and desorption tests was performed on column packed with D141 resin. After one-run treatment with D141 resin, the two-constituent content in the final product was increased from 2.14% and 1.34% in the crude extract of Erigeron multiradiatus to 24.63% and 18.42% in the final products with the recoveries of 82.5% and 85.4%, respectively. The preparative separation of SG and AG can be easily and effectively achieved via adsorption and desorption on D141 resin, and the method developed can be referenced for large-scale separation and purification of flavone glucuronides from herbal raw materials. PMID:19918373

  18. Inhibition of Bothrops jararacussu venom activities by Plathymenia reticulata Benth extracts

    PubMed Central

    Farrapo, Nicole M; Silva, Gleidy AA; Costa, Karine N; Silva, Magali G; Cogo, José C; Belo, Cháriston A Dal; dos Santos, Márcio G; Groppo, Francisco C; Oshima-Franco, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DM), ethyl acetate (EA) and methanol (M) extracts (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4mg/ml) were obtained via Soxhlet from Plathymenia reticulata barks (Pr). These extracts were evaluated against the myotoxicity (58%) and the irreversible in vitro neuromuscular blockade of Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu) venom (40μg/ml) in a mouse phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparation, by using light-microscopy and conventional myographic techniques. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to access the basic composition of extracts. The efficacy of the extracts was analyzed by Student's t-test or repeated measures ANOVA. The significance level was set at 5%. The Pr extracts showed a higher polyphenols content (3.75%), from which tannins take part, around 20 times more than flavonoids content (0.16%). Qualitatively, via TLC, DM and EA extracts showed higher tannins concentration than the HEX and M extracts. Pharmacologically, at 0.4mg/ml, DM was more effective (92 ± 6.2%) than EA (81.3 ±10%) = HEX, 77.2 ±4.7%) > M (54 ±10%) against the toxic effects of the venom. Morphologically, DM extract preserved intact 52.8% of the muscle fibers in the presence of the venom. We concluded that P. reticulata extracts are able to inhibit toxic effects of B. jararacussu venom, whose protective mechanism could be mediated by tannins. PMID:22331992

  19. Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and acute toxicity effects of Salvia leriifolia Benth seed extract in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Haddadkhodaparast, Mohammad H; Arash, Ali R

    2003-04-01

    The antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects as well as the acute toxicity of Salvia leriifolia aqueous seed extract were studied in mice and rats. Antinociceptive activity was assessed using the hot-plate and tail flick tests. The effect on acute inflammation was studied using vascular permeability increased by acetic acid and xylene-induced ear oedema in mice. The activity against chronic inflammation was assessed using the cotton pellet test in rats. The LD(50) of the extract was found to be 19.5 g/kg (i.p.) in mice. The aqueous seed extract showed significant and dose-dependent (1.25-10 g/kg) antinociceptive activity over 7 h, and was inhibited by naloxone pretreatment. Significant and dose-dependent (2.5-10 g/kg) activity was observed against acute inflammation induced by acetic acid and in the xylene ear oedema test. In the chronic inflammation test the extract (2.5-5 g/kg) showed significant and dose-dependent antiinflammatory activity. The aqueous seed extract of S. leriifolia may therefore have supraspinal antinociceptive effects which may be mediated by opioid receptors, and showed considerable effects against acute and chronic inflammation. PMID:12722156

  20. Commercial Origanum compactum Benth. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oils against natural mycoflora in Valencia rice.

    PubMed

    Santamarina, M Pilar; Roselló, Josefa; Sempere, Francisca; Giménez, Silvia; Blázquez, M Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of commercial Origanum compactum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils and the antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi isolated from Mediterranean rice grains have been investigated. Sixty-one compounds accounting for more than 99.5% of the total essential oil were identified by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carvacrol (43.26%), thymol (21.64%) and their biogenetic precursors p-cymene (13.95%) and γ-terpinene (11.28%) were the main compounds in oregano essential oil, while the phenylpropanoids, eugenol (62.75%), eugenol acetate (16.36%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (6.65%) were found in cinnamon essential oil. Both essential oils at 300 μg/mL showed antifungal activity against all tested strains. O. compactum essential oil showed the best antifungal activity towards Fusarium species and Bipolaris oryzae with a total inhibition of the mycelial growth. In inoculated rice grains at lower doses (100 and 200 μg/mL) significantly reduced the fungal infection, so O. compactum essential oil could be used as ecofriendly preservative for field and stored Valencia rice. PMID:25612221

  1. Analyses of the leaf, fruit and seed of Thaumatococcus daniefii (Benth.): exploring potential uses.

    PubMed

    Chinedu, Shalom Nwodo; Oluwadamisi, Adetayo Y; Popoola, Samuel T; David, Bolaji J; Epelle, Tamunotonyesia

    2014-06-01

    Thaumatococcus daniellii is an economic plant with versatile uses in Southern Nigeria. The arils attached to the seeds contain thaumatin, a non-sugar sweetener and taste modifier. This study examined the chemical constituents of the leaf, fruit and seed of T. daniellii. The fresh fruit, on weight basis, consists of 4.8% aril, 22.8% seed and 72.4% fleshy part. The leaf contained (per 100 g): 10.67 g moisture, 8.95 g ash, 17.21 g fat, 21.06 g protein, 24.61 g crude fiber 17.50 g carbohydrate, 0.10 g calcium, 0.08 g magnesium, 0.01 g iron and 0.37 g phosphorus. The fruit (fleshy part) contained 10.04 g moisture, 21.08 g ash, 0.93 g fat, 11.53 g protein, 18.43 g crude fiber, 37.27 g carbohydrate, 0.34 g calcium, 0.30 g magnesium, 0.01 g iron and 0.21 g phosphorus. The seed contained 15.15 g moisture, 11.30 g ash, 0.21 g fat, 10.36 g protein, 20.52 g crude fiber and 42.46 g carbohydrate. Terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides were significantly present in both the leaf and fruit whereas phlobatannin, saponin, steroids, anthraquinones and ascorbic acid were absent. Tannin was present only in the leaf. The leaf and fruit of T. daniellii have significant nutritional and medicinal benefits. The leaf is rich in protein and fat. The fruit is a good source of minerals, particularly, calcium and magnesium; the leaf is also rich in phosphorus. PMID:26035959

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the lectin from Dioclea rostrata Benth seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Delatorre, Plínio; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Melo, Luciana Magalhães; Souza, Emmanuel Prata de; Rocha, Bruno Anderson Matias da; Benevides, Raquel G.; Oliveira, Taiana Maia de; Bezerra, Gustavo Arruda; Bezerra, Maria Júlia Barbosa; Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape Silva da; Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra da; Freire, Valder Nogueira; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2006-02-01

    D. rostrata lectin was crystallized by hanging-drop vapor diffusion. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group I222 and diffracted to 1.87 Å resolution. Lectins from the Diocleinae subtribe (Leguminosae) are highly similar proteins that promote various biological activities with distinctly differing potencies. The structural basis for this experimental data is not yet fully understood. Dioclea rostrata lectin was purified and crystallized by hanging-drop vapour diffusion at 293 K. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.51, b = 88.22, c = 87.76 Å. Assuming the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit, the solvent content was estimated to be about 47.9%. A complete data set was collected at 1.87 Å resolution.

  3. In vitro and in vivo action of Piptadenia viridiflora (Kunth) Benth against Haemonchus contortus in sheep.

    PubMed

    Morais-Costa, F; Bastos, G A; Soares, A C M; Costa, E G L; Vasconcelos, V O; Oliveira, N J F; Braga, F C; Duarte, E R; Lima, W S

    2016-06-15

    Anthelminthic resistant populations of Haemonchus contortus are a major problem in sheep rearing, but plant extracts may offer viable alternative treatments. In our preliminary studies, Piptadenia viridiflora was frequently selected by sheep grazing in the Cerrado. The present research evaluated its in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity. The HPLC chromatograms of P. viridiflora aqueous extract (AE) and ethanolic extract (EE) showed the presence of flavonoids. The total condensed tannin (proanthocyanidin) was 0.2 and 1.01% in AE and EE, respectively. In an egg hatching inhibition (EHI) test, the LC90 of AE was 2.4mg/mL, and, of EE, was 2.1mg/mL. After tannin extraction, higher EHI and lower LC90 were observed. In a larval development inhibition test, the LC90 of AE was 13.66mg/g of fecal culture. The highest dose of AE administered to mice (203.0mg/kg bw) was well tolerated, suggesting low toxicity. In vivo, AE was orally administered to lambs at 283mg/kg bw, and, at weeks one, two, and three post-treatment, the mean fecal egg count (FEC) was significantly lower than in untreated lambs (P<0.05). Blood parameters were normal and similar in untreated and treated sheep. For all lamb groups, the mean total serum protein was significantly higher at week two post-treatment than at other evaluated periods (P<0.05). Piptadenia viridiflora extracts had low condensed tannin content and exhibited high anthelminthic efficacy in vitro and significantly reduced FEC. Tannins were not shown to be the principal components affecting EHI, hence it is necessary to isolate and characterize the principal active P. viridiflora compounds, and to assess their possible synergism. PMID:27198776

  4. NGS Transcriptomes and Enzyme Inhibitors Unravel Complexity of Picrosides Biosynthesis in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth

    PubMed Central

    Shitiz, Kirti; Sharma, Neha; Pal, Tarun; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is an important medicinal herb valued for iridoid glycosides, Picroside-I (P-I) and Picroside-II (P-II), which have several pharmacological activities. Genetic interventions for developing a picroside production platform would require knowledge on biosynthetic pathway and key control points, which does not exist as of today. The current study reports that geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) moiety is mainly contributed by the non-mevalonate (MEP) route, which is further modified to P-I and P-II through phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways, in total consisting of 41 and 35 enzymatic steps, respectively. The role of the MEP pathway was ascertained through enzyme inhibitors fosmidomycin and mevinolin along with importance of other integrating pathways using glyphosate, aminooxy acetic acid (AOA) and actinomycin D, which overall resulted in 17%-92% inhibition of P-I accumulation. Retrieval of gene sequences for enzymatic steps from NGS transcriptomes and their expression analysis vis-à-vis picrosides content in different tissues/organs showed elevated transcripts for twenty genes, which were further shortlisted to seven key genes, ISPD, DXPS, ISPE, PMK, 2HFD, EPSPS and SK, on the basis of expression analysis between high versus low picrosides content strains of P. kurroa so as to eliminate tissue type/ developmental variations in picrosides contents. The higher expression of the majority of the MEP pathway genes (ISPD, DXPS and ISPE), coupled with higher inhibition of DXPR enzyme by fosmidomycin, suggested that the MEP route contributed to the biosynthesis of P-I in P. kurroa. The outcome of the study is expected to be useful in designing a suitable genetic intervention strategy towards enhanced production of picrosides. Possible key genes contributing to picroside biosynthesis have been identified with potential implications in molecular breeding and metabolic engineering of P. kurroa. PMID:26658062

  5. Phenotype-specific apoptosis induced by three new triterpenoid saponins from Albizia glaberrima (Schumach. & Thonn.) Benth.

    PubMed

    Noté, Olivier Placide; Azouaou, Sarah Ali; Simo, Line; Antheaume, Cyril; Guillaume, Dominique; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Muller, Christian Dominique; Lobstein, Annelise

    2016-03-01

    As part of our search of new bioactive saponins from Cameroonian medicinal plants, phytochemical investigation of the roots of Albizia glaberrima led to the isolation of three new oleanane-type saponins, named glaberrimosides A-C (1-3). Their structures were established by direct interpretation of their spectral data, mainly HRESIMS, 1D NMR (1H, 13C NMR, and DEPT) and 2D NMR (COSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC) as 3-O-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-oleanolic acid (1), 3-O-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-oleanolic acid (2), and 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-[β-D-fucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-oleanolic acid (3). The pro-apoptotic effect of the three saponins was evaluated on three human cell lines (pancreatic carcinoma AsPC-1, hematopoietic monocytic THP-1, and human fibroblast cell line BJ). Saponins 1-3 specifically induced apoptosis of pancreatic carcinoma cell (AsPC-1) in a dose-dependent manner. More interestingly, there were inactive on monocytic (THP-1) and normal human fibroblast (BJ) cell lines. PMID:26709041

  6. Stabilization of sunflower oil with Carum copticum Benth & Hook essential oil.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Mohammad Bagher; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, application of various concentrations (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.075%) of Carum copticum essential oil (EO) were examined on oxidative stability of sunflower oil and there were compared to Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) during storage at 37 and 47 °C. The main compounds of EO were identified as thymol (50.07%), γ- terpinene (23.92%) and p-cymene (22.9%). Peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AnV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value measurement in sunflower oil showed that all concentrations of EO had antioxidant effect in comparison to BHA and BHT. Samples added with EO at 0.075% were the most stable during storage at both temperatures (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Totox value, antioxidant activity (AA), stabilization factor (F) and antioxidant power (AOP) determination confirmed efficacy of this EO as antioxidant in sunflower oil. EO also was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of 20.3 ± 0.9 μg/mL. Therefore, the results indicate that EO could be used as a natural antioxidant in food lipids. PMID:24426060

  7. In vitro anti-Leishmania activity of tetracyclic iridoids from Morinda lucida, benth.

    PubMed

    Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Ohashi, Mitsuko; Mosore, Mba-Tihssommah; Agyapong, Jeffrey; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Kwofie, Kofi D; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffuor-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Djameh, Georgina I; Azerigyik, Faustus A; Botchie, Senyo K; Anyan, William K; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Appiah, Alfred A; Ayi, Irene; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Boakye, Daniel A; Ohta, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease transmitted by the sand fly. It is caused by over 20 different species of Leishmania and has affected over 14 million people worldwide. One of the main forms of control of leishmaniasis is chemotherapy, but this is limited by the high cost and/or toxicity of available drugs. We previously found three novel compounds with an iridoid tetracyclic skeleton to have activity against trypanosome parasites. In this study, we determined the activity of the three anti-trypanosome compounds against Leishmania using field strain, 010, and the lab strain Leishmania hertigi. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the compounds against 010 was determined by microscopy while the IC50 of compounds against L. hertigi was determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Guava viacount analysis. We found two of the three compounds, molucidin and ML-F52, to have anti-Leishmania activity against both strains. The fluor-microscope observation with DAPI stain revealed that both Molucidin and ML-F52 induced abnormal parasites with two sets of nucleus and kinetoplast in a cell, suggesting that compounds might inhibit cytokinesis in Leishmania parasites. Molucidin and ML-F52 might be good lead compounds for the development of new anti-Leishmania chemotherapy. PMID:27536194

  8. Technology for efficient and successful delivery of vermicompost colonized bioinoculants in Pogostemon cablin (patchouli) Benth.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rakshapal; Divya, S; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Kalra, Alok

    2012-01-01

    The usefulness of vermicompost as a supporting media for growth of bioinoculants was evaluated for successful transfer of sufficient propagules of bioinoculants into the organic fields. The rooted plants after 50 days were pot and field tested for their growth and yield performances when transplanted along with rooting medium into pots/organic fields. The rooting medium, 50 days of inoculation, contained sufficient population of bioinoculants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Treatment with bioinoculants (except Trichoderma harzianum) substantially improved the root and shoot biomass of nursery raised rooted cuttings particularly in treatments containing Azotobacter chroococcum (150 and 91.67%, respectively), Glomus intraradices (117 and 91.67%, respectively) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (117 and 83%, respectively). The transplanted rooted plants in pots, over two harvests, yielded higher shoot biomass when rooting medium contained A. chroococcum (147%), G. intraradices (139%) and P. fluorescencs (139%). Although the treatments did not affect the content of essential oil, the quality of essential oil as measured by the content of patchouli alcohol improved with Glomus aggregatum (18%). Similar trends were observed in field trials with significantly higher biomass yield achieved with A. chroococcum (51%), G. intraradices (46%) and P. fluorescencs (17%) compared to control (un-inoculated) plots. Increased in herb yield was found to be related with increased nutrient uptake. The population of bioinoculants in the rhizosphere was observed to be considerably higher in plots receiving vermicompost enriched with bioinoculants. This technology can be a successful way of delivering sufficient propagules of bioinoculants along with vermicompost especially in organic fields. PMID:22806808

  9. Antioxidant and Toxicity Studies of 50% Methanolic Extract of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chung Pin; Fung Ang, Lee; Por, Lip Yee; Wong, Siew Tung; Asmawi, Mohd. Zaini

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant activity and potential toxicity of 50% methanolic extract of Orthosiphon stamineus (Lamiaceae) leaves (MEOS) after acute and subchronic administration in rats. Superoxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and ferrous ion chelating methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the extract. In acute toxicity study, single dose of MEOS, 5000 mg/kg, was administered to rats by oral gavage, and the treated rats were monitored for 14 days. While in the subchronic toxicity study, MEOS was administered orally, at doses of 1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. From the results, MEOS showed good superoxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelating, and antilipid peroxidation activities. There was no mortality detected or any signs of toxicity in acute and subchronic toxicity studies. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in bodyweight, relative organ weight, and haematological and biochemical parameters between both male and female treated rats in any doses tested. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The oral lethal dose determined was more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of MEOS for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day. PMID:24490155

  10. Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Alchornea laxiflora (Benth.) Pax. & Hoffman

    PubMed Central

    Akinpelu, David A.; Abioye, Emmanuel O.; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A.; Akinpelu, Oluseun F.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2015-01-01

    Alchornea laxiflora leaf extract was tested against a range of microorganisms using standard microbiological methods for antimicrobial activities. The extract inhibited the growth of all the bacterial and 15 fungal isolates tested. The zones of inhibition exhibited against the test bacteria ranged between 12 mm and 24 mm and between 11 mm and 24 mm for the extract and the antibiotic streptomycin, respectively. The zones of inhibition observed against the fungal isolates by the extract ranged between 12 mm and 23 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) exhibited by the extract against test bacteria ranged between 0.78 mg/mL–25 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL–25 mg/mL, respectively, while the MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) values for the test fungi ranged between 8.75 mg/mL–35.00 mg/mL and 8.75 mg/mL–35.00 mg/L, respectively. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and reducing sugars as major phytoconstituents in the extract. A. laxiflora leaf extract is a potent source of antibacterial and antifungal compounds; further studies on the extract are ongoing in our laboratories to elucidate the probable mechanism(s) of action on bacteria and fungi found to be susceptible to the extract. PMID:25688278

  11. Elucidation of Underlying Mechanisms by Which Millettia macrophylla Benth Induces Its Estrogenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zingue, Stéphane; Magne Nde, Chantal Beatrice; Njamen, Dieudonné

    2014-01-01

    Millettia macrophylla is used traditionally to treat menopause related symptoms. This plant was shown to exhibit estrogenic effects in vitro on human embryonic kidney cells and in vivo on ovariectomized rats. The present study aimed at elucidating underlying mechanisms by which M. macrophylla induced its estrogenic effects. To accomplish our goal, kidney Hek293T cells transiently transfected with estrogen alpha or beta receptor expression plasmids were cotreated with a pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 and the dichloromethane or methanol soluble fractions of M. macrophylla. To follow up, we cotreated ovariectomized rats with both extracts and ICI 182,780 for 3 days in the classical uterotrophic assay. Animals were then sacrificed and the uterine wet weight, total protein levels in uteri, uterine, and vaginal epithelial heights, and mammary gland were assessed. In vitro, the results suggested that the induction of the estrogenic activity by M. macrophylla is due to the binding of its secondary metabolites to ERα and ERβ. In vivo, the cotreatment of extracts and ICI 182,780 significantly abrogated the biological responses induced by the extracts alone. Taken together, these results indicate that the active principles of M. macrophylla induce their beneficial effects on menopausal symptoms by activating the ERs.

  12. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Nepeta graciliflora Benth. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Shah, G C; Sharma, Rabia; Dhyani, Praveen

    2016-06-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from aerial parts of Nepeta graciliflora was analysed, for the first time, by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 27 compounds were identified, constituting over 91.44% of oil composition. The oil was strongly characterised by sesquiterpenes (86.72%), with β-sesquiphellandrene (28.75%), caryophyllene oxide (12.15%), α-bisabolol (8.97%), α-bergamotene (8.51%), β-bisabolene (6.33%) and β-Caryophyllene (5.34%) as the main constituents. The in vitro activity of the essential oil was determined against four micro-organisms in comparison with chloramphenicol by the agar well diffusion and broth dilution method. The oil exhibited good activity against all tested organisms. PMID:26140331

  13. Application of poultry processing industry waste: a strategy for vegetation growth in degraded soil.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Carla Danielle Vasconcelos; Pontes Filho, Roberto Albuquerque; Artur, Adriana Guirado; Costa, Mirian Cristina Gomes

    2015-02-01

    The disposal of poultry processing industry waste into the environment without proper care, can cause contamination. Agricultural monitored application is an alternative for disposal, considering its high amount of organic matter and its potential as a soil fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of poultry processing industry waste to improve the conditions of a degraded soil from a desertification hotspot, contributing to leguminous tree seedlings growth. The study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design and a 4 × 2 factorial scheme with five replicates. The treatments featured four amounts of poultry processing industry waste (D1 = control 0 kg ha(-1); D2 = 1020.41 kg ha(-1); D3 = 2040.82 kg ha(-1); D4 = 4081.63 kg ha(-1)) and two leguminous tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit). The poultry processing industry waste was composed of poultry blood, grease, excrements and substances from the digestive system. Plant height, biomass production, plant nutrient accumulation and soil organic carbon were measured forty days after waste application. Leguminous tree seedlings growth was increased by waste amounts, especially M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth, with height increment of 29.5 cm for the waste amount of 1625 kg ha(-1), and L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, with maximum height increment of 20 cm for the waste amount of 3814.3 kg ha(-1). M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth had greater initial growth, as well as greater biomass and nutrient accumulation compared with L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. However, belowground biomass was similar between the evaluated species, resulting in higher root/shoot ratio for L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Soil organic carbon did not show significant response to waste amounts, but it did to leguminous tree seedlings growth, especially L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Poultry processing industry waste contributes to leguminous tree seedlings growth

  14. Microbial community biogeographic patterns in the rhizosphere of two Brazilian semi-arid leguminous trees.

    PubMed

    Lançoni, Milena Duarte; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Kavamura, Vanessa Nessner; de Melo, Itamar Soares

    2013-07-01

    Arid environments are regular and well distributed over all continents and display drought characteristics whether full-time or seasonal. This study aims to characterize how the microbial communities of the rhizosphere of two leguminous trees from the Brazilian semi-arid biome the Caatinga are geographically and seasonally shaped, as well as the factors driving this variation. With that purpose, the soil rhizosphere from two leguminous trees (Mimosa tenuiflora and Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth.) Ducke) were sampled in two different seasons: rainy and drought at five different sites. Assessment of bacterial and archaeal communities occurred by T-RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA and archaeal amoA genes. By these means, it was observed that the seasons (wet and dry periods) are the factors that most influence the composition of the microbial community from both analyzed plants, except for the results obtained from the CCA applied to Archaeas. Furthermore, soil physical-chemical factors also had a significant influence on the community and indicated a geographical pattern of the bacterial community. It was not possible to observe significant modifications in the composition in relation to the plant species. We have seen that soil characteristics and rainfall were the factors that most influenced the microbial composition. Also, the bacterial community had a significant correlation with soil characteristics that indicates that these rhizosphere communities might be selected by environmental characteristics. Furthermore, the data suggest that climate plays a key role in structuring the microbial community of this biome. PMID:23435935

  15. Yield enhancement strategies for the production of picroliv from hairy root culture of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Harpal; Negi, Arvind Singh; Saxena, Gauri; Rahman, Laiq-ur; Banerjee, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    Fast-growing hairy root cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes offers a potential production system for iridoid glycosides. In present study we have investigated the effects of various nutrient medium formulations viz B5, MS, WP and NN, and sucrose concentrations (1–8%) on the biomass and glycoside production of selected clone (14-P) of P. kurroa hairy root. Full strength B5 medium was found to be most suitable for maximum biomass yield on the 40th day of culture (GI = 32.72 ± 0.44) followed by the NN medium of the same strength (GI = 22.9 ± 0.43). Secondary metabolite production was 1.1 and 1.3 times higher in half strength B5 medium respectively in comparison to MS medium. Maximum biomass accumulation along with the maximum picroliv content was achieved with 4% sucrose concentration in basal medium. RT vitamin and Thiamine-HCl effected the growth and secondary metabolite production of hairy roots growing on MS medium but did not show any effect on other media. The pH of the medium played significant role in growth and secondary metabolite production and was found to be highest at pH 6.0 while lowest at pH 3.0 and pH 8.0. To enhance the production of biomass and Picroliv 5 liter working capacity bioreactor was used, 27-fold (324 g FW) higher growth was observed in bioreactor than shake flask and secondary metabolite production was similarly enhanced. PMID:26039483

  16. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) Kuntze Aerial Parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng Yu; Liu, Xin Chao; Chen, Xu Bo; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long

    2015-10-01

    Water-distilled essential oil from Clinopodium chinense (Labiatae) aerial parts at the flowering stage was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty-five compounds, accounting for 99.18% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of C. chinense were spathulenol (18.54%), piperitone (18.9%), caryophyllene (12.04%), and bornyl acetate (8.14%). Based on bioactivity-directed fractionation, bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone were identified from the essential oil. The essential oil possessed fumigant toxicity against booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila) with a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) value of 423.39 μg/liter, while the isolated constituents, bornyl acetate and piperitone, had LC50 values of 351.69 and 311.12 μg/liter against booklice, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LC50 value of 215.25 μg/cm(2). Bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone exhibited acute toxicity against booklice with LC50 values of 321.42, 275.00, and 139.74 μg/cm(2), respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil and its isolated constituents have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants for control of insects in stored grains. PMID:26408136

  17. A new furofuran lignan diglycoside and other secondary metabolites from the antidepressant extract of Castilleja tenuiflora Benth.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; López-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Trejo-Tapia, Gabriela; Domínguez-Mendoza, Blanca Eda; González-Cortazar, Manases; Tortoriello, Jaime; Zamilpa, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Castilleja tenuiflora has been used for the treatment of several Central Nervous System (CNS) diseases. Herein we report the antidepressant activity of the methanol extract from the leaves of this medicinal plant. The oral administration of MeOH extract (500 mg/kg) induced a significant (p < 0.05) decrement of the immobility parameter on Forced Swimming Test (FST) and an increment in the latency and duration of the hypnosis, induced by administration of sodium pentobarbital (Pbi, 40 mg/kg, i.p.). Chemical analysis of this antidepressant extract allowed the isolation of (+)-piperitol-4-O-xylopyranosyl-(1→6)-O-glucopyranoside. This new furofuran lignan diglycoside was named tenuifloroside (1) and its complete chemical structure elucidation on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra analysis of the natural compound 1 and its peracetylated derivative 1a is described. This compound was found together with two flavones-apigenin and luteolin 5-methyl ether-a phenylethanoid-verbascoside-and three iridoids-geniposide, caryoptoside and aucubin. All these compounds were purified by successive normal and reverse phase column chromatography. Tenuifloroside, caryoptoside and luteolin 5-methyl ether were isolated from Castilleja genus for the first time. These findings demonstrate that C. tenuiflora methanol extract has beneficial effect on depressive behaviors, and the knowledge of its chemical constitution allows us to propose a new standardized treatment for future investigations of this species in depressive illness. PMID:26197306

  18. Distribution of Cd and Zn levels in soils and Acacia xanthophloea Benth. from Lake Nakuru National Park Kenya.

    PubMed

    Dharani, N; Onyari, J M; Kinyamario, J I; Maina, D M; Mavuti, K M

    2010-09-01

    Cadmium and zinc from anthropogenic sources in Lake Nakuru were investigated. High metal levels (mg/kg) in soils (Cd < or = 16.3 and Zn < or = 280) and Acacia xanthophloea (Cd < or = 32 and Zn < or = 310) were observed at polluted sites. Significant variations in metal values were evaluated using ANOVA (F test) and student's t test at p < 0.05 and metal correlations studied. High levels of metals in soils and unhealthy/dying Acacia were obtained at polluted sites. Significant positive correlation was obtained between Cd and Zn in soils and plants. Acacia sp are effective biomonitor of environmental quality in areas subjected to pollution. PMID:20623266

  19. Effect of Seed Priming on Early Development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth.

    PubMed

    Daffalla, Hussien M; Hassan, Mohammed Mahgoub; Osman, Magdoleen G; Eltayeb, Amani Hamad; Dagash, Yassin Ibrahim; Abdel Gani, Migdam E

    2014-01-01

    Striga hermonthica is an obligate, root parasite, that limits cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Successful control depends on eliminating its seed reserves in soil, thereby preventing parasitism. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on germination traits and seedling growth of sorghum (cultivar Wad Ahmed) and S. hermonthica. The experiments were conducted in a factorial arrangement on the basis of completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replications. In the first experiment, sorghum height, leaf area, and shoot and root dry weights were examined. The results displayed that, with increasing salinity level, leaf area and dry biomass were increased, while the height was decreased. In the second experiment, Striga germination and haustorium initiation percentages were examined. Among all salts, C2H4O2·NH3 inhibited Striga germination (0-15%) during conditioning or (0-25%) at germination compared to the control (75%). However, salt MgSO4·7H2O improved germination during conditioning up to 70%, while during germination CH3COONa·3H2O recorded 65% germination. Regarding haustoria initiation, results showed that C2H4O2·NH3 at all concentrations inhibits haustorium formation by 100%, while CH3COONa·3H2O at 10 µM improved haustorium formation up to 64% but still below the control (70%). Osmotic potential may significantly affect germination and radicle elongation of the parasitic weed. PMID:27350968

  20. ‘Insect aquaplaning’ on a superhydrophilic hairy surface: how Heliamphora nutans Benth. pitcher plants capture prey

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Ulrike; Scharmann, Mathias; Skepper, Jeremy; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Trichomes are a common feature of plants and perform important and diverse functions. Here, we show that the inward-pointing hairs on the inner wall of insect-trapping Heliamphora nutans pitchers are highly wettable, causing water droplets to spread rapidly across the surface. Wetting strongly enhanced the slipperiness and increased the capture rate for ants from 29 to 88 per cent. Force measurements and tarsal ablation experiments revealed that wetting affected the insects' adhesive pads but not the claws, similar to the ‘aquaplaning’ mechanism of (unrelated) Asian Nepenthes pitcher plants. The inward-pointing trichomes provided much higher traction when insects were pulled outwards. The wetness-dependent capture mechanisms of H. nutans and Nepenthes pitchers present a striking case of functional convergence, whereas the use of wettable trichomes constitutes a previously unknown mechanism to make plant surfaces slippery. PMID:23256197

  1. Nodule Ultrastructure and Initial Growth of Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg. var. falcata (Benth.) Altschul Plants Infected with Rhizobia

    PubMed Central

    GROSS, E.; CORDEIRO, L.; CAETANO, F. H.

    2002-01-01

    The anatomy and ultrastructure of root nodules of Anadenanthera peregrina var. falcata (Leguminosae‐Mimosoideae) were analysed, as was plant growth. To ensure that nodules developed, seedlings were inoculated with a mixture of six strains of rhizobia. Nodules were produced that differed in appearance—and probably also effectiveness—but their structure was similar and they showed characteristics typical of indeterminate nodules, such as persistent meristematic tissue and a gradient of cells at different stages of development. Many starch grains were present in inner cortex cells and interstitial cells of infected tissue. Infected cells were densely packed with bacteroids, which contained many poly‐β‐hydroxybutyrate granules. The high incidence of these granules, together with high levels of starch accumulation in interstitial cells, suggested low N2‐fixation efficiency of the rhizobia isolates used for inoculation. In the symbiosomes of early‐senescent infected cells, reticulum‐like structures, small vesicles and a fibrillar material were observed; these may be related to bacteroid degradation. In the cytoplasm of late‐senescent infected cells, many vesicles and membrane‐like structures were observed, probably associated with membrane degradation of bacteroids and peribacteroids. The total biomass of plants inoculated with rhizobia was low and their xylopodia and shoots had low levels of N compared with non‐inoculated plants fertilized with ammonium nitrate. However, inoculated plants did not show N‐deficiency symptoms and grew better than non‐inoculated plants without N fertilization. These growth results, together with ultrastructural observations of nodules, suggest that nitrogen fixation of rhizobia isolates associated with Anadenanthera peregrina var. falcata roots is poor. PMID:12197515

  2. A study of standardized extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth in experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Sapna N; Mengi, Sushma; Vaidya, Rama; Vaidya, Ashok D B

    2010-07-01

    As a major organ of intermediary metabolism, the liver is exposed to a variety of metabolic insults due to diseases and xenobiotics viz., insulin resistance (IR) drugs, toxins, microbial products, etc. One of the consequences of these metabolic insults including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The recent alarming increase in the prevalence of NAFLD compels the need to develop an appropriate animal model of the disease so as to evolve effective interventions. In this study, we have developed, in the rat, a new model of NAFLD showing several key features akin to the disease in humans. Male Wistar rats were challenged with 30% high fat diet (HFD) - butter, for 2 weeks to induce NAFLD. A hydroalcoholic extract of Picrorhiza kurroa was administered to study the possible reversal of fatty changes in the liver. The extract was given in two doses viz., 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.i.d., p.o. for a period of 4 weeks. There were three control groups (n = 6/group) - vehicle with a regular diet, vehicle with HFD, and HFD with silymarin - a known hepatoprotective.Histopathology showed that the P. kurroa extract brought about a reversal of the fatty infiltration of the liver (mg/g) and a lowering of the quantity of hepatic lipids (mg/g) compared to that in the HFD control group (38.33 ± 5.35 for 200mg/kg; 29.44 ± 8.49 for 400mg/kg of P. kurroa vs.130.07 ± 6.36mg/g of liver tissue in the HFD control group; P<0.001). Compared to the standard dose of the known hepatoprotective silymarin, P. kurroa reduced the lipid content (mg/g) of the liver more significantly at the dose of 400mg/kg (57.71 ± 12.45mg/kg vs. 29.44 ± 8.49 for the silymarin group vs. 400mg/kg of P. kurroa, P<0.001). In view of the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD, P. kurroa should be investigated by the reverse pharmacology path as a potential drug for the treatment of NAFLD, and essential safety studies and preformulation research for concentration of the putative actives should be carried out. PMID:21547049

  3. Sub-chronic Administration of Methanolic Whole Fruit Extract of Lagenaria breviflora (Benth.) Roberty Induces Mild Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Olorunnisola, Olubukola Sinbad; Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Adetutu, Adewale

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of the methanolic whole fruit extract from Lagenaria breviflora on vital organs and antioxidant enzymes was investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: L. breviflora (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/b.w.t./day/rat) was fed orally with the cannula to male albino rats for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed and the effect of the extract on histology of the liver, heart, lipid peroxidation, tissue and serum antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase) activities, glutathione, myocardial marker enzymes (creatine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], alanine transaminase [ALT], and aspartate transaminase [AST]) in serum, and heart homogenate were assessed. Results: The extract demonstrated mild organ doses dependent (500 and 1000 mg/kg) pathological alterations in the architectural section of the liver and heart. At 250 mg/kg/b.w.t., the extract caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the level of thiobarbituric reacting acids substance and antioxidant enzyme activities, but causes (P < 0.05) decrease in serum and tissue antioxidant capacity at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/b.w.t., respectively. Also on these two doses, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum activity of CK, LDH, ALT, and AST and concomitantly decrease (P < 0.05) in heart homogenate were also observed. Conclusion: The results suggested that the Fruit of L. breviflora may contain phytotoxic Substances(s) which may be hepatotoxic, cardiotoxic or able to induce oxidative stress at high concentration. Hence, the consumption of the plant should be taken with caution. SUMMARY Methanolic whole fruit extract from Lagenaria breviflora demonstrate dose dependent mild toxicity on vital organs (Heart and liver) and anti-oxidant enzymes. The fruit of Lagenaria breviflora may contain Phyto-toxic substance (s) which may be hepatotoxic, Cardio-toxic or able to induce oxidative stress at high concentration. Hence, the consumption of the plant should be taken with caution. PMID:27013788

  4. Comprehensive Chemical Profiling of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth Using NMR, HPTLC and LC-MS/MS Techniques.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Bikram; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is an important herb in Indian medicine and contains cucurbitacins, flavonoids, phenolics, iridoid-glucoside and their derivatives as active constituents for the treatment of indigestion, fever, hepatitis, cancer, liver and respiratory diseases. Extensive use of P. kurroa needs detailed analysis and recognition of chemical diversity, is of great importance to evaluate their role as quality control markers. In the present study, comprehensive metabolic profiling of crude extracts of leaves and rhizomes of P. kurroa was carried out using NMR, HPTLC and LC-MS/MS. Primary and secondary metabolites were unambiguously identified along with a new report of monoterpenic glycoside (1-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-8-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-oct-2(E),6(E)-dienoate) in P. Kurroa. Significant qualitative differences with respect to the secondary metabolites were noticed between the leaves and rhizomes tissues. Leaves contained more cucurbitacins and flavonoids while iridoids were present more in rhizomes. The comprehensive chemical profiling is expected to give an idea of chemical diversity and quality of P. kurroa, for their ultimate utilisation in various applications. PMID:26777484

  5. A study of standardized extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth in experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sapna N.; Mengi, Sushma; Vaidya, Rama; Vaidya, Ashok D. B.

    2010-01-01

    As a major organ of intermediary metabolism, the liver is exposed to a variety of metabolic insults due to diseases and xenobiotics viz., insulin resistance (IR) drugs, toxins, microbial products, etc. One of the consequences of these metabolic insults including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The recent alarming increase in the prevalence of NAFLD compels the need to develop an appropriate animal model of the disease so as to evolve effective interventions. In this study, we have developed, in the rat, a new model of NAFLD showing several key features akin to the disease in humans. Male Wistar rats were challenged with 30% high fat diet (HFD) – butter, for 2 weeks to induce NAFLD. A hydroalcoholic extract of Picrorhiza kurroa was administered to study the possible reversal of fatty changes in the liver. The extract was given in two doses viz., 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.i.d., p.o. for a period of 4 weeks. There were three control groups (n = 6/group) – vehicle with a regular diet, vehicle with HFD, and HFD with silymarin – a known hepatoprotective. Histopathology showed that the P. kurroa extract brought about a reversal of the fatty infiltration of the liver (mg/g) and a lowering of the quantity of hepatic lipids (mg/g) compared to that in the HFD control group (38.33 ± 5.35 for 200mg/kg; 29.44 ± 8.49 for 400mg/kg of P. kurroa vs.130.07 ± 6.36mg/g of liver tissue in the HFD control group; P<0.001). Compared to the standard dose of the known hepatoprotective silymarin, P. kurroa reduced the lipid content (mg/g) of the liver more significantly at the dose of 400mg/kg (57.71 ± 12.45mg/kg vs. 29.44 ± 8.49 for the silymarin group vs. 400mg/kg of P. kurroa, P<0.001). In view of the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD, P. kurroa should be investigated by the reverse pharmacology path as a potential drug for the treatment of NAFLD, and essential safety studies and preformulation research for concentration of the putative actives should be carried out. PMID:21547049

  6. Reduced photoinhibition under low irradiance enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) secondary metabolites, phenyl alanine lyase and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m(2)/s) for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 μmol/m(2)/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin) was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m(2)/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM) under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH) than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe) under this condition. PMID:22754297

  7. Free Radical Scavenging, Cytotoxic and Hemolytic Activities from Leaves of Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild. ex. Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan

    PubMed Central

    Kalaivani, T.; Rajasekaran, C.; Suthindhiran, K.; Mathew, Lazar

    2011-01-01

    Dietary intake of phytochemicals having antioxidant activity is associated with a lower risk of mortality from many diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the free radical scavenging, cytotoxic and hemolytic activities of leaves of Acacia nilotica by using various methods. The results of the present study revealed that ethanol extract was the most effective and IC50 value was found to be 53.6 μg mL−1 for Vero cell lines and 28.9 μg mL−1 for Hela cell lines in cytotoxicity assays. The zone of color retention was 14.2 mm in β-carotene bleaching assay, which was as significant as positive control, butylated hydroxy toluene. None of the tested extracts possessed any hemolytic activity against rat and human erythrocytes revealing their cytotoxic mechanism and non-toxicity. Thus, only the ethanol extract could be considered as a potential source of anticancer and antioxidant compounds. Further phytochemical studies will be performed for specification of the biologically active principles. PMID:21799676

  8. Effect of Seed Priming on Early Development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth

    PubMed Central

    Daffalla, Hussien M.; Hassan, Mohammed Mahgoub; Osman, Magdoleen G.; Eltayeb, Amani Hamad; Dagash, Yassin Ibrahim; Abdel Gani, Migdam E.

    2014-01-01

    Striga hermonthica is an obligate, root parasite, that limits cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Successful control depends on eliminating its seed reserves in soil, thereby preventing parasitism. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on germination traits and seedling growth of sorghum (cultivar Wad Ahmed) and S. hermonthica. The experiments were conducted in a factorial arrangement on the basis of completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replications. In the first experiment, sorghum height, leaf area, and shoot and root dry weights were examined. The results displayed that, with increasing salinity level, leaf area and dry biomass were increased, while the height was decreased. In the second experiment, Striga germination and haustorium initiation percentages were examined. Among all salts, C2H4O2·NH3 inhibited Striga germination (0–15%) during conditioning or (0–25%) at germination compared to the control (75%). However, salt MgSO4·7H2O improved germination during conditioning up to 70%, while during germination CH3COONa·3H2O recorded 65% germination. Regarding haustoria initiation, results showed that C2H4O2·NH3 at all concentrations inhibits haustorium formation by 100%, while CH3COONa·3H2O at 10 µM improved haustorium formation up to 64% but still below the control (70%). Osmotic potential may significantly affect germination and radicle elongation of the parasitic weed. PMID:27350968

  9. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24056567

  10. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z.E.

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m2/s) for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 μmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin) was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM) under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH) than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe) under this condition. PMID:22754297

  11. Modes of Inhibition of α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase by Aqueous Extract of Morinda lucida Benth Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Kazeem, M. I.; Adamson, J. O.; Ogunwande, I. A.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism. The management of blood glucose level is the hallmark in the treatment of this disease. This may be achieved through the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs such as biguanides, insulin secretagogues, and α-glucosidase inhibitors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Morinda lucida leaf extracts on the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. This was performed using α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae and α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida gave the highest percentage yield (9.99%) of the plant out of the three extracts (compared to acetone and ethanolic extracts) and possesses the highest inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 value of 2.30 mg/mL) and α-glucosidase (IC50 value of 2.00 mg/mL). Kinetic analysis revealed that the aqueous extract of this plant leaf inhibited the α-amylase competitively but displayed mixed noncompetitive mode of inhibition towards α-glucosidase. It can be concluded that aqueous extract of Morinda lucida exhibited the best inhibitory activity on the two enzymes studied and the presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, saponins, and tannins may have contributed greatly to the inhibitory activity of the plant extract. PMID:24455701

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Property of the Ethanol Extract of the Root and Rhizome of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chu-Wen; Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Su, Zu-Qing; Wang, Xiu-Fen; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Li, Yu-Cui

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory property of the ethanol extract of the root and rhizome of Pogostemon cablin (ERP). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated using four animal models including xylene-induced mouse ear edema, acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability, carrageenan-induced mouse pleurisy, and carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema. Results indicated that oral administration of ERP (120, 240, and 480 mg/kg) significantly attenuated xylene-induced ear edema, decreased acetic acid-induced capillary permeability, inhibited carrageenan-induced neutrophils recruitment, and reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema, in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathologically, ERP (480 mg/kg) abated inflammatory response of the edema paw. Preliminary mechanism studies demonstrated that ERP decreased the level of MPO and MDA, increased the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, and GRd), attenuated the productions of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, PGE2 and NO, and suppressed the activities of COX-2 and iNOS. This work demonstrates that ERP has considerable anti-inflammatory potential, which provided experimental evidences for the traditional application of the root and rhizome of Pogostemon cablin in inflammatory diseases. PMID:24385881

  13. Antiarthritic effects of Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth. in acute and chronic models of arthritis in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaithwas, Gaurav; Gautam, Raju; Jachak, Sanjay M; Saklani, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antiarthritic activity of Ajuga bracteosa using albino rats. Methods The antiarthritic activity of 70% ethanolic extract of Ajuga bracteosa (EEAB) was evaluated against turpentine oil- and formaldehyde- induced acute non immunological and complete freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic immunological arthritis in albino rats. Results EEAB showed a significant (P<0.05) and dose dependent inhibitory effect against acute and chronic models of arthritis. EEAB exhibited better antiarthritic activity than the standard aspirin. Conclusions EEAB exhibits a significant and promising antiarthritic activity against acute and chronic arthritis and supports the traditional use of Ajuga bracteosa for rheumatism and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:23569895

  14. Do NERICA rice cultivars express resistance to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. and Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze under field conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Rodenburg, Jonne; Cissoko, Mamadou; Kayeke, Juma; Dieng, Ibnou; Khan, Zeyaur R.; Midega, Charles A.O.; Onyuka, Enos A.; Scholes, Julie D.

    2015-01-01

    The parasitic weeds Striga asiatica and Striga hermonthica cause high yield losses in rain-fed upland rice in Africa. Two resistance classes (pre- and post-attachment) and several resistant genotypes have been identified among NERICA (New Rice for Africa) cultivars under laboratory conditions (in vitro) previously. However, little is known about expression of this resistance under field conditions. Here we investigated (1) whether resistance exhibited under controlled conditions would express under representative Striga-infested field conditions, and (2) whether NERICA cultivars would achieve relatively good grain yields under Striga-infested conditions. Twenty-five rice cultivars, including all 18 upland NERICA cultivars, were screened in S. asiatica-infested (in Tanzania) and S. hermonthica-infested (in Kenya) fields during two seasons. Additionally, a selection of cultivars was tested in vitro, in mini-rhizotron systems. For the first time, resistance observed under controlled conditions was confirmed in the field for NERICA-2, -5, -10 and -17 (against S. asiatica) and NERICA-1 to -5, -10, -12, -13 and -17 (against S. hermonthica). Despite high Striga-infestation levels, yields of around 1.8 t ha−1 were obtained with NERICA-1, -9 and -10 (in the S. asiatica-infested field) and around 1.4 t ha−1 with NERICA-3, -4, -8, -12 and -13 (in the S. hermonthica-infested field). In addition, potential levels of tolerance were identified in vitro, in NERICA-1, -17 and -9 (S. asiatica) and in NERICA-1, -17 and -10 (S. hermonthica). These findings are highly relevant to rice agronomists and breeders and molecular geneticists working on Striga resistance. In addition, cultivars combining broad-spectrum resistance with good grain yields in Striga-infested fields can be recommended to rice farmers in Striga-prone areas. PMID:26089591

  15. Modifications of the chemical structure of phenolics differentially affect physiological activities in pulvinar cells of Mimosa pudica L. I. Multimode effect on early membrane events.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Françoise; Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Saeedi, Saed; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Chollet, Jean-Francois; Roblin, Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    A study of the structure-activity relationship carried out on several benzoic acid-related phenolics indicates that this type of compounds hinders the osmocontractile reaction of pulvinar cells in the range of 0-100%. Tentatively, we tried to find a way that could explain this differential action. With this aim, the relationship between the inhibitory effect and important molecular physico-chemical parameters (namely lipophilicity and degree of dissociation) was drawn. In addition, the effect of a variety of these compounds was investigated on their capacity to modify the electrical transmembrane potential and induce modifications in proton fluxes. Finally, using plasma membrane vesicles purified from pulvinar tissues, we examined the effects of some selected compounds on the proton pump activity and catalytic activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. Taken together, the results indicate that a modification of the molecular structure of phenolics may induce important variation in the activity of the compound on these early membrane events. Among the tested phenolics, salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) are of particuler note, as they showed atypical effects on the physiological processes studied. PMID:25306527

  16. Soil phosphorus and water effects on growth, nutrient and carbohydrate concentrations, d13C, and nodulation of mimosa (Albizia julibrissin Durz.) on a highly weathered soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth and physiological performance of multipurpose tree species can be severely constrained by nutrient shortages such as of phosphorus (P) in highly-weathered soils. Limitations to plant growth are accentuated by seasonal dry periods. We examined P fertilization and irrigation effects on growth...

  17. AFLP marker analysis revealing genetic structure of the tree Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) in the southern Brazilian Tropical Rainforest.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Laís Bérgamo; Ruas, Eduardo A; Rodrigues, Luana A; Ruas, Claudete F; Ruas, Paulo M

    2013-12-01

    Parapiptadenia rigida is a tropical early secondary succession tree characteristic of the Tropical Atlantic Rainforest. This species is of great ecological importance in the recovery of degraded areas. In this study we investigated the variability and population genetic structure of eight populations of P. rigida. Five AFLP primer combinations were used in a sample of 159 individuals representing these eight populations, rendering a total of 126 polymorphic fragments. The averages of percentage of polymorphic loci, gene diversity, and Shannon index were 60.45%, 0.217, and 0.322, respectively. A significant correlation between the population genetic variability and the population sizes was observed. The genetic variability within populations (72.20%) was higher than between these (22.80%). No perfect correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances, which might be explained by differences in deforestation intensities that occurred in these areas. A dendrogram constructed by the UPGMA method revealed the formation of two clusters, these also confirmed by Bayesian analysis for the number of K cluster. These results show that it is necessary to develop urgent management strategies for the conservation of certain populations of P. rigida, while other populations still preserve reasonably high levels of genetic variability. PMID:24385857

  18. Effect of processing on proximate composition, anti-nutrient status and amino acid content in three accessions of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (jacq.) benth.

    PubMed

    Urua, Ikootobong Sunday; Uyoh, Edak Aniedi; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Okpako, Elza Cletus

    2013-02-01

    Proximate composition, amino acid levels and anti-nutrient factors (polyphenols, phytic acid and oxalate) in the seeds of Parkia biglobosa were determined at three stages: raw, boiled and fermented. The highest anti-nutrient factor present in the raw state was oxalate, while phytic acid was the least. The amino acid of the raw seeds matched favourably to the World Health Organization reference standard. After processing, boiling increased fat, crude fibre and protein, while it reduced moisture, ash and the anti-nutrient content in 64% of the cases examined. Fermentation reduced ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate in all the accessions. It increased the moisture, fat and protein, while reducing the anti-nutrient factors in 78% of the cases. The high levels of protein, fat and amino acids coupled with the low levels of the anti-nutrients in the boiled and fermented seeds make Parkia a good source of nutrients for humans and livestock. PMID:22789074

  19. Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.

    PubMed

    Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

    2012-09-01

    Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9μg/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug. PMID:22797325

  20. An endophyte of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth, producing menthol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and other volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Masroor; Deshidi, Ramesh; Shah, Bhawal Ali; Bindu, Kushal; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2015-10-01

    An endophytic fungus, PR4 was found in nature associated with the rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa, a high altitude medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas. The fungus was found to inhibit the growth of several phyto-pathogens by virtue of its volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Molecular phylogeny, based on its ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence, revealed the identity of the fungus as Phomopsis/Diaporthe sp. This endophyte was found to produce a unique array of VOCs, particularly, menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, (+)-isomenthol, β-phellandrene, β-bisabolene, limonene, 3-pentanone and 1-pentanol. The purification of compounds from the culture broth of PR4 led to the isolation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HPA) as a major metabolite. This is the first report of a fungal culture producing a combination of biologically and industrially important metabolites—menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA. The investigation into the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway of PR4 led to the partial characterization of isopiperitenone reductase (ipr) gene, which seems to be significantly distinct from the plant homologue. The biosynthesis of plant-like-metabolites, such as menthol, is of significant academic and industrial significance. This study indicates that PR4 is a potential candidate for upscaling of menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA, as well as for understanding the menthol/monoterpene biosynthetic pathway in fungi. PMID:26220851

  1. In vitro cytotoxic activity of extracts and isolated constituents of Salvia leriifolia Benth. against a panel of human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Menichini, Federica; Bonesi, Marco; Colica, Carmela; Menichini, Francesco

    2011-06-01

    In the course of recent efforts to identify new potential antiproliferative active principles, Salvia leriifolia extracts and isolated constituents were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines, including renal adenocarcinoma (ACHN), amelanotic melanoma (C32), colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2), lung large cell carcinoma (COR-L23), malignant melanoma (A375), lung carcinoma (A549), and hepatocellular carcinoma (Huh-7D12) cells. The hexane and CH(2) Cl(2) extracts showed the strongest cytotoxic activity against the C32 cell line with IC(50) values of 11.2 and 13.6 μg/ml, respectively, and the AcOEt extract was the most active extract against the COR-L23 cell line (IC(50) of 20.9 μg/ml). Buchariol, a sesquiterpene obtained by biofractionation of the CH(2) Cl(2) extract, exhibited a higher activity than the positive control vinblastine against the C32 and A549 cell lines (IC(50) values of 2.1 and 12.6 μM, resp.). Interesting results were also obtained for naringenin, a flavonoid isolated from the AcOEt extract, which exhibited a strong cytotoxic activity against the C32, LNCaP, and COR-L23 cell lines (IC(50) values of 2.2, 7.7, and 33.4 μM, resp.), compared to vinblastine (IC(50) values of 3.3, 32.2, 50.0 μM, resp.). None of the tested compounds affected the proliferation of skin fibroblasts (142BR), suggesting a selective activity against tumor cells. PMID:21674787

  2. Mosquito larvicidal activity of thymol from essential oil of Coleus aromaticus Benth. against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan

    2013-11-01

    Diseases transmitted by blood-feeding mosquitoes, such as dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and filariasis, are increasing in prevalence, particularly in tropical and subtropical zones. To control mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases, which have a worldwide health and economic impacts, synthetic insecticide-based interventions are still necessary, particularly in situations of epidemic outbreak and sudden increases of adult mosquitoes. However, the indiscriminate use of conventional insecticides is fostering multifarious problems like widespread development of insecticide resistance, toxic hazards to mammals, undesirable effects on nontarget organisms, and environmental pollution. The aim of this research was to evaluate the toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oil from Coleus aromaticus and its pure isolated constituent thymol against larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles subpictus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. A total of 14 components of the essential oil of C. aromaticus were identified. The major chemical components identified were thymol (82.68%), terpinen-4-ol (3.2%), and trans-Caryophyllene (3.18%). Twenty-five early third instar larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus, A. albopictus, and A. subpictus were exposed and assayed in the laboratory. Thymol and essential oil were tested in concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 and 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 ppm, respectively. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. The thymol had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus, A. albopictus, and A. subpictus with an LC50 values of 28.19, 24.83, and 22.06 μg/mL respectively, whereas the essential oil of C. aromaticus had an LC50 values of 72.70, 67.98, and 60.31 μg/mL, respectively. No mortality was observed in controls. The Chi-square values were significant at p < 0.05 level. The result indicated that the essential oil of C. aromaticus and the isolated constituent have a potential for use in control of C. tritaeniorhynchus, A. albopictus, and A. subpictus larvae and could be useful in search of newer, safer, and more effective natural compounds as larvicides. PMID:23933878

  3. Essential Oils from Different Plant Parts of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. (Myrtaceae) as a Source of 1,8-Cineole and Their Bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Sayonara Mendes; Abe, Simone Yae; Murakami, Fábio Seigi; Frensch, Gustavo; Marques, Francisco A.; Nakashima, Tomoe

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus cinerea, known as silver dollar tree, has few descriptions in traditional medicine. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oils of leaves, flowers and fruits, collected seasonally, were determined by GC/MS and disk diffusion/MIC, respectively. 1,8-Cineole was the main compound, particularly in fresh leaves—Spring (74.98%), dried leaves—Spring (85.32%), flowers—Winter (78.76%) and fruits—Winter (80.97%). Other compounds were found in the aerial parts in all seasons: α-pinene (2.41% to 10.13%), limonene (1.46% to 4.43%), α-terpineol (1.73% to 11.72%), and α-terpinyl acetate (3.04% to 20.44%). The essential oils showed antimicrobial activities against bacteria and yeasts, with the best results being found for the dried autumn and winter leaves oils (MIC < 0.39 mg/mL) against Streptococcus pyogenes. For the other tested microorganisms the following MIC results were found: Staphylococcus aureus— Dried leaves oil from summer (0.78 mg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oil from winter (1.56 mg/mL) and Candida albicans—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oils from winter and spring (0.78 mg/mL). PMID:26791641

  4. Symbiotic N 2 -Fixation Estimated by the (15) N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m(2) of (15)N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  5. Extensive consumption of Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook. (Bignoniaceae) nectar by parrots in a Tecoma savanna in the southern Pantanal (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ragusa-Netro, J

    2005-05-01

    Neotropical parrots forage for various food items such as seeds, fruit pulp, flowers, young leaves, and even arthropods. While foraging, many species wander over large areas that include both open and closed habitats. In this study, I examined parrot foraging activity during a brief synchronous and massive flowering in August 1998 in a tecoma savanna (dominated by Tabebuia aurea) in the southern Pantanal. Six parrot species, ranging from the small Brotogeris chiriri to the large Amazona aestiva, foraged for T. aurea nectar, but Nandayus nenday was by far the major nectar consumer, and the results of each of their visits, like those of the other species, was damage of a substantial proportion of the existing flower crop. Parrots foraged mostly during the afternoon, when nectar concentration tended to be higher. Nevertheless, compared to bird-pollinated flowers, which produce copious nectar, T. aurea had a smaller mean nectar volume per flower. Hence, presumably the amount of damage wreaked by these parrots resulted from their efforts to obtain part of their daily energy and water requirements. Thus, the synchronous and massive flowering occurring in such a brief period in the dry season may be related to, among other factors, the necessity of satiating predators such as parrots, which are still abundant in the Pantanal. PMID:16097737

  6. Antioxidant and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activities of the Malian medicinal plants Diospyros abyssinica (Hiern) F. White (Ebenaceae), Lannea velutina A. Rich (Anacardiaceae) and Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel) Benth. (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Maiga, Ababacar; Malterud, Karl Egil; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2006-03-01

    The African flora contains numerous medicinal plants whose biological and chemical properties are incompletely known. Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of plants are subject to intensive research. In the work described here, we have investigated the antioxidant activity of the plants Diospyros abyssinica (root bark), Lannea velutina (root bark and stem bark) and Crossopteryx febrifuga (seeds). Extracts of different polarity were assayed for radical scavenging activity, using the stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, and for inhibition of enzymatic lipid peroxidation mediated by soybean 15-lipoxygenase. All plants investigated showed activity, but there were large differences between plants and between extracts. In general, Diospyros abyssinica and Lannea velutina were richer in antioxidants than Crossopteryx febrifuga. Lipophilic extracts were not active as radical scavengers, but did inhibit 15-lipoxygenase. Semipolar extracts (80% aqueous ethanol and methanol) of Diospyros abyssinica and Lannea velutina showed the highest activity both as radical scavengers and lipoxygenase inhibitors, and also gave the highest extract yields. These plants therefore appear to be excellent sources of antioxidants. PMID:16213686

  7. Ovicidal and adulticidal potential of leaf and seed extract of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-05-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In the present study, hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of leaf and seed of Albizia lebbeck were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 250, 200, and 150 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 375, 300, and 225 ppm for seed methanol extract of A. lebbeck against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi, respectively. The adulticidal activity of plant leaf and seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of A. lebbeck against An. stephensi where the LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values were 65.12 and 117.70 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against three mosquito species. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts of A. lebbeck have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:25681143

  8. Exogenous feeding of immediate precursors reveals synergistic effect on picroside-I biosynthesis in shoot cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Varun; Sharma, Neha; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we asked how the supply of immediate biosynthetic precursors i.e. cinnamic acid (CA) and catalpol (CAT) influences the synthesis of picroside-I (P-I) in shoot cultures of P. kurroa. Our results revealed that only CA and CA+CAT stimulated P-I production with 1.6-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively at 2.5 mg/100 mL concentration treatment. Interestingly, feeding CA+CAT not only directed flux towards p-Coumaric acid (p-CA) production but also appeared to trigger the metabolic flux through both shikimate/phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways by utilizing more of CA and CAT for P-I biosynthesis. However, a deficiency in the supply of either the iridoid or the phenylpropanoid precursor limits flux through the respective pathways as reflected by feedback inhibition effect on PAL and decreased transcripts expressions of rate limiting enzymes (DAHPS, CM, PAL, GS and G10H). It also appears that addition of CA alone directed flux towards both p-CA and P-I production. Based on precursor feeding and metabolic fluxes, a current hypothesis is that precursors from both the iridoid and shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathways are a flux limitation for P-I production in shoot cultures of P. kurroa plants. This work thus sets a stage for future endeavour to elevate production of P-I in cultured plant cells. PMID:27418367

  9. Phytochemical analysis, biological evaluation and micromorphological study of Stachys alopecuros (L.) Benth. subsp. divulsa (Ten.) Grande endemic to central Apennines, Italy.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Alessandro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Nicoletti, Marcello; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Lupidi, Giulio; Vitali, Luca Agostino; Petrelli, Dezemona; Papa, Fabrizio; Vittori, Sauro; Lucarini, Domenico; Maleci Bini, Laura; Giuliani, Claudia; Maggi, Filippo

    2013-10-01

    Stachys alopecuros subsp. divulsa (Lamiaceae), a perennial herb endemic to central Italy growing on mountain pastures, was investigated for the first time for the content of secondary metabolites, for the micromorphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes, and for the biological activity of the volatile oil, namely cytotoxic, antioxidant and antimicrobial. The plant showed the molecular pattern of iridoids, among which a new iridoid diglycoside (4'-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-teuhircoside) was detected, together with a sterol glucoside and a phenylethanoid glycoside. The essential oil from the flowering aerial parts was characterized by a high proportion of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (65.1%), with (E)-caryophyllene (33.2%) as the most abundant, while other main components were germacrene D (7.6%), α-humulene (6.4%) and the oxygenated cis-sesquisabinene hydrate (10.2%). Taken together, polar and apolar chemical profiles support the classification of the species within the section Betonica of the genus Stachys. Micromorphological study revealed three types of glandular hairs secreting different classes of compounds, with type A peltate hairs producing the bulk of the essential oil. MTT assay revealed the potential of the volatile oil in inhibiting A375, HCT116 and MDA-MB 231 tumor cells (IC₅₀ values below 20 μg/ml). PMID:23827382

  10. Exogenous feeding of immediate precursors reveals synergistic effect on picroside-I biosynthesis in shoot cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Varun; Sharma, Neha; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-07-01

    In the current study, we asked how the supply of immediate biosynthetic precursors i.e. cinnamic acid (CA) and catalpol (CAT) influences the synthesis of picroside-I (P-I) in shoot cultures of P. kurroa. Our results revealed that only CA and CA+CAT stimulated P-I production with 1.6-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively at 2.5 mg/100 mL concentration treatment. Interestingly, feeding CA+CAT not only directed flux towards p-Coumaric acid (p-CA) production but also appeared to trigger the metabolic flux through both shikimate/phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways by utilizing more of CA and CAT for P-I biosynthesis. However, a deficiency in the supply of either the iridoid or the phenylpropanoid precursor limits flux through the respective pathways as reflected by feedback inhibition effect on PAL and decreased transcripts expressions of rate limiting enzymes (DAHPS, CM, PAL, GS and G10H). It also appears that addition of CA alone directed flux towards both p-CA and P-I production. Based on precursor feeding and metabolic fluxes, a current hypothesis is that precursors from both the iridoid and shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathways are a flux limitation for P-I production in shoot cultures of P. kurroa plants. This work thus sets a stage for future endeavour to elevate production of P-I in cultured plant cells.

  11. Allocation of secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity, and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in response to CO2 and light intensity.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200 μ mol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900 μ mol/m(2)/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200 μ mol/mol + light intensity at 225 μ mol/m(2)/s. Meanwhile, at 400 μ mol/mol CO2 + 900 μ mol/m(2)/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200 μ mol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, f v /f m (maximum efficiency of photosystem II), and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH), thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition. PMID:24683336

  12. In-vitro and in-vivo validation of ethnopharmacological uses of methanol extract of Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Isodon rugosus is used in folk Pakistan traditional practices to cure ailments related to gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular problems. Present study was undertaken to validate these folkloric uses. Methods A crude methanol extract of the aerial parts of Isodon rugosus (Ir.Cr.) was used for both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The plant extract was tested on isolated rabbit jejunum preparations for possible presence of spasmolytic activity. Moreover, isolated rabbit tracheal and aorta preparations were used to ascertain the relaxant effects of the extract. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of Ir.Cr were also determined as well as its antioxidant activity. The in vivo antiemetic activity of the extract was evaluated by using the chick emesis model, while the analgesic and antipyretic activities were conducted on albino mice. Results The application of the crude extract of I. rugosus to isolated rabbit jejunum preparations exhibited relaxant effect (0.01-0.3 mg/ml). The Ir.Cr also relaxed K+(80 m M)-induced spastic contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations and shifted the Ca+2 concentration response curves towards right (0.01-0.3 mg/ml). Similarly, the extract, when applied to the isolated rabbit tracheal preparations relaxed the carbachol (1 M)- as well as K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions in a concentration range of 0.01-1.0 mg/ml. Moreover, it also relaxed (0.01-3.0 mg/ml) the phenylephrine (1 M)- and K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions in isolated rabbit aorta preparations. The Ir.Cr (80 mg/kg) demonstrated antipyretic activity on pyrogen-induced pyrexia in rabbits as compared to aspirin as standard drug. The Ir.Cr also exhibited anti-oxidant as well as inhibitory effect on acetyl- and butyryl- cholinesterase and lipoxygenase (0.5 mg/ml). Conclusions The observed relaxant effect on isolated rabbit jejunum, trachea and aorta preparations caused by Ir.Cr is possibly to be mediated through Ca+2 channel blockade and therefore may provided scientific basis to validate the folkloric uses of the plant in the management of gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular ailments. The observed antioxidant activity as well as the lipoxygenase inhibitory activity may validate its traditional use in pain and inflammations. PMID:24559094

  13. Allocation of Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in Response to CO2 and Light Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200 μmol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900 μmol/m2/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200 μmol/mol + light intensity at 225 μmol/m2/s. Meanwhile, at 400 μmol/mol CO2 + 900 μmol/m2/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200 μmol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, fv/fm (maximum efficiency of photosystem II), and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH), thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition. PMID:24683336

  14. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. Using leaf explants: bactericidal effect of leaf extracts and counteracting strategies.

    PubMed

    Paul, Anamika; Bakshi, Souvika; Sahoo, Debee Prasad; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2012-04-01

    An optimized protocol for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of patchouli using leaf disk explants is reported. In vitro antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of the plants revealed Agrobacterium sensitivity to the extracts. Fluorometric assay of bacterial cell viability indicated dose-dependent cytotoxic activity of callus extract against Agrobacterium cells. Addition of 0.1% Tween 20 and 2 g/l L-glutamine to Agrobacterium infection medium counteracted the bactericidal effect and significantly increased the T-DNA delivery to explants. A short preculture of explants for 2 days followed by infection with Agrobacterium in medium containing 150 μM of acetosyringone were found essential for efficient T-DNA delivery. Cocultivation for 3 days at 22 °C in conjunction with other optimized factors resulted in maximum T-DNA delivery. The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of leaf disk explants were found significantly related to physiological age of the explants, age and origin of the of the donor plant. Leaf explants from second node of the 3-month-old in vivo plants showed highest transformation efficiency (94.3%) revealed by transient GUS expression assay. Plants selected on medium containing 20 mg/l kanamycin showed stable GUS expression in leaves and stem. The elongated shoots readily developed roots on kanamycin-free rooting medium and on transfer to soil, plants were successfully established. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis in putative plants confirmed their transgenic nature. The established transformation method should provide new opportunities for the genetic improvement of patchouli for desirable trait. PMID:22434351

  15. Symbiotic N2-Fixation Estimated by the 15N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m2 of 15N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  16. Composition and cytotoxic activity of essential oils from Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich, Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich) Benth.) and Monodora myristica (Gaertn) growing in Chad and Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer has become a global public health problem and the search for new control measures is urgent. Investigation of plant products such as essential oils from Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora might lead to new anticancer therapy. In this study, we have investigated the antineoplastic activity of essential oils from fruits of these plants growing in Chad and Cameroon. Methods The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of fruits of Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora collected in Chad and Cameroon were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS and investigated for their antiproliferative activity against the breast cancer cell line (MCF7). Results Overall, monoterpenes were mostly found in the six essential oils. Oils from X. aethiopica and X. parviflora from Chad and Cameroon mainly contain β-pinene at 24.6%, 28.2%, 35.7% and 32.9% respectively. Monodora myristica oils from both origins contain mainly α-phellandrene at 52.7% and 67.1% respectively. The plant origin did not significantly influence the chemical composition of oils. The six essential oils exerted cytotoxic activity against cancer (MCF-7) and normal cell lines (ARPE-19), with more pronounced effect on neoplastic cells in the majority of cases. The highest selectivity was obtained with the essential oils of X. parviflora from Chad and Cameroon (5.87 and 5.54) which were more cytotoxic against MCF-7 than against normal cell line (ARPE-19) with IC50 values of 0.155 μL/mL and 0.166 μL/mL respectively. Conclusions Essential oils from fruits of Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora have shown acceptable antineoplastic potency, and might be investigated further in this regard. PMID:24708588

  17. Genes affecting novel seed constituents in Limnanthes alba Benth: transcriptome analysis of developing embryos and a new genetic map of meadowfoam

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Laurel D.; Kishore, Venkata K.; Knapp, Steven J.; Kling, Jennifer G.

    2015-01-01

    The seed oil of meadowfoam, a new crop in the Limnanthaceae family, is highly enriched in very long chain fatty acids that are desaturated at the Δ5 position. The unusual oil is desirable for cosmetics and innovative industrial applications and the seed meal remaining after oil extraction contains glucolimnanthin, a methoxylated benzylglucosinolate whose degradation products are herbicidal and anti-microbial. Here we describe EST analysis of the developing seed transcriptome that identified major genes involved in biosynthesis and assembly of the seed oil and in glucosinolate metabolic pathways. mRNAs encoding acyl-CoA Δ5 desaturase were notably abundant. The library was searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Fifty-four new SSR markers and eight candidate gene markers were developed and combined with previously developed SSRs to construct a new genetic map for Limnanthes alba. Mapped genes in the lipid biosynthetic pathway encode 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), Δ5 desaturase (Δ5DS), lysophosphatidylacyl-acyl transferase (LPAT), and acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyl transferase (DGAT). Mapped genes in glucosinolate biosynthetic and degradation pathways encode CYP79A, myrosinase (TGG), and epithiospecifier modifier protein (ESM). The resources developed in this study will further the domestication and improvement of meadowfoam as an oilseed crop. PMID:26038713

  18. Molecular identification and safety of Bacillus species involved in the fermentation of African oil beans (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) for production of Ugba.

    PubMed

    Ahaotu, I; Anyogu, A; Njoku, O H; Odu, N N; Sutherland, J P; Ouoba, L I I

    2013-03-01

    Molecular identification of Bacillus spp. involved in the fermentation of African oil bean seeds for production of Ugba, as well as ability of the Bacillus spp. isolated to produce toxins, were investigated. Forty-nine bacteria were isolated from Ugba produced in different areas of South Eastern Nigeria and identified by phenotyping and sequencing of 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB genes. Genotypic diversities at interspecies and intraspecies level of the isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS-PCR) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). The ability of the bacteria to produce toxins was also investigated by detection of genes encoding production of haemolysin BL (HblA, HblC, HblD), non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC), cytotoxin K (CytK) and emetic toxin (EM1) using PCR with specific primers. Moreover, a Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCET-RPLA) was used to screen ability of the isolates to produce haemolysin in broth and during fermentation of African oil bean seeds. The isolates were characterized as motile, rod-shaped, endospore forming, catalase positive, Gram-positive bacteria. They were identified as Bacillus cereus sensu lato (42), Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus (3), Bacillus clausii (1), Bacillus licheniformis (1), Bacillus subtilis (1), and Bacillus safensis (1). B. cereus was the predominant Bacillus species and was present in all samples studied. Using ITS-PCR, interspecies diversity was observed among isolates, with six clusters representing each of the pre-cited species. Rep-PCR was more discriminatory (eight clusters) and allowed further differentiation at intraspecies level for the B. cereus and L. xylanilyticus isolates with two genotypes for each species. Genes encoding production of non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and cytotoxin K (CytK) genes were detected in all B. cereus isolates, while Hbl genes (HblA, HblC, HblD) were detected in only one isolate. The emetic-specific gene fragment was not detected in any of the isolates studied. None of the toxin genes screened was detected in isolates belonging to other Bacillus species. Using RPLA, haemolysin production was detected in one isolate of B. cereus, which showed positive amplicons for Hbl genes, both during cultivation in broth and during fermentation of oil bean seeds. PMID:23376783

  19. Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov., from nodules of Dalea leporina, Leucaena leucocephala and Clitoria ternatea, and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris, siratro, cowpea and Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    López-López, Aline; Rogel-Hernández, Marco A; Barois, Isabelle; Ortiz Ceballos, Angel I; Martínez, Julio; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2012-09-01

    Two novel related Rhizobium species, Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., were identified by a polyphasic approach using DNA-DNA hybridization, whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization including nodulation of Leucaena leucocephala and Phaseolus vulgaris (bean). As similar bacteria were found in the Los Tuxtlas rainforest in Mexico and in Central America, we suggest the existence of a Mesoamerican microbiological corridor. The type strain of Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. is CCGE 502(T) (= ATCC BAA-2124(T) = CFN 242(T) = Dal4(T) = HAMBI 3152(T)) and that of Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov. is CCGE 501(T) (= ATCC BAA-2123(T) = HAMBI 3151(T) = CIP 110148(T) = 1847(T)). PMID:22081714

  20. Health care applications based on mobile phone centric smart sensor network.

    PubMed

    Quero, J M; Tarrida, C L; Santana, J J; Ermolov, V; Jantunen, I; Laine, H; Eichholz, J

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the MIMOSA architecture and development platform to create Ambient Intelligence applications. MIMOSA achieves this objective by developing a personal mobile-device centric architecture and open technology platform where microsystem technology is the key enabling technology for their realization due to its low-cost, low power consumption, and small size. This paper focuses the demonstration activities carried out in the field of health care. MIMOSA project is a European level initiative involving 15 enterprises and research institutions and universities. PMID:18003461

  1. Purification and characterization of a highly active chromate reductase from endophytic Bacillus sp. DGV19 of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. actively involved in phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Muthu; Gopal, Judy; Kumaran, Rangarajulu Senthil; Kannan, Vijayaraghavan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation using timber-yielding tree species is considered to be the most efficient method for chromium/tannery effluent-contaminated sites. In this study, we have chosen Albizzia lebbeck, a chromium hyperaccumulator plant, and studied one of its chromium detoxification processes operated by its endophytic bacterial assemblage. Out of the four different groups of endophytic bacteria comprising Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Bacillus, and Salinicoccus identified from A. lebbeck employed in phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated soil, Bacillus predominated with three species, which exhibited not only remarkable chromium accumulation ability but also high chromium reductase activity. A chromate reductase was purified to homogeneity from the most efficient chromium accumulator, Bacillus sp. DGV 019, and the purified 34.2-kD enzyme was observed to be stable at temperatures from 20°C to 60°C. The enzyme was active over a wide range of pH values (4.0-9.0). Furthermore, the enzyme activity was enhanced with the electron donors NADH, followed by NADPH, not affected by glutathione and ascorbic acid. Cu(2+) enhanced the activity of the purified enzyme but was inhibited by Zn(2+) and etheylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). In conclusion, due to its versatile adaptability the chromate reductase can be used for chromium remediation. PMID:26444299

  2. Three new species of Fergusonina Malloch fly (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on Eucalyptus L'Her. (E. baxteri (Benth.) Maiden & Blakely complex, E. dalrympleana Maiden and E. pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) flies are described from terminal leaf bud galls on Eucalyptus L'Hér. from south eastern Australia. Fergusonina omlandi Nelson and Yeates sp. nov. is the third fly from the genus Fergusonina to be described from the Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. (...

  3. In situ ruminal kinetics of DM and NDF disappearance for the biomass forages Amur silvergrass and big bluestem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative strategies, such as grazing, could minimize economic risk associated with biomass production. Minimal research is available that describes the nutritive value of biomass forages, specifically Amur silvergrass (AS; Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Benth., proprietary clone Msanag). Four...

  4. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae-family, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the essential oils’ chemical compositions, analyze...

  5. Processing conditions analysis of Eucalyptus globulus plywood bonded with resol-tannin adhesives.

    PubMed

    Stefani, P M; Peña, C; Ruseckaite, R A; Piter, J C; Mondragon, I

    2008-09-01

    Phenol-formaldehyde resol containing mimosa tannin extract was employed to produce plywood panels with two plies from Eucalyptus globulus veneers. The effect of processing conditions and tannin content on the gelation time of the adhesive in the glue line was evaluated by dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA). These results were related with shear strength and wood failure of glue line in the final panels. Hazardous petrochemical phenol could be partially substituted in resols in industrial applications by addition of mimosa tannin extracts. PMID:18024109

  6. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization and persistence of organic residues under conservation and conventional tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A combination of high biomass cover crops with organic mulches may be an option for no-till vegetable production, but mineralization rates from these residues is lacking. The objective of this study was to assess nutrient release rates and persistence from mimosa, lespedeza, oat straw, and soybean r...

  7. Effects of plant tannin extracts supplementation on animal performance and gastrointestinal parasites infestation in steers grazing winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-six stocker cattle (286.1 ± 25.7 kg) were used to quantify the effect of commercial plant tannin extracts (control vs. mimosa and chestnut tannins) on animal performance, gastrointestinal parasites control, and plasma metabolite changes in heifers grazing winter wheat forage (Triticum aestivu...

  8. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    These three journal issues contain the following articles: "Japanese at Mimosa Elementary School" (Azusa Uchihara); "A Successful Keypal Project Using Varied Technologies" (Jean L. Pacheco); "Promoting a Language-Proficient Society: What You Can Do" (Kathleen M. Marcos and Joy Kreeft Peyton); "Journal Reflections of a First-Year Teacher" (Sarah…

  9. From Pandora's Box: Hopelessness and Defeat in Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Robin L.

    The "new realism" that distinguishes some recent childrens' books such as "The Mimosa Tree,""The Bear's House," and "My Daddy Is a Policeman" portrays the important issues of human life from a one dimensional perspective. These books focus on the tragedies and problems of life without answering the child's philosophical questions regarding…

  10. Effect of tannins on the in viro growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and in vivo growth of generic Escherichia coli excreted from steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of commercially available chestnut and mimosa tannins in vitro (experiment 1) or in vivo (experiment 2) on the growth or recovery of Escherichia coli O157:H7 or generic fecal E. coli was evaluated. In experiment 1, the mean growth rate of E. coli O157:H7, determined via the measurement o...